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Sample records for european fusion programme

  1. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M. . Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center); Hazeltine, R.D. . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Gentle, K.W. ); Hogan, J.T. ); Porkolab, M. . Dept. of Physics); Sigmar

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995.

  2. Overview of the RFX-mod fusion science programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Puiatti, M. E.; Agostinetti, P.; Agostini, M.; Alonso, J. A.; Antoni, V.; Apolloni, L.; Auriemma, F.; Avino, F.; Barbalace, A.; Barbisan, M.; Barbui, T.; Barison, S.; Barp, M.; Baruzzo, M.; Bettini, P.; Bigi, M.; Bilel, R.; Boldrin, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonomo, F.; Brombin, M.; Buffa, A.; Bustreo, C.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carralero, D.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Chacon, L.; Chapman, B.; Chitarin, G.; Ciaccio, G.; Cooper, W. A.; Dal Bello, S.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R.; De Lorenzi, A.; Delzanno, G. L.; De Masi, G.; De Muri, M.; Dong, J. Q.; Escande, D. F.; Fantini, F.; Fasoli, A.; Fassina, A.; Fellin, F.; Ferro, A.; Fiameni, S.; Finn, J. M.; Finotti, C.; Fiorentin, A.; Fonnesu, N.; Framarin, J.; Franz, P.; Frassinetti, L.; Furno, I.; Furno Palumbo, M.; Gaio, E.; Gazza, E.; Ghezzi, F.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Gonzales, W. A.; Grando, L.; Guo, S. C.; Hanson, J. D.; Hidalgo, C.; Hirano, Y.; Hirshman, S. P.; Ide, S.; In, Y.; Innocente, P.; Jackson, G. L.; Kiyama, S.; Liu, S. F.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lòpez Bruna, D.; Lorenzini, R.; Luce, T. C.; Luchetta, A.; Maistrello, A.; Manduchi, G.; Mansfield, D. K.; Marchiori, G.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martini, S.; Matsunaga, G.; Martines, E.; Mazzitelli, G.; McCollam, K.; Momo, B.; Moresco, M.; Munaretto, S.; Novello, L.; Okabayashi, M.; Olofsson, E.; Paccagnella, R.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Peruzzo, S.; Pesce, A.; Pilan, N.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Piron, L.; Pomaro, N.; Predebon, I.; Recchia, M.; Rigato, V.; Rizzolo, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rostagni, G.; Ruzzon, A.; Sakakita, H.; Sanchez, R.; Sarff, J. S.; Sartori, E.; Sattin, F.; Scaggion, A.; Scarin, P.; Schneider, W.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Soppelsa, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Spong, D. A.; Spizzo, G.; Takechi, M.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Theiler, C.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, G. L.; Valente, M.; Valisa, M.; Veltri, P.; Veranda, M.; Vianello, N.; Villone, F.; Wang, Z. R.; White, R. B.; Xu, X. Y.; Zaccaria, P.; Zamengo, A.; Zanca, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zollino, G.; Zuin, M.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports the highlights of the RFX-mod fusion science programme since the last 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The RFX-mod fusion science programme focused on two main goals: exploring the fusion potential of the reversed field pinch (RFP) magnetic configuration and contributing to the solution of key science and technology problems in the roadmap to ITER. Active control of several plasma parameters has been a key tool in this endeavour. New upgrades on the system for active control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability are underway and will be presented in this paper. Unique among the existing fusion devices, RFX-mod has been operated both as an RFP and as a tokamak. The latter operation has allowed the exploration of edge safety factor qedge < 2 with active control of MHD stability and studies concerning basic energy and flow transport mechanisms. Strong interaction has continued with the stellarator community in particular on the physics of helical states and on three-dimensional codes.

  3. European Space Science gets new Programme Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Prof. Southwood, born on 30 June 1945, holds a BA in Mathematics and a Ph.D in Physics from Imperial College, London. He has spent most of his career at Imperial College, apart from two periods at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), as Postdoctoral Fellow and later as Visiting Professor. In 1997 he joined ESA as Earth Observation Future Programme Strategy Manager. He is currently Imperial College Pro Rector responsible for external academic affairs. Prof. Southwood has received five awards/honours and held many chairmanships, including those of the Science Programme Committee and Space Science Advisory Committee at ESA. His role as Principal Investigator for the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Magnetometer is his most recent project. He has been active over the years, both in Europe and in the United States, in public outreach on space science. He has around 200 publications and 100 invited papers to his name. "David Southwood ranks among the most prominent space science experts in Europe", said ESA's Director General, Antonio Rodotà, welcoming Prof. Southwood's appointment, "and I am sure that he, like his predecessor, Prof. Bonnet, will do a first-rate job for the excellent scientific community in our member states".

  4. Inland Water Quality Assessment--A Joint European Masters Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waara, K. -O.; Petersen, A.; Lanaras, T.; Paulauskas, V.; Kleiven, S.; Crosa, G.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Quesada, A.; Kovats, N.; Galinou-Mitsoudi, S.; Lapinska, M.; Newton, A.; Balode, M.; Hindak, F.; Marsalek, B.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there is a European shortage of personnel qualified to adequately address the comprehensive scientific and regulatory requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The joint Masters programme described in this paper will provide students with the requisite expert knowledge and skills to progress the implementation of the WFD.…

  5. Nature and impact of European anti-stigma depression programmes.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Neil; Knifton, Lee; Goldie, Isabella; van Bortel, Tine; Dowds, Julie; Lasalvia, Antonio; Scheerder, Gert; Boumans, Jenny; Svab, Vesna; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-09-01

    Stigma associated with depression is a major public health issue in the EU, with over 20 million people experiencing depression and its associated personal distress each year. While most programmes against stigma related to mental health problems are of a general nature, the knowledge about programmes tackling stigma against people with depression is limited. This study therefore aims to assess the nature and impact of depression-specific programmes in EU countries. Using a web-based tool, 26 programmes were identified across the 18 EU countries taking part in the study. Most were universal and targeted the whole population, while many also targeted specific population groups or settings, such as young people or health professionals. The most common programme aim was improving literacy, although reducing stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behaviour and promoting help-seeking were also common. Most programmes originated from professional bodies, or as grassroots initiatives from service user groups/NGOs, rather than as part of national and local policy. The approaches used were primarily different forms of education/information, with some, but very limited, use of positive personal contact. Overall, the quality and extent of impact of the programmes was limited, with few leading to peer-reviewed publications. Specific programmes were identified with evidence of positive impact, and we drew on these examples to develop a framework to be used for future programmes against stigma and discrimination associated with depression. These findings are provided in full in the Anti-Stigma Partnership European Network Toolkit available at www.antistigma.eu.

  6. A brief overview of the European Fusion File (EFF) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, M. A.; Forrest, R. A.; Batistoni, P.; EFF Project members

    2004-04-01

    The European Fusion File (EFF) Project is a collaborative project with work funded by the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). The emphasis is on the pooling of resources and removal of duplication of effort, leading to the efficient development of two types of nuclear data libraries for use in fusion power plant design and operation studies. The two branches consist of, on the one hand, a general purpose file for modelling and design capabilities and, second, an activation file for the calculation and simulation of dose rates and energy release during operation of a future power plant. Efforts are directed towards a continued improvement of the quality of the nuclear data needed for these analyses. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Data Bank acts as the central repository for the files and all information discussed during twice yearly meetings. It offers its services at no charge to the Project.

  7. Report on the 10th European Fusion Physics Workshop (Vaals, The Netherlands, 9-11 December 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. J.; Borba, D.; Bucalossi, J.; Moreau, D.; Sauter, O.; Stober, J.; Vayakis, G.

    2003-06-01

    The 10th European Fusion Physics Workshop took place in December 2002 at Vaals in The Netherlands, hosted by the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC: Associations EURATOM-ERM/KMS, FZJ and FOM), and sponsored by the European Commission and the Foundation SOFT. Within an overall theme of `Operational limits in toroidal devices, with particular reference to steady-state operation', four topics of importance to the future development of magnetically confined fusion were discussed in detail. In addition, a review of the JET scientific and technical programme under EFDA and an assessment of ITER's measurement requirements and diagnostic development programme were presented. The main issues discussed and the areas identified as requiring further study are summarized here.

  8. Programmable AC power supply for simulating power transient expected in fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper focus on control engineering of the programmable AC power source which has capability to simulate power transient expected in fusion reactor. To generate the programmable power source, AC-AC power electronics converter is adopted to control the power of a set of heaters to represent the transient phenomena of heat exchangers or heat sources of a fusion reactor. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma operation scenario is used as the basic reference for producing this transient power source. (authors)

  9. PRM Programmes of Care and PRM Care Pathways: European Approach, Developments in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Korvin, Georges; Yelnik, Alain P.; Ribinik, Patricia; Calmels, Paul; Le Moine, Francis; Delarque, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The development of European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) physical and rehabilitation medicine programmes of care (PRMPC) and physical and rehabilitation medicine care pathways (PRMCP) in France is a good example of the positive interaction between European and national organizations. PRMPC were defined at the European level to offer a…

  10. Thirty years of European biotechnology programmes: from biomolecular engineering to the bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Magnien, Etienne; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-06-25

    This article traces back thirty years of biotechnology research sponsored by the European Union (EU). It outlines the crucial role played by De Nettancourt, Goffeau and Van Hoeck to promote and prepare the first European programme on biotechnology (1982-1986) run by the European Commission. Following this first biotechnology programme, others followed until the current one, part of the seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (2007-2013) (FP7). Particular attention is given to the statutory role of the European institutions in the design and orientation of the successive biotechnology programmes, compared to the more informal-yet visionary-role of key individuals upstream to any legislative decision. Examples of success stories and of the role of the biotechnology programmes in addressing societal issues and industrial competitiveness are also presented. Finally, an outline of Horizon 2020, the successor of FP7, is described, together with the role of biotechnology in building the bioeconomy.

  11. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe. PMID:24243874

  12. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  13. "Unplugged": A New European School Programme against Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreeft, Peer Van Der; Wiborg, Gudrun; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Siliquini, Roberta; Bohrn, Karl; Scatigna, Maria; Lindahl, Ann-Marie; Melero, Juan Carlos; Vassara, Maro; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, development and application of "Unplugged', a new school programme for the prevention of substance abuse, which is based on the comprehensive social influence approach (CSI). The programme was developed, implemented and evaluated by a cross-disciplinary group of experts in the frame of a multi-centre study in…

  14. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  15. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  16. SILEX: Overview on the European optical communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, B.

    1995-10-01

    SILEX (Semi-Conducteur Intersatellite Link Experiment) is the first civilian optical communications programme (in the frame of ESA DRTM). It will demonstrate in 1997 high data rate transmission between a Low Earth Orbit Satellite (SPOT IV, built by MMS for CNES) and a Geostationnary spacecraft (ARTEMIS, realized by ALENIA for ESA). After the opto/mechanical/thermal qualification obtained mid of 1994, the SILEX programme is entered in an intensive phase with: — the integration/validation for the LEO flight model (PASTEL)— the preparation of integration of the GEO qualification STM and electrical/SW models (OPALE) The article describes the overall development status including the major terminal validation steps as well as the significant technological progress obtained through the qualification at equipment/terminal level.

  17. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme.

  18. Education: Guide to European Organizations and Programmes. A Guide to European Organizations Involved in Education, including Individual Programmes and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Heledd

    This report presents a guide to European organizations involved in education, including individual programs and projects. Entries are brief as they are intended as simple outlines of the organizations or programs, but full addresses and telephone numbers are provided. Divided into four categories, the organizations listed are as follows: (1)…

  19. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  20. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  1. RLV candidates for European Future Launchers Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomatis, Carlo; Bouaziz, Laurent; Franck, Thomas; Kauffmann, Jens

    2009-07-01

    ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Programme (FLPP) includes system activities and technology developments on materials and structures and propulsion. The overall approach is system-driven, i.e. FLPP aims at defining reference launcher concepts from which will be derived a demonstration logic including in-flight experimental vehicles, and technology development requirements. The paper addresses the launcher concepts studies, and more specifically the analysis of Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) concepts that has been performed in the first part of the FLPP program. The paper provides first elements on the mission requirements, the operations and the ground facilities for the RLV concepts selected as potential FLPP candidates. In particular, operations will likely have a heavy impact on the operability and on the launch cost of RLVs; in this sense, most of the paper content is dedicated to discuss specific operation features, and related infrastructure elements, linked to the considered RLVs. At last, a brief presentation of the next steps of the launcher system activities inside the FLPP is given.

  2. The problems associated with the monitoring of complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities.

    PubMed

    Bilski, P; Blomgren, J; d'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission is funding within its Sixth Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organisational framework for this project is provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. One task within the CONRAD project, Work Package 6 (WP6), was to provide a report outlining research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterisation of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators, but also at the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities. The paper provides an overview of the report, which will be available as CERN Yellow Report.

  3. Breast cancer in European Union: an update of screening programmes as of March 2014 (review).

    PubMed

    Altobelli, E; Lattanzi, A

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer, a major cause of female morbidity and mortality, is a global health problem; 2008 data show an incidence of ~450,000 new cases and 140,000 deaths (mean incidence rate 70.7 and mortality rate 16.7, world age-standardized rate per 100,000 women) in European Union Member States. Incidence rates in Western Europe are among the highest in the world. We review the situation of BC screening programmes in European Union. Up to date information on active BC screening programmes was obtained by reviewing the literature and searching national health ministries and cancer service websites. Although BC screening programmes are in place in nearly all European Union countries there are still considerable differences in target population coverage and age and in the techniques deployed. Screening is a mainstay of early BC detection whose main weakness is the rate of participation of the target population. National policies and healthcare planning should aim at maximizing participation in controlled organized screening programmes by identifying and lowering any barriers to adhesion, also with a view to reducing healthcare costs. PMID:25174328

  4. The EU programme for modelling radiation effects in fusion reactor materials: An overview of recent advances and future goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudarev, S. L.; Boutard, J.-L.; Lässer, R.; Caturla, M. J.; Derlet, P. M.; Fivel, M.; Fu, C.-C.; Lavrentiev, M. Y.; Malerba, L.; Mrovec, M.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Nordlund, K.; Perlado, M.; Schäublin, R.; Van Swygenhoven, H.; Terentyev, D.; Wallenius, J.; Weygand, D.; Willaime, F.

    2009-04-01

    The EU fusion materials modelling programme was initiated in 2002 with the objective of developing a comprehensive set of computer modelling techniques and approaches, aimed at rationalising the extensive available experimental information on properties of irradiated fusion materials, developing capabilities for predicting the behaviour of materials under conditions not yet accessible to experimental tests, assessing results of tests involving high dose rates, and extrapolating these results to the fusion-relevant conditions. The programme presently gives emphasis to modelling a single class of materials, which are ferritic-martensitic EUROFER-type steels, and focuses on the investigation of key physical phenomena and interpretation of experimental observations. The objective of the programme is the development of computational capabilities for predicting changes in mechanical properties, hardening and embrittlement, as well as changes in the microstructure and phase stability of EUROFER and FeCr model alloys occurring under fusion reactor relevant irradiation conditions.

  5. European MEDIA Programme: the role of 'language' and 'visual images' in the processes of constructing European culture and identity.

    PubMed

    Bozić-Vrbancić, Senka; Vrbancić, Mario; Orlić, Olga

    2008-12-01

    fields from economic, social and political issues, on the contrary "culture" and "identity" are constructed through social, economic and political relations. Issues of "language" and "images" are central to both of them. By questioning the role that "language" and "visual images play in the construction of European identity and culture, we are considering "language" as well as "visual images" not just as representations, but also as forms of social action. In addition to that, inspired by discourse theory (Laclau 1985, 1994, 2007) and psychoanalysis (Zizek 1989, 1993, 1994; Stavrakakis 1999, 2005, 2007) we explore the libidinal dimension of identification processes. We focus on the European MEDIA Programme in order to analyse how different languages and images are being used to create a sense of "European unity in diversity". Along with Stavrakakis we argue that due to the lack of libidinal investment into discourses of Europeanness, Europe is failing to create a strong supranational identity. However we also show that there have been recent attempts by European policy makers to try and fill this gap through various projects which focus entirely on emotions; which appears to reinforce new possibilities of identification with Europe. PMID:19149204

  6. European MEDIA Programme: the role of 'language' and 'visual images' in the processes of constructing European culture and identity.

    PubMed

    Bozić-Vrbancić, Senka; Vrbancić, Mario; Orlić, Olga

    2008-12-01

    fields from economic, social and political issues, on the contrary "culture" and "identity" are constructed through social, economic and political relations. Issues of "language" and "images" are central to both of them. By questioning the role that "language" and "visual images play in the construction of European identity and culture, we are considering "language" as well as "visual images" not just as representations, but also as forms of social action. In addition to that, inspired by discourse theory (Laclau 1985, 1994, 2007) and psychoanalysis (Zizek 1989, 1993, 1994; Stavrakakis 1999, 2005, 2007) we explore the libidinal dimension of identification processes. We focus on the European MEDIA Programme in order to analyse how different languages and images are being used to create a sense of "European unity in diversity". Along with Stavrakakis we argue that due to the lack of libidinal investment into discourses of Europeanness, Europe is failing to create a strong supranational identity. However we also show that there have been recent attempts by European policy makers to try and fill this gap through various projects which focus entirely on emotions; which appears to reinforce new possibilities of identification with Europe.

  7. Targeted DNA demethylation and activation of endogenous genes using programmable TALE-TET1 fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Maeder, Morgan L; Angstman, James F; Richardson, Marcy E; Linder, Samantha J; Cascio, Vincent M; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Ho, Quan H; Sander, Jeffry D; Reyon, Deepak; Bernstein, Bradley E; Costello, Joseph F; Wilkinson, Miles F; Joung, J Keith

    2013-12-01

    Genome-wide studies have defined cell type-specific patterns of DNA methylation that are important for regulating gene expression in both normal development and disease. However, determining the functional significance of specific methylation events remains challenging, owing to the lack of methods for removing such modifications in a targeted manner. Here we describe an approach for efficient targeted demethylation of specific CpGs in human cells using fusions of engineered transcription activator-like effector (TALE) repeat arrays and the TET1 hydroxylase catalytic domain. Using these TALE-TET1 fusions, we demonstrate that modification of critical methylated promoter CpG positions can lead to substantial increases in the expression of endogenous human genes. Our results delineate a strategy for understanding the functional significance of specific CpG methylation marks in the context of endogenous gene loci and validate programmable DNA demethylation reagents with potential utility for research and therapeutic applications.

  8. Teaching nanoscience across scientific and geographical borders A European Master programme in nanoscience and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, A.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.; Rep, D.; Rudquist, P.; Schwille, P.; Sluijter, B.; Wendin, G.

    2008-03-01

    Within the Erasmus Mundus Master (EMM) Programme, five European Universities (KU Leuven, Belgium, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Delft University of Technology and Leiden University, the Netherlands, and the University of Dresden, Germany) have joined forces to offer a unique master programme in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 'EMM-nano', at the cutting edge of state-of-the-art research. The students design and build their individual area of specialisation within nanophysics, nanotechnology, biophysics, biotechnology through their choice of trajectory between the partners. We discuss some of the challenges related to the crossdisciplinary nature of the field, educational activities in cleanrooms, and issues related to the integration of teaching programmes across the borders within Europe.

  9. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiricka, Alexandra Proebstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-15

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  10. Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund. A Composite Report on the Study Visits--Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reports on phase 1 of the Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund (SPP-ESF), which was undertaken to gather information on the transfer and exchange of experiences from the European Union (EU) to the 10 accession countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The 2 chapters constituting the first 15% of the report…

  11. Experience with the European quality assurance guidelines for digital mammography systems in a national screening programme.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, J; Keavey, E; Egan, G; Phelan, N

    2013-02-01

    The transition to a fully digital breast screening programme, utilising three different full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems has presented many challenges to the implementation of the European guidelines for physico-technical quality assurance (QA) testing. An analysis of the QA results collected from the FFDM systems in the screening programme over a 2-y period indicates that the three different systems have similar QA performances. Generally, the same tests were failed by all systems and failure rates were low. The findings provide some assurance that the QA guidelines are being correctly implemented. They also suggest that there is more scope for the development of the relevance of the guidelines with respect to modern FFDM systems. This study has also shown that a summary review of the QA data can be achieved by simple organisation of the QA data storage and by automation of data query and retrieval using commonly available software.

  12. Summary of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) diagnostics, including JET (Joint European Torus) and JT-60

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Young, K.M.; Johnson, L.C.

    1990-05-01

    The diagnostic instrumentation on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and the specific properties of each diagnostic, i.e., number of channels, time resolution, wavelength range, etc., are summarized in tables, grouped according to the plasma parameter measured. For comparison, the equivalent diagnostic capabilities of JET (Joint European Torus) and the Japanese large tokamak, JT-60, as of late 1987 are also listed in the tables. Extensive references are given to publications on each instrument.

  13. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  14. Sustaining international partnerships: the European Master of Science Programme in Occupational Therapy, a case study.

    PubMed

    Ilott, Irene; Kottorp, Anders; la Cour, Karen; van Nes, Fenna; Jonsson, Hans; Sadlo, Gaynor

    2013-06-01

    International partnerships are a mechanism for supporting the academic development of occupational therapy and promoting cultural competence. This case study describes the factors that have helped to sustain a post-qualifying programme implemented by five higher education institutions in Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK since 1999. Data collection methods were documentary analysis and the reflections of a purposive sample of six key informants. Cohort and outcome data, from 193 students from 31 countries who enrolled between 1999 and 2011, are reported. Each cohort comprises students from an average of eight countries to optimize inter-cultural dialogue. Four factors support sustainability. These are 1) supportive professional European networks; 2) timeliness and alignment with European higher education policy; 3) partnership structures and processes that emphasize joint decision making and accountability; and 4) the stimulus and satisfaction associated with internationalization. The main limitations are considering the OT-EuroMaster as an intrinsic case study and using opportunistic data collection that undermines the rigor and transferability of the findings. Future opportunities include doctoral networks, transnational research and sharing our curricula design with other Regions to spread the collaborative, capacity building endeavours more widely.

  15. Interim Report 1985. Working Document. European Community Action Programme. Transition of Young People from Education to Adult and Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IFAPLAN, Brussels (Belgium). Programme Information Office.

    This document provides an interim report on 30 pilot projects that make up the European Community's second Programme on the Transition from Education to Adult and Working Life. The main part of the report consists of 10 sections reviewing activities in the 10 thematic or policy areas adopted, in consultation with national authorities, to…

  16. Phare Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund: A Composite Report on the National, Supplementary and Local Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reports on phases 2 and 3 of the Phare Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund (SPP-ESF), which involved national, supplementary, and local seminars to assess the following countries' needs for assistance from the ESF: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak…

  17. Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes.

    PubMed

    Hvilsom, C; Frandsen, P; Børsting, C; Carlsen, F; Sallé, B; Simonsen, B T; Siegismund, H R

    2013-06-01

    Despite ample focus on this endangered species, conservation planning for chimpanzees residing outside Africa has proven a challenge because of the lack of ancestry information. Here, we analysed the largest number of chimpanzee samples to date, examining microsatellites in >100 chimpanzees from the range of the species in Africa, and 20% of the European zoo population. We applied the knowledge about subspecies differentiation throughout equatorial Africa to assign origin to chimpanzees in the largest conservation management programme globally. A total of 63% of the genotyped chimpanzees from the European zoos could be assigned to one of the recognized subspecies. The majority being of West African origin (40%) will help consolidate the current breeding programme for this subspecies and the identification of individuals belonging to the two other subspecies so far found in European zoos can form the basis for breeding programmes for these. Individuals of various degree of mixed ancestry made up 37% of the genotyped European zoo population and thus highlight the need for appropriate management programmes guided by genetic analysis to preserve maximum genetic diversity and reduce hybridization among subspecies.

  18. Value and Benefits of European Student Mobility for Romanian Students: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants in the ERASMUS Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Chiper, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences and perspectives of Romanian students participating in the ERASMUS Programme, regarding the benefits and value of academic mobility. It situates their accounts in the framework of internationalization and Europeanization processes occurring in Romanian higher education. The study draws on primary data…

  19. The path to fusion power†

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris Llewellyn; Cowley, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The promise, status and challenges of developing fusion power are outlined. The key physics and engineering principles are described and recent progress quantified. As the successful demonstration of 16 MW of fusion in 1997 in the Joint European Torus showed, fusion works. The central issue is therefore to make it work reliably and economically on the scale of a power station. We argue that to meet this challenge in 30 years we must follow the aggressive programme known as the ‘Fast Track to Fusion’. This programme is described in some detail. PMID:20123748

  20. Urban planning for healthy cities. A review of the progress of the European Healthy Cities Programme.

    PubMed

    Barton, Hugh; Grant, Marcus

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the progress made by European cities in relation to Healthy Urban Planning (HUP) during Phase IV of the World Health Organization's Healthy Cities programme (2003-2008). The introduction sets out the general principle of HUP, identifying three levels or phases of health and planning integration. This leads on to a more specific analysis of the processes and substance of HUP, which provide criteria for assessment of progress. The assessment itself relies on two sources of data provided by the municipalities: the Annual Review Templates (ARTs) 2008 and the response to the Phase IV General Evaluation Questionnaire. The findings indicate that the evidence from different sources and questions in different sections are encouragingly consistent. The number of cities achieving a good level of understanding and activity in HUP has risen very substantially over the period. In particular, those achieving effective strategic integration of health and planning have increased. A key challenge for the future will be to develop planning frameworks which advance public health concerns in a spatial policy context driven often by market forces. A health in all policies approach could be valuable.

  1. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer.

  2. The challenges of organising cervical screening programmes in the 15 old member states of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Rebolj, Matejka; De Kok, Inge M C M; Fender, Murielle; Becker, Nikolaus; O'Reilly, Marian; Andrae, Bengt

    2009-10-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be reduced substantially by organised cytological screening at 3 to 5 year intervals, as was demonstrated in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and parts of Italy. Opportunistic screening, often proposed at yearly schedules, has also reduced the burden of cervical cancer in some, but not all, of the other old member states (belonging to the European Union since 1995) but at a cost that is several times greater. Well organised screening programmes have the potential to achieve greater participation of the target population at regular intervals, equity of access and high quality. Despite the consistent evidence that organised screening is more efficient than non-organised screening, and in spite of the Cancer Screening Recommendations of the European Council, health authorities of eight old member states (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain) have not yet started national organised implementation of screening for cervical cancer. A decision was made by the Irish government to extend their pilot programme nationally while new regional programmes commenced in Portugal and Spain. Introduction of new methods of prevention, such as HPV screening and prophylactic HPV vaccination, can reduce the burden further, but this will require a high level of organisation with particular attention needed for the maximisation of population coverage, compliance with evidence-based guidelines, monitoring of data enabling continued evaluation and improvement of the preventive programmes.

  3. Practical Elements in Danish Engineering Programmes, Including the European Project Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, all engineering programmes in HE have practical elements; for instance, at Bachelor's level, an internship is an integrated part of the programme. Furthermore, Denmark has a long-established tradition of problem-based and project-organized learning, and a large part of students' projects, including their final projects, is done in…

  4. Implementing criteria-based early switch/early discharge programmes: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Nathwani, D; Lawson, W; Dryden, M; Stephens, J; Corman, S; Solem, C; Li, J; Charbonneau, C; Baillon-Plot, N; Haider, S; Eckmann, C

    2015-09-01

    Early switch (ES) from intravenous (IV) to oral antibiotic therapy programmes is increasingly included as a component of hospital antimicrobial stewardship initiatives that aim to optimize antimicrobial therapy while limiting toxicity and resistance. In terms of prioritizing the most cost-effective stewardship interventions, ES has been seen as a 'low-hanging fruit', which refers to selecting the most obtainable targets rather than confronting more complicated issues. Administration of highly bioavailable oral antibiotics should be considered for nearly all non-critically ill patients and has been recommended as an effective and safe strategy for over two decades. However, to accrue the most benefit from ES, it should be combined with an early discharge (ED) plan, protocol, or care pathway. Benefits of this combined approach include improved patient comfort and mobility, reduced incidence of IV-line-related adverse effects, reduced IV antimicrobial preparation time, decreased hospital stays, reduced antimicrobial purchasing and administration costs, decreased patient deconditioning, and shortened recovery times. Results from published studies document decreases in healthcare resource use and costs following implementation of ES programmes, which in most studies facilitate the opportunity for ED and ED programmes. Barriers to the implementation of these programmes include clinician misconceptions, practical considerations, organizational factors, and a striking lack of awareness of IV to oral switch guidance. These and other barriers will need to be addressed to maximize the effectiveness of ES and ED programmes. As national antimicrobial stewardship programmes dictate the inclusion of ES and ED programmes within healthcare facilities, programmes must be developed and success must be documented. PMID:26198369

  5. New safe medicines faster: A proposal for a key action within the European union's 6th framework programme.

    PubMed

    Bjerrum, O J

    2000-01-01

    The global competitiveness of the European pharmaceutical industry is under threat. Technology currently available for the development of new medicines is unable to match the pace of drug discovery and design; and the ever-growing demand for safety, efficacy and quality documentation has increased the cost and time involved in getting new medicines on the market. Although the pharmaceutical industry is one of the strongest in Europe in terms of research, innovation, exports and employment, there are severe restrictions on its ability to create wealth and launch safe drugs for the treatment of common and rare afflictions. The present situation should not be allowed to continue. For this reason, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) has proposed a key action under the title "New safe medicines faster" for the forthcoming EU 6th RTD framework programme. The key action has three main objectives: to seek new technologies capable of more effective selection of potential drug candidates for innovative medicines while accommodating safety demands; to use such technologies to speed up the pharmaceutical development process and eliminate bottlenecks created by initial exploratory drug research; and to cultivate a pan-European interdisciplinary network that bridges the gap between industry, academia and regulatory authorities. By involving regulatory authorities early on and fuelling research and innovation with EU money it should be possible to create a new set of recognised European standards whereby new safe medicines can be brought onto the market faster and cheaper. PMID:10905750

  6. Pan-European resistance monitoring programmes encompassing food-borne bacteria and target pathogens of food-producing and companion animals.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A; Thomas, V; Klein, U; Marion, H; Moyaert, H; Simjee, S; Vallé, M

    2013-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a concern both for animal and human health. Veterinary programmes monitoring resistance of animal and zoonotic pathogens are therefore essential. Various European countries have implemented national surveillance programmes, particularly for zoonotic and commensal bacteria, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is compiling the data. However, harmonisation is identified as a weakness and an essential need in order to compare data across countries. Comparisons of resistance monitoring data among national programmes are hampered by differences between programmes, such as sampling and testing methodology, and different epidemiological cut-off values or clinical breakpoints. Moreover, only very few valid data are available regarding target pathogens both of farm and companion animals. The European Animal Health Study Centre (CEESA) attempts to fill these gaps. The resistance monitoring programmes of CEESA have been a collaboration of veterinary pharmaceutical companies for over a decade and include two different projects: the European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) programme, which collects food-borne bacteria at slaughter from healthy animals, and the pathogen programmes that collect first-intention target pathogens from acutely diseased animals. The latter comprises three subprogrammes: VetPath; MycoPath; and ComPath. All CEESA projects include uniform sample collection and bacterial identification to species level in various European Union (EU) member states. A central laboratory conducts quantitative susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents either important in human medicine or commonly used in veterinary medicine. This 'methodology harmonisation' allows easy comparisons among EU member states and makes the CEESA programmes invaluable to address food safety and antibiotic efficacy.

