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Sample records for european mediterranean coast

  1. Perkinsus chesapeaki observed in a new host, the European common edible cockle Cerastoderma edule, in the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; Rojas, M; Aceituno, P; Andree, K B; Lacuesta, B; Furones, M D

    2014-03-01

    Histological observations showed the presence of a Perkinsus sp. parasite in Cerastoderma edule tissues for the first time in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. ITS molecular characterization by PCR-RFLP, in situ hybridization and sequencing, identified the parasite as Perkinsus chesapeaki, with a maximum identity of 99-100% with GenBank P. chesapeaki sequences from France and 97% with P. chesapeaki sequences of North American origin when BLAST analysis was carried out. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies placed the European cockle parasite in a well defined cluster together with the other European isolates. This is the first report of P. chesapeaki in the cockle C. edule.

  2. Bonamia exitiosa (Haplosporidia) observed infecting the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis cultured on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; Villalba, A; Andree, K B; Engelsma, M Y; Lacuesta, B; Ramilo, A; Gairín, I; Furones, M D

    2012-07-01

    Bonamia exitiosa and Bonamia ostreae are parasites that reproduce within the haemocytes of several oyster species. In Europe, the host species is the flat oyster Ostrea edulis. The parasite B. ostreae has been responsible for mortalities since the late 1970s throughout the European Atlantic coast. B. exitiosa was first detected, in 2007, on this continent in flat oysters cultured in Galicia (NW Spain). Since then, the parasite has also been detected in France, Italy and the United Kingdom. The bays of the Ebro Delta in the south of Catalonia represent the main bivalve culture area in the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Previous information from the area includes reports of several flat oyster pathogens, including the notifiable parasite Marteilia refringens. However, the status with regard to Bonamia parasites was uncertain. In the present study, a Bonamia parasite was observed in flat oysters cultured in the Alfacs Bay of the Ebro Delta by histology and real-time PCR. PCR-RFLP and sequencing suggested the presence of B. exitiosa. Finally, phylogenetic analyses of the studied Bonamia isolates corroborated B. exitiosa infection. M. refringens was also observed in the same oyster batch, and co-infection with both parasites was also detected. This is the first detection of B. exitiosa, in Catalonia and the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The impact of the parasite on the Mediterranean flat oyster activity needs to be urgently addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New tsunami damage functions developed in the framework of SCHEMA project: application to European-Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, N.; Gardi, A.; Gauraz, A.; Leone, F.; Guillande, R.

    2011-10-01

    In the framework of the European SCenarios for tsunami Hazard-induced Emergencies MAnagement (SCHEMA) project (www.schemaproject.org), we empirically developed new tsunami damage functions to be used for quantifying the potential tsunami damage to buildings along European-Mediterranean coasts. Since no sufficient post-tsunami observations exist in the Mediterranean areas, we based our work on data collected by several authors in Banda Aceh (Indonesia) after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Obviously, special attention has been paid in focusing on Indonesian buildings which present similarities (in structure, construction material, number of storeys) with the building typologies typical of the European-Mediterranean areas. An important part of the work consisted in analyzing, merging, and interpolating the post-disaster observations published by three independent teams in order to obtain the spatial distribution of flow depths necessary to link the flow-depth hazard parameter to the damage level observed on buildings. Then we developed fragility curves (showing the cumulative probability to have, for each flow depth, a damage level equal-to or greater-than a given threshold) and damage curves (giving the expected damage level) for different classes of buildings. It appears that damage curves based on the weighted mean damage level and the maximum flow depth are the most appropriate for producing, under GIS, expected damage maps for different tsunami scenarios.

  4. Endemic strongyloidiasis on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, P R; Guzman, A P; Guillen, S M; Adell, R I; Estruch, A M; Gonzalo, I N; Olmos, C R

    2001-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of Strongyloides stercoralis infection can be difficult, and a high degree of clinical suspicion in patients who have visited an endemic area is required. We describe the epidemiology and clinical features of 152 prospectively identified cases of strongyloidiasis in an European region, and identify risk factors for the development of severe forms of the disease. This was a prospective study of all patients admitted to a single institution over an 8-year period. Patients (n=152) were mainly elderly male farmers (79%) who had acquired the disease by working barefoot in contact with soil and ingesting non-drinking water. Eosinophilia was a sensitive marker for the infection (82%). Twenty patients (13%) developed severe forms of the illness and six patients (4%) died. A significant association was found between severe forms of strongyloidiasis and steroid usage (OR 9.0, 95%CI 2.1-37.6), immunodebilitating illness (OR 10.1, 95%CI 3.2-32.3) and other immunosuppressive therapy (OR 13.7, 95%CI 2.9-58.7), but by logistic regression analysis, only immunodebilitating disease was as a risk factor (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.78-2.43). S. stercolaris infection is endemic in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The frequent development of severe forms of the disease, with a high mortality, makes early recognition and treatment essential.

  5. Meteotsunami occurrence frequency along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Marinella; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A number of research studies describe exceptional destructive meteotsunami events since long time whereas no systematic database is available of moderate events because sea level data were recorded with insufficient resolution. Sea level measurements recently collected with high sampling rate, one per minute or less, by tide gauges positioned along the Mediterranean coasts are examined, aiming to analyze the occurrence of oscillation events in the tsunami frequency range. Sea level data from operating tide stations inside the Mediterranean basin are made publicly available through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Sea Level Monitoring Facility web site (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org/). After the implementation of a rigorous quality check procedure to the raw water level time series, Hilbert transform is applied to two hour high-pass filtered observations to identify tsunami-like oscillation events. Events of seismic origin are identified by consistency between earthquake occurrence and tsunami wave travel time from the earthquake epicenter to the specific tide gauge. Similar analyses are performed to exclude sea waves induced harbor seiches events. A list of probable meteotsunami episodes occurred in the Mediterranean region is so compiled and their occurrence frequency and intensity statistics are evaluated at the different tide gauge sites over the time period of high frequency water level data availability ranging from five to seven years. The effects of atmospheric conditions and seabed topography are discussed. Detection and characterization of meteotsunamis, both of exceptional character and of weak intensity, represent an essential step toward improved assessments of coastal flooding risk along the Mediterranean coasts.

  6. View of Mediterranean coast of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Mediterranean coast of France is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This view includes the port cities of Marseilles (near center) and Toulon (far right). The mouth of the Rhone River is on the left. The irregular L-shaped inland body of water is Etang de Berre and is connected to the sea by a narrow canal. The city of Martiques is on the inland side of the canal. Cloud formations form narrow bands or streets along the coast east of Martiques and over the water. Cultural features such as major highways are indicated by thin white lines. Harbor facilities (wharves) and inner city patterns are distinctive in Marseilles and Toulon. The light tan areas in the regions inland from the major cities represent farming communities. The patterns are well shown in the vicinity of the Rhone River. The geology of the region is complex as illustrated by

  7. View of Mediterranean coast of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Mediterranean coast of France is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This view includes the port cities of Marseilles (near center) and Toulon (far right). The mouth of the Rhone River is on the left. The irregular L-shaped inland body of water is Etang de Berre and is connected to the sea by a narrow canal. The city of Martiques is on the inland side of the canal. Cloud formations form narrow bands or streets along the coast east of Martiques and over the water. Cultural features such as major highways are indicated by thin white lines. Harbor facilities (wharves) and inner city patterns are distinctive in Marseilles and Toulon. The light tan areas in the regions inland from the major cities represent farming communities. The patterns are well shown in the vicinity of the Rhone River. The geology of the region is complex as illustrated by

  8. View of portion of Mediterranean Coast of Turkey and Syria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A near vertical view of a portion of the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey and Syria, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. This view covers the Levant Coast north of Beirut, showing the cities of Aleppo, Hamah, Homs and Latakia. The Levantine rift bends to the northeast. The altitude of the spacecraft was 225 kilometers (140 statute miles) when this photo was taken.

  9. Microsatellite diversity suggests different histories for Mediterranean and Northern European cattle populations

    PubMed Central

    Cymbron, Teresa; Freeman, Abigail R; Isabel Malheiro, M; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Bradley, Daniel G

    2005-01-01

    Based on archaeological evidence, the spread of agropastoralism across Europe followed two main paths: the Danubian route, along which Neolithic farmers expanded north across the central European plains; and the Mediterranean route, where migration occurred along the coast of the Mediterranean sea. Here we examine 20 cattle breeds from the continent and assess the genetic diversity levels and relationships among the breeds using 19 microsatellite markers. Additionally, we show evidence that concords with two distinct cattle migrations from the Near East, and also demonstrate that Mediterranean cattle breeds may have had more recent input from both the Near East and Africa. PMID:16096097

  10. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  12. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool - the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) - devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs.

  13. View of portion of Mediterranean Coast of Turkey and Syria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-20

    AST-16-1268 (20 July 1975) --- A near vertical view of a portion of the Mediterranean coast of Turkey and Syria, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. This view covers the Levant Coast north of Beirut, showing the cities of Aleppo, Hamah, Homs and Latakia. The Levantine rift bends to the northeast. This picture was taken with a 70mm Hasselblad camera using high-definition aerial Ektachrome SO-242 type film. The altitude of the spacecraft was 225 kilometers (140 statute miles) when this photograph was taken.

  14. Understanding tidal notch development: examples from tropical and Mediterranean coasts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Cherith; Furlani, Stefano; Kazmer, Miklos

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that tropical rock coasts exhibit morphological features that are different compared to other climatic regimes. But tidal notches, recesses extending along marine cliffs, are common to both tropical and Mediterranean coasts, and develop because of higher erosion rates in the intertidal zone compared to the supratidal or subtidal zone. They are widely used as geomorphological indicators of sea level change and tectonic movement. For this purpose their formation is usually associated with wave erosion, although the role of bioerosion and weathering, e.g. solution, are sometimes given more importance. In some cases wave erosion may simply remove weathered materials rather than directly eroding the rock e.g. on granite and sandstone coasts. Rock type is also thought to be important in the development of tidal notches, with those developed on limestone coasts said to provide more reliable indicators than other rock types. As well as indicating the vertical position of former sea levels, tidal notches have also been used to estimate the duration of stillstands (e.g. on harder limestones) and to calculate the periodicity of cliff-falls (e.g. on softer limestones). Despite their importance, the genesis, rate of development and global variations in morphology of tidal notches are still not fully understood. We assess present understanding of the roles of climate, tidal range, wave conditions and rock type by reviewing studies of morphology, rates and modes of tidal notch development on Mediterranean and tropical coasts. There is a dearth of quantitative data and so we present notch erosion rates directly measured using the Micro Erosion Meter (MEM) and Traversing MEM (TMEM) on limestone on the Northern Adriatic and Andaman Sea coasts: the former collected over > 10 years on the Trieste and Istrian coasts and > 3 years on an experimental vertical slab in the Gulf of Trieste; the latter over a 10 year period at Krabi in Southern Thailand. We relate these

  15. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change.

  16. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey.

  17. Characterization of extreme sea level at the European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Alberto; Jorda, Gabriel; Mathis, Moritz; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high sea levels arise as a combination of storm surges and particular high tides events. Future climate simulations not only project changes in the atmospheric circulation, which induces changes in the wind conditions, but also an increase in the global mean sea level by thermal expansion and ice melting. Such changes increase the risk of coastal flooding, which represents a possible hazard for human activities. Therefore, it is important to investigate the pattern of sea level variability and long-term trends at coastal areas. In order to analyze further extreme sea level events at the European coast in the future climate projections, a new setup for the global ocean model MPIOM coupled with the regional atmosphere model REMO is prepared. The MPIOM irregular grid has enhanced resolution in the European region to resolve the North and the Mediterranean Seas (up to 11 x 11 km at the North Sea). The ocean model includes as well the full luni-solar ephemeridic tidal potential for tides simulation. To simulate the air-sea interaction, the regional atmospheric model REMO is interactively coupled to the ocean model over Europe. Such region corresponds to the EuroCORDEX domain with a 50 x 50 km resolution. Besides the standard fluxes of heat, mass (freshwater), momentum and turbulent energy input, the ocean model is also forced with sea level pressure, in order to be able to capture the full variation of sea level. The hydrological budget within the study domain is closed using a hydrological discharge model. With this model, simulations for present climate and future climate scenarios are carried out to study transient changes on the sea level and extreme events. As a first step, two simulations (coupled and uncoupled ocean) driven by reanalysis data (ERA40) have been conducted. They are used as reference runs to evaluate the climate projection simulations. For selected locations at the coast side, time series of sea level are separated on its different

  18. Assessment of a Tsunami Hazard for Mediterranean Coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Babeyko, Andrey; Yalciner, Ahmet; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of tsunami hazard for Egypt based on historic data and numerical modelling of historic and prognostic events is given. There are 13 historic events for 4000 years, including one instrumental record (1956). Tsunami database includes 12 earthquake tsunamis and 1 event of volcanic origin (Santorini eruption). Tsunami intensity of events (365, 881, 1303, 1870) is estimated as I = 3 led to tsunami wave height more than 6 m. Numerical simulation of some possible scenario of tsunamis of seismic and landslide origin is done with use of NAMI-DANCE software solved the shallow-water equations. The PTHA method (Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment - Probabilistic assessment of a tsunami hazard) for the Mediterranean Sea developed in (Sorensen M.B., Spada M., Babeyko A., Wiemer S., Grunthal G. Probabilistic tsunami hazard in the Mediterranean Sea. J Geophysical Research, 2012, vol. 117, B01305) is used to evaluate the probability of tsunami occurrence on the Egyptian coast. The synthetic catalogue of prognostic tsunamis of seismic origin with magnitude more than 6.5 includes 84 920 events for 100000 years. For the wave heights more 1 m the curve: exceedance probability - tsunami height can be approximated by exponential Gumbel function with two parameters which are determined for each coastal location in Egypt (totally. 24 points). Prognostic extreme highest events with probability less 10-4 are not satisfied to the Gumbel function (approximately 10 events) and required the special analysis. Acknowledgements: This work was supported EU FP7 ASTARTE Project [603839], and for EP - NS6637.2016.5.

  19. The UV Index on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Marín, M J; Sola, Y; Tena, F; Utrillas, M P; Campmany, E; de Cabo, X; Lorente, J; Martínez-Lozano, J A

    2005-01-01

    An analysis is made of measured ultraviolet erythemal solar radiation (UVER) data recorded during the year 2003 by the networks of the Catalan Weather Service and the Environment Department of Valencia (both on the Spanish Mediterranean coast). Results show a latitudinal variation at sea level, of 3-4% per degree and an increase with altitude of 10% per km. Based on these data the UV Index has been evaluated for the measuring stations. The maximum experimental value of the UV Index was around 9 during the summer, although higher values were recorded at two stations, one at the highest elevation and the other at the lowest latitude. The annual accumulated doses of irradiation on a horizontal plane have been presented as well as the evolution through the year in units of energy, Standard Erythemal Doses and Minimum Erythemal Doses according to different phototypes. Lastly, the UV Index forecast, determined with a multiple scattering radiative transfer model, has been analyzed. Total agreement or only one unit of difference between measured and modelled values was found in 94% of cloud-free cases.

  20. High Resolution Regional Climate Modeling for Lebanon, Eastern Mediterranean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katurji, Marwan; Soltanzadeh, Iman; Kuhnlein, Meike; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2013-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean coast consists of Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Israel and a small part of southern Turkey. The region lies between latitudes 30 degrees S and 40 degrees N, which makes its climate affected by westerly propagating wintertime cyclones spinning off mid-latitude troughs (December, January and February), while during summer (June, July and August) the area is strongly affected by the sub-tropical anti-cyclonic belt as a result of the descending air of the Hadley cell circulation system. The area is considered to be in a transitional zone between tropical to mid-latitude climate regimes, and having a coastal topography up to 3000 m in elevation (like in the Western Ranges of Lebanon), which emphasizes the complexity of climate variability in this area under future predictions of climate change. This research incorporates both regional climate numerical simulations, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite derived and surface rain gauge rainfall data to evaluate the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 ability to represent both the mean and variance of observed precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, with emphasis on the Lebanese coastal terrain and mountain ranges. The adopted methodology involves dynamically down scaling climate data from reanalysis synoptic files through a double nesting procedure. The retrospective analysis of 13 years with both 50 and 10 km spatial resolution allows for the assessment of the model results on both a climate scale and specific high intensity precipitating events. The spatial averaged mean bias error in precipitation rate for the rainy season predicted by RegCM 50 and 10 km resolution grids was 0.13 and 0.004 mm hr-1 respectively. When correlating RegCM and TRMM precipitation rate for the domain covering Lebanon's coastal mountains, the root mean square error (RMSE) for the mean quantities over the 13-year period was only 0.03, while the RMSE for the standard deviation was higher by one

  1. Least Disturbed Condition for European Mediterranean rivers.

    PubMed

    Feio, M J; Aguiar, F C; Almeida, S F P; Ferreira, J; Ferreira, M T; Elias, C; Serra, S R Q; Buffagni, A; Cambra, J; Chauvin, C; Delmas, F; Dörflinger, G; Erba, S; Flor, N; Ferréol, M; Germ, M; Mancini, L; Manolaki, P; Marcheggiani, S; Minciardi, M R; Munné, A; Papastergiadou, E; Prat, N; Puccinelli, C; Rosebery, J; Sabater, S; Ciadamidaro, S; Tornés, E; Tziortzis, I; Urbanič, G; Vieira, C

    2014-04-01

    The present report describes a three-step approach that was used to characterize and define thresholds for the Least Disturbed Condition in Mediterranean streams of four different types, regarding organic pollution and nutrients, hydrological and morphological alterations, and land use. For this purpose, a common database composed of national reference sites (929 records) from seven countries, sampled for invertebrates, diatoms and macrophytes was used. The analyses of reference sites showed that small (catchment <100 km(2)) siliceous and non-siliceous streams were mainly affected by channelization, bank alteration and hydropeaking. Medium-sized siliceous rivers were the most affected by stressors: 25-43% of the samples showed at least slight alterations regarding channelization, connectivity, upstream dam influence, hydropeaking and degradation of riparian vegetation. Temporary streams were the least affected by hydromorphological changes, but they were nevertheless affected by alterations in riparian vegetation. There were no major differences between all permanent stream types regarding water quality, but temporary streams showed lower values for oxygenation (DO) and wider ranges for other variables, such as nitrates. A lower threshold value for DO (60%) was determined for this stream type and can be attributed to the streams' natural characteristics. For all other river types, common limits were found for the remaining variables (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, total P, % of artificial areas, % of intensive and extensive agriculture, % of semi-natural areas in the catchment). These values were then used to select the list of reference sites. The biological communities were characterized, revealing the existence of nine groups of Mediterranean invertebrate communities, six for diatoms and five for macrophytes: each group was characterized by specific indicator taxa that highlighted the differences between groups.

  2. Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth over the Mediterranean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Martínez, J. Vicente; Segura, Sara; Estellés, Víctor; Utrillas, M. Pilar; Martínez-Lozano, J. Antonio

    2013-04-01

    statistics from MODIS with corresponding temporal statistics from AERONET, as proposed by Ichoku et al. (2002). Eight Mediterranean coastal sites (in Spain, France, Italy, Crete, Turkey and Israel) with available AERONET and MODIS data have been used. These stations have been selected following QA criteria (minimum 1000 days of level 2.0 data) and a maximum distance of 8 km from the coast line. Results of the validation over each site show analogous behaviour, giving similar results regarding to the accuracy of the algorithms. Greatest differences are found for the AOD obtained over land, especially for drier regions, where the surface tends to be brighter. In general, the MODIS AOD has better a agreement with AERONET retrievals for the ocean algorithm than the land algorithm when validated over coastal sites, and the agreement is within the expected uncertainty estimated for MODIS data. References: - C. Ichoku et al., "A spatio-temporal approach for global validation and analysis of MODIS aerosol products", Geophysical Research Letters, 219, 12, 10.1029/2001GL013206, 2002.

  3. Defining Densities for Urban Residential Texture, Through Land Use Classification, from Landsat TM Imagery: Case Study of Spanish Mediterranean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaninno, N.; Roca, J.; Burns, M.; Alhaddad, B.

    2012-07-01

    In the recent epoch, there has been considerable debate about the urban development along the European Mediterranean area, also undertaken by the European Authorities, and in particular regarding the role of spatial planning in order to improve sustainable trends of land use. Great transformations along the Spanish Mediterranean coast have generated considerable changes in the traditional structure of the landscape, far from the typical model of Mediterranean cities, and the rapidity of these modern dynamics has been a significant impact on the spatial patterns, also associated with the expansion of urban connections through the whole territory. The increase of large peri-urban areas, sprawled on the territory, and caused by uncontrolled, uncoordinated and unplanned growth, inevitably has brought the cancellation of clearly identifiable boundaries between the city and the rural areas. Spatial analysis, within quantitative geography and linked to the emerging field of regional science, represents a synthesis of urban and regional economics that is consistent with the complex sciences which dominate the simulation of urban form and functions. Most urban models deal with the city in terms of the location of its economic and demographic activities, but there is also a move to link such models to urban morphologies (Batty 2008). According with these concepts, the investigation, also supported by the use of technologies such as remote sensing and GIS, aims to complement the spatial analysis of regional development dynamics by classifying urban structures and quantifying some of main characteristics based on morphological features.

  4. Ingestion of microplastics by demersal fish from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Martínez-Armental, José; Martínez-Cámara, Ariana; Besada, Victoria; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción

    2016-08-15

    Microplastic pollution has received increased attention over the last few years. This study documents microplastic ingestion in three commercially relevant demersal fish species from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula, the European hake Merluccius merluccius and the red mullet Mullus barbatus. Overall 212 fish were examined, 72 dogfish, 12 hakes and 128 red mullets. The percentage of fish with microplastics was 17.5% (15.3% dogfish, 18.8% red mullets and 16.7% hakes), averaging 1.56±0.5 items per fish, and the size of the microplastics ranged from 0.38 to 3.1mm. These fish species are used currently as biomonitors for marine pollution monitoring within the Spanish Marine Pollution Monitoring Programme (SMP), and may be as well suitable candidates for monitoring spatial and temporal trends of ingested litter. The data presented here represent a baseline for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive descriptor 10 in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Operational Alert System for the European-Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazet-Roux, G.; Bossu, R.; Carreno, E.; Guilbert, J.; Godey, S.

    2003-12-01

    The European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) has been running for several years an operational alert system for potentially damaging earthquakes which occur in the European-Mediterranean region. This alert system, - sub-part of the EMSC real time information service available on the web site (www.emsc-csem.org) - is based on parametric data provided through the Internet by 40 different networks representing 800 stations in the Euro.-Med. region. In case of potentially damaging earthquake, the seismologist on duty connects to EMSC facilities, merges and processes all available data and, as soon as a reliable solution is available, disseminates alert messages by fax and email. Alert messages are sent by fax to official organisations (e.g., Civil Protection Agency, rescue teams, Council of Europe, ECHO, etc.), to the seismological community and to the public by emails (800 emails). Furthermore, data and results are made automatically available in real time on the web. In case of technical problems or maintenance activities, the duty is taken over by IGN (Madrid, Spain), which runs full back-up procedures. EMSC commits itself to a maximum dissemination time (time lag between the occurrence of the earthquake and the messages' dissemination) of 1 hour. This delay is respected in the vast majority of cases with a median dissemination time of less than 40 minutes. We will give an overview of this system and its performances and put a special emphasis on the processing of the recent earthquake in Algeria.

  6. Comparative study of mercury accumulation in dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from French Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Andre, J; Boudou, A; Ribeyre, F; Bernhard, M

    1991-05-15

    Total mercury concentrations (Hgt) have been determined in liver, kidneys, skeletal muscle, melon, stomach and intestine of 35 specimens of Stenella coeruleoalba stranded on French Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. Very high mercury levels, with concentrations reaching 80 mg Hgt kg(-1) fresh weight (FW) in muscle and about 1500 mg Hgt kg(-1) FW in liver tissue, were observed. Liver has the highest concentration, followed by muscle and kidney. The lowest concentrations were found in the melon. The levels observed in the Mediterranean specimens are among the highest observed in marine organisms and confirm previous reports of high mercury levels in marine mammals from the Mediterranean. Comparison between Hgt accumulation levels in these two geographic groups of dolphins shows that Mediterranean individuals have much higher concentrations than specimens from the Atlantic. These differences provide additional confirmation for the higher Hgt concentrations observed previously in other pelagic species (tuna, sardine, anchovy, etc.) from the Mediterranean Sea. Taking into consideration the pelagic habitat of the dolphin and the local influence of anthropogenic mercury sources it seems reasonable to assume that the main source of the high mercury concentrations observed in Mediterranean biota is natural mercury deposits located in many regions of the Mediterranean basin.

  7. Comparison of the feeding apparatus and diet of European sardines Sardina pilchardus of Atlantic and Mediterranean waters: ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Costalago, D; Garrido, S; Palomera, I

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the feeding apparatus (gill rakers, GR) and the diet composition of European sardine Sardina pilchardus populations living in two contrasting environments were compared: the upwelling area off western Iberia and the comparatively less productive region of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The importance of local adaptations in the trophic ecology of this species was estimated. Sardina pilchardus from the Atlantic Iberian coast and from the north-western Mediterranean Sea have clear differences in the feeding apparatus and diet compositions. Those from the Atlantic Iberian coast have significantly more GRs than S. pilchardus of the same size range in the Mediterranean Sea. While S. pilchardus from the Mediterranean Sea mostly depend on prey ranging between 750-1500 and 3000-4000 µm, corresponding mostly to cladocerans, decapods and copepods, those from the Atlantic depend on smaller prey (50-500 and 1000-1500 µm) that include phytoplankton and copepods, particularly during summer months, and S. pilchardus eggs during the winter. The marked difference between the trophic ecology of S. pilchardus in the two areas studied appears to have originated from different dietary strategies that the two populations have adopted in contrasting feeding environments. These differences are shown to profoundly affect the size and quality of prey consumed, and the effect of cannibalism on the populations. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Risk Assessment of Organochlorines in Mollusk from the Mediterranean and Red Sea Coasts of Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Khaled, Azza

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues were studied in different mollusk species from the Egyptian Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. The average levels of OCPs in mollusks comprised chlordanes, dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor (DECEM), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The averages of HCHs, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mollusks from the Mediterranean Sea were 1.13±1.21, 1.30±1.27, and 1.40±0.93 ng/g, respectively; from the Red Sea, they were 0.62±0.90, 1.77±1.82, and 6.44±5.05 ng/g, respectively. The analysis of HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs in mollusks indicates a new usage of lindane, PCB congeners, and the input of technical HCH and aged DDT. The data showed that the Red Sea Coast was more affected by PCBs congeners than the Mediterranean Sea Coast, which may be attributed to the different activities along the two coastal areas. Mollusks in the Mediterranean Sea had higher dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor contents than those in the Red Sea. Interestingly, HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs levels were lower than those recommended for Swedish Food Regulation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means that mollusks from these two coastal areas are safe as food.

  9. Rate of coastal transport along the southeastern mediterranean coast during storms using water hyacinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galili, Ehud; Weinstein-Evron, Mina

    1989-06-01

    The current study provides a potential method for measuring current velocities during storms. Water hyacinth debris, carried from the Nile outlet area by the offshore current, are washed ashore along the Israeli coasts after southwesterly winter storms. The impact of the offshore current and wind on the floating debris is such that storms of five days duration are sufficient to transport plants from the Nile to the Carmel coast, a distance of about 400 km. The available information indicates a high rate of transport in the southeastern Mediterranean.

  10. Alien bryozoans in the eastern Mediterranean Sea--new records from the coast of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Harmelin, Jean-Georges

    2014-12-09

    The Levant Basin (SE Mediterranean) is the most exposed to the introduction of non-indigenous species. The current assessment of exotic bryozoans present along the coast of Lebanon has been completed by the recording of fourteen cheilostome species (one cryptogenic) collected by diving in 17 localities (2-42 m). This set of exotic bryozoans comprises ten genera, including four (Akatopora Davis, 1934, Drepanophora Harmer, 1957, Mucropetraliella Stach, 1936 and Predanophora Tilbrook, 2006) not previously reported in the Mediterranean, while Celleporaria is the most successful extra-Mediterranean genus with four species in the survey collection. A new Celleporina species, C. bitari n. sp., also collected in the Red Sea, is described. Although lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal is the main pathway for exotic bryozoans in this region, the geographic origin of some species suggests that shipping through Gibraltar Strait is also responsible to a large extent.

  11. Trace elements in tissues of cetacean species rarely stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Kerem, Dan; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Goffman, Oz; Morick, Danny; Yoffe, Olga; Kress, Nurit

    2014-06-15

    In this paper we present the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Se, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in organs of 6 non-common specimens of cetaceans that were stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast (IMC), during 2002-2010: two fin whales, one minke whale, one Cuvier's beaked whale, one rough-toothed dolphin, and one Risso's dolphin. Most of the specimens were calves stranded by accident. Concentrations of Hg and Cd were low in tissues of the baleen whales and higher in the toothed whales, with maximum concentrations of 1067 mg kg(-1) Hg in the liver of the Risso's dolphin and 29 mg kg(-1) Cd in the kidney of the Cuvier's beaked whale. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of trace elements in baleen whales in the Eastern Mediterranean, and the first report of trace elements in minke whale and rough-toothed dolphin in the Mediterranean.

  12. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14-18-year-old adolescents (N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania (N = 1863) and Serbia (N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits-especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students.

  13. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14–18-year-old adolescents (N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania (N = 1863) and Serbia (N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits—especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students. PMID:28241432

  14. Quantitative analysis of shoreline changes at the Mediterranean Coast in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kuleli, Tuncay

    2010-08-01

    This research is focused on the coastline evolution monitoring and its potential change estimation by remote sensing techniques using multi-temporal Landsat images at the southeast coasts of the Mediterranean Sea in Turkey. The study area includes the coastal zone located in the Cukurova Delta coasts. The Cukurova Delta has accreted toward the Mediterranean Sea as a result of sediment discharge and transport from Seyhan and Ceyhan rivers. These processes have caused the morphological changes (accretion or erosion) of coastline along some parts of the southeast coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, coastline changes were researched by using radiometrically and geometrically corrected multi-temporal and multi-spectral data from Landsat Multispectral Scanner dated 1972, Thematic Mapper dated 1987, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper dated 2002. In the image processing steps, mosaicing, subset, Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique classification, band ratioing (B5/B2), edge detection, and overlay techniques were used to carry out coastline extraction and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System was used to calculate rate of coastline changes. As a result of the analysis, in some parts of the research area, remarkable coastline changes (more than 2,900 m withdrawal and -24.50 m/year erosion) were observed for a 30-year period.

  15. Management of the Mediterranean Coast in Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.; Conte, D.; Scarascia, L.; Sanchez-Arcilla, A.; Sierra, J. P.; Mosso, C.; Hinkel, J.; Vafeidis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Model projections can provide a rich information on the hazards posed by marine storminess on coastal areas and their evolution in climate change scenarios. When addressing coastal protection issues is however necessary to consider simultaneously different factors, that are usually separately computed, such as sea level rise, storm surges and ocean waves and adopt an approach accounting for their superposition. Further, this information need to be combined with that on the vulnerability of the coastal areas, their morphology and the location of harbors and defenses. This study shows how to use multi-factor projections and geographical information to identify critical parts of the coastline and to suggest to policymaker where to invest resources at country and regional scale. Results are applied to the Mediterranean coastline. Impacts on beaches (e.g. erosion), harbors (e.g. overtopping), human settlements (e.g., flood damage) and their management through enhanced coastal defenses are discussed. This study is part of the RISES-AM project (FP7-EU-603396).

  16. Convective and stratiform precipitation trends in the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Leo, Ana M.; Hernández Martín, Emiliano; Queralt, Sara; Cony, Marco Marco

    2010-05-01

    Eastern Iberian Peninsula is characterized by the large occurrence of convective precipitation events, which entail important economic and social damages. It is necessary to achieve a good knowledge and understanding of the meteorological processes involved. In this regard, an algorithm for classifying convective and stratiform precipitation components has been applied to a decadal precipitation record. Dataset were provided by National Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET) for the period 1998-2008. Hourly precipitation records have been analyzed. The goals of this study are: a) classifying total precipitation into its stratiform and convective components in Levante region (located in the Eastern Spanish coast) and b) analyzing annual and seasonal trends of such components. In order to determine both convective and stratiform precipitation components, a suitable exponential function has been used. After iterative computation process critical precipitation intensity (so-called Rc) is obtained for each year and season of the study period. Every precipitation episode in Levante region is classified into prevailing convective or stratiform regime according to the threshold value defined by Rc. First results show an annual and seasonal significant positive trend in total precipitation and stratiform component for 1998-2008 decade. Further analysis reveals that convective precipitation exhibits no significant trend. Therefore, preliminary conclusions state that the total precipitation amounts in Levante Region strongly depends on the stratiform component evolution. Current analyses are focused on evaluating the importance of convective precipitation component and assessing the main triggering factors involved in the severe weather episodes registered.

  17. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in cetaceans on the European Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Martínez-Cedeira, José A; Romero-Suances, Rafael; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in cetacean specimens stranded on the northwestern coast of Spain (European Atlantic coast) by analysis of 65 samples of large intestine from eight species. The parasites were identified by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR amplification of the β-giardin gene, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the SSU-rDNA gene of Giardia and the SSU-rDNA gene of Cryptosporidium. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 7 (10.8 %) and 9 samples (13.8 %), respectively. In two samples, co-infection with both parasites was observed. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, C, D and F, and Cryptosporidium parvum were identified. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Kogia breviceps and Stenella coeruleoalba and also the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. in B. acutorostrata and of C. parvum in S. coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus. These results extend the known host range of these waterborne enteroparasites.

  18. First report of Caulerpa taxifolia (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) on the Levantine coast (Turkey, Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cevik, Cem; Yokes, Mehmet Baki; Cavas, Levent; Erkol, Levent Itri; Derici, Osman Baris; Verlaque, Marc

    2007-09-01

    Since its first accidental introduction into the Mediterranean Sea, Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh has spread to six Mediterranean countries and has become a major ecological problem. On the basis of morphological and molecular studies (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)), we report for the first time C. taxifolia on the Levantine coast (Gulf of Iskenderun, SE Turkey). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Iskenderun isolate differs from the invasive aquarium strain first observed in Monaco, and falls in another SW Pacific clade (NE Australia, New Caledonia). The introduction in Turkey by shipping (ballast waters or anchor gears of oil tankers) is possible because C. taxifolia was found in the Gulf of Iskenderun, which is a major Eastern Mediterranean petrochemical region. On the other hand, C. taxifolia strains are available in aquarium shops in Turkey, suggesting aquarium dumping as another possible cause. As far as the intense maritime traffic of the region is concerned, further dispersals of this exotic C. taxifolia strain in the Mediterranean Sea are to be expected.

  19. The 18.6 yr nodal modulation in the tides of Southern European coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A. G. P.; Tsimplis, M. N.

    2010-02-01

    The nodal modulation of the diurnal ( K1 and O1) and semi-diurnal ( M2 and K2) tidal constituents at the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic is estimated and its spatial variability mapped. Fourteen hourly tide gauge records each spanning more than 18 years are considered in this analysis. Ten tide gauges are located in the Mediterranean Sea and four in the Bay of Biscay. The nodal modulation of the most energetic tidal constituent ( M2) reaches up to 5 cm at the eastern Atlantic coasts, while within the Mediterranean Sea its modulation is in general less than 1.1 cm. The largest K2 nodal modulation found is 3.7 cm in the eastern Atlantic coasts. In the Mediterranean Sea, smaller modulation amplitudes, ranging between 0.4 and 1.4 cm are found. The K1 tide constituent has the largest amplitude nodal modulation within the Mediterranean Sea of 1.9 cm in the north Adriatic Sea, which is also larger than the modulation of this constituent at the eastern Atlantic coasts. The O1 tide constituent has the highest amplitude nodal modulation (1.4 cm) at the eastern Atlantic coasts. In the Mediterranean Sea the maximum value is 1 cm in the north Adriatic Sea. The derived nodal modulations of the diurnal and semi-diurnal constituents follow, in general, the equilibrium tidal theory. The tidal amplitudes for all four components do not indicate significant secular trends for most tide gauges. The tidal phases indicate significant negative trends for all four tidal constituents within the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Trophic conditions govern summer zooplankton production variability along the SE Spanish coast (SW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yebra, Lidia; Putzeys, Sébastien; Cortés, Dolores; Mercado, Jesús M.; Gómez-Jakobsen, Francisco; León, Pablo; Salles, Soluna; Herrera, Inma

    2017-03-01

    The influence of hydrochemistry and trophic conditions on the coastal zooplankton community metabolic rates was investigated along the southeastern Spanish coast, from Algeciras to Cartagena. Zooplankton metabolism was assessed from measurements of gut fluorescence (GF), electron transport system (ETS) and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) activities. Zooplankton had higher biomass-specific respiration and growth rates in the Mediterranean stations to the East, driven by warmer seawater temperatures. However, zooplankton biomass and abundance were significantly higher in the Alboran Sea and, consequently, the zooplankton community in these coastal waters presented the highest production rates of the study area and among the highest of the Mediterranean Sea. We observed that summer zooplankton production variability was driven by the trophic conditions rather than by the hydrological variability.

  1. A reanalysis of the AD 365 tsunami impact along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Amr

    2010-08-01

    The historical tsunamigenic event of 21 July AD 365 destroyed several coastal locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The foremost destructive impacts were recorded in Crete and Egypt. The present study re-examines the effect of location, direction, height and time of travel of the tsunami towards the Egyptian coast. Evidently, this tsunamigenic event is related to an earthquake which is identified with a Hellenic Arc subduction-zone event of great magnitude, M > 8, as manifested by up to 9 m uplift in western Crete. The maximum run-up height distribution in the front of the Nile Delta was about 9.5 m in Alexandria, while those of the neighboring cities were 7.1 m, 4.9 m, and 1.9 m at Rashid, Damietta and El-Arish, respectively. Data obtained from this study is essential to evaluate the tsunami hazards along the Egyptian coast.

  2. Digenean parasites of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Yahya; Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the digenean parasite fauna of Sarpa salpa (Sparidae) from the Mediterranean Sea. The fish samples from the coasts of Mersin-Anamur were brought to the Parasitology Research Laboratory of the Biology Department of Science Faculty of Atatürk University, dissected and investigated parasitologically. The parasites that were found in the visceral organs were fixed with A F A (Alcohol-Formalin-Acetic Acid). The dying process of the parasites was carried out with Mayer's Carmalum and mounted with Canada Balsam. Mesometra orbicularis (Rudolphi 1819) Lühe, 1901, Mesometra brachycoelia Lühe, 1901, Centroderma sp. (Stossich 1883) (Mesometridae) and Robphildollfusium fractum (Rudolphi 1819) Paggi et Orecchia, 1963 (Gyliauchenidae) were determined. Although these parasites were detected in Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) from different localities of the Mediterranean Sea, they have not been found in the fish of the coasts of Turkey so far. The mentioned 5 species of parasites are the first records for the parasite fauna of Turkey.

  3. POP levels in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and edible fish from the eastern Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Serkan; Pazi, Idil

    2017-01-01

    Organochlorinated pesticides and Aroclors were measured in the muscle of two edible fish species (gray mullet, sea bream) and blue crab, collected from eastern Mediterranean coast in 2013. The concentration of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and Aroclors in biota samples which were collected at six sites ranged from 1.0-8.6 and 9-47.5 ng g(-1) wet weight, respectively. Total DDT concentrations in seafood samples were compared to tolerance level established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the concentrations were detected below the tolerence level. Health risk assessment was conducted related to the consumption of chemically contaminated seafood. The estimated daily intake of OCPs calculated by using the estimated daily fish consumption in Turkey was far below the acceptable daily intake as established by FAO/WHO. Our data indicated that consumption of blue crab, gray mullet, and sea bream collected from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey could pose "no risk" for human health in terms of OCPs.