  7. Accreditation and Quality Assurance for Professional Degree Programmes: Comparing Approaches in Three European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Andrea; Kurth, Detlef; Mironowicz, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in establishing and implementing robust, comparable quality assurance processes throughout much of the European higher education sector. However, concerns persist over degree portability and recognition as current systems are rooted in national contexts. In particular, specialised…

  8. Staff perceptions of change resulting from participation in a European cancer accreditation programme: a snapshot from eight cancer centres

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Abinaya; Wind, Anke; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Thonon, Frederique; Boomsma, Femke; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare accreditation is considered to be an essential quality improvement tool. However, its effectiveness has been critiqued. Methods Twenty-four interviews were conducted with clinicians (five), nurses (six), managers (eight), and basic/translational researchers (five) from eight European cancer centres on changes observed from participating in a European cancer accreditation programme. Data were thematically analysed and verified with participants and checked against auditor’s feedback. Results Four change categories emerged: (i) the growing importance of the nursing and supportive care field (role change). Nurses gained more autonomy/clarity on their daily duties. Importance was given to the hiring and training of supportive care personnel (ii) critical thinking on data integration (strategic change). Managers gained insight on how to integrate institutional level data (iii) improved processes within multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings (procedural change). Clinical staff experienced improved communication between MDTs (iv) building trust (organisational change). Accreditation improved the centre’s credibility with its own staff and externally with funders and patients. No motivational changes were perceived. Researchers perceived no changes. The auditor’s feedback included changes in 13 areas: translational research, biobanks, clinical trials, patient privacy and satisfaction, cancer registries, clinical practice guidelines, patient education, screening, primary prevention, role of nurses, MDT, supportive care, and data integration. However, our study revealed that staff perceived changes only in the last four areas. Conclusion Staff perceived changes in data integration, nursing and supportive care, and in certain clinical aspects. Accreditation programmes must pay attention to the needs of different stakeholder groups, track changes, and observe how/why change happens. PMID:26180546

  9. The Canadian temporary visa programme as an alternative to the European guest worker scheme.

    PubMed

    Marr, W

    1985-09-01

    This article analyzes Canada's employment visa program, through which foreigners enter the Canadian labor market for relatively short time periods. It further demonstrates some major differences between this policy and the European guest worker scheme. Governments in Western Europe viewed guest workers' benefits as preventing wages and inflation from rising, allowing profits and investments to increase, and sustaining economic growth. A question to consider is whether guest workers' demands on social services, in relation to their tax and other contributions, exceed those of the indigenous population and thus reduce their profitability. Canada, in contrast, has avoided the need to provide services for the children of foreign workers or jobs for their spouses by limiting visa length to a maximum of 1 year. The majority of employment visa holders to Canada enter without dependents. Another difference is the far smaller scope of the Canadian program. Canada's employment visa program provides only about 0.5% of total employment, whereas guest workers in European countries may comprise up to 23% (Switzerland). The occupations of service and teaching account for the majority of workers included in the Canadian visa program, while manufacturing subsumes a large share of European guest workers. It is important to stress that, with relatively low levels for permanent immigration to Canada, the employment visa program rivals that flow as a yearly contributor to labor supply, indicating a need for closer attention to the evaluation of this policy. PMID:12159646

  10. Ethical review of projects involving non-human primates funded under the European Union's 7th Research Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula; Phillips, Barry; Reid, Kirsty; Schmit, Véronique; Jennings, Maggy

    2013-09-01

    Internet searches were performed on projects involving non-human primates ('primates') funded under the European Union (EU) 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7), to determine how project proposals are assessed from an ethical point of view. Due to the incompleteness of the information publicly available, the types and severity of the experiments could not be determined with certainty, although in some projects the level of harm was considered to be 'severe'. Information was scarce regarding the numbers of primates, their sourcing, housing, care and fate, or the application of the Three Rs within projects. Project grant holders and the relevant Commission officer were consulted about their experiences with the FP7 ethics review process. Overall, it was seen as meaningful and beneficial, but some concerns were also noted. Ethical follow-up during project performance and upon completion was recognised as a valuable tool in ensuring that animal welfare requirements were adequately addressed. Based upon the outcome of the survey, recommendations are presented on how to strengthen the ethical review process under the upcoming Framework Programme 'Horizon 2020', while adequately taking into account the specific requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU, with the aim of limiting the harms inflicted on the animals and the numbers used, and ultimately, replacing the use of primates altogether. PMID:24168134

  11. Locus-specific editing of histone modifications at endogenous enhancers using programmable TALE-LSD1 fusions

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Eric M.; Williamson, Kaylyn E.; Reyon, Deepak; Zou, James Y.; Ram, Oren; Joung, J. Keith; Bernstein, Bradley E.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian gene regulation is dependent on tissue-specific enhancers that can act across large distances to influence transcriptional activity1-3. Mapping experiments have identified hundreds of thousands of putative enhancers whose functionality is supported by cell type–specific chromatin signatures and striking enrichments for disease-associated sequence variants4-11. However, these studies did not address the in vivo functions of the putative elements or their chromatin states and could not determine which genes, if any, a given enhancer regulates. Here we present a strategy to investigate endogenous regulatory elements by selectively altering their chromatin state using programmable reagents. Transcription activator–like (TAL) effector repeat domains fused to the LSD1 histone demethylase efficiently remove enhancer-associated chromatin modifications from target loci, without affecting control regions. We find that inactivation of enhancer chromatin by these fusion proteins frequently causes down-regulation of proximal genes, revealing enhancer target genes. Our study demonstrates the potential of ‘epigenome editing’ tools to characterize an important class of functional genomic elements. PMID:24013198

  12. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  13. Policy Goals of European Integration and Competitiveness in Academic Collaborations: An Examination of Joint Master's and Erasmus Mundus Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines policy goals pertaining to joint Master's in Europe as presented in Bologna-related and Erasmus Mundus (EM) policy texts. The profile of joint programmes has risen in the aftermath of the Bologna Process (BP), together with the launch of the EU EM. Despite a European policy tradition of cooperation in higher education…

  14. The Copernicus programme and its Climate Change Service (C3S): a European answer to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinty, Bernard; Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-07-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we measure and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its climate data store will provide global and regional climate data reanalyses; multi-model seasonal forecasts; customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. The presentation will provide an overview of this newly created Service, its various components and activities, and a roadmap towards achieving a fully operational European Climate Service at the horizon 2019-2020. It will focus on the requirements for quality-assured Observation

  15. Requesting organ donation: the case of self-efficacy--effects of the European Donor Hospital Education Programme (EDHEP).

    PubMed

    Blok, G A; Morton, J; Morley, M; Kerckhoffs, C C J M; Kootstra, G; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2004-01-01

    One of the major reasons for the shortage of donor organs is the high number of refusals by relatives. Studies have shown that the quality of communication with bereaved relatives influences whether to object or agree to organ and/or tissue donation. Breaking news of brain stem death, approaching relatives for permission to donate organs while also appropriately managing emotional reactions of relatives are complex tasks, which require knowledge of the domains as well as adequate skills to communicate information and understanding. In this study the effect of the European Donor Hospital Education Programme (EDHEP) on the self-efficacy of Intensive Care staff is evaluated. Self-efficacy scores significantly improved after attending EDHEP; an effect that was maintained at six month follow-up. EDHEP participants with high baseline scores on self-efficacy, maintained the increase at follow-up. EDHEP participants with low baseline scores on self-efficacy showed the greatest increase at the post-test. Increases in self-efficacy were significantly related to decreases in the perceived difficulty of requesting. Experience had a significant effect on both self-efficacy beliefs and perceived difficulty of requesting donation. As self-efficacy beliefs are perceived as better predictors for future behaviour than prior attainments, the results call for further research in this domain. The data indicate that training programmes should be tailored not only to working circumstances of participants, but should also take levels of experience and self-efficacy into account. Further study is necessary and the best way to proceed is to relate the outcomes of this study to behavioural outcomes.

  16. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  17. A FISH-based chromosome map for the European corn borer yields insights into ancient chromosomal fusions in the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Y; Ohno, M; Shibata, F; Jouraku, A; Nakano, R; Ishikawa, Y; Sahara, K

    2016-01-01

    A significant feature of the genomes of Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the high conservation of chromosome organization. Recent remarkable progress in genome sequencing of Lepidoptera has revealed that syntenic gene order is extensively conserved across phylogenetically distant species. The ancestral karyotype of Lepidoptera is thought to be n=31; however, that of the most well-studied moth, Bombyx mori, is n=28, and diverse studies suggest that three chromosomal fusion events occurred in this lineage. To identify the boundaries between predicted ancient fusions involving B. mori chromosomes 11, 23 and 24, we constructed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based chromosome maps of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (n=31). We first determined a 511 Mb genomic sequence of the Asian corn borer, O. furnacalis, a congener of O. nubilalis, and isolated bacterial artificial chromosomes and fosmid clones that were expected to localize in candidate regions for the boundaries using these sequences. Combined with FISH and genetic analysis, we narrowed down the candidate regions to 40 kb-1.5 Mb, in strong agreement with a previous estimate based on the genome of a butterfly, Melitaea cinxia. The significant difference in the lengths of the candidate regions where no functional genes were observed may reflect the evolutionary time after fusion events.

  18. A FISH-based chromosome map for the European corn borer yields insights into ancient chromosomal fusions in the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Y; Ohno, M; Shibata, F; Jouraku, A; Nakano, R; Ishikawa, Y; Sahara, K

    2016-01-01

    A significant feature of the genomes of Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the high conservation of chromosome organization. Recent remarkable progress in genome sequencing of Lepidoptera has revealed that syntenic gene order is extensively conserved across phylogenetically distant species. The ancestral karyotype of Lepidoptera is thought to be n=31; however, that of the most well-studied moth, Bombyx mori, is n=28, and diverse studies suggest that three chromosomal fusion events occurred in this lineage. To identify the boundaries between predicted ancient fusions involving B. mori chromosomes 11, 23 and 24, we constructed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based chromosome maps of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (n=31). We first determined a 511 Mb genomic sequence of the Asian corn borer, O. furnacalis, a congener of O. nubilalis, and isolated bacterial artificial chromosomes and fosmid clones that were expected to localize in candidate regions for the boundaries using these sequences. Combined with FISH and genetic analysis, we narrowed down the candidate regions to 40 kb-1.5 Mb, in strong agreement with a previous estimate based on the genome of a butterfly, Melitaea cinxia. The significant difference in the lengths of the candidate regions where no functional genes were observed may reflect the evolutionary time after fusion events. PMID:26264548

  19. A study of emissions from a Euro 4 light duty diesel vehicle with the European particulate measurement programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Harry; Ayala, Alberto; Zhang, Sherry; Collins, John; Huai, Tao; Herner, Jorn; Chau, Wilson

    2010-09-01

    The California Air Resources Board, CARB, has participated in a program to quantify particulate matter (PM) emissions with a European methodology, which is known as the Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP). The essence of the PMP methodology is that the diesel PM from a Euro 4 vehicle equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) consists primarily of solid particles with a size range greater than 23 nm. The PMP testing and the enhanced testing performed by CARB have enabled an increased understanding of both the progress that has been made in PM reduction, and the future remaining challenges for new and improved DPF-equipped diesel vehicles. A comparison of measured regulated emissions and solid particle number emissions with the results obtained by the PMP participating international laboratories was a success, and CARB's measurements and standard deviations compared well with the other laboratories. Enhanced measurements of the influence of vehicle conditioning prior to testing on PM mass and solid particle number results were performed, and some significant influences were discovered. For example, the influence of vehicle preconditioning on particle number results was significant for both the European and USA test driving cycles. However, the trends for the cycles were opposite with one cycle showing an increase and the other cycle showing a decrease in particle number emissions. If solid particle size distribution and total particle numbers are to be used as proposed in PMP, then a greater understanding of the quality and errors associated with measurement technologies is advisable. In general, particle counting instruments gave results with similar trends, but cycle-to-cycle testing variation was observed. Continuous measurements of particle number concentrations during test cycles have given detailed insight into PM generation. At the present time there is significant variation in the capabilities of the particle counting instruments in terms of

  20. Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Eramova, Irina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2016-06-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV. Only some countries had surveillance systems that incorporated the tracking of associated conditions and outcomes such as cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Screening programmes for some key populations appeared to be in place in many countries, but there may be gaps in relation to screening programmes for people who inject drugs, prisoners, sex workers and men who have sex with men. Nonetheless, important components of a surveillance structure are in place in the responding study countries. It is advisable to build on this structure to develop harmonised HBV and HCV surveillance for all 53 Member States of the WHO European Region following the example of the system recently instituted in EU/EEA countries. PMID:27277421

  1. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    PubMed

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). PMID:26001298

  2. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    PubMed

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD).

  3. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S

  4. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme: European public-private partnerships for the development of new strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale.

  5. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme: European public-private partnerships for the development of new strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale. PMID:26568581

  6. Joint Programmes of Study: An Instrument of European Cooperation in Higher Education. Collection Studies, Education Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan

    The Council of the European Economic Community (EEC) developed a plan to increase student mobility in higher education across national borders. The plan is characterized by efforts at common policy in such matters as admission, credit transfer and equivalence, a student handbook on opportunities, and a plan for grants for short study visits in…

  7. The Future Development of the European Union Education, Training and Youth Programmes After 2006: A Public Consultation Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document launches a wide public consultation with all those involved in and with an interest in the European Union's (EU's) education, training, and youth programs called Socrates, Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, and Youth for Europe. It is the first step toward preparing the new generation of programs to start in 2007 and will inform the…

  8. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, S.; Murari, A.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Mazon, D.; de Maack, A.; Jet-Efda Contributors

    2010-08-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496×560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN—unlike software CNN implementations.

  9. The actions of the European Space Agency to prepare for future space transportation systems - The FESTIP programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Heinrich A.

    1992-12-01

    The Future European Space Transportation Investigations Program (FESTIP) has been entrusted with the conceptual development and evaluation of such techniques and technologies relevant to next-generation launch vehicle configurations as CFD for severe aerothermodynamics, refractory materials and structures, advanced rocket and airbreathing propulsion, and subsystem designs. The FESTIP reference configurational concepts encompass a two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable rocket, a TSTO airbreathing/rocket hybrid, a reusable SSTO dual-cycle engined craft such as NASA's NASP, and a reusable SSTO rocket.

  10. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

  11. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  12. Prioritisation of wildlife pathogens to be targeted in European surveillance programmes: Expert-based risk analysis focus on ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Yon, Lisa; Hutchings, Mike R; Artois, Marc

    2015-03-01

    This study attempted to develop a list of priority pathogens. It is part of a European Union (EU) project dedicated to the surveillance of emerging or re-emerging pathogens of wildlife. Partners of the consortium established an initial list of 138 pathogens of concern, which was reduced to a smaller list of 65 pathogens likely to affect ruminants (i.e., the most costly animal group in the EU over the last 15 years). These 65 pathogens underwent a two-step, expert-based risk analysis: 92 experts graded them with respect to their global importance for animal welfare, species conservation, trade/economic impacts and public health. In step 2, the top 15 pathogens from step 1 were assessed by 69 experts considering seven weighted epidemiological criteria (pathogen variability, host specificity, potential for contagion, speed of spread, presence in Europe, difficulty of surveillance in wildlife and persistence in the environment) for which four options were possible. The responses concerned a wide geographic coverage. The resulting top-list pathogens were ranked as follows: 1. Salmonella enterica, 2. Coxiella burnetii, 3. foot-and-mouth disease virus, 4. Mycobacterium bovis, 5. bluetongue virus, and 6. European tick-borne encephalitis virus. The influence of the characteristics of the respondents, the importance of the levels of uncertainty/variability and the implication of the results are discussed. This work highlights the relevance of developing such lists for preparedness.

  13. Major Perspectives of The Dfg-research Programm (schwerpunktprogramm) Dynamics of Sedimentary Systems Under Varying Stress Conditions By Example of The Central European Basin-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, U.; Littke, R.; Gajewski, D.; Brink, H.-J.

    In 2001 a major research program "Dynamics of Sedimentary Systems under Varying Stress Conditions" has been established by the German Science Foundation (DFG). The programme effectively will start early in 2002 and in some sense provides a continuation of the EUROPROBE project TESZ. However, it will focus mainly on post-Paleozoic processes. The following sub-themes for this programme capture a wide range of areas of interest, calling for interdisciplinary research: 1. Structure and evolution of the crust. This topic will be based on the three- dimensional structural interpretation, pre-stack migration, and modelling of geophysi- cal data such as seismic, gravimetric, magnetic, and magnetotelluric data. The deriva- tion of interval velocities and the prediction of lateral inhomogeneities will be essential for the interpretation of rheological properties on one hand and historical geodynamic processes on the other. 2. Basin dynamics in space and time. Methods of basin anal- ysis, seismic stratigraphy,sedimentology, sequence- and event stratigraphy should be used in combination with subsidence analysis and basin modelling to interpret facies distributions within the evolving accomodation space of a sedimentary basin. An ad- vanced interpretation of seismic lines using new modelling tools is of key interest to extract facies patterns and related petrophysical properties for the three dimensional space of a sedimentary basin. 3. Fluid- and salt dynamics. Salt dynamics is related to the recent and historic stress fields of a basin and greatly governs the sedimentation and erosion processes at the surface. In addition, the rheology of the upper crust and the temperature field within sedimentary basins greatly depends on salt doming. Fluid dynamics is coupled to the temperature and pressure field, but depends also on the permeability of sedimentary rocks which varies by more than 15 orders of magnitude. The origin of non-hydrocarbon gases (CO2, N2, H2S), each dominating

  14. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S

  15. The accomplishment of the Engineering Design Activities of IFMIF/EVEDA: The European-Japanese project towards a Li(d,xn) fusion relevant neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Ibarra, A.; Abal, J.; Abou-Sena, A.; Arbeiter, F.; Arranz, F.; Arroyo, J. M.; Bargallo, E.; Beauvais, P.-Y.; Bernardi, D.; Casal, N.; Carmona, J. M.; Chauvin, N.; Comunian, M.; Delferriere, O.; Delgado, A.; Diaz-Arocas, P.; Fischer, U.; Frisoni, M.; Garcia, A.; Garin, P.; Gobin, R.; Gouat, P.; Groeschel, F.; Heidinger, R.; Ida, M.; Kondo, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Kubo, T.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Leysen, W.; Mas, A.; Massaut, V.; Matsumoto, H.; Micciche, G.; Mittwollen, M.; Mora, J. C.; Mota, F.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Nitti, F.; Nishiyama, K.; Ogando, F.; O'hira, S.; Oliver, C.; Orsini, F.; Perez, D.; Perez, M.; Pinna, T.; Pisent, A.; Podadera, I.; Porfiri, M.; Pruneri, G.; Queral, V.; Rapisarda, D.; Roman, R.; Shingala, M.; Soldaini, M.; Sugimoto, M.; Theile, J.; Tian, K.; Umeno, H.; Uriot, D.; Wakai, E.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokomine, T.

    2015-08-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase under the frame of the Broader Approach Agreement between Europe and Japan, accomplished in summer 2013, on schedule, its EDA phase with the release of the engineering design report of the IFMIF plant, which is here described. Many improvements of the design from former phases are implemented, particularly a reduction of beam losses and operational costs thanks to the superconducting accelerator concept, the re-location of the quench tank outside the test cell (TC) with a reduction of tritium inventory and a simplification on its replacement in case of failure, the separation of the irradiation modules from the shielding block gaining irradiation flexibility and enhancement of the remote handling equipment reliability and cost reduction, and the water cooling of the liner and biological shielding of the TC, enhancing the efficiency and economy of the related sub-systems. In addition, the maintenance strategy has been modified to allow a shorter yearly stop of the irradiation operations and a more careful management of the irradiated samples. The design of the IFMIF plant is intimately linked with the EVA phase carried out since the entry into force of IFMIF/EVEDA in June 2007. These last activities and their on-going accomplishment have been thoroughly described elsewhere (Knaster J et al [19]), which, combined with the present paper, allows a clear understanding of the maturity of the European-Japanese international efforts. This released IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report (IIEDR), which could be complemented if required concurrently with the outcome of the on-going EVA, will allow decision making on its construction and/or serve as the basis for the definition of the next step, aligned with the evolving needs of our fusion community.

  16. The ECDL Programme in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzarossa, Maria Carla; Ciancarini, Paolo; Maresca, Paolo; Mich, Luisa; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2007-01-01

    The European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) programme aims at testing practical skills and competences in using ICT tools. This paper presents the results of a monitoring exercise aimed at analyzing the impact of the ECDL programme in the Italian Universities. The ECDL programme, adopted in most Italian Universities since the year 2000, has…

  17. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  18. ESO's Astronomy Education Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce-Price, D. P. I.; Boffin, H.; Madsen, C.

    2006-08-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, has operated a programme of astronomy education for some years, with a dedicated Educational Office established in 2001. We organise a range of activities, which we will highlight and discuss in this presentation. Many are run in collaboration with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), such as the "Catch a Star!" competition for schools, now in its fourth year. A new endeavour is the ALMA Interdisciplinary Teaching Project (ITP). In conjunction with the EAAE, we are creating a set of interdisciplinary teaching materials based around the Atacama Large Millimeter Array project. The unprecedented astronomical observations planned with ALMA, as well as the uniqueness of its site high in the Atacama Desert, offer excellent opportunities for interdisciplinary teaching that also encompass physics, engineering, earth sciences, life sciences, and culture. Another ongoing project in which ESO takes part is the "Science on Stage" European science education festival, organised by the EIROforum - the group of seven major European Intergovernmental Research Organisations, of which ESO is a member. This is part of the European Science Teaching Initiative, along with Science in School, a newly-launched European journal for science educators. Overviews of these projects will be given, including results and lessons learnt. We will also discuss possibilities for a future European Astronomy Day project, as a new initiative for European-wide public education.

  19. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. PMID:27478588

  20. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.

  1. The Impact on Education for Librarianship and Information Studies of the Bologna Process and Related European Commission Programmes--and Some Outstanding Issues in Europe and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration of 1999 is the basis for continuing reforms in higher education intended to support international mobility in employment within the European Union. This paper describes the standardised structure and nomenclature for courses that have been implemented, together with a credit transfer system, a quality assurance regime, and…

  2. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  3. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  4. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  5. Big fusion, little fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Frank; ddtuttle

    2016-08-01

    In reply to correspondence from George Scott and Adam Costley about the Physics World focus issue on nuclear energy, and to news of construction delays at ITER, the fusion reactor being built in France.

  6. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  7. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  8. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  9. The path to fusion power.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris; Ward, David

    2007-04-15

    Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in power station conditions the materials that would be used in their construction. Assuming no major adverse surprises, an orderly fusion development programme could lead to a prototype fusion power station putting electricity into the grid within 30 years, with commercial fusion power following some 10 or more years later. In the second half of the century, fusion could therefore be an important part of the portfolio of measures that are needed to cope with rising demand for energy in an environmentally responsible manner. In this paper, we describe the basics of fusion, its potential attractions, the status of fusion R&D, the remaining challenges and how they will be tackled at the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor and the proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, and the timetable for the subsequent commercialization of fusion power. PMID:17272246

  10. Leading European Intergovernmental Research Organisations at FP6 Launch Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    EIROforum at "European Research 2002" (Brussels, November 11-13, 2002) Go to the EIROforum website Last year, seven of Europe's leading intergovernmental research organisations set up a high-level co-ordination and collaboration group, known as EIROforum , cf. ESO PR 12/01. They include CERN (particle physics), EMBL (molecular biology), ESA (space activities), ESO (astronomy and astrophysics), ESRF (synchrotron radiation), ILL (neutron source) and EFDA (fusion). All of them have powerful research infrastructures and laboratories which are used by an extensive network of scientists. Together, they represent European spearheads in some of the most crucial basic and applied research fields. The EIROforum organisations will be highly visible at the upcoming EU-conference on "European Research 2002 - The European Research Area and the Framework Programme" , to be held on November 11-13, 2002, at the "Palais du Heysel" in Brussels (Belgium). This meeting will be attended by more than 8000 scientists and decision-makers from all over Europe and serves to launch the 6th EC Framework Programme (2002 - 2006), which will have an important impact on Europe's R&D landscape during the coming years. A joint 400 sq.m. exhibition , featuring the individual EIROforum organisations, their current programmes and many front-line achievements in their respective areas of activity, will be set up at Stand L in Hall 11 . It includes a central area, with a small cinema, displaying information about their current interactions via EIROforum. The stands will be manned throughout the conference by high-level representatives from the seven organisations. On Tuesday, November 12, 2002, 14:00 hrs, a Press Conference will take place at this exhibition stand, in the presence of the European Commissioner for Research, M. Phillippe Busquin, and most of the Directors General (or equivalent) of the EIROforum organisations. The main themes will be the increasingly intense interaction and co

  11. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  12. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  13. Group dynamics and landscape features constrain the exploration of herds in fusion-fission societies: the case of European roe deer.

    PubMed

    Pays, Olivier; Fortin, Daniel; Gassani, Jean; Duchesne, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large number of movement studies, the constraints that grouping imposes on movement decisions remain essentially unexplored, even for highly social species. Such constraints could be key, however, to understanding the dynamics and spatial organisation of species living in group fusion-fission systems. We investigated the winter movements (speed and diffusion coefficient) of groups of free-ranging roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in an agricultural landscape characterised by a mosaic of food and foodless patches. Most groups were short-lived units that merged and split up frequently during the course of a day. Deer groups decreased their speed and diffusion rate in areas where food patches were abundant, as well as when travelling close to main roads and crest lines and far from forests. While accounting for these behavioural adjustments to habitat features, our study revealed some constraints imposed by group foraging: large groups reached the limit of their diffusion rate faster than small groups. The ability of individuals to move rapidly to new foraging locations following patch depression thus decreases with group size. Our results highlight the importance of considering both habitat heterogeneity and group dynamics when predicting the movements of individuals in group fusion-fission societies. Further, we provide empirical evidence that group cohesion can restrain movement and, therefore, the speed at which group members can explore their environment. When maintaining cohesion reduces foraging gains because of movement constraints, leaving the group may become a fitness-rewarding decision, especially when individuals can join other groups located nearby, which would tend to maintain highly dynamical group fusion-fission systems. Our findings also provide the basis for new hypotheses explaining a broad range of ecological patterns, such as the broader diet and longer residency time reported for larger herbivore groups. PMID:22479652

  14. EAC: The European Astronauts Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, Andres

    The newly established European Astronauts Centre (EAC) in Cologne represents the European Astronauts Home Base and will become a centre of expertise on European astronauts activities. The paper gives an overview of the European approach to man-in-space, describes the European Astronauts Policy and presents the major EAC roles and responsibilities including the management of selection, recruitment and flight assignment of astronauts; the astronauts support and medical surveillance; the supervision of the astronauts' non-flight assignments; crew safety; the definition of the overall astronauts training programme; the scheduling and supervision of the training facilities; the implementation of Basic Training; the recruitment, training and certification of instructors, and the interface to NASA in the framework of the Space Station Freedom programme. An overview is given on the organisation of EAC, and on the European candidate astronauts selection performed in 1991.

  15. Programmable Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy

    2011-01-01

    A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.

  16. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2016-07-12

    ITER (in Latin “the way”) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium – fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project – China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States – represent more than half the world’s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  17. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education policy, as…

  18. Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, G.

    This chapter is devoted to the fundamental concepts of nuclear fusion. To be more precise, it is devoted to the theoretical basics of fusion reactions between light nuclei such as hydrogen, helium, boron, and lithium. The discussion is limited because our purpose is to focus on laboratory-scale fusion experiments that aim at gaining energy from the fusion process. After discussing the methods of calculating the fusion cross section, it will be shown that sustained fusion reactions with energy gain must happen in a thermal medium because, in beam-target experiments, the energy of the beam is randomized faster than the fusion rate. Following a brief introduction to the elements of plasma physics, the chapter is concluded with the introduction of the most prominent fusion reactions ongoing in the Sun.

  19. Overview of inertial fusion research in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, T. C.; McCrory, R. L.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Loucks, S. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Skupsky, S.; Yaakobi, B.; MacGowan, B. J.; Atherton, L. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Lindl, J. D.; Moses, E. I.; Porter, J. L.; Cuneo, M. E.; Matzen, M. K.; Barnes, C. W.; Fernandez, J. C.; Wilson, D. C.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Bernat, T. P.; Nikroo, A.; Logan, B. G.; Yu, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sethian, J. D.; Obenschain, S.

    2007-10-01

    The inertial confinement fusion (ICF) programme, the high-average-power lasers (HAPL) programme, and the heavy ion fusion (HIF) programme are making long-term investments to establish the scientific and technical basis for an economically and environmentally attractive fusion power source. In the near term, the National Ignition Campaign is expected to establish the scientific and technical basis for ignition and gain on the National Ignition Facility. The results of these experiments and the implications for target design will be incorporated into the long-term efforts to develop a viable power-plant concept including target production, chamber dynamics and driver.

  20. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  1. Applied field epidemiology programme in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez Navarro, J F; Herrera, D; Sanchez Barco, C

    2001-03-01

    In 1994, the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII; Carlos III Health Institute) of the Spanish Ministry of Health and the Consumer (MSC) created the Programa de Epidemiología Aplicada de Campo (PEAC; Applied Field Epidemiology Programme). The programme is managed by the Centro Nacional de Epidemiología (National Epidemiological Centre) in collaboration with the Escuela Nacional de Sanidad (National School of Health), and supported by General Direction for Health and Consumer of MSC and the Health Councils (Consejerías de Sanidad) of the autonomous regions. The PEAC runs a masters degree programme in applied field epidemiology, in which degrees are conferred by the National School of Health. As PEAC is a national programme, it forms a part of the European Program for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) and is a member of the Network Training for Epidemiology Public Health Intervention (TEPHINET), the association of 27 regional and national programmes of the acting Intervention Epidemiology Training Programs.

  2. Materials and design of the European DEMO blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, L. V.; Giancarli, L.; Janeschitz, G.; Hermsmeyer, S.; Poitevin, Y.; Cardella, A.; Diegele, E.

    2004-08-01

    The Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) and the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket are the reference concepts in the European Breeding Blanket Programme for the DEMO design and for the related long term R&D. Recently, a similar design for both concepts has been developed, in particular both concepts use helium coolant and RAFM steel EUROFER as structural material. In this paper the interactions between the selected materials and the proposed DEMO designs are discussed. In particular the design features related to the tritium production, power extraction, material compatibility and fabrication processes are addressed. All these features contribute to the definition of DEMO concepts which are attractive for a future fusion power plant in terms of safety, availability and economics.

  3. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  4. Dragon 2 Programme Achievements and Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Li, Zengyuan; Zmuda, Andy; Gao, Zhihai

    2013-01-01

    The cooperation between ESA and National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC) / Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) in the development of Earth Observation (EO) applications started 17 years ago. In 2004, a new phase in cooperation began with the start of the Dragon Programme which focused on science and application using ESA ERS and Envisat satellite data. The programme was completed in 2008. Following on, the cooperation took on greater momentum with the start of a four-year EO science and exploitation programme called “Dragon 2”. The programme formally closed in June at the 2012 Beijing Symposium. The programme brought together joint Sino-European teams to investigate land, ocean and atmospheric applications in P.R. China using EO data from ESA, Third Party Mission (TPM) and Chinese satellites. The teams were led by principal EO scientists. Young European and Chinese scientists were also engaged on the projects. Advanced training courses in land, ocean and atmospheric applications were held in each year of the programme in China. Altogether, two courses on land, one course on atmospheric applications and one course on oceanographic applications were held. Here-in provided is an overview of the achievements, cooperation, reporting and training activities at the completion of the programme. The Sino-European teams have delivered world-class scientific results across a wide range of disciplines. The programme provided a platform for the joint exploitation of ESA, TPM and Chinese EO data from optical, thermal and microwave sensors for geo-science application and development in China.

  5. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  6. EDITORIAL: International workshop on the fast ignition of fusion targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norreys, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The international workshop on the fast ignition of fusion targets has played an important role in the rapid progress in the physics of fast ignition inertial fusion worldwide. It has provided a vital forum for discussion on important topics in high intensity laser-plasma physics that are relevant to fast ignition and has allowed new experimental and theoretical results to be presented in an informal and collegiate atmosphere. With the new laser facilities in the United States and Japan nearing completion—and the start of the HIPER project in the European Union—this workshop provided an opportunity for sharing ideas, forming new collaborations and maintaining the rapid progress in the field. The International Committee for Fast Ignition, at its meeting in September 2007 (Kobe, Japan), agreed to hold the Workshop every two years, alternating between Inerital Fusion Science and Applications (IFSA) conferences. It would rotate geographically between the EU, Asia and the United States. The 10th Workshop was held as a satellite meeting to the 35th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics in the Creta Maris Conference Center on the beautiful island of Crete. The first two days were devoted to the presentation of the latest results. The invited papers that were presented there appeared in the December 2008 issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. The remaining days, 16th-18th June, were held as a smaller stand-alone meeting and were devoted to more informal discussion and debates, more conducive to the Workshop style. The Programme Committee of the EPS selected a number of papers from abstracts submitted to the Workshop that reflected this style. These papers, presented here, have been through the normal rigorous peer review process of the journal and are indicative of the exceptional quality of work presented at the meeting.

  7. ESO Fellowship Programme 2003/2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    THE EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY AWARDS SEVERAL POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIPS to provide young scientists opportunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes. Its goal is to bring them into close contact with the instruments, activities, and people at one of the world's foremost observatories. For more information about ESO's astronomical research activities please consult http://www.eso.org/science/

  8. Does the EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme Contribute to Quality Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Diana Amado; Rosa, Maria Joao; Amaral, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to reflect on the relevance of the Institutional Evaluation Programme (IEP) of the European University Association (EUA) to universities' quality improvement. It aims to analyse IEP follow-up reports to determine whether the programme contributes to the development of a quality improvement culture.…

  9. Status and progress in the Space Surveillance and Tracking Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, E.

    2010-09-01

    In November 2008, the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at Ministerial level approved the start of ESA’s Space Situational Awareness programme. Between 2009 and 2012 a preparatory phase will run that will develop the architectural design of the system, the governance and data policy and the provision of precursor services in the areas of: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near Earth Objects. This paper will concentrate on the first of these segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking. It will develop the following main topics: Customer requirements and their integration, the initiation of an integrated catalogue, extension of correlated data to service provision and international cooperation and data fusion The development of the services resulting from these points will be a key driver in the final architecture. This architecture will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council to further develop a full SSA system from 2012 onwards.

  10. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  11. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  12. ESF EUROCORES Programmes In Geosciences And Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2007-12-01

    In close cooperation with its Member Organisations, the European Science Foundation (ESF) has launched since late 2003 a series of European Collaborative Research (EUROCORES) Programmes. Their aim is to enable researchers in different European countries to develop cooperation and scientific synergy in areas where European scale and scope are required in a global context. The EUROCORES Scheme provides an open, flexible and transparent framework that allows national science funding and science performing agencies to join forces to support excellent European-led research, following a selection among many science-driven suggestions for new Programmes themes submitted by the scientific community. The EUROCORES instrument represents the first large scale attempt of national research (funding) agencies to act together against fragmentation, asynchronicity and duplication of research (funding) within Europe. There are presently 7 EUROCORES Programmes specifically dealing with cutting edge science in the fields of Earth, Climate and Environmental Sciences. The EUROCORES Programmes consist of a number of international, multidisciplinary collaborative research projects running for 3-4 years, selected through independent peer review. Under the overall responsibility of the participating funding agencies, those projects are coordinated and networked together through the scientific guidance of a Scientific Committee, with the support of a Programme Coordinator, responsible at ESF for providing planning, logistics, and the integration and dissemination of science. Strong links are aimed for with other major international programmes and initiatives worldwide. In this framework, linkage to IYPE would be of major interest for the scientific communities involved. Each Programme mobilises 5 to 13 million Euros in direct science funding from 9 to 27 national agencies from 8 to 20 countries. Additional funding for coordination, networking and dissemination is allocated by the ESF

  13. EDITORIAL: Special issue: overview reports from the Fusion Energy Conference (FEC) (Daejeon, South Korea, 2010) Special issue: overview reports from the Fusion Energy Conference (FEC) (Daejeon, South Korea, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2011-09-01

    -U tokamak in China. Other MCF Overview of results from the Large Helical Device; Overview of TJ-II experiments; Overview of the RFX fusion science program. ICF Progress toward ignition on the National Ignition Facility; Studying ignition schemes on European laser facilities; Cross device or cross programme topical overviews Effects of 3D magnetic perturbations on toroidal plasmas; Toroidal momentum transport. We trust that, as usual, this issue will be a useful resource for the community and we thank all of the authors and referees for their hard work in preparing the papers for publication. Whilst the number of overview reports is the same as for the Geneva FEC special issue (2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 100201), we are pleased to note that we have a complete set of summaries in this issue.

  14. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  15. Implementation of Open Educational Resources in a Nursing Programme: Experiences and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elf, Marie; Ossiannilsson, Ebba; Neljesjö, Maria; Jansson, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The IMPOER project (implementation of open educational resources, OER) aimed to implement OER in a nursing programme at Dalarna University, Sweden. The university and its nursing programme have long engaged in e-learning, and the nursing programme has recently been awarded the European Association of Distance Teaching Universities E-xcellence…

  16. Quality Assessment and Development in the Course of the EFMD CEL Programme Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, C.; Seufert, S.; Euler, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the experiences and learnings derived from the European Foundation for Management Development's programme accreditation teChnology-Enhanced Learning (EFMD CEL) programme accreditation. The EFMD CEL quality framework is briefly described, and an overview of the programmes that have pursued accreditation is presented.…

  17. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  18. Project Report ECLIPSE: European Citizenship Learning Program for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombardelli, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a European project, the Comenius ECLIPSE project (European Citizenship Learning in a Programme for Secondary Education) developed by six European partners coordinated by the University of Trento in the years 2011-2014. ECLIPSE (co-financed by the EACEA--Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency) aims at developing,…

  19. A European Space for Education Looking for Its Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ninni

    2010-01-01

    The open method of coordination (OMC) within the Lisbon strategy is discussed in terms of a European Space for Education and "programme ontology". The focus is on indicators and the European dimension, and how they "work" in the forming of contents and identities in this European Space for Education. The OMC is analyzed in relation to Nancy…

  20. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  1. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  2. PREFACE: 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion comprises refereed papers contributed by invited speakers at the 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. The conference was jointly hosted by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, by the EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association and by Imperial College London, where it took place from 28 June to 2 July 2004. The overall agenda for this conference was set by the Board of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society, chaired by Friedrich Wagner (MPIPP, Garching) and his successor Jo Lister (CRPP, Lausanne). It built on developments in recent years, by further increasing the scientific diversity of the conference programme, whilst maintaining its depth and quality. A correspondingly diverse Programme Committee was set up, whose members are listed below. The final task of the Programme Committee has been the preparation of this special issue. In carrying out this work, as in preparing the scientific programme of the conference, the Programme Committee formed specialist subcommittees representing the different fields of plasma science. The chairmen of these subcommittees, in particular, accepted a very heavy workload on behalf of their respective research communities. It is a great pleasure to take this opportunity to thank: Emilia R Solano (CIEMAT, Madrid), magnetic confinement fusion; Jürgen Meyer-ter-Vehn (MPQ, Garching), laser-plasma interaction and beam plasma physics; and Jean-Luc Dorier (CRPP, Lausanne), dusty plasmas. The relatively few papers in astrophysical and basic plasma physics were co-ordinated by a small subcommittee which I led. Together with Peter Norreys (RAL, Chilton), we five constitute the editorial team for this special issue. The extensive refereeing load, compressed into a short time interval, was borne by the Programme Committee members and by many other experts, to whom this special issue owes much. We are also grateful to the Local Organizing Committee

  3. Compassionate use of interventions: results of a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) survey of ten European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Compassionate use' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of 'compassionate use' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726/2004/EC is clear on the intentions of 'compassionate use' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that 'compassionate use' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for 'compassionate use' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions 'Compassionate use' is a misleading term and should be replaced with 'expanded access'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes. PMID:21073691

  4. Bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Silva Ramos, Eduardo; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Mourier, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are bioenergetic hotspots, producing the bulk of ATP by the oxidative phosphorylation process. Mitochondria are also structurally dynamic and undergo coordinated fusion and fission to maintain their function. Recent studies of the mitochondrial fusion machinery have provided new evidence in detailing their role in mitochondrial metabolism. Remarkably, mitofusin 2, in addition to its role in fusion, is important for maintaining coenzyme Q levels and may be an integral player in the mevalonate synthesis pathway. Here, we review the bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial dynamics and emphasize the importance of the in vitro growth conditions when evaluating mitochondrial respiration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016,' edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27060252

  5. Congress turns cold on fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1984-06-22

    A 5% cut in fusion research budgets will force some programs to be dropped in order to keep the large machinery running unless US and European scientists collaborate instead of competing. Legislators became uneasy about the escalating costs of the new devices. The 1984 budget of $470 million for magnetic fusion research is only half the projected cost of the Tokomak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) planned to ignite, for the first time, a self-sustaining burn. Planning for the TCFX continued despite the message from Congress. Work at the large institutions at Princeton, MIT, etc. may survive at the expense of other programs, some of which will lose academic programs as well. Scientists point to the loss of new ideas and approaches when projects are cancelled. Enthusiasm is growing for international collaboration.

  6. Managing Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern European Countries. Report of a Programme on the Training of Researchers in the Management of Vocational Education and Training. IIEP Research and Studies Programme. The Development of Human Resources: New Trends in Technical and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillods, Francoise; And Others

    This document provides materials prepared for and discussed at a workshop to analyze the problems facing Central and Eastern European countries in the management of the vocational education and training (VET) system. Part I gives an outline of the major research findings and reflects the discussions of the workshop. "Management of Vocational…

  7. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  8. On the economic prospects of nuclear fusion with tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Schmitter, K. H.

    1987-12-01

    A method of cost and construction energy estimation for tokamak fusion power stations conforming to the present stage of fusion development is described. The method is based on first-wall heat load constraints rather than Beta limitations, which, however, might eventually be the more critical of the two. It is used to discuss the economic efficiency of pure fusion, with particular reference to the European study entitled Environmental Impact and Economic Prospects of Nuclear Fusion (1986). It is shown that the claims made therein for the economic prospects of pure fusion with tokamaks, when discussed on the basis of the present-day technology, do not stand up to critical examination. A fusion-fission hybrid, however, could afford more positive prospects. Support for the stated method is derived when it is properly applied for cost estimation of advanced gas-cooled and Magnox reactors, the two examples presented by the European study to disprove it.

  9. Risk assessment for the design of a risk-based surveillance programme for fish farms in Switzerland (in accordance with Council Directive 2006/88/EC of the European Union).

    PubMed

    Diserens, N; Presi, P; Bernet, D; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2013-12-01

    Swiss aquaculture farms were assessed according to their risk of acquiring or spreading viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Risk factors for the introduction and spread of VHS and IHN were defined and assessed using published data and expert opinions. Among the 357 aquaculture farms identified in Switzerland, 49.3% were categorised as high risk, 49.0% as medium risk and 1.7% as low risk. According to the new Directive 2006/88/EC for aquaculture of the European Union, the frequency of farm inspections must be derived from their risk levels. A sensitivity analysis showed that water supply and fish movements were highly influential on the output of the risk assessment regarding the introduction of VHS and IHN. Fish movements were also highly influential on the risk assessment output regarding the spread of these diseases.

  10. Current Research in European Vocational Education and Human Resource Development. Proceedings of the Programme Presented By the Research Network on Vocational Education and Training (VETNET) at the European Conference of Educational Research (ECER) (3rd, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 20-23, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Sabine, Ed.; Raffe, David, Ed.

    These 24 papers represent the proceedings of a program presented by the research network on vocational education and training (VET). They include "School-Arranged or Market-Governed Workplace Training?" (Ulla Arnell-Gustafsson); "Prospects for Mutual Learning and Transnational Transfer of Innovative Practice in European VET" (Alan Brown, Jens…

  11. Current Research in European Vocational Education and Human Resource Development. Proceedings of the Programme Presented by the Research Network on Vocational Education and Training (VETNET) at the European Conference of Educational Research (ECER) (4th, Lille, France, September 5-8, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Sabine, Ed.; Dif, M'Hamed, Ed.

    These proceedings are comprised of 23 presentations on research in European vocational education and human resource development. Papers include "Developing Information and Communication Technology Capability in Higher Education in the United Kingdom (UK)" (Nick Boreham); "Methodological Issues in the Study of Organizational Learning, with…

  12. Americium Oxide Surrogates for European Radioisotope Power Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkinson, E. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Williams, H. R.; Sarsfield, M. J.; Tinsley, T. P.; Stephenson, K.

    2014-07-01

    The European space nuclear power programme comprises two main research areas: fuel source development and the development of conversion technologies, which are thermoelectric or dynamic, for electricity production. This abstract addresses the former.

  13. Protoplast Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Hara, Yasuhiro; Katagi, Hiroaki; Senda, Mitsugi

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the composition of the phospholipid molecular species in a cell membrane and the velocity of protoplast fusion was studied using cells cultured at a low temperature (10 C). Cells cultured at a low temperature contained larger proportions of phospholipids of low phase transition point, the 1,2-dilinoleoyl-type, than those cultured at a normal temperature (25 C). When treated with polyethylene glycol 6000, protoplasts from cells cultured at 10 C fused and progressed to the fused sphere stage more rapidly than did those from cells cultured at 25 C. PMID:16661339

  14. Splenogonadal fusion.

    PubMed

    Tsingoglou, S; Wilkinson, A W

    1976-04-01

    The fusion between splenic tissue and the left gonad or the derivatives of the left mesonephros is a rare congenital anomaly first described in detail by Pommer in 1887/9 and divided into two forms by Putschar and Manion in 1956. In the first or continuous type a cord of splenic or fibrous tissue connects the spleen and the gonadalmesonephric structures. In the second type the fused splenomesonephric structures have lost continuity with the main spleen. An example of the continuous form is presented and the previous reports are briefly reviewed.

  15. Advances in the physics basis for the European DEMO design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Angioni, C.; Artaud, J.-F.; Bernert, M.; Fable, E.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Jenko, F.; Maget, P.; Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F.; Poli, E.; Ramogida, G.; Reux, C.; Schneider, M.; Sieglin, B.; Villone, F.; Wischmeier, M.; Zohm, H.

    2015-06-01

    In the European fusion roadmap, ITER is followed by a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO), for which a conceptual design is under development. This paper reports the first results of a coherent effort to develop the relevant physics knowledge for that (DEMO Physics Basis), carried out by European experts. The program currently includes investigations in the areas of scenario modeling, transport, MHD, heating & current drive, fast particles, plasma wall interaction and disruptions.

  16. ESA to unveil its new science programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The science community, European industry, the ESA Executive and cooperating space agencies in Europe and elsewhere have been consulted, and sometimes challenged, to find the best ways to maximise science value for money. The exercise is now over following intensive consultations with ESA's Space Science Advisory Committee (SSAC) and the Member States represented by the Science Programme Committee (SPC). After final SPC approval at the meeting on 22/23 May there will be a new programme and a new implementation plan. The results of this meeting will then be presented to the press on 27 May, in Paris, by the ESA Director of Science, in the presence of the chairmen of the SSAC and SPC. Media representatives wishing to attend the press breakfast are kindly requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations, Fax: +33.(0)1.5369.7690 For more information, please contact: ESA - Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33 (0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33 (0)1.53.69.76.90 ESA's Science Programme Agenda Monday 27 May 2002 - 08:30-10:00 ESA Headquarters, 8/10 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris 08:30 Registration & breakfast 08:45 Introduction , by Hugo Marée, Science Programme Coordination Office 08:50 Presentation of the new ESA Science Programme, by Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science 09:10 Question &Answer session

  17. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  18. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  19. Developing a European Practitioner Qualification: The TRAVORS2 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Stan

    2013-01-01

    The TRAVORS projects, supported by the European Union's Lifelong Learning Programme, ran between 2008 and 2012. Their object was to develop training programmes for disability employment practitioners across nine countries based on proven approaches both to vocational rehabilitation and to skills training. The second of the two projects aimed…

  20. Prospects for European Research and Development in Training & Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the prospects for research and development in the education and training fields offered by the European Communities. The position of the EC is explained in relation to the existing and forthcoming Framework Programmes of research and development. The 1987-91 Framework Programme has committed most of its funding to existing…

  1. Visual training programme applied to precision shooting.

    PubMed

    Quevedo i Junyent, L; Solé i Fortó, J

    1995-09-01

    A three month visual training programme was conducted at the CAR of Sant Cugat (Olympic Training Center). Eleven members of 'The Catalan Government Special Intervention Squad' were used in a clinical trial. Pre-test and post-test results were obtained for pistol shooting, visual function, and psychological and physical states. Statistical analysis indicated significant gains in visual function and pistol shooting scores after the programme, while psychological (anxiety) and physical condition remained the same. Some conclusive statements can be made with regard to the relation of visual function improvement and shooting performance increment, after analysing the data. This improvement is evident in statistically significant post-test gains in the following variables: 'phoria at distance, recovery points in fusional reserves at distance, analytical amplitude, negative relative accommodation, saccadic fixations, and accommodative facility at distance and at near. The rest of the controlled visual variables also showed clinical improvement.

  2. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not

  3. Policy Formulation and Networks of Practice in European eLearning: The Emergence of a European E-Learning Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of a European E-Learning Area (EELA) as a consequence of three factors that can be observed in the e-learning developments over the past decade. The first factor consists of the carving of a policy sector in e-learning via formal instruments such as the eLearning Programme, the Lifelong Learning Programme and…

  4. Distributed computing systems programme

    SciTech Connect

    Duce, D.

    1984-01-01

    Publication of this volume coincides with the completion of the U.K. Science and Engineering Research Council's coordinated programme of research in Distributed Computing Systems (DCS) which ran from 1977 to 1984. The volume is based on presentations made at the programme's final conference. The first chapter explains the origins and history of DCS and gives an overview of the programme and its achievements. The remaining sixteen chapters review particular research themes (including imperative and declarative languages, and performance modelling), and describe particular research projects in technical areas including local area networks, design, development and analysis of concurrent systems, parallel algorithm design, functional programming and non-von Neumann computer architectures.

  5. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  6. Reframing European Doctoral Training for the New ERA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repeckaite, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the institutionalization of European higher education and training, as well as research and innovation, policy entered a new phase: a number of financial instruments were simplified and merged. The Erasmus Mundus programme, wherein consortia of European and overseas universities built joint master's or doctoral degrees, was split into two…

  7. The Rise of the Information Society amongst European Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the information society discourse in the European Union in relation to the European Commission's eLearning programmes, based on selected academics' conceptualisation of the term. It reveals a mixed picture of the perceptions that academics have of the information society in their respective countries. The findings indicate…

  8. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  9. ETF Work Programme, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document describes the proposed 2003 activities of the European Training Foundation (ETF) to support vocational education and training reform in non-European Union (EU) countries in the context of the EU's external relations program. The activities listed cover these four main groups of countries across three continents: the Mediterranean…

  10. Reformation of the Macedonian Teacher Education Programme, 1999-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper considers the theme of reform and change during the restructuring of the Macedonian Teacher Education programme at the University of Skopje, undertaken by a Tempus Phare project during 1999-2001. Background: The project was commissioned by the European Union following a report by Bethall (1997), a consultant on Teacher…

  11. The Winds of Change: Higher Education Management Programmes in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pausits, Attila; Pellert, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Amid the Bologna Process and as a direct effect of it, European higher education institutions have to rethink their core institutional policies in order to effectively deal with the increasing demands and needs of their "customers" and society at large. The higher education management programmes across Europe, with some specific needs and…

  12. The Citizen's Effect: 25 Features about the Europe for Citizens Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reding, Viviane

    2012-01-01

    Public forums and shared spaces in which citizens can debate and deliberate have always constituted essential elements of a democratic society. Today, the Europe for Citizens Programme serves to create a modern European agora. Launched in 2007, the programme supports initiatives that bring people together in international and intercultural…

  13. European Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    A special six-article section of this journal is devoted to the theme of "European Education" (EU): (1) "Reform of EU Educational Policy" (Volker Thomas); (2) "Living in Europe, Working for Europe" (Volker Thomas); (3) "EURES Helps to Find Jobs" (Volker Thomas); (4) "Help for Higher Education Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe" (Siegbert…

  14. Improved data fusion through intelligent sensor management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Angell, Christopher R.; Hernandez, Marcel L.; Oxford, William J.

    2003-08-01

    This paper investigates how the targeting capability of a distributed data fusion system can be improved though the use of intelligent sensor management. The research reported here builds upon previous results from QinetiQ's air-to-ground fusion programme and sensor management research. QinetiQ's previously reported software test-bed for developing and evaluating data fusion algorithms has been enhanced to include intelligent sensor management functions and weapon fly-out models. In this paper details of the enhancements are provided together with a review of the sensor management algorithms employed. These include flight path optimization of airborne sensors to minimize target state estimation error, sensor activation control and sightline management of individual sensors for optimal targeting performance. Initial results from investigative studies are presented and conclusions are drawn.

  15. SKIDS data fusion project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenway, Phil

    1992-04-01

    The European Community's strategic research initiative in information technology (ESPRIT) has been in place for nearly five years. An early example of the pan-European collaborative projects being conducted under this initiative is 'SKIDS': Signal and Knowledge Integration with Decisional Control for Multisensory Systems. This four year project, which is approaching completion, aims to build a real-time multisensor perception machine. This machine will be capable of performing data fusion, interpretation, situation assessment, and resource allocation tasks, under the constraints of both time and resource availability, and in the presence of uncertain data. Of the many possible applications, the surveillance and monitoring of a semi-automated 'factory environment' has been chosen as a challenging and representative test scenario. This paper presents an overview of the goals and objectives of the project, the makeup of the consortium, and roles of the members within it, and the main technical achievements to data. In particular, the following are discussed: relevant application domains, and the generic requirements that can be inferred from them; sensor configuration, including choice, placement, etc.; control paradigms, including the possible trade-offs between centralized, hierarchical, and decentralized approaches; the corresponding hardware architectural choices, including the need for parallel processing; and the appropriate software architecture and infra-structure required to support the chosen task oriented approach. Specific attention is paid to the functional decomposition of the system and how the requirements for control impact the organization of the identified interpretation tasks. Future work and outstanding problems are considered in some concluding remarks. By virtue of limited space, this paper is descriptive rather than explanatory.

  16. National radon programmes and policies: the RADPAR recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, F; Hulka, J; Ringer, W; Rovenská, K; Fojtikova, I; Venoso, G; Bradley, E J; Fenton, D; Gruson, M; Arvela, H; Holmgren, O; Quindos, L; McLaughlin, J; Collignan, B; Gray, A; Grosche, B; Jiranek, M; Kalimeri, K; Kephalopoulos, S; Kreuzer, M; Schlesinger, D; Zeeb, H; Bartzis, J

    2014-07-01

    Results from epidemiological studies on lung cancer and radon exposure in dwellings and mines led to a significant revision of recommendations and regulations of international organisations, such as WHO, IAEA, Nordic Countries, European Commission. Within the European project RADPAR, scientists from 18 institutions of 14 European countries worked together for 3 y (2009-12). Among other reports, a comprehensive booklet of recommendations was produced with the aim that they should be useful both for countries with a well-developed radon programme and for countries with little experience on radon issues. In this paper, the main RADPAR recommendations on radon programmes and policies are described and discussed. These recommendations should be very useful in preparing a national action plan, required by the recent Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom.

  17. Methodological Report: Transnational European Evaluation Project II (TEEP II). ENQA Occasional Papers 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The second Transnational European Evaluation Project (TEEP II) was undertaken between August 2004 and June 2006. A methodology for evaluating transnational programmes had previously been tested during 2002-2003 by ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) in the first Transnational European Evaluation Project (TEEP I).…

  18. Eliminating Language Barriers Online at European Prisons (ELBEP): A Case-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip

    2011-01-01

    ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…

  19. ESA's satellite communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  20. Programmable telemetry test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadiana, J. M.

    A portable programmable telemetry test system was designed to test shipboard telemetry systems used for evaluating performance of missile systems in the surface missile fleet. The test system accurately simulates any missile in the current Navy inventory, and provides test and calibration signals to verify telemetry systems. The total test system weighs just over 15 lbs and occupies less than 1 cubic foot. Internal batteries allow testing or calibration of RF front ends out on weather decks. The modulation section consists of an FM/PAM/PCM simulator and simple control circuitry, and is programmable via an Intel 2715 EPROM, the frame format memory. A second EPROM provides a wave-form library.

  1. The Erasmus programme for postgraduate education in orthodontics in Europe: an update of the guidelines.

    PubMed

    Huggare, J; Derringer, K A; Eliades, T; Filleul, M P; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A; Martina, R; Pirttiniemi, P; Ruf, S; Schwestka-Polly, R

    2014-06-01

    In 1989, the ERASMUS Bureau of the European Cultural Foundation of the Commission of the European Communities funded the development of a new 3-year curriculum for postgraduate education in orthodontics. The new curriculum was created by directors for orthodontic education representing 15 European countries. The curriculum entitled 'Three years Postgraduate Programme in Orthodontics: the Final Report of the Erasmus Project' was published 1992. In 2012, the 'Network of Erasmus Based European Orthodontic Programmes' developed and approved an updated version of the guidelines. The core programme consists of eight sections: general biological and medical subjects; basic orthodontic subjects; general orthodontic subjects; orthodontic techniques; interdisciplinary subjects; management of health and safety; practice management, administration, and ethics; extramural educational activities. The programme goals and objectives are described and the competencies to be reached are outlined. These guidelines may serve as a baseline for programme development and quality assessment for postgraduate programme directors, national associations, and governmental bodies and could assist future residents when selecting a postgraduate programme. PMID:24344242

  2. Materials issues in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Batra, I. S.

    2010-02-01

    The world scientific community is presently engaged in one of the toughest technological tasks of the current century, namely, exploitation of nuclear fusion in a controlled manner for the benefit of mankind. Scientific feasibility of controlled fusion of the light elements in plasma under magnetic confinement has already been proven. International efforts in a coordinated and co-operative manner are presently being made to build ITER - the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - to test, in this first step, the concept of 'Tokamak' for net fusion energy production. To exploit this new developing option of making energy available through the route of fusion, India too embarked on a robust fusion programme under which we now have a working tokamak - the Aditya and a steady state tokamak (SST-1), which is on the verge of functioning. The programme envisages further development in terms of making SST-2 followed by a DEMO and finally the fusion power reactor. Further, with the participation of India in the ITER program in 2005, and recent allocation of half - a - port in ITER for placing our Lead - Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) based Test Blanket Module (TBM), meant basically for breeding tritium and extracting high grade heat, the need to understand and address issues related to materials for these complex systems has become all the more necessary. Also, it is obvious that with increasing power from the SST stages to DEMO and further to PROTOTYPE, the increasing demands on performance of materials would necessitate discovery and development of new materials. Because of the 14.1 MeV neutrons that are generated in the D+T reaction exploited in a tokamak, the materials, especially those employed for the construction of the first wall, the diverter and the blanket segments, suffer crippling damage due to the high He/dpa ratios that result due to the high energy of the neutrons. To meet this challenge, the materials that need to be developed for the tokamaks

  3. Networking Industry and Academia: Evidence from FUSION Projects in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Simon; Onofrei, George

    2009-01-01

    Graduate development programmes such as FUSION continue to be seen by policy makers, higher education institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as primary means of strengthening higher education-business links and in turn improving the match between graduate output and the needs of industry. This paper provides evidence from case…

  4. Programmable ECG Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Le Huy, P.; Yvroud, E.; Gilgenkrantz, J.M.; Baille, N.; Aliot, E.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the simulation of an electrocardiogram using a CMOS microprocessor is described. The programmability has been made accessible to every user. All inherent parameters of different waves in an ECG, such as amplitude, slope, duration can be independently modified by software. Thus, the testing of some sophisticated devices may be easily performed.