  4. Torrential precipitations on the Spanish east coast: The role of the Mediterranean sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, M.; Estrela, M. J.; Caselles, V.

    Floods constitute one of the most important natural risks on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Although it is very difficult to avoid them, a correct understanding of their principal cause, which is torrential rain, can facilitate their prediction and in this way avoid, at least partially, their catastrophic effects (both loss of human lives and material damage). The work presented here is part of a more extensive study underway in the CEAM (Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo). Its objective is the analysis of the conditions that produce torrential precipitations. These can be explained by the hypothesis of the Back Door Front, a mechanism which on its own permits the development of a potentially unstable mass above the Mediterranean sea. Among the different factors that are valued in this hypothesis, the Sea Surface Temperature is considered to play an important role. It is studied by means of satellite images since this is the only technique that permits a synoptic view of this parameter. NOAH satellite images have been used, applying the split-window operative technique. This work presents initial results that confirm the importance of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) as a moisture source in the Mediterranean cyclogenesis.

  5. Storm-induced hazards and vulnerability along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The recently signed Protocol on ICZM in the Mediterranean by the EU and the Mediterranean countries includes a chapter on Natural Hazards where the Parties are advised to undertake vulnerability and hazard assessments of coastal zones. Within this context, the main aim of this work is to present a comprehensive framework developed within the Spain-funded VuCoMA research project to analyze coastal storm-induced hazards and vulnerability. The framework consists of three steps: definition of local storm characteristics, estimation of hazard intensities and vulnerability assessment. Storms recorded in different locations along the 500 km long Catalan coast have been analyzed to characterize the regional climate. First, a 5-class intensity scale was developed for the NW Mediterranean conditions using the wave power as classification variable. Each storm class was defined in terms of class-averaged values of Hs, Tp and duration. In addition to this, the storm climate was probabilistically defined by obtaining the wave height extreme probability function for different locations along the coast. The linkage of Hs to the other storm parameters (Tp and duration) was done through empirical relationships between each variable with Hs obtained for each location along the coast. To analyze storm-induced hazards, three main processes have been considered: sediment transport potential, beach erosion and inundation. Each process was formulated in terms of a simple indicator and they were quantified in two ways: (i) by just retaining the contribution of storm properties (wave and surge) to the considered hazard and, (ii) by including the local modulation due to coastal geomorphology (sediment and slope). This step follows the above presented two approaches. To define the hazard intensity of each storm class, we calculate the magnitude of induced processes for each individual storm within a class and, final representative figures are given in terms of class-averaged values plus the

  6. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  7. Is there a Mediterranean bioethics?

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Is there a special Mediterranean approach to Bioethics and if so what are the roots of this approach? And why not a Bosphorus, or a 'lake Michigan' bioethics? The answer to such a question depends on the focus one takes on defining 'Mediterranean'? On the one hand one can refer to the Mediterranean region which includes the surrounding coasts, having Europe on its northern coast line, northern Africa on its southern coast line (and these will include the north and South West coasts), and in the Eastern region countries which border with Middle-Eastern countries. This approach is the approach currently being taken by European Parliamentarians when they speak about the Mediterranean, namely including countries like France, Italy and Libya. On the other hand there is the look upon the Mediterranean as 'Southern Europe'; this is a more 'traditional' way on how westerners view the Mediterranean. This common approach is often recognized when, for example, we speak of 'Mediterranean diet', or, 'Mediterranean Temperament'. It would include Eastern countries like Greece and Cyprus. This article focuses on these two approaches to Mediterranean ethics after discussing issues pertaining to the region which are important to define in this context. It then analyses the need for having a Mediterranean approach to bioethical issues.

  8. Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast.

    PubMed

    Biré, Ronel; Trotereau, Sophie; Lemée, Rodolphe; Oregioni, Davide; Delpont, Christine; Krys, Sophie; Guérin, Thierry

    2015-08-21

    During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB) and upper-bound (UB) approach was 4.3 and 5.1 µg·kg(-1), respectively, with less than 1% of the results exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) threshold of 30 µg·kg(-1)and the highest values being reported for sea urchins (107.6 and 108.0 µg·kg(-1)). Toxins accumulated almost exclusively in the digestive tube of the tested species, with the exception of octopus, in which there were detectable toxin amounts in the remaining tissues (RT). The mean toxin concentration in the RT of the sampled organisms (fishes, echinoderms and cephalopods) was 0.7 and 1.7 µg·kg(-1) (LB and UB, respectively), with a maximum value of 19.9 µg·kg(-1) for octopus RT. The herbivorous and omnivorous organisms were the most contaminated species, indicating that diet influences the contamination process, and the LC-MS/MS revealed that ovatoxin-a was the only toxin detected.

  9. Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Biré, Ronel; Trotereau, Sophie; Lemée, Rodolphe; Oregioni, Davide; Delpont, Christine; Krys, Sophie; Guérin, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB) and upper-bound (UB) approach was 4.3 and 5.1 µg·kg−1, respectively, with less than 1% of the results exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) threshold of 30 µg·kg−1 and the highest values being reported for sea urchins (107.6 and 108.0 µg·kg−1). Toxins accumulated almost exclusively in the digestive tube of the tested species, with the exception of octopus, in which there were detectable toxin amounts in the remaining tissues (RT). The mean toxin concentration in the RT of the sampled organisms (fishes, echinoderms and cephalopods) was 0.7 and 1.7 µg·kg−1 (LB and UB, respectively), with a maximum value of 19.9 µg·kg−1 for octopus RT. The herbivorous and omnivorous organisms were the most contaminated species, indicating that diet influences the contamination process, and the LC-MS/MS revealed that ovatoxin-a was the only toxin detected. PMID:26308009

  10. The mediterranean coast of Andalusia (sw spain): the impacts of human coastal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Messina, Enrica; Anfuso, Giorgio; Suffo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Spanish coasts, especially the Andalusia Mediterranean one, were affected over time by progressive urbanization and associated construction of defense structures. Such structures protected small coastal sectors but at places triggered processes of coastal erosion and associated degradation of habitats and ecosystems. A correct management of coastal areas must be based on the monitoring of coastal evolution and human pressure. A useful tool to evaluate the level of human anthropization is the estimation of the "Coastal Armouring", e.g. the quantification of coastal defense structures, infrastructures, ports, etc. In this study, available aerial photographs and satellite images from 1956 to 2011 were scanned and geo-referenced and used for the quantitative assessment of coastal human constructions impact on the studied coastal area. The so called coefficient of technogenous impact (K) was used. It results from the relationship between the total length of all maritime structures (groins, moles, seawalls, dikes, channels, etc.) and the entire length of the study coastal section. For this purpose, the Andalusia coast, about 500 km in length, was divided into sections of 1 km. For each one of such sections the technogenous impact was calculated in the 1956 and 2011 documents. The analysis showed that the degree of anthropization in some areas (for example the Port of Montril) has increased considerably, triggering degradation processes in the nearby coastal areas. Results also evidenced as, in many cases, greatest human impacts are linked to the progressive construction of coastal defense. The lack of a general strategy to combat the erosion problem and the urgency in the short term to protect specific parts of the coast led to a reactive approach based initially in the construction of hard structures. Such interventions locally solved erosion problems but gave rise to drowndrift erosion according to the "domino" effect. A more general management plan is needed

  11. The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Said, Tarek O; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany; Abd-Allah, Aly M A

    2007-01-01

    Coastal marine sediment samples were collected from 31 sampling stations along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. All sediment samples were analyzed to determine aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) contents and grain size analysis. Total concentrations of 16 EPA-PAHs in the sediments were varied from 88 to 6338 ng g(-1) with an average value of 154 ng g(-1) (dry weight). However, the concentrations of total aliphatic were varied from 1.3 to 69.9 ng g(-1) with an average value of 15.6 ng g(-1) (dry weight). The highest contents of PAHs were found in the Eastern harbor (6338 ng g(-1)), Manzala (5206 ng g(-1)) and El-Jamil East (4895 ng g(-1)) locations. Good correlations observed between a certain numbers of PAH concentrations allowed to identify its origin. The average total organic carbon (TOC) percent was varied from 0.91 to 4.54%. Higher concentration of total pyrolytic hydrocarbons ( summation operatorCOMB) than total fossil hydrocarbons ( summation operatorPHE) declared that atmospheric fall-out is the significant source of PAHs to marine sediments of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. The selected marked compounds, a principal component analysis (PCA) and special PAHs compound ratios (phenanthrene/anthracene vs fluoranthene/pyrene; summation operatorCOMB/ summation operatorEPA-PAHs) suggest the pyrogenic origins, especially traffic exhausts, are the dominant sources of PAHs in most locations. Interferences of rather petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH contaminations were noticed in the harbors due to petroleum products deliveries and fuel combustion emissions from the ships staying alongside the quays.

  12. Evidence for paleotsunami deposits at Kefret Saber and El Alamein, Mediterranean coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Asem; Meghraoui, Mustapha; El Gabry, Mohamed; Maouche, Said; Hussein, Hichem; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami deposits and dragged large boulders are investigated along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt in the framework of the EC-Funded ASTARTE project (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839) and the French-Egyptian IMHOTEP project. The targeted zones located west of Alexandria are selected according to historical earthquakes and related inundation events as recorded in archives. Field investigations include: 1) Coastal geomorphology along estuaries, wedge-protected and dune-protected lagunas, and terrace-platforms as potential sites for paleotsunami and boulder records and 2) Investigations of paleotsunamis deposits and their spatial distribution using trenching and coring. The two selected sites at Kefret Saber (immediately west of Marsah Matrouh town) and near El Alamein village are inner lagunas protected by 2 to 40-m-high dunes parallel to the shoreline. Five trenches and six cores dug in Kefret Saber and 1 trench in Alamein revealed an almost identical 5 to 10-cm-thick white sand unit with highly reworked fossil-rich and shells at about 20 to 40-cm-depth, intercalated in light brown laminated sandy and sandy-clay deposits. A total of 50 samples of organic deposits and charcoal fragments were collected from both sites, among which 20 samples have been dated. Dated charcoal in deposits above and below the white sand unit lead us to correlate with the 24 June 1870 major earthquake (M 7.5 - 8.0?) that generated a tsunami with the inundation of Alexandria harbor. Major seismic sources being along the Hellenic subduction zone and Cyprus arc, our progress study of paleotsunami deposits and their distribution along the Egyptian coast will help in a better constraint of the size and recurrence of tsunamis, and their propagation over the east Mediterranean regions.

  13. [Canine leishmaniasis in the Rif mountains (Moroccan Mediterranean coast): a seroepidemiological survey].

    PubMed

    Rami, M; Atarhouch, T; Sabri, M; Cadi Soussi, M; Benazzou, T; Dakkak, A

    2003-03-01

    A sero-epidemiological survey has been conducted in several localities of the province of Nador to investigate canine leishmaniasis in the North-Eastern slope of the Rif mountains (Mediterranean coast of Morocco). Serum samples collected from 257 dogs were analysed using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. Forty eight (18.7%) of the screened dogs were IFAT positive and 54 (21.0%) were ELISA positive; the concordance of the two methods was 96.1%. The prevalence of infection is significantly higher in dogs more than four years of age whereas no significant difference in prevalence of infection was seen between males and females. The frequent symptoms observed in seropositive dogs were the enlargement of lymph nodes (57.4%), emaciation (51.9%) and skin involvement (25.9%). However, 38.9% of those dogs showed no one of the major symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania isolated from three of the examined dogs was identified as L. infantum MON-1. These results show that the North-Eastern slope of the Rif mountains is one of the most active Mediterranean areas of visceral leishmaniasis and confirm that the dog is the main reservoir of L. infantum.

  14. Mapping of the Seagrass Cover Along the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey Using Landsat 8 Oli Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirman, T.; Gumusay, M. U.; Tuney, I.

    2016-06-01

    Benthic habitat is defined as ecological environment where marine animals, plants and other organisms live in. Benthic habitat mapping is defined as plotting the distribution and extent of habitats to create a map with complete coverage of the seabed showing distinct boundaries separating adjacent habitats or the use of spatially continuous environmental data sets to represent and predict biological patterns on the seafloor. Seagrass is an essential endemic marine species that prevents coast erosion and regulates carbon dioxide absorption in both undersea and atmosphere. Fishing, mining, pollution and other human activities cause serious damage to seabed ecosystems and reduce benthic biodiversity. According to the latest studies, only 5-10% of the seafloor is mapped, therefore it is not possible to manage resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas. In this study, it is aimed to map seagrass cover using Landsat 8 OLI images in the northern part of Mediterranean coast of Turkey. After pre-processing (e.g. radiometric, atmospheric, water depth correction) of Landsat images, coverage maps are produced with supervised classification using in-situ data which are underwater photos and videos. Result maps and accuracy assessment are presented and discussed.

  15. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments, seawaters and bivalves of the Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S; Attiah, Abdullah

    2015-12-30

    In order to assess metal contamination on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 45 sediment samples, seawaters and bivalve specimens were collected from Rosetta coastal area for Mg, Al, K, Fe, Sr, Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Ce, Ni, Cr and Zr analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that the coastal sediments of Rosetta area were severely enriched, strongly polluted with As, Pb and very highly contaminated with As, Pb, Ni, Ce, mostly as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with other samples from the Arabian Gulf, Red Sea and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Fe, Pb, As, Zn and Ni. The natural sources of heavy metals in the study area are attributed to weathering and decomposition of mountain ranges of the Sudan and Ethiopia, while the anthropogenic ones are the metals produced from industrial, sewage, irrigation and urban runoff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources.

  17. Storm-induced damages along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) during the period 1958-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, José A.; Sancho-García, Amanda; Bosom, Eva; Valdemoro, Herminia I.; Guillén, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    The temporal and spatial patterns of storm-induced damage along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) during the last 50 years have been analyzed to identify main climatic and non-climatic forcings. In the absence of systematic data, a storm-induced damage database compiled from press news has been built, which together with an intensity scale has allowed us to characterize the frequency and intensity of damage. Although no temporal trend has been detected in storm-induced hazards, coastal damage has increased at a rate of about 40% per decade during the last 50 years along the Catalan coast. The main non-climatic factors identified controlling this trend were the urban growth along the coastal fringe and the generalized erosive behavior of beaches. The first one increased values at risk and the second one increased their exposure to storm-induced hazards. In spite of the importance of non-climatic factors to modulate coastal damage, an exponential dependence of damages on storm-induced inundation and erosion was detected. In addition to this, storm-induced geomorphic changes along the Ebro delta coast have also been analyzed. During the period analyzed, "harmful" storms seem to be clustered, with most of the events being present in the late 1990s and especially from 2001 to 2004, resulting in frequent events of intense beach/barrier breaching, massive overwash and flooding. They are mainly expressed in sensitive areas which are subject to long-term erosional processes and comprise a low-lying profile and a narrow beach. This reflects the role of coastal morphology in controlling the intensity of storm-induced hazards along the deltaic coast. Shoreline evolution rates calculated during this period were significantly larger than the previously recorded ones, reflecting a pulsating erosion behavior where large pulses occur during stormy periods and are reduced during post-storm periods. Under the present scenario of maximum coastal development, storm-induced damage

  18. First evidence of European eels exiting the Mediterranean Sea during their spawning migration

    PubMed Central

    Amilhat, Elsa; Aarestrup, Kim; Faliex, Elisabeth; Simon, Gaël; Westerberg, Håkan; Righton, David

    2016-01-01

    The migration route and the spawning site of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are still uncertain. It has been suggested that the Mediterranean eel stock does not contribute to spawning because there is no evidence of eels leaving the Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, we equipped eight female silver eels from the south of France with pop-up satellite tags during escapement from coastal waters. Once in deeper water, the eels quickly established diel vertical migration (DVM) between the upper and lower mesopelagic zone. Five tagged eels were taken by predators within the Mediterranean, but two eels reached the Atlantic Ocean after six months and at distances greater than 2000 km from release. These eels ceased their DVM while they negotiated the Gibraltar Strait, and remained in deep water until they reached the Atlantic Ocean, when they recommenced DVM. Our results are the first to show that eels from Mediterranean can cross the Strait of Gibraltar and continue their migration into the Atlantic Ocean. This finding suggests that Mediterranean countries, as for other EU states, have an important role to play in contributing to conservation efforts for the recovery of the European eel stock. PMID:26906289

  19. Assessment of butyltin and phenyltin pollution in the sea mullet, Mugil cephalus, along the Moroccan and Spanish coasts (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Hassani, L Hajjaj; Frenich, A Garrido; Benajiba, M H; Rodríguez, M J González; Vidal, J L Martínez; Debdoubi, A

    2006-11-01

    Levels of three butyltin (BTs) compounds, monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT), and three phenyltin (PTs) compounds, monophenyltin (MPhT), diphenyltin (DPhT), and triphenyltin (TPhT), were determined in the sea mullet, Mugil cephalus, collected along the northern Mediterranean coast of Morocco, and the south Mediterranean coast of Spain. Also, sediment samples from the Guadalquivir River (Spain) near to its mouth in the Mediterranean Sea were analysed. TBT and TPhT were the predominant compounds in the analyzed samples, and TBT concentrations were higher in liver than in muscle. In general, the total content of BTs in these samples was higher than PT levels. In the Moroccan coast, the highest value of BTs (18.00 mg/Kg wet weight) was found in the west harbour of the Tangier site, while the lowest concentration (0.01 mg/Kg wet weight) was detected in the Oued Laoue site. Concerning PTs compounds, the highest value (4.00 mg/Kg wet weight) was found in the harbour of the M'diq Site and the lowest value (0.01 mg/Kg wet weight) was detected in the Oued Laoue site. On the other hand, organotin (OT) residues were not detected in the water samples of the Spanish coast although TBT was identified in four of the nine sediment samples from the Guadalquivir River at concentrations between 15.45 and 245.07 mg/Kg wet weight.

  20. European cretaceous flints on the coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, K.O.; Kaye, C.A.; Loring, D.H.; Nota, D.J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Flint pebbles and nodules from the Upper Cretaceous chalks of Europe occur offshore and at many seaports along the Atlantic coast of North America, where they were brought as ship's ballast. Isolated pieces imported from Europe as gunflints also are present.

  1. Fractionation profile and mobility pattern of metals in sediments from the Mediterranean Coast, Libya.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Samir M; Okbah, Mohamed A; El Haddad, Huda S; Soliman, Naglaa F

    2015-07-01

    A five-step sequential extraction technique, following Tessier's protocol, has been applied to determine the chemical association of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn with major sedimentary phases (exchangeable, carbonate, manganese and iron oxides, organic and residual fraction) in surface sediments from 14 stations off the Libyan Mediterranean coast. This study is a first approach of chemical fractionation of these metals in one of the most economically important area of the Libyan coastline in Mediterranean Sea. The total metal content was also determined. The total concentration of metals ranged from 5-10.5 mg/kg for Cd, 9.1-22.7 mg/kg for Cu, 141.8-1056.8 mg/kg for Fe, 18.9-56.9 mg/kg for Pb, and 11.6-30.5 mg/kg for Zn. The results of the partitioning study showed that the residual form was the dominant fraction of the selected metals among most of the studied locations. The degree of surface sediment contamination was computed for risk assessment code (RAC), individual contamination factor (ICF), and Global contamination factor (GCF). Risk assessment code classification showed that the relative amounts of easily dissolved phase of trace metals in the sediments are in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd>Cu>Fe. The results of ICF and GCF showed that Sirt and Abu Kammashand had higher GCF than other sites indicating higher environmental risk. In terms of ICF value, a decrease order in environmental risk by trace metals was Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Fe. Therefore, Pb had highest risk to water body.

  2. Combination of Multisatellite Altimetry and Tide Gauge Data for Determining Vertical Crustal Movements along Northern Mediterranean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, F.; Vigo, M. I.; García-García, D.; Sánchez-Reales, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    Sea level variations (SLV) can be measured by tide gauges (TG) at the coast and by altimeters onboard satellites. The former measures the SLV relative to the coast, whereas altimetry provides the SLV with respect to a geocentric reference frame. The differences between SLV measurements from these two techniques can be used as an indirect assessment of vertical crustal motions at the TG sites. In this study, we exploit this idea, analyzing differences between sea level signals as measured by altimetric missions (TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1) and by 47 TG stations along northern Mediterranean coasts for the period 1993-2007. This allows us to estimate the vertical land motion along these coasts at the TG sites in this time window. For those sites where the TG is co-located or has a nearby global positioning system (GPS) station, these estimates are compared with the vertical rates derived from GPS measurements. Our results on vertical ground motion along the Mediterranean coast provide a useful source of data for studying, contrasting, and constraining tectonic models for the region.

  3. Paleotsunami deposits along the coast of Egypt correlate with historical earthquake records of eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Asem; Meghraoui, Mustapha; El Gabry, Mohamed; Maouche, Said; Hussein, Hesham; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Tsunami deposits are investigated along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt in the framework of the EC-Funded ASTARTE project (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839) and the French-Egyptian IMHOTEP project. The study area located west of Alexandria is selected according to historical earthquakes and related inundation events as recorded in archives. Field investigations include: 1) Coastal geomorphology along estuaries, wedge-protected and dune-protected lagunas, and terrace-platforms as potential sites for paleotsunami and boulder records, and 2) Investigations of paleotsunamis deposits and their spatial distribution using trenching and coring. In addition of 10 trenches (1.5-m-depth) and 16 (1 to 2.5-m-depth) core descriptions with detailed logging and Xrays, data collection includes geochemical analysis, magnetic susceptibility and radiocarbon dating necessary for the identification of tsunamis records. In stratigraphic successions of low energy marine and alluvial deposits, mixed sand, gravel and broken shells are interpreted as catastrophic layers correlated with tsunami deposits. The two selected sites at Kefret Saber 32-km west of Marsa-Matruh city and 10 km northwest of El Alamein village are inner lagunas protected by 2 to 40-m-high dunes parallel to the shoreline. A total of 50 samples of organic deposits and charcoal fragments were collected from both sites, among which 20 samples have been dated. Dated charcoal in deposits above and below the catastrophic layers lead us to correlate them with the 24 June 1870 (Mw 7.5), 8 August 1303 (Mw 8) and 21 July 365 (Mw 8 - 8.5), major earthquakes that generated tsunamis with the inundation of Alexandria harbor. Major tsunamigenic seismic sources being along the Hellenic subduction zone and Cyprus arc, our study of paleotsunami deposits and their distribution along the Egyptian coast will help in a better constraint of the size and recurrence of tsunamis, and

  4. RSLR-induced increase of vulnerability to storms along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosom, Eva; Jiménez, José A.; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2014-05-01

    Climate-related hazards are affecting coasts worldwide and they are likely to increase during the next decades (Nicholls et al., 2007). If we also consider that values at exposure are also increasing, coastal areas will very likely be exposed to increasing risks. Due to this, to properly develop sustainable coastal risk management plans it is necessary to consider climate-change induced effects as an additional forcing. Within this context, vulnerability assessment is a useful tool to help managers to make decisions in resource allocation and development of DRR plans. Vulnerability can be simply defined as the potential of a coastal system to be harmed by a given hazard. The negative contribution (susceptibility) is characterized through the magnitude of main induced processes (erosion and inundation) whereas the positive one (resilience) is parameterized in function of beach geomorphology. With respect to extreme events, Bosom and Jiménez (2011) presented a framework to assess coastal vulnerability to storms at regional scale adopting a probabilistic approach. In this work, this framework is enlarged by including the potential effects of RSLR on the vulnerability assessment. Thus, RSLR-driven processes (erosion and inundation) are accounted through their induced modifications on beach morphology that can affect the beach capacity of response or, in other words, its adaptation capacity. The inclusion of this effect in the vulnerability framework significantly changes coastal vulnerability values to storms at any probability of occurrence without the need of considering any change in storminess. The magnitude of the vulnerability increase depends on the considered RSLR scenario and the coastal geomorphology. This integrated framework has been applied to 219 km of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) considering different RSLR scenarios and time projections. Preliminary results obtained for a Tr = 50-y and the medium RSLR scenario (3.8 mm/y + subsidence) indicate a

  5. What can otolith shape analysis tell us about population structure of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, from Atlantic and Mediterranean waters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemaa, Sharif; Bacha, Mahmoud; Khalaf, Gaby; Dessailly, David; Rabhi, Khalef; Amara, Rachid

    2015-02-01

    The European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, exhibits a complex population structure, which has produced conflicting results in previous genetic studies. Despite its importance in the fisheries industry, stock delineation for management and conservation purposes is still a matter of debate throughout the distribution range of the species. This study examines whether otolith shapes are more efficient than genetic markers to detect population structure in pelagic species with large population sizes. Sardines were analyzed from 15 sampling localities in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea covering almost the whole distribution range of the species. A combination of otolith shape indices and elliptic Fourier descriptors was investigated by multivariate statistical procedures. Within the studied area, three distinct groups were identified with an overall correct classification of 77%. Group A: northern Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Gabès; group B: Atlantic Morocco-south Alboran-Algero-provençal coasts; and group C: European Atlantic coast. The Almeria-Oran front and the Gibraltar strait are not an efficient barrier for sardine population separation as there seems to be exchanges between populations of the south-western Mediterranean Sea and those of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean coast or Gulf of Cadiz. The results are discussed in relation to environmental conditions, oceanographic features, and physical barriers to dispersal in the study area, and compared with those obtained by previous genetic, morphometric, and meristic data. For pelagic species with high gene flow, present results highlighted the need to take into account the identification of phenotypic stocks to ensure sustainable fishery benefits and efficient conservation as they may have unique demographic properties and responses to exploitation.

  6. Contamination of urban, industrial and continental waters by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Kessabi, M; Elhraiki, A; Nader, B

    1988-05-01

    Residual waters (urban, industrial and continental) of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast situated between Tangier and Al Hoceima were found to be contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. Hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin and heptachlor were frequently encountered. The contamination was relatively low for endrin and dieldrin and irregular for DDT and its derivatives. The levels detected differed from traces to 0.5 ppm. The areas of high urban density showed the highest contamination, with some seasonal variation.

  7. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower abdominal adiposity in European men and women.

    PubMed

    Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Mouw, Traci; May, Anne M; Bamia, Christina; Slimani, Nadia; Travier, Noemie; Besson, Herve; Luan, Jian'an; Wareham, Nick; Rinaldi, Sabina; Couto, Elisabeth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cottet, Vanessa; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Agudo, Antonio; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, Jose Maria; Key, Timothy J; Spencer, Elisabeth A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Orfanos, Philippos; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Rohrmann, Sabine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hellstrom, Veronica; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Uhre Jacobsen, Marianne; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Toni; Engeset, Dragun; Odysseos, Andreani; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H M

    2009-09-01

    Given the lack of consistent evidence of the relationship between Mediterranean dietary patterns and body fat, we assessed the cross-sectional association between adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, BMI, and waist circumference (WC). A total of 497,308 individuals (70.7% women) aged 25-70 y from 10 European countries participated in this study. Diet was assessed at baseline using detailed validated country-specific questionnaires, and anthropometrical measurements were collected using standardized procedures. The association between the degree of adherence to the modified-Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) (including high consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, cereals, fish and seafood, and unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio; moderate alcohol intake; and low consumption of meat and meat products and dairy products) and BMI (kg.m(-2)) or WC (cm) was modeled through mixed-effects linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Overall, the mMDS was not significantly associated with BMI. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with lower WC, for a given BMI, in both men (-0.09; 95% CI -0.14 to -0.04) and women (-0.06; 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01). The association was stronger in men (-0.20; 95% CI -0.23 to -0.17) and women (-0.17; 95% CI -0.21 to -0.13) from Northern European countries. Despite the observed heterogeneity among regions, results of this study suggest that adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, high in foods of vegetable origin and unsaturated fatty acids, is associated with lower abdominal adiposity measured by WC in European men and women.

  8. Magnetotactic bacteria in microcosms originating from the French Mediterranean Coast subjected to oil industry activities.

    PubMed

    Postec, Anne; Tapia, Nicolas; Bernadac, Alain; Joseph, Manon; Davidson, Sylvain; Wu, Long-Fei; Ollivier, Bernard; Pradel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) mineralize nanosized magnetite or greigite crystals within cells and thus play an important role in the biogeochemical process. Despite decades of research, knowledge of MTB distribution and ecology, notably in areas subjected to oil industry activities, is still limited. In the present study, we investigated the presence of MTB in the Gulf of Fos, French Mediterranean coast, which is subjected to intensive oil industry activities. Microcosms containing sediments/water (1:2, v/v) from several sampling sites were monitored over several weeks. The presence of MTB was revealed in five of eight sites. Diverse and numerous MTB were revealed particularly from one site (named CAR), whilst temporal variations of a homogenous magnetotactic cocci population was shown within the LAV site microcosm over a 4-month period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, and a novel genus from the LAV site was evidenced. Among the physicochemical parameters measured, a correlation was shown between the variation of MTB abundance in microcosms and the redox state of sulphur compounds.

  9. Hepatic sarcocystosis in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Resendes, A R; Juan-Sallés, C; Almeria, S; Majó, N; Domingo, M; Dubey, J P

    2002-02-01

    Fatal hepatic sarcocystosis was diagnosed in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the northeastern Spanish Mediterranean coast based on pathologic findings and the microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of the intralesional parasite. Main gross lesions were icterus, subcutaneous hemorrhages, and hepatic congestion. The most prominent microscopic lesions consisted of severe acute multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis with cholestasis and intralesional protozoa. There was severe chronic pancreatitis with generalized distension of pancreatic ducts by hyaline plugs and adult trematodes. Only asexual stages of the protozoa were found. The parasite in the liver divided by endopolygeny. Schizonts varied in shape and size. Mature schizonts had merozoites randomly arranged or budding peripherally around a central residual body. Schizonts were up to 22 microm long, and merozoites were up to 6 microm long. Ultrastructurally, merozoites lacked rhoptries. This parasite failed to react by immunohistochemistry with anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Sarcocystis neurona antibodies. The microscopic and ultrastructural morphologies of the parasite were consistent with Sarcocystis canis, so far described only from animals in the Unites States. The life cycle and source of S. canis are unknown. The present report of S. canis-like infection in a sea mammal from Spain indicates that the definitive host for this parasite also exists outside of the United States.

  10. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in commercial cephalopods from the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Picó-Durán, Gabriela; Pulleiro-Potel, Lorena; Abollo, Elvira; Pascual, Santiago; Muñoz, Pilar

    2016-04-15

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of nematode larvae in commercial cephalopods in the Western Mediterranean Sea. A total of 202 animals comprising 123 broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii), 34 European squid (Loligo vulgaris) and 45 common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) were examined using enzymatic digestion. A total of 31 larvae were isolated (prevalence: 14.6%) and identified using molecular analyses which included PCR and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) region. Phylogenetic tree inferred from ITS sequences yielded supported relationships for Anisakis (P: 12.2%) and Hysterothylacium species (P: 4.1%). All parasites were found parasitizing I. coindetii and, as expected, A. pegreffii presented the highest prevalence (11.4%). A. physeteris was also found with a lower prevalence (1.6%) but confirming the role of the broadtail shortfin squid as paratenic host and, its potential host for anisakidosis transmission. A hybrid larva between Anisakis simplex and A. pegreffi was also identified. All Anisakis larvae were found within the visceral cavity; in contrast most of the Hysterothylacium larvae were isolated from the mantle. A significant correlation was found between total nematode prevalence and depth, explained by the presence of larger broadtail shortfin squids inhabiting deeper depths. Therefore, the results obtained in the present study improve the knowledge of the occurrence of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium species in the I. coindetii from the Spanish Mediterranean Sea highlighting the importance of considering I. coindetii as a potential hazard for humans if it is consumed raw or not well cooked and the need of further research in other cephalopods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. State of knowledge of the Acotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) from the Mediterranean coasts of Spain: new records and new species.

    PubMed

    Marquina, Daniel; Osca, David; Rodríguez, Jorge; Fernández-Despiau, Estrella; Noreña, Carolina

    2014-03-20

    Along the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, great species diversity is thought to exist, but our knowledge of Iberian polyclads is, in fact, very limited. This study contributes to the Polycladida (Platyhelminthes) of the Iberian Peninsula, in particular those of the Mediterranean coast. Nine species, mainly new species or new records, are described. Imogine stellae sp. nov. from Mar Menor (Murcia, Spain) is described, while I. mediterranea Galleni, 1976 is recorded for the first time in Spain. The genus Planocera Blainville, 1828 within the Mediterranean basin is reviewed: Planocera graffi Lang, 1879 is redescribed, and its synonymisation with Planocera pellucida (Mertens, 1833) considered. Also, the genus Notoplanella Bock, 1931 is represented by two species in Spain, N. inarmata Bock, 1931 type species, from Formentera Island and N. estelae sp. nov., from Mar Menor. Trigonoporus cephalophtalmus Lang, 1884 is rediscovered after the description of Lang (1884). Stylochus neapolitanus (Delle Chiaje, 1841-1844) Lang, 1884 is recorded and S. pilidium (Goette, 1881) is also redescribed, and Leptoplana mediterranea (Bock, 1913) is newly recorded for the Iberian Peninsula.

  12. Dispersion modelling of a tall stack plume in the spanish mediterranean coast by a particle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. F.; Cremades, L.; Baldasano, J. M.

    A Lagrangian particle model has been used to simulate the dispersion of a tall stack plume of a power plant located in a complex coastal site at the Spanish Mediterranean coast, under summer meteorological conditions: land and sea breezes and thermal low effects. These are responsible for a particular behavior of plume (rotations greater than 90°). The model is based on the numerical solution of Langevin's equation (Sawford, 1984; Thomson, 1984, 1987; de Baas et al., 1986) by following the trajectories of many particles. The displacement of these particles is governed by meteorological parameters resulting from Eulerian wind data adjusted by an objective analysis model based on variational calculus. The adjusted values should satisfy continuity as a strong constraint (Sherman, 1978; Mathur and Peters, 1990). The model allows to simulate the atmospheric dispersion both in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous turbulence according to de Baas et al. (1986) and Zannetti (1990) schemes. The numerical results obtained by the dispersion model are compared with experimental data from a measurement campaign developed at the surroundings of Castellon power plant. The model is applied to the problem of predicting the ground level concentration (GLC) (3 m, above ground level) of the SO 2 emitted by the power plant. Model behavior was evaluated through several statistical indices: relative mean bias, normalized mean square error and the cumulative frequency distribution of the point-by-point ratio between observed and predicted concentrations. Both models were developed at the Instituto de Tecnología y Modelización Ambiental (ITEMA) of the Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña (UPC).

  13. Air and groundwater pollution in an agricultural region of the Turkish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Semra G; Oztas, Nur Banu; Erduran, M Soner

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution and groundwater pollution in conjunction with agricultural activity were investigated in Antayla province on the Turkish Mediterranean coast. The air pollution was investigated in terms of gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), and particulate matter for a 6-month period in the atmosphere using a "filter pack" system, which was developed and optimized in our laboratory. Ozone was measured by using an automated analyzer. Among all of the gas-phase pollutants, HNO3 had the lowest concentration (0.42 microg x m(-3)) followed by NH3. Agricultural activities seem to be the major source of observed NH3 in the air. The current state of water pollution was investigated in terms of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides around the greenhouses, in which mainly tomato, pepper, and eggplant are cultivated. Water samples were collected from 40 points, 28 of which were wells and 12 of which were surface water. The pesticide concentrations in water samples were determined by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by a gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector (ECD)/nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD) system. In general, surface water samples were more polluted by the pesticides than groundwater samples. The most frequently observed pesticides were chlorpyriphos (57%) and aldrin (79%) in groundwater, and chlorpyriphos (75%), aldrin, and endosulfan sulfate (83%) in surface water samples. The highest concentrations were observed for fenamiphos (394.8 ng/L) and aldrin (68.51 ng/L) in groundwater, and dichlorvos (322.2 ng/L) and endosulfan sulfate (89.5 ng/L) in surface water samples. At least one pesticide had a concentration above the health limit in 38% of all the water samples analyzed.

  14. Prevalences of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in mollusks from the Spanish Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Joven, Carmen; de Blas, Ignacio; Furones, M. Dolores; Roque, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a well-recognized pathogen of humans. To better understand the ecology of the human-pathogenic variants of this bacterium in the environment, a study on the prevalence in bivalves of pathogenic variants (tlh+ and tdh+ and/or trh+) versus a non-pathogenic one (only tlh+ as species marker for V. parahaemolyticus), was performed in two bays in Catalonia, Spain. Environmental factors that might affect dynamics of both variants of V. parahaemolyticus were taken into account. The results showed that the global prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus found in both bays was 14.2% (207/1459). It was, however, significantly dependent on sampling point, campaign (year) and bivalve species. Pathogenic variants of V. parahaemolyticus (tdh+ and/or trh+) were detected in 3.8% of the samples (56/1459), meaning that the proportion of bivalves who contained tlh gene were contaminated by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains is 27.1% (56/207). Moreover, the presence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (trh+) was significantly correlated with water salinity, thus the probability of finding pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus decreased 1.45 times with every salinity unit (ppt) increased. Additionally, data showed that V. parahaemolyticus could establish close associations with Ruditapes spp. (P-value < 0.001), which could enhance the transmission of illness to human by pathogenic variants, when clams were eaten raw or slightly cooked. This study provides information on the abundance, ecology and characteristics of total and human-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus variants associated with bivalves cultured in the Spanish Mediterranean Coast. PMID:26284033

  15. Prevalences of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in mollusks from the Spanish Mediterranean Coast.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Joven, Carmen; de Blas, Ignacio; Furones, M Dolores; Roque, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a well-recognized pathogen of humans. To better understand the ecology of the human-pathogenic variants of this bacterium in the environment, a study on the prevalence in bivalves of pathogenic variants (tlh+ and tdh+ and/or trh+) versus a non-pathogenic one (only tlh+ as species marker for V. parahaemolyticus), was performed in two bays in Catalonia, Spain. Environmental factors that might affect dynamics of both variants of V. parahaemolyticus were taken into account. The results showed that the global prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus found in both bays was 14.2% (207/1459). It was, however, significantly dependent on sampling point, campaign (year) and bivalve species. Pathogenic variants of V. parahaemolyticus (tdh+ and/or trh+) were detected in 3.8% of the samples (56/1459), meaning that the proportion of bivalves who contained tlh gene were contaminated by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains is 27.1% (56/207). Moreover, the presence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (trh+) was significantly correlated with water salinity, thus the probability of finding pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus decreased 1.45 times with every salinity unit (ppt) increased. Additionally, data showed that V. parahaemolyticus could establish close associations with Ruditapes spp. (P-value < 0.001), which could enhance the transmission of illness to human by pathogenic variants, when clams were eaten raw or slightly cooked. This study provides information on the abundance, ecology and characteristics of total and human-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus variants associated with bivalves cultured in the Spanish Mediterranean Coast.

  16. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  17. Key role of European rabbits in the conservation of the Western Mediterranean basin hotspot.

    PubMed

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Delibes, Miguel; Ferreras, Pablo; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2008-10-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a global hotspot of biodiversity. Hotspots are said to be experiencing a major loss of habitat, but an added risk could be the decline of some species having a special role in ecological relationships of the system. We reviewed the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a keystone species in the Iberian Peninsula portion of the Mediterranean hotspot. Rabbits conspicuously alter plant species composition and vegetation structure through grazing and seed dispersal, which creates open areas and preserves plant species diversity. Moreover, rabbit latrines have a demonstrable effect on soil fertility and plant growth and provide new feeding resources for many invertebrate species. Rabbit burrows provide nest sites and shelter for vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition, rabbits serve as prey for a number of predators, including the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Thus, the Mediterranean ecosystem of the Iberian Peninsula should be termed "the rabbit's ecosystem." To our knowledge, this is the first empirical support for existence of a multifunctional keystone species in a global hotspot of biodiversity. Rabbit populations have declined drastically on the Iberian Peninsula, with potential cascading effects and serious ecological and economic consequences. From this perspective, rabbit recovery is one of the biggest challenges for conservation of the Mediterranean Basin hotspot.

  18. Quality and Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training in the Mediterranean Countries: Lessons from the European Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Raymond; Baati, Mounir; Seyfried, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the development of the European approach towards quality and quality assurance in vocational education and training (VET) and its relevance for VET reforms in the European Training Foundation (ETF) partner countries. The analysis is based on an ETF project conducted in 2007-2008 in the Mediterranean partner countries to…

  19. Presence of herpesvirus in striped dolphins stranded during the cetacean morbillivirus epizootic along the Mediterranean Spanish coast in 2007.

    PubMed

    Bellière, Edwige N; Esperón, Fernando; Arbelo, Manuel; Muñoz, María J; Fernández, Antonio; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M

    2010-08-01

    A screening for herpesvirus (HV) was carried out using a tissue bank obtained from the cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) mortality episode that occurred along the Mediterranean Spanish coast in 2007. A total of 14 cetaceans, including six long-finned pilot whales and eight striped dolphins, were studied using histopathology and molecular analysis to detect HV and CeMV. In five of the eight dolphins (62.5%) infected with CeMV, eight novel HV sequences were also detected. No HV lesions were found in any of the coinfected dolphins, which may indicate that HV did not contribute to the mortality in the CeMV outbreak. This is the first report of HV infection in any cetacean from the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Reproductive characteristics and steroid levels in the scleractinian coral Oculina patagonica inhabiting contaminated sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Shore, Laurence S; Segal, Roee; Sharon, Daniel; Loya, Yossi

    2012-08-01

    In this study we compared reproductive characteristics and steroid hormone levels in the non-indigenous scleractinian coral, Oculina patagonica, inhabiting contaminated vs. uncontaminated reference sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast. Our results indicate significantly higher steroid levels in both seawater and coral tissue samples from contaminated sites as compared to reference sites, suggesting that corals tend to accumulate steroids from the surrounding waters. Despite their higher steroid levels, corals from the contaminated sites showed reproductive potential comparable to those of the reference sites. Interestingly, a clear distinction could be seen between corals exposed to pollution for long vs. short durations, with the latter showing a failure to complete gametogenesis. This suggests that reproduction in O. patagonica is susceptible to acute rather than chronic stress. The involvement of adjustment/adaptation processes may explain this species tolerance, and may reflect the ability of O. patagonica to successfully invade new areas in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Summertime European heat and drought waves induced by wintertime Mediterranean rainfall deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; D'Andrea, F.; de Noblet, N.; Viovy, N.; Cassou, C.; Polcher, J.; Ciais, P.; Kageyama, M.; Fan, Y.

    2007-04-01

    The risk of extreme heat waves in Europe like the unprecedented one of summer 2003 is likely to increase in the future, calling for increased understanding of these phenomena. From an analysis of meteorological records over 58 years, we show that hot summers are preceded by winter rainfall deficits over Southern Europe. Subsequent drought and heat spreads northward throughout Europe in early summer, due to atmospheric transport of anomalously warm and dry air from Southern Europe in southerly wind episodes. This is shown by the observations and supported by mesoscale meteorological sensitivity simulations for Summer 1994. Moreover previous winter and early spring rainfall frequency in the Mediterranean regions is correlated with summer temperature in central continental Europe. These results emphasize the critical role of the water reservoir in the soil of continental Mediterranean areas for the maintenance of European climate.

  2. An Efficient Rapid Warning System For Earthquakes In The European-mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; di Giovambattista, R.; Tome, M.

    Every year a few damaging earthquakes occur in the European-Mediterranean region. It is therefore indispensable to operate a real-time warning system in order to pro- vide rapidly reliable estimates of the location, depth and magnitude of these seismic events. In order to provide this information in a timely manner both to the scientific community and to the European and national authorities dealing with natural hazards and relief organisation, the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) has federated a network of seismic networks exchanging their data in quasi real-time. Today, thanks to the Internet, the EMSC receives real-time information about earth- quakes from about thirty seismological institutes. As soon as data reach the EMSC, they are displayed on the EMSC Web pages (www.emsc-csem.org). A seismic alert is generated for any potentially damaging earthquake in the European-Mediterranean re- gion, potentially damaging earthquakes being defined as seismic events of magnitude 5 or more. The warning system automatically issues a message to the duty seismolo- gist mobile phone and pager. The seismologist log in to the EMSC computers using a laptop PC and relocates the earthquake by processing together all information pro- vided by the networks. The new location and magnitude are then send, by fax, telex, and email, within one hour following the earthquake occurrence, to national and inter- national organisations whose activities are related to seismic risks, and to the EMSC members. The EMSC rapid warning system has been fully operational for more than 4 years. Its distributed architecture has proved to be an efficient and reliable way for the monitoring of potentially damaging earthquakes. Furthermore, if a major problem disrupts the operational system more than 30 minutes, the duty is taken, over either by the Instituto Geografico National in Spain or by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in Italy. The EMSC operational centre, located at the

  3. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  4. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-06-08

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  5. Baseline values for heavy metals in agricultural soils in an European Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Micó, Carolina; Peris, Mónica; Recatalá, Luis; Sánchez, Juan

    2007-05-25

    Baseline values for heavy metals were proposed in Alicante (Spain), a representative agricultural area of the European Mediterranean region, as a basis to identify and assess soil contamination processes at regional level. Fifty-four agricultural plots were sampled and heavy metals concentrations were analysed for nine elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid digestion with HNO(3) and HCl in a microwave oven. Heavy metal concentrations obtained in the study area were similar to concentrations analysed by other authors within the European Mediterranean region. However, some agricultural plots with a high heavy metal content were identified by statistical treatment (boxplots) as outliers and, therefore, were not considered for establishing baseline values. Baseline values in Alicante were proposed by taking into account the statistical approach extensively used elsewhere, which refers to the increase in the mean plus twice the standard deviation. The baseline values were: 0.7 mg/kg for Cd, 11 mg/kg for Co, 36 mg/kg for Cr, 28 mg/kg for Cu, 19,822 mg/kg for Fe, 402 mg/kg for Mn, 31 mg/kg for Ni, 28 mg/kg for Pb and 83 mg/kg for Zn. The experience gained in this work further suggests that baseline values for heavy metals should be proposed in other areas. This is necessary to facilitate the identification of soil contamination processes over the whole European Mediterranean region as a basis to undertaking appropriate action to protect soil resource quality.

  6. Response to storm conditions of two different beaches at the Mediterranean coast of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mrini, Aldelmounim; Anfuso, Giorgio; Nachite, Driss; Taaouati, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades the increased demand for the recreational use of beaches has resulted in the uptake of studies on the morphodynamic processes which are acting on beaches. This knowledge is fundamental for appropriate coastal erosion management, suitable tourist use of littoral and for the design and shape of human construction. The Mediterranean sectors of Moroccan littoral investigated in this study, Ksar Rimal and Cabo Negro beaches, are respectively located north and south of Cabo Negro promontory and, over recent years, have been subject to increasing tourist activity. This has consisted mainly of the construction of two tourist ports (Marina Smir and Kabila), residential developments, hotels and a motorway which runs parallel to the coast, affecting the dune ridges and two lagoons which are of great ecological interest. In detail, the dunes located in the backshore at Ksar Rimal beach, are nowadays occupied by summer houses threaten by coastal retreat. A wide, partially urbanized, backshore is observed at Cabo Negro beach. With the intention of characterize the morphodynamic and seasonal behavior and the response of the studied beaches to storm impact, a beach monitoring program was carried out in the period 2006-2008, with special attention to the February-March 2008 stormy period. On analyzing the information obtained, it was possible to characterize the morphology and sedimentology of the studied beaches, and to calculate beach volumetric variations. Ksar Rimal is an open, exposed beach characterized by an intermediate slope (tan β = 0.10) with medium-coarse sands. The beach showed a reflective beach state characterized by plunging breakers. Small morphological seasonal changes were observed, most important morphological and volumetric variations (about 20 m3/m) taking place after winter storms which usually gave rise to a more dissipative beach profile (tan β = 0.05) characterized by spilling breakers. Beach recovery was quite rapid, usually lasting 2

  7. Medium-term shoreline evolution of the mediterranean coast of Andalusia (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Messina, Enrica; Anfuso, Giorgio; Suffo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Coastal environment is a dynamic system in which numerous natural processes are continuously actuating and interacting among them. As a result, geomorphologic, physical and biological characteristics of coastal environments are constantly changing. Such dynamic balance is nowadays seriously threatened by the strong and increasing anthropic pressure that favors erosion processes, and the associated loss of environmental, ecologic and economic aspects. Sandy beaches are the most vulnerable environments in coastal areas. The aim of this work was to reconstruct the historical evolution of the Mediterranean coastline of Andalusia, Spain. The investigated area is about 500 km in length and includes the provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Granada and Almeria. It is essentially composed by cliffed sectors with sand and gravel pocket beaches constituting independent morphological cells of different dimensions. This study was based on the analysis of aerial photos and satellite images covering a period of 55 years, between 1956 and 2011. Aerial photos were scanned and geo-referenced in order to solve scale and distortion problems. The shoreline was considered and mapped through the identification of the wet / dry sand limit which coincides with the line of maximum run-up; this indicator - representing the shoreline at the moment of the photo - is the most easily identifiable and representative one in microtidal coastal environments. Since shoreline position is linked to beach profile characteristics and to waves, tide and wind conditions at the moment of the photo, such parameters were taken into account in the calculation of shoreline position and changes. Specifically, retreat/accretion changes were reconstructed applying the DSAS method (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) proposed by the US Geological Survey. Significant beach accretion was observed at Playa La Mamola (Granada), with +1 m/y, because the construction of five breakwaters, and at Playa El Cantal (Almeria) and close

  8. [The Littorina species of the European coasts: No model for the evolution of terrestrial gastropods].

    PubMed

    Remmert, Hermann

    1968-12-01

    The Littorina-species of the European coasts are completely isoosmotic with their environment.Small specimens (species) have very small gills; with increasing size the gills grow rapidly. The gills of different species of identical size show no difference. The reproduction does not trend towards direct development parallel to the habitat of the species.Therefore the Littorina species are no model for the evolution of terrestrial gastropods, their characteristics are merely those of intertidal animals.

  9. Sediment budget along cliff dominated coasts in the eastern Mediterranean during single storm to seasonal time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemesh, Ran; Crouvi, Onn; Mushkin, Amit; Katz, Oded; Enzel, Yehouda; Lensky, Nadav

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the evolution of rocky coasts remains a fundamental knowledge gap in coastal research. In this context, the contribution of sea-cliff sediments to the coastal sediment budget and to the evolution of rocky coasts is rarely quantified. Here, we quantified the volumetric changes that occurred during 3 years (2013-2016) along a 190 m section of a rocky coast along Israel's Mediterranean coastline. We used high resolution ( 1 cm) ground based LiDAR to scan both the beach and the sea-cliff at weekly to seasonal time intervals. Our measurements show the expected seasonal pattern of beach evolution: erosion during fall and winter and accumulation during spring and summer. We found that the beach can temporary accumulate large volume of sediments during a single winter storm, but this does not change the overall erosional regime during the winter. The sea cliff and taluses erode all year round. The flux of sediments eroded from these features depends on both the talus properties and storms frequency and characteristics. These sediments accumulate on the beach during spring-summer and can explain up to 60% of the total sediments accumulated on the beach during these seasons. On the other hand, during fall-winter the erosional products of the cliff and taluses do not accumulate on the beach. Our findings suggest that the collapse and erosion of sea cliffs have an important role in the evolution of rocky coasts and significant implications to mitigation efforts of sea cliff retreat.

  10. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-12-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter–gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. PMID:26337550

  12. European and Mediterranean hydroclimate response to tropical volcanic forcing over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. P.; Cook, B.; Cook, E. R.; D'Arrigo, R.; Krusic, P.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Buckley, B.; Davi, N. K.; Leland, C.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions can have global climate impacts, especially for temperature, but their effect on the hydrologic cycle is still poorly understood. Here, we use a tree-ring based gridded hydroclimate reconstruction (the Old World Drought Atlas; Cook et al., 2015) and seasonal precipitation (Pauling et al. 2005) and temperature (Luterbacher et al 2004; 2016) reconstructions to investigate the impact of volcanism on European and Mediterranean hydroclimate over the past millennium. This is done using a novel form of superposed epoch analysis (SEA) that uses non-repeating subsets of volcanic eruption years from a larger key year list to establish uncertainties associated with the choice of the volcanic eruption years themselves. Following volcanic eruptions, wet conditions emerge over the Western Mediterranean the same year and persist through the subsequent two years. Conversely, dry conditions occur in Central Europe and the British Isles two and three years after an eruption. The wetting in the Western Mediterranean occurs primarily in the spring months, while the drying in Central and Western Europe occurs during the spring and summer. The spatial distribution of wet and dry hydroclimate anomalies following an eruption resembles a negative phase of the East Atlantic Pattern, an important driver of climate variability in the region. Modulated through the East Atlantic Pattern, volcanic eruptions force significant and widespread hydroclimate responses across regions of Europe with diverse precipitation seasonalities.

  13. Molecular Phylogeny and Ecology of Textularia agglutinans d’Orbigny from the Mediterranean Coast of Israel: A Case of a Successful New Incumbent

    PubMed Central

    Merkado, Gily; Titelboim, Danna; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Holzmann, Maria; Pawlowski, Jan; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Abdu, Uri; Herut, Barak; Abramovich, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Textularia agglutinans d’Orbigny is a non-symbiont bearing and comparatively large benthic foraminiferal species with a widespread distribution across all oceans. In recent years, its populations have considerably expanded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast of the eastern Levantine basin. Despite its exceptionally widespread occurrence, no molecular data have yet been obtained. This study provides the first ribosomal DNA sequences of T. agglutinans complemented with morphological and ecological characterization, which are based on material collected during environmental monitoring of the hard bottom habitats along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, and from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea). Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that all specimens from both provinces belong to the same genetic population, regardless their morphological variability. These results indicate that modern population of T. agglutinans found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian. Our study also reveals that T. agglutinans has an epiphytic life mode, which probably enabled its successful colonization of the hard bottom habitats, at the Mediterranean coast of Israel, which consist of a diverse community of macroalgae. Our study further indicates that the species does not tolerate high SST (> 35°C), which will probably prevent its future expansion in the easternmost Mediterranean in light of the expected rise in temperatures. PMID:26539992

  14. Molecular Phylogeny and Ecology of Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny from the Mediterranean Coast of Israel: A Case of a Successful New Incumbent.

    PubMed

    Merkado, Gily; Titelboim, Danna; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Holzmann, Maria; Pawlowski, Jan; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Abdu, Uri; Herut, Barak; Abramovich, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny is a non-symbiont bearing and comparatively large benthic foraminiferal species with a widespread distribution across all oceans. In recent years, its populations have considerably expanded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast of the eastern Levantine basin. Despite its exceptionally widespread occurrence, no molecular data have yet been obtained. This study provides the first ribosomal DNA sequences of T. agglutinans complemented with morphological and ecological characterization, which are based on material collected during environmental monitoring of the hard bottom habitats along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, and from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea). Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that all specimens from both provinces belong to the same genetic population, regardless their morphological variability. These results indicate that modern population of T. agglutinans found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian. Our study also reveals that T. agglutinans has an epiphytic life mode, which probably enabled its successful colonization of the hard bottom habitats, at the Mediterranean coast of Israel, which consist of a diverse community of macroalgae. Our study further indicates that the species does not tolerate high SST (> 35°C), which will probably prevent its future expansion in the easternmost Mediterranean in light of the expected rise in temperatures.

  15. Groundwater protection in Mediterranean countries after the European water framework directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Navarrete, C.; Grima Olmedo, J.; Durán Valsero, J. J.; Gómez Gómez, J. D.; Luque Espinar, J. A.; de La Orden Gómez, J. A.

    2008-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) has driven the protection of groundwater and characterization of water bodies. Development of appropriate and efficient approaches which consider the special features of the hydrologic regime is essential. The results of different projects that have been carried out to integrate characterization and protection of water bodies are summarized herein. In the Les eaux de la Mediterranée (AQUAMED) Project, applicability to the Mediterranean Region of guidelines provided by the European Commission to facilitate the WFD implementation has been verified. The Background criteria for the identification of groundwater thresholds (BRIDGE) Project developed a methodology to establish threshold values of pollutants contributing to the chemical status of groundwater bodies. This method has been applied to pollutants used to classify groundwater bodies as at risk of not achieving objectives of the WFD. Selected features of protection areas for drinking water and safeguard zones are analyzed, as well as the possibility of using wellhead protection areas.

  16. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa) in South-Western Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Canepa, Antonio; Fuentes, Verónica; Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Acevedo, Melissa; Toledo-Guedes, Kilian; Ortiz, Antonio; Durá, Elia; Bordehore, César; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae) along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain) in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models) to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current) affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates) were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary) production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities.

  17. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa) in South-Western Mediterranean coasts

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Verónica; Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Acevedo, Melissa; Toledo-Guedes, Kilian; Ortiz, Antonio; Durá, Elia; Bordehore, César; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae) along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain) in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models) to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current) affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates) were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary) production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities. PMID:28746410

  18. Amount and distribution of neustonic micro-plastic off the western Sardinian coast (Central-Western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Caliani, Ilaria; Marra, Stefano; Camedda, Andrea; Coppa, Stefania; Alcaro, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Giannetti, Matteo; Coppola, Daniele; Cicero, Anna Maria; Panti, Cristina; Baini, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Massaro, Giorgio; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Matiddi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A plethora of different sampling methodologies has been used to document the presence of micro-plastic fragments in sea water. European Marine Strategy suggests to improve standard techniques to make future data comparable. We use Manta Trawl sampling technique to quantify abundance and distribution of micro-plastic fragments in Sardinian Sea (Western Mediterranean), and their relation with phthalates and organoclorine in the neustonic habitat. Our results highlight a quite high average plastic abundance value (0.15 items/m(3)), comparable to the levels detected in other areas of the Mediterranean. "Site" is the only factor that significantly explains the differences observed in micro-plastic densities. Contaminant levels show high spatial and temporal variation. In every station, HCB is the contaminant with the lowest concentration while PCBs shows the highest levels. This work, in line with Marine Strategy directives, represents a preliminary study for the analysis of plastic impact on marine environment of Sardinia.

  19. Impact of a European directive on ship emissions on air quality in Mediterranean harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Clara; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Cuccia, Eleonora; Hjorth, Jens; Calzolai, Giulia; Pérez, Noemi; Pey, Jorge; Prati, Paolo; Raes, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Ships have been found to be major sources of air pollution in harbours. However, from January 1, 2010, a European Union directive requires that all ships at berth or anchorage in European harbours use fuels with a sulphur content of less than 0.1% by weight while previously, outside of Sulphur Emission Control Areas, up to 4.5% were allowed. The impact of this directive on air quality in some Mediterranean harbours was investigated based on observations made from August to October 2009 and 2010 at a monitoring station placed on a cruise ship, Costa Pacifica, following a fixed weekly route in the Western Mediterranean. The concentrations of SO2 were found to decrease significantly from 2009 to 2010 in three out of the four EU harbours; the average decrease of the daily mean concentrations in the different harbours was 66%. The decrease of SO2 was not statistically significant in the harbour of Barcelona because of large day-to-day variations, however measurements from monitoring stations in the harbour zone of Barcelona as well as downwind of the harbour of Palma de Mallorca confirm a strong decrease in the SO2 concentrations from 2009 to 2010. No decrease was observed in the non-EU harbour of Tunis. Neither NOx nor BC concentrations showed significant changes in any of the harbours.

  20. An Amphisbaenian Skull from the European Miocene and the Evolution of Mediterranean Worm Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Bolet, Arnau; Delfino, Massimo; Fortuny, Josep; Almécija, Sergio; Robles, Josep M.; Alba, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of blanid amphisbaenians (Mediterranean worm lizards) is mainly inferred based on molecular studies, despite their fossils are common in Cenozoic European localities. This is because the fossil record exclusively consists in isolated elements of limited taxonomic value. We describe the only known fossil amphisbaenian skull from Europe – attributed to Blanus mendezi sp. nov. (Amphisbaenia, Blanidae) – which represents the most informative fossil blanid material ever described. This specimen, from the Middle Miocene of Abocador de Can Mata (11.6 Ma, MN7+8) in the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula), unambiguously asserts the presence of Blanus in the Miocene of Europe. This reinforces the referral to this genus of the previously-known, much more incomplete and poorly-diagnostic material from other localities of the European Neogene. Our analysis – integrating the available molecular, paleontological and biogeographic data – suggests that the new species postdates the divergence between the two main (Eastern and Western Mediterranean) extant clades of blanids, and probably precedes the split between the Iberian and North-Western African subclades. This supports previous paleobiogeographic scenarios for blanid evolution and provides a significant minimum divergence time for calibrating molecular analyses of blanid phylogeny. PMID:24896828

  1. An amphisbaenian skull from the European miocene and the evolution of Mediterranean worm lizards.

    PubMed

    Bolet, Arnau; Delfino, Massimo; Fortuny, Josep; Almécija, Sergio; Robles, Josep M; Alba, David M

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of blanid amphisbaenians (Mediterranean worm lizards) is mainly inferred based on molecular studies, despite their fossils are common in Cenozoic European localities. This is because the fossil record exclusively consists in isolated elements of limited taxonomic value. We describe the only known fossil amphisbaenian skull from Europe - attributed to Blanus mendezi sp. nov. (Amphisbaenia, Blanidae) - which represents the most informative fossil blanid material ever described. This specimen, from the Middle Miocene of Abocador de Can Mata (11.6 Ma, MN7+8) in the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula), unambiguously asserts the presence of Blanus in the Miocene of Europe. This reinforces the referral to this genus of the previously-known, much more incomplete and poorly-diagnostic material from other localities of the European Neogene. Our analysis - integrating the available molecular, paleontological and biogeographic data - suggests that the new species postdates the divergence between the two main (Eastern and Western Mediterranean) extant clades of blanids, and probably precedes the split between the Iberian and North-Western African subclades. This supports previous paleobiogeographic scenarios for blanid evolution and provides a significant minimum divergence time for calibrating molecular analyses of blanid phylogeny.

  2. Associations between a Mediterranean diet pattern and inflammatory biomarkers in European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arouca, Aline; Michels, Nathalie; Moreno, Luis A; González-Gil, Esther M; Marcos, Ascensión; Gómez, Sonia; Díaz, Ligia Esperanza; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Manios, Yannis; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Antonio; Kersting, Mathilde; Sjöström, Michael; de la O, Alejandro; Ferrari, Marika; Huybrechts, Inge; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-04-18

    To test whether the Mediterranean diet score and each food-subgroup is associated with inflammatory biomarkers in European adolescents. In 464 adolescents (13-17 years) of the European HELENA study, data were available on body composition, inflammation markers, and food intake determined by two computerized 24-h recalls. The Mediterranean diet score and its food-subgroups (Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts, Pulses, Cereal and Roots, Monounsaturated/Saturated fat ratio, Dairy, Fish, Meat and Alcohol) were evaluated. A set of inflammation-related biomarkers was measured: IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ-1, TNF-α, sVCAM-1, sICAM1, sE-selectin, white blood cells, lymphocytes, CD3, CRP, GGT, ALT, and homocysteine. Multivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, country, socioeconomic status, paternal and maternal education, adiposity, and smoking habits. The Mediterranean diet score was positively associated with CRP, and negatively with sVCAM-1. The subgroups showed the following positive/negative associations: Vegetables with IL-10(+), CRP(+), CD3(+), ALT(+), lymphocytes(+), sE-selectin(-); Fruits and Nuts with IL-4(-), TNF-alpha; Pulses with IL-5(+), IL-6(+), IL-2(-); Cereals and Roots with IL-6(-), IL-10(-); Monounsaturated/Saturated-fat ratio with IL-6(+), TGFβ-1(+), sVCAM-1(+boys, -girls), homocysteine(-); Dairy with IL-1(+), IL-5(+), IL-6(+), IL-10(+), TGFβ-1(+), homocysteine(-); Fish with homocysteine(-); Meat with IL-2(+), IL-10(+); Alcohol with CRP(+), lymphocytes(-). Sex differences were found. Some specific food-inflammation associations were found, suggesting that diet is to a certain extent already related to inflammation in adolescents and can be used in disease prevention. Also some counterintuitive results were found, which might be due to grouping very different foods into a single group, besides considering that the human body may respond differently depending on the interaction between diet, lifestyle

  3. Increasing severity of damage caused by floods in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960-2014), climate change or vulnerability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Alfredo; Gil, Salvador; Lopez, Francisco; Barriendos, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, there has been an increase in physical and economic losses (WMO, CRED and UCL, 2014) that raises serious concerns in society. Climate change projections may explain the rise in flood losses; however, these shouldn't be considered yet (Bouwer, 2011). According to IPCC (2014), there is low confidence in anthropogenic climate change affecting the frequency and magnitude of fluvial floods on a global scale. In other words, this increase in flood events is not completely related to the higher frequency of heavy rainfall. To illustrate the aforementioned, a spatial example can be seen in the study area. In the Spanish Mediterranean coast, we see an increase in economic losses within the last 50 years due to flood events (Gil et al., 2014). It seems that the socio-economic growth and the rise of housing construction (Gaja, 2008) have led to an increase in vulnerability and exposure which are mainly responsible for those losses and the increase in severity of flood events (Pérez et al., 2015). Furthermore, this situation will probably become more precarious if some climate forecasts are met [IPCC, 2014; AEMET, 2015], and if the economic model fails to adopt efficient adaptive measures. Therefore, it is interesting to focus attention on social factors either within the present or future scenario in order to minimise the potential consequences and improve the adaptation. The main objective of this work focuses on the study of the evolution of the severity of the floods in the Spanish Mediterranean coast for the period (1960-2015). To do that, a statistical analysis of the data base [Gil et al., 2014; extended to the entire Spanish Mediterranean coast (MEDIFLOOD)] and a multiscale mapping (local, provincial and regional level) of the frequency of these events will take place in order to make comparisons and show spatiotemporal patterns according to the severity events evolution. Preliminary results show some interesting statistically significant

  4. Impact of mass addition on extreme water level statistics during storms along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Piero; Conte, Dario; Marzo, Luigi; Scarascia, Luca

    2015-04-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea there are two contrasting factors affecting the maximum level that water will reach during a storm in the next decades: the increase of mean sea level and the decrease of storminess. Future reduction of storminess, which is associated with a decreased intensity of the Mediterranean branch on the north hemisphere storm track, will determine a reduction of maxima of wind wave height and storm surge levels. Changes of mean sea level are produced by regional steric effects and by net mass addition. While it is possible to compute the steric effects with regional models, mass addition is ultimately the consequence of a remote cause: the melting of Greenland and Antarctica ice caps. This study considers four indicators of extreme water levels, which, ranked in order of increasing values: the average of the 10 largest annual maxima (wlind10), the largest annual maximum (wlind1), the 5 (rv5) and 50 (rv50) year return level. The analysis is based on a coordinated set of wave and storm surge simulation forced by inputs provided by regional climate model simulations that were carried out in the CIRCE EU-fp7 and cover the period 1951-2050. Accounting for all affecting factors but the mass addition, in about 60% of the Mediterranean coast reduced storminess and steric expansion will compensate each other and produce no significant change of maximum water level statistics. The remaining 40% of the coastline is almost equally divided between significant positive and negative changes. However, if a supplementary sea level increase, representing the effect of water mass addition, is added, the fraction of the coast with significant positive/negative changes increase/decrease quickly. If mass addition would contribute 10cm, there will be no significant negative changes and for any indicator. With a 20cm addition the increase would be significant for wlind10, wlind1, rv5 along more than 75% of the Mediterranean coastline. With a 35cm addition the increase

  5. Detection and identification of tdh- and trh-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from four species of cultured bivalve molluscs on the Spanish Mediterranean Coast.

    PubMed

    Roque, Ana; Lopez-Joven, Carmen; Lacuesta, Beatriz; Elandaloussi, Laurence; Wagley, Sariqa; Furones, M Dolores; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol; de Blas, Ignacio; Rangdale, Rachel; Gomez-Gil, Bruno

    2009-12-01

    Presented here is the first report describing the detection of potentially diarrheal Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from cultured bivalves on the Mediterranean coast, providing data on the presence of both tdh- and trh-positive isolates. Potentially diarrheal V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from four species of bivalves collected from both bays of the Ebro delta, Spain.

  6. Marine biogeographic boundaries and human introduction along the European coast revealed by phylogeography of the prawn Palaemon elegans.

    PubMed

    Reuschel, Silke; Cuesta, José A; Schubart, Christoph D

    2010-06-01

    A phylogeographic analysis is carried out for the widely distributed European littoral prawn Palaemon elegans in order to test for potential genetic differentiation and geographic structure. Mitochondrial sequences were obtained from 283 specimens from the northeastern Atlantic, the Baltic, Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas. Our study revealed a surprisingly complex population structure. Three main haplogroups can be separated: one from the Atlantic (Type I) and two from the Mediterranean (Types II and III). While the Mediterranean types occur in sympatry, a clear phylogeographic break was observed along the Almería-Oran Front separating Type I and giving evidence for a genetic isolation of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. Type III represents the most distinct haplogroup with high levels of nucleotide divergence, indicating the occurrence of a cryptic species with a Messinian origin. The colonization of the southeastern Baltic Sea is most likely due to human introduction.

  7. Protein and dry matter degradability of European- and Mediterranean-derived birdsfoot trefoil cultivars grown in the colder continental USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent work suggests several European- and Mediterranean-derived cultivars of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) are well adapted to the colder continental USA and produce forage with greater condensed tannin (CT) concentrations, but comparable neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and slightly ...

  8. Sources, composition and spatial distribution of marine debris along the Mediterranean coast of Israel.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Galia; Zviely, Dov; Ribic, Christine A; Ariel, Asaf; Spanier, Ehud

    2017-01-30

    Marine debris (litter) is a complex problem that affects human activities and the marine environment worldwide. The Clean Coast Program in Israel has had some success in keeping most of the coasts clean most of the time, but without understanding the mechanisms of accumulation of marine debris on the coasts of Israel. In 2012, we initiated a study to characterize the types of marine debris, its origins and spatial distribution. Nineteen surveys were done from June 2012 to March 2015 on eight beaches that spanned the coast of Israel. Average debris density was 12.1 items per 100m(2) and 90% of the items were plastic. The top debris categories were food wrappers and disposables, plastic bags and cigarette butts. However, there was variation in the top debris categories among the beaches indicating that a flexible approach with multiple options will be important when addressing the marine debris problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sources, composition and spatial distribution of marine debris along the Mediterranean coast of Israel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pasternak, Galia; Zviely, Dov; Ribic, Christine; Ariel, Asaf; Spanier, Ehud

    2017-01-01

    Marine debris (litter) is a complex problem that affects human activities and the marine environment worldwide. The Clean Coast Program in Israel has had some success in keeping most of the coasts clean most of the time, but without understanding the mechanisms of accumulation of marine debris on the coasts of Israel. In 2012, we initiated a study to characterize the types of marine debris, its origins and spatial distribution. Nineteen surveys were done from June 2012 to March 2015 on eight beaches that spanned the coast of Israel. Average debris density was 12.1 items per 100 m2 and 90% of the items were plastic. The top debris categories were food wrappers and disposables, plastic bags and cigarette butts. However, there was variation in the top debris categories among the beaches indicating that a flexible approach with multiple options will be important when addressing the marine debris problem.

  10. Metal accumulations in different tissues of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L., 1758) in the Eastern Mediterranean coasts of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duysak, Önder; Uğurlu, Erkan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, metal concentration levels (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb) were investigated in the gill, hepatopancreas, ovary, testis, and mantle of the male and female cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in various stations (Iskenderun, Antalya, Kas, Gazipasa, and Anamur) in Mediterranean coasts of Turkey. Hepatopancreas tissue was a better indicator in terms of heavy metal concentration compared to the other tissues. In general, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb accumulation for the male was found more than that of the female, whereas Cd and Ni accumulation was found higher in the female. There was a relationship among the metals in the form of Co > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr in the mantle tissue. The Pb concentration over the recommended limits was found in cuttlefish of Anamur, Antalya, and Iskenderun stations.

  11. Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) stranding on the coast of Israel (eastern Mediterranean). Autopsy results and trace metal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Amiel, Shlomi; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Kress, Nurit

    2002-08-05

    The stranding of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is reported in this study. High concentrations of trace metals (Hg, Cd, Zn, Fe and Se) were found in the various tissues analyzed, while Cu and Mn concentrations were naturally low. The specimen was found alive, but died a day later. The cause of death was attributed to bacterial bronchopneumonia in combination with endotoxemia, resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation. Plastic bags found in its stomach contributed to the dolphin's poor physical condition. No connection was found between the high concentrations of trace metals in the internal organs and the cause of death. It is assumed that the high concentrations were a result of the high trophic level of this species, its diet and its advanced age. Anthropogenic influence could not be assessed due to the sparse database of trace metals for this species, in particular knowledge of the natural levels.

  12. Presence of anisakid larvae in the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, fished off the Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, Claudio; Bossù, Teresa; Scaramozzino, Paola; Nicolini, Giuseppe; Ceddia, Pietro; Mallozzi, Salvatore; Cavallero, Serena; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of anisakid nematode larvae in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fished off the Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy. From February through July 2012, 1,490 specimens of E. encrasicolus caught in three different fishing areas (off Civitavecchia, Anzio, and Gaeta in the northern, central, and southern Lazio region of Italy, respectively) were tested for the presence of anisakid larvae, both by visual microscopic inspection and enzymatic digestion. In each of the three fishing areas, each of two sampling times produced 250 fish (with the exception of one sampling time in Gaeta that produced 240 fish). Larvae of the family Anisakidae were detected with an overall estimated prevalence of 2.3%, and each positive fish harbored a single larva. No anisakid larvae were detected in fish caught off Gaeta. Fish with larvae were significantly longer (standard length) than fish without larvae. Twenty-six larvae (74.3%) were detected by visual inspection of the viscera, eight larvae (22.8%) were detected by visual inspection of the fillets, and one larva (2.8%) was detected after digestion of pooled fillets. Molecular analysis to fully characterize the 35 detected larvae revealed 15 specimens of Anisakis pegreffii, 10 specimens of Hysterothylacium aduncum, and one hybrid genotype of A. pegreffii × Anisakis simplex. For nine specimens, no visible product was obtained after PCR amplification. The overall prevalence for A. pegreffii and H. aduncum was 1.0 and 0.7%, respectively. A comparison between fishes harboring A. pegreffii larvae and those harboring H. aduncum revealed that those with A. pegreffii were significantly heavier. The prevalence of anisakid larvae found in the present study is lower then that reported previously in E. encrasicolus collected in the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Distributions of Pu, Am and Cs in margin sediments from the western Mediterranean (Spanish coast).

    PubMed

    Gascó, C; Antón, M P; Pozuelo, M; Meral, J; González, A M; Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

    2002-01-01

    Continental margins are important areas to be considered when studying the distributions and depositions of pollutants, both conventional and radioactive. Coastal sediments accumulate most of those contaminants which can be introduced following atmospheric and/or fluvial pathways. Moreover, their residence times within the water column are usually shortened due to their affinity to associate with the downward falling particulate matter, more abundant at shallower depths. In this paper the distribution profiles and inventories of plutonium, americium and cesium are detailed, providing useful information about recent sedimentation phenomena such as sediment mixing, slumping processes and bioturbation. Unsupported 210Pb data are used as reliable indicators of enhanced/reduced deposition events. Also, the calculated inventories have enabled the estimation of the radiological contribution of the Spanish Mediterranean margin to the total radioactivity deposited onto the Mediterranean sea floor.

  14. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  15. Experimental study of sediment transport along the central Mediterranean coast of Israel, by means of fluorescent sand tracers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M.; Zviely, D.; Kit, E.; Shteinman, B.

    2004-12-01

    The method of labeled natural sand particles was used to study sediment transport along the central Mediterranean coast of Israel. Six portions of 300 kg each were tagged with various fluorescent colors and distributed at six different locations in the vicinity of the Herzliya Marina. The tagged sand was scattered at the end of autumn, and sampled three times during the winter. Sampling was interrupted in mid-January due to unexpected dredging at the marina canal entrance. The wave climate during that time was analyzed using wave data from Ashdod (40 km south). Wave directions measured in Ashdod were corrected, to make them applicable to the Herzliya coast, in accordance with the directional shift values suggested by Perlin and Kit (1999). Four wave storms with significant wave heights (Hs) of over 2.5 m were observed. Two of them clearly indicate a dominant direction from the southwest and two others from the northwest. However, the time durations and the relative angles between the wave directions and the orthogonal to the coast of the storms propagating from the southwest are essentially larger than those arriving from the northwest. The following results were noted: a) the drift of tagged sand particles correlated to longshore sediment transport (LST) at all depths was in a northern direction throughout the field experiment. The longest distance of transport was 5 km over a period of 62 days. b)"On-shore" sediment transport was presented, sand from 15 m depth was found at 8 m depth. c) The cross-shore sediment transport carried sand to a depth of 8 m, but no colored sand from shallow water (2-4 m) was found deeper than 8 m. d) although sedimentation at the marina entrance during the experiment was high, only small amounts of tagged sand were found at the entrance. e) findings of tagged sand showed the main area of sedimentation to be along the Marina's main breakwater.

  16. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  17. Organic pollution and its effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Eastern Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Emmanouil, Christina; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadi-Psyllou, Asimina; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Okay, Oya; Machera, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    Persistent chemicals and emerging pollutants are continuously detected in marine waters and biota. Out of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are significant contaminants with decades of presence in the marine environment. The Mediterranean Sea is an ecosystem directly affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities including industry, municipal, touristic, commercial and agricultural. The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a filter feeder, which presents wide distribution. In this regard, the specific organism was used as a biological indicator for the monitoring and evaluation of pollution in the studied areas with focus on the mentioned chemical groups. Pristine Turkish sites with minimum effect from anthropogenic activities, in contrast with Greek sites which were subjected to heavy industrial and shipping activity, were selected. A gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to monitor 34 compounds (16 EPA priority PAHs and 18 OCs). Analyses of mussel samples in 2011 from sites with the limited anthropogenic pollution shores have shown the occurrence of 11 pollutants (6 PAHs, 5 OCs), while in the samples from sites with intensive activity and expected pollution, 12 PAHs and 6 OCs were detected. Biochemical and biological responses studied only in mussels samples from the sites with the highest contamination showed a situation that was under strong seasonal influence. The intensity of the response was also influenced by deployment duration. Noteworthy correlations were detected among biochemical/biological effects and between mussel body burden and these effects. Continuous monitoring of priority pollutants of East Mediterranean Sea is vital both for ecological and human risk assessment purposes.

  18. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy). Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories). In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody), or habitat (e.g., riverine), etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42%) and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research correlates functional

  19. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy.