  5. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  6. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  7. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  8. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  9. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  10. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  11. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  12. LOGSIM programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. L.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A programmer's manual is reported for a Logic Simulator (LOGSIM) computer program that is a large capacity event simulator with the capability to accurately simulate the effects of certain unknown states, rise and fall times, and floating nodes in large scale metal oxide semiconductor logic circuits. A detailed description of the software with flow charts is included within the report.

  13. UMIST, IDN, NTUA, TUM, ULB: A Successful European Exchange Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borne, Pierre; Singh, Madan G.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the exchange programs that existed for a decade in the fields of automatic control and computer science including the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, the "Institut Industriel du Nord," the National Technical University of Athens, the Technical University of Munich, and the Free University of Brussels.…

  14. The Expert System Programme of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafay, J. F.; Allard, F.

    1992-08-01

    ESA's Expert System Demonstration (ESD) program is discussed in terms of its goals, structure, three-phase approach, and initial results. ESD is intended to demonstrate the benefits of AI and knowledge-based systems for in-orbit infrastructures by developing a strategic technology to contribute to ESA missions. Three phases were defined for: (1) program definition and review of existing work; (2) demonstration of applications prototypes; and (3) the development of operational systems from successful prototypes. Applications of 16 proposed expert-system candidates are grouped into payload-engineering and crew/operations categories. The candidates are to be evaluated in terms of their potential contribution to strategic goals such as improving scientific return and automating operator functions to eliminate human error.

  15. Beyond ITER: Neutral beams for a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R.

    2014-02-15

    In the development of magnetically confined fusion as an economically sustainable power source, International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is currently under construction. Beyond ITER is the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) programme in which the physics and engineering aspects of a future fusion power plant will be demonstrated. DEMO will produce net electrical power. The DEMO programme will be outlined and the role of neutral beams for heating and current drive will be described. In particular, the importance of the efficiency of neutral beam systems in terms of injected neutral beam power compared to wallplug power will be discussed. Options for improving this efficiency including advanced neutralisers and energy recovery are discussed.

  16. Beyond ITER: neutral beams for a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) (invited).

    PubMed

    McAdams, R

    2014-02-01

    In the development of magnetically confined fusion as an economically sustainable power source, International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is currently under construction. Beyond ITER is the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) programme in which the physics and engineering aspects of a future fusion power plant will be demonstrated. DEMO will produce net electrical power. The DEMO programme will be outlined and the role of neutral beams for heating and current drive will be described. In particular, the importance of the efficiency of neutral beam systems in terms of injected neutral beam power compared to wallplug power will be discussed. Options for improving this efficiency including advanced neutralisers and energy recovery are discussed.

  17. Viral membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a "fusion loop" or "fusion peptide") engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics.

  18. Generic Sensor Data Fusion Services for Web-enabled Environmental Risk Management and Decision-Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Zoheir; Middleton, Stuart; Veres, Galina; Zlatev, Zlatko; Salvo, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    observation data streams are described in context of a geo-distributed service infrastructure specialising in multiple environmental risk management and decision-support. The sensor data fusion services are deployed and validated in two use cases. These are respectively concerned with: 1) Microbial risks forecast in bathing waters; and 2) Geohazards in urban zones during underground tunneling activities. This research was initiated in the SANY Integrated Project(www.sany-ip.org) and funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme.

  19. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; et al

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  20. Hot and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This article presents an overview of research in cold fusion research and development in cold fusion at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, and at the inertial containment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. is described.

  1. EURADOS PROGRAMME OF INTERCOMPARISONS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING SERVICES: SEVEN YEARS OF DEVELOPMENT AND FUTURE PLANS.

    PubMed

    Grimbergen, T; Figel, M; McWhan, A; Romero, A M; Stadtmann, H

    2016-09-01

    In 2008 the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) started a new programme of intercomparisons for individual monitoring services (IMS). The aim was to provide the possibility to IMS in Europe to participate in dosimetry intercomparions with regular time intervals with all types of dosemeter systems that are used routinely to monitor workers for exposure to external radiation. A self-evaluation of the programme shows that, apart from a few problems encountered, the programme can be judged as fit for its purpose. The results of a questionnaire among the participants support this conclusion. The conclusions encourage EURADOS to continue this programme of self-sustained intercomparisons for IMS.

  2. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation data and remote sensing technologies have been maturing into useful tools that can be utilised by local authorities and businesses to aid in activates such as monitoring climate change trends and managing agricultural land and water uses. The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), provides the means to collect and process multi-source EO and environmental data that supports policy developments at the European level. At the regional and local level, the Copernicus programme has been initiated through Regional Contact Office (RCO), which provide knowledge, training, and access to expertise both locally and at a European level through the network of RCOs established across Europe in the DORIS_Net (Downstream Observatory organised by Regions active In Space - Network) project (Grant Agreement No. 262789 Coordination and support action (Coordinating) FP7 SPA.2010.1.1-07 "Fostering downstream activities and links with regions"). In the East Midlands UK RCO, educational and training workshops and modules have been organised to highlight the wider range of tools and application available to businesses and local authorities in the region. Engagement with businesses and LRA highlighted the need to have a tiered system of training to build awareness prior to investigating innovative solutions and space technology uses for societal benefits. In this paper we outline education and training programmes which have been developed at G-STEP (GMES - Science and Technology Education Partnership), University of Leicester, UK to open up the Copernicus programme through the Regional Contact Office to downstream users such as local businesses and LRAs. Innovative methods to introduce the operational uses of Space technologies in real cases through e-learning modules and web-based tools will be described and examples of good practice for educational training in these sectors will be

  3. European scientists' proposals for HORIZON 2000+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-10-01

    This programme, which has been given the name Horizon 2000+, will be presented to the press at 0900h on Monday 17 October 1994 at ESA Headquarters in Paris by Professor Lodewijk Woltjer, who chaired the committee of European scientific community representatives set up to consider the proposals submitted, and Professor Roger Bonnet, ESA's Science Programme Director. Journalists wishing to attend this press breakfast are requested to complete and return the attached form, if possible by fax: (33.1) 42.73.76.90.

  4. ITER project and fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, H.

    2011-09-01

    In the sessions of ITR, FTP and SEE of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, 159 papers were presented in total, highlighted by the remarkable progress of the ITER project: ITER baseline has been established and procurement activities have been started as planned with a target of realizing the first plasma in 2019; ITER physics basis is sound and operation scenarios and operational issues have been extensively studied in close collaboration with the worldwide physics community; the test blanket module programme has been incorporated into the ITER programme and extensive R&D works are ongoing in the member countries with a view to delivering their own modules in a timely manner according to the ITER master schedule. Good progress was also reported in the areas of a variety of complementary activities to DEMO, including Broader Approach activities and long-term technology. This paper summarizes the highlights of the papers presented in the ITR, FTP and SEE sessions with a minimum set of background information.

  5. A programmable artificial retina

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, T.M. ); Zavidovique, B.Y. . Electrical Engineering Dept. Perception System Lab., Arcueil ); Devos, F.J. . Dept. of Integrated Circuits and Systems)

    1993-07-01

    An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm[sup 2] CMOS 2-[mu]m circuit are presented.

  6. Optically programmable excitonic traps

    PubMed Central

    Alloing, Mathieu; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Dubin, François

    2013-01-01

    With atomic systems, optically programmed trapping potentials have led to remarkable progress in quantum optics and quantum information science. Programmable trapping potentials could have a similar impact on studies of semiconductor quasi-particles, particularly excitons. However, engineering such potentials inside a semiconductor heterostructure remains an outstanding challenge and optical techniques have not yet achieved a high degree of control. Here, we synthesize optically programmable trapping potentials for indirect excitons of bilayer heterostructures. Our approach relies on the injection and spatial patterning of charges trapped in a field-effect device. We thereby imprint in-situ and on-demand electrostatic traps into which we optically inject cold and dense ensembles of excitons. This technique creates new opportunities to improve state-of-the-art technologies for the study of collective quantum behavior of excitons and also for the functionalisation of emerging exciton-based opto-electronic circuits. PMID:23546532

  7. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  8. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  9. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative – Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) – aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  10. Programmable mechanical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin; van Hecke, Martin

    2014-10-24

    We create mechanical metamaterials whose response to uniaxial compression can be programmed by lateral confinement, allowing monotonic, nonmonotonic, and hysteretic behavior. These functionalities arise from a broken rotational symmetry which causes highly nonlinear coupling of deformations along the two primary axes of these metamaterials. We introduce a soft mechanism model which captures the programmable mechanics, and outline a general design strategy for confined mechanical metamaterials. Finally, we show how inhomogeneous confinement can be explored to create multistability and giant hysteresis.

  11. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  12. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  13. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  14. Work Programme, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This publication presents the work program for 2001 for the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) set in the framework of four operational guidelines (OGs). The section on each OG contains an introduction including CEDEFOP's aims, followed by descriptions of research projects relevant to the OG. Each of the 11…

  15. Training Programmes as Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erikson, Truls; Gjellan, Are

    2003-01-01

    A European technological university conducts quarterly incubator programs in which teams develop ideas into viable business plans. Analysis indicates that 57 of 102 ideas resulted in successful technology-based businesses and more than 400 students received hands-on experience in business start-up. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  16. The fusion breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1982-10-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the U.S. fusion program and the U.S. nuclear energy program. There is wide agreement that many approaches will work and will produce fuel for five equal-sized LWRs, and some approach as many as 20 LWRs at electricity costs within 20% of those at today's price of uranium (30/lb of U3O8). The blankets designed to suppress fissioning, called symbiotes, fusion fuel factories, or just fusion breeders, will have safety characteristics more like pure fusion reactors and will support as many as 15 equal power LWRs. The blankets designed to maximize fast fission of fertile material will have safety characteristics more like fission reactors and will support 5 LWRs. This author strongly recommends development of the fission suppressed blanket type, a point of view not agreed upon by everyone. There is, however, wide agreement that, to meet the market price for uranium which would result in LWR electricity within 20% of today's cost with either blanket type, fusion components can cost severalfold more than would be allowed for pure fusion to meet the goal of making electricity alone at 20% over today's fission costs. Also widely agreed is that the critical-path-item for the fusion breeder is fusion development itself; however, development of fusion breeder specific items (blankets, fuel cycle) should be started now in order to have the fusion breeder by the time the rise in uranium prices forces other more costly choices.

  17. New perspectives after the transition of EPIET to ECDC - the future of the programme.

    PubMed

    Bremer, V; Bosman, A; Coulombier, D

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening capacity in intervention epidemiology is key to the overall goal of responding to the challenge to detect and counter threats posed by outbreaks of infectious diseases in the European Union (EU). Since its founding in 1995, the European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) has become a core resource in training in intervention epidemiology in the EU. EPIET was integrated into the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on 1 November 2007 and this has resulted in an increased sustainability of the programme, allowing for long-term planning. Also, a new training programme, the European public health microbiology training (EUPHEM), was set up in 2008 to increase the response capacity for microbiology. Collaboration with EU Member States and other training programmes has been further intensified. Merging EPIET and other training activities in the ECDC training section has created the opportunity to develop an integrated multilevel approach to training in applied field epidemiology. An integrated approach to training activities on EU level, and increasing the number of EPIET and EPIET-associated fellows are essential to respond to the training needs of EU Member States, particularly new Member States. An external evaluation of EPIET in 2009 will provide guidance for a future strategy for the programme. This article examines the achievements of the EPIET programme after its transition to ECDC and provides an outlook on its future. PMID:19883558

  18. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys.

    PubMed

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Sepai, Ovnair; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Schoeters, Greet; Angerer, Jürgen; Castaño, Argelia; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Berglund, Marika; Crettaz, Pierre; Rudnai, Peter; Halzlova, Katarina; Mulcahy, Maurice; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Becher, Georg; Fréry, Nadine; Jensen, Genon; Van Vliet, Lisette; Koch, Holger M; Den Hond, Elly; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Esteban, Marta; Exley, Karen; Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Ligocka, Danuta; Hohenblum, Philipp; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Botsivali, Maria; DeFelip, Elena; Guillou, Claude; Reniero, Fabiano; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Veidebaum, Toomas; Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Rivas, Teresa C; Sanchez, Jinny; Koppen, Gudrun; Smolders, Roel; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krskova, Andrea; Mannion, Rory; Jakubowski, Marek; Fucic, J Aleksandra; Pereira-Miguel, Jose; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Lehmann, Andrea; Larsson, Kristin; Dumez, Birgit; Joas, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 of the European Commission recognised the value of HBM and the relevance and importance of coordination of HBM programmes in Europe. Based on existing and planned HBM projects and programmes of work and capabilities in Europe the Seventh Framework Programme (FP 7) funded COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) to advance and improve comparability of HBM data across Europe. The pilot study protocol was tested in 17 European countries in the DEMOCOPHES feasibility study (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) cofunded (50%) under the LIFE+ programme of the European Commission. The potential of HBM in supporting and evaluating policy making (including e.g. REACH) and in awareness raising on environmental health, should significantly advance the process towards a fully operational, continuous, sustainable and scientifically based EU HBM programme. From a number of stakeholder activities during the past 10 years and the national engagement, a framework for sustainable HBM structure in Europe is recommended involving national institutions within environment, health and food as well as European institutions such as ECHA, EEA, and EFSA. An economic frame with shared cost implications for national and European institutions is suggested benefitting from the capacity building set up by COPHES/DEMOCOPHES.

  19. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys.

    PubMed

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Sepai, Ovnair; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Schoeters, Greet; Angerer, Jürgen; Castaño, Argelia; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Berglund, Marika; Crettaz, Pierre; Rudnai, Peter; Halzlova, Katarina; Mulcahy, Maurice; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Becher, Georg; Fréry, Nadine; Jensen, Genon; Van Vliet, Lisette; Koch, Holger M; Den Hond, Elly; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Esteban, Marta; Exley, Karen; Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Ligocka, Danuta; Hohenblum, Philipp; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Botsivali, Maria; DeFelip, Elena; Guillou, Claude; Reniero, Fabiano; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Veidebaum, Toomas; Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Rivas, Teresa C; Sanchez, Jinny; Koppen, Gudrun; Smolders, Roel; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krskova, Andrea; Mannion, Rory; Jakubowski, Marek; Fucic, J Aleksandra; Pereira-Miguel, Jose; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Lehmann, Andrea; Larsson, Kristin; Dumez, Birgit; Joas, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 of the European Commission recognised the value of HBM and the relevance and importance of coordination of HBM programmes in Europe. Based on existing and planned HBM projects and programmes of work and capabilities in Europe the Seventh Framework Programme (FP 7) funded COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) to advance and improve comparability of HBM data across Europe. The pilot study protocol was tested in 17 European countries in the DEMOCOPHES feasibility study (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) cofunded (50%) under the LIFE+ programme of the European Commission. The potential of HBM in supporting and evaluating policy making (including e.g. REACH) and in awareness raising on environmental health, should significantly advance the process towards a fully operational, continuous, sustainable and scientifically based EU HBM programme. From a number of stakeholder activities during the past 10 years and the national engagement, a framework for sustainable HBM structure in Europe is recommended involving national institutions within environment, health and food as well as European institutions such as ECHA, EEA, and EFSA. An economic frame with shared cost implications for national and European institutions is suggested benefitting from the capacity building set up by COPHES/DEMOCOPHES. PMID:25526891

  20. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    PubMed

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  1. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  2. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  3. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  4. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  5. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  6. Fusion facility siting considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussell, G. T.

    1985-02-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. An important consideration in this regard is site selection. Major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion are examined.

  7. Status of fusion maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission.

  8. Fusion: The controversy continues

    SciTech Connect

    1989-07-01

    Nuclear fusion-the power of the stars that promises mankind an inexhaustible supply of energy-seems concurrently much closer and still distant this month. The recent flurry of announcements concerning the achievement of a cold fusion reaction has-if nothing else-underscored the historic importance of the basic fusion reaction which uses hydrogen ions to fuel an energy-producing reaction.

  9. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  10. Meteorite fusion crust variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaisen, Kevin G.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2009-06-01

    Two assumptions commonly employed in meteorite interpretation are that fusion crust compositions represent the bulk-rock chemistry of the interior meteorite and that the vesicles within the fusion crust result from the release of implanted solar wind volatiles. Electron microprobe analyses of thin sections from lunar meteorite Miller Range (MIL) 05035 and eucrite Bates Nunataks (BTN) 00300 were performed to determine if the chemical compositions of the fusion crust varied and/or represented the published bulk rock composition. It was determined that fusion crust compositions are significantly influenced by the incorporation of fragments from the substrate, and by the composition and grain size of those minerals. Because of compositional heterogeneities throughout the meteorite, one cannot assume that fusion crust composition represents the bulk rock composition. If the compositional variability within the fusion crust and mineralogical differences among thin sections goes unnoticed, then the perceived composition and petrogenetic models of formation will be incorrect. The formation of vesicles within these fusion crusts were also compared to current theories attributing vesicles to a solar wind origin. Previous work from the STONE-5 experiment, where terrestrial rocks were exposed on the exterior of a spacecraft heatshield, produced a vesicular fusion crust without prolonged exposure to solar wind suggesting that the high temperatures experienced by a meteorite during passage through the Earth's atmosphere are sufficient to cause boiling of the melt. Therefore, the assumption that all vesicles found within a fusion crust are due to the release of implanted volatiles of solar wind may not be justified.

  11. Progress in European CELSS activities.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I

    1987-01-01

    The European CELSS activities started in the late 1970's with system analysis and feasibility studies of Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). Since then the European efforts have continued in two major directions: as a series of individual development tasks like the Environmental Life Support System and the Solar Plant Growth Facility, and in parallel hereto as overall coordination and planning activities for life support system long term needs definition and payload definition for COLUMBUS utilization. The early initiations for CELSS came from the industry side in Europe, but since then planning and hardware feasibility analyses have been initiated also from customer/agency side. Despite this, it is still to early to state that a "CELSS-programme" as a "concerted" effort has been agreed upon in Europe. However, the general CELSS objectives have been accepted as planning and possible development goals for the European effort for manned space activities, and as experimental planning topics in the life sciences community for the next decades.

  12. PRIME-XS, a European infrastructure for proteomics.

    PubMed

    Raijmakers, Reinout; Olsen, Jesper V; Aebersold, Ruedi; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-08-01

    The PRIME-XS consortium is a pan-European infrastructure for proteomics. As a prologue to this special issue of Molecular & Cellular Proteomics on the research activities of the PRIME-XS consortium, we, as the guest editors of this issue, provide an overview of the structure and activities of this consortium, which is funded by the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development.

  13. Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices

    SciTech Connect

    File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design.

  14. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  15. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  16. Grievability of First Language Loss: Towards a Reconceptualisation of European Minority Language Education Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priven, Dmitri

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the root causes of the resistance of mainstream European educational institutions to implementation of minority language programmes (bilingual programmes with both an official/dominant language and an immigrant minority language as media of instruction). Differential treatment of different minority languages in the mainstream…

  17. Europe's space photovoltaics programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogus, Klaus P.

    1994-01-01

    The current space PV (photovoltaic) technology development program of ESA is described. The program is closely coupled to the European space mission scenario for the next 10 year period and has as its main objective to make the most effective use of the limited resources available for technology in the present economical climate. This requires a well-balanced approach between concentration on very few options and keeping the competition alive if more than one promising technology exists. The paper describes ESA's main activities in the areas of solar array technology, solar cell technology, solar cell assembly technology, and special test and verification activities including the in-orbit demonstration of new technologies.

  18. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    that the programme will be less resilient to an event like the Cluster mission loss in 1996 where a recovery was instituted in 4 years. The approved scenario, stretching over ten years, naturally includes some uncertainties. These will be exploited to the best advantage of the overall programme in a flexible way: Within each combined set of missions (Herschel/ Planck/ Eddington; BepiColombo/ Solar Orbiter) the launch sequence can be optimised. Work will start immediately on GAIA to ensure earlier launch dates remain a possibility. Launch dates of some major collaborative elements of the programme (e.g. STEP, NGST, LISA) are outside the control of ESA. Parallel (ESA controlled) activities need to be carried out in a flexible way to adjust to the workload. Further international collaboration on missions and payloads can be beneficial. Specifically a significant contribution from NASA on Solar Orbiter as part of the International Living with a Star (ILWS) programme may be linked to European participation in other elements of the American LWS/STP programme. Speaking of his feelings about the new plan, the Director of Science, David Southwood said 'Apparent miracles or no, one should realise that much of this is simply our building on the legacy of my predecessor, Roger Bonnet. Of course, we are pushing further. However, his culture of welcoming change and demanding commitment to science from everyone involved lie at the base of what we are doing.' Whilst the new name 'Cosmic Vision' refers to the universe, the programme is also providing vision in technological and managerial innovation down here on Earth. The overall funding assumption underlying the new plan is that the buying power will be preserved in the years following 2005. Is this unduly pessimistic? The Executive feels that no more proofs are needed that the science programme is an extremely good investment. More resources can only improve the leverage. Should they become available, literally the heavens would be

  19. Programmable Image Processing Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversole, W. L.; Salzman, J. F.; Taylor, F. V.; Harland, W. L.

    1982-07-01

    The algorithmic solution to many image-processing problems frequently uses sums of products where each multiplicand is an input sample (pixel) and each multiplier is a stored coefficient. This paper presents a large-scale integrated circuit (LSIC) implementation that provides accumulation of nine products and discusses its evolution from design through application 'A read-only memory (ROM) accumulate algorithm is used to perform the multiplications and is the key to one-chip implementation. The ROM function is actually implemented with erasable programmable ROM (EPROM) to allow reprogramming of the circuit to a variety of different functions. A real-time brassboard is being constructed to demonstrate four different image-processing operations on TV images.

  20. GCS programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward; Shagnea, Anita M.; Dent, Leslie A.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of instructions to be used in the development of implementations of software for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is described. This document fulfills the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification' requirements for document No. 4, which specifies the information necessary for understanding and programming the host computer, and document No. 12, which specifies the software design and implementation standards that are applicable to the software development and testing process. Information on the following subjects is contained: activity recording, communication protocol, coding standards, change management, error handling, design standards, problem reporting, module testing logs, documentation formats, accuracy requirements, and programmer responsibilities.

  1. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  2. Present status of the Copernicus programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutz, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The European Union (EU) has established the Copernicus Programme, formerly named GMES; an Earth monitoring user-driven initiative carried out in partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA) and EU/ESA Member States. Copernicus is designed to ensure continuous provision of reliable data and information on environment and security related services, primarily to users responsible for making, implementing and monitoring the relevant policies in the EU and its Member States. The Copernicus services rely on in-situ sensors and satellite data, the latter being provided by the Copernicus Space Component (CSC). ESA is responsible for coordinating the CSC, i.e. the Sentinel Missions and the access to data from Contributing Missions, in collaboration with EUMETSAT. The first dedicated Copernicus satellite mission, Sentinel-1A, was successfully launched on 3rd April 2014. After completion of the Commissioning Phase (23 September 2014), the operations ramp-up phase started. This phase consists of a gradual ground segment system deployment and user product quality verification/calibration. During this phase the data provision has been extended. The remaining activities will be achieved before the Sentinel-1A Routine Operations Readiness Review, expected to take place in May 2015. This milestone will mark the completion of the mission operations qualification and the start of the routine operations of the satellite. The Full Operational Capability will be reached when two units of Sentinel-1 will enter routine operations simultaneously. The next Sentinel missions, starting with the first unit of Sentinel-2 expected to be launched in May 2015, will be launched within the next years and will be progressively covering all domains of Earth Observation. The successful uptake of the operational phase of the Copernicus Space Component, and the full economic benefits of the Copernicus programme will materialise only when the wealth of data from the whole series of Sentinel satellites

  3. Coatings for laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-12-18

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors.

  4. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  5. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  6. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  7. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  8. [Evaluation of health promotion programmes].

    PubMed

    Berkowska, M; Sito, A

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a review of definitions of evaluation and discusses the need to evaluate health promotion programmes. The classification of types of evaluation is presented. It is aimed to create a common language of communication between evaluation and the common understanding of terms. The relation between evaluation of health promotion programmes and quality assurance, best practice and evidence based health promotion are discussed.

  9. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  10. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  11. Heavy Ion Accelerator-Driven Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    The idea of using accelerators in the production of energy by inertial confinement fusion has been developed since the mid-1970s. The basic concept is to use accelerated beams of heavy ions to provide energy to implode and ignite a small fusion pellet. Accelerators have been seen as attractive for this application due to their reliability, high repetition rate, and potential efficiency. They are therefore competitive with high power lasers at least for the commercial production of electrical power. This review summarizes part of the development and scientific efforts directed toward this application, which has been realized over time to be an extremely demanding one. Here we focus primarily on the rf linac/storage ring driver system approach and summarize the specific development that culminated in the European HIDIF study of the late 1990s. We also discuss some of the relevant followup accelerator studies.

  12. English-Medium Programmes at Austrian Business Faculties: A Status Quo Survey on National Trends and a Case Study on Programme Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterberger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Internationalisation processes have accelerated the implementation of English-medium programmes (EMPs) across European higher education institutions. The field of business and management studies has been particularly affected by this trend (Wachter & Maiworm 2008: 46) with numerous new EMPs introduced each year. This paper presents key findings of…

  13. EKOSAT/DIAMANT - The Earth Observation Programme at OHB- System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penne, B.; Tobehn, C.; Kassebom, M.; Luebberstedt

    This paper covers the EKOSAT / DIAMANT programme heading for superspectral geo-information products. The EKOSAT / DIAMANT programme is based on a commercial strategy just before the realization of the first step - the EKOSAT launch in 2004. Further, we give an overview on OHB-System earth observation prime activities especially for infrared and radar. The EKOSAT/ DIAMANT is based on the MSRS sensor featuring 12 user dedicated spectral bands in the VIS/NIR with 5m spatial resolution and 26 km swath at an orbit of 670 km. The operational demonstrator mission EKOSAT is a Korean-Israelean-German-Russian initiative that aims in utilizing the existing proto-flight model of the KOMPSAT-1 spacecraft for the MSRS sensor, which development is finished. The EKOSAT pointing capability will allow a revisit time of 3 days. DIAMANT stands for the future full operational system based on dedicated small satellites. The basic constellation relying on 2-3 satellites with about one day revisit is extendend on market demand. EKOSAT/ DIAMANT is designed to fill the gap between modern high spatial resolution multispectral (MS) systems and hyperspectral systems with moderate spatial resolution. On European level, there is currently no remote sensing system operational with comparable features and capabilities concerning applications especially in the field of environmental issues, vegetation, agriculture and water bodies. The Space Segment has been designed to satisfy the user requirements based on a balance between commercial aspects and scientific approaches. For example eight spectral bands have been identified to cover almost the entire product range for the current market. Additional four bands have been implemented to be prepared for future applications as for example the improved red edge detection, which give better results regarding environmental conditions. The spacecraft design and its subsystems are still reasonable small in order to keep the mass below 200 kg. This is an

  14. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  15. Educational Research: What Strategies for Development in the European Research Area?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This is a report of the "European Educational Research Journal" (EERJ) Roundtable that sought to describe what national educational research programmes are doing, how they are working together, and how they might contribute to the developing European Educational Research Space. The Roundtable was an opportunity for one large consortium of national…

  16. Universe Awareness: a global educational programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is a global astronomy education programme that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from an early age.UNAWE’s activities consist of four main components:- Coordinating an international network comprised of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators in more than 60 countries- Developing and distributing educational resources such as the inflatable UNAWE Earthball, the Universe-in-a Box educational kit and Space Scoop, the astronomy news service for children.- Providing training activities for teachers and other educators of young children around the world- Providing resources for the evaluation of educational activitiesBetween 2011 and 2013, the European branch of UNAWE, EU-UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. The global project of Universe Awareness coordinated by Leiden University has continued to grow since, with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and an International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  17. Big Data Issues under the Copernicus Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Braucks, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme of Earth observation satellites (http://copernicus.eu) will be affected by a growing volume of data and information. The first satellite (Sentinel 1A) has just been launched. Seven additional satellites are to be launched by the end of the decade. These will produce 8 TB of data per day, i.e. considerably more than can be downloaded via normal Internet connections.There is no definitive answer to the many challenges of big data but there are gradual solutions for Copernicus in view of the progressive roll out of the space infrastructure and the thematic services which the European Commission will develop. This presentation will present several approaches to the big data issue. It will start from the needs of the Copernicus users, which are far from being homogeneous. As their needs are different, the European Commission and ESA will have to propose different solutions to fulfil these needs, taking into account the present and future state of technology. The presentation will discuss these solutions, both with regard to a better use of the network and with regard to hosted processing.