    PubMed

    Savo, Valentina; La Rocca, Arianna; Caneva, Giulia; Rapallo, Fabio; Cornara, Laura

    2013-01-28

    Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy). Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories). In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody), or habitat (e.g., riverine), etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42%) and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Our research correlates functional characteristics of the plants used in

  20. Links between parasitism, energy reserves and fecundity of European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Lloret, Josep; Muñoz, Marta; Faliex, Elisabeth; Vila, Sílvia; Sasal, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758, is one of the most sought-after target species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. However, this stock currently consists of small individuals, and landings are reported to have decreased considerably. The main purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, the interrelationships between size, fecundity, energy reserves and parasitism in female anchovies, in order to analyse the potential implications for the health of northwestern Mediterranean anchovy stocks arising from the current shortage of large individuals. Results revealed that smaller individuals show lower fecundity, lower lipid content and a higher intensity of certain parasites. As it is known that smaller individuals now predominate in the population, the relationships found in this study indicate that the health of anchovies from the northwestern Mediterranean is currently impaired. PMID:27293748

  1. The impact on eating habits of temporary translocation from a Mediterranean to a Northern European environment.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, A; Scott, J A

    2002-05-01

    To assess the effect of temporary translocation from a Mediterranean to a Northern European environment on the eating habits of a group of foreign students. Cross-sectional survey of eating habits before and after moving from Greece to Glasgow, Scotland. University of Glasgow. Eighty post-graduate Greek students. A self-administered questionnaire comprising of three major sections: (1) general eating habits; (2) frequency of eating selected food items; (3) opinion of food availability in Glasgow. After moving to Glasgow, significant decreases were reported in the frequency of consuming fresh fruit, raw vegetables, fish, legumes, meat, poultry and fresh fruit juice. The frequency of eating biscuits, savoury snacks, soft/fizzy drinks, alcoholic drinks and mayonnaise, dips and sauces increased. The estimated median daily consumption of fruit and vegetables decreased from 363 g in Greece to just 124 g in Glasgow, well below the Scottish and WHO dietary target of 400 g/day. The main perceived barriers to maintaining customary eating habits were the price of food, the lack of familiar tastes, the greater availability of convenience food and the limited variety of food available in Glasgow, when compared to Greece. These findings highlight the difficulties that migrant populations face in retaining traditional, often healthier, eating habits when migrating to a foreign country. Barriers of high cost, limited availability and poor quality of familiar foods, need to be addressed in order for migrants to maintain their customary eating patterns. Furthermore, these barriers need to be addressed before nutritionists can expect to see the widespread adoption of the Mediterranean diet by Western populations less familiar with this eating pattern.

  2. PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: A 1-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Detournay, Anais; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Liguori, Francesca; Saraga, Dikaia; Bove, Maria Chiara; Brotto, Paolo; Cassola, Federico; Massabò, Dario; Latella, Aurelio; Pillon, Silvia; Formenton, Gianni; Patti, Salvatore; Armengaud, Alexandre; Piga, Damien; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Bartzis, John; Tolis, Evangelos; Prati, Paolo; Querol, Xavier; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and its chemical composition in the Mediterranean Basin have been studied over a 1-year period (2011-2012) in five European Mediterranean cities: Barcelona (BCN), Marseille (MRS), Genoa (GEN), Venice (VEN), and Thessaloniki (THE). During the year under study, PM10 annual mean concentration ranged from 23 to 46 μg m- 3, while the respective PM2.5 ranged from 14 to 37 μg m- 3, with the highest concentrations observed in THE and VEN. Both cities presented an elevated number of exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value, as 32% and 20% of the days exceeded 50 μg m- 3, respectively. Similarly, exceedances of the WHO guidelines for daily PM2.5 concentrations (25 μg m- 3) were also more frequent in THE with 78% of the days during the period, followed by VEN with 39%. The lowest PM levels were measured in GEN. PM2.5 exhibited significant seasonal variability, with much higher winter concentrations for VEN and MRS, in fall for THE and in spring for BCN. PM2.5 chemical composition was markedly different even for similar PM2.5 levels. On annual average, PM2.5 was dominated by OM except in THE. OM contribution was higher in Marseille (42%), while mineral matter was the most abundant constituent in THE (32%). Moreover, PM2.5 relative mean composition during pollution episodes (PM2.5 > 25 μg m- 3) as well as the origins of the exceedances were also investigated. Results outline mainly the effect of NO3- being the most important driver and highlight the non-negligible impact of atmospheric mixing and aging processes during pollution episodes.

  3. Yield, morphological characteristics, and chemical composition of European- and Mediterranean-derived birdsfoot trefoil cultivars grown in the colder continental United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commonly grown North American birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) varieties, such as Norcen,0 produce forage with insufficient condensed tannin (CT) concentrations to maximize ruminant livestock performance. Our objective was to identify European and Mediterranean genotypes with higher CT...

  4. ESR dating marine terraces along the Mediterranean coast of the Antakya Graben, SE Turkey: Sea level change and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, Ufuk; Tüysüz, Okan; Blackwell, Bonnie; Genç, Ş. Can; İmren, Caner; Florentin, Jonathan A.; Skinner, Anne

    2015-04-01

    In southeastern Turkey, NE-trending Antakya Graben forms an asymmetric depression filled by Pliocene marine siliciclastic sediment, Pleistocene to Recent fluvial terrace sediment and alluvium. A multi-segmented, dominantly sinistral fault lying along the graben possibly connects the Cyprus Arc in the west to the Amik Triple Junction on the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) in the east. Normal faults, bounding the southeastern margin caused the graben to tilt southeastward and these faults are younger than the sinistral ones. Westward escape of the continental İskenderun Block along the sinistral faults belonging to the DSF in the east and to the Eastern Anatolian Fault in the north caused Antakya Graben to open since Pliocene. In the later stages of this opening, normal faults developed along the southeastern of the graben, leading to differential uplift of the Mediterranean coastal terraces. Tectonic uplift coupled with sea level fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces at elevations ranging from 0.25 m to 180 m above current sea level along the Mediterranean coast. In this study we dated these terrace deposits by using electron spin resonance (ESR) method. In the NW part of the graben, terraces at 30 m above mean sea level (amsl) yield 63±8 ka and correlate with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4. Older units dating to MIS 7 and 5 likely were being eroded to supply some fossils found in this terrace. On the 45 m amsl terrace dates to 114±7 ka, which is the MIS 5d/5e boundary. Terrace deposits at 105 m amsl belong to MIS 5c boundary at 91±13 ka. At Samandağ site at 39 m amsl, molluscs deposited in a large tidal channel indicate MIS 5d/5e boundary at 116 ± 5 ka. Contemporary sediments are seen in different elevations in the SE part of the graben. The youngest samples suggest an age 14±1 ka in the late MIS 2 for the slump topping the 8 m amsl terrace. At the 50 m amsl terrace dates to 89±5 ka and correlate with MIS 5a/5c. Here 180 m amsl terrace gave a

  5. Tsunami hazard assessment along the French Mediterranean coast : detailed modeling of tsunami impacts for the ALDES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quentel, E.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hébert, H.

    2012-04-01

    The catastrophic 2004 tsunami drew the international community's attention to tsunami risk in all basins where tsunamis occurred but no warning system exists. Consequently, under the coordination of UNESCO, France decided to create a regional center, called CENALT, for the north-east Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. This warning system, which should be operational by 2012, is set up by the CEA in collaboration with the SHOM and the CNRS. The French authorities are in charge of the top-down alert system including the local alert dissemination. In order to prepare the appropriate means and measures, they initiated the ALDES (Alerte Descendante) project to which the CEA also contributes. It aims at examining along the French Mediterranean coast the tsunami risk related to earthquakes and landslides. In addition to the evaluation at regional scale, it includes the detailed studies of 3 selected sites; the local alert system will be designed for one of them : the French Riviera. In this project, our main task at CEA consists in assessing tsunami hazard related to seismic sources using numerical modeling. Past tsunamis have affected the west Mediterranean coast but are too few and poorly documented to provide a suitable database. Thus, a synthesis of earthquakes representative of the tsunamigenic seismic activity and prone to induce the largest impact to the French coast is performed based on historical data, seismotectonics and first order models. The North Africa Margin, the Ligurian and the South Tyrrhenian Seas are considered as the main tsunamigenic zones. In order to forecast the most important plausible effects, the magnitudes are estimated by enhancing to some extent the largest known values. Our hazard estimation is based on the simulation of the induced tsunamis scenarios performed with the CEA code. The 3 sites have been chosen according to the regional hazard studies, coastal typology elements and the appropriate DTMs (Digital Terrain Models). The

  6. Aeolian beach ridges and their significance for climate and sea level: Concept and insight from the Levant coast (East Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauz, B.; Hijma, M. P.; Amorosi, A.; Porat, N.; Galili, E.; Bloemendal, J.

    2013-06-01

    Relict beach ridges of aeolian origin and associated soils are often used for inferring relative sea level and climate with contrasting results. Most studies link the aeolian coastal deposits to regressive phases, some to high sea-level stands, and a few to intermediate relative sea-level positions. We interpret the apparent contradictions as indicating the lack of an over-arching concept and the inconsistent usage of sea level-related terms. In this paper we present an integrated morpho-sedimentological concept for a microtidal, mid-latitudinal coast and review existing data from the Levant (East Mediterranean) coast to evaluate the concept and to eliminate nomenclatural confusion. A coastal depositional environment in a semi-arid environment consists of shallow-marine, aeolian and alluvial facies which together form an aeolian beach-ridge complex as a package of strata which respond simultaneously to sea-level change. A transgressive complex forms through reworking or overstepping of the coastal foredune and a regressive complex forms by downstepping. Under transgression the aeolian beach ridge represents the highstand deposit and its adjacent shallow marine sediment is the transgressive deposit. Under regression the complex represents the falling stage and the associated downdip surface marks the lowstand. On the Levant coast we find chronologically well-constrained, offlapping aeolian beach ridges as parts of six downstepping beach ridge complexes formed between ~ 200 ka and 10 ka. The complexes represent the falling stage systems tract (FSST) of a short-lived (5th-order) depositional sequence when the shoreline shifted from a position close to the modern coastline to the shelf or below the shelf edge. Three of these FSSTs and their up dip and down dip super bounding surface together form the 4th order (~ 100 ka) sequence of the last interglacial/glacial cycle. The absence of transgressive, highstand and lowstand systems tract is explained by the poor

  7. Impact and recovery from a mass mortality event of the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata populations on the french Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonhomme, D.; Garrabou, J.; Perez, T.; Sartoretto, S.; Harmelin, J. G.

    2003-04-01

    An unprecedented mass mortality occurred in the NW Mediterranean in summer 1999. This event affected 30 species of invertebrates from 5 different Phyla (sponges, cnidarians, molluscs, ascidians, bryozoans) on several hundred kilometres of shoreline from the Bay of Genoa in Italy to the Bay of Marseilles in France. The most affected taxa were sponges and cnidarians. This mass mortality took place under an unusual environmental context characterized by high and stable water column temperatures. The impact of the mass mortality and recovery (1999-2002) of populations of the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata from Provence's coasts (France) have been studied. Most surveyed populations displayed 50 % of affected colonies at different degree (dead, severe and low damage), although a great variability in rates of mortality and tissue loss was also evident depending among sites. The mortality impact decreased with depth, a pattern which supports the hypothesis that temperature played a key role in this event. Surveys on populations for which pre-mortality data (density and size structure) was attested that recovery was far from completion three years after the mortality. Considering the growth rate of P. clavata, full recovery of the most affected local populations will take several decades will be necessary to return to pre-mortality values. In the context of the global change and taking into account the correlation with the temperature, one may expect that the frequency of of these kind of events will increase in the next decades. Dramatic consequences can be expected for the conservation of the affected species in shallow habitats, in particular, and for the Mediterranean biodiversity, in general.

  8. Review of the late-Holocene storm events along the European Atlantic coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouzet, Pierre; Maanan, Mohamed; Piotrowska, Natalia; Baltzer, Agnès; Stephan, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The chronology of the mid- to late-Holocene coastal storms was reconstructed from vibracore samplings, 14C dating and sedimentary analysis from Yeu island (French Atlantic coast). The methodology used is based on the identification of disturbing sedimentary events recognized within three Holocene sedimentary transgressive sequences selected along the northern coast of the island. These sequences correspond to the present-day coastal salt-marshes and swamps. The sediment cores were centimeter-sampled and studied from several sedimentological proxies (Loss of Ignition, sand fraction, mean grain size) with a high temporal resolution. Chronology was built by age-depth model based on eleven 14C measures of organic sediments and shell samples. Ten paleo-storm events were recorded: a 2100-1950 calBP interval as a deeply stormy-disturbed period; five others major impacted times: 600-500 calBP, 2850-2350 calBP, 3500-3270 calBP, 5400-5370 calBP and 6650-6510 calBP; and four final less meaningful storminess hypothesis near 1590 calBP, 6000 calBP, 7000 calBP, and between 7670 and 7470 calBP. This chronology was compared with enhanced storminess periods recognized along the European Atlantic coast. Four stormy periods stand out from the last 4000 years: 600-300 BP, 1100-1700 BP, 2500-2900 BP and 3300-3500 BP, corresponding to late Holocene global cold events. These results suggests that these changes in coastal hydrodynamics were in phase with those identified over the North-eastern Atlantic and seem to correspond to Holocene cooling first shown in the North Atlantic and associated with decreases in sea surface temperature.

  9. Mid to late Holocene environmental changes along the coast of western Sardinia (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Rita T.; Depalmas, Anna; Di Rita, Federico; Montis, Francesca; Vacchi, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    Multiproxy analysis composed of biostratigraphy and pollen analysis allowed reconstructing the palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Tirso river coastal plain in Sardinia (NW Mediterranean) in the last 6 millennia. We demonstrated that interplay between littoral and fluvial processes have significantly controlled the environmental evolution of the area and have played a key role in the pattern of historical and prehistorical settlements of this wide portion of western Sardinian coastline. At the end of Neolithic period (ca. 6.0 to 5.5 cal. ka BP) the area close to the shoreline was most likely characterized by large coastal lagoons intermittently connected to the open sea. Such saltwater influence is corroborated by faunal and pollen assemblages found in the landward portion of the Tirso coastal plain up to 2 km inland from the modern shoreline. Our data robustly document the end of the transgressive trend at ca. 5.5 cal. ka BP, and a dominant fluvial sedimentation since Final Neolithic period. At this time, a progradational trend started, causing the seaward migration of shoreline and, consequently, of the barrier-lagoon system. The major landscape modification tracked along the last 6 millennia may also explain the low density of historical and prehistorical remains in the Tirso coastal plain, especially if compared to the nearby rocky area of Sinis Peninsula densely inhabited since the Neolithic. Our data further provide new insights into the Relative Sea Level (RSL) evolution in this sector of the Mediterranean. In particular, we improved the mid-Holocene RSL record in Sardinia, where only scarce data were previously available.

  10. Molecular characterization of Hysterothylacium fabri (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Zeus faber (Pisces: Zeidae) caught off the Mediterranean coasts of Turkey based on nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Yardimci, Banu; Onuk, Ertan Emek; Umur, Sinasi

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, Hysterothylacium fabri was found in the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, Turkey and characterized by sequencing of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2, cox2) markers. Pairwise comparison between the entire ITS fragment including ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 sequences of the H. fabri isolates from the Mediterranean Sea (Turkey, KC852206) and other H. fabri isolates from the South China Sea (JQ520158), the South Korea waters (JX974558) showed differences ranged from 0.1 and 1.1%. With the present study, H. fabri from the Mediterranean Sea was characterized for the first time by sequencing of the cox2 gene.

  11. Sea level and current validation for an early warning coastal system on the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ràfols, Laura; abdelmalik, Sairouni; Bravo, Manel; Espino, Manuel; Grifoll, Manel

    2015-04-01

    An early warning coastal system is being implemented on the Catalan coast (North-western Mediterranean Sea) in order to provide high resolution forecast of sea levels, current velocities and wave conditions. The present investigation is focused on the oceanic model, which provides information about sea level and currents. The aim of this study is to validate the sea level and current forecasts obtained with the help of the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS; Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) in a high resolution domain (350 metres). In an attempt to reduce the high computational cost required for such a small grid, the Catalan coast has been divided into a few separate domains, which are run independently of each other. For the initial and boundary conditions, data from the MyOcean-IBI products have been used and the atmospheric forcing fields have been obtained from the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC) and the Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET). For a validation purpose, different study periods have been taken into account. Then, the validation of the model has been done using the available in-situ tide-gauge and buoy measurements and HF satellite data. During energetic events, the interaction between currents and waves is expected to be relevant in the shallower areas. For this reason, a coupled wave-ocean system has been implemented to investigate the improvements in the forecasts when faced with the results of separated simulations. In this case, the ROMS model and the SWAN model (Simulating WAves Nearshore; Booij et al., 1999) have been run as part of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System (Warner et al., 2010), which uses the Model Coupling Toolkit to exchange data fields between the models.

  12. Adherence to a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern in children from eight European countries. The IDEFICS study.

    PubMed

    Tognon, G; Moreno, L A; Mouratidou, T; Veidebaum, T; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Siani, A; Akhandaf, Y; Krogh, V; Tornaritis, M; Börnhorst, C; Hebestreit, A; Pigeot, I; Lissner, L

    2014-09-01

    Despite documented benefits of a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern, there is a lack of knowledge about how children from different European countries compare with each other in relation to the adherence to this pattern. In response to this need, we calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) in 2-9-year-old children from the Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) eight-country study. Using 24 h dietary recall data obtained during the IDEFICS study (n=7940), an MDS score was calculated based on the age- and sex-specific population median intakes of six food groups (vegetables and legumes, fruit and nuts, cereal grains and potatoes, meat products and dairy products) and the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fats. For fish and seafood, which was consumed by 10% of the population, one point was given to consumers. The percentages of children with high MDS levels (>3) were calculated and stratified by sex, age and by having at least one migrant parent or both native parents. Demographic (sex and age) and socioeconomic characteristics (parental education and income) of children showing high (>3) vs low (⩽3) MDS levels were examined. The highest prevalence of children with MDS>3 was found among the Italian pre-school boys (55.9%) and the lowest among the Spanish school-aged girls (26.0%). Higher adherence to a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern was not associated with living in a Mediterranean country or in a highly educated or high-income family, although with some exceptions. Differences in adherence between boys and girls or age groups varied between countries without any general pattern. With the exception of Italian pre-schoolers, similar adherence levels to a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern have been observed among European children.

  13. Wood stakes as an index of soil organic matter decomposition in a climatic gradient along the Spanish Mediterranean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurgensen, M. F.; Page-Dumroese, D. S.; Cerdà, A.; Úbeda, X.; M-Mena, M.; Rey, A.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) decomposition is a critical factor in assessing the possible impacts of future climate change and management on soil carbon cycling and sequestration. Soil OM decomposition is a function of abiotic (e.g. moisture, temperature, nutrient content, pH), and biotic (microbial biomass, functional diversity) conditions, which makes this soil process ideally suited to study across a range of soil and climatic conditions. We used wood stakes of four tree species (Populus alba, Populus tremuloides, Pinus halenensis, Pinus taeda) as standard indices of OM decomposition rates on the soil surface and in the mineral soil of three sites along the Spanish Mediterranean Coast with different soils, land use and climatic conditions: 1) Quercus suber forest - 700 mm rainfall /year, 2) Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepenis forest - 300 mm rainfall/year, and 3) tussock grasses - 150 mm rainfall /year. Our results show significant differences in wood stake decomposition as a function of climatic conditions, land use management, and wood stake species.

  14. Ovatoxin-a and Palytoxin Accumulation in Seafood in Relation to Ostreopsis cf. ovata Blooms on the French Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Amzil, Zouher; Sibat, Manoella; Chomerat, Nicolas; Grossel, Hubert; Marco-Miralles, Francoise; Lemee, Rodolphe; Nezan, Elisabeth; Sechet, Veronique

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis are known to cause (often fatal) food poisoning in tropical coastal areas following the accumulation of palytoxin (PLTX) and/or its analogues (PLTX group) in crabs, sea urchins or fish. Ostreopsis spp. occurrence is presently increasing in the northern to north western Mediterranean Sea (Italy, Spain, Greece and France), probably in response to climate change. In France, Ostreopsis. cf. ovata has been associated with toxic events during summer 2006, at Morgiret, off the coast of Marseille, and a specific monitoring has been designed and implemented since 2007. Results from 2008 and 2009 showed that there is a real danger of human poisoning, as these demonstrated bioaccumulation of the PLTX group (PLTX and ovatoxin-a) in both filter-feeding bivalve molluscs (mussels) and herbivorous echinoderms (sea urchins). The total content accumulated in urchins reached 450 µg PLTX eq/kg total flesh (summer 2008). In mussels, the maximum was 230 µg eq PLTX/kg (summer 2009) compared with a maximum of 360 µg found in sea urchins during the same period at the same site. This publication brings together scientific knowledge obtained about the summer development of Ostreopsis spp. in France during 2007, 2008 and 2009. PMID:22412814

  15. Pioneer marine biofilms on artificial surfaces including antifouling coatings immersed in two contrasting French Mediterranean coast sites.

    PubMed

    Briand, Jean-François; Djeridi, Ikram; Jamet, Dominique; Coupé, Stéphane; Bressy, Christine; Molmeret, Maëlle; Le Berre, Brigitte; Rimet, Frédéric; Bouchez, Agnès; Blache, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Marine biofilm communities that developed on artificial substrata were investigated using molecular and microscopic approaches. Polystyrene, Teflon® and four antifouling (AF) paints were immersed for 2 weeks at two contrasting sites near Toulon on the French Mediterranean coast (Toulon military harbour and the natural protected area of Porquerolles Island). Biofilms comprising bacteria and diatoms were detected on all the coatings. The population structure as well as the densities of the microorganisms differed in terms of both sites and coatings. Lower fouling densities were observed at Porquerolles Island compared to Toulon harbour. All bacterial communities (analysed by PCR-DGGE) showed related structure, controlled both by the sites and the type of substrata. Pioneer microalgal communities were dominated by the same two diatom species, viz. Licmophora gracilis and Cylindrotheca closterium, at both sites, irrespective of the substrata involved. However, the density of diatoms followed the same trend at both sites with a significant effect of all the AF coatings compared to Teflon and polystyrene.

  16. Vulnerability of Mediterranean Ecosystems to Long-Term Changes along the Coast of Israel

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Although human activity is considered to be a major driving force affecting the distribution and dynamics of Mediterranean ecosystems, the full consequences of projected climate variability and relative sea-level changes on fragile coastal ecosystems for the next century are still unknown. It is unclear how these waterfront ecosystems can be sustained, as well as the services they provide, when relative sea-level rise and global warming are expected to exert even greater pressures in the near future (drought, habitat degradation and accelerated shoreline retreat). Haifa Bay, northern Israel, has recorded a landward sea invasion, with a maximum sea penetration 4,000 years ago, during an important period of urban development and climate instability. Here, we examine the cumulative pressure of climate shifts and relative sea-level changes in order to investigate the patterns and mechanisms behind forest replacement by an open-steppe. We provide a first comprehensive and integrative study for the southern Levant that shows that (i) human impact, through urbanization, has been the main driver behind ecological erosion in the past 4,000 years; (ii) climate pressures have reinforced this impact; and (iii) local coastal changes have played a decisive role in eroding ecosystem resilience. These three parameters, which have closely interacted during the last 4,000 years in Haifa Bay, clearly indicate that for an efficient management of the coastal habitats, anthropogenic pressures linked to urban development must be reduced in order to mitigate the predicted effects of Global Change. PMID:25003703

  17. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption in a community of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Elhamri, Hecham; Idrissi, Larbi; Coquery, Marina; Azemard, Sabine; El Abidi, Abdellah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Saghi, Mohamed; Cubadda, Francesco

    2007-11-01

    Coastal populations with high seafood consumption in the Mediterranean have a significant exposure to dietary methylmercury, and areas where environmental mercury pollution is an issue due to industrial activities are of special concern. The study was undertaken with the aim of assessing methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in a community of north Morocco and characterizing the relevant health risk. Concentrations of total mercury were determined in human hair, a biomarker of methylmercury exposure, and in locally consumed fish by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on consumption frequencies reported by the 108 subjects included in the study the weekly intake of methylmercury was estimated and biomarker data were evaluated in relation to the estimated intake and the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Multiple regression analysis was employed for the interpretation of hair mercury data in relation to fish consumption frequency, gender and the age of individuals. Mercury concentrations in hair ranged from 0.22 to 9.56 microg g(-1) (geometric mean = 1.79 microg g(-1)) and were closely related to fish intake. Fisherman and their families consumed fish three to five times per week and were the most exposed population subgroup. A high proportion of women of child-bearing age (50%) had relatively high levels of mercury in their hair (3.08-7.88 microg g(-1)).

  18. Numerical modeling of tidal notch sequences on rocky coasts of the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiderwind, S.; Boulton, S. J.; Papanikolaou, I.; Kázmér, M.; Reicherter, K.

    2017-05-01

    Tidal notches have had the potential to form at sea level from 6.5 kyr B.P. in the Mediterranean Basin and preserve a symmetrical shape comparable to a quadric polynomial. Continuous erosion, predominantly by biological agents, affects a limestone cliff face from low- to high-tide level at <1 mm/yr. Statically determined, the roots of a quadric polynomial are defined by the tidal range representing the limits of effective erosion. However, gradual variations of eustatic sea level rise (slow) and coseismic uplift/subsidence (fast) in tectonically active regions contribute to vertical shifts in the erosional base at coastlines. As a consequence, the cliff morphology gets modified through time resulting in widening, deepening, and separation of notches and possible overprinting of older features. In order to investigate successive modifications of coastal cliff morphology, we developed a numerical model that considers the erosion rate, the erosion zone relative to sea level, the regional sea level curve, and tectonic motion. The results show how slow and rapid sea level changes bias the modern cliff face and highlight that the present-day notch sequence from top descending to sea level is not inevitably of decreasing age. Furthermore, the initiation of notch formation is not necessarily linked to the date of a certain seismic event. Especially in extensional tectonic settings where coseismic uplift is low and coastal morphological marks are not as distinct, knowledge about coastal evolution is beneficial for paleoseismological research.

  19. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) along the north-central Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2007-10-01

    A survey was undertaken to identify metazoan ectoparasite species on the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), in 4 different locations off the north-central Portuguese coast. Parasites of 7 different taxa were found: Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae); Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae); Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae); Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymotholdae); and praniza larvae (Isopoda: Gnathiidae). Lernaeocera branchialis, a common European flounder parasite in the North and Baltic Seas, was not observed among the surveyed fish. Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Nerocila orbignyi are new host records. The high prevalence and intensity values recorded for L. pectoralis and A. cornuta suggest that both parasite species are common to the European flounder along the north-central Portuguese coast. In contrast, infection levels with respect to the other parasite taxa were, in most cases, comparatively lower, thereby indicating that they only occur occasionally among flounders in the surveyed area.

  20. Reconciling evidence from ancient and contemporary genomes: a major source for the European Neolithic within Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joana B; Costa, Marta D; Vieira, Daniel; Pala, Maria; Bamford, Lisa; Harich, Nourdin; Cherni, Lotfi; Alshamali, Farida; Hatina, Jiři; Rychkov, Sergey; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; King, Turi; Torroni, Antonio; Soares, Pedro; Pereira, Luísa; Richards, Martin B

    2017-03-29

    Important gaps remain in our understanding of the spread of farming into Europe, due partly to apparent contradictions between studies of contemporary genetic variation and ancient DNA. It seems clear that farming was introduced into central, northern, and eastern Europe from the south by pioneer colonization. It is often argued that these dispersals originated in the Near East, where the potential source genetic pool resembles that of the early European farmers, but clear ancient DNA evidence from Mediterranean Europe is lacking, and there are suggestions that Mediterranean Europe may have resembled the Near East more than the rest of Europe in the Mesolithic. Here, we test this proposal by dating mitogenome founder lineages from the Near East in different regions of Europe. We find that whereas the lineages date mainly to the Neolithic in central Europe and Iberia, they largely date to the Late Glacial period in central/eastern Mediterranean Europe. This supports a scenario in which the genetic pool of Mediterranean Europe was partly a result of Late Glacial expansions from a Near Eastern refuge, and that this formed an important source pool for subsequent Neolithic expansions into the rest of Europe. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Lightning characteristics over the eastern coast of the Mediterranean during different synoptic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ami, Y.; Altaratz, O.; Yair, Y.; Koren, I.

    2015-11-01

    Thunderstorm activity takes place in the eastern Mediterranean mainly through the boreal fall and winter seasons during synoptic systems of Red Sea Trough (RST), Red Sea Trough that closed a low over the sea (RST-CL), and Cyprus Low (during fall - FCL and winter - WCL). In this work we used the Israeli Lightning Location System ground strokes data set, between October 2004 and December 2010, for studying the properties of lightning strokes and their link to the thermodynamic conditions in each synoptic system. It is shown that lightning activity dominates over sea during WCL and FCL systems (with maximum values of 1.5 in WCL, and 2.2 km-2 day-1 in FCL) and have a dominant component over land during the RST and RST-CL days. The stronger instability (high Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) values of 762 ± 457 J kg-1) during RST-CL days together with the higher altitude of the clouds' mixed-phase region (3.6 ± 0.3 km), result in a slightly higher density of ground strokes during this system but a lower fraction of positive ground strokes (3 ± 0.5 %). In general the fraction of positive strokes was found to be inversely correlated with the sea surface temperature: it increases from 1.2 % in early fall to 17.7 % in late winter, during FCL and WCL days. This change could be linked to the variation in the charge center's vertical location during those months. The diurnal cycle in the lightning activity was examined for each synoptic system. During WCL conditions, no preferred times were found through the day, as it relates to the random passage timing of the frontal systems over the study region. During the fall systems (FCL and RST-CL) there is a peak in lightning activity during the morning hours, probably related to the enhanced convection driven by the convergence between the eastern land breeze and the western synoptic winds. The distributions of peak currents in FCL and WCL systems also change from fall to winter and include more strong negative and

  2. Age and season determine European rabbit habitat use in Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; Bravo, Lucía Gálvez

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge about the factors determining habitat use is especially interesting for herbivores living under seasonal climates as they have to deal with food shortage during the drought season. In this context, different-aged individuals are expected to respond differently to seasonal variations because nutritional requirements and predation risk can vary with age. We investigated adult and juvenile European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) habitat use in a Mediterranean ecosystem of central Spain, during spring, summer and winter. Relationships between adult and juvenile rabbit pellet abundances and 11 environmental variables related to food availability and refuge density were analysed by means of multiple regression, and evaluated using information theory to identify the set of models best supported by the data. Density of warren entrances was the more constant predictor of habitat use for juvenile rabbits in all the seasons. Herbaceous vegetation volume had a negative influence and was the strongest predictor for adult rabbit habitat use in spring and winter. In summer, green vegetation cover became the strongest positive habitat use predictor. These results suggest that adults prefer to forage in low volume swards ensuring a wide sensory range for the detection of approaching predators. However, the arrival of summer and its associated food depletion forces them to shift toward more open productive areas where green vegetation persists, but at the expense of higher predation risk. Seasonal variation induces minor changes in juvenile habitat use due to their strong dependence on warrens. Thus, our results show that rabbit habitat use is influenced by animal age and seasonal variations in resources.

  3. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples from Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özmen, S. F.; Cesur, A.; Boztosun, I.; Yavuz, M.

    2014-10-01

    Following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a huge amount of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. It's impact on the environment is of great concern to the good of the public at large. In this regard environmental radioactivity monitoring such as external dose rate and radioactivity measurements in environmental samples has been carried out. For this purpose, several beach sand samples were collected from south coast of the Turkey in September 2011 and radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra (238U), 228Ac (232Th), 40K, 134Cs and 137Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using a high-purity Germanium detector. The measured activity concentrations in beach sand samples ranged from 4.0±0.5 to 21.5±1.8 Bq/kg, 1.8±0.4 to 27.9±2.4 Bq/kg, 19.0±2.2 to 590.3±28.6 Bq/kg and 0.1±0.0 to 1.0±0.1 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs, respectively. However there was no sign of 134Cs in the sample spectrum after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Hence we can safely conclude that there was no significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. The other activities are in good agreement with the published results of neighboring areas. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and the annual effective dose (AED) of beach sand samples were below the world wide average implying that the radiation hazard is insignificant. The data presented in this study would also be very useful to determine the possible future effects of the nuclear power plant to the environment.

  4. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  5. Early Islamic inter-settlement agroecosystems in coastal sand, Yavneh dunefield, eastern Mediterranean coast, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel; Taxel, Itamar

    2017-04-01

    assortment of Early Islamic artifacts but the relatively younger OSL ages of the underlying grey sand and absence of older Byzantine pottery suggests that the artifacts were rapidly dispersed upon the surface, probably from an abandoned and possibly partly pedogenized town dump dating to the 8th-10th century. The sites are interpreted to be part of an extensive agroecosystem comprised of berm-bordered agricultural plots in lows that allowed easy manual or root access to the high water table. The sites' character and ages closely resembles the well-preserved crisscross berms and inter-berm depressions south of ancient Caesarea that date to 0.86 ka (Roskin et al., 2015). The agricultural activity probably lasted no more than several decades to one century but its utility remains a question. The study documents a challenging attempt to utilize uncultivated sand sheets in a Mediterranean environment for agroecosystem expansion, income, control and "greening" of the terrain. This effort partly reminisces other Early Islamic agricultural water systems (e.g. qanats) in arid regions. It demonstrates that spatial agroecosystems can be developed in times that are not necessarily characterized by socio-political stability.

  6. Epidemiology of Nasopharyngeal Carriage by Haemophilus influenzae in Healthy Children: A Study in the Mediterranean Coast Region.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Romero, María Del Mar; Espejo-García, María Pilar; Alfayate-Miguelez, Santiago; Ruiz-López, Francisco José; Zapata-Hernandez, David; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Ana Josefa

    2017-10-01

    Haemophilus influenzae, a colonizer of the nasopharynx, in children causes mainly otitis and sinusitis. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of pharyngeal colonization by H. influenzae, and the secondary objectives were to identify risk factors associated with H. influenzae colonization and its antibiotic susceptibility. A prospective, multicenter study of nasopharyngeal carriers of H. influenzae was conducted in the pediatric consulting rooms of 10 primary healthcare centers in Murcia (Spain). The study consisted of 404 healthy children less than 5 years of age and was carried out during winter (January-March) and summer (July-September) of 2015. A nasopharyngeal sample was collected from each child, and an epidemiologic survey was completed by a pediatrician. In total, 112 (27.7%) children had colonization by H. influenzae, with 73.2% of cases in winter and 26.8% of cases in summer (P < 0.001). The median (interquartile range) age in months of the colonized children (13 months, 12-47.5) was lower than that of the noncolonized children (46 months, 12-49) (P < 0.001). All H. influenzae found were nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi). Among 112 isolates, 20% were ampicillin resistant, of which 10% produced β-lactamase, and 9% were ampicillin resistant and did not produce β-lactamase. A logistic regression analysis showed that young age (odds ratio: 0.98) and the winter period (odds ratio: 3.41; P < 0.001) were risk factors for colonization by NTHi. Colonization by NTHi is high in this Mediterranean coast region with remarkable ampicillin resistant. Younger age and the winter period were facilitating factors.

  7. Impact of maritime air mass trajectories on the Western European coast urban aerosol.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S M; Silva, A I; Freitas, M C; Dzung, H M; Caseiro, A; Pio, C A

    2013-01-01

    Lisbon is the largest urban area in the Western European coast. Due to this geographical position the Atlantic Ocean serves as an important source of particles and plays an important role in many atmospheric processes. The main objectives of this study were to (1) perform a chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM2.5) sampled in Lisbon, (2) identify the main sources of particles, (3) determine PM contribution to this urban area, and (4) assess the impact of maritime air mass trajectories on concentration and composition of respirable PM sampled in Lisbon. During 2007, PM2.5 was collected on a daily basis in the center of Lisbon with a Partisol sampler. The exposed Teflon filters were measured by gravimetry and cut into two parts: one for analysis by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the other by ion chromatography (IC). Principal component analysis (PCA) and multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) were used to identify possible sources of PM2.5 and determine mass contribution. Five main groups of sources were identified: secondary aerosols, traffic, calcium, soil, and sea. Four-day backtracking trajectories ending in Lisbon at the starting sampling time were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. Results showed that maritime transport scenarios were frequent. These episodes were characterized by a significant decrease of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations and exerted a significant role on air quality in this urban area.

  8. Signatures of Krakatau Tsunami Recorded by Tide Gauges along the European Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpytchev, M.; Daubord, C.; Hebert, H.; Woppelmann, G.

    2011-12-01

    The explosion of Krakatau volcano in 1883 generated one of the highest tsunami ever recorded by tide-gauges. In the North Atlantic, the only known tide gauges that have recorded the Krakatau tsunami are situated along the coast of France and UK. These records have been collected and reproduced by Symons (1888), but the reproductions are not of very high quality (Pelinovsky et al. 2005). As the Krakatau tsunami height is rather small in the North Atlantic (~20cm), it is often difficult to isolate the sea level oscillations due to tsunami from those provoked by high frequency tidal constituents or by meteorological forcing. In this report, we re-analyze the Krakatau tsunami signal at the North Atlantic European tide-gauges by replacing some of Symons' data by the digitized original sea level records and by adding a few new records that have been discovered recently in the archives. The theoretical tsunami arrival time has been estimated by the ray-tracing method. A wavelet decomposition has been applied to identify the tsunami wave and to isolate it from tidal and meteorological sea-level oscillations. The results of wavelet analysis have been validated at Rochefort (France) by comparing them with the predictions of a high resolution local tide-surge model available for this area.

  9. From egg production to recruits: Connectivity and inter-annual variability in the recruitment patterns of European anchovy in the northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina-Alvarez, Andres; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Bernal, Miguel; Roos, David; Palomera, Isabel

    2015-11-01

    We show the application of a Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Model (SEIBM) to understand the recruitment process of European anchovy. The SEIBM is applied to simulate the effects of inter-annual variability in parental population spawning behavior and intensity, and ocean dynamics, on the dispersal of eggs and larvae from the spawning area in the Gulf of Lions (GoL) towards the coastal nursery areas in the GoL and Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean Sea). For each of seven years (2003-2009), we initialize the SEIBM with the real positions of anchovy eggs during the spawning peak, from an acoustics-derived eggs production model. We analyze the effect of spawners' distribution, timing of spawning, and oceanographic conditions on the connectivity patterns, growth, dispersal distance and late-larval recruitment (14 mm larva recruits, R14) patterns. The area of influence of the Rhône river plume was identified as having a high probability of larval recruitment success (64%), but up to 36% of R14 larvae end up in the Catalan Coast. We demonstrate that the spatial paths of larvae differ dramatically from year to year, and suggest potential offshore nursery grounds. We showed that our simulations are coherent with existing recruitment proxies and therefore open new possibilities for fisheries management.

  10. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  11. Marine Terrace Deposits along the Mediterranean Coast on the Southeastern Turkey and Their Implications for Tectonic Uplift and Sea Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, U.; Tüysüz, O.; Blackwell, B. A. B.; Genç, Ş. C.; Florentin, J. A.; Mahmud, Z.; Li, G. L.; Blickstein, J. I. B.; Skinner, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Tectonic movements among the African, Arabian and Anatolian Plates have deformed the eastern Mediterranean. These movements caused transtensional opening of the NE-trending Antakya Graben since the late Pliocene. Tectonic uplift coupled with Quaternary sealevel fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces along the Mediterranean coasts on the graben. Here, marine terrace deposits that sit on both flanks of the graben at elevations between 3 and 175 m were dated using electron spin resonance (ESR) method in order to calculate uplift rates. The ESR ages range from 12 ka in late MIS 2 to 457 ka in MIS 9-11, but most of the terraces contain molluscs reworked from several earlier deposits due to successive tectonic movements and sealevel fluctuations. By dating in situ fossils, along the basal contacts of the marine terraces, uplift rates were calculated on both sides of the Antakya Graben. Results indicate that these deposits were mainly uplifted by local active faults rather than regional movements.

  12. Fucus spiralis as monitoring tool of metal contamination in the northwest coast of Portugal under the European Water Framework Directives.

    PubMed

    Reis, Pedro A; Cassiano, Júlia; Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    Metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in coastal seawaters and soft tissues of macroalga Fucus spiralis from the northwest coast of Portugal were determined to assess spatial variations of metal bioavailabilities and bioaccumulation factors to compare different ecological quality classifications. Both coastal seawaters and soft tissues of F. spiralis showed significant spatial variations in their metal concentrations along the coast. The macroalgae F. spiralis accumulated more efficiently Cd, Mn and Zn and showed low bioaccumulation factors to Cr, Cu and Fe. Regarding the metal guidelines of the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority, the entire northwest (NW) coast of Portugal in April 2013 should be classified as 'class I--unpolluted' for all metals, except in Ave for Cu ('class II--moderately polluted') and Cavado for Cd and Cu ('class II-moderately polluted'), revealing the low metal bioavailabilities of these seawaters. As there were always significant positive correlations between all metals in seawaters and F. spiralis, this macroalga species was considered a suitable monitoring tool of metal contamination in the NW coast of Portugal and a useful aquatic organism to be included in the European Environmental Specimen Banks in order to establish a real-time environmental monitoring network under the European Water Framework Directives.

  13. A comparison of moment magnitude estimates for the European-Mediterranean and Italian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Paolo; Lolli, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco; Boschi, Enzo

    2012-09-01

    With the goal of constructing a homogeneous data set of moment magnitudes (Mw) to be used for seismic hazard assessment, we compared Mw estimates from moment tensor catalogues available online. We found an apparent scaling disagreement between Mw estimates from the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the US Geological Survey and from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) project. We suspect that this is the effect of an underestimation of Mw > 7.0 (M0 > 4.0 × 1019 Nm) computed by NEIC owing to the limitations of their computational approach. We also found an apparent scaling disagreement between GCMT and two regional moment tensor catalogues provided by the 'Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich' (ETHZ) and by the European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) project of the Italian 'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia' (INGV). This is probably the effect of the overestimation of Mw < 5.5 (M0 < 2.2 × 1017 Nm), up to year 2002, and of Mw < 5.0 (M0 < 4.0 × 1016 Nm), since year 2003, owing to the physical limitations of the standard CMT inversion method used by GCMT for the earthquakes of relatively low magnitude. If the discrepant data are excluded from the comparisons, the scaling disagreements become insignificant in all cases. We observed instead small absolute offsets (≤0.1 units) for NEIC and ETHZ catalogues with respect to GCMT whereas there is an almost perfect correspondence between RCMT and GCMT. Finally, we found a clear underestimation of about 0.2 units of Mw magnitudes computed at the INGV using the time-domain moment tensor (TDMT) method with respect to those reported by GCMT and RCMT. According to our results, we suggest appropriate offset corrections to be applied to Mw estimates from NEIC, ETHZ and TDMT catalogues before merging their data with GCMT and RCMT catalogues. We suggest as well to discard the probably discrepant data from NEIC and GCMT if other Mw estimates from different sources are

  14. Analysis of present and future potential compound flooding risk along the European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevacqua, Emanuele; Maraun, Douglas; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Widmann, Martin; Manning, Colin; Vrac, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    The coastal zone is the natural border between the sea and the mainland, and it is constantly under the influence of marine and land-based natural and human-induced pressure. Compound floods are extreme events occurring in coastal areas where the interaction of joint high sea level and large amount of precipitation causes extreme floodings. Typically the risk of flooding in coastal areas is defined analysing either sea level or precipitation driven floodings, however compound floods should be considered to avoid an underestimation of the risk. In the future, the human pressure at the coastal zone is expected to increase, urging for a comprehensive analysis of the compound flooding risk under different climate change scenarios. In this study we introduce the concept of "potential risk" as we investigate how often large amount of precipitation and high sea level may co-occur, and not the effective impact due to the interaction of these two hazards. The effective risk of compound flooding in a specific place depends also on the local orography and on the existing protections. The estimation of the potential risk of compound flooding is useful to individuate places where an effective risk of compound flooding may exist, and where further studies would be useful to get more precise information on the local risk. We estimate the potential risk of compound flooding along the European coastal zone incorporating the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis for the past and present state, and the future projections from two RCP scenarios (namely the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios) as derived from 8 CMIP5 models of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Sea level data are estimated by forcing the hydrodynamic model Delft3D-Flow with 6-hourly wind and atmospheric pressure fields. Based on sea level (storm surge and astronomical tide) and precipitation joint occurrence analysis, a map of the potential compound flooding risk along the European

  15. Seasonal variation of volatile organic compounds exchange above a periurban Holm oak forest on the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Flavia; Juráň, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano

    2015-04-01

    Bi-directional exchanges of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were investigated on a Mediterranean Holm oak forest in Castelporziano presidential estate, a peri-urban forest near the coast of Tyrrhenian sea, 20 Km from Rome downtown, Italy. Two field campaigns were carried out in January and August 2014 to explore VOCs fluxes in two seasons with different climate conditions and physiological activity of plants. Concentration of 23 compounds was measured using a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). These included biogenic products (BVOC - isoprene, monoterpenes), oxygenated BVOC (OVOC - methanol, acetaldehyde acetone) and VOC of anthropogenic origin (AVOC - acetonitrile, benzene, hexenal, toluene, xylenes). Each half-hour, we switched between measurement at high frequency above the canopy and sampling through a 5-levels gradient from soil to above the canopy. We used the eddy covariance technique to calculate fluxes above the canopy, while gradient measurements were used to estimate in-canopy source and sink distribution by applying an Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model (Karl et al., 2004, J.Geophys.Res). Ozone and NOx concentrations were also measured to better correlate VOCs exchanges with this important secondary pollutant. Low temperatures lead to almost negligible BVOC fluxes during Winter. Summer fluxes were largely represented by BVOC (mainly monoterpenes). The highest fluxes (up to 2.4 nmol m-2 s-1) were recorded in the central hour of the day in response to high light and temperature. Oxygenated compounds (methanol and acetone) showed different behaviour during the two seasons: in Winter a net release of these compounds was observed, while in Summer the canopy acted as a sink for OVOC except for the hottest hours when we observed significant emissions. OVOC source-sink distribution analysis helped identifying the canopy layers which mostly contributed to VOCs exchanges, thus underlining the importance of forest canopies in VOCs exchanges

  16. Metals anomalies in foraminiferal shells as indicators for industrial pollution: a case study from the Mediterranean coast of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titelboim, Danna; Sadekov, Aleksey; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak; Kucera, Michal; Abramovich, Sigal

    2017-04-01

    In recent years we have been witnessing a considerable growth of industrial facilities along coastal areas. Some of these have major economical and national importance yet their operation can introduce a wide range of chemicals that might contaminate the coastal area and impact local ecosystems and our health. Among some of these harmful chemicals are metals that are introduced to the coastal environment by some of these facilities. Here we present a novel approach for monitoring low-level industrial pollution in coastal environments based on anomalies in metal concentration within foraminiferal shells. Living foraminifera are used as bio-indicators of the environmental status of any marine habitat. As unicellular organisms with short life and reproductive cycles, they are extremely sensitive to long and short-term changes. The majority of foraminifera precipitate CaCO3 (low-Mg-calcite, high-Mg calcite or rarely aragonite tests). Their calcareous shells are precipitated by a mechanism that involves direct seawater vacuolization which reflects the chemical composition of the ambient water. For this reason the geochemical composition of their shells is particularly applicable as a tool for marine environmental monitoring. Material for this study was obtained during the monthly campaigns of a biomonitoring project (2012-2015) of a heat polluted area and of a nearby natural clean station off the northern Mediterranean coast of Israel. Essentially, monitoring of water chemistry in both habitats showed no indications of presence of heavy metal contamination. Yet, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of two common local foraminifera the hyaline species Pararotalia calcariformata and the miliolid species Lachlanella sp. 1 that were collected alive from both areas, recorded presence of various metals (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb) within their shells. Metal concentrations within the miliolid species were significantly higher than those of

  17. Spatial trends in the chemical composition of sediments on the continental shelf and slope off the Mediterranean coast of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, S. L.; Krom, M. D.; Sandler, A.; Herut, B.

    2001-10-01

    In order to determine whether observed trends in total trace metal content were natural or due to anthropogenic inputs, major and trace elements were measured on three size fractions (fine sand (250-63 μm), silt and clay (<63 μm) and clay (<2 μm)) of sediment collected off the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Partitioning of trace metals into carbonate/exchangeable, iron oxide and residual phases for each grain size was also determined. The dominant source of particles was Nile derived material. There was a decrease in Fe/Al, Ti/Al and non-carbonate Mg/Al in the fine sand fraction, interpreted as a decrease in heavy minerals towards the north and an increase in K/Al due to increased feldspars and micas. There was a simultaneous increase in CaCO 3 both towards the north and onshore in all grain size fractions due to a northward increase in local biogenic fragments and river detritus. This is consistent with circulation and sediment transport models for the southeast Levantine basin. The background trend in trace metals corresponds to changes in mineralogy. While the fine sand fraction appeared free of contamination, in the finer fractions there is a significant enrichment of Zn, and Cd towards the north, which is not accounted for by changes in mineralogy. The sediments were also enriched in Cu, Zn and Cd near Tel Aviv and Hadera. The peaks near Tel Aviv may correspond to waste discharged through the Yarqon and an old sewage pipe, whilst near Hadera, the Alexander and Hadera Rivers and the terminal for a coal-fired power station may be the source of contamination. There was also clear evidence for contamination by Pb in the finest sediments. However, there was no enrichment in Pb around the point sources of the other trace metals, therefore it was concluded that the majority of Pb contamination was from the atmosphere. All trace metal contamination may be subject to 'smearing' by sediment transport, particularly in the clay fraction.

  18. European and Mediterranean hydroclimate responses to tropical volcanic forcing over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. P.; Cook, B. I.; Cook, E. R.; D'Arrigo, R. D.; Krusic, P. J.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Buckley, B. M.; Davi, N. K.; Leland, C.; Griffin, K. L.

    2017-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions have global climate impacts, but their effect on the hydrologic cycle is poorly understood. We use a modified version of superposed epoch analysis, an eruption year list collated from multiple data sets, and seasonal paleoclimate reconstructions (soil moisture, precipitation, geopotential heights, and temperature) to investigate volcanic forcing of spring and summer hydroclimate over Europe and the Mediterranean over the last millennium. In the western Mediterranean, wet conditions occur in the eruption year and the following 3 years. Conversely, northwestern Europe and the British Isles experience dry conditions in response to volcanic eruptions, with the largest moisture deficits in posteruption years 2 and 3. The precipitation response occurs primarily in late spring and early summer (April-July), a pattern that strongly resembles the negative phase of the East Atlantic Pattern. Modulated by this mode of climate variability, eruptions force significant, widespread, and heterogeneous hydroclimate responses across Europe and the Mediterranean.

  19. Public health research support through the European structural funds in central and eastern Europe and the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mark

    2012-04-05

    Public health research provides evidence for practice across fields including health care, health promotion and health surveillance. Levels of public health research vary markedly across European Union (EU) countries, and are lowest in the EU's new member states (in Central and Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean). However, these countries now receive most of the EU's Structural Funds, some of which are allocated to research. STEPS, an EU-funded study, sought to assess support for public health research at national and European levels. To identify support through the Structural funds, STEPS drew information from country respondents and internet searches for all twelve EU new member states. The EU allocates annually around €7 billion through the Structural Funds for member states' own use on research. These funds can cover infrastructure, academic employment, and direct research grants. The programmes emphasise links to business. Support for health research includes major projects in biosciences, but direct support for public health research was found in only three countries - Cyprus, Latvia and Lithuania. Public health research is not prioritised in the EU's Structural Funds programme in comparison with biomedicine. For the research dimension of the new European programme for Structural Funds 2014-2002, ministries of health should propose public health research to strengthen the evidence-base for European public health policy and practice.

  20. Assessment of height variations by GPS at Mediterranean and Black Sea coast tide gauges from the SELF projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Zerbini, S.; Baker, T.; Bürki, B.; Galanis, J.; Garate, J.; Georgiev, I.; Kahle, H.-G.; Kotzev, V.; Lobazov, V.; Marson, I.; Negusini, M.; Richter, B.; Veis, G.; Yuzefovich, P.

    2002-09-01

    In the framework of the European Union SEa Level Fluctuations (SELF) I and the SELF II Projects designed to study sea level variations around the Mediterranean and Black Seas, the Global Positioning System (GPS) technique was adopted to measure the ongoing crustal movements at tide gauge stations. Tide gauges measure sea-level variations with respect to a ground benchmark. In order to determine true sea-level variations of a few millimeters per year, it is necessary to estimate the ground vertical movement to a high degree of accuracy. Countries involved in the projects were Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria and Russia. In the period from 1993 to 1998 repeated observations at more than 28 tide gauges and at a number of reference and intermediate stations were conducted. GPS measurements were complemented by Water Vapor Radiometers (WVR) at selected sites. Individual campaigns were evaluated and analyzed and showed height variations in the millimeter-centimeter range. All data were processed following common standards using the Bernese Software in a unified analysis to generate a combined solution. Based on the normal equations of all of the campaigns, a combined solution for the SELF Projects sites was generated. In the analysis of multi-technique anchor sites to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame ITRF97, it is shown that vertical rates of different techniques may be of different sign with respect to each other and also with respect to the ITRF97 combination. Vertical rates are not reliable in general and even the restriction to the use of long the long-time series sites KOSG, ONSA, WTZR, MADR, GRAZ and MATE did not ensure significant and unique vertical rates. Nevertheless, they had to be used for the reference frame definition. The results of repeated gravity observations and the continuous GPS observations at Porto Corsini and Medicina were compared to the epoch-wise GPS campaigns and revealed that the vertical rates are in conformance with each

  1. Application and evaluation of the neutral red retention (NRR) assay for lysosomal stability in mussel populations along the Iberian Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Benedicto, José; Campillo, Juan Antonio; Moore, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The neutral red retention (NRR) assay to determine lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) was applied to wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sampled from fourteen sites with different degrees of chemical pollution along the Iberian Mediterranean coast in 2002 and 2003. Total body burdens for a range of contaminants were measured in pooled samples (n = 50) of whole soft tissues in order to explore possible causality. Mean LMS values (n = 15) were significantly greater in mussels from one of the selected two reference sites (San Diego) than in chemically well-characterized hotspot sites. Mean LMS values were inversely correlated with contaminant concentrations in mussel tissues (except for Zn). The multidimensional scaling ordination technique classified the sampling sites into three groups according to their chemical-physical-biological similarities and the results were statistically confirmed using ANOSIM analysis. The results show that lysosomal stability is an effective indicator of health status in mussels along the Iberian Mediterranean coast and that it is related to body burden of contaminants, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

  2. Are we safe? A tool to improve the knowledge of the risk areas: high-resolution floods database (MEDIFLOOD) for Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960 -2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Perez-Morales, Alfredo; Lopez-Martinez, Francisco; Barriendos-Vallve, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula concentrates an important part of the population and economic activities in Spain. Intensive agriculture, industry in the major urban centers, trade and tourism make this region the main center of economic dynamism and one of the highest rates of population and economic growth of southern Europe. This process accelerated after Franco regime started to be more open to the outside in the early sixties of the last century. The main responsible factor for this process is the climate because of warmer temperatures and a large number of sunny days, which has become in the economic slogan of the area. However, this growth process has happened without proper planning to reduce the impact of other climatic feature of the area, floods. Floods are the natural hazard that generates greater impacts in the area.One of the factors that facilitate the lack of strategic planning is the absence of a correct chronology of flood episodes. In this situation, land use plans, are based on inadequate chronologies that do not report the real risk of the population of this area. To reduce this deficit and contribute to a more efficient zoning of the Mediterranean coast according to their floods risk, we have prepared a high-resolution floods database (MEDIFLOOD) for all the municipalities of the Spanish Mediterranean coast since 1960 until 2013. The methodology consists on exploring the newspaper archives of all newspapers with a presence in the area. The searches have been made by typing the name of each of the 180 municipalities of the Spanish coast followed by 5 key terms. Each identified flood has been classified by dates and according to their level of intensity and type of damage. Additionally, we have consulted the specific bibliography to rule out any data gaps. The results are surprising and worrying. We have identified more than 3,600 cases where a municipality has been affected by floods. These cases are grouped into more than 700

  3. The Expanding Context of European and Mediterranean Security: A Joint Project Between the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA) and Centro Militare di Studi Strategici (CeMiSS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    together with other countries and under the aus- pices of the United Nations, NATO, the Union of Eastern Europe (UEO), the European Community, and...In the past, the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), as well as their member nations, treated the Mediterranean...the Soviet Union , trig- gered by the Korean War. 26 The US would continue to see NATO and security interactions as the dominant forum for engaging both

  4. A vegetable to meat consumption ratio as a relevant factor determining cancer preventive diet. The Mediterranean versus other European countries.

    PubMed

    Kapiszewska, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The observed growth of cancer incidence in certain regions has been usually linked to frequent consumption of 'unhealthy' food. Such food often contains genotoxic substances as heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbones (PAHs), occurring during food preparation, which induce DNA damage in cells. These substances are mainly formed during frying or grilling of meat and they can be removed from the body in a two-stage metabolic process of detoxification (phase 1 and phase 2). If they are not excreted, they form DNA adducts. The effectiveness of detoxification depends on the activity of enzymes encoded by polymorphic genes. A diet containing plenty of fruits and vegetables, due to the presence of biologically active polyphenols, can modulate activity of detoxifying enzymes. Such a diet can decrease the extent of DNA adducts, breaks and oxidative damage, supporting the body's enzymatic system in sufficient removal of DNA damage. The antioxidant vitamins' content in such a diet also enhances the DNA protection by increasing the scavenging of radical oxidative species that occurs during metabolic reactions. The lack of balance between the amount of 'unhealthy' and 'healthy' food leads to the accumulation of unrepaired damage, initiating DNA instability and inducing cancer development. Such damage is often used as a biomarker of cancer risk in epidemiological studies. Moreover, in in vitro studies, the amount of the DNA damage is used as indicator of the protective ability of vitamins, plant extracts and/or individual flavonoids. The incidences of certain dietaryrelated cancers in European Mediterranean countries is lower than in Central and Northern European countries; there is simultaneously variation in the habitual diet in these regions. This suggests that some features of routine nutrition in the Mediterranean countries may be responsible for this preventing effect. However, inconsistency in the epidemiological data, associating the

  5. Yield, morphological development, and forage quality characteristics of European- and Mediterranean-derived birdsfoot trefoil cultivars grown in the colder continental United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    North American birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) cultivars such as Norcen produce forage with low condensed tannin (CT) concentrations that may be insufficient for optimal livestock performance. Our objective was to identify European and Mediterranean cultivars with higher CT concentrations that would be suit...

  6. Phylogeography of SW Mediterranean firs: different European origins for the North African Abies species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; García-Castaño, Juan L; Ortiz, María A; Vela, Errol; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The current distribution of Western Mediterranean Abies species is a result of complex geodynamic processes and climatic oscillations that occurred in the past. Abies sect. Piceaster offers a good study model to explore how geo-climatic oscillations might have influenced its expansion and diversification on both sides of the W Mediterranean basin. We investigated the genetic variation within and among nine populations from five Abies species by molecular markers with high and low mutation rates and contrasting inheritance (AFLP and cpSSR). Analyses revealed the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar as an effective barrier against gene flow between the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo) and North African (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) firs. The A. pinsapo populations in Spain and likewise those of the A. marocana - A. tazaotana population complex were not differentiated, and no evidence was found to distinguish A. tazaotana at the species level. Diversification of Abies across North Africa could occur by way of at least two vicariant events from Europe, in the west, giving rise to the A. marocana - A. tazaotana complex, and in the east, giving A. numidica. Secondary contacts among species from Abies sect. Piceaster (A. pinsapo and A. numidica), and with A. alba (Abies sect. Abies) are also indicated. However, there is a closer relationship between the Algerian fir (A. numidica) and the North Mediterranean widespread A. alba, than with the Moroccan firs (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) or the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo). We also discuss the distribution range of these taxa in its paleogeological and paleoclimatic context, and propose that part of the modern geography of the South-Western Mediterranean firs might be traced back to the Tertiary.

  7. Hindcast, GIS and susceptibility modelling to assist oil spill clean-up and mitigation on the southern coast of Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    This study uses new oil-spill models, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of distinct oil spill scenarios on the southern coast of Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean. This approach results from the urgent need to predict oil spill dispersion after new oil terminals and depots were built at Vasilikos, southern coast of Cyprus. The terminals have been able to receive tankers with 500,000 deadweight tonnes from November 2014. The new geomorphological and geological data in this work show the shoreline of Cyprus to be of high susceptibility due to: (a) the presence of a narrow continental shelf capable of trapping large quantities of hydrocarbons; (b) the existence of uplifted wave-cut platforms, coastal lagoons and pools forming natural traps for oil, and (c) the presence of important tourist and Natura 2000 sites. Under particular weather and oceanographic conditions, oil spills offshore Larnaca Bay will quickly spread and reach the shoreline 46 h after the initial accident. Significantly, the models in this paper show a reduction from 84% to 19% in the volume of oil trapped on the coast if dispersants are applied, with the latter 19% being potentially kept at bay using booms and mechanical removal techniques. Based on these results, we suggest the early use of dispersants, booms and mechanical removal procedures to prevent the spreading of oil spilt in the broad area of Larnaca Bay.

  8. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project.

  9. Heavy metal accumulation in Diplodus annularis, Liza aurata, and Solea vulgaris relevant to their concentration in water and sediment from the southwestern Mediterranean (coast of Sfax).

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn) were measured in the liver, gills, and muscle of Solea vulgaris, Liza aurata, and Diplodus annularis, collected from the south coast of Sfax (Gabes Gulf, southwestern Mediterranean). The concentrations of heavy metals in water exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in μg l(-1)): Fe > Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd whereas the trend is somewhat different in sediments (mg kg(-1) D.W.) Fe > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd. The levels of heavy metals varied significantly among fish species and tissues. Heavy metal levels were found generally higher in the liver and gills than the muscle in all species. The liver was the target organ for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn accumulation. Nickel and lead, however, exhibited their highest concentrations in the gills. The three studied fishes showed a difference in metals accumulation decreasing in following order S. vulgaris > D. annularis > L. aurata. Solea vulgaris with the highest TFwater, TFsediment, and metal concentrations in tissues would be considered as a potential bio-indicator in the south coast of Sfax for the assessment of environmental pollution status. Comparative studies with Luza zone indicate considerable bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) in the various tissues of fish samples of the south coast of Sfax.

  10. Diverging shrub and tree growth from the Polar to the Mediterranean biomes across the European continent.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Elena; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Gazol, Antonio; Granda, Elena; Shetti, Rohan; Wilmking, Martin; Moiseev, Pavel; Pividori, Mario; Carrer, Marco

    2017-08-01

    Climate warming is expected to enhance productivity and growth of woody plants, particularly in temperature-limited environments at the northernmost or uppermost limits of their distribution. However, this warming is spatially uneven and temporally variable, and the rise in temperatures differently affects biomes and growth forms. Here, applying a dendroecological approach with generalized additive mixed models, we analysed how the growth of shrubby junipers and coexisting trees (larch and pine species) responds to rising temperatures along a 5000-km latitudinal range including sites from the Polar, Alpine to the Mediterranean biomes. We hypothesize that, being more coupled to ground microclimate, junipers will be less influenced by atmospheric conditions and will less respond to the post-1950 climate warming than coexisting standing trees. Unexpectedly, shrub and tree growth forms revealed divergent growth trends in all the three biomes, with juniper performing better than trees at Mediterranean than at Polar and Alpine sites. The post-1980s decline of tree growth in Mediterranean sites might be induced by drought stress amplified by climate warming and did not affect junipers. We conclude that different but coexisting long-living growth forms can respond differently to the same climate factor and that, even in temperature-limited area, other drivers like the duration of snow cover might locally play a fundamental role on woody plants growth across Europe. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Freshwater scarcity effects on the aquatic macrofauna of a European Mediterranean-climate estuary.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Baldó, Francisco; Arias, Alberto; Cuesta, Jose A; Fernández-Delgado, Carlos; Vilas, César; Drake, Pilar

    2015-01-15

    In the Mediterranean-climate zone, recurrent drought events and increasing water demand generally lead to a decrease in freshwater input to estuaries. This water scarcity may alter the proper function of estuaries as nursery areas for marine species and as permanent habitat for estuarine species. A 12-year data set of the aquatic macrofauna (fish, decapod and mysid crustaceans) in a Mediterranean estuary (Guadalquivir estuary, South Spain) was analysed to test if water scarcity favours the nursery function of regional estuaries to the detriment of permanent estuarine inhabitants. Target species typically displayed a salinity-related distribution and estuarine salinisation in dry years resulted in a general upstream community displacement. However, annual densities of marine species were neither consistently higher in dry years nor estuarine species during wet years. Exceptions included the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer and the marine shrimp Crangon crangon, which were more abundant in wet and dry years, respectively. High and persistent turbidity, a collateral effect of water scarcity, altered both the structural (salinity-related pattern) and functional (key prey species and predator density) community characteristics, chiefly after the second drought period of the analysis. The observed high inter-year environmental variability, as well as species-specific effects of water scarcity, suggests that exhaustive and long-term sampling programmes will be required for rigorously monitoring the estuarine communities of the Mediterranean-climate region.

  12. Terrestrial vegetation monitoring protocol for the Mediterranean Coast Network—Cabrillo National Monument, Channel Islands National Park, and Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area: Standard Operating Procedures, Version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiszler, John; Rodriguez, Dirk; Lombardo, Keith; Sagar, Tarja; Aguilar, Luis; Lee, Lena; Handley, Timothy; McEachern, Kathryn; Harrod Starcevich, Leigh Ann; Witter, Marti; Philippi, Tom; Ostermann-Kelm, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    These Standard Operating Procedures are one part of a two-part protocol for monitoring terrestrial vegetation in the Mediterranean Coast Network. The second part of the protocol is the narrative:Tiszler, J., D. Rodriguez, K. Lombardo, T. Sagar, L. Aguilar, L. Lee, T. Handley, K. McEachern, L. Starcevich, M. Witter, T. Philippi, and S. Ostermann-Kelm. 2016. Terrestrial vegetation monitoring protocol for the Mediterranean Coast Network—Cabrillo National Monument, Channel Islands National Park, and Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area: Narrative, version 1.0. Natural Resource Report NPS/MEDN/NRR—2016/1296. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.National parks in the Mediterranean Inventory and Monitoring Network:Cabrillo National Monument (CABR)Channel Islands National Park (CHIS)Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area (SAMO)

  13. A time series study on the effects of heat on mortality and evaluation of heterogeneity into European and Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities: results of EU CIRCE project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean region is particularly vulnerable to the effect of summer temperature. Within the CIRCE project this time-series study aims to quantify for the first time the effect of summer temperature in Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities and compared it with European cities around the Mediterranean basin, evaluating city characteristics that explain between-city heterogeneity. Methods The city-specific effect of maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax) was assessed by Generalized Estimation Equations, assuming a linear threshold model. Then, city-specific estimates were included in a random effect meta-regression analysis to investigate the effect modification by several city characteristics. Results Heterogeneity in the temperature-mortality relationship was observed among cities. Thresholds recorded higher values in the warmest cities of Tunis (35.5°C) and Tel-Aviv (32.8°C) while the effect of Tappmax above threshold was greater in the European cities. In Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities a higher effect was observed among younger age groups (0–14 in Tunis and 15–64 in Tel-Aviv and Istanbul) in contrast with the European cities where the elderly population was more vulnerable. Climate conditions explained most of the observed heterogeneity and among socio-demographic and economic characteristics only health expenditure and unemployment rate were identified as effect modifiers. Conclusions The high vulnerability observed in the young populations in Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities represent a major public health problem. Considering the large political and economic changes occurring in this region as well future temperature increase due to climate change, it is important to strengthen research and public health efforts in these Mediterranean countries. PMID:23822609

  14. Risk assessment of oil spills along the Mediterranean coast: A sensitivity analysis of the choice of hazard quantification.

    PubMed

    Al Shami, A; Harik, G; Alameddine, I; Bruschi, D; Garcia, D Astiaso; El-Fadel, M

    2017-01-01

    Oil pollution in the Mediterranean represents a serious threat to the coastal environment. Quantifying the risks associated with a potential spill is often based on results generated from oil spill models. In this study, MEDSLIK-II, an EU funded and endorsed oil spill model, is used to assess potential oil spill scenarios at four pilot areas located along the northern, eastern, and southern Mediterranean shoreline, providing a wide range of spill conditions and coastal geomorphological characteristics. Oil spill risk assessment at the four pilot areas was quantified as a function of three oil pollution metrics that include the susceptibility of oiling per beach segment, the average volume of oiling expected in the event of beaching, and the average oil beaching time. The results show that while the three pollution metrics tend to agree in their hazard characterization when the shoreline morphology is simple, considerable differences in the quantification of the associated hazard is possible under complex coastal morphologies. These differences proved to greatly alter the evaluation of environmental risks. An integrative hazard index is proposed that encompasses the three simulated pollution metrics. The index promises to shed light on oil spill hazards that can be universally applied across the Mediterranean basin by integrating it with the unified oil spill risk assessment tool developed by the Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean (REMPEC).

  15. Mediterranean Diet Score and Its Association with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The European Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Ruth E; Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna; Young, Ian S; Vioque, Jesus L; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in countries ranging from Southern to Northern Europe. Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study. Of 5060 randomly sampled people aged 65 years or older from 7 study centers across Europe (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Greece, and Spain), full dietary data were available in 4753. The mean age of participants was 73.2 years (standard deviation, 5.6), and 55% were women. Participants underwent an eye examination and digital retinal color photography. The images were graded at a single center. Dietary intake during the previous 12 months was assessed by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A previously published Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was used to classify participants according to their responses on the FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of the MDS score and AMD, taking account of potential confounders and the multicenter study design. Images were graded according to the International Classification System for age-related maculopathy and stratified using the Rotterdam staging system into 5 exclusive stages (AMD 0-4) and a separate category of large drusen (≥125 μm). Age-related macular degeneration 4 included neovascular AMD (nvAMD) and geographic atrophy (GA). Increasing MDS was associated with reduced odds of nvAMD in unadjusted and confounder-adjusted analysis. Compared with the lowest MDS adherence (≤4 score), those in the highest category MDS adherence (>6 score) showed lower odds of nvAMD (odds ratio, 0.53; 0.27-1.04; P trend = 0.01). The association with MDS did not differ by Y204H risk allele (P = 0.89). For all early AMD (grade 1-3), there was no relationship with MDS (P trend = 0.9). There was a weak trend (P = 0.1) between MDS and large drusen; those in the highest category of MDS had 20% reduced odds compared with those in

  16. The Architecture of the European-Mediterranean Lithosphere seen in osmium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María González-Jiménez, José; Villaseca, Carlos; Griffin, William L.; Konc, Zoltan; Belousova, Elena; Anochea, Eumenio; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Pearson, Norman J.; Gervilla, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of work, based on the study of -Pb ages of magmatic zircons, Hf model ages of inherited zircons and whole-rock Nd model ages of crustal igneous and metamorphic rocks have provide constrain forthe timing of formation and evolution of the Iberian microplate. However, there is little robust information on the age of its underlying mantle; it is the missing key for a full understanding of the geological framework of the Iberian microplate. In this work we have now been filled this gap by analysing in-situ, using LA-MC-ICPMS, the Re-Os isotope systematics of sulfides in spinel herzolites and wehrlites from the olivine melilite mar of El Aprisco in the Calatrava Volcanic Field, central Spain. The 68 analysed sulfides (×50 μm) were enclosed in olivine and pyroxenes, rarely at the triple junctions between the main silicates, and more commonly in the interstitial glass. However, there is no difference in Re-Os isotope compositions between included and interstitial sulfides. Re-depletion model ages (TRD) calculated for these sulfides show magmatic events in the mantle at ~1.8, 1.1, 0.9, 0.6 and 0.3 Ga, which are correlated with main events of growth of the Iberian crust. A synthesis of Re-depletion model ages (TRD) for both whole-rock samples and in situ-analysed of individual sulfides from mantle-derived rocks, including xenoliths and peridotite massifs, widesrpread thorough the Mediterranean area show the existence of different mantle domains across the Mediterranean. Thus, the Re-Os data identify identify the existence of a common Paleo-Proterozoic (~ 1.8 Ga) mantle on both sides of the Mediterranean realm, and an older (~2.2-2.6 Ga) lithospheric mantle sitting within the more recent Maghrebide-Appenine- Betic front generated during the Alpine-Betic orogeny. The Mediterranean basin may contain several buoyant Archean microplates, which could have impeded the northward movement of Africa and contributed to complex tectonics in the Mediterannean basin.

  17. Multi-Biomarker Responses After Exposure to Pollution in the Mediterranean Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) in the Aegean Coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Dilara; Dagdeviren, Melih; Katalay, Selma; Guner, Adem; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2017-01-01

    In this study, sublethal effects on the Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) collected from the Aegean coast of Turkey were determined. Enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), metallothionein (MT) mRNA expressions, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents, determination of 14 heavy metals and micronucleus frequency were selected as multibiomarkers. Results show that heavy metals and an increase in the level of MT gene expression have been determined in tissues of mussels collected from all stations. The GST, SOD and CAT enzymes were increased in mussels of Aliaga and Old Foca, compared to the mussels of Urla, while it was showed inhibition at AChE levels. Extensive LP is determined on mussels of Aliaga. It was determined that mussels in Aliaga region have exposed more oxidative stress than Old Foca and Urla. These biomarkers were carried out for the first time in these stations to assess environmental quality.

  18. Assessment of the diversity and dynamics of Plum pox virus and aphid populations in transgenic European plums under Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Capote, Nieves; Pérez-Panadés, Jordi; Monzó, César; Carbonell, Emilio; Urbaneja, Alberto; Scorza, Ralph; Ravelonandro, Michel; Cambra, Mariano

    2008-06-01

    The molecular variability of Plum pox virus (PPV) populations was compared in transgenic European plums (Prunus domestica L.) carrying the coat protein (CP) gene of PPV and non-transgenic plums in an experimental orchard in Valencia, Spain. A major objective of this study was to detect recombination between PPV CP transgene transcripts and infecting PPV RNA. Additionally, we assessed the number and species of PPV aphid vectors that visited transgenic and non-transgenic plum trees. Test trees consisted of five different P. domestica transgenic lines, i.e. the PPV-resistant C5 'HoneySweet' line and the PPV-susceptible C4, C6, PT6 and PT23 lines, and non-transgenic P. domestica and P. salicina Lind trees. No significant difference in the genetic diversity of PPV populations infecting transgenic and conventional plums was detected, in particular no recombinant between transgene transcripts and incoming viral RNA was found at detectable levels. Also, no significant difference was detected in aphid populations, including viruliferous individuals, that visited transgenic and conventional plums. Our data indicate that PPV-CP transgenic European plums exposed to natural PPV infection over an 8 year period caused limited, if any, risk beyond the cultivation of conventional plums under Mediterranean conditions in terms of the emergence of recombinant PPV and diversity of PPV and aphid populations.

  19. The MIS 5 palaeoenvironmental record in the SE Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula (Río Antas, Almería, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, T.; Ortiz, J. E.; Blázquez, A. M.; Ruiz Zapata, B.; Gil, M. J.; Martín, T.; Sánchez-Palencia, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Landwards of a MIS5 bar, a borehole core (SRA) was analyzed to establish the relationship between the lagoonal record and the raised beach deposits in the surroundings of the Antas river mouth and to reconstruct the Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental evolution of the southern Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. 63 samples were recovered for amino acid racemization dating, 86 samples for sedimentological and paleontological determination, 37 samples for pollen identification and 54 for biomarker analysis. AAR revealed that the borehole record contains MIS11, MIS6 and MIS5 deposits, the latter extensively represented. During the end of MIS6 and MIS5, a sand barrier developed and created a shallow lagoon with alternating terrestrial inputs this process being common in other Mediterranean realms. Litho- and biofacies allowed the identification of distinct paleoenvironments through time, with the presence of a lagoonal environment alternating with alluvial fan progradation. Biomarkers indicated constant input from terrestrial plants, together with variable development of aquatic macrophytes. The palynological content allowed the reconstruction of the paleoclimatological conditions during MIS6 and 5, with evidence of seven scenarios characterized by alternating arid and relatively humid conditions.

  20. Application of the European water framework directive in a Western Mediterranean basin (Málaga, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, F.; Sánchez, D.; Vadillo, I.; Andreo, B.; Martínez, C.; Fernández, L.

    2008-04-01

    The water framework directive (WFD) is applied within the Guadalhorce river basin, a Western Mediterranean basin in the Málaga province (South Spain). Criteria defining different surface and groundwater bodies are described. The basic hydrographic network is constituted of low-mountain and low-altitude Mediterranean mineralized rivers. Heavily modified surface water bodies correspond (1) to areas where dams regulate the main watercourses, (2) to areas downstream of reservoirs, where river flow is reduced, and (3) to the coastal sector of the river where artificial channelling has caused morphological variations. Groundwater bodies are related to carbonate and porous aquifers and, locally, to aquifers influenced by dissolution of evaporites. The main impacts to water bodies are irrigated lands and livestock farming. There are also point sources of pollution, such as wastewater, landfills, golf courses, industrial zones, quarries and petrol stations. In addition, groundwater is frequently pumped for human supply and irrigation. Qualitative status of groundwater bodies was done by chemical analysis of samples from a monitoring network and the quantitative status by examining variations in piezometric levels. Both revealed the existence of water bodies at risk of not meeting the environmental objectives of the WFD. The main indicators of pollution are nitrates related to agricultural activities, and total organic carbon (TOC), PO{4/3-} and NH{4/+} in relation to wastewater.

  1. Mediterranean diet and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    PubMed

    Molina-Montes, Esther; Sánchez, María-José; Buckland, Genevieve; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Amiano, Pilar; Wark, Petra A; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, José Ramón; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Peeters, Petra H; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Boeing, Heiner; Iqbal, Khalid; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sonestedt, Emily; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina En; Travis, Ruth C; Skeie, Guri; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Freisling, Heinz; Huybrechts, Inge; Overvad, Kim; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Cross, Amanda J; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2017-03-14

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a means for cancer prevention, but little evidence has been accrued regarding its potential to prevent pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association between the adherence to the MD and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over half a million participants from 10 European countries were followed up for over 11 years, after which 865 newly diagnosed exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were identified. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted score without the alcohol component (arMED) to discount alcohol-related harmful effects. Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by age, sex and centre, and adjusted for energy intake, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake and diabetes status at recruitment, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) associated with pancreatic cancer and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Adherence to the arMED score was not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR high vs low adherence=0.99; 95% CI: 0.77-1.26, and HR per increments of two units in adherence to arMED=1.00; 95% CI: 0.94-1.06). There was no convincing evidence for heterogeneity by smoking status, body mass index, diabetes or European region. There was also no evidence of significant associations in analyses involving microscopically confirmed cases, plausible reporters of energy intake or other definitions of the MD pattern. A high adherence to the MD is not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC study.