  18. Peer Pressure: Comments on the European Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesner, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the growing influence of informal and not democratically legitimised authority within the educational field in Europe. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Bologna Process and the European Qualifications Framework are discussed as instances of neoliberal strategies of modernisation that change the…

  19. A Case of Cooperation in the European OR Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Joao; Nagy, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    European cooperation is a relevant subject that contributes to building a competitive network of high education institutions. A case of teacher mobility on behalf of the Erasmus programme is presented: it considers some Operations Research topics and the development of the Lego on My Decision module. The module considers eight lecture hours in…

  20. Fusion Physics Toward ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, R. D.

    2006-04-01

    Stars are powered by fusion, the energy released by fusing together light nuclei, using gravitational confinement of plasma. Fusion on earth will be done in a 100 million degree plasma made of deuterium and tritium and confined by magnetic fields or inertia. The worldwide fusion research community will construct ITER, the first experiment that will burn a DT plasma by copious fusion reactions. ITER's nominal goal is to create 500 MW of fusion power. An energy gain of 10 will mean the plasma is dominantly self-heated by the fusion-produced alpha particles. ITER's all superconducting magnet technology and steady-state heat removal technology will enable nominal 400 s pulses to allow the study of burning plasmas on the longest intrinsic timescale of the confined plasma - diffusive redistribution of the electrical currents in the plasma. The advances in magnetic confinement physics that have led to this opportunity will be described, as well as the research opportunities afforded by ITER. The physics of confining stable plasmas and heating them will produce the high gain state in ITER. Sustained burn will come from the physics of controlling currents in plasmas and how the hot plasma is interfaced to its room temperature surroundings. ITER will provide our first experience with how fusion plasma self-heating will profoundly affect the complex, interlinked physical processes that occur in confined plasmas.

  1. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  2. The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring

  3. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  4. The New European Wind Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The New European Wind Atlas 1. European wind resource assessment through a ERA-NET Plus project 1.1 The new EU Atlas The Commission decided earlier this year to issue an ERA-NET Plus call for the creation and publication of a new EU wind atlas. The atlas will cover Member states as well as Member states' exclusive economic zones, both onshore and offshore. It involved the launch of a single joint call for proposals by promoters of national and/or regional programmes, thereby allowing a more efficient use of existing financial resources. Therefore the funding scheme is that of ERA-NET Plus which implies that at least 5 MS shall commit at least 1 million Euros each and the Commission tops up with on third of the MS contribution. Basically it is the MS research programmes that will execute the project but an important part of the project is to create "open project development platforms" with associated protocols allowing a wider range of scientists worldwide to contribute. The project has a duration of 5 years. The decision on the new wind atlas was taken after several years of work by the European Wind Energy Technology Platform and the European Energy Research Alliances' Joint programme for Wind Energy. 2. Structure of the project The project will be structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel: 2.1 Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form, which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database. The database will at a minimum include: Wind resources and their associated uncertainty; Extreme wind; Turbulence characteristics; Adverse weather conditions; Predictability for short term prediction; Guidelines. 2.2 Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made public available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and relevant data at several heights and a horizontal

  5. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  6. Radioactive Waste Management - A Priority Thematic Area Within The Euratom 6th Framework Programme (2002-2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, M.; von Maravic, H.

    2003-02-24

    The European Union's Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development and the specific EURATOM Framework Programme for Research and Training in Nuclear Energy (2002-2006)-EURATOM FP6--are the major building blocks for the European Commission to strengthen the foundations of the European Research Area, an open market for knowledge and science in Europe. The absence of a broadly agreed approach for radioactive waste management and disposal in the European Union caused the European Commission to raise the issue to a priority key area of research and development within EURATOM FP6. The sub-programme is aimed at looking to a widely agreed approach to waste disposal and will explore also the technical and economic potential of concepts for nuclear energy generation able to make better use of fissile material and generate less waste. To achieve these goals, participating research institutions are invited to invest in durable and structured partnerships by implementing ''new instruments'' for projects--Integrated Projects and Network of Excellence. In 2002 the European Commission consulted the research community on its readiness to prepare actions that use these ''new instruments'' for research topics in the priority area ''management of radioactive waste'' to assist in preparation of the work programme 2002-2006 of the EURATOM FP6. In parallel and under the last call for proposals of EURATOM FP5 the Commission launched two topic-related ''Thematic Networks'' that are bringing European research forces together and will create potential interest for future development within FP6.

  7. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  8. Some new inequalities for continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Yun-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs which are extensions of discrete fusion frames and continuous frames. The study of equalities and inequalities for various frames has seen great achievements. In this paper, using operator methods we establish some new inequalities for continuous fusion frames and fusion pairs. Our results extend and improve ones obtained by Balan, Casazza and Găvruţa. PMID:27652173

  9. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. Grant

    1994-09-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an exmaple of an IEE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity.

  10. The European Grid of Solar Observations (EGSO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; EGSO Team

    2002-05-01

    A major hurdles in the analysis of solar data is finding what data are available and retrieving those that are needed. Planned space- and ground-based instruments will produce huge volumes of data and even taking into account the continuous technical advances, it is clear that a new approach is needed to the way we use these data. The European Grid of Solar Observations (EGSO) is a Grid test-bed that will change the way users analyze solar data. EGSO will federate solar data archives across Europe and beyond, and will create the tools to select, process and retrieve distributed and heterogeneous solar data. It will provide mechanisms to produce standardized observing catalogues for space and ground-based observations, and the tools to create solar feature catalogues that will facilitate the selection of solar data based on features, events and phenomena. In essence, EGSO will provide the fabric of a virtual observatory. EGSO is funded under the IST (Information Society Technologies) thematic programme of European Commission's Fifth Framework Programme (FP5). The project started in March 2002 and will last for 3 years. The EGSO consortium comprises 10 institutes from Europe and the US, and is led by the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) of University College London (UCL). EGSO plans to work closely with groups funded under NASA's Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) initiative, and with the team at Lockheed-Martin who are doing similar work within the ILWS programme.

  11. Project Copernicus: Cooperation Programme in Europe on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Study. Round Table. Unesco-Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents, and Vice Chancellors of the European Universities (CRE) (Catania, Sicily, April 5-8, 1989). Number 32. Papers on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This Project COPERNICUS (Cooperation Programme in Europe for Research on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Studies) Round Table report considers efforts to identify priorities and objectives of the new alliance between the higher education community, industry, and international organizations in addressing today's environmental…

  12. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  13. Label fusion strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Nicolas; Duchesne, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Label fusion is used in medical image segmentation to combine several different labels of the same entity into a single discrete label, potentially more accurate, with respect to the exact, sought segmentation, than the best input element. Using simulated data, we compared three existing label fusion techniques-STAPLE, Voting, and Shape-Based Averaging (SBA)-and observed that none could be considered superior depending on the dissimilarity between the input elements. We thus developed an empirical, hybrid technique called SVS, which selects the most appropriate technique to apply based on this dissimilarity. We evaluated the label fusion strategies on two- and three-dimensional simulated data and showed that SVS is superior to any of the three existing methods examined. On real data, we used SVS to perform fusions of 10 segmentations of the hippocampus and amygdala in 78 subjects from the ICBM dataset. SVS selected SBA in almost all cases, which was the most appropriate method overall. PMID:22518113

  14. Fusion-power demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, C. D.; Logan, B. G.; Carlson, G. A.; Neef, W. S.; Moir, R. W.; Campbell, R. B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I. R.; Carpenter, T. J.

    1983-03-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment.

  15. Spinal fusion - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscles hold the graft in place until it fuses with the vertebrae. A fusion will setup within ... hollow threaded titanium or carbon fiber cylinder to fuse two vertebrae together. The diseased disk is removed ...

  16. Magnetized Target Fusion collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, Thomas

    2004-11-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) may be a low cost path to fusion, in a regime that is intermediate between magnetic and inertial fusion energy. It requires compression of a magnetized target plasma and consequent heating to fusion relevant conditions inside a converging flux conserver. We hope to demonstrate the physics basis for MTF, with a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma to be translated axially to a compression region. We show recent and improved FRC formation data, example deformable liner implosions, and a conceptual design for the upcoming translation experiments, and describe a multi institution collaboration. The FRC is an elongated, compact toroid equilibrium that is extreme among magnetic configurations, and relaxed to a non force free state. There is high plasma beta, small toroidal field, cross-field diamagnetic current and flows, vanishing rotational transform, magnetic shear, helicity and anomalously large resistivity. Scientific issues include MTF with and without FRC's, and fundamental plasma physics beyond MHD, relevant to geophysical and astrophysical phenomena.

  17. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  18. Innovations for competitiveness: European views on "better-faster-cheaper"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atzei, A.; Groepper, P.; Novara, M.; Pseiner, K.

    1999-09-01

    The paper elaborates on " lessons learned" from two recent ESA workshops, one focussing on the role of Innovation in the competitiveness of the space sector and the second on technology and engineering aspects conducive to better, faster and cheaper space programmes. The paper focuses primarily on four major aspects, namely: a) the adaptations of industrial and public organisations to the global market needs; b) the understanding of the bottleneck factors limiting competitiveness; c) the trends toward new system architectures and new engineering and production methods; d) the understanding of the role of new technology in the future applications. Under the pressure of market forces and the influence of many global and regional players, applications of space systems and technology are becoming more and more competitive. It is well recognised that without major effort for innovation in industrial practices, organisations, R&D, marketing and financial approaches the European space sector will stagnate and loose its competence as well as its competitiveness. It is also recognised that a programme run according to the "better, faster, cheaper" philosophy relies on much closer integration of system design, development and verification, and draws heavily on a robust and comprehensive programme of technology development, which must run in parallel and off-line with respect to flight programmes. A company's innovation capabilities will determine its future competitive advantage (in time, cost, performance or value) and overall growth potential. Innovation must be a process that can be counted on to provide repetitive, sustainable, long-term performance improvements. As such, it needs not depend on great breakthroughs in technology and concepts (which are accidental and rare). Rather, it could be based on bold evolution through the establishment of know-how, application of best practices, process effectiveness and high standards, performance measurement, and attention to

  19. Excellence needs training "Certified programme in endoscopic surgery".

    PubMed

    Campo, R; Puga, M; Meier Furst, R; Wattiez, A; De Wilde, R L

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of modern surgery has increased the demands and challenges to surgical education and quality control. Today the endoscopic approach is preferred because it increases the surgical possibilities and decreases patient discomfort. Implementing endoscopic surgery without specific training leads to decrease in surgical performance and increase in patient morbidity and mortality. Research of the European Academy for Gynaecological Surgery (+he Academy) has resulted in the establishment of a structured certification and diploma programme with three levels of expertise. One level should be passed to obtain access to the next level. Furthermore one should first pass +he Academy skill exam before entering the clinical surgical competence programme. The European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) has defined the different diplomas, whereas the Bachelor diploma is seen as a prerequisite to start the in OR one to one clinical training aiming to provide endoscopic skilled individuals to the clinical one to one training. Further diplomas are the Minimal invasive Gynaecological Surgeon (MIGS), master in hysteroscopy and the laparoscopic pelvic surgeon. This programme is based on the best available scientific evidence. It counteracts the problem of the traditional surgical apprentice tutor model and increases patient safety and surgical performance. It is seen as a major step toward standardization of endoscopic surgical training in general. PMID:25593700

  20. Excellence needs training "Certified programme in endoscopic surgery".

    PubMed

    Campo, R; Puga, M; Meier Furst, R; Wattiez, A; De Wilde, R L

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of modern surgery has increased the demands and challenges to surgical education and quality control. Today the endoscopic approach is preferred because it increases the surgical possibilities and decreases patient discomfort. Implementing endoscopic surgery without specific training leads to decrease in surgical performance and increase in patient morbidity and mortality. Research of the European Academy for Gynaecological Surgery (+he Academy) has resulted in the establishment of a structured certification and diploma programme with three levels of expertise. One level should be passed to obtain access to the next level. Furthermore one should first pass +he Academy skill exam before entering the clinical surgical competence programme. The European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) has defined the different diplomas, whereas the Bachelor diploma is seen as a prerequisite to start the in OR one to one clinical training aiming to provide endoscopic skilled individuals to the clinical one to one training. Further diplomas are the Minimal invasive Gynaecological Surgeon (MIGS), master in hysteroscopy and the laparoscopic pelvic surgeon. This programme is based on the best available scientific evidence. It counteracts the problem of the traditional surgical apprentice tutor model and increases patient safety and surgical performance. It is seen as a major step toward standardization of endoscopic surgical training in general.

  1. Public health research systems in the European union

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Strengthening health research is an important objective for international health organisations, but there has been less attention to support for health research in Europe. We describe the public-health (population and organisational level) research systems in the 27 European Union countries. Methods We developed a typology for describing health research structures based on funding streams and strategies. We drew data from internet sources and asked country informants to review these for consistency and completeness. The structures were described as organograms and narratives in country profiles for each of the 27 EU member states. National public-health research structures included public and independent funding organisations, 'mixed' institutions (which receive funds, and both use and allocate them) and provider institutions. Results Most health research is funded through ministries of science or science councils (and sometimes foundations), while parliaments and regions may also contribute. National institutes of public health are usually funded by ministries of health. Many national research organisations both determine research programmes and undertake health research, but there is a move towards public-health sciences within the universities, and a transition from internal grants to competitive funding. Of 27 national research strategies, 17 referred to health and 11 to public health themes. Although all countries had strategies for public health itself, we found little coherence in public-health research programmes. The European Commission has country contact points for both EU research and health programmes, but they do not coordinate with national health-research programmes. Conclusions Public-health research is broadly distributed across programmes in EU countries. Better understanding of research structures, programmes and results would improve recognition for public health in Europe, and contribute to practice. EU ministries of health should

  2. European Commission activities in eHealth.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Silas; Lymberis, Andreas; Whitehouse, Diane

    2004-12-01

    Health-care is an information-intensive and knowledge-demanding sector, which is why eHealth solutions are so important in this field. The European Commission (EC) has been initiating and funding research and development activities regarding Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for health, or "eHealth", since 1988. These programmes covered priority topics like electronic health-care records, regional and national health networks, telemedicine in homecare and care-at-the-point-of-need to support continuity of care concepts, systems to support people to stay healthy, and systems and tools to support health professionals to work more efficiently and safely on patients. During the 15-year span of the programmes, the European Union (EU) has contributed about 500 million Euro to approximately 400 R&D projects, support activities, best practice and studies covering technical, clinical, ethical, legal, organisational and market issues. eHealth has shown proven benefits in application fields like improved access to care, care at the point-of-need, citizen-centred care, improved quality and cost containment. Such applications were on show at the EU High Level eHealth Conferences in Brussels, Belgium, in 2003, and in Cork, Ireland, in 2004. eHealth is now on the governmental agenda of EU Member States to be implemented on a broader scale. In line with this development, the Commission has taken a number of policy initiatives. A European Union Action Plan for a European eHealth Area was published by the Commission in April 2004 and endorsed by the EU health ministers in June 2004. This means that, for the first time, Europe has a coherent agenda for the implementation of eHealth. This report will concentrate on eHealth activities initiated by the Information Society Directorate-General of the European Commission. PMID:15709306

  3. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  4. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  5. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Al Marhi, Muhammad Okba; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. PMID:25414592

  6. Large micromirror array for generating programmable slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, Michael; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, Nico

    2012-09-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) is a powerful tool for space and ground-based telescopes for the study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. This technique requires a programmable slit mask for astronomical object selection. We are engaged in a European development of micromirror arrays (MMA) for generating reflective slit masks in future MOS, called MIRA. The 100 x 200 μm2 micromirrors are electrostatically tilted providing a precise angle. The main requirements are cryogenic environment capabilities, precise and uniform tilt angle over the whole device, uniformity of the mirror voltage-tilt hysteresis and a low mirror deformation. A first MMA with single-crystal silicon micromirrors was successfully designed, fabricated and tested. A new generation of micromirror arrays composed of 2048 micromirrors (32 x 64) and modelled for individual addressing were fabricated using fusion and eutectic wafer-level bonding. These micromirrors without coating show a peak-to-valley deformation less than 10 nm, a tilt angle of 24° for an actuation voltage of 130 V. Individual addressing capability of each mirror has been demonstrated using a line-column algorithm based on an optimized voltage-tilt hysteresis. Devices are currently packaged, wire-bonded and integrated to a dedicated electronics to demonstrate the individual actuation of all micromirrors on an array. An operational test of this large array with gold coated mirrors has been done at cryogenic temperature (162 K): the micromirrors were actuated successfully before, during and after the cryogenic experiment. The micromirror surface deformation was measured at cryo and is below 30 nm peak-to-valley.

  7. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,…

  8. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  9. Pre-school intervention programmes.

    PubMed

    Reader, L

    1984-01-01

    This paper re-examines the rationale for pre-school intervention programmes and the results from a variety of programmes are reviewed. The distinction is drawn between programmes for the socially disadvantaged and for the handicapped. The importance of parental involvement in such programmes is discussed, both with regard to advantages for the child and for the family. The wide variety of pre-school programmes that are possible are examined with consideration given to the population served, the geographical area, the theoretical basis and delivery systems. Considerable attention is paid to the difficulty of evaluating any pre-school intervention programme. With these points in mind, home visiting, a popular form of pre-school intervention with practitioners, is examined and advantages and disadvantages of this form of intervention are enumerated. The paper ends with a cautionary note, and attention paid to authors who feel that early intervention can have dangers. The conclusion drawn is that better documentation of the work going on in the field is the only way to overcome gaps in our knowledge and to individualize services to parents and to children. PMID:6236911

  10. A cost-effective target supply for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodin, D. T.; Alexander, N. B.; Brown, L. C.; Frey, D. T.; Gallix, R.; Gibson, C. R.; Maxwell, J. L.; Nobile, A.; Olson, C.; Petzoldt, R. W.; Raffray, R.; Rochau, G.; Schroen, D. G.; Tillack, M.; Rickman, W. S.; Vermillion, B.

    2004-12-01

    A central feature of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. This is true whether the driver is a laser system, heavy ion beams or Z-pinch system. The IFE target fabrication, injection and tracking programmes are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production. We are working closely with target designers, and power plant systems specialists, to make specifications and material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable target characteristics. One-of-a-kind capsules produced for today's inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about US2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have suggested a cost goal of about 0.25-0.30 for each injected target (corresponding to ~10% of the 'electricity value' in a target). While a four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the design, specifications, requirements and proposed manufacturing processes for the future for laser fusion, heavy ion fusion and Z-pinch driven targets. These target manufacturing processes have been developed—and are proposed—based on the unique materials science and technology programmes that are ongoing for each of the target concepts. We describe the paradigm shifts in target manufacturing methodologies that will be needed to achieve orders of magnitude reductions in target costs, and summarize the results of 'nth-of-a-kind' plant layouts and cost estimates for future IFE power plant fuelling. These engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for electricity production.

  11. The ING Studentship, INT Support, and Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Dominguez Palmero, L.; Benn, C.

    2014-07-01

    For more than a decade, the ING studentship programme has offered European astronomy students an opportunity to train as observers on a medium-sized ground-based optical telescope, namely the renowned 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) run by the Isaac Newton Group (ING, a UK-SP-NL institution) on the beautiful Spanish island of La Palma in the Canary Islands! Practical training of the European students and hopefully future astronomers is essential in the era of very large telescopes and their queue-scheduled observing, which limits direct access to the observatories by young astronomers. Each year, the ING therefore offers 4--5 talented astronomy students the opportunity to spend one year working as support astronomers at the INT (setting up the instruments, helping visiting observers, and observing few INT discretionary nights) and working with ING staff on technical and science projects. High above the clouds at 2400 m, on the edge of the gorgeous Caldera de Taburiente of La Palma, stands the ''Roque de Los Muchachos'' Observatory (ORM) of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), part of the European Northern Observatory (ENO). Year after year, our studentship programme contributes to a better prepared future generation of astronomers. In this poster, we present some recent technical and science achievements of our past ING students, encouraging talented students to apply in the future (announced in February--March via the ING website http://www.ing.iac.es/astronomy/science/studentship.html).

  12. Is Europe Open to a Student-Oriented Framework for Literature? A Comparative Analysis of the Formal Literature Curriculum in Six European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Theo; Sâmihaian, Florentina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of literary curricula in six European countries and is part of the project LiFT-2, funded by Comenius' Life Long Learning Programme of the European Commission. The result of this project, that involved almost 4,500 teachers, is a European literary framework for secondary education which can be described as a…

  13. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  14. University Involvement in ESIF 2014-2020 Programme. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This factsheet, the third in a series on innovation and growth, summarises a recent assessment conducted by Universities UK, HEFCE and the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), exploring the extent to which universities in England are engaging with the 2014-2020 European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) programme. [For the…

  15. The Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's Multilingual Signage Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John; Prasertsri, Paweena

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews part of the progress of the first year of the Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme (ICMRP), a four-year 540,000 euro series of pilot studies co-funded by the European Union and based in Thailand. The ICMRP is based in four semi-autonomous municipalities in Khon Kaen Province, viz. Ban Phai, Chum Phae, Khon…

  16. Overview of the Programme TEMPUS IV, 2007-2013: Information for Future Applicants and Beneficiaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Union, 2010

    2010-01-01

    TEMPUS is a European Union funded Programme which supports the modernisation of higher education in the Partner Countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Western Balkans and the Mediterranean region, mainly through university cooperation projects. It also aims to promote the voluntary convergence of the higher education systems in the Partner…

  17. The Effects of Higher Education Programme Characteristics on the Allocation and Performance of the Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijke, Hans; Meng, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique European data-set, we investigated the significance of five higher education programme characteristics for the labour market position of the graduates: the academic versus discipline-specific character of the competencies generated; the standardization of these competencies; the combination of working and learning; the…

  18. An Induction Programme for Bologna First-Year Bachelor's Degree Students in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del-Arco Bravo, Isabel; Camats, Ramon; Flores, Oscar; Alaminos, Francisco; Blazquez, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The current study describes the planning process and aims of the university reforms in Spain and suggests an innovative proposal, namely the design and evaluation of a week-long induction programme for first-year bachelor's degree students at the University of Lleida (Spain), organised within the European higher education framework.…

  19. Questioning the Role of Internationalization in the Nationalization of Higher Education: The Impact of the EU TEMPUS Programme on Higher Education in Syria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Massoud, Hiba K.

    2011-01-01

    Given the need for major reform of the higher education programmes in Syria, and answering the voices that question the role of European Union (EU) in assisting the development of the higher education sector, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of (TEMPUS) Programme in modernising higher education in Syria. The study compares the…

  20. European Union vaccine research--an overview.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Jürgen; Olesen, Ole F; Bray, Jeremy; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2011-09-01

    Recent developments in vaccine research provide new momentum for an important area in health innovation. Particularly interesting are novel DNA vaccine approaches, many of which are already under clinical investigation. The Framework Programmes of the European Union play an important role in supporting collaborative efforts in vaccine research to develop new and better vaccines and bring them to the market. With a timely strategic reorientation towards a sustainable investment in innovation, the current seventh Framework Programme will help to bring large industry and small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) on board and foster partnership between stakeholders. As the first human DNA vaccines progresses through the development pipeline, more and more questions revolve around licensing and regulation and appropriate guidelines are being developed.

  1. BLSS, a European approach to CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Several studies have revealed the benefits of a biological life support system (BLSS) in space stations. Problem areas requiring experimental and analytical investigations necessary for the development of BLSS have been identified. The nature of these problems allows for the classification into near-term (prepilot) and long-term (pilot) studies, and into terrestrial and space research programmes. The knowledge of planned European and U.S. space experiments allows for a coordination with existing Spacelab and Shuttle programmes to avoid duplication of research efforts. The Japanese also plan biological experiments on Spacelab in 1988. Coordinating efforts should provide answers to certain BLSS relevant questions. Major areas which need immediate attention are: micorgravity effects; cosmic radiation effects; use of PAR-radiation and high energy particle radiation protection; and monitoring and control (including sensor technology).

  2. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  3. Improvements of image fusion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Shoshan, Yotam; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-03-01

    Fusion of images from different imaging modalities, obtained by conventional fusion methods, may cause artifacts, including destructive superposition and brightness irregularities, in certain cases. This paper proposes two methods for improving image multimodal fusion quality. Based on the finding that a better fusion can be achieved when the images have a more positive correlation, the first method is a decision algorithm that runs at the preprocessing fusion stage and determines whether a complementary gray level of one of the input images should be used instead of the original one. The second method is suitable for multiresolution fusion, and it suggests choosing only one image from the lowest-frequency sub-bands in the pyramids, instead of combining values from both sub-bands. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion enhancement can reduce fusion artifacts. Quantitative fusion quality measures that support this conclusion are shown.

  4. The European Project TILA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauregi, Kristi; Melchor-Couto, Sabela; Beltrán, Elina Vilar

    2013-01-01

    Telecollaboration for Intercultural Language Acquisition (TILA), is an EU-funded project within the Lifelong Learning Programme that will run between January 2013 and June 2015. TILA's overall objectives are: (1) to innovate, enrich and make foreign language teaching programmes more attractive and effective by encouraging the implementation of…

  5. The EuroDIVERSITY Programme: Challenges of Biodiversity Science in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I.

    2009-04-01

    In close cooperation with its Member Organisations, the European Science Foundation (ESF) has launched since late 2003 a series of European Collaborative Research (EUROCORES) Programmes. Their aim is to enable researchers in different European countries to develop cooperation and scientific synergy in areas where European scale and scope are required in a global context. The EUROCORES instrument represents the first large scale attempt of national research (funding) agencies to act together against fragmentation, asynchronicity and duplication of research (funding) within Europe. Although covering all scientific fields, there are presently 13 EUROCORES Programmes dealing with cutting edge science in the fields of Earth, Climate and Environmental Sciences. The aim of the EuroDIVERSITY Programme is to support the emergence of an integrated biodiversity science based on an understanding of fundamental ecological and social processes that drive biodiversity changes and their impacts on ecosystem functioning and society. Ecological systems across the globe are being threatened or transformed at unprecedented rates from local to global scales due to the ever-increasing human domination of natural ecosystems. In particular, massive biodiversity changes are currently taking place, and this trend is expected to continue over the coming decades, driven by the increasing extension and globalisation of human affairs. The EuroDIVERSITY Programme meets the research need triggered by the increasing human footprint worldwide with a focus on generalisations across particular systems and on the generation and validation of theory relevant to experimental and empirical data. The EURODIVERSITY Programme tries to bridge the gaps between the natural and social sciences, between research work on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, and between research work on plants, animals and micro-organisms. The Programme was launched in April 2006 and includes 10 international

  6. Europe's ‘Horizon 2020’ science funding programme: how is it shaping up?

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the European Union (EU) has spent around €80 billion on science research via Framework Programmes (FP5, FP6 and FP7). In 2014, a new programme, Horizon 2020, will likely invest another €70 billion over 6 years. Health research has been a major part: between 12% and 17% was spent on official FP5 and FP6 health research lines, although our work categorizing all EU science projects puts the health-related investment proportion nearer to 20%. Here, we compare our analyses and experiences with the European Commission's own impact assessments and plans that inform the Horizon 2020 programme. Much is moving in the right direction but some key gaps are overlooked. We discuss four areas: red tape, what to fund, harnessing informatics and neglect of Eastern Europe. PMID:23595575

  7. Europe's 'Horizon 2020' science funding programme: how is it shaping up?

    PubMed

    Galsworthy, Michael; McKee, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Over the past 15 years, the European Union (EU) has spent around €80 billion on science research via Framework Programmes (FP5, FP6 and FP7). In 2014, a new programme, Horizon 2020, will likely invest another €70 billion over 6 years. Health research has been a major part: between 12% and 17% was spent on official FP5 and FP6 health research lines, although our work categorizing all EU science projects puts the health-related investment proportion nearer to 20%. Here, we compare our analyses and experiences with the European Commission's own impact assessments and plans that inform the Horizon 2020 programme. Much is moving in the right direction but some key gaps are overlooked. We discuss four areas: red tape, what to fund, harnessing informatics and neglect of Eastern Europe.

  8. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  9. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  10. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  11. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  12. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  13. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Albert-Aguilar, Alexandre; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  14. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne; André, François

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  15. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Labatut, Laurent; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, many disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity, and Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, like Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, qualitative field surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by different data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with varied data sharing cultures, specific expectations, and using

  16. The New Sorgentina Fusion Source-NSFS: 14 MeV neutrons for fusion and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Console Camprini, P.; Agostini, P.; Amendola, R.; Angelone, M.; Bernardi, D.; Bruni, F.; Capogni, M.; Colognesi, D.; Faccini, R.; Filabozzi, A.; Flammini, D.; Fiori, F.; Frisoni, M.; Grazzi, F.; Pillon, M.; Pizzuto, A.; Quintieri, L.; Sacchetti, F.; Valente, P.

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the design for the realization of an intense 14 MeV neutron facility devoted to test and validate materials suitable for harsh neutron environments, such as a fusion reactor, is well established. The “New Sorgentina” Fusion Source (NSFS) is a project that proposes an intense D-T 14 MeV neutron source achievable with T and D ion beams impinging on 2 m radius rotating targets. NSFS may produce about 1015 n/s at the target and has to be intended as an European facility that maybe realized in a few years, once provided a preliminary technological program devoted to the operation of the ion source in continuous mode, target heat loading/removal, target and tritium handling, inventor as well as site licensing. In this contribution, the main characteristics of NSFS project will be presented and its possible use as a multipurpose facility outlined.

  17. Programmes to promote breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, E F

    1986-03-01

    Modern concepts about the development of breastfeeding programs are presented focusing on the need for community analysis, the importance of changing attitudes and stimulating motivation in the general public, and both small-scale and national level programs. Some form of community analysis is essential to develop a breastfeeding program. Information needs to be gathered on the prevalence of breastfeeding and the main social factors influencing the lactation reflexes, maternal knowledge about practical management, and the health of mothers. Experience suggests that this can most usefully be obtained by covering 4 topics: general information and attitudes, health services, women in the work force, and the influence of the infant food industry. From all 4 sources, information needs to be gathered on anxiety inducing factors and the limitation of opportunities for sucking, on the knowledge of the practical management of breastfeeding (modern versus traditional methods) by mothers, and on maternal health and nutrition. Breastfeeding programs need to change attitudes and to simulate motivation in the general public and particularly among mothers and fathers. In addition, programs need to convince and motivate other groups whose actions can support breastfeeding or make its accomplishment easier or more difficult. These groups include policymakers and legislators, health workers of various types, research scientists, and industrialists and the infant food industry. For the health professional, there are several procedures which need to be modified, including "rooming-in." Breastfeeding programs have been undertaken successfully on a relatively small scale, often in hospitals, by modifying existing maternity unit practices. The most significant "package" of activities for the hospital is "rooming-in." Positive results are available from hospitals in several European and various less technically developed countries. Various countries have shown an increase in breastfeeding

  18. Programmes to promote breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, E F

    1986-03-01

    Modern concepts about the development of breastfeeding programs are presented focusing on the need for community analysis, the importance of changing attitudes and stimulating motivation in the general public, and both small-scale and national level programs. Some form of community analysis is essential to develop a breastfeeding program. Information needs to be gathered on the prevalence of breastfeeding and the main social factors influencing the lactation reflexes, maternal knowledge about practical management, and the health of mothers. Experience suggests that this can most usefully be obtained by covering 4 topics: general information and attitudes, health services, women in the work force, and the influence of the infant food industry. From all 4 sources, information needs to be gathered on anxiety inducing factors and the limitation of opportunities for sucking, on the knowledge of the practical management of breastfeeding (modern versus traditional methods) by mothers, and on maternal health and nutrition. Breastfeeding programs need to change attitudes and to simulate motivation in the general public and particularly among mothers and fathers. In addition, programs need to convince and motivate other groups whose actions can support breastfeeding or make its accomplishment easier or more difficult. These groups include policymakers and legislators, health workers of various types, research scientists, and industrialists and the infant food industry. For the health professional, there are several procedures which need to be modified, including "rooming-in." Breastfeeding programs have been undertaken successfully on a relatively small scale, often in hospitals, by modifying existing maternity unit practices. The most significant "package" of activities for the hospital is "rooming-in." Positive results are available from hospitals in several European and various less technically developed countries. Various countries have shown an increase in breastfeeding

  19. Open and Flexible Learning? An Evaluation of Student and Tutor Experiences in a European e-Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, David; Hudson, Brian; Tervola, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of student and tutor experiences in the introductory module of a European Masters programme in e-Learning, Multimedia and Consultancy. The aims and outline of the Masters programme are described, together with the pedagogical approach adopted in the introductory module which explores open and flexible learning…

  20. Ceramics for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

  1. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  2. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the “burning plasma” regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  3. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  4. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  5. CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F.; Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C.

    2008-03-16

    Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

  6. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    PubMed

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST.

  7. A European approach to clinical investigator training.

    PubMed

    Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Canivet, Cindy; Chan, Anthony; Clarke, Mary J; Cornu, Catherine; Daemen, Esther; Demotes, Jacques; Nys, Katelijne De; Hirst, Barry; Hundt, Ferdinand; Kassai, Behrouz; Kerpel-Fronius, Sandor; Kiessig, Lucy; Klech, Heinrich; Kraehenbuhl, Jean-Pierre; Lafolie, Pierre; Lucht, Martin; Niese, Detlef; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane; Peters, Barbara; Schaltenbrand, Ralf; Stockis, Armel; Stykova, Martina; Verheus, Nicolette; Klingmann, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    A better education and training of clinical investigators and their teams is one of the factors that could foster the development of clinical research in Europe, a key objective of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). PharmaTrain (an IMI programme on training in medicines development), and European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) have joined forces to address this issue. An advisory group composed of representatives of universities, pharmaceutical companies and other organisations met four times between June 2011 and July 2012. This resulted in a position paper proposing a strategy to improve and harmonize clinical investigator training in Europe, and including a detailed syllabus and list of learning outcomes. Major recommendations are the establishment of minimal and mutually recognized certification requirement for investigators throughout the EU and the creation of a European platform to provide a suitable course and examination infrastructure. PMID:24058345

  8. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    PubMed

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

  9. [European Union funds and clinical toxicology].

    PubMed

    Wiszniewiecka, Monika; Cejrowski, Daniel; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Since 2014 we are heading the third programming period of help from European Union (EU). The new budget will run until 2020. From common resources of EU, 106 billion euro will reach Poland, of which about 82.3 billion to cohesion policy, levelling differences of regional development. Clinical toxicology centres will be able to apply for funding under the allocation for the health service. Polish health service very actively benefited from EU funds in previous programming periods, between 2004-2006, and 2007-2013. Thanks to grants from the EU, a large number of health centres were built or renovated. Unfortunately the needs of hospitals, which were underinvested for many years, exceeded available funds according to UE programmes. Except investment projects, also projects training of health professionals were executed. In the current programming period European Union will still support projects aimed at health service. Clinical toxicology centres should have a try of using this period to fulfil their plans.

  10. A European approach to clinical investigator training.

    PubMed

    Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Canivet, Cindy; Chan, Anthony; Clarke, Mary J; Cornu, Catherine; Daemen, Esther; Demotes, Jacques; Nys, Katelijne De; Hirst, Barry; Hundt, Ferdinand; Kassai, Behrouz; Kerpel-Fronius, Sandor; Kiessig, Lucy; Klech, Heinrich; Kraehenbuhl, Jean-Pierre; Lafolie, Pierre; Lucht, Martin; Niese, Detlef; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane; Peters, Barbara; Schaltenbrand, Ralf; Stockis, Armel; Stykova, Martina; Verheus, Nicolette; Klingmann, Ingrid

    2013-09-09

    A better education and training of clinical investigators and their teams is one of the factors that could foster the development of clinical research in Europe, a key objective of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). PharmaTrain (an IMI programme on training in medicines development), and European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) have joined forces to address this issue. An advisory group composed of representatives of universities, pharmaceutical companies and other organisations met four times between June 2011 and July 2012. This resulted in a position paper proposing a strategy to improve and harmonize clinical investigator training in Europe, and including a detailed syllabus and list of learning outcomes. Major recommendations are the establishment of minimal and mutually recognized certification requirement for investigators throughout the EU and the creation of a European platform to provide a suitable course and examination infrastructure.

  11. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  12. EDITORIAL 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Tito; Hidalgo, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    participants, and finally basic and astrophysical plasmas (BAP). New strategies are required to achieve a more balanced participation of these four areas of knowledge in future meetings, but the large number of participants and the overall high quality of the invited talks were particularly relevant this year. In the preparation of the Conference Programme we tried to present an updated view of plasma physics and to integrate suggestions coming from the scientific community, in particular through the use of the EPS PPD Open Forum. As mentioned, two evening sessions took place during the Conference. This year, the traditional evening on ITER was replaced by a session dedicated to inertial fusion, organized by D Batani, where the main installations and experiments on laser fusion around the world were presented and critically discussed. The other session, dedicated to plasma physics education, was organized by N Lopes-Cardoso, and discussed the specific educational issues of plasma physics and fusion, and presented the training programmes existing in Europe. As a concluding remark, we would like to thank our colleagues of the Programme Committee and, in particular, the coordinators of the subcommittees, Clarisse Bourdelle and Arthur Peters for MCF, Javier Honrubia for BPIF, Christoph Hollenstein for LTP, and Uli Stroth for BAP, for their generous help, suggestions and support. Due to the large number of participants, the smooth and efficient local organization, and the high overall quality of the plenary and invited presentations, the 37th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics can be considered an undeniable success. I hope you will find, in this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, an interesting and useful account of this event. Outstanding scientists honoured at the 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics During the Conference the EPS Plasma Physics Division rewarded researchers who have achieved outstanding scientific or technological results

  13. Fusion welding process

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  14. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  15. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  16. The technology management process at the European space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, M.; Williams, E.; Groepper, P.; Lascar, S.

    2010-03-01

    Technology is developed at the European Space Agency (ESA) under several programmes: corporate and domain specific, mandatory and optional, with different time horizons and covering different levels of the TRL scale. To improve the transparency and efficiency of the complete process, it was felt necessary to establish an agreed end to end process for the management of all technology R&D activity that could: Include all ESA programmes and consider the requirements of European users Lead to coordinated multi-year work plan and yearly procurement plans Prepare and enable future European space programmes Be harmonized with national initiatives in Europe Thereby establishing the basis for a product policy to reduce risks to technology users, reduce costs and delays, and enhance industrial competitiveness and non-dependence. In response to the above needs, ESA has developed a technology management process called the ESA End-to-End process (E2E), from establishment of the strategy to the monitoring and evaluation of R&D results. In this paper, the complete process will be described in detail including a discussion on its strengths and limitations, and its links to the wider European Harmonization process. The paper will be concluded with the introduction of the ESA Technology Tree: a basic tool to structure and facilitate communication about technology issues.

  17. Care of older people in nursing homes: an Intensive Programme as an educational activity within Erasmus-Socrates.

    PubMed

    Kotzabassaki, Stella; Alabaster, Erica S; And, Kati; Larsson, Ulla; de Vree, Willem

    2003-02-01

    The paper describes and discusses an Intensive Programme as a European educational activity within Erasmus-Socrates. As nurses and European citizens, it is important to know and understand each other's culture and to be able to work within a united Europe. Education plays a leading role in the preparation of professionals who will have to develop these skills. Based on the aims of Erasmus-Socrates, an Intensive Programme entitled 'Care of Older People in Nursing Homes' was designed, sponsored, and implemented over three continuous academic years with the participation of five European countries. The topic was selected due to its importance for Europe, as it is a region with an ageing population. A wide range of themes was covered using lectures, group discussion, exercises and study visits as teaching strategies. Evaluation suggests that the aims of the programme were achieved.

  18. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  19. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  20. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  1. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system.

  2. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. PMID:27003862

  3. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F.; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R.; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems• Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space• Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life• Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability• Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. Key Words: Astrobiology roadmap—Europe—Origin and evolution of life—Habitability—Life detection—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 16, 201–243. PMID:27003862

  4. Contribution of European research to risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Boenke, A

    2001-12-01

    The European Commission's, Quality of Life Research Programme, Key Action 1-Health, Food & Nutrition is mission-oriented and aims, amongst other things, at providing a healthy, safe and high-quality food supply leading to reinforced consumer confidence in the safety, of European food. Its objectives also include the enhancing of the competitiveness of the European food supply. Key Action 1 is currently supporting a number of different types of European collaborative projects in the area of risk analysis. The objectives of these projects range from the development and validation of prevention strategies including the reduction of consumers risks; development and validation of new modelling approaches, harmonization of risk assessment principles methodologies and terminology; standardization of methods and systems used for the safety evaluation of transgenic food; providing of tools for the evaluation of human viral contamination of shellfish and quality control; new methodologies for assessing the potential of unintended effects of genetically modified (genetically modified) foods; development of a risk assessment model for Cryptosporidium parvum related to the food and water industries, to the development of a communication platform for genetically modified organism, producers, retailers, regulatory authorities and consumer groups to improve safety assessment procedures, risk management strategies and risk communication; development and validation of new methods for safety testing of transgenic food; evaluation of the safety and efficacy of iron supplementation in pregnant women, evaluation of the potential cancer-preventing activity of pro- and pre-biotic ('synbiotic') combinations in human volunteers. An overview of these projects is presented here.

  5. THE UEFA EURO 2012 ANTI-DOPING PROGRAMME – SCIENTIFIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Vouillamoz, M.; Kwiatkowska, D.; Turek-Lepa, E.; Pokrywka, A.; Saugy, M.; Baume, N.; Gmeiner, G.

    2014-01-01

    The final tournament of the UEFA European Football Championship is one of the top sporting events in the world, and a high-profile event of this kind requires a well-planned and well-executed anti-doping programme to ensure the integrity of results in the competition. UEFA EURO 2012 presented a unique logistical challenge, with the tournament spread across two countries, both covering a large geographical area. This paper discusses the planning and delivery of both the pre tournament out-of-competition (OOC) testing programme and the in-competition (IC) programme, as well as reviewing the activities of doping control officers (DCOs), the whereabouts programme and assessing the sample collection and transport process. The analytical approach applied is also discussed, along with an overview of the distribution of T/E ratios and blood parameters. PMID:24899771

  6. The ESO Observing Programmes Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Since 1978 the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) has "the function to inspect and rank the proposals made for observing programmes at La Silla, and thereby to advise the Director General on the distribution of observing time". The members (one from each member country) and their alternates are nominated by the respective national committees for five-year terms (not immediately renewable). The terms are staggered so that each year one or two persons are replaced. The Chairman is appointed annually by the Council. He is invited to attend Council meetings and to report to its members.

  7. Fusion engineering device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  8. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  9. The European Communications Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, T. A.

    1985-09-01

    Two European Communication Satellites (ECSs) are now in operation for Eutelsat, forming the orbital portion of a communications system that will operate until 1993, carrying telephony and TV for the European Broadcasting Union. A total of five ECSs are to be constructed in order to ensure continuity of service over the systems lifetime. ECSs will also serve as the bases for the European Regional Communication System, which furnishes small receiver dish specialized services and preemptive TV distribution channels within Europe.

  10. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  11. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  12. A fusion of minds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Mystery still surrounds the visit of the astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell to the Soviet Union in 1963. But his collaboration - and that of other British scientists - eased geopolitical tensions at the height of the Cold War and paved the way for today's global ITER fusion project, as Richard Corfield explains.

  13. Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure {much_lt} external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ``sling shot`` that is ``loaded`` to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}6} are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

  14. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  15. Multilevel fusion exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Perry C.; Dasarathy, Belur V.; McCullough, Claire L.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a project that was sponsored by the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) to develop, test, and demonstrate sensor fusion algorithms for target recognition. The purpose of the project was to exploit the use of sensor fusion at all levels (signal, feature, and decision levels) and all combinations to improve target recognition capability against tactical ballistic missile (TBM) targets. These algorithms were trained with simulated radar signatures to accurately recognize selected TBM targets. The simulated signatures represent measurements made by two radars (S-band and X- band) with the targets at a variety of aspect and roll angles. Two tests were conducted: one with simulated signatures collected at angles different from those in the training database and one using actual test data. The test results demonstrate a high degree of recognition accuracy. This paper describes the training and testing techniques used; shows the fusion strategy employed; and illustrates the advantages of exploiting multi-level fusion.

  16. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  17. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  18. Clustering Analysis of Common Tasks Undertaken by Engineering Technicians in Informatics and Manufacturing in Seven European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadourakis, George M.; Natsika, Christina; Magnan, Myrna; Barsics, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    VALEURTECH is a pilot project under the European Commission's Leonardo II programme. It includes 35 partners from higher education institutions and professional organizations in eight European countries and has the major objectives: of (a) setting up a homogeneous "labelling" process, such as a diploma supplement, based on a common reference…

  19. PREFACE: 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Lebedev, S.

    2003-12-01

    The 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics took place in St Petersburg, Russian Federation, on 7th--11th July 2003. It was jointly organized by the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, the St Petersburg State Polytechnical University and Technical University Applied Physics Ltd, on behalf of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society (EPS). The members of the local organizing committee were drawn from these institutions: B Kuteev, Chair, Polytechnical University S Lebedev, Vice-Chair, Ioffe Institute A Lebedev, Scientific Secretary, Ioffe Institute V Bakharev, TUAP Ltd V Grigor'yants, Ioffe Institute V Sergeev, Polytechnical University N Zhubr, Ioffe Institute Over the years, the annual conference of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society has widened its scope. Contributions to the present conference covered widely diversified fields of plasma physics, ranging from magnetic and inertial fusion to low temperature plasmas. Plasma sizes under investigation ranged from tiny to astronomical. The topics covered during the conference were distributed over the following categories: tokamaks, stellarators, high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement, alternative magnetic confinement, plasma edge physics, plasma heating and current drive, diagnostics, basic plasma physics, astrophysical and geophysical plasmas and low temperature plasmas. The scientific programme and paper selection were the responsibility of the Programme Committee appointed by the Board of the EPS Plasma Physics Division. The committee was composed of: R Koch, Chairman, ERM/KMS Brussels, Belgium E Ascasibar, CIEMAT Madrid, Spain S Atzeni, Università di Roma, Italy G Bonhomme, LPMI Nancy, France C Chiuderi, Università di Firenze, Italy B Kuteev, St Petersburg State Polytechnical,University, Russian Federation M Mauel, Contact person APS-DPP, Columbia University New York, USA R A Pitts, EPFL/CRPP Lausanne, Switzerland R Salomaa

  20. Environmental protection during animal disease eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, H A

    1991-09-01

    This paper identifies animal disease eradication (ADE) programme activities which may have a negative impact on the environment. It suggests ways to lessen the impact of such activities without compromising the programme objectives. Reducing losses from livestock and poultry diseases with prevention, control and eradication programmes produces a net positive impact on the environment. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be integrated into the planning of any ADE programme. Decision-makers should give due consideration to the environmental effects of ADE programme activities, together with cost, personnel needs and other, more traditional, management concerns. A better environment will be a supplemental benefit from ADE programmes.

  1. Environmental protection during animal disease eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, H A

    1991-09-01

    This paper identifies animal disease eradication (ADE) programme activities which may have a negative impact on the environment. It suggests ways to lessen the impact of such activities without compromising the programme objectives. Reducing losses from livestock and poultry diseases with prevention, control and eradication programmes produces a net positive impact on the environment. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be integrated into the planning of any ADE programme. Decision-makers should give due consideration to the environmental effects of ADE programme activities, together with cost, personnel needs and other, more traditional, management concerns. A better environment will be a supplemental benefit from ADE programmes. PMID:1782433

  2. Designing Individualised Leadership Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Christine; McMahon, Margery; Gronn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment of sufficient numbers of suitably qualified teachers into headship is an international issue and to address this in Scotland alternative headship preparation programmes were trialled to provide greater flexibility in order to better match the individual development needs and circumstances of the aspirant head teachers. Drawing from…

  3. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  4. COMPUTER PROGRAMMER APTITUDE BATTERY, MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PALORMO, JEAN M.

    DEVELOPED TO AID MANAGERS OF DATA-PROCESSING CENTERS AND PERSONNEL DIRECTORS IN SCREENING PERSONS WITH APTITUDES FOR COMPUTER PROGRAMING, THE COMPUTER PROGRAMMER APTITUDE BATTERY (CPAB) INCLUDES DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF TEST ADMINISTRATION, INTERPRETATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION. FIVE SEPARATELY TIMED TESTS (VERBAL MEANING,…

  5. Implementing a Successful Laptop Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Pete; Dobson, Lindsey

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences in instituting a personal ownership laptop programme for 10 and 11 year-olds. Argues that learning with laptops captivates and empowers students, making them more self-motivated and task-oriented. There is increased risk-taking, as students work at their own pace, and in their own time. Furthermore, creativity is encouraged.…

  6. Evaluation of quality improvement programmes

    PubMed Central

    Ovretveit, J; Gustafson, D

    2002-01-01

    

 In response to increasing concerns about quality, many countries are carrying out large scale programmes which include national quality strategies, hospital programmes, and quality accreditation, assessment and review processes. Increasing amounts of resources are being devoted to these interventions, but do they ensure or improve quality of care? There is little research evidence as to their effectiveness or the conditions for maximum effectiveness. Reasons for the lack of evaluation research include the methodological challenges of measuring outcomes and attributing causality to these complex, changing, long term social interventions to organisations or health systems, which themselves are complex and changing. However, methods are available which can be used to evaluate these programmes and which can provide decision makers with research based guidance on how to plan and implement them. This paper describes the research challenges, the methods which can be used, and gives examples and guidance for future research. It emphasises the important contribution which such research can make to improving the effectiveness of these programmes and to developing the science of quality improvement. PMID:12486994

  7. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  8. Enhanced image capture through fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Peter J.; Hanna, Keith; Kolczynski, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Image fusion may be used to combine images from different sensors, such as IR and visible cameras, to obtain a single composite with extended information content. Fusion may also be used to combine multiple images from a given sensor to form a composite image in which information of interest is enhanced. We present a general method for performing image fusion and show that this method is effective for diverse fusion applications. We suggest that fusion may provide a powerful tool for enhanced image capture with broad utility in image processing and computer vision.

  9. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  10. Experience from the Student Programme REXUS/BEXUS: A Stepping Stone to a Space Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquand, A.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an inside view to the REXUS/BEXUS programme from the perspective of a student who has been involved in the project. Each year, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA), offer the opportunity to European University Students to fly an experiment on board sounding rockets or stratospheric balloons in the frame of the REXUS/BEXUS programme. From December 2012 to May 2014 a team of master students from KTH, the Royal Institute of Technology, worked on ISAAC project, an atmospheric experiment launched on board REXUS 15. The author was part of this student team and was involved in the whole process of the ISAAC project from design building and testing phases to the launch campaign and results analysis. The points raised in this article were presented on the occasion of a keynote speech during the 22nd ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, in Tromsø (Norway) from the 7th to the 12th ofJune 2015. The aim of this presentation was to demonstrate the benefits of hands-on Education programme at University level. In addition to the research opportunities, future space engineers and scientists can profit from a first practical experience under the supervision of experimented experts. The results of the ISAAC project were also presented in the frame of this conference [1].

  11. Education and European Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, John

    1992-01-01

    Reviews implications for education and training of the movement toward integration among European Community nations and the end of Communist governments. Discusses common concerns for new Europe, including data sharing, teacher training, educational quality, disadvantaged learners, demographic and employment trends, European Studies curricula, and…

  12. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  13. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  14. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  15. The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1993-08-01

    The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.

  16. Unconventional approaches to fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Brunelli, B.; Leotta, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to unconventional approaches to fusionthose thermonuclear reactors that, in comparison with Tokamak and other main lines, have received little attention in the worldwide scientific community. Many of the approaches considered are still in the embryonic stages. The authors-an international group of active nuclear scientists and engineers-focus on the parameters achieved in the use of these reactors and on the meaning of the most recent physical studies and their implications for the future. They also compare these approaches with conventional ones, the Tokamak in particular, stressing the non-plasma-physics requirements of fusion reactors. Unconventional compact toroids, linear systems, and multipoles are considered, as are the ''almost conventional'' fusion machines: stellarators, mirrors, reversed-field pinches, and EBT.

  17. Fusion Data Grid Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Wang, Nanbor

    2004-11-01

    Simulations and experiments in the fusion and plasma physics community generate large datasets at remote sites. Visualization and analysis of these datasets are difficult because of the incompatibility among the various data formats adopted by simulation, experiments, and analysis tools, and the large sizes of analyzed data. Grids and Web Services technologies are capable of providing solutions for such heterogeneous settings, but need to be customized to the field-specific needs and merged with distributed technologies currently used by the community. This paper describes how we are addressing these issues in the Fusion Grid Service under development. We also present performance results of relevant data transfer mechanisms including binary SOAP, DIME, GridFTP and MDSplus and CORBA. We will describe the status of data converters (between HDF5 and MDSplus data types), developed in collaboration with MIT (J. Stillerman). Finally, we will analyze bottlenecks of MDSplus data transfer mechanism (work performed in collaboration with General Atomics (D. Schissel and M. Qian).

  18. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Experiments in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-03-28

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models.

  20. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  1. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  2. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  3. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  4. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  5. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  6. Warwick and Uppsala Programmes to encourage girls toward scientific careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidström, Suzy; Caldecote, Ally; Hallsing, Maja; Hase, Tom; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin; Lampard, Kayleigh

    2015-04-01

    We report on two European programmes intended to encourage girls in England and Sweden to embark on studies in physics and other areas of science at university, with the hope that, eventually, they will decide to pursue scientific careers. Although different in substance, and in terms of their aims, both programmes select 16 and 17 year-old girls with a view to taking them on a life-changing experience to visit large scientific facilities (ESRF and ILL) in Grenoble, France from which they should benefit at many levels. Physicists at the University of Warwick are already well underway with their programme, having used an essay based competition to determine who will participate. In contrast, the University of Uppsala will use broader selection criteria in the hope of identifying those who will be most likely to impart their enthusiasm to their contemporaries and to younger peers on their return. The girls will be visiting the XMaS beamline at the ESRF and the SuperADAM experiment at the ILL during the week preceding the April APS meeting, and we will report on the outcome of their experience, with supporting media and documentation. Numerous occasions to meet and interact with female scientists will be ensured.

  7. The tumorigenic FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusion escapes miR-99a regulation in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Brittany C.; Annala, Matti J.; Cogdell, David E.; Granberg, Kirsi J.; Sun, Yan; Ji, Ping; Li, Xia; Gumin, Joy; Zheng, Hong; Hu, Limei; Yli-Harja, Olli; Haapasalo, Hannu; Visakorpi, Tapio; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Sawaya, Raymond; Fuller, Gregory N.; Chen, Kexin; Lang, Frederick F.; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fusion genes are chromosomal aberrations that are found in many cancers and can be used as prognostic markers and drug targets in clinical practice. Fusions can lead to production of oncogenic fusion proteins or to enhanced expression of oncogenes. Several recent studies have reported that some fusion genes can escape microRNA regulation via 3′–untranslated region (3′-UTR) deletion. We performed whole transcriptome sequencing to identify fusion genes in glioma and discovered FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in 4 of 48 glioblastoma samples from patients both of mixed European and of Asian descent, but not in any of 43 low-grade glioma samples tested. The fusion, caused by tandem duplication on 4p16.3, led to the loss of the 3′-UTR of FGFR3, blocking gene regulation of miR-99a and enhancing expression of the fusion gene. The fusion gene was mutually exclusive with EGFR, PDGFR, or MET amplification. Using cultured glioblastoma cells and a mouse xenograft model, we found that fusion protein expression promoted cell proliferation and tumor progression, while WT FGFR3 protein was not tumorigenic, even under forced overexpression. These results demonstrated that the FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusion is expressed in human cancer and generates an oncogenic protein that promotes tumorigenesis in glioblastoma. PMID:23298836

  8. Cold fusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hembree, D. M.; Burchfield, L. A.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Perey, F. G.; Mamantov, G.

    1990-06-01

    A series of experiments designed to detect the by-products expected from deuterium fusion occurring in the palladium and titanium cathodes of heavy water, D2O, electrolysis cells is reported. The primary purpose of this account is to outline the integrated experimental design developed to test the cold fusion hypothesis and to report preliminary results that support continuing the investigation. Apparent positive indicators of deuterium fusion were observed, but could not be repeated or proved to originate from the electrochemical cells. In one instance, two large increases in the neutron count rate, the largest of which exceeded the background by 27 standard deviations, were observed. In a separate experiment, one of the calorimetry cells appeared to be producing approximately 18 percent more power that the input value, but thermistor failure prevented an accurate recording of the event as a function of time. In general, the tritium levels in most cells followed the slow enrichment expected from the electrolysis of D2O containing a small amount of tritium. However, after 576 hours of electrolysis, one cell developed a tritium concentration approximately seven times greater than expected level.

  9. For and against a European quality control of training.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakakis, C; Michalas, S

    2001-01-01

    In a world of medicine that evolves more and more rapidly, sufficient quality of education in the arts and crafts of our discipline and control of this quality are essential for the progress and vitality of Ob/Gyn. There are variations in training within European countries but with the aim of harmonization in training programmes and the flexibility of quality control mechanisms we will meet our objective that is the high standards in the care of woman throughout Europe. PMID:11205701

  10. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  11. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  12. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  13. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  14. Professionalisation of gerontological nursing--the development of an international online gerontological master degree programme.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eva; Kada, Olivia

    2010-11-01

    Due to demographic changes and the growing demand for a nursing workforce in the gerontological field adequate nursing curricula are required. This paper describes the development of the international online gerontological master degree programme GEROM. Health and nursing science institutions from six European countries are collaborating in this EU-project. The project milestones as well as the study programme architecture are introduced. Furthermore, the evaluation concept is illustrated. Collaboration across the partners is affected by some problems; varying accreditation procedures and cultural differences inhibit the implementation of a joint degree. Institutional commitment and communication between the partners are essential for a successful process.

  15. Improvements of the gravity field from satellite techniques as proposed to the European Space Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reigber, C.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the European Earth Sciences Space Programme and the requirements for each gravity field mapping resulting from this programme are given. Three satellite experiments for gravity field improvement proposed to the European Space Agency in the last years are shortly characterized. One of these experiments, the low-low-SST-SLALOM experiment, based on laser interferometry for a "two target-one Spacelab telescope" configuration, is discussed in more detail. Reasons for the low-low concept selection are given and some mission aspects and a possible system concept for a compact ranging, acquisition and tracking system are presented.

  16. Radioactive Reliability of Programmable Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncar, Boris; Osmokrovic, Predrag; Stojanovic, Marko; Stankovic, Srboljub

    2001-02-01

    In this study, we examine the reliability of erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM) and electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) components under the influence of gamma radiation. This problem has significance in military industry and space technology. Total dose results are presented for the JL 27C512D EPROM and 28C64C EEPROM components. There is evidence that EPROM components have better radioactive reliability than EEPROM components. Also, the changes to the EPROM are reversible, and after erasing and reprogramming all EPROM components are functional. On the other hand, changes to the EEPROM are irreversible, and under the influence of gamma radiation, all EEPROM components became permanently nonfunctional. The obtained results are analyzed and explained via the interaction of gamma radiation with oxide layers.