  2. Summer rainfall variability in European Mediterranean mountains from the sixteenth to the twentieth century reconstructed from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, D.; Génova, M.; Schmitz, M. F.; Urrutia, R.; Pineda, F. D.

    2014-09-01

    Since the end of the last glacial period, European Mediterranean mountains have provided shelter for numerous species of Eurosiberian and Boreal origin. Many of these species, surviving at the southern limit of their range in Europe and surrounded by Mediterranean ones, are relatively intolerant to summer drought and are in grave danger of loss, as a result of increasingly long and frequent droughts in this region. This is the case of the Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and the Austrian pine ( Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii) which are found on Central Iberian Peninsula at the edge of their natural range. We used a tree ring network of these two species to reconstruct past variations in summer rainfall. The reconstruction, based upon a tree ring composite chronology of the species, dates back to 1570 (adjusted R 2 = 0.49, P < 0.000001) and captures interannual to decadal scale variability in summer precipitation. We studied the spatial representativeness of the rainfall patterns and described the occurrence rate of extremes of this precipitation. To identify associations between macroclimatic factors and tree radial growth, we employed a principal component analysis to calculate the resultant of the relationship between the growth data of both species, using this resultant as a dependent variable of a multiple regression whose independent variables are monthly mean temperature and precipitation from the average records. Spatial correlation patterns between instrumental precipitation datasets for southern Europe and reconstructed values for the 1950-1992 period indicate that the reconstruction captures the regional signal of drought variability in the study region (the origin of this precipitation is convective: thermal low pressure zones induced in the inland northeastern areas of the Iberian Peninsula). There is a clear increase in the recurrence of extreme dry events as from the beginning of twentieth century and an abrupt change to drier conditions. There appears to

  3. Summer rainfall variability in European Mediterranean mountains from the sixteenth to the twentieth century reconstructed from tree rings.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Labourdette, D; Génova, M; Schmitz, M F; Urrutia, R; Pineda, F D

    2014-09-01

    Since the end of the last glacial period, European Mediterranean mountains have provided shelter for numerous species of Eurosiberian and Boreal origin. Many of these species, surviving at the southern limit of their range in Europe and surrounded by Mediterranean ones, are relatively intolerant to summer drought and are in grave danger of loss, as a result of increasingly long and frequent droughts in this region. This is the case of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii) which are found on Central Iberian Peninsula at the edge of their natural range. We used a tree ring network of these two species to reconstruct past variations in summer rainfall. The reconstruction, based upon a tree ring composite chronology of the species, dates back to 1570 (adjusted R(2) = 0.49, P < 0.000001) and captures interannual to decadal scale variability in summer precipitation. We studied the spatial representativeness of the rainfall patterns and described the occurrence rate of extremes of this precipitation. To identify associations between macroclimatic factors and tree radial growth, we employed a principal component analysis to calculate the resultant of the relationship between the growth data of both species, using this resultant as a dependent variable of a multiple regression whose independent variables are monthly mean temperature and precipitation from the average records. Spatial correlation patterns between instrumental precipitation datasets for southern Europe and reconstructed values for the 1950-1992 period indicate that the reconstruction captures the regional signal of drought variability in the study region (the origin of this precipitation is convective: thermal low pressure zones induced in the inland northeastern areas of the Iberian Peninsula). There is a clear increase in the recurrence of extreme dry events as from the beginning of twentieth century and an abrupt change to drier conditions. There

  4. Limestone biopitting in coastal settings: A spatial, morphometric, SEM and molecular microbiology sequencing study in the Mallorca rocky coast (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomar, F.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Del Valle, L.; Nogales, B.

    2017-01-01

    Biological agency on rock coasts has been widely recognised over recent decades. This study deals with the distribution and morphometric characteristics of microforms features developed by cyanobacteria (Rivularia sp.) on coastal limestone outcrops. These coastal microforms, known as biopits, have a small rounded basin shape a few millimetres in size. Environmental and geological data were collected from 100 random rock surface spots from Punta des Faralló cape (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean), from which major controls on the spatial distribution of biopits were established. Additionally, morphological data on 382 biopits determined the diagnostic morphometry of these features and their enlargement mechanisms. The results indicated that biopits exhibit a preferential location in shaded exposures and sheltered areas from prevailing winds and waves, avoiding direct insolation and desiccation. Other major controls on these microforms location and development were variables such as the rock surface slope and the distance to the coast (i.e. influence of splash and spray). Shadow spots displayed higher biopits density than other locations according to the patterns determined by environmental and geomorphological factors at the study site. Morphometric analyses showed that biopits have a width twice their depth. The average width of the microforms was 6.49 ± 2.40 mm and the average depth 2.46 ± 1.09 mm. Most frequently, the width/depth ratio was 2 or larger. This characteristic shape ratio was an additional factor that plays a role in maintaining the necessary humidity for microorganisms associated with biopits.

  5. The European-Mediterranean Earthquake Catalogue (EMEC) for the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünthal, Gottfried; Wahlström, Rutger

    2012-07-01

    The catalogue by Grünthal et al. (J Seismol 13:517-541, 2009a) of earthquakes in central, northern, and north-western Europe with M w ≥ 3.5 (CENEC) has been expanded to cover also southern Europe and the Mediterranean area. It has also been extended in time (1000-2006). Due to the strongly increased seismicity in the new area, the threshold for events south of the latitude 44°N has here been set at M w ≥ 4.0, keeping the lower threshold in the northern catalogue part. This part has been updated with data from new and revised national and regional catalogues. The new Euro-Mediterranean Earthquake Catalogue (EMEC) is based on data from some 80 domestic catalogues and data files and over 100 special studies. Available original M w and M 0 data have been introduced. The analysis largely followed the lines of the Grünthal et al. (J Seismol 13:517-541, 2009a) study, i.e., fake and duplicate events were identified and removed, polygons were specified within each of which one or more of the catalogues or data files have validity, and existing magnitudes and intensities were converted to M w. Algorithms to compute M w are based on relations provided locally, or more commonly on those derived by Grünthal et al. (J Seismol 13:517-541, 2009a) or in the present study. The homogeneity of EMEC with respect to M w for the different constituents was investigated and improved where feasible. EMEC contains entries of some 45,000 earthquakes. For each event, the date, time, location (including focal depth if available), intensity I 0 (if given in the original catalogue), magnitude M w (with uncertainty when given), and source (catalogue or special study) are presented. Besides the main EMEC catalogue, large events before year 1000 in the SE part of the investigated area and fake events, respectively, are given in separate lists.

  6. Mercury accumulation in Mediterranean Fish and Cephalopods Species of Sicilian coasts: correlation between pollution and the presence of Anisakis parasites.

    PubMed

    Graci, Stefania; Collura, Rosaria; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Buscemi, Maria Drussilla; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Principato, Deborah; Gervasi, Teresa; Cicero, Nicola; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate mercury accumulation in some species, caught in Mediterranean Sea, in the period between May and December 2015, and to compare it to the presence of Anisakis parasites. The samples were examined by direct mercury analyzer (DMA-80) for their Hg levels. The metal concentration was compared to the presence or the absence of Anisakis parasites. Significant differences in Hg concentration in analysed samples were observed. The low-infested fishes contained 1-6 larvae of parasites whereas the high-infested one had 7-83 larvae.

  7. Update of information on perkinsosis in NW Mediterranean coast: Identification of Perkinsus spp. (Protista) in new locations and hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramilo, Andrea; Carrasco, Noelia; Reece, Kimberly S; Valencia, José M; Grau, Amalia; Aceituno, Patricia; Rojas, Mauricio; Gairin, Ignasi; Furones, M Dolores; Abollo, Elvira; Villalba, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    This study addressed perkinsosis in commercially important mollusc species in the western Mediterranean area. Perkinsus olseni was found in Santa Gilla Lagoon (Sardinia) infecting Ruditapes decussatus, Cerastoderma glaucum and Venerupis aurea, in Balearic Islands infecting Venus verrucosa and in Delta de l'Ebre (NE Spain) parasitising Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus. Perkinsus mediterraneus was detected infecting Ostrea edulis from the Gulf of Manfredonia (SE Italy) and Alacant (E Spain), V. verrucosa and Arca noae from Balearic Islands and Chlamys varia from Balearic Islands, Alacant and Delta de l'Ebre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Presence of plastic debris in loggerhead turtle stranded along the Tuscany coasts of the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals (Italy).

    PubMed

    Campani, Tommaso; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Cancelli, Fabrizio; Mancusi, Cecilia; Serena, Fabrizio; Marsili, Letizia; Casini, Silvia; Fossi, Maria Cristina

    2013-09-15

    This work evaluated the presence and the frequency of occurrence of marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of 31 Caretta caretta found stranded or accidentally bycaught in the North Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine debris were present in 71% of specimens and were subdivided in different categories according to Fulmar Protocol (OSPAR 2008). The main type of marine debris found was user plastic, with the main occurrence of sheetlike user plastic. The small juveniles showed a mean±SD of marine debris items of 19.00±23.84, while the adult specimens showed higher values of marine litter if compared with the juveniles (26.87±35.85). The occurrence of marine debris observed in this work confirms the high impact of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea in respect to other seas and oceans, and highlights the importance of Caretta caretta as good indicator for marine litter in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of European Union.

  9. Phthalate metabolites in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Fourgous, C; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Amilhat, E; Faliex, E; Paris-Palacios, S; Teil, M J; Goutte, A

    2016-11-01

    The levels and fate of phthalate metabolites have been poorly evaluated in fish, despite their potential ecotoxicological impacts. The present study aims to characterize the levels of phthalate metabolites in muscle tissue of yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two coastal Mediterranean lagoons, during three sampling periods. Nine phthalate metabolites were detected in >70% of the samples. Slightly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were detected in March and June compared to October, suggesting possible seasonal variations in environmental release and/or phthalate metabolization process by eels. The large sample size (N=117) made it possible to explore correlations between phthalate metabolites' levels and individual parameters, such as body length, age, body condition and hepatic histo-pathologies. Body length and estimated age poorly correlated with phthalate metabolites, suggesting that eels did not accumulate phthalates during growth, contrary to persistent compounds. Eels presented different grades of hepatic fibrosis and lipidosis. A negative correlation was found between the severity of these pathologies in the liver and the sum of phthalate metabolites levels, supporting the hypothesis that eels with damaged liver are less able to metabolize xenobiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution pattern and genetic structure of Aedes zammitii (Diptera: Culicidae) along the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yavasoglu, Sare Ilknur; Simsek, Fatih Mehmet; Ulger, Celal

    2016-06-01

    The Mariae species complex, consisting of Aedes mariae, Aedes phoeniciae, and Aedes zammitii, has a limited distribution worldwide. All three species are found in rocky habitats on the coastal areas of Mediterranean countries. Aedes phoeniciae and Ae. zammitii are two members of the Mariae complex that exist in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution pattern and genetic structure of Ae. zammitii along the Mediterranean and Aegean regions. For this purpose, larval and adult samples of Ae. zammitii were collected from 19 different rocky habitats along the coastal regions of Antalya, Muğla, Aydın, İzmir, Balıkesir, and Çanakkale provinces. DNA isolation was performed primarily from collected samples, and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 4 (ND4) gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Based on ND4 sequence analyses, 21 haplotypes were detected along the distribution range of the species. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analyses of molecular variance (SAMOVA) indicated six groups, and most of the variation was among groups, demonstrating the population structuring at group level. Isolation by distance analyses (IBD) showed a correlation between geographic and genetic distances. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  11. Mediterranean California, Chapter 13

    Treesearch

    M.E. Fenn; E.B. Allen; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean California ecoregion (CEC 1997; Fig 2.2) encompasses the greater Central Valley, Sierra foothills, and central coast ranges of California south to Mexico and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Mojave Desert.

  12. Climate induced changes on the hydrology of the southern coast of Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria - Matrouh Governorates, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Ludwig, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The Nile Delta is one of the most complex, fragile and densely populated landscapes. It has suffered from abrupt environmental changes including sea level rise, sea water intrusion, and dramatic drawdown in groundwater levels due to severe pumping. The western part of Nile Delta's coast, from Alexandria to Marsa Matruh Governorates, is considered as one of the most vulnerable regions in Nile Delta. Environmentally complicated risks on water and soil coincide with suffering from strategic management problems. The general lack of studies linking sea level rise with socioeconomic impact cause large uncertainties. Such impacts became very critical recently, as subsidence and successive step sliding in the northern coast cause catastrophic disasters in areas with high population and socio-economic importance. Western Coast of Nile Delta is characterized by a succession of limestone and oolitic limestone which is extremely fragile and vulnerable to degradation in addition to dissolution by saline water. This study deals with studying the effect of global warming, sea level rise and severe pumping on the studied area. Examples will be given for soil degradation, subsidence, surface sliding, creeps successive step sliding, and sinkholes due to dissolving and fracturing of the limestone plateau.

  13. European and Mediterranean mercury modelling: Local and long-range contributions to the deposition flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencarelli, Christian N.; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sprovieri, Francesca; Yang, Xin; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is known to have adverse effects on human health, and most human exposure to toxic methylmercury is through fish consumption. Soluble Hg compounds in the marine environment can be methylated in the water column and enter the base of the food chain. Atmospheric deposition is the most important pathway by which Hg enters marine ecosystems. The atmospheric chemistry of Hg has been simulated over Europe and the Mediterranean for the year 2009, using the WRF/Chem model and employing two different gas phase Hg oxidation mechanisms. The contributions to the marine deposition flux from dry deposition, synoptic scale wet deposition and convective wet deposition have been determined. The Hg deposition fluxes resulting from transcontinental transport and local/regional emission sources has been determined using both Br/BrO and O3/OH atmospheric oxidation mechanisms. The two mechanisms give significantly different annual deposition fluxes (129 Mg and 266 Mg respectively) over the modelling domain. Dry deposition is more significant using the O3/OH mechanism, while proportionally convective wet deposition is enhanced using the Br/BrO mechanism. The simulations using the Br/BrO oxidation compared best with observed Hg fluxes in precipitation. Local/regional Hg emissions have the most impact within the model domain during the summer. A comparison of simulations using the 2005 and 2010 AMAP/UNEP Hg emission inventories show that although there is a decrease of 33% in anthropogenic emissions between the two reference years, the total simulated deposition in the regions diminishes by only 12%. Simulations using the 2010 inventory reproduce observations somewhat better than those using the 2005 inventory for 2009.

  14. Cova del Rinoceront (Castelldefels, Barcelona): a terrestrial record for the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5) in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; Julià, R.; García-Fernández, D.; Fornós, J. J.; Vaquero, M.; Allué, E.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Ortiz, J. E.; Torres, T.; Albert, R. M.; Rodríguez-Cintas, À.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Cerdeño, E.; Skinner, A. R.; Asmeron, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Garcés, M.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.; Pike, A. W. G.; Euba, I.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Yagüe, A. S.; Villaescusa, L.; Gómez, S.; Rubio, A.; Pedro, M.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Cova del Rinoceront, a site in NE Iberia, contains a thick sedimentary fill preserving a faunal archive from the penultimate glacial and the the last interglacial periods. Layers I to III have been dated to between 74 and 147 ka, coinciding with MIS 5a to 5e, a period poorly represented in the Mediterranean terrestrial record. The results from Cova del Rinoceront are of broader interest for the reconstruction of ecological dynamics during warm stages and the understanding of the evolution and geographical variation of several taxa. The palaeoecological evidence suggests a landscape dominated by mixed wooded vegetation with mild climatic conditions, slightly more humid than today. Several vertebrate taxa, including Haploidoceros mediterraneus, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis and Glis glis, are documented for the first time in the early Upper Pleistocene of Europe, showing that these species persisted across the region for longer than previously thought. In addition, the recovery of a small lithic assemblage indicates human presence in the surroundings of the site. The 11 m-thick stratigraphic section also provides an ideal setting in which to compare several geochronological methods. U-Th dating of the flowstones that cap the deposit, of speleothems formed along the cave walls, and of speleothems buried by the deposit at different elevations provides minimum and maximum ages of 74 and 175 ka, respectively, for the accumulation. The ages obtained by luminescence, electron spin resonance (ESR), amino acid racemisation (AAR), palaeomagnetism and U-series dating of bone are in good agreement with each other and are stratigraphically consistent. This well-dated faunal succession presents a unique opportunity to assess changes in the Pleistocene fauna of the Mediterranean coast over an interval of more than 100 ka.

  15. Road dust emission profiles and levels from paved road in Mediterranean and central European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Furger, M.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Bukowiecki, N.; Gehrig, R.; Richard, A.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2009-04-01

    The burden of road dust re-suspension on urban air quality varies depending on several local factors such as precipitation rate, vehicle fleets and state of pavement. In Mediterranean cities emissions from traffic re-suspension can be comparable or even higher than direct exhaust emissions while in central Europe precipitation helps in maintaining street cleaning, reducing re-suspension. Receptor models are useful tools to estimate the contribution of urban re-suspension to PM. Target factor analysis and chemical mass balance can be successfully applied but a key task for the application of the aforementioned models is obtaining valid emission profiles for road dust re-suspended by traffic re-suspension. In this study two different campaigns were carried out in Zurich (February 2008) and Barcelona (June 2007) in order to estimate the load and chemical properties of road dust in two dissimilar urban environments. To this aim 7 and 9 locations were selected in Zurich (CH) and Barcelona (E) city centers respectively. Samplings were performed by means of a field re-suspension chamber, collecting into filters the PM10 fraction of deposited materials from one square meter of active traffic lanes (Amato et al., 2009). The sampling sites selected for this study had different traffic loads (from background to major roads) allowing to evaluate the impact of traffic to the levels of pollutants, especially those from brake wear such as Sb, Cu, Zn, Ba, and Fe among others. In Zurich the levels of deposited PM10 (0.2-1.3 mg/m2) were lower than in Barcelona (3.7-23.1 mg/m2) where levels were mainly controlled by the dust handling at kerbside works and uncovered transport by trucks. Such dust accretion, favoured by the lack of rain, increases re-suspension. This process is likely to be the main cause of the high atmospheric mineral matter in the urban background of Barcelona (31%), rather than in Zurich (10%) where PM10 mass is dominated by secondary inorganic aerosols (37%) and

  16. Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoussi, Maria; Ouchani, Tachfine; Niazi, Saïda

    2008-04-01

    The eastern part of the Mediterranean coast of Morocco is physically and socio-economically vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise, due to its low topography and its high ecological and touristic value. Assessment of the potential land loss by inundation has been based on empirical approaches using a minimum inundation level of 2 m and a maximum inundation level of 7 m, where scenarios for future sea-level rise range from 200 to 860 mm, with a 'best estimate' of 490 mm. The socio-economic impacts have been based on two possible alternative futures: (1) a 'worst-case' scenario, obtained by combining the 'economic development first' scenario with the maximum inundation level; and (2) a 'best-case' scenario, by combining the 'sustainability first' scenario with the minimum inundation level. Inundation analysis, based on Geographical Information Systems and a modelling approach to erosion, has identified both locations and the socioeconomic sectors that are most at risk to accelerated sea-level rise. Results indicate that 24% and 59% of the area will be lost by flooding at minimum and maximum inundation levels, respectively. The most severely impacted sectors are expected to be the residential and recreational areas, agricultural land, and the natural ecosystem. Shoreline erosion will affect 50% and 70% of the total area in 2050 and 2100, respectively. Potential strategies to ameliorate the impact of seawater inundation include: wetland preservation; beach nourishment at tourist resorts; and the afforestation of dunes. As this coast is planned to become one of the most developed tourist resorts in Morocco by 2010, measures such as building regulation, urban growth planning and development of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan, are recommended for the region.

  17. The tsunami triggered by the 21 May 2003 Boumerdès-Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake: field investigations on the French Mediterranean coast and tsunami modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahal, A.; Roger, J.; Allgeyer, S.; Lemaire, B.; Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Lavigne, F.

    2009-11-01

    A field survey was organized on the French Mediterranean coasts to investigate the effects of the tsunami induced by the 21 May 2003 Boumerdès-Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake (Mw=6.9). The results show that eight harbours were affected by important sea level disturbances that caused material loss. Unfortunately, the low sampling rate of the French tide gage records (10 min) does not allow for a proper evaluation of the tsunami wave amplitudes since these amplitudes were probably underestimated in the harbours where these sensors are installed. The survey brings to light regional and local contrasts among the harbours' hydrological responses to the tsunami. To better understand these contrasts, a numerical simulation of the sea level elevations induced by the tsunami was conducted. The simulation showed a certain correlation between the field results and the wave amplification along the coast; however it underestimated the observed phenomena. Another simulation was then conducted using high resolution bathymetric grids (space step of 3 m) centred more specifically on 3 neighbouring harbours, however, again the simulation results did not match the amplitudes recorded through the observations. In order to better understand the wave amplification mechanisms inside each grid, a Gaussian signal was virtually broadcasted from the source to the harbours. Virtual sensors identified the periods which are stimulated - or not - by the arrival of the signal in each grid. Comparing these periods with those previously recorded emphasizes the proper period of each waterbody. This paper evaluates the limitations of such a study, focusing specifically on (1) the importance of having accurate and precise data about the source (the lack of information about the signal amplitude leads to an underestimation of the tsunami, thus reproducing only a fourth to a third of the observed phenomenon), (2) the need for networked tide gages with high resolution records and short sampling rates, and

  18. Re-analysis of the Krakatoa Tsunami Records along the European Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpytchev, M.; Daubord, C.; Hebert, H.; Woppelmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    The explosion of the Krakatoa volcano on August, 27, 1883, generated one of the highest tsunami ever recorded by tide gauges. The sea level measurements available at that time were collected and published by the Krakatoa Committee (Symons, 1888) but the original records seem to be lost. Pelinovsky et al (2005) digitized the Krakatoa Committee reproductions and pointed at the difficulties of using Symons' (1888) figures for a quantitave analysis. In this study, we attempted to identify the Krakatoa tsunami signature in the Symons' records along the British and French Atlantic coasts by comparing them to the sea level variations measured at the tidal station of Saint Servan. The original Saint Servan sea level record has been recently discovered in the French Navy (SHOM) data archive. The wavelet-based technqiues of cross-correlation and coherence analysis revealed a coherence between the Saint Servan observations and some of the Krakatoa Comittee records. The wavelet-based methods helped to identify the Krakatau tsunami signature in the English Channel and to estimate its parameters. Additional signal detection techniques were required, however, to extract the Krakatoa tsunami from the sea level oscillations recorded in the Bay of Biscay, at Rochefort and Soccoa tidal stations.

  19. Microgeographic allozyme differentiation in the hybrid zone of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. and M. edulis L. on the continental European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comesaña, A. S.; Sanjuan, A.

    1997-03-01

    The European Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. and M. edulis L. coexist and hybridize in different proportions in extended areas of the British and Atlantic French coasts. M. galloprovincialis typical allozymes seem to predominate in wave exposed areas, at high levels of attachment and in larger mussels in the British hybrid zone. Mussel samples from exposed and sheltered areas, 200 m apart, and from high and low levels of attachment were collected from a location of the French hybrid zone in 1988 92. Pure M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis populations were also taken as controls. Diagnostic enzyme loci for both Mytilus (EST-D *, LAP-1*, MPI*, ODH*) and AP-1 *, LAP-2* and PGM * loci were studied. The frequencies of the M. galloprovincialis typical alleles were significantly greater in exposed populations than in sheltered samples (e.g. 0.729 to 0.803 vs 0.192 to 0.581 for EST-D *90), and at high level of attachment than at low level for the sheltered area (e.g. 0.581 vs 0.192 for EST-D *90). Putative M. galloprovincialis was more abundant on the exposed coast (0.591 and 0.702) than on the sheltered shore, where it predominated at the high shore but not at the low shore location (0.371 vs 0.045). Significantly positive correlations between shell length and typical M. galloprovincialis compound allele frequencies were found only for populations from exposed areas. Relationships between the Mytilus genetic differentiation and ecological factors are discussed.

  20. Physiological cost of tolerance to toxicants in the European flounder Platichthys flesus, along the French Atlantic Coast.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Justine; Quiniou, Louis; Riso, Ricardo; Thebaut, Marie-Thérèse; Laroche, Jean

    2004-12-20

    Physiological and genetic responses of flounder Platichthys flesus populations were investigated along the French Atlantic Coast in one moderately contaminated estuary (Ster) and three contaminated estuaries (Seine, Loire and Gironde). The focus of this study was to explore the relationship between stress resistance and energetic trade-offs, in order to detect possible differential physiological capacities or performances between individuals carrying particular alleles or genotypes (allozyme data) characterised as "tolerant" or "sensitive". A general reduction of the relative fecundity, the growth rate and the condition factor was highlighted in contaminated fish populations, suggesting that survival in such polluted systems implies energetic costs for fish thus reducing the energy available for particular functions. A lower observed heterozygosity was also detected in contaminated populations with respect to the Ster, suggesting a general decrease in genetic variability in response to chemical stress (with an exception for the Seine estuary). This study confirmed the previously detected relationship between PGM 85, AAT1 95 alleles and reduced DNA damage in contaminated fish [Marchand, J., Tanguy, A., Laroche, J., Quiniou, L., Moraga, D., 2003. Responses of European flounder Platichthys flesus populations to contamination in different estuaries along the Atlantic coast of France. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 260, 273-284] and furthermore suggested that, reduced fecundity and condition factor associated to the individuals carrying the previous alleles, were also reflecting the cost of resistance to stress in polluted populations. The cost of tolerance to stress as well as the high gene flow from neighbouring populations less exposed to contamination may explain the apparently moderate increase of the suspected "tolerant" alleles in contaminated flounder populations.

  1. The Holocene evolution of the beach and inland aeolian sand of the north-central Mediterranean coast of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad

    2015-04-01

    Israel's coastal geomorphology, situated within a Mediterranean climate zone, is characterized by parallel Pleistocene aeolianite ridges, coastal cliffs of aeolianite, and sandy beaches. Lobe-like fields of predominantly stable transverse and parabolic quartz sand dunes protrude 2-7 km inland from the current Mediterranean Sea coastline. However, their migration and accumulation history is still not well-defined. This study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport along the Caesarea-Hadera dunefield in the north-central coastal plain of Israel. In order to achieve these goals, a detailed field survey and sampling campaign was carried out along a west-east and southwest-northeast transect, loyal to the advancement orientations of the currently stable dunes and directions of dominant sand transporting winds. Beach sand, a foredune, a linear dune, and interdunes of parabolic and transverse dunes were sampled down to their aeolianite or red loam (locally named hamra) palaeosol substrate by drilling and analyzing exposed sections. The sampled sediments were sedimentologically analyzed and twenty-five were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The results indicate that beach sand started to accumulate rapidly around 6 ka probably in response to global sea level stabilization. Until around 4 ka, thin sand sheets encroached 2-3 km inland. Sand ages in the range of 1.2-1.1 ka (8th-9th century CE -- Early Moslem period) were found throughout the study area, suggesting a major mobilization of sand, followed by stabilization around 0.6 ka and pedogenesis. By 1.2 ka, the sands had reached their current extent of 5-7 km inland, suggesting transport in a southwest-northeast orientation similar to the advancement orientation of the current transverse and parabolic dunes. The particle-size distributions of the fine to medium-sized aeolian sand showed minor variation linked to inland transport

  2. Anisakid parasites of two forkbeards (Phycis blennoides and Phycis phycis) from the Mediterranean coasts of Andalucía (Southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Valero, A; Paniagua, M I; Hierro, I; Díaz, V; Valderrama, M J; Benítez, R; Adroher, F J

    2006-03-01

    An epidemiological survey of anisakids was carried out on 209 specimens of greater forkbeard (Phycis blennoides) and 58 of forkbeard (Phycis phycis) captured off the Mediterranean coasts of Andalucía (southern Spain). Four species of nematodes were identified: Anisakis simplex s.l., Anisakis physeteris, Hysterothylacium aduncum and Hysterothylacium fabri. The total prevalence was 62.06% in the forkbeard and 58.85% in the greater forkbeard. The highest values of prevalence (56.90%), mean intensity (5.21) and mean abundance (2.96) were all obtained for H. fabri in the forkbeard. The most frequent parasite in the greater forkbeard was H. aduncum with 51.20% prevalence and values of 3.00 and 1.53 for mean intensity and mean abundance, respectively. The infestation parameters were also analyzed according to the host length, observing a maximum of parasitized fish (91.67%) in samples of P. blennoides longer than 40 cm, while in P. phycis, the highest prevalence (82.35%), conditioned by H. fabri parasitization, was found in fish with lengths between 30 and 35 cm.

  3. Levels and trends of PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and petroleum hydrocarbons in mussels from the NW Mediterranean coast: comparison of concentrations in 1973/1974 and 1988/1989.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, J P; Carvalho, F P; Fowler, S W; Cattini, C

    1999-09-30

    A mussel watch survey was conducted in 1988-1989 along the Mediterranean coast of France and Italy, between Sete and Genoa, in order to assess contamination by organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and petroleum hydrocarbons. Results show concentrations of DDTs (average 130 ng g-1 dry wt.) and PCBs (average 527 ng g-1 dry wt.) higher in coastal areas receiving river discharges and close to large cities. Concentrations of total aliphatics (average 470 micrograms g-1 dry wt.) and PAHs (average 233 micrograms g-1 dry wt.) were generally higher also near large harbours, namely Marseille, Toulon and Genoa. PAHs in mussel samples from Genoa and Monaco were mostly of pyrolytic sources, likely forest fires and exhaust gases from cars, whereas PAHs in other stations were mainly of petrogenic sources. Comparison of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations measured in 1988-1989 with those measured in a similar survey carried out at the same sites in 1973-1974, shows that DDTs and PCBs decreased by a factor of approximately 5 in 15 years. This decrease is in agreement with the ban on DDT implemented in 1975 in western Europe and gradual cessation of PCBs production in the 1970s and 1980s. Nevertheless, the residues of these compounds measured in mussels confirm the well-known long persistence of DDTs and PCBs, which are still present in relatively high concentrations in a few areas.

  4. Dioxin-like biological activity of organic extracts from sediments and fish livers sampled along the Israeli Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts.

    PubMed

    Yudkovski, Yana; Herut, Barak; Shefer, Edna; Tom, Moshe

    2015-09-15

    This study provides, for the first time, a baseline evaluation of dioxin-like biological activity in sediments and fish sampled in- and adjacent to anchorages along the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts of Israel. It indicates the effect of past pollution, still present in the sediments of older Israeli harbors, with putative contribution of still existing sources of pollution. A commercial reporter gene bioassay was used to evaluate the biological activity of dioxin-like compounds extracted from the samples. HRGC/HRMS analysis of several samples contributed a profile of dioxin-like compounds in sediments and fish. The results point out 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDD, 2,3,4,6,7,8-HexaCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF, РСВ-126 and РСВ-118 as major contributors to the dioxin-like activity in sediments. It indicates polychlorinated biphenyls non-selective absorption in fish livers, in contrary to a biased accumulation of poorly chlorinated and more potent dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors determining the dynamics of toxic blooms of Alexandrium minutum during a 10-year study along the shallow southwestern Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdenadher, Moufida; Hamza, Asma; Fekih, Wafa; Hannachi, Imen; Zouari Bellaaj, Amel; Bradai, Mohamed Nejmeddine; Aleya, Lotfi

    2012-06-01

    Many blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum have been recorded since 1990 in the Gulf of Gabes (southwestern Mediterranean Sea). To understand the determining factors of bloom formation, we studied the distribution of A. minutum in relation to environmental factors in samples taken at shallow sandy (<1 m) beach stations and a lagoon between 1997 and 2006. This was accompanied by laboratory experiments to identify A. minutum. The species forms harmful algal blooms (HABs) in stations subjected to anthropogenic eutrophication and in confined lagoons, living under conditions of varying salinity which gives it a unique opportunity to broaden its physiological tolerance and increase its colonisation potential. Increases in phosphorus appear to be more important than nitrogen or temperature in the control of A. minutum. The stations sampled all along the coast present specific hydrographic properties (shallowness, turbulence) suggesting that factors other than temperature and nutrients influence Alexandrium distribution, the exception being Boughrara Lagoon where the species developed in accordance with published data. Our findings and their interpretations indicate that the mechanism of the sudden A. minutum blooms along the nearshore of the Gulf of Gabes was complex and differed from that of true coastal ecosystems.

  6. "Estuaries and coasts" CLIL* lesson plans in English and geology fieldtrip to Cornwall for students in European section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempelli, Nathalie; Voyer, Karine; Lebourgeois, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    When the European section was created in our high school we had to choose an overarching theme. After considering that we live both in the River Seine estuary and near the English Channel it became obvious that our theme should be "estuaries and coasts". We began the 2012-2013 school year with a day-trip around the River Seine estuary to introduce the theme. First we made a general landscape study from a viewpoint, then we discussed the history of the navigation on the Seine, of local farming on marshland and finally we focused on farmhouse architecture. To conclude we visited the natural reserve near the "Normandy Bridge". As an introduction our poster aims at presenting this part of Normandy. And then we would like to show some examples of our CLIL lesson plans about this chosen topic. The aim of a CLIL lesson is to create interactive speaking between students working in pairs or in groups. There are three different stages: - Warm-up activities - In-depth study: listening, reading, echoing, looking for information on the internet, making a slide show and doing an oral presentation, participating to a role play… - Assessment : using what has been learnt to answer questions Finally we wish to present our field trip to Cornwall. We have already done it twice before (in 2002 and 2004) and this year it is scheduled in May 2013 with our European section students. The aim of this trip is to study geology and botany in English in order to extend what we teach in our CLIL lessons about estuaries and coasts. It also helps promoting exchanges with British families and building intercultural knowledge and understanding. Our program includes for example, fossil hunting and studying the Jurassic cliffs in Charmouth, observing an old ocean crust in Coverack, visiting Saint-Mickael's mount, discovering a tin mine in Geevor, walking through the "Lost Gardens of Heligan" and thus discovering an example of this world-renowned restored English garden, and last but not least having

  7. Comparing the utility of image algebra operations for characterizing landscape changes: the case of the Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Alphan, Hakan

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare various image algebra procedures for their efficiency in locating and identifying different types of landscape changes on the margin of a Mediterranean coastal plain, Cukurova, Turkey. Image differencing and ratioing were applied to the reflective bands of Landsat TM datasets acquired in 1984 and 2006. Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) differencing were also applied. The resulting images were tested for their capacity to detect nine change phenomena, which were a priori defined in a three-level classification scheme. These change phenomena included agricultural encroachment, sand dune afforestation, coastline changes and removal/expansion of reed beds. The percentage overall accuracies of different algebra products for each phenomenon were calculated and compared. The results showed that some of the changes such as sand dune afforestation and reed bed expansion were detected with accuracies varying between 85 and 97% by the majority of the algebra operations, while some other changes such as logging could only be detected by mid-infrared (MIR) ratioing. For optimizing change detection in similar coastal landscapes, underlying causes of these changes were discussed and the guidelines for selecting band and algebra operations were provided.

  8. Heterogeneous distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments and red mullet along the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    León, V M; García, I; Martínez-Gómez, C; Campillo, J A; Benedicto, J

    2014-10-15

    The spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations was characterised in surface sediments and red mullet from eleven Iberian Mediterranean coastal areas. Mean PAH concentrations ranged from 28 to 1006 and from 3 to 40 μg kg(-1)d.w. in sediment and red mullet muscle, respectively. The highest PAH concentrations in sediments were detected close to main ports and urban nuclei. However, concentrations of PAHs in red mullet showed little correspondence with PAH concentrations of the sediments due to its metabolic capacity. Phenanthrene was the predominant homologue in red mullet, whereas fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were the most abundant ones in sediments. Significant correlations between PAHs and organic carbon or fine fraction in sediments were only found in some areas. PAH concentrations in sediments were lower than environmental criteria in the majority of cases, except for benzo(g,h,i)perylene in 25% of samples from the Barcelona coastal area and for several homologues close to the port of Sagunto. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships between trace elements in Posidonia oceanica shoots and in sediment fractions along Latium coasts (northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Bravo, I; Focaracci, F; Cerfolli, F; Papetti, P

    2016-03-01

    The Mediterranean endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica is widely used as a sensitive bioindicator of trace elements (TEs) in the coastal environment. Therefore, a bulk of data exist on TE levels from impacted versus unpolluted sites while only recent studies started comparing TE accumulation in plant compartments versus both water column and sediment characteristics. In this study, six TEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb) were analyzed in P. oceanica shoots related to depth (-10 and -20 m) and to TE concentrations in the different grain size fractions of the sediment, from two Sites of Community interest (SIC) in the central Tyrrhenian Sea. TE concentrations in both shoots and sediment were generally low, except for Cr. Cu was the only element showing significantly different concentrations at the two sites while As differed significantly between samples taken at different depths. TE concentrations in the unsieved sediment were found uncorrelated to TEs in shoots except for the important nutrient Cu (positive correlation). The finest sediment fractions were enriched in TEs and significantly correlated to Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni concentrations in the shoots.

  10. Increase of flood exposure on the Spanish Mediterranean coast over the last decades. The influence of spatial planning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Martinez, Francisco; Perez-Morales, Alfredo; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Illan-Fernandez, Emilio Jose

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1960's, the Spanish Mediterranean coastal area is one of the main tourist destinations in the world and one of the highest rates of population, building and economic growth of Spain. Despite this growth have involved a lot of preventive flood management measures, especially structural measures (dams, water derivations, channelling, etc…), the area has registered an increase in the intensity, frequency and economic losses related to floods in recent decades. However, according to climatic records, this trend is more related to an exposure multiplication derived from economic growth than with the increase of extreme rainfall events produced by climate change. Within this framework it is interesting to evaluate how local governments (institution responsible for the process of spatial planning) have influence on exposure through allowing the construction in flood-prone areas. In this regard, this study quantifies the evolution of number of housing in flood-prone areas according to the cadastral information and the hydrological modelling data for the return periods of 10, 50, 100 and 500 years, respectively. Results highlight an increase in the number of building in flood-prone areas over the years. This increase in physical and economic exposure without any non-structural risk mitigation measure is one of the main factors for flood events. Therefore, results report that local governments did not consider the floodable areas into spatial planning and have made future scenarios characterized by an increase in the number of floods and their consequential damages.

  11. Structure and dynamics of ecosystems during the recent glaciations of the Quaternary in Medio-European and Mediterranean areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrieu-Ponel, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The ecological interpretation of pollen data from last glacial times in Western Europe remains difficult, probably because well preserved and continuous records are scarce and often analysed in low resolution (both chronologically and taxonomically). Moreover datings older than 40 ka are questionable. Another crucial point is the lack of modern ecosystems analogues, even at high latitude or high altitude. Lastly, the diversity of depositional environments (lacustrine, fluviatile, eolian) of glacial pollen archives contribute to blur the ecological and climatic signal. We present here the results of recent high time resolution analyses (pollen, geochemical markers) from the glacial section (OIS 4, 3 and 2) of the EC1 lacustrine sequence of Les Echets (foothill of the French Alps, alt. 267 m.). The biological and geochemical data testify to the strong climate instability during the last glaciation, marked with an alternance of 1) cold phases characterized by an arctico-boreal vegetation made of grasslands with Poaceae, Artemisia and various steppic herbs, 2) less cold phases, characterized by the return of open forests of taïga type, dominated by Pinus, Betula and Juniperus. The age model obtained from the glacial section of EC1 (Wolhfarth and al., 2008) enables to date the biological events recorded in this continental sequence, using a chronology independent of those acquired in marine or polar cores. The duration of these events is also estimated. This sketch needs of course to be discussed in the light of future new chronologies proposed for the same period from new continental lacustrine sequences. The comparison of pollen records of Les Echets with other european glacial sequences shows that during the "warmest" periods of the last glaciation (OIS3, Middle Würm), deciduous and sclerophyllous forest persisted in the Mediterranean regions.