  17. Programmable spectroscopy enabled by DLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Bjarke; Rasmussen, Michael; Herholdt-Rasmussen, Nicolai; Jespersen, Ole

    2015-03-01

    Ibsen Photonics has since 2012 worked to deploy Texas Instruments DLP® technology to high efficiency, fused silica transmission grating based spectrometers and programmable light sources. The use of Digital Micromirror Devices (DMDs) in spectroscopy, allows for replacement of diode array detectors by single pixel detectors, and for the design of a new generation of programmable light sources, where you can control the relative power, exposure time and resolution independently for each wavelength in your spectrum. We present the special challenges presented by DMD's in relation to stray light and optical throughput, and we comment on the possibility for instrument manufacturers to generate new, dynamic measurement schemes and algorithms for increased speed, higher accuracy, and greater sample protection. We compare DMD based spectrometer designs with competing, diode array based designs, and provide suggestions for target applications of the technology.

  18. The Physics Programme at Superb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    SuperB is a next generation high luminosity e+e- collider that will be built at the Cabibbo Laboratory, Tor Vergata, in Italy. The physics goals of this experiment are to search for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model through precision studies of rare or forbidden processes. While the name suggests that B physics is the main goal, this experiment is a Super Flavour Factory, and precision measurements of Bu,d,s, D, τ, Υ, and ψ(3770) decays as well as spectroscopy and exotica searches form part of a broad physics programme. In addition to searching for new physics (NP) in the form of heavy particles, or violations of laws of physics, data from SuperB will be able to perform precision tests of the Standard Model. I will briefly review of some highlights of the SuperB physics programme.

  19. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  20. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  1. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  2. European Union research and innovation perspectives on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Danuta; Claxton, John; Economidis, Ioannis; Högel, Jens; Venturi, Piero; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2011-12-20

    "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and Biotechnology" is one of 10 thematic areas in the Cooperation programme of the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities (FP7). With a budget of nearly €2 billion for the period 2007-2013, its objective is to foster the development of a European Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) by bringing together science, industry and other stakeholders that produce, manage or otherwise exploit biological resources. Biotechnology plays an important role in addressing social, environmental and economic challenges and it is recognised as a key enabling technology in the transition to a green, low carbon and resource-efficient economy. Biotechnologies for non-health applications have received a considerable attention in FP7 and to date 61 projects on industrial, marine, plant, environmental and emerging biotechnologies have been supported with a contribution of €262.8 million from the European Commission (EC). This article presents an outlook of the research, technological development and demonstration activities in biotechnology currently supported in FP7 within the Cooperation programme, including a brief overview of the policy context. PMID:21745504

  3. Co-operation with eastern European countries taking ENAC as an example

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.

    1994-12-31

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the European Community launched an ambitious programme of nuclear safety assistance. The purpose of this programme is to improve the safety of the Nuclear Power stations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union plants. It was felt in the Western European nuclear industry that the emphasis should be on finding practical solutions to improve the most urgent problems. To achieve this objective, the nuclear industry in Western Europe founded a consortium called ENAC (European Nuclear Assistance Consortium) comprising companies form seven European countries (Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands). The co-operation between these companies and the Russian designers would ensure that the solutions developed meet the approval of all interested parties.

  4. Geothermal projects funded under the NER 300 programme - current state of development and knowledge gained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uihlein, Andreas; Salto Saura, Lourdes; Sigfusson, Bergur; Lichtenvort, Kerstin; Gagliardi, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Introduction The NER 300 programme, managed by the European Commission is one of the largest funding programmes for innovative low-carbon energy demonstration projects. NER 300 is so called because it is funded from the sale of 300 million emission allowances from the new entrants' reserve (NER) set up for the third phase of the EU emissions trading system (ETS). The programme aims to successfully demonstrate environmentally safe carbon capture and storage (CCS) and innovative renewable energy (RES) technologies on a commercial scale with a view to scaling up production of low-carbon technologies in the EU. Consequently, it supports a wide range of CCS and RES technologies (bioenergy, concentrated solar power, photovoltaics, geothermal, wind, ocean, hydropower, and smart grids). Funded projects and the role of geothermal projects for the programme In total, about EUR 2.1 billion have been awarded to 39 projects through the programme's 2 calls for proposals (the first awarded in December 2012, the second in July 2014). The programme has awarded around 70 mEUR funding to 3 geothermal projects in Hungary, Croatia and France (see Annex). The Hungarian geothermal project awarded funding under the first call will enter into operation at the end of 2015 and the rest are expected to start in 2016 (HR) and in 2018 (FR), respectively. Knowledge Sharing Knowledge sharing requirements are built into the legal basis of the programme as a critical tool to lower risks in bridging the transition to large-scale production of innovative renewable energy and CCS deployment. Projects have to submit annually to the European Commission relevant knowledge gained during that year in the implementation of their project. The relevant knowledge is aggregated and disseminated by the European Commission to industry, research, government, NGO and other interest groups and associations in order to provide a better understanding of the practical challenges that arise in the important step of

  5. The German Hypersonics Technology Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczera, Heribert; Hauck, Helmuth

    1992-12-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the German development effort toward a technological basis for the development of the reference aerospaceplane two-stage-to-orbit configuration, Saenger. Attention is being given to alternative flight test vehicles, airframe/propulsion system integration methods, and airbreathing propulsion components. European community collaboration is emphasized.

  6. The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme

    PubMed Central

    Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. Materials and methods During 2005–2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K− or k− donors aged 18–55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Results Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region

  7. European Union Regulations.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has been a leader in the development of both guidance and regulations to ensure food safety throughout the member states. Because of the free movement of food commodities among the countries that belong to the European Union, there is a great need to assure high quality monitoring of both imported food and member state products. The procedures and methods required need to be practical, state-of-the art, and harmonised. The European Commission has developed a network of laboratories and scientific studies to meet this goal. This chapter describes the current Regulations, Directives and Decisions of the European Commission that protect the food supply throughout Europe. Because imported food needs to comply with the EU requirements, and the need to have common compliance throughout the member states, the developed system could be a worldwide template for monitoring the food supply. In addition, the integral role of chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry is described.

  8. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.; EST Team

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project to design, build and operate an European Solar 4-meter class telescope to be located in the Canary Islands, with the participation of institutions from fifteen European countries gathered around the consortium EAST (European Association for Solar Telescopes). The project main objective up to the present has been the development of the conceptual design study (DS) of a large aperture Solar Telescope. The study has demonstrated the scientific, technical and financial feasibility of EST. The DS has been possible thanks to the co-financing allocated specifically by the EU and the combined efforts of all the participant institutions. Different existing alternatives have been analysed for all telescope systems and subsystems, and decisions have been taken on the ones that are most compatible with the scientific goals and the technical strategies. The present status of some subsystems is reviewed in this paper.

  9. European Stroke Science Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  10. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  11. Sensor fusion for synthetic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.; Larimer, J.; Ahumada, A.

    1991-01-01

    Display methodologies are explored for fusing images gathered by millimeter wave sensors with images rendered from an on-board terrain data base to facilitate visually guided flight and ground operations in low visibility conditions. An approach to fusion based on multiresolution image representation and processing is described which facilitates fusion of images differing in resolution within and between images. To investigate possible fusion methods, a workstation-based simulation environment is being developed.

  12. Inertial fusion research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X. T.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2007-08-01

    The goal of the first milestone of the inertial fusion program in China is to reach fusion ignition and plasma burning in about 2020. Under the program, in the past years, the inertial fusion physics research achieved great progress; the laser facilities and the support technologies for laser drivers are advanced; the advanced diagnostic techniques are developed and the relatively integrated system is set up; the precise target fabrications are coordinately developed.

  13. Lithium question for nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, P.S.S.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the lithium reserve (the economically recoverable lithium) for the tritium breeding in D-T fusion reactors and other uses. Similar development patterns for fusion energy and fission energy are assumed to estimate the future lithium requirements. These requirements are grouped into three categories; the commercial uses, the lithium batteries for electric cars, and the fusion reactor uses. 5 refs.

  14. Cooperative research on water quality and health parameters in the European Community.

    PubMed

    Di Ferrante, E

    1981-04-01

    Research programmes planned and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) are executed by the Joint Research Centre which belongs to the Community (direct action) and through the collaboration of research institutions of the member countries (indirect action). In the latter case national laboratories carry out investigations under contract with the CEC thus providing scientific and technological data needed in the implementation of Community policies in various fields such as Agriculture, Industrial Affairs, Energy, Environment. To sustain the Community policy on the environment, adopted in 1973, the CEC proposed and the Council of the EC approved, in parallel with direct action programmes, the first Environmental Research Programme of indirect action for the period 1973-1975 and the second Environmental Research Programme of indirect action for the period 1976-1980. Both programmes have contributed to improve the understanding of problems concerning the presence of pollutants in the environment and their ecological and health effects.

  15. Consensus document on European brain research.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jes; Baker, Mary G; Freund, Tamas; di Luca, Monica; Mendlewicz, Julien; Ragan, Ian; Westphal, Manfred

    2006-08-01

    Brain disease psychiatric and neurologic disease combined represents a considerable social and economic burden in Europe. Data collected by the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that brain diseases are responsible for 35% of Europe's total disease burden. An analysis of all health economic studies of brain diseases in Europe, published by the European Brain Council (EBC) in June 2005, estimated the total cost of brain disease in Europe in 2004 to be Euro 386 billion. That burden is set to grow, mainly due to the fact that the European population is ageing. Investment in brain sciences does not match that burden now, let alone in the future. Brain research received only 8% of the life science budget in the European Commission's Fifth Framework Programme, which represents less than 0.01% of the annual cost of brain disorders for that period. Over the last decade, Europe has been losing ground to the USA and Japan in terms of both basic and clinical research. Many of Europe's young researchers are taking up posts in the USA and staying there. Big pharmaceutical companies are fleeing Europe for the USA, taking their drug development programmes with them. Research in the brain sciences now holds the promise of therapies that halt and even reverse neurodegeneration, of better diagnostic tools, neural prostheses for the paralysed and drugs for depression and anxiety that are tailored to the individual, thereby eliminating or reducing side effects. Our growing understanding of the normal brain could lead to better prevention of brain disease and to more effective teaching methods. The need for innovative treatments has never been greater, and Europe boasts clusters of excellent researchers in biotechnology who could collaborate with brain scientists and the pharmaceutical industry to realise this promise. But if Europe is to seize these opportunities and meet the challenge of brain disease, it needs to go forward on the basis of greater collaboration between

  16. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  17. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  18. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  19. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  20. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents.

  1. Cold nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Bavizhev, M. D.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction's theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300-700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He∗.

  2. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  3. Physics of Fusion Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Applicabilities and limitations of three techniques analyzed. NASA technical memorandum discusses physics of electron-beam, gas/ tungsten-arc, and laser-beam welding. From comparison of capabilities and limitations of each technique with regard to various welding conditions and materials, possible to develop criteria for selecting best welding technique in specific application. All three techniques classified as fusion welding; small volume of workpiece melted by intense heat source. Heat source moved along seam, leaving in wake solid metal that joins seam edges together.

  4. Creating a European Union framework for actions in the field of rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Antoni Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Rare diseases, including those of genetic origin, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value. The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 152 of the Treaties of the European Union, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the First Public Health Programme 2003-2008 and from the Second Health Programme 2008-2013 has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda. The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and the future adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare, maybe during 2010, have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan drugs, European Committee of Experts, etc.). In conclusion, Rare diseases is an area with enormous and practical potentialities for the European cooperation.

  5. Creating a European Union framework for actions in the field of rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Antoni Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Rare diseases, including those of genetic origin, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value. The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 152 of the Treaties of the European Union, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the First Public Health Programme 2003-2008 and from the Second Health Programme 2008-2013 has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda. The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and the future adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare, maybe during 2010, have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan drugs, European Committee of Experts, etc.). In conclusion, Rare diseases is an area with enormous and practical potentialities for the European cooperation. PMID:20824460

  6. Developing Design Principles for an E-Learning Programme for SME Managers to Support Accelerated Learning at the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Suzie; Birchall, David; Williams, Sadie; Vrasidas, Charalambos

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a workplace-based e-learning programme for small and medium enterprise (SME) managers in five European countries. The course is designed to address the specific needs of SME managers who, it has been noted, represent a significant proportion of the EU workforce but often experience difficulty in…

  7. New perspectives for European climate services: HORIZON2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruning, Claus; Tilche, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The developing of new end-to-end climate services was one of the core priorities of 7th Framework for Research and Technological Development of the European Commission and will become one of the key strategic priorities of Societal Challenge 5 of HORIZON2020 (the new EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation 2014-2020). Results should increase the competitiveness of European businesses, and the ability of regional and national authorities to make effective decisions in climate-sensitive sectors. In parallel, the production of new tailored climate information should strengthen the resilience of the European society to climate change. In this perspective the strategy to support and foster the underpinning science for climate services in HORIZON2020 will be presented.

  8. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the

  9. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  10. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  11. Programmable multi-chip module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-03-02

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  12. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2005-05-24

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  13. Magnetless magnetic fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beklemishev, A. D.; Tajima, T.

    1994-02-01

    The authors propose a concept of thermonuclear fusion reactor in which the plasma pressure is balanced by direct gas-wall interaction in a high-pressure vessel. The energy confinement is achieved by means of the self-contained toroidal magnetic configuration sustained by an external current drive or charged fusion products. This field structure causes the plasma pressure to decrease toward the inside of the discharge and thus it should be magnetohydrodynamically stable. The maximum size, temperature and density profiles of the reactor are estimated. An important feature of confinement physics is the thin layer of cold gas at the wall and the adjacent transitional region of dense arc-like plasma. The burning condition is determined by the balance between these nonmagnetized layers and the current-carrying plasma. They suggest several questions for future investigation, such as the thermal stability of the transition layer and the possibility of an effective heating and current drive behind the dense edge plasma. The main advantage of this scheme is the absence of strong external magnets and, consequently, potentially cheaper design and lower energy consumption.

  14. Multispectral bilateral video fusion.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Eric P; Mason, John L; McMillan, Leonard

    2007-05-01

    We present a technique for enhancing underexposed visible-spectrum video by fusing it with simultaneously captured video from sensors in nonvisible spectra, such as Short Wave IR or Near IR. Although IR sensors can accurately capture video in low-light and night-vision applications, they lack the color and relative luminances of visible-spectrum sensors. RGB sensors do capture color and correct relative luminances, but are underexposed, noisy, and lack fine features due to short video exposure times. Our enhanced fusion output is a reconstruction of the RGB input assisted by the IR data, not an incorporation of elements imaged only in IR. With a temporal noise reduction, we first remove shot noise and increase the color accuracy of the RGB footage. The IR video is then normalized to ensure cross-spectral compatibility with the visible-spectrum video using ratio images. To aid fusion, we decompose the video sources with edge-preserving filters. We introduce a multispectral version of the bilateral filter called the "dual bilateral" that robustly decomposes the RGB video. It utilizes the less-noisy IR for edge detection but also preserves strong visible-spectrum edges not in the IR. We fuse the RGB low frequencies, the IR texture details, and the dual bilateral edges into a noise-reduced video with sharp details, correct chrominances, and natural relative luminances. PMID:17491451

  15. Inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, L.; Condouris, R.; Kotowski, M.; Murphy, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains seven articles that describe recent progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's ICF program. The Department of Energy recently initiated an effort to design a 1--2 MJ glass laser, the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). These articles span various aspects of a program which is aimed at moving forward toward such a facility by continuing to use the Nova laser to gain understanding of NIF-relevant target physics, by developing concepts for an NIF laser driver, and by envisioning a variety of applications for larger ICF facilities. This report discusses research on the following topics: Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen; A Maxwell Equation Solver in LASNEX for the Simulation of Moderately Intense Ultrashort Pulse Experiments; Measurements of Radial Heat-Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Plasmas; Laser-Seeded Modulation Growth on Directly Driven Foils; Stimulated Raman Scattering in Large-Aperture, High-Fluence Frequency-Conversion Crystals; Fission Product Hazard Reduction Using Inertial Fusion Energy; Use of Inertial Confinement Fusion for Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulations.

  16. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  17. Third European Influenza Summit: organized by the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI).

    PubMed

    McElhaney, Janet; Osterhaus, Ab

    2013-12-16

    On 2 May 2013, the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) held its third influenza summit at the Institute of European Studies at the Free University of Brussels. ESWI brought together more than 90 representatives of organizations of healthcare providers, senior citizens, at-risk patients and public health authorities for a day of tailored lectures, Q&A sessions and networking. Since recent studies, surveys and reviews have shed new light on some of the most intriguing influenza issues, the Summit faculty translated the newest scientific data into practice. The first part of the Summit programme focused on the current flu status in Europe, paying special attention to the protection of pregnant women and the elderly as well as to the issues of vaccine safety and effectiveness. The programme continued to highlight future challenges and evolutions like novel antiviral drugs against influenza, improved flu vaccines and the prospect of a universal flu vaccine. The annual ESWI flu summits are the pinnacles of ESWI's efforts to bridge the gap between science and society. ESWI's members are convinced that the fight against influenza can only be won when all parties are well informed and ready to work together.

  18. Extended Logic Intelligent Processing System for a Sensor Fusion Processor Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Thomas, Tyson; Li, Wei-Te; Daud, Taher; Fabunmi, James

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the hardware implementation and initial tests from a low-power, highspeed reconfigurable sensor fusion processor. The Extended Logic Intelligent Processing System (ELIPS) is described, which combines rule-based systems, fuzzy logic, and neural networks to achieve parallel fusion of sensor signals in compact low power VLSI. The development of the ELIPS concept is being done to demonstrate the interceptor functionality which particularly underlines the high speed and low power requirements. The hardware programmability allows the processor to reconfigure into different machines, taking the most efficient hardware implementation during each phase of information processing. Processing speeds of microseconds have been demonstrated using our test hardware.

  19. Multi-sensor fusion development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bish, Sheldon; Rohrer, Matthew; Scheffel, Peter; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and McQ Inc. are developing a generic sensor fusion architecture that involves several diverse processes working in combination to create a dynamic task-oriented, real-time informational capability. Processes include sensor data collection, persistent and observational data storage, and multimodal and multisensor fusion that includes the flexibility to modify the fusion program rules for each mission. Such a fusion engine lends itself to a diverse set of sensing applications and architectures while using open-source software technologies. In this paper, we describe a fusion engine architecture that combines multimodal and multi-sensor fusion within an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) framework. The modular, plug-and-play architecture of OSUS allows future fusion plugin methodologies to have seamless integration into the fusion architecture at the conceptual and implementation level. Although beyond the scope of this paper, this architecture allows for data and information manipulation and filtering for an array of applications.

  20. The status of cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  1. Data fusion qualitative sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.A.; Lewis, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with testing, debugging, and refining the Hanford Site data fusion workstation (DFW), with the assistance of Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), before delivering the DFW to the environmental restoration client at the Hanford Site. Data fusion is the mathematical combination (or fusion) of disparate data sets into a single interpretation. The data fusion software used in this study was developed by CRC. The data fusion software developed by CRC was initially demonstrated on a data set collected at the Hanford Site where three types of data were combined. These data were (1) seismic reflection, (2) seismic refraction, and (3) depth to geologic horizons. The fused results included a contour map of the top of a low-permeability horizon. This report discusses the results of a sensitivity analysis of data fusion software to variations in its input parameters. The data fusion software developed by CRC has a large number of input parameters that can be varied by the user and that influence the results of data fusion. Many of these parameters are defined as part of the earth model. The earth model is a series of 3-dimensional polynomials with horizontal spatial coordinates as the independent variables and either subsurface layer depth or values of various properties within these layers (e.g., compression wave velocity, resistivity) as the dependent variables.

  2. The quest for fusion power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Steven C.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion power is one of a very few sustainable options to replace fossil fuels as the world's primary energy source. Although the conditions for fusion have been reached, much remains to be done to turn scientific success into commercial electrical power.

  3. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  4. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  5. Cold fusion; Myth versus reality

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several different nuclear reactions are taking place. Some of the experiments point to D-D fusion with a cominant tritium channel as one of the reactions. The article notes a similarity between Prometheus and the discoveries of cold fusion.

  6. European Education, European Citizenship? On the Role of Education in Constructing Europeanness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollikainen, Aaro

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) education programs in fostering a sense of European citizenship. Addresses the five meanings given to the concept of European citizenship: (1) recognition of European heritage; (2) EU loyalty; (3) right of free movement; (4) political participation; and (5) active citizenship. (CMK)

  7. ExoMars: Overview of scientific programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, Daniel; Witasse, Olivier; Vago, Jorge L.

    The ExoMars Programme is a joint project between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). The project consists of two missions with launches in 2016 and 2018. The scientific objectives of ExoMars are: begin{itemize} To search for signs of past and present life on Mars. To investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. To study Martian atmospheric trace gases and their sources. To characterize the surface environment. The 2016 mission will be launched (January 2016) on a Proton rocket. It includes the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Module (EDM), both contributed by ESA. The TGO will carry European and Russian scientific instruments for remote observations, while the EDM will have a European payload for in-situ measurements during descent and on the Martian surface. The TGO scientific payload includes:begin{itemize} NOMAD. Suite of 2 Infrared (IR) and 1 Ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer. ACS. Suite of 2 IR echelle-spectrometers (near and middle IR) and 1 Fourier spectrometer. FREND. Neutron spectrometer with a collimation module. CaSSIS. High-resolution camera. The EDM payload includes a set of accelerometers and heat shield sensors (AMELIA), to study the Martian atmosphere and obtain images throughout the EDM’s descent, and an environmental station (DREAMS), to conduct a series of short meteorological observations at the EDM’s landing location. The 2018 mission will land a Rover, provided by ESA, making use of a Descent Module (DM) contributed by Roscosmos. The mission will be launched on a Proton rocket (May 2018). The ExoMars rover will have a nominal lifetime of approximately 6 months. During this period, it will ensure a regional mobility of several kilometres, relying on solar array electrical power. The rover’s Pasteur payload will produce self-consistent sets of measurements capable to provide reliable evidence, for or against

  8. Deployment of membrane fusion protein domains during fusion.

    PubMed

    Bentz, J; Mittal, A

    2000-01-01

    It is clear that both viral and intracellular membrane fusion proteins contain a minimal set of domains which must be deployed at the appropriate time during the fusion process. An account of these domains and their functions is given here for the four best-described fusion systems: influenza HA, sendai virus F1, HIV gp120/41 and the neuronal SNARE core composed of synaptobrevin (syn), syntaxin (stx) and the N- and C-termini of SNAP25 (sn25), together with the Ca(2+)binding protein synaptotagmin (syt). Membrane fusion begins with the binding of the virion or vesicle to the target membrane via receptors. The committed step in influenza HA- mediated fusion begins with an aggregate of HAs (at least eight) with some of their HA2 N-termini, a.k.a. fusion peptides, embedded into the viral bilayer (Bentz, 2000 a). The hypothesis presented in Bentz (2000 b) is that the conformational change of HA to the extended coiled coil extracts the fusion peptides from the viral bilayer. When this extraction occurs from the center of the site of restricted lipid flow, it exposes acyl chains and parts of the HA transmembrane domains to the aqueous media, i.e. a hydrophobic defect is formed. This is the 'transition state' of the committed step of fusion. It is stabilized by a 'dam' of HAs, which are inhibited from diffusing away by the rest of the HAs in the aggregate and because that would initially expose more acyl chains to water. Recruitment of lipids from the apposed target membrane can heal this hydrophobic defect, initiating lipid mixing and fusion. The HA transmembrane domains are required to be part of the hydrophobic defect, because the HA aggregate must be closely packed enough to restrict lipid flow. This hypothesis provides a simple and direct coupling between the energy released by the formation of the coiled coil to the energy needed to create and stabilize the high energy intermediates of fusion. Several of these essential domains have been described for the viral fusion

  9. Analysis of Induced Gamma Activation by D-T Neutrons in Selected Fusion Reactor Relevant Materials with EAF-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klix, Axel; Fischer, Ulrich; Gehre, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Samples of lanthanum, erbium and titanium which are constituents of structural materials, insulating coatings and tritium breeder for blankets of fusion reactor designs have been irradiated in a fusion peak neutron field. The induced gamma activities were measured and the results were used to check calculations with the European activation system EASY-2010. Good agreement for the prediction of major contributors to the contact dose rate of the materials was found, but for minor contributors the calculation deviated up to 50%.

  10. A programmable image compression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrelle, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    A programmable image compression system which has the necessary flexibility to address diverse imaging needs is described. It can compress and expand single frame video images (monochrome or color) as well as documents and graphics (black and white or color) for archival or transmission applications. Through software control, the compression mode can be set for lossless or controlled quality coding; the image size and bit depth can be varied; and the image source and destination devices can be readily changed. Despite the large combination of image data types, image sources, and algorithms, the system provides a simple consistent interface to the programmer. This system (OPTIPAC) is based on the TITMS320C25 digital signal processing (DSP) chip and has been implemented as a co-processor board for an IBM PC-AT compatible computer. The underlying philosophy can readily be applied to different hardware platforms. By using multiple DSP chips or incorporating algorithm specific chips, the compression and expansion times can be significantly reduced to meet performance requirements.

  11. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  12. Is there hope for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-04-12

    From the outset in the 1950's, fusion research has been motivated by environmental concerns as well as long-term fuel supply issues. Compared to fossil fuels both fusion and fission would produce essentially zero emissions to the atmosphere. Compared to fission, fusion reactors should offer high demonstrability of public protection from accidents and a substantial amelioration of the radioactive waste problem. Fusion still requires lengthy development, the earliest commercial deployment being likely to occur around 2025--2050. However, steady scientific progress is being made and there is a wide consensus that it is time to plan large-scale engineering development. A major international effort, called the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is being carried out under IAEA auspices to design the world's first fusion engineering test reactor, which could be constructed in the 1990's. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Magnetic fusion energy and computers

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups.

  14. New pathways in the evaluation of programmes for men who perpetrate violence against their female partners.

    PubMed

    Wojnicka, Katarzyna; Scambor, Christian; Kraus, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    Today, evaluation research in the field of intervention programmes for men who perpetrate violence against their female partners still makes a fragmentary impression. Across Europe various evaluation studies have been performed. However, the methodologies applied are too heterogeneous to allow the combination of the results in a meta-analytical way. In this paper we propose a future pathway for organising outcome evaluation studies of domestic violence perpetrator programmes in community settings, so that today's problems in this field can be overcome. In a pragmatic framework that acknowledges the limited pre-conditions for evaluation studies in the area of domestic violence perpetrator programmes as it is today, feasible approaches for outcome evaluation are outlined, with recent developments in the field taken as starting points. The framework for organising future evaluation studies of work with perpetrators of domestic violence is presented together with a strategy to promote this framework. International networks of practitioners and researchers play a central role in this strategy through upskilling the area of practical work, preparing the ground for evaluation research and improving cooperation between practitioners and researchers. This paper is based on the results of the European funded project IMPACT (under the Daphne-III-funding programme of the European Commission).

  15. New pathways in the evaluation of programmes for men who perpetrate violence against their female partners.

    PubMed

    Wojnicka, Katarzyna; Scambor, Christian; Kraus, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    Today, evaluation research in the field of intervention programmes for men who perpetrate violence against their female partners still makes a fragmentary impression. Across Europe various evaluation studies have been performed. However, the methodologies applied are too heterogeneous to allow the combination of the results in a meta-analytical way. In this paper we propose a future pathway for organising outcome evaluation studies of domestic violence perpetrator programmes in community settings, so that today's problems in this field can be overcome. In a pragmatic framework that acknowledges the limited pre-conditions for evaluation studies in the area of domestic violence perpetrator programmes as it is today, feasible approaches for outcome evaluation are outlined, with recent developments in the field taken as starting points. The framework for organising future evaluation studies of work with perpetrators of domestic violence is presented together with a strategy to promote this framework. International networks of practitioners and researchers play a central role in this strategy through upskilling the area of practical work, preparing the ground for evaluation research and improving cooperation between practitioners and researchers. This paper is based on the results of the European funded project IMPACT (under the Daphne-III-funding programme of the European Commission). PMID:27175612

  16. Announcing the Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Rare Celestial Event to be Observed by Millions Summary On June 8, 2004, Venus - the Earth's sister planet - will pass in front of the Sun. This event, a 'transit', is extremely rare - the last one occurred in 1882, 122 years ago. Easily observable in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia, it is likely to attract the attention of millions of people on these continents and, indeed, all over the world. On this important occasion, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has joined forces with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), the Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides (IMCCE) and the Observatoire de Paris in France, as well as the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic to establish the Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) public education programme. It is supported by the European Commission in the framework of the European Science and Technology Week and takes advantage of this extraordinary celestial event to expose the public - in a well-considered, interactive and exciting way - to a number of fundamental issues at the crucial interface between society and basic science. VT-2004 has several components, including an instructive and comprehensive website (www.vt-2004.org). It is directed towards the wide public in general and the media, school students and their teachers, as well as amateur astronomers in particular. It invites all interested persons to participate actively in the intercontinental VT-2004 Observing Campaign (that reenacts historical Venus Transit observations) and the VT-2004 Video Contest. During the VT-2004 Final Event in November, the winners of the Video Contest will be chosen by an international jury. This meeting will also serve to discuss the project and its impact. The outcome of this rare celestial event and the overall experience from this unique public education project will clearly be of very wide interest, not just in the field of astronomy.

  17. [Evaluation in school anti-tobacco programmes].

    PubMed

    Szymborski, J; Berkowska, M; Sito, A; Malkowska, A

    2000-01-01

    The National Research Institute of Mother and Child (NRIMC) school anti-tobacco programmes are presented. They are discussed with reference to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines and other effective school programmes to prevent tobacco use among children and young people. The general objectives of the programmes at different educational levels and the elaborated strategic recommendations are presented. The own conceptualised evaluation model of school anti-tobacco programmes is analysed, including process and outcome evaluation. The presented model clarifies concepts and procedures of planning the design and evaluation of the programme in its different stages. In our opinion, the NRIMC evaluation model can be applied in other heath promotion programmes.