  12. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits. PMID:20230603

  13. Diversity and distribution of unicellular opisthokonts along the European coast analyzed using high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Javier; Mallo, Diego; Massana, Ramon; de Vargas, Colomban; Richards, Thomas A.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2015-01-01

    Summary The opisthokonts are one of the major super-groups of eukaryotes. It comprises two major clades: 1) the Metazoa and their unicellular relatives and 2) the Fungi and their unicellular relatives. There is, however, little knowledge of the role of opisthokont microbes in many natural environments, especially among non-metazoan and non-fungal opisthokonts. Here we begin to address this gap by analyzing high throughput 18S rDNA and 18S rRNA sequencing data from different European coastal sites, sampled at different size fractions and depths. In particular, we analyze the diversity and abundance of choanoflagellates, filastereans, ichthyosporeans, nucleariids, corallochytreans and their related lineages. Our results show the great diversity of choanoflagellates in coastal waters as well as a relevant role of the ichthyosporeans and the uncultured marine opisthokonts (MAOP). Furthermore, we describe a new lineage of marine fonticulids (MAFO) that appears to be abundant in sediments. Therefore, our work points to a greater potential ecological role for unicellular opisthokonts than previously appreciated in marine environments, both in water column and sediments, and also provides evidence of novel opisthokont phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the importance of high throughput sequencing approaches to unravel the diversity and distribution of both known and novel eukaryotic lineages. PMID:25556908

  14. Diversity and distribution of unicellular opisthokonts along the European coast analysed using high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Javier; Mallo, Diego; Massana, Ramon; de Vargas, Colomban; Richards, Thomas A; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2015-09-01

    The opisthokonts are one of the major super groups of eukaryotes. It comprises two major clades: (i) the Metazoa and their unicellular relatives and (ii) the Fungi and their unicellular relatives. There is, however, little knowledge of the role of opisthokont microbes in many natural environments, especially among non-metazoan and non-fungal opisthokonts. Here, we begin to address this gap by analysing high-throughput 18S rDNA and 18S rRNA sequencing data from different European coastal sites, sampled at different size fractions and depths. In particular, we analyse the diversity and abundance of choanoflagellates, filastereans, ichthyosporeans, nucleariids, corallochytreans and their related lineages. Our results show the great diversity of choanoflagellates in coastal waters as well as a relevant representation of the ichthyosporeans and the uncultured marine opisthokonts (MAOP). Furthermore, we describe a new lineage of marine fonticulids (MAFO) that appears to be abundant in sediments. Taken together, our work points to a greater potential ecological role for unicellular opisthokonts than previously appreciated in marine environments, both in water column and sediments, and also provides evidence of novel opisthokont phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the importance of high-throughput sequencing approaches to unravel the diversity and distribution of both known and novel eukaryotic lineages.

  15. Geographic and bathymetric trends in abundance, biomass and body size of four grenadier fishes along the Iberian coast in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moranta, Joan; Massutí, Enric; Palmer, Miquel; Gordon, John D. M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study is a mesoscale analysis of latitude and depth related trends in abundance, biomass and body size of the four grenadier species Caelorinchus caelorhincus, Hymenocephalus italicus, Nezumia aequalis and Trachyrinchus scabrus inhabiting the deep western Mediterranean. We have analysed data from seven annual bottom trawl surveys, carried out down to 800 m depth along the Iberian Mediterranean coast covering a distance of approximately 1200 km. The objectives were to establish general patterns in the mesoscale distribution of abundance, biomass and body size of deep-water grenadier fishes and also analyse the consistency of the bathymetric distribution of these parameters along a large latitudinal gradient. Five complementary series of analyses have been completed. The first focussed on describing the general patterns of abundance and size by correspondence canonical analysis, CCA, in the area. The second and third series focussed on the existence of temporal, geographical and bathymetric trends of abundance, weight and mean size by analysis of covariance, ANCOVA and multiple regression analysis. The fourth series compared the frequency distributions of body length. Finally, the last series focussed on the patterns of abundance versus size. The total number of individuals of all four grenadier species captured in 260 bottom trawls amounted to 27,435 and their weight was 1404 kg. No general trends for the four species have been observed between years. All four species showed a general pattern of increasing size with depth, which, except in the case of C. caelorhincus, was consistent along a large latitudinal gradient. Nezumia aequalis was unique in showing the same noticeable trend of increasing abundance with depth along the entire latitudinal range, but with clear differences in the intercepts. The abundance of N. aequalis and C. caelorhincus decreased significantly northwards. Hymenocephalus italicus was the least abundant species and had a

  16. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish tissues by matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry: case study on European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Labadie, Pierre; Alliot, Fabrice; Bourges, Catherine; Desportes, Annie; Chevreuil, Marc

    2010-08-24

    This paper describes the development and validation of an analytical methodology to determine 28 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) tissues using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ-MS/MS). A total of 28 PBDEs were targeted, including tri- to deca-brominated congeners. The robustness and effectiveness of the proposed sample preparation procedure was demonstrated in lipid-rich eel tissues. The use of batch MSPD with activated silica gel and H(2)SO(4)-impregnated silica gel, followed by H(2)SO(4) digestion and multilayer cartridge clean-up allowed for complete lipid removal and eliminated matrix effects during GC-QQQ-MS/MS analysis. The average PBDE recoveries from eel muscle samples spiked with PBDEs at two levels were in the range 56.2-119.0%. Precision was satisfactory since relative standard deviations were lower than 19.6%, regardless of spike level, and method quantification limits ranged between 1 and 170 pg g(-1) (wet weight). The method demonstrated its successful application for the analysis of eel samples from two coastal lagoons located on the western French Mediterranean coast. All samples tested positive, but for tri- to hexa-brominated congeners only and total PBDE levels observed in this study were in the range 0.08-1.80 ng g(-1) wet weight. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting bottlenose dolphin distribution along Liguria coast (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) through different modeling techniques and indirect predictors.

    PubMed

    Marini, C; Fossa, F; Paoli, C; Bellingeri, M; Gnone, G; Vassallo, P

    2015-03-01

    Habitat modeling is an important tool to investigate the quality of the habitat for a species within a certain area, to predict species distribution and to understand the ecological processes behind it. Many species have been investigated by means of habitat modeling techniques mainly to address effective management and protection policies and cetaceans play an important role in this context. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has been investigated with habitat modeling techniques since 1997. The objectives of this work were to predict the distribution of bottlenose dolphin in a coastal area through the use of static morphological features and to compare the prediction performances of three different modeling techniques: Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Generalized Additive Model (GAM) and Random Forest (RF). Four static variables were tested: depth, bottom slope, distance from 100 m bathymetric contour and distance from coast. RF revealed itself both the most accurate and the most precise modeling technique with very high distribution probabilities predicted in presence cells (90.4% of mean predicted probabilities) and with 66.7% of presence cells with a predicted probability comprised between 90% and 100%. The bottlenose distribution obtained with RF allowed the identification of specific areas with particularly high presence probability along the coastal zone; the recognition of these core areas may be the starting point to develop effective management practices to improve T. truncatus protection.

  18. Methodology for local tsunami hazard mapping and assessment for Mediterranean and North Atlantic coasts, SCHEMA Project (EC FP6).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillande, R.; Gardi, A.; Salaun, T.; Laboudigue, A.; Koscielny, M.; Tinti, S.; Silva, A.; Novikova, T.; Lesne, O.; Mangin, A.

    2009-04-01

    assessed and represented for some of the factors and land use features are added for a first representation of vulnerability. For the chosen location, the final global hazard map is produced by the extraction of each maximum tsunami scenario for some parameters with a potential use for coastal zone planning and management. Each tsunami scenario and its associated hazards are a tool for early warning, alert, crisis management and rescue operations by relief operators. Considering the rarity of tsunamis both in Seychelles and in the western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic, the probability of occurrence is not considered as a relevant parameter in this first stage of the analysis.

  19. Application of a wind-wave-current coupled model in the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean sea), for wind energy purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Palomares, Ana; Navarro, Jorge; Grifoll, Manel; Pallares, Elena; Espino, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    This work shows the main results of the HAREAMAR project (including HAREMAR, ENE2012-38772-C02-01 and DARDO, ENE2012-38772-C02-02 projects), concerning the local Wind, Wave and Current simulation at St. Jordi Bay (NW Mediterranean Sea). Offshore Wind Energy has become one of the main topics within the research in Wind Energy research. Although there are quite a few models with a high level of reliability for wind simulation and prediction in onshore places, the wind prediction needs further investigations for adaptation to the Offshore emplacements, taking into account the interaction atmosphere-ocean. The main problem in these ocean areas is the lack of wind data, which neither allows for characterizing the energy potential and wind behaviour in a particular place, nor validating the forecasting models. The main objective of this work is to reduce the local prediction errors, in order to make the meteo-oceanographic hindcast and forecast more reliable. The COAWST model (Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave Sediment Transport Model; Warner et al., 2010) system has been implemented in the region considering a set of downscaling nested meshes to obtain high-resolution outputs in the region. The adaptation to this particular area, combining the different wind, wave and ocean model domains has been far from simple, because the grid domains for the three models differ significantly. This work shows the main results of the COAWST model implementation to this particular area, including both monthly and other set of tests in different atmospheric situations, especially chosen for their particular interest. The time period considered for the validation is the whole year 2012. A comparative study between the WRF, SWAN and ROMS model outputs (without coupling), the COWAST model outputs, and a buoy measurements moored in the region was performed for this year. References Warner, J.C., Armstrong, B., He, R., and Zambon, J.B., 2010, Development of a Coupled Ocean

  20. Generation and evaluation of typical meteorological year datasets for greenhouse and external conditions on the Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M D; López, J C; Baeza, E; Céspedes, A; Meca, D E; Bailey, B

    2015-08-01

    radiation transmission of approximately 65 % and rely on manual control of ventilation which constitute the majority in the south-east of Spain and in most Mediterranean greenhouse areas.

  1. Generation and evaluation of typical meteorological year datasets for greenhouse and external conditions on the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M. D.; López, J. C.; Baeza, E.; Céspedes, A.; Meca, D. E.; Bailey, B.

    2015-08-01

    radiation transmission of approximately 65 % and rely on manual control of ventilation which constitute the majority in the south-east of Spain and in most Mediterranean greenhouse areas.

  2. Trophic relationships at intrannual spatial and temporal scales of macro and megafauna around a submarine canyon off the Catalonian coast (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Fanelli, Emanuela; Papiol, Vanesa; Maynou, Francesc

    2010-04-01

    The spatial and temporal changes of near-bottom macrofauna (suprabenthos and macroplankton) and the trophic relationships of megabenthic decapod crustaceans were analyzed off the Catalonian coasts (western Mediterranean) around Berenguera submarine canyon in four periods (April and December 1991, March and July 1992) and four zones (within Berenguera Canyon at ca. 450 m, and on adjacent slope at ca. 400, 600 m and 1200 m). In March 1992, we found the highest macrofauna abundance and the smallest sizes in the canyon, suggesting a positive effect of river discharges on suprabenthos recruitment. By contrast, macroplankton (decapods, fishes and euphausiids) did not show higher recruitment into canyons. After analyzing the diet of 23 decapod crustaceans, we found a significant segregation between guilds feeding on zooplankton and on benthos. Zooplankton (euphausiids and Pasiphaeidae) and infauna (polychaetes, Calocaris macandreae and ophiuoroids) were consistently the main prey exploited by decapod crustaceans around Berenguera Canyon. We also found some macrophyte ( Posidonia oceanica) consumption, which was higher in periods of water column homogeneity (winter-spring and late autumn). Positive correlations between decapods' gut fullness ( F) and decapod abundance indicate feeding aggregations, while positive correlations were also found between F and Llobregat River (situated ca. 18 km from Berenguera head) flow 1 to 2 months before sampling. Increases in F were delayed only 1 month when zooplankton feeders were analyzed alone, while benthos feeders did not show significant relationships with any environmental variables. That indicates that the response of megabenthic decapods feeding on benthos to environmental shifts is slower than that of zooplankton feeders. The importance of river flows in enhancing food supply of macro- and megabenthos dwelling close to submarine canyons was apparent, with a delay in the fauna response of 0-2 months after river flow peaks.

  3. Analysis of surveillance systems in place in European Mediterranean countries for West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever (RVF).

    PubMed

    Cito, F; Narcisi, V; Danzetta, M L; Iannetti, S; Sabatino, D D; Bruno, R; Carvelli, A; Atzeni, M; Sauro, F; Calistri, P

    2013-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) represent an important group of viral agents responsible for vector-borne zoonotic diseases constituting an emerging sanitary threat for the Mediterranean Basin and the neighbouring countries. WNV infection is present in several Mediterranean countries, whereas RVF has never been introduced into Europe, but it is considered a major threat for North African countries. Being vector-borne diseases, they cannot be prevented only through an animal trade control policy. Several approaches are used for the surveillance of WNV and RVFV. With the aim of assessing the surveillance systems in place in Mediterranean countries, two disease-specific questionnaires (WNV, RVFV) have been prepared and submitted to Public Health and Veterinary Authorities of six EU countries. This study presents the information gathered through the questionnaires and describes some critical points in the prevention and surveillance of these diseases as emerged by the answers received.

  4. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    rinaldi, eleonora; colella, simone; santoleri, rosalia

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, seen as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool in order to understand the response of marine ecosystem to human pressures. This is particularly important along the coastal regions, in which the strong anthropization and the irrational exploitation of resources represent a persistent threat to the biodiversity. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using Ocean Color (OC) data to monitor the environmental changes in Mediterranean Sea and to develop a method for detecting trend from OC data that can constitute a new indicator of the water quality within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation. In this study the Mediterranean merged Case1-Case2 chlorophyll product, produced by CNR-ISAC and distributed in the framework of MyOcean, is analyzed. This product is obtained by using two different bio-optical algorithms for open ocean (Case1) and coastal turbid (Case2) waters; this improves the quality of the Chl satellite estimates, especially near the coast. In order to verify the real capability of the this product for estimating Chl trend and for selecting the most appropriated statistical test to detect trend in the Mediterranean Sea, a comparison between OC and in situ data are carried out. In-situ Chl data are part of the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet) of the European Environmental Agency (EEA). Four different statistical approaches to estimate trend have been selected and used to compare trend values obtained with in-situ and OC data. Results show that the best agreement between in-situ and OC trend is achieved using the Mann- Kendall test. The Mediterranean trend map obtained applying this test to the de-seasonalized OC time series shows that, in accordance with the results of many authors, the case 1 waters of Mediterranean sea are characterized by a negative trend. However, the most intense trend signals, both negative

  5. The Mediterranean Sea Regime Shift at the End of the 1980s, and Intriguing Parallelisms with Other European Basins

    PubMed Central

    Conversi, Alessandra; Fonda Umani, Serena; Peluso, Tiziana; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Santojanni, Alberto; Edwards, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Regime shifts are abrupt changes encompassing a multitude of physical properties and ecosystem variables, which lead to new regime conditions. Recent investigations focus on the changes in ecosystem diversity and functioning associated to such shifts. Of particular interest, because of the implication on climate drivers, are shifts that occur synchronously in separated basins. Principal Findings In this work we analyze and review long-term records of Mediterranean ecological and hydro-climate variables and find that all point to a synchronous change in the late 1980s. A quantitative synthesis of the literature (including observed oceanic data, models and satellite analyses) shows that these years mark a major change in Mediterranean hydrographic properties, surface circulation, and deep water convection (the Eastern Mediterranean Transient). We provide novel analyses that link local, regional and basin scale hydrological properties with two major indicators of large scale climate, the North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Northern Hemisphere Temperature index, suggesting that the Mediterranean shift is part of a large scale change in the Northern Hemisphere. We provide a simplified scheme of the different effects of climate vs. temperature on pelagic ecosystems. Conclusions Our results show that the Mediterranean Sea underwent a major change at the end of the 1980s that encompassed atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological systems, for which it can be considered a regime shift. We further provide evidence that the local hydrography is linked to the larger scale, northern hemisphere climate. These results suggest that the shifts that affected the North, Baltic, Black and Mediterranean (this work) Seas at the end of the 1980s, that have been so far only partly associated, are likely linked as part a northern hemisphere change. These findings bear wide implications for the development of climate change scenarios, as synchronous shifts may provide the key

  6. [Analysis of the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment of the patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea depending on the period of flowering of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)].

    PubMed

    Savchenko, V M; Belyaeva, S N; Govorun, M I; Pirogova, M E

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pollen of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) on the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment (SHRT) of the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea (SCC). This article presents the results of the analysis of the data on 122 patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology who received SHRT under the conditions of the Southern Coast of the Crimea. Fifty one (41.8%) of these patients suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 71 (58.2%) ones had bronchial asthma. The whole group was comprised of 44 men (36.1%) and 78 women (63.9%). The average (median) age of the patients was 55.8 years. All the participants of the study underwent the comprehensive examination including the general medical and physical examination, complete blood count, the study of sputum cytology and immunological properties of blood including the standard characteristics, IgE and lysozyme levels), evaluation of the respiratory and locomotor (physical) functions with the use of the 6-minute walking test. The aeropollenological study of the aerial environment of the southern coast of the Crimea in the region of Yalta showed that the «bloom» of the Mediterranean Cypress occurs during the period from February till April inclusive. The highest concentrations of cypress pollen are observed in March and early April. The overall effectiveness of SHRT for the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology arriving for the treatment at the southern coast of the Crimea from other Crimean localities does not depend on the period of «flowering» (the presence of pollen in the air) of the Mediterranean Cypress. In these patients, the termination of the spa and health resort-based treatment during the «flowering» of the Mediterranean Cypress resulted in nothing more than a strained adaptive response manifested as the altered blood leukocyte count. Such reaction

  7. Statistical analysis of the extreme values of dynamic sea level by spatial interpolation for a beach of the Mediterranean French coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kergadallan, X.; Metzler, N., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    The knowledge of sea levels along the coastline is of the utmost importance for characterization of flood risks in coastal areas, with a particular interest devoted to extreme values because they may induce the most dramatic consequences.The Cerema is a new French public body in support of national and local authorities in the field of sustainable development. At the request of French authorities, the Cerema has studied with a statistical approach the extreme values of the dynamic sea levels for one beach of the Mediterranean coast in Southern France.The beach is located at Saint-Aygulf, between Toulon and Nice. This site is critical because it's a tourist place with some buildings closed to the sea.The dynamic sea level studied includes a predictive part, the tidal level with about 40 cm of tidal range, and a non predictive part due to meteorological effect (difference of atmospheric pressures, wind effect) and breaking wave (wave run-up).There is no data of sea level measurement or numerical simulation at Saint-Aygulf. The development of a model to compute numerical simulations is out of the scope of this study.The closest tide gauges are located at more 50 km from Saint-Aygulf, in Toulon and Nice, with more than 15 years of observations.The originality of this work is to transform data from Toulon and Nice, so that the estimations of the dynamic sea level with these transformed data are representative of Saint-Aygulf. The final result is a weighted mean of both estimations (weight inversely proportional of the distance).The wave run-up is computed with the Stockdon et al. [2006] formula. Wave data come from ANEMOC2 data base (hindcast simulations from Cerema and EDF R&D). The dependence between offshore sea-states and tide gauge measurement is modelled by a Gumbel copula. Data transformation of Toulon and Nice takes into account the specific conditions of wave climate at Saint-Aygulf (exposure and energy loss during the propagation).As specified by the theory

  8. Equilibrium of vegetation and climate at the European rear edge. A reference for climate change planning in mountainous Mediterranean regions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Labourdette, Diego; Martínez, Felipe; Martín-López, Berta; Montes, Carlos; Pineda, Francisco D

    2011-05-01

    Mediterranean mountains harbour some of Europe's highest floristic richness. This is accounted for largely by the mesoclimatic variety in these areas, along with the co-occurrence of a small area of Eurosiberian, Boreal and Mediterranean species, and those of Tertiary Subtropical origin. Throughout the twenty-first century, we are likely to witness a climate change-related modification of the biogeographic scenario in these mountains, and there is therefore a need for accurate climate regionalisations to serve as a reference of the abundance and distribution of species and communities, particularly those of a relictic nature. This paper presents an objective mapping method focussing on climate regions in a mountain range. The procedure was tested in the Cordillera Central Mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, in the western Mediterranean, one of the ranges occupying the largest area of the Mediterranean Basin. This regionalisation is based upon multivariate analyses and upon detailed cartography employing 27 climatic variables. We used spatial interpolation of data based on geographic information. We detected high climatic diversity in the mountain range studied. We identified 13 climatic regions, all of which form a varying mosaic throughout the annual temperature and rainfall cycle. This heterogeneity results from two geographically opposed gradients. The first one is the Mediterranean-Euro-Siberian variation of the mountain range. The second gradient involves the degree of oceanicity, which is negatively related to distance from the Atlantic Ocean. The existing correlation between the climatic regions detected and the flora existing therein enables the results to be situated within the projected trends of global warming, and their biogeographic and ecological consequences to be analysed.

  9. The E glycoprotein plays an essential role in the high pathogenicity of European-Mediterranean IS98 strain of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Alsaleh, Khaled; Khou, Cécile; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Vàzquez, Ana; de Arellano, Eva Ramírez; Després, Philippe; Pardigon, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread arbovirus in the world. Several recent outbreaks and epizootics have been reported in Europe and the Mediterranean basin with increased virulence. In contrast to the well-characterized American and Australian strains, little is known about the virulence determinants of the WNV European-Mediterranean strains. To investigate the viral factors involved in the virulence of these strains, we generated chimeras between the highly neuropathogenic Israel 1998 (IS-98-ST1, IS98) strain and the non-pathogenic Malaysian Kunjin virus (KJMP-502). In vivo analyses in a mouse model of WNV pathogenesis shows that chimeric virus where KJMP-502 E glycoprotein was replaced by that of IS98 is neuropathogenic, demonstrating that this protein is a major virulence determinant. Presence of the N-glycosylation site had limited impact on virus virulence and the 5'UTR does not seem to influence pathogenesis. Finally, mice inoculated with KJMP-502 virus were protected against lethal IS98 infection.

  10. Beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas: evidence of central European glacial refugia for a temperate forest mammal species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Deffontaine, V; Libois, R; Kotlík, P; Sommer, R; Nieberding, C; Paradis, E; Searle, J B; Michaux, J R

    2005-05-01

    This study details the phylogeographic pattern of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, a European rodent species strongly associated with forest habitat. We used sequences of 1011 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene from 207 bank voles collected in 62 localities spread throughout its distribution area. Our results reveal the presence of three Mediterranean (Spanish, Italian and Balkan) and three continental (western, eastern and 'Ural') phylogroups. The endemic Mediterranean phylogroups did not contribute to the post-glacial recolonization of much of the Palaearctic range of species. Instead, the major part of this region was apparently recolonized by bank voles that survived in glacial refugia in central Europe. Moreover, our phylogeographic analyses also reveal differentiated populations of bank voles in the Ural mountains and elsewhere, which carry the mitochondrial DNA of another related vole species, the ruddy vole (Clethrionomys rutilus). In conclusion, this study demonstrates a complex phylogeographic history for a forest species in Europe which is sufficiently adaptable that, facing climate change, survives in relict southern and northern habitats. The high level of genetic diversity characterizing vole populations from parts of central Europe also highlights the importance of such regions as a source of intraspecific genetic biodiversity.

  11. 1.4 kyrs of flash flood events in the Southern European Alps: implications for extreme precipitation patterns and forcing over the north-western Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Sabatier, P.; Crouzet, C.; Brisset, E.; Guiter, F.; Reyss, J. L.; Chaumillon, E.; Tachikawa, K.; Bard, E.; Delannoy, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    the general moisture, the hydrology of large rivers and temperature patterns of the south-western European region, i.e. a low flood activity during the warm/dry MCA and conversely during the cold/wet Little Ice Age (LIA). At a sub-centennial scale, a high variability of the flood frequency is superimposed to the general increase during the LIA and appeared in phase with solar maximum. Moreover peaks of flood frequency seem to be correlated with negative autumnal NAO phases, in agreement with previous paleoflood reconstructions of Mediterranean Spanish rivers. Finally the comparison of flood frequency patterns from north-western Mediterranean sites suggests a 50-150 years oscillation mode, probably related to a NAO-like pattern, in two main NW Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns triggering extreme precipitations either over the Southern Alps or the Cevennes-Vivarais region.

  12. Contrasting morphological and DNA barcode-suggested species boundaries among shallow-water amphipod fauna from the southern European Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Jorge; Ferreira, Maria S; Antunes, Ilisa C; Teixeira, Marcos A L; Borges, Luisa M S; Sousa, Ronaldo; Gomes, Pedro A; Costa, Maria Helena; Cunha, Marina R; Costa, Filipe O

    2017-02-01

    In this study we compared DNA barcode-suggested species boundaries with morphology-based species identifications in the amphipod fauna of the southern European Atlantic coast. DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcode region (COI-5P) were generated for 43 morphospecies (178 specimens) collected along the Portuguese coast which, together with publicly available COI-5P sequences, produced a final dataset comprising 68 morphospecies and 295 sequences. Seventy-five BINs (Barcode Index Numbers) were assigned to these morphospecies, of which 48 were concordant (i.e., 1 BIN = 1 species), 8 were taxonomically discordant, and 19 were singletons. Twelve species had matching sequences (<2% distance) with conspecifics from distant locations (e.g., North Sea). Seven morphospecies were assigned to multiple, and highly divergent, BINs, including specimens of Corophium multisetosum (18% divergence) and Dexamine spiniventris (16% divergence), which originated from sampling locations on the west coast of Portugal (only about 36 and 250 km apart, respectively). We also found deep divergence (4%-22%) among specimens of seven species from Portugal compared to those from the North Sea and Italy. The detection of evolutionarily meaningful divergence among populations of several amphipod species from southern Europe reinforces the need for a comprehensive re-assessment of the diversity of this faunal group.

  13. Adherence to the mediterranean diet and risk of breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort study.

    PubMed

    Buckland, G; Travier, N; Cottet, V; González, C A; Luján-Barroso, L; Agudo, A; Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulos, D; Peeters, P H; May, A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Bvan Duijnhoven, F J; Key, T J; Allen, N; Khaw, K T; Wareham, N; Romieu, I; McCormack, V; Boutron-Ruault, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Panico, S; Agnoli, C; Palli, D; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Amiano, P; Barricarte, A; Rodríguez, L; Sanchez, M J; Chirlaque, M D; Kaaks, R; Teucher, B; Boeing, H; Bergmann, M M; Overvad, K; Dahm, C C; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Manjer, J; Wirfält, E; Hallmans, G; Johansson, I; Lund, E; Hjartåker, A; Skeie, G; Vergnaud, A C; Norat, T; Romaguera, D; Riboli, E

    2013-06-15

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet (MD) could reduce the risk of breast cancer (BC). As evidence from the prospective studies remains scarce and conflicting, we investigated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of BC among 335,062 women recruited from 1992 to 2000, in ten European countries, and followed for 11 years on average. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted relative Mediterranean diet (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for BC risk factors. A total of 9,009 postmenopausal and 1,216 premenopausal first primary incident invasive BC were identified (5,862 estrogen or progesterone receptor positive [ER+/PR+] and 1,018 estrogen and progesterone receptor negative [ER-/PR-]). The arMED was inversely associated with the risk of BC overall and in postmenopausal women (high vs. low arMED score; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.94 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 1.00] ptrend = 0.048, and HR = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.87, 0.99] ptrend = 0.037, respectively). The association was more pronounced in ER-/PR- tumors (HR = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.65, 0.99] ptrend = 0.043). The arMED score was not associated with BC in premenopausal women. Our findings show that adherence to a MD excluding alcohol was related to a modest reduced risk of BC in postmenopausal women, and this association was stronger in receptor-negative tumors. The results support the potential scope for BC prevention through dietary modification.

  14. Red cell enzyme polymorphisms in Moroccans and southern Spaniards: new data for the genetic history of the western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kandil, M; Moral, P; Esteban, E; Autori, L; Mameli, G E; Zaoui, D; Calo, C; Luna, F; Vacca, L; Vona, G

    1999-10-01

    Population samples from Morocco (El Jadida, south Atlantic coast) and La Alpujarra (Granada mountains, Spain), located on both shores of the western Mediterranean, were typed for 8 erythrocyte genetic markers: ACP1, ESD, PGD, AK1, GLO1, PGM1, SODA, and DIA. Genetic heterogeneity within western Mediterranean groups was investigated on the basis of allele frequencies of these 8 polymorphisms plus ABO and Rh (CDE). Only slight peculiarities for the ACP1, GLO1, and AK1 systems were observed in the 2 samples compared with other Mediterranean data. The new data are consistent with a main north to south genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean region. However, with regard to other European groups, the La Alpujarra population shows a particular affinity with North Africans that may be compatible with both an ancient common substratum and/or a special historical influence during the Muslim domination of the Iberian Peninsula.

  15. Parasite communities of European perch, Perca fluviatilis L. (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Percidae) from Lake Łebsko (Central Coast, Poland).

    PubMed

    Morozińska-Gogol, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Communities of parasites of European perch from lake Łebsko were studied and compared with similar communities from the Polish coastal zone. Parasites comprised 18 autogenic and 5 allogenic species. Most individual parasites belonged to allogenic species and were in larval stages. The majority of specimens were eye parasites with Tylodelphys clavata as the eudominant species. The dominant species, Acanthocephalus lucii, belongs to the intestine parasite community. Three marine species were found: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium aduncum and Echinorchynhus gadi. The results indicate that the parasite fauna consists mostly of freshwater species, common in various types of European waters, while marine species were rarely observed.

  16. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Correlates in 25 Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European Countries: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed; Lee, John Tayu; Millett, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among young people in some settings. There is an absence of nationally representative prevalence studies of waterpipe tobacco use and dual use with other tobacco products in young people. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional study of students aged 13-15 years. Of 180 participating countries, 25 included optional waterpipe tobacco smoking questions: 15 Eastern Mediterranean and 10 Eastern European countries. We calculated the prevalence of current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco use, including dual waterpipe and other tobacco use, and used logistic regression models to identify sociodemographic correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence was highest in Lebanon (36.9%), the West Bank (32.7%) and parts of Eastern Europe (Latvia 22.7%, the Czech Republic 22.1%, Estonia 21.9%). These countries also recorded greater than 10% prevalence of dual waterpipe and cigarette use. In a meta-analysis, higher odds of waterpipe tobacco smoking were found among males (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18% to 1.59%), cigarette users (AOR = 6.95, 95% CI = 5.74% to 8.42%), those whose parents (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.31% to 1.82%) or peers smoked (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI = 2.97% to 4.20%) and those whose parents had higher educational attainment (Father, AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.14% to 1.89%; Mother, AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07% to 2.46%). We report on regional- and country income-level differences. Waterpipe tobacco smoking, including dual waterpipe and cigarette use, is alarmingly high in several Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Ongoing waterpipe tobacco smoking surveillance is warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All

  17. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  18. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  19. European Cenozoic rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Peter A.

    1992-07-01

    The European Cenozoic rift system extends from the coast of the North Sea to the Mediterranean over a distance of some 1100 km; it finds its southern prolongation in the Valencia Trough and a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic chain crossing the Atlas ranges. Development of this mega-rift was paralleled by orogenic activity in the Alps and Pyrenees. Major rift domes, accompanied by subsidence reversal of their axial grabens, developed 20-40 Ma after beginning of rifting. Uplift of the Rhenish Shield is related to progressive thermal lithospheric thinning; the Vosges-Black Forest and the Massif Central domes are probably underlain by asthenoliths emplaced at the crust/mantle boundary. Evolution of this rift system, is thought to be governed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and by early phases of a plate-boundary reorganization that may lead to the break-up of the present continent assembly.

  20. Handbook for Forecasters in the Mediterranean. Part 2. Regional Forecasting Aids for the Mediterranean Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Occurrences.....................11-7 3. Forecasting Rules.........................11-11 III. TYRRHENIAN SEA - CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN AREA...the Tyrrhenian Sea -Central Mediterranean Area addressed in Section II1. A complex coastal topography characterizes the north and the south coasts of...is only 3 n mi. 11-25 III. TYRRHENIAN SEA - CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN AREA 1. OVERVIEW 1.1 REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY The Tyrrhenian Sea -Central Mediterranean

  1. Monitoring the impact of litter in large vertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD): constraints, specificities and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Galgani, F; Claro, F; Depledge, M; Fossi, C

    2014-09-01

    In its decision (2010/477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement, ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socio-economic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of "ingestion" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species.

  2. Morphology, ultrastructure, genetics, and morphometrics of Diplostomum sp. (Digenea: Diplostomidae) metacercariae infecting the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.) (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae), off the northwest coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Pina, Susana; Russell-Pinto, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Pedro; Formigo, Nuno E; Gibson, David I; Santos, Maria J

    2012-01-01

    The morphology, ultrastructure, genetics, and morphometrics of a species of Diplostomum von Nordmann 1832 (Digenea: Diplostomidae), isolated from the European flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) caught off the northwest coast of Portugal, are characterized. The metacercarial stage was found unencysted in the lens capsule of the eye. Light microscopical observations revealed the existence of some variability in specimen shape and size, with two morphotypes, referred to as "round" and "long", being apparent. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a smooth, unarmed tegument, with the lappet region being the most irregular and porose. Both the oral and ventral suckers were provided with a series of papillae, which presented very distinctive ultrastructural features and were particularly conspicuous in the case of the ventral sucker. The two morphotypes detected were found to have 100% genetic correspondence in the 18S + ITS1 + 5.8S region of the rDNA. Since the genetic data for this metacercaria differed from those of the species of Diplostomum available in GenBank, a description of a new genotype (accession number GQ370809) is provided. The molecular phylogenetic analyses, in conjunction with principal components and cluster analyses based on morphometric data, revealed the existence of consistent differences between the Diplostomum sp. metacercariae from flounder compared with Diplostomum spathaceum, Diplostomum mergi, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, and Diplostomum paracaudum. The latter of these species was found to be the most similar to the present material. Our results do not support an evolutionary separation of the European and North American species of Diplostomum.

  3. Middle Triassic chirotherid trackways on earthquake influenced intertidal limulid reproduction flats of the European Germanic Basin coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2012-09-01

    Chirotherid footprints of Synaptichnium, Chirotherium and Isochirotherium appeared during the late Early (Aegean) to early Late (Carnian) Triassic in central Europe. These taxa are partly revised herein, using both perfect and variably preserved tracks, and very long trackways from an upper Pelsonian intertidal-flat megatracksite of the Germanic Basin coast Pelsonian (Karlstadt Formation). The global Middle Triassic distribution of those footprints suggests seasonal migrations across Pangaea of possible archosauriform reptile trackmakers, such as Euparkeria, Ticinosuchus, Arizonasaurus and Batrachotomus, caused by horseshoe-crab mass migrations into tidal-flat beach reproductive zones in the Germanic Basin. Such seasonal migrations may even suggest a Pangaea-wide food-chain reaction, possibly including the mobilization of fish, marine and terrestrial reptiles, and of which situation the Germanic Basin intertidal-flats is a globally unique example.

  4. Contribution to the top-down alert system associated with the upcoming French tsunami warning center (CENALT): tsunami hazard assessment along the French Mediterranean coast for the ALDES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loevenbruck, A.; Quentel, E.; Hebert, H.

    2011-12-01

    The catastrophic 2004 tsunami drew the international community's attention to tsunami risk in all basins where tsunamis occurred but no warning system exists. Consequently, under the coordination of UNESCO, France decided to create a regional center, called CENALT, for the north-east Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. This warning system, which should be operational by 2012, is set up by the CEA in collaboration with the SHOM and the CNRS. The French authorities are in charge of the top-down alert system including the local alert dissemination. In order to prepare the appropriate means and measures, they initiated the ALDES (Alerte Descendante) project to which the CEA also contributes. It aims at examining along the French Mediterranean coast the tsunami risk related to earthquakes and landslides. In addition to the evaluation at regional scale, it includes the detailed studies of 3 selected sites; the local alert system will be designed for one of them. In this project, our main task at CEA consists in assessing tsunami hazard related to seismic sources using numerical modeling. Tsunamis have already affected the west Mediterranean coast; however past events are too few and poorly documented to provide a suitable database. Thus, a synthesis of earthquakes representative of the tsunamigenic seismic activity and prone to induce the largest impact to the French coast is performed based on historical data, seismotectonics and first order models. The North Africa Margin, the Ligurian and the South Tyrrhenian Seas are considered as the main tsunamigenic zones. In order to forecast the most important plausible effects, the magnitudes are estimated by enhancing to some extent the largest known values. Our hazard estimation is based on the simulation of the induced tsunamis scenarios performed with the CEA code. Models of propagation in the basin and off the French coast allow evaluating the potential threat at regional scale in terms of sources location and

  5. Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 ± 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617

  6. Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Part II. Luciliinae.

    PubMed

    Szpila, K; Hall, M J R; Pape, T; Grzywacz, A

    2013-12-01

    First instars of Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve, Lucilia caesar Linnaeus, Lucilia cuprina Weidemann, Lucilia richardsi Collin, Lucilia sericata Meigen and Lucilia silvarum Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are thoroughly documented with scanning electron microscopy images, light microscopy photographs and line drawings. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, facial mask, cephaloskeleton, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, and posterior spiracles. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton are presented and the spinulation of the abdominal segments is described. Earlier descriptions are summarized and major discrepancies with the current study are discussed. The present results allow for the clarification, correction and, especially, complementing existing information provided by numerous authors. The first instar larva of L. richardsi is described for the first time and an identification key to the first instars of European species of Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy of forensic importance is presented.

  7. Behaviour of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on a rehabilitated sandy beach on the European Atlantic Coast (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, Filipa; Rossano, Claudia; Nourisson, Delphine; Gambineri, Simone; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and human controls are widely accepted as the main structuring forces of the macrofauna communities on sandy beaches. A population of the talitrid amphipod Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) was investigated on an exposed sandy beach on the Atlantic coast of Portugal (Leirosa beach) to estimate orientation capabilities and endogenous rhythms in conditions of recent changes in the landscape (artificial reconstruction of the foredune) and beach morphodynamics (stabilization against erosion from the sea). We tested sun orientation of talitrids on the beach and recorded their locomotor activity rhythms under constant conditions in the laboratory. The orientation data were analysed with circular statistics and multiple regression models adapted to angular distributions, to highlight the main factors and variables influencing the variation of orientation. The talitrids used the sun compass, visual cues (landscape and sun visibility) to orient and the precision of orientation varied according to the tidal regime (rising or ebbing tides). A well-defined free-running rhythm (circadian with in addition a bimodal rhythmicity, likely tidal) was highlighted in this population. This showed a stable behavioural adaptation on a beach that has experienced a process of artificial stabilization of the dune through nourishment actions over a decade. Monitoring the conditions of such dynamic environments and the resilience capacity of the inhabiting macroinfauna is a main challenge for sandy beach ecologists.

  8. Food safety considerations in relation to Anisakis pegreffii in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardines (Sardina pilchardus) fished off the Ligurian Coast (Cinque Terre National Park, NW Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Serracca, Laura; Battistini, Roberta; Rossini, Irene; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Prearo, Marino; Tomei, Laura; De Montis, Gabriella; Ercolini, Carlo

    2014-11-03

    Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus are pelagic fishes of notable economic and gastronomic importance in the northwest Mediterranean (Ligurian Sea, Italy). The consumption of thermally unprocessed or lightly processed, marinated or salted anchovies and sardines presents a potential risk to acquire anisakiasis, a fish-borne parasitic disease in humans. Prevalence and abundance of Anisakis larvae in Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus from the Monterosso fishing grounds (Cinque Terre National Park, Ligurian Sea, Italy) were assessed, and the larvae were identified by morphological and PCR-RFLP methods. Anisakis larvae, all belonging to Anisakis pegreffii spp. were found in the visceral mass of 1050 anchovies (0.8% overall prevalence), whereas no Anisakis larvae were found in the 750 sardines examined. According to these data, the risk of acquiring anisakiasis from the consumption of raw or undercooked anchovies and sardines caught in the fishing area we investigated is very low.

  9. Bioremediation of Southern Mediterranean oil polluted sites comes of age.

    PubMed

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel; Mapelli, Francesca; Cherif, Ameur; Lafraya, Alvaro; Malkawi, Hanan I; Yakimov, Michail M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Blaghen, Mohamed; Golyshin, Peter N; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Boon, Nico; Magagnini, Mirko; Fava, Fabio

    2013-09-25

    Mediterranean Sea is facing a very high risk of oil pollution due to the high number of oil extractive and refining sites along the basin coasts, and the intense maritime traffic of oil tankers. All the Mediterranean countries have adopted severe regulations for minimizing pollution events and bioremediation feasibility studies for the most urgent polluted sites are undergoing. However, the analysis of the scientific studies applying modern 'meta-omics' technologies that have been performed on marine oil pollution worldwide showed that the Southern Mediterranean side has been neglected by the international research. Most of the studies in the Mediterranean Sea have been done in polluted sites of the Northern side of the basin. Those of the Southern side are poorly studied, despite many of the Southern countries being major oil producers and exporters. The recently EU-funded research project ULIXES has as a major objective to increase the knowledge of the bioremediation potential of sites from the Southern Mediterranean countries. ULIXES is targeting four major polluted sites on the coastlines of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, including seashore sands, lagoons, and oil refinery polluted sediments. The research is designed to unravel, categorize, catalogue, exploit and manage the diversity and ecology of microorganisms thriving in these polluted sites. Isolation of novel hydrocarbon degrading microbes and a series of state of the art 'meta-omics' technologies are the baseline tools for improving our knowledge on biodegradation capacities mediated by microbes under different environmental settings and for designing novel site-tailored bioremediation approaches. A network of twelve European and Southern Mediterranean partners is cooperating for plugging the existing gap of knowledge for the development of novel bioremediation processes targeting such poorly investigated polluted sites.

  10. Analysis of mercury and methylmercury concentrations, and selenium:mercury molar ratios for a toxicological assessment of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the most recent stranding event along the Adriatic coast (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Chiaravalle, E; Gavinelli, S; Monaco, G; Rizzi, M; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    Mass stranding of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is a rare event in the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2014, a pod of seven sperm whales became stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the seventh occurrence of this type since 1555 in this sea basin. Total concentrations of mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) were measured from brain, muscle, liver and kidney of three female sperm whales, which died in this event. Analyses showed considerable, age-dependent variations in Hg and Se concentrations in the different organs. The contamination levels of T-Hg in the liver (up to 200 mg kg(-1)) and brain (up to 21 mg kg(-1)) samples were markedly higher than those in the kidney and muscle samples. The liver and brain also showed the highest Se levels. Se:Hg molar ratios ⩾1 were observed in all the organs of the three sperm whales, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg toxicity. The risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity was assessed by comparing our values to thresholds set for neurotoxicity in mammals, and the role of Se in the detoxification process of T-Hg/MeHg is discussed herein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Restoration impact of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dump site on the seasonal distribution of abiotic variables, phytoplankton and zooplankton along the near shore of the south-western Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

    2013-06-01

    'In connection with the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, western Mediterranean Sea). The inshore location was largely dominated by diatoms (66 %) represented essentially by members of the genera Navicula, Grammatophora, and Licmophora. Dinophyceae were numerically the second largest group and showed an enhanced species richness. Cyanobacteriae developed in association with an important proliferation of colonial Trichodesmium erythraeum, contributing 39.4 % of total phytoplankton abundances. The results suggest that phytoplankters are generally adapted to specific environmental conditions. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton group (82 %) of total zooplankton. A total of 21 copepod species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of Oithona similis in autumn and summer, Euterpina acutifrons in winter, and Oncaea conifera in spring. The phosphogypsum restoration had been acutely necessary allowing dominant zooplankton species to exploit a wide range of food resources including phytoplankton and thus improving water quality.

  12. Combining allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic perspectives to compile subregional records of fluvial responsiveness: The case of the sustainably entrenching Palancia River watershed (Mediterranean coast, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Peter; Hoinkis, Ralf; Santisteban, Juan I.; Salat, Christina; Mediavilla, Rosa

    2011-06-01

    We use a combined allostratigraphic and morpholithostratigraphic approach to establish a relative stratigraphy of macroscale sediment-landform units in the Mediterranean Palancia River watershed (986-km2, NE Spain). Four alloformations signifying important changes in (sub)regional scale geomorphic valley-floor evolution were identified based on data from 1120 field sites and age determinations, and from analyzing high resolution geodata. The formation of the widespread and thick Pleistocene alloformation can be attributed to climatically-induced excessive sediment supply and flood activities during Pleistocene cold intervals - rather than representing time-lagging response to Plio/Pleistocene neotectonic uplift. Triggered by the turn to Holocene climatic conditions, three successively inset alloformations illustrate how stream grading and floodplain narrowing continuously have progressed over the Holocene. The overall degradational valley-floor evolution in the Holocene is interpreted as a response to the antecedent, overly valley-floor aggradation. Allostratigraphic and morphostratigraphic data suggest that the abandonment of the two earlier Holocene alloformations geomorphologically represents a pulsed turn toward intensified entrenchment rather than pulsed sedimentation. The most important benefit of amalgamating allostratigraphic and (morpho)lithostratigraphic concepts is that allostratigraphic ordering provides a formally conclusive approach to scale up (morpho)lithostratigraphic information from the reach scale to much larger scales of geographical extent. Consequently, applying allostratigraphic principles opens a perspective to moving forward toward analyzing the relationships between climate, neotectonics, sea level change, human impact, and fluvial response in coupled hinterland-coastal systems that require to evaluate sedimentary information at larger spatial scales.

  13. First detection and genetic typing of Leishmania infantum MON-24 in a dog from the Moroccan Mediterranean coast: genetic diversity of MON-24.

    PubMed

    Haralambous, C; Dakkak, A; Pratlong, F; Dedet, J-P; Soteriadou, K

    2007-07-01

    As in the countries edging the Mediterranean basin, Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1 is the main causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco, where visceral leishmaniasis is most active in the North-Eastern slopes of the Rif mountains. The dog was confirmed to be the main reservoir of L. infantum MON-1, while the reservoir of L. infantum MON-24 causative agent of both infantile visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis has not yet been identified. Here we report the first detection of this last zymodeme in a dog in Morocco. The isolated strain was first identified by the use of genotyping markers and confirmed by isoenzyme analysis. Phylogenetic analysis with the use of concatenated sequences from 26 Leishmania donovani complex strains revealed strong geographical correlation with the MON-24 strain from Morocco clustering with other East African strains whereas two other MON-24 strains clustered with L. infantum strains. Interestingly, the two distinct populations of MON-24 identified with the use of genotyping markers cannot be distinguished by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

  14. Seasonal and short spatial patterns in European hake ( Merluccius merluccius L.) recruitment process at the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): The role of environment on distribution and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Massutí, Enric; Moranta, Joan; Cartes, Joan; Lloret, Josep; Oliver, Pere; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluates the link between the recruitment process of European hake ( Merluccius merluccius L.) of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and the environmental and physiological conditions. Spatio-temporal variation of abundance and condition of fish were evaluated at two locations each with different oceanographic conditions, one in the north (Sóller, SO) and another in the south (Cabrera, CA) of Mallorca Island. Environmental variables explored were hydrography, sediment characteristics, phytoplankton pigment concentration (ppc) and the trophic resources of hake. Individuals were divided in three life stages: recruits, post-recruits and young adults. Hepatosomatic index (HSI), relative condition index (K n), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and fullness index (FI) were analysed for the three life stages. Recruitment starts in February with the incorporation of smaller hakes, and it can be followed through spring and early summer with a peak in April. However, some spatial heterogeneity in the recruitment process has been found between north and south of the Island. The main pulse of recruitment occurred at a different time in the two areas. Spatial heterogeneity was also consistent with the condition of hake recruits, with higher values of K n and HSI at SO than at CA. Maximum values of K n were found in February at SO and in April at CA, coinciding with the start of the different recruitment pulses to the fishing grounds. Post-recruits and young adults also showed higher condition at SO than at CA. The arrival in spring of the Western Winter Intermediate Waters (WIW) drives the spatial-temporal variation in abundance and condition of hake. Ppc was highly correlated with recruit abundance with a time lag of two months, while for post-recruits the time lag was three months. The observed differences in the condition of hake between areas could be a consequence of the fact that the waters to the north of Mallorca are comparatively more under the seasonal

  15. Histopathological lesions and DNA adducts in the liver of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) collected in the Seine estuary versus two reference estuarine systems on the French Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Cachot, Jérôme; Cherel, Yan; Larcher, Thibaut; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Laroche, Jean; Quiniou, Louis; Morin, Jocelyne; Schmitz, Julien; Burgeot, Thierry; Pottier, Didier

    2013-02-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in the Seine estuary and in two smaller and relatively preserved estuaries on the French Atlantic coast in order to estimate the occurrence of liver lesions in European flounder, Platichthys flesus, and also to seek putative risk factors for the recorded pathologies. Four hundred and seventy-eight fish of both sexes and of different size ranges were sampled in the three studied areas, 338 of which in the Seine estuary. All fish were examined for histopathological liver lesions, while DNA adducts and otoliths were analyzed on a subsample. Five categories of hepatic lesions were recorded with the following prevalence for the Seine estuary: 36.7 % inflammations, 8 % parasites (mainly encysted nematodes), 6.5 % foci of cellular alteration (FCA), 5.3 % foci of necrosis or regeneration (FNR), and 1.5 % tumors. Inflammation occurrence increased according to age, contrary to parasitic infestations and FCA which were more prevalent in young fish, notably those of <1 year old (group 0). Tumors were only observed in females of more than two winters. Females exhibited a higher prevalence of tumors (3.0 %) and FCA (6.5 %) than males (0 and 2.6 %, respectively). Parasitic and infectious lesions and FNR were equally distributed in males and females. The prevalence of FNR was also shown to vary according to sampling season, with significantly more occurrences of liver necrosis in the fish collected in summer than in spring. Spatial differences were observed with a higher occurrence of encysted parasites in flounders from the upper Seine estuary, while inflammations predominated in flounders living downstream. Temporal trends were also noted, with an increased prevalence of parasitic infestations, inflammations, and FCA in the 2002-2003 period in comparison to the 1996-1997 one. The three flounder populations from the Seine estuary (Normandy), Ster estuary (Brittany), and Bay of Veys (Normandy) showed different spectra of hepatic lesions

  16. Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels and toxicity in sediments and fishes from the Mediterranean Sea (southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Zohra, Ben Salem; Habib, Ayadi

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in sediment is regarded as a global crisis with a large share in industrializing cities like Sfax (Tunisia). Seven heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn), and one metalloid such as Arsenic (As) in sediments and fish (D. annularis, L. aurata, and S. vulgaris) were investigated from the Southern coast of Sfax in Tunisia. The range of metals in sediments were 13.11-36; 4.42-7.92; 8.23-28.56; 50,564-11,956; 2.9-6.8; 9.13-30.51; 65.06-151.50, and 47-546 kg(-1) DW for As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The level of studied metals in sediment samples exceeded the limits of the quality assessment guidelines (SQGs). The potential ecological risk index (PERI) proved that the investigated region could pose moderate risk for the aquatic biota. Metal bioaccumulation in the fish muscles varied significantly among species. Indeed, S. vulgaris and D. annularis accumulated higher amount of metal than L. aurata. The target hazard quotients (THQ) of individual heavy metals in fish, except for As and Hg, revealed safe levels for human consumption. Nevertheless, the total THQ indexes exceeded 1 suggesting the combined effects on muscles fish, which may constitute a risk to population's health.

  17. A middle Pleistocene eastern Mediterranean fish refuge: the Tsampika Bay (Rhodes, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agiadi, K.; Koskeridou, E.; Moissette, P.; Lopez-Otalvaro, G. E.; Quillévéré, F.; Cornée, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive sampling of the Tsampika marly diatomites reveals the presence of at least three very important fish species, Bregmaceros sp., Sygnathus acus and Spratteloides sp.. Previous records of Bregmaceros sp. in the Mediterranean have suggested that this characteristic Pliocene warm-water circumglobal pelagic fish disappeared from the Mediterranean basin due to the climatic deterioration, after the Gelasian age1,2,3,4. The Tsampika fish-bearing deposits, mainly marly diatomites, are younger than 268 Ka, based on the occurrence of Emiliania huxleyi. Consequently, this is so far the youngest record of Bregmaceros sp. in the Mediterranean, suggesting that typical Pliocene fish may have found refuge in selected localities, such as Tsampika Bay, at least until the Ionian. Evidence for its presence in the Mediterranean basin today is ambiguous. Isolated records of Bregmaceros atlanticus place it in the Sicily Strait5, and off the Israeli and south Turkish coasts6. Although it appears more likely that Bregmaceros atlanticus has been introduced to the modern Mediterranean from the Red Sea, through the Suez Canal, the possibility that it is part of a small population native to the Mediterranean can not be excluded based on present-day data6. Indeed the late Pleistocene Mediterranean fish record is obsolete, due to the lack of appropriate sampling on this subject. Furthermore, the majority of Pleistocene Bregmaceros samples pertain to otoliths, which cannot be unambiguously identified on the species level. As a result, the present findings pose the considerable possibility that the Pleistocene Bregmaceros records belong to two species, B. albyi, the well known post-Messinian Mediterranean fish, and B. atlanticus, which may have invaded the Mediterranean Sea from Gibraltar along with several other warm-water taxa during recurring interglacial periods. The specific identification of the Tsampika fish will undoubtedly shed light to this possibility, and enhance our knowledge

  18. The contrasting effect of increasing mean sea level and decreasing storminess on the maximum water level during storms along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the mid 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Piero; Conte, Dario; Marzo, Luigi; Scarascia, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The maximum level that water reaches during a storm along the coast has important consequences on coastal defences and coastal erosion. It depends on future sea level, storm surges, ocean wind generated waves, vertical land motion. The future sea level in turn depends on water mass addition and steric contributions (with a thermosteric and halosteric component). This study proposes a practical methodology for assessing the effects of these different factors (which need to be estimated at sub-regional scale) and applies it to a 7-member model ensemble of regional climate model simulations (developed and carried out in the CIRCE fp6 project) covering the period 1951-2050 under the A1B emission scenario. Sea level pressure and wind fields are used for forcing a hydro-dynamical shallow water model (HYPSE), wind fields are used for forcing a wave model (WAM), obtaining estimates of storm surges and ocean waves, respectively. Thermosteric and halosteric effects are diagnosed from the projections of sea temperature and salinity. Steric expansion and storminess are shown to be contrasting factors: in the next decades wave and storm surge maxima will decrease while thermosteric expansion will increase mean sea level. These two effects will to a large extent compensate each other, so that their superposition will increase/decrease the maximum water level along two comparable fractions of the coastline (about 15-20%) by the mid 21st century. However, mass addition across the Gibraltar Strait to the Mediterranean Sea will likely become the dominant factor and determine an increase of the maximum water level along most of the coastline.

  19. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population.

    PubMed

    Mone, I; Kraja, B; Bregu, A; Duraj, V; Sadiku, E; Hyska, J; Burazeri, G

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which included a population-based sample of 817 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana, the Albanian capital (333 men; overall mean age: 50.2 ± 18.7 years; overall response rate: 82%). Assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was based on Montreal definition. Participants were interviewed about their dietary patterns, which in the analysis was dichotomized into: predominantly Mediterranean (frequent consumption of composite/traditional dishes, fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and fish) versus largely non-Mediterranean (frequent consumption of red meat, fried food, sweets, and junk/fast food). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with the dietary patterns. Irrespective of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors including eating habits (meal regularity, eating rate, and meal-to-sleep interval), employment of a non-Mediterranean diet was positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease risk (fully adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.5). Our findings point to a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in transitional Albania. Findings from this study should be confirmed and expanded further in prospective studies in Albania and in other Mediterranean countries. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  20. Study of the impact of cyclogenesis at the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribo, M.; Llasat, C.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is usually affected by high impact weather events, generating high impacts in all Mediterranean countries and causing important damages. This basin is surrounded by mountains and arid regions, and the interaction of the air flow with the orography barriers produces many effects, the most important is the formation of low pressure centers. This is one of the reasons why the Mediterranean Sea is considered to be the most cyclogenetic area in the world (Jansà, 1997). Floods are also one of the most important natural hazards in the Mediterranean Basin. Flood events occur when soil absorption, runoff or drainage cannot adequately disperse intense rainfall from quasi-stationary or stationary weather systems in short time periods. In some occasions these floods produce high social impact in the affected areas. Our work presents the study of the relationship between the flood episodes and the presence of cyclones in the Mediterranean Basin during those episodes, between 1990 and 2004. Information about social impact of each event has also been considered. To do these analyses the MEDEX database (MEDiterranean EXperiment on cyclones that produce high impact weather in the Mediterranean) has been improved in the frame work of the European FLASH project, and information about cyclones and rainfall has been extracted from the MEDEX cyclones database. A total of 217 flood events had been identified. Once the presence of one or more cyclones during each flood episode has been identified, temporal and regional analyses were made to determine the distribution of the cyclonic centers and to study the evolution of the events. Mediterranean cyclogenesis is leaded by influence of external systems (along the African coast, from the Atlantic Ocean, and from the west of Europe), although the majority of the cyclones (87% of the studied cases) are generated in the Mediterranean Basin, under influence of preexistent systems. There are different Mediterranean

  1. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels.

  2. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Gosling, Anna L; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa.

  3. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Gosling, Anna L.; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  4. Rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality: a case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Satta, Maria Paola; de Torres, Mariona; Ballesteros, Enric

    2007-01-01

    The collection of 152 samples from the upper sublittoral zone along the rocky coasts of Catalonia (Northwestern Mediterranean) was carried out in 1999 in order to test the suitability of littoral communities to be used as indicators of water quality in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive. Detrended correspondence analysis were performed to distinguish between different communities and to relate communities composition to water quality. Samples collected in reference sites were included in the analysis. Mediterranean rocky shore communities situated in the upper sublittoral zone can be used as indicators of the water quality: there is a gradient from high to bad status that comprises from dense Cystoseira mediterranea forests to green algae dominated communities. The geographical patterns in the distribution of these communities show that the best areas are situated in the Northern coast, where tourism is the main economic resource of the area, and the worst area is situated close to the metropolitan zone of Barcelona with high population and industrial development. Thus, Mediterranean sublittoral rocky shore communities are useful indicators of water quality and multivariate analysis are a suitable statistical tool for the assessment of the ecological status.

  5. The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2014-07-14

    Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MD) and genetic variation in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene have been reported to be associated with TAG and glucose metabolism. It is uncertain whether there is any interaction between these factors. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the association of adherence to a MD and rs780094 (G>A) SNP in the GCKR gene with the markers of cardiometabolic risk, and to investigate the interaction between genetic variation and MD adherence. We studied 20 986 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED: range 0-18) was used to assess MD adherence. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the rMED, genotype and cardiometabolic continuous traits, adjusting for potential confounders. In adjusted analyses, we observed independent associations of MD adherence and genotype with cardiometabolic risk, with the highest risk group (AA genotype; lowest rMED) having higher concentrations of TAG, total cholesterol and apoB (12·5, 2·3 and 3·1%, respectively) v. those at the lowest risk (GG genotype; highest rMED). However, the associations of MD adherence with metabolic markers did not differ by genotype, with no significant gene-diet interactions for lipids or for glycated Hb. In conclusion, we found independent associations of the rMED and of the GCKR genotype with cardiometabolic profile, but found no evidence of interaction between them.

  6. Impact of large-scale circulation changes in the North Atlantic sector on the current and future Mediterranean winter hydroclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcikowska, Monika J.; Kapnick, Sarah B.; Feser, Frauke

    2017-06-01

    The Mediterranean region, located in the transition zone between the dry subtropical and wet European mid-latitude climate, is very sensitive to changes in the global mean climate state. Projecting future changes of the Mediterranean hydroclimate under global warming therefore requires dynamic climate models to reproduce the main mechanisms controlling regional hydroclimate with sufficiently high resolution to realistically simulate climate extremes. To assess future winter precipitation changes in the Mediterranean region we use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory high-resolution general circulation model for control simulations with pre-industrial greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations which are compared to future scenario simulations. Here we show that the coupled model is able to reliably simulate the large-scale winter circulation, including the North Atlantic Oscillation and Eastern Atlantic patterns of variability, and its associated impacts on the mean Mediterranean hydroclimate. The model also realistically reproduces the regional features of daily heavy rainfall, which are absent in lower-resolution simulations. A five-member future projection ensemble, which assumes comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions (RCP8.5) until 2100, indicates a strong winter decline in Mediterranean precipitation for the coming decades. Consistent with dynamical and thermodynamical consequences of a warming atmosphere, derived changes feature a distinct bipolar behavior, i.e. wetting in the north—and drying in the south. Changes are most pronounced over the northwest African coast, where the projected winter precipitation decline reaches 40% of present values. Despite a decrease in mean precipitation, heavy rainfall indices show drastic increases across most of the Mediterranean, except the North African coast, which is under the strong influence of the cold Canary Current.

  7. The Mediterranean Sea as a barrier to gene flow: evidence from variation in and around the F7 and F12 genomic regions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean has a long history of interactions among different peoples. In this study, we investigate the genetic relationships among thirteen population samples from the broader Mediterranean region together with three other groups from the Ivory Coast and Bolivia with a particular focus on the genetic structure between North Africa and South Europe. Analyses were carried out on a diverse set of neutral and functional polymorphisms located in and around the coagulation factor VII and XII genomic regions (F7 and F12). Results Principal component analysis revealed a significant clustering of the Mediterranean samples into North African and South European groups consistent with the results from the hierarchical AMOVA, which showed a low but significant differentiation between groups from the two shores. For the same range of geographic distances, populations from each side of the Mediterranean were found to differ genetically more than populations within the same side. To further investigate this differentiation, we carried out haplotype analyses, which provided partial evidence that sub-Saharan gene flow was higher towards North Africa than South Europe. Conclusions As there is no consensus between the two genomic regions regarding gene flow through the Sahara, it is hard to reach a solid conclusion about its role in the differentiation between the two Mediterranean shores and more data are necessary to reach a definite conclusion. However our data suggest that the Mediterranean Sea was at least partially a barrier to gene flow between the two shores. PMID:20346176

  8. The Mediterranean Sea as a barrier to gene flow: evidence from variation in and around the F7 and F12 genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; González-Pérez, Emili; Esteban, Esther; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Stoneking, Mark; Moral, Pedro

    2010-03-27

    The Mediterranean has a long history of interactions among different peoples. In this study, we investigate the genetic relationships among thirteen population samples from the broader Mediterranean region together with three other groups from the Ivory Coast and Bolivia with a particular focus on the genetic structure between North Africa and South Europe. Analyses were carried out on a diverse set of neutral and functional polymorphisms located in and around the coagulation factor VII and XII genomic regions (F7 and F12). Principal component analysis revealed a significant clustering of the Mediterranean samples into North African and South European groups consistent with the results from the hierarchical AMOVA, which showed a low but significant differentiation between groups from the two shores. For the same range of geographic distances, populations from each side of the Mediterranean were found to differ genetically more than populations within the same side. To further investigate this differentiation, we carried out haplotype analyses, which provided partial evidence that sub-Saharan gene flow was higher towards North Africa than South Europe. As there is no consensus between the two genomic regions regarding gene flow through the Sahara, it is hard to reach a solid conclusion about its role in the differentiation between the two Mediterranean shores and more data are necessary to reach a definite conclusion. However our data suggest that the Mediterranean Sea was at least partially a barrier to gene flow between the two shores.

  9. Mediterranean diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you should take a calcium supplement. Wine is a common part of a Mediterranean eating ... but some people should not drink alcohol. Avoid wine if you are prone to alcohol abuse, pregnant, ...

  10. Coasts under pressure.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1994-01-01

    In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection.

  11. How effective are soil and water conservation techniques in reducing annual plot runoff and soil loss? A pan-European and Mediterranean review and analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

    2012-04-01

    While a substantial number of experimental studies on the effectiveness of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCTs) in reducing annual runoff (Ra) and annual soil loss (SLa) at plot scales in Europe and the Mediterranean exists, a comprehensive overview and analysis of plot Ra and SLa data is lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of SWCT in reducing Ra and SLa in Europe and the Mediterranean, as well as to explore the factors that determine SWCT effectiveness. In the framework of the FP6 project DESIRE (http://www.desire-project.eu), a comprehensive plot database was compiled based on an extensive literature review covering 101 reports and publications. The database contains Ra and SLa data measured on runoff plots, where various SWCTs were tested in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The total database contains 353 plots, corresponding to 2 093 plot-years from 103 plot measuring stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. For 224 of these plots (corresponding to 1 567 plot-years), Ra and/or SLa from a paired plot with the same dimensions, land use and measuring period, but without the application SWCT was available, allowing to assess the effectiveness of the applied SWCTs. Documented SWCTs include cover crops, mulching, grass buffer strips, strip cropping, exclosure, no-tillage, reduced tillage, contour tillage, deep tillage, drainage, soil amendment, terraces, contour bunds and geotextiles. Analyses of the database shows that there are clear differences in effectiveness in reducing Ra and SLa between different SWCTs. Techniques related to crop and vegetation management like mulching (median reduction of Ra to 32% and SLa to 23% of the corresponding values measured on the plot without SWCT) and cover crops (36% for Ra and 14% for SLa) are more effective than soil management techniques like no-tillage (85% for Ra and 57% for SLa) or reduced tillage (90% for Ra and 68% for SLa). While these techniques are commonly

  12. Multinational Experiment 7. Regional Analysis: Wider Mediterranean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-08

    are very articulated and indented and its waters include numerous islands of different dimensions. The distance coast to coast never exceeds 400...Mediterranean waters are poor in biological resources due to a long-lasting exploitation and evidence of important concentration of mineral resources...ecologically very fragile because it is very populated, very attractive for tourism, and industrial in the northern part; moreover its waters change very

  13. Changing climate shifts timing of European floods.

    PubMed

    Blöschl, Günter; Hall, Julia; Parajka, Juraj; Perdigão, Rui A P; Merz, Bruno; Arheimer, Berit; Aronica, Giuseppe T; Bilibashi, Ardian; Bonacci, Ognjen; Borga, Marco; Čanjevac, Ivan; Castellarin, Attilio; Chirico, Giovanni B; Claps, Pierluigi; Fiala, Károly; Frolova, Natalia; Gorbachova, Liudmyla; Gül, Ali; Hannaford, Jamie; Harrigan, Shaun; Kireeva, Maria; Kiss, Andrea; Kjeldsen, Thomas R; Kohnová, Silvia; Koskela, Jarkko J; Ledvinka, Ondrej; Macdonald, Neil; Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria; Mediero, Luis; Merz, Ralf; Molnar, Peter; Montanari, Alberto; Murphy, Conor; Osuch, Marzena; Ovcharuk, Valeryia; Radevski, Ivan; Rogger, Magdalena; Salinas, José L; Sauquet, Eric; Šraj, Mojca; Szolgay, Jan; Viglione, Alberto; Volpi, Elena; Wilson, Donna; Zaimi, Klodian; Živković, Nenad

    2017-08-11

    A warming climate is expected to have an impact on the magnitude and timing of river floods; however, no consistent large-scale climate change signal in observed flood magnitudes has been identified so far. We analyzed the timing of river floods in Europe over the past five decades, using a pan-European database from 4262 observational hydrometric stations, and found clear patterns of change in flood timing. Warmer temperatures have led to earlier spring snowmelt floods throughout northeastern Europe; delayed winter storms associated with polar warming have led to later winter floods around the North Sea and some sectors of the Mediterranean coast; and earlier soil moisture maxima have led to earlier winter floods in western Europe. Our results highlight the existence of a clear climate signal in flood observations at the continental scale. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  14. Dolphin Morbillivirus Epizootic Resurgence, Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Raga, Juan-Antonio; Domingo, Mariano; Corteyn, Mandy; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco-Javier; Barrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007, >100 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, were found dead along the coast of the Spanish Mediterranean. Of 10 dolphins tested, 7 were positive for a virus strain closely related to the dolphin morbillivirus that was isolated during a previous epizootic in 1990. PMID:18325265

  15. Dolphin morbillivirus epizootic resurgence, Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Raga, Juan-Antonio; Banyard, Ashley; Domingo, Mariano; Corteyn, Mandy; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco-Javier; Barrett, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007, > 100 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, were found dead along the coast of the Spanish Mediterranean. Of 10 dolphins tested, 7 were positive for a virus strain closely related to the dolphin morbillivirus that was isolated during a previous epizootic in 1990.

  16. Tsunamigenic potential of Mediterranean fault systems and active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricca, Patrizio; Babeyko, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Since the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) is under development by the European scientific community, it becomes necessary to define guidelines for the characterization of the numerous parameters must be taken into account in a fair assessment of the risk. Definition of possible tectonic sources and evaluation of their potential is one of the principal issues. In this study we systematically evaluate tsunamigenic potential of up-to-now known real fault systems and active subduction interfaces in the NEAMTWS region. The task is accomplished by means of numerical modeling of tsunami generation and propagation. We have simulated all possible uniform-slip ruptures populating fault and subduction interfaces with magnitudes ranging from 6.5 up to expected Mmax. A total of 15810 individual ruptures were processed. For each rupture, a tsunami propagation scenario was computed in linear shallow-water approximation on 1-arc minute bathymetric grid (Gebco_08) implying normal reflection boundary conditions. Maximum wave heights at coastal positions (totally - 23236 points of interest) were recorded for four hours of simulation and then classified according to currently adopted warning level thresholds. The resulting dataset allowed us to classify the sources in terms of their tsunamigenic potential as well as to estimate their minimum tsunamigenic magnitude. Our analysis shows that almost every source in the Mediterranean Sea is capable to produce local tsunami at the advisory level (i.e., wave height > 20 cm) starting from magnitude values of Mw=6.6. In respect to the watch level (wave height > 50 cm), the picture is less homogeneous: crustal sources in south-west Mediterranean as well as East-Hellenic arc need larger magnitudes (around Mw=7.0) to trigger watch levels even at the nearby coasts. In the context of the regional warning (i.e., source-to-coast distance > 100 km) faults also behave more heterogeneously in respect to the minimum

  17. The Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  18. Synthetic tsunamis along the Israeli coast.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Joshua; Stiassnie, Michael

    2012-04-13

    The new mathematical model for tsunami evolution by Tobias & Stiassnie (Tobias & Stiassnie 2011 J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 116, C06026) is used to derive a synthetic tsunami database for the southern part of the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Information about coastal tsunami amplitudes, half-periods, currents and inundation levels is presented.

  19. The Strategic Importance of the Mediterranean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-26

    Mediterranean and the straits of Bosphorus. From ancient times, man has struggled to control thebe vital maritime waterways. This geographic analysis shows that...axis to Greece and Italy. From the American’s viewpoint, the sea joins the United * States Central Command (USCENTCOM) and the United States European...separated southern flank nations, Turkey and Greece . An American control over the Mediterranean accomplishes the following: o Maintains maritime control in an

  20. Miocene shift of European atmospheric circulation from trade wind to westerlies.

    PubMed

    Quan, Cheng; Liu, Yu-Sheng Christopher; Tang, Hui; Utescher, Torsten

    2014-07-11

    The modern European climatic regime is peculiar, due to its unitary winter but diverse summer climates and a pronounced Mediterranean climate in the south. However, little is known on its evolution in the deep time. Here we reconstruct the European summer climate conditions in the Tortonian (11.62-7.246 Ma) using plant fossil assemblages from 75 well-dated sites across Europe. Our results clearly show that the Tortonian Europe mainly had humid to subhumid summers and no arid climate has been conclusively detected, indicating that the summer-dry Mediterranean-type climate has not yet been established along most of the Mediterranean coast at least by the Tortonian. More importantly, the reconstructed distribution pattern of summer precipitation reveals that the Tortonian European must have largely been controlled by westerlies, resulting in higher precipitation in the west and the lower in the east. The Tortonian westerly wind field appears to differ principally from the trade wind pattern of the preceding Serravallian (13.82-11.62 Ma), recently deduced from herpetofaunal fossils. Such a shift in atmospheric circulation, if ever occurred, might result from the development of ice caps and glaciers in the polar region during the Late Miocene global cooling, the then reorganization of oceanic circulation, and/or the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift.

  1. Miocene shift of European atmospheric circulation from trade wind to westerlies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Cheng; Liu, Yu-Sheng (Christopher); Tang, Hui; Utescher, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    The modern European climatic regime is peculiar, due to its unitary winter but diverse summer climates and a pronounced Mediterranean climate in the south. However, little is known on its evolution in the deep time. Here we reconstruct the European summer climate conditions in the Tortonian (11.62-7.246 Ma) using plant fossil assemblages from 75 well-dated sites across Europe. Our results clearly show that the Tortonian Europe mainly had humid to subhumid summers and no arid climate has been conclusively detected, indicating that the summer-dry Mediterranean-type climate has not yet been established along most of the Mediterranean coast at least by the Tortonian. More importantly, the reconstructed distribution pattern of summer precipitation reveals that the Tortonian European must have largely been controlled by westerlies, resulting in higher precipitation in the west and the lower in the east. The Tortonian westerly wind field appears to differ principally from the trade wind pattern of the preceding Serravallian (13.82-11.62 Ma), recently deduced from herpetofaunal fossils. Such a shift in atmospheric circulation, if ever occurred, might result from the development of ice caps and glaciers in the polar region during the Late Miocene global cooling, the then reorganization of oceanic circulation, and/or the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift.

  2. Miocene shift of European atmospheric circulation from trade wind to westerlies

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Cheng; Liu, Yu-Sheng (Christopher); Tang, Hui; Utescher, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The modern European climatic regime is peculiar, due to its unitary winter but diverse summer climates and a pronounced Mediterranean climate in the south. However, little is known on its evolution in the deep time. Here we reconstruct the European summer climate conditions in the Tortonian (11.62–7.246 Ma) using plant fossil assemblages from 75 well-dated sites across Europe. Our results clearly show that the Tortonian Europe mainly had humid to subhumid summers and no arid climate has been conclusively detected, indicating that the summer-dry Mediterranean-type climate has not yet been established along most of the Mediterranean coast at least by the Tortonian. More importantly, the reconstructed distribution pattern of summer precipitation reveals that the Tortonian European must have largely been controlled by westerlies, resulting in higher precipitation in the west and the lower in the east. The Tortonian westerly wind field appears to differ principally from the trade wind pattern of the preceding Serravallian (13.82–11.62 Ma), recently deduced from herpetofaunal fossils. Such a shift in atmospheric circulation, if ever occurred, might result from the development of ice caps and glaciers in the polar region during the Late Miocene global cooling, the then reorganization of oceanic circulation, and/or the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. PMID:25012454

  3. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  4. Contrasted phylogeographic patterns on mitochondrial DNA of shallow and deep brittle stars across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Sergi; Pérez-Portela, Rocío

    2016-09-02

    Previous studies on Ophiothrix in European waters demonstrated the existence of two distinct species, Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiothrix sp. II. Using phylogenetic and species delimitation techniques based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rRNA) we prove the existence of a new congeneric species (Ophiothrix sp. III), occurring in the deep Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Alboran Sea. We compared phylogeographic patterns of these three Ophiothrix species to test whether closely related species are differentially affected by past demographic events and current oceanographic barriers. We used 432 sequences (137 of O. fragilis, 215 of Ophiothrix sp. II, and 80 of Ophiothrix sp. III) of the 16S rRNA from 23 Atlantic-Mediterranean locations for the analyses. We observed different geographic and bathymetric distributions, and contrasted phylogeography among species. Ophiothrix fragilis appeared genetically isolated between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, attributed to past vicariance during Pleistocene glaciations and a secondary contact associated to demographic expansion. This contrasts with the panmixia observed in Ophiothrix sp. II across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area. Results were not conclusive for Ophiothrix sp. III due to the lack of a more complete sampling within the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Contrasted phylogeographic patterns on mitochondrial DNA of shallow and deep brittle stars across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    Taboada, Sergi; Pérez-Portela, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on Ophiothrix in European waters demonstrated the existence of two distinct species, Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiothrix sp. II. Using phylogenetic and species delimitation techniques based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rRNA) we prove the existence of a new congeneric species (Ophiothrix sp. III), occurring in the deep Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Alboran Sea. We compared phylogeographic patterns of these three Ophiothrix species to test whether closely related species are differentially affected by past demographic events and current oceanographic barriers. We used 432 sequences (137 of O. fragilis, 215 of Ophiothrix sp. II, and 80 of Ophiothrix sp. III) of the 16S rRNA from 23 Atlantic-Mediterranean locations for the analyses. We observed different geographic and bathymetric distributions, and contrasted phylogeography among species. Ophiothrix fragilis appeared genetically isolated between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, attributed to past vicariance during Pleistocene glaciations and a secondary contact associated to demographic expansion. This contrasts with the panmixia observed in Ophiothrix sp. II across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area. Results were not conclusive for Ophiothrix sp. III due to the lack of a more complete sampling within the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27585743

  6. Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring water quality parameters for Mediterranean Lakes of European Union water framework directive (WFD) and as a system of surveillance of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms (SCyanoHABs).

    PubMed

    Gómez, José Antonio Domínguez; Alonso, Covadonga Alonso; García, Ana Alonso

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing has been used from the 1980s to study inland water quality. However, it was not until the beginning of the twenty-first century that CHRIS (an experimental multi-angle sensor with good spectral and spatial resolutions) and MERIS (with good temporal and spectral resolutions) started to acquire imagery with very good resolutions, which allowed to develop a reliable imagery acquisition system so as to consider remote sensing as an inland water management tool. This paper presents the methodology developed, from the field data acquisition with which to build a freshwater spectral library and the study of different atmospheric correction systems for CHRIS mode 2 and MERIS images, to the development of algorithms to determine chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations and bloom sites. All these algorithms allow determining water eutrophic and ecological states, apart from generating surveillance maps of toxic cyanobacteria with the main objective of Assessment of the Water Quality as it was used for Monitoring Ecological Water Quality in smallest Mediterranean Reservoirs integrated in the Intercalibration Exercise of European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). We keep on using it to monitor the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) in Spain inland water.

  7. Genetic polymorphism and its potential relation to environmental stress in five populations of the European flounder Platichthys flesus, along the French Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Marchand, J; Evrard, E; Guinand, B; Cachot, J; Quiniou, L; Laroche, J

    2010-08-01

    In this study, new DNA markers were explored for the flounder Platichthys flesus. cDNA and genomic sequences of the genes encoding the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-deshydrogenase (GAPDH), the cytosolic creatine kinase (CK), the prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS) and the betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) were characterized. The tumour suppressor p53 gene structure was already described. A PCR-SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism) analysis was finally conducted to study the genetic polymorphism of different populations of flounders collected along the French Atlantic coast. Four highly contaminated French estuaries (Seine, Vilaine, Loire and Gironde) were sampled and compared to a reference estuary (Ster) to explore possible selective effect of the environment on specific allelic frequencies. Our