  18. Information integration for data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  19. The European nitrogen case.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Klaas; Bresser, Ton; Bouwman, Lex

    2002-03-01

    The N budget for Europe (excluding the former Soviet Union) indicates that the 3 principal driving forces of the acceleration of the European N cycle are fertilizer production (14 Mt (mill. tonnes) N yr-1), fossil fuel combustion and other industry (3.3 Mt N yr-1) and import of N in various products (7.6 Mt N yr-1). The various leaks of reactive N species from European food, energy and industrial production systems are estimated and their effects on human health and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are assessed. Future European environmental policy measures to close the N cycle and to reduce leaks of reactive N can best focus on the three major driving forces, taking into consideration the possible consequences in the N cascade. Critical loads may be useful tools in determining N-emission ceilings and developing integrated policies for regulating N flows such as fertilizer use and imports and N levels.

  20. Architectural Design for European SST System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzmann, Jens; Wagner, Axel; Blanchet, Guillaume; Assemat, Francois; Vial, Sophie; Dehecq, Bernard; Fernandez Sanchez, Jaime; Garcia Espinosa, Jose Ramon; Agueda Mate, Alberto; Bartsch, Guido; Schildknecht, Thomas; Lindman, Niklas; Fletcher, Emmet; Martin, Luis; Moulin, Serge

    2013-08-01

    The paper presents the results of a detailed design, evaluation and trade-off of a potential European Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) system architecture. The results have been produced in study phase 1 of the on-going "CO-II SSA Architectural Design" project performed by the Astrium consortium as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme and are the baseline for further detailing and consolidation in study phase 2. The sensor network is comprised of both ground- and space-based assets and aims at being fully compliant with the ESA SST System Requirements. The proposed ground sensors include a surveillance radar, an optical surveillance system and a tracking network (radar and optical). A space-based telescope system provides significant performance and robustness for the surveillance and tracking of beyond-LEO target objects.

  1. European Space Science Scales New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    Satellites, comprising nine tonnes of hardware and sixty experiments, will be placed in orbit with a view to giving scientists a new perspective on the Sun, the Earth's magnetic environment and the universe in general. ISO, the Infrared Space Observatory, will allow astronomers to study all types of objects in the so1al. system - from nearby planets to the farthermost galaxies - with unparalleled sensitivity through the invisible, cold light of infrared radiation. Soho, the solar observatory, will be the fist satellite to continuously observe the Sun in detail, and will do so for at least two yews. The quartet of identical Cluster satellites will probe the Earth's magnetosphere in order to study the storms that can occur there which disrupt radio communications or electrical power supplies on Earth. As Roger Bonnet, Director of the European Space Agency's science programme, points out: "For the programme, this year marks the culmination often years of endeavour now drawing to a close. This shows that Europe is now taking the lead in in situ exploration of the universe". On 23 May ISO successfully completed final testing which validated the satellite's technical performance. It is currently on its way to Guiana onboard the Ariana. It will be launched from the Space Centre at Kourou by an Ariane 44P launcher in late October. On 14 June Soho will undergo similar checkouts which should give it a clean bill of health for dispatch to the Kennedy Space Center (Florida). It is scheduled for a launch on 30 October by NASA's Atlas rocket. Authorisation to dispatch the Cluster quartet to Kourou should be given in late June with a view to a launch at the end of the year on a flagship launcher: the first Ariane-5, which is set to become the most competitive launcher on the world market, Another milestone in space exploration is in the offing: the journey over the Sun's north pole by ESA's Ulysses probe begins this month and will continue through to September. During this phase

  2. Expanded Access Programme: looking for a common definition.

    PubMed

    Iudicello, Antonella; Alberghini, Lucia; Benini, Giulia; Mosconi, Paola

    2016-01-12

    Therapeutic use of an unauthorised drug (or of an authorised drug for an unauthorised indication) for patients with a life-threating disease is permitted outside a clinical trial as an Expanded Access Programme (EAP).The regulations regarding EAPs is not the same all over the world. For example, the recommendation of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in EU countries also includes within EAPs patients who have been treated in a clinical trial and who wish to continue the treatment. Nevertheless, the patients treated in a clinical trial could have the option of continuing treatment for an extended period in an Open-label Extension study, aimed to generate long-term data on efficacy, safety, tolerability and administration.The aims of this paper - based on the difficulties and incoherence encountered by an Italian Ethic Committee (EC) during the authorisation process of EAPs - are: understanding the origin of this misclassification by analysing differences and similarities among USA, European and Italian regulations concerning EAPs; and showing difficulties in classifying international study protocols as a consequence of the lack of harmonisation of definitions.We performed a critical review of the current USA, European and Italian regulations and we analysed some practical cases by retrieving protocols from Clinicaltrials.gov and the Italian Clinical Trials Registry (OsSC) containing in the title the keywords 'Expanded Access Programme', "'Expanded Access', 'Open-label Extension study' or 'Early Access'.We observed that the Food and Drug Administration ( FDA) definition of EAP is very clear while the EMA definition is similar to that of an Open-label Extension study. This lack of a clear definition generates misclassification and it is possible to find an EAP with an efficacy or safety endpoint; or an EAP managed as a clinical trial; or an EAP classified in Clinical Trials Registries as a phase II, III or IV clinical trial.The internationalisation of the studies

  3. HALO: a reconfigurable image enhancement and multisensor fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, F.; Hickman, D. L.; Parker, Steve J.

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary high definition (HD) cameras and affordable infrared (IR) imagers are set to dramatically improve the effectiveness of security, surveillance and military vision systems. However, the quality of imagery is often compromised by camera shake, or poor scene visibility due to inadequate illumination or bad atmospheric conditions. A versatile vision processing system called HALO™ is presented that can address these issues, by providing flexible image processing functionality on a low size, weight and power (SWaP) platform. Example processing functions include video distortion correction, stabilisation, multi-sensor fusion and image contrast enhancement (ICE). The system is based around an all-programmable system-on-a-chip (SoC), which combines the computational power of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with the flexibility of a CPU. The FPGA accelerates computationally intensive real-time processes, whereas the CPU provides management and decision making functions that can automatically reconfigure the platform based on user input and scene content. These capabilities enable a HALO™ equipped reconnaissance or surveillance system to operate in poor visibility, providing potentially critical operational advantages in visually complex and challenging usage scenarios. The choice of an FPGA based SoC is discussed, and the HALO™ architecture and its implementation are described. The capabilities of image distortion correction, stabilisation, fusion and ICE are illustrated using laboratory and trials data.

  4. ELIPS: Toward a Sensor Fusion Processor on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Taher; Stoica, Adrian; Tyson, Thomas; Li, Wei-te; Fabunmi, James

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents the concept and initial tests from the hardware implementation of a low-power, high-speed reconfigurable sensor fusion processor. The Extended Logic Intelligent Processing System (ELIPS) processor is developed to seamlessly combine rule-based systems, fuzzy logic, and neural networks to achieve parallel fusion of sensor in compact low power VLSI. The first demonstration of the ELIPS concept targets interceptor functionality; other applications, mainly in robotics and autonomous systems are considered for the future. The main assumption behind ELIPS is that fuzzy, rule-based and neural forms of computation can serve as the main primitives of an "intelligent" processor. Thus, in the same way classic processors are designed to optimize the hardware implementation of a set of fundamental operations, ELIPS is developed as an efficient implementation of computational intelligence primitives, and relies on a set of fuzzy set, fuzzy inference and neural modules, built in programmable analog hardware. The hardware programmability allows the processor to reconfigure into different machines, taking the most efficient hardware implementation during each phase of information processing. Following software demonstrations on several interceptor data, three important ELIPS building blocks (a fuzzy set preprocessor, a rule-based fuzzy system and a neural network) have been fabricated in analog VLSI hardware and demonstrated microsecond-processing times.

  5. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): Effects after 24 and 30 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Hein; Dijk, Froukje; Wetzels, Joyce; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Ariza, Carles; Vitoria, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtovuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2006-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, 12.4% of the T1…

  6. The European Project Semester at ISEP: The Challenge of Educating Global Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malheiro, Benedita; Silva, Manuel; Ribeiro, Maria Cristina; Guedes, Pedro; Ferreira, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Current engineering education challenges require approaches that promote scientific, technical, design and complementary skills while fostering autonomy, innovation and responsibility. The European Project Semester (EPS) at Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (ISEP) (EPS@ISEP) is a one semester project-based learning programme (30 European…

  7. Lost in Translation? A Case Study of Macao in Fabricating a European Education Space in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vong, Teresa Sou-Kuan; Wong, Matilda

    2014-01-01

    The creation of a European education space has been extensively discussed in Europe. Many scholars are concerned about the way in which the emergence of "global governmentality," such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)'s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), has produced a "soft…

  8. ICT Use and Achievement in Three European Countries: What Does PISA Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens, Karl

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, in many European countries large investments were made to foster the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in education with the expectation that ICT would make teaching and learning more effective. This would, for example, become evident in scores obtained by students in the Programme for International…

  9. The Education Structures in the Member States of the European Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This document was prepared in response to a comparative study tour undertaken as part of the European Communities Commission's Community Education Programme. It describes the educational structures of Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of German, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemborg, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Each country's…

  10. Federated eRubric Service to Facilitate Self-Regulated Learning in the European University Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Daniel Cebrián; Angulo, José Serrano; de la Serna, Manuel Cebrián

    2014-01-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is a political programme for higher education in Europe that was developed in the context of the Bologna process. It highlights the importance of focusing education on students' learning. It also claims that students should achieve certain skills in a self-study process supported by their teachers.…

  11. Building a global business continuity programme.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes.

  12. A leadership programme for critical care.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Linda

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the genesis, design and implementation of a leadership programme for critical care. This was an initiative funded by the National Health Service (NHS) Nursing Leadership Project and had at the core of its design flexibility to meet the needs of the individual hospitals, which took part in it. Participation was from the multi-disciplinary critical care team. Six NHS hospitals took part in the programme which was of 20 days duration and took place on hospital sites. The programme used the leadership model of as its template and had a number of distinct components; a baseline assessment, personal development, principles of leadership and critical case reviews. The programme was underpinned by three themes; working effectively in multi-professional teams to provide patient focussed care, managing change through effective leadership and developing the virtual critical care service. Each group set objectives pertinent to their own organisation's needs. The programme was evaluated by a self-reporting questionnaire; group feedback and feedback from stakeholders. Programme evaluation was positive from all the hospitals but it was clear that the impact of the programme varied considerably between the groups who took part. It was noted that there was some correlation between the success of the programme and organisational 'buy in' as well as the organisational culture within which the participants operated. A key feature of the programme success was the critical case reviews, which were considered to be a powerful learning tool and medium for group learning and change management. PMID:16621563

  13. A leadership programme for critical care.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Linda

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the genesis, design and implementation of a leadership programme for critical care. This was an initiative funded by the National Health Service (NHS) Nursing Leadership Project and had at the core of its design flexibility to meet the needs of the individual hospitals, which took part in it. Participation was from the multi-disciplinary critical care team. Six NHS hospitals took part in the programme which was of 20 days duration and took place on hospital sites. The programme used the leadership model of as its template and had a number of distinct components; a baseline assessment, personal development, principles of leadership and critical case reviews. The programme was underpinned by three themes; working effectively in multi-professional teams to provide patient focussed care, managing change through effective leadership and developing the virtual critical care service. Each group set objectives pertinent to their own organisation's needs. The programme was evaluated by a self-reporting questionnaire; group feedback and feedback from stakeholders. Programme evaluation was positive from all the hospitals but it was clear that the impact of the programme varied considerably between the groups who took part. It was noted that there was some correlation between the success of the programme and organisational 'buy in' as well as the organisational culture within which the participants operated. A key feature of the programme success was the critical case reviews, which were considered to be a powerful learning tool and medium for group learning and change management.

  14. Building a global business continuity programme.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes. PMID:24854730

  15. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  16. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of laser radiation. A tokamak fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The tokamak design provides a temperature and a magnetic field which is effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10.sup.15 neutrons/cm.sup.2.s. A conversion medium receives neutrons from the tokamak and converts the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and an energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. The energy source typically comprises fission fragments, alpha particles, and radiation from a fission event. A lasing medium is provided which is responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion which is effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation.

  17. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  18. Fusion pumped light source

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  19. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  20. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  1. Prospects for bubble fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, R.I.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  2. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  3. Fission-fusion neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinnan; Yu, Gang

    2009-04-01

    In order to meet the requirements of fusion power reactors and nuclear waste treatment, a concept of fission-fusion neutron source is proposed, which consists of a LiD assembly located in the heavy water region of the China Advanced Research Reactor. This assembly of LiD fuel rods will be irradiated with slow neutrons and will produce fusion neutrons in the central hole via the reaction 6Li(n, α). More precisely, tritium ions with a high energy of 2.739 MeV will be produced in LiD by the impinging slow neutrons. The tritium ions will in turn bombard the deuterium ions present in the LiD assembly, which will induce fusion reaction and then the production of 14 MeV neutrons. The fusion reaction rate will increase with the accumulation of tritium in LiD by the reaction between tritium and deuteron recoils produced by the 14 MeV neutrons. When the concentration of tritium reaches 0.5 · 10 22 and the fraction of fusion reactions between tritium and deuteron recoils approaches 1, the 14 MeV neutron flux is doubled and redoubled, an so forth, approaching saturation in which the tritium produced at a time t is exhausted by the fusion reactions to keep constant the tritium concentration in LiD.

  4. Future of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J H; Wood, L L

    2002-09-04

    In the past 50 years, fusion R&D programs have made enormous technical progress. Projected billion-dollar scale research facilities are designed to approach net energy production. In this century, scientific and engineering progress must continue until the economics of fusion power plants improves sufficiently to win large scale private funding in competition with fission and non-nuclear energy systems. This economic advantage must be sustained: trillion dollar investments will be required to build enough fusion power plants to generate ten percent of the world's energy. For Inertial Fusion Energy, multi-billion dollar driver costs must be reduced by up to an order of magnitude, to a small fraction of the total cost of the power plant. Major cost reductions could be achieved via substantial improvements in target performance-both higher gain and reduced ignition energy. Large target performance improvements may be feasible through a combination of design innovations, e.g., ''fast ignition,'' propagation down density gradients, and compression of fusion fuel with a combination of driver and chemical energy. The assumptions that limit projected performance of fusion targets should be carefully examined. The National Ignition Facility will enable development and testing of revolutionary targets designed to make possible economically competitive fusion power plants.

  5. Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Bernard . E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

    2006-01-05

    The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors.

  6. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  7. Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2011-11-10

    Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.

  8. Trends in European English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Robert

    It is proposed that a European variety of English without native speakers is emerging as a language of international communication in Europe. This is a consequence of many factors, including the strength of the American economy, the breadth and depth of American research in science and technology, the pervasive influence of American-style popular…

  9. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  10. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  11. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  12. The European Economic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchart, Kelvin

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that social studies students need to realize the relationship of the European Economic Community to the United States in order to understand the trade bonds that exist between us. Briefly reviews the history of the Community, outlines its Common Agricultural Policy, and provides situations for classroom role playing. (JDH)

  13. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  14. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  15. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  16. Pubertal growth and epiphyseal fusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The complex networks of nutritional, cellular, paracrine, and endocrine factors are closely related with pubertal growth and epiphyseal fusion. Important influencing factors include chondrocyte differentiation capacity, multiple molecular pathways active in the growth plate, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis activation and epiphyseal fusion through estrogen and its receptors. However, the exact mechanisms of these phenomena are still unclear. A better understanding of the detailed processes involved in the pubertal growth spurt and growth plate closure in longitudinal bone growth will help us develop methods to efficiently promote pubertal growth and delay epiphyseal fusion with fewer adverse effects. PMID:25883921

  17. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  18. The European Long-range Research Initiative (LRI): A decade of contributions to human health protection, exposure modelling and environmental integrity.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jacob; Fritsche, Ellen; Schoeters, Greet; Kimber, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The European Long-range Research Initiative (LRI) was launched in 2000. The objective of this programme is to provide increased understanding of the potential impact of chemicals on human health and the environment. The aim has been to reduce uncertainty associated with innovation, and to promote evidence-based decision making. In pursuing these objectives the LRI has commissioned independent scientific research in institutions throughout Europe and beyond. The portfolio of research supported by the LRI has delivered significant contributions to risk assessment sciences. In addition, the LRI programme has benefited the broader scientific community. In this review article members of the Cefic European Scientific Advisory Panel (ESAP), the body charged with providing oversight of the LRI programme, illustrate some of those achievements by reference to specific areas of research (respiratory allergy, human biomonitoring, environment and wildlife), and also the contribution made to the development of European scientists through the annual LRI Award Programme. PMID:26388043

  19. Participant Perspectives on the ESO Astronomy Camp Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivotto, C.; Cenadelli, D.; Gamal, M.; Grossmann, D.; Teller, L. A. I.; Marta, A. S.; Matoni, C. L.; Taillard, A.

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the experience of attending the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Astronomy Camp from the perspective of its participants - students aged between 16 and 18 years old from around the world. The students shared a week together during the winter of 2014 in the Alpine village of Saint-Barthelemy, Italy. The camp was organised by ESO in collaboration with Sterrenlab and the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley and offered a rich programme of astronomy and leisure activities. This article focuses on the concept of astronomy camps, and their role as a unique tool to complement formal classroom education, rather than on the astronomy activities and the scientific programme. Thus, it is not an academic review of the implemented methodologies, but rather a reflection on the overall experience. The article was brought together from collaborative accounts by some of the participants who were asked to reflect on the experience. The participants who contributed to this article represent the diversity of the ESO Astronomy Camp's alumni community.

  20. The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative and its associated Fellowship Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Willmore, Peter; Mendez, Mariano; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Vogt, Joachim

    The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops have been conceived to meet the following objec-tives: i) to increase knowledge and use of public archives of space data in order both to broaden the scope of research programmes in developing countries and also to ensure that scientists in those countries are aware of the full range of facilities that are available to them, ii) to provide highly-practical instruction in the use of these archives and the associated publicly-available software, and iii) to foster personal links between participants and experienced scientists at-tending the workshops to contribute to reducing the isolation often experienced by scientists in developing countries. Since 2001 a total of eleven workshops have been successfully held in different scientific areas (X-ray, Gamma-ray and Space Optical and UV Astronomy, Mag-netospheric Physics, Space Oceanography and Planetary Science) in nine developing countries (Brazil, India, China, South Africa, Morocco, Romania, Uruguay, Egypt and Malaysia). To enable young scientists who have participated in a Workshop to build on skills gained there, the COSPAR Panel for Capacity-Building has initiated in 2008 an associated Fellowship Programme. A total number of 14 institutes from several european countries, USA, China and India are participating in the programme offering those to carry out a 2-4 week research project together with a resident scientist. We will discuss the modalities of the workshops, the so-far gained experience, and the future including collaborations with other institutions sharing the aim of increasing the scientific activities in developing countries.

  1. The European initiative on low-dose risk research: from the HLEG to MELODI.

    PubMed

    Belli, Mauro; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Jourdain, Jean-René; Salomaa, Sisko; Repussard, Jacques

    2015-09-01

    The importance of low-dose risk research for radiation protection is now widely recognised. The European Commission (EC) and five European Union (EU) Member States involved in the Euratom Programme set up in 2008 a 'High Level and Expert Group on European Low Dose Risk Research' (HLEG) aimed at identifying research needs and proposing a better integration of European efforts in the field. The HLEG revised the research challenges and proposed a European research strategy based on a 'Multidisciplinary European LOw Dose Initiative' (MELODI). In April 2009, five national organisations, with the support of the EC, created the initial core of MELODI (http://www.melodi-online.eu) with a view to integrate the EU institutions with significant programmes in the field, while being open to other scientific organisations and stakeholders, and to develop an agreed strategic research agenda (SRA) and roadmap. Since then, open workshops have been organised yearly, exploring ideas for SRA implementation. As of October 2014, 31 institutions have been included as members of MELODI. HLEG recommendations and MELODI SRA have become important reference points in the radiation protection part of the Euratom Research Programme. MELODI has established close interactions through Memorandum of Understanding with other European platforms involved in radiation protection (Alliance, NERIS and EURADOS) and, together with EURADOS, with the relevant medical European Associations. The role of Joint Programming in priority setting, foreseen in the forthcoming EU Horizon 2020, calls for keeping MELODI an open, inclusive and transparent initiative, able to avoid redundancies and possible conflicts of interest, while promoting common initiatives in radiation protection research. An important issue is the establishment of a proper methodology for managing these initiatives, and this includes the set-up of an independent MELODI Scientific Committee recently extended to Alliance, NERIS and EURADOS, with

  2. The European initiative on low-dose risk research: from the HLEG to MELODI.

    PubMed

    Belli, Mauro; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Jourdain, Jean-René; Salomaa, Sisko; Repussard, Jacques

    2015-09-01

    The importance of low-dose risk research for radiation protection is now widely recognised. The European Commission (EC) and five European Union (EU) Member States involved in the Euratom Programme set up in 2008 a 'High Level and Expert Group on European Low Dose Risk Research' (HLEG) aimed at identifying research needs and proposing a better integration of European efforts in the field. The HLEG revised the research challenges and proposed a European research strategy based on a 'Multidisciplinary European LOw Dose Initiative' (MELODI). In April 2009, five national organisations, with the support of the EC, created the initial core of MELODI (http://www.melodi-online.eu) with a view to integrate the EU institutions with significant programmes in the field, while being open to other scientific organisations and stakeholders, and to develop an agreed strategic research agenda (SRA) and roadmap. Since then, open workshops have been organised yearly, exploring ideas for SRA implementation. As of October 2014, 31 institutions have been included as members of MELODI. HLEG recommendations and MELODI SRA have become important reference points in the radiation protection part of the Euratom Research Programme. MELODI has established close interactions through Memorandum of Understanding with other European platforms involved in radiation protection (Alliance, NERIS and EURADOS) and, together with EURADOS, with the relevant medical European Associations. The role of Joint Programming in priority setting, foreseen in the forthcoming EU Horizon 2020, calls for keeping MELODI an open, inclusive and transparent initiative, able to avoid redundancies and possible conflicts of interest, while promoting common initiatives in radiation protection research. An important issue is the establishment of a proper methodology for managing these initiatives, and this includes the set-up of an independent MELODI Scientific Committee recently extended to Alliance, NERIS and EURADOS, with

  3. The U.S. Diversity Visa Programme and the Transfer of Skills from Africa.

    PubMed

    Logan, B Ikubolajeh; Thomas, Kevin J A

    2012-04-01

    The Diversity Visa (DV) programme is designed to improve the multicultural composition of the U.S. "melting pot" beyond the traditional source countries in Europe. In pursuit of this objective, the basic eligibility requirement for participation in the programme is a high school diploma. Despite its salutary objective and design, the programme's implications for the African brain drain may not all be benign. The "tired, poor, huddled masses" from Africa are defined in more restrictive terms, and the obstacles they face are more economically and administratively onerous than those encountered by their early European counterparts. The costs of transforming a lottery win to an actual diversity visa and Green Card are so high that only Africans in well-paying jobs, who are likely to be professionals rather than mere high school graduates, are likely to be able to afford the full costs of programme participation. In this sense, the programme has an in-built, skills-selective mechanism. The main objective of this study is to examine the extent to which the DV has facilitated the movement of professional, technical and kindred workers (PTKs) from Africa to the United States, and some of the economic and policy implications of the process.

  4. Exchange programmes and student mobility: meeting student's expectations or an expensive holiday?

    PubMed

    Keogh, Johannes; Russel-Roberts, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    The Bologna Process aims, amongst other things, to improve the mobility of Students within the EU. Student mobility is supported through programmes such as ERASMUS, and the success of these programmes is measured against quality and quantity of Student mobility within the European Union. This study aimed at establishing, from the students' perspective, the benefits of these programmes. To this purpose, 7 Students who were involved in a German-Finnish exchange programme were interviewed. This population was chosen, because they represented the largest group of students going to the same host university, and were influenced by the same variables, such as language difficulties and climatic conditions. The main objective of this study was to determine whether the educational and personal needs of the students were met during their exchange programme. The data analysis was done using Mayring's content analysis method. The results showed that successful mobility at student level, could lead to a diffusion of knowledge and skills between different countries. It was also found that the students indicated that their personal and educational needs were met irrespective of the language difficulties they experienced. PMID:18782646

  5. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for elderly people - a descriptive study using the EFQM' criteria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Quality is an important issue when designing a PA programme for older people. Some studies support the Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) as an operational framework for evaluating the quality of an organization. Within this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the quality management models of the PA programmes developed by Portuguese Local Administration to enhance quality of life for elderly people, according to the criteria of the EFQM Excellence Model. Methods A methodological triangulation was conducted in 26 PA programmes using questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. We used standard approaches to the statistical analysis of data including frequencies and percentages for the categorical data. Results Results showed that Processes (65,38%), Leadership (61,03%), Customer results (58,46) and People (51,28%) had high percentage occurrences of quality practices. In contrast, Partnerships and resources (45,77%), People results (41,03%), Policy and strategy (37,91%), Key performance results (19,23%) and Society results (19,23%) had lower percentage occurrences. Conclusions Our findings suggest that although there are some good practices in PA programmes, there are still relevant areas that require improvement. PMID:21338497

  6. Mass-vaccination programmes and the value of respect for autonomy.

    PubMed

    Asveld, Lotte

    2008-06-01

    Respect for autonomy is problematic in relation to public health programmes such as vaccination, as the success of such programmes depends on widespread compliance. European countries have different policies for dealing with objectors to vaccination programmes. In some countries compliance is compulsory, while in others objectors are exempted or allowed to enter the programme under specific conditions. In this paper I argue that the objectors should not be treated as a homogenous group as is done in the above-mentioned policies. Objectors have different arguments for not participating in vaccination programmes. Considering the value of respect for autonomy, some but not all of these arguments need to be accommodated by authorities. The concept of 'narrative autonomy' provides criteria to distinguish between tenable and untenable claims to the right to refuse vaccination. Narrative autonomy understands autonomy as essentially linked to identity, as this provides the moral framework with which we assess our first-order preferences. The above-mentioned concept of autonomy is derived from the concept of narrative identity as described by Marya Schechtman. She suggests that the application of the Articulation Constraint and the Reality Constraint enables us to establish the validity of personal narratives. Additionally, form and content features of identity, as proposed by Anthony Laden, will be used as criteria to establish the compatibility of the defectors' arguments with shared scientific and political values. Such compatibility is essential to accommodate respect for autonomy in the context of public health.

  7. Fusion materials irradiations at MaRIE's fission fusion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, Eric J

    2010-10-06

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's proposed signature facility, MaRIE, will provide scientists and engineers with new capabilities for modeling, synthesizing, examining, and testing materials of the future that will enhance the USA's energy security and national security. In the area of fusion power, the development of new structural alloys with better tolerance to the harsh radiation environments expected in fusion reactors will lead to improved safety and lower operating costs. The Fission and Fusion Materials Facility (F{sup 3}), one of three pillars of the proposed MaRIE facility, will offer researchers unprecedented access to a neutron radiation environment so that the effects of radiation damage on materials can be measured in-situ, during irradiation. The calculated radiation damage conditions within the F{sup 3} match, in many respects, that of a fusion reactor first wall, making it well suited for testing fusion materials. Here we report in particular on two important characteristics of the radiation environment with relevancy to radiation damage: the primary knock-on atom spectrum and the impact of the pulse structure of the proton beam on temporal characteristics of the atomic displacement rate. With respect to both of these, analyses show the F{sup 3} has conditions that are consistent with those of a steady-state fusion reactor first wall.

  8. Teaching and Learning National Transformation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Liz

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a research project undertaken on behalf of the Standards Unit to research the impact of the Teaching and Learning National Transformation Programme for the Learning and Skills sector. The transformational programme is best described as having three enablers, namely teaching and learning resources to support practitioners,…

  9. Students' Perception of Industrial Internship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi; Karim, Zainal Ambri Bin Abdul; Li, Chong Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An important aspect of an academic curriculum in higher learning institutions for technical disciplines is the industrial internship programme for students. The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of the effectiveness of an industrial internship programme offered by a private technological university in Malaysia.…

  10. Parenting Programmes: The Best Available Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Parenting programmes have been provided to a wide range of child and parent groups across a number of countries, but are they effective? This aim of this paper is to examine the findings from a number of systematic reviews that summarise the best available research evidence on the impact of these programmes on a range of parental and child…

  11. Controller-Programmer for telemetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, R. Michael

    1988-10-01

    The development, testing, and implementation of modern, sophisticated telemetry systems requires a controller capable of adequately exercising the telemeter. A flight test requires a programmer to cycle through the flight events. This report describes an adaptable, programmable system that encompasses both of these requirements.

  12. Popular participation in community health programmes.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M

    1993-01-01

    Community health programmes can be one of the most important and most available forms of education for the total community. This article outlines health programmes and health education initiatives, as well as approaches to participatory training, in several South Pacific countries.

  13. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  14. Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

  15. Handwashing Programme in Kindergarten: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, W. H.; Suen, L. K. P.; Kwok, Y. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured programme on handwashing which has taken into account of the developmental stage of children. Design/methodology/approach: This is a pilot study using a structured handwashing programme as intervention. The intervention group (n=15) receives the structured…

  16. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing.

    PubMed

    Weirather, Jason L; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S; Underwood, Jason G; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-10-15

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes. PMID:26040699

  17. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Weirather, Jason L.; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A.; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S.; Underwood, Jason G.; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes. PMID:26040699

  18. Euro-Arab School of Oncology: an educational collaborative activity of the European School of Oncology with the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Nicholas; Nicholas, Pavlidis; Gadallah, Mohsen; Mohsen, Gadallah; Cavalli, Franco; Franco, Cavalli; Costa, Alberto; Alberto, Costa

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we report on the new endeavor of the European School of Oncology to offer collaborative educational activity to the Arab oncologists. We present the 4-year detailed programme held in different Middle East countries with the organization of master classes, advanced courses, or symposia as well as the fellowship programme and the press media events. In addition, we assess the evaluation questionnaires given to the participants during the courses. PMID:20405354

  19. Prospects for fusion: The winds of change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, R. C.

    This paper addresses the following topics: (1) national energy circumstances and policy, and the implications for fusion; (2) the intrinsic merit of fusion research and development as it contributes to the national science and technology base; (3) the research opportunities and priorities in inertial confinement fusion; and (4) the research opportunities and priorities in magnetic fusion.

  20. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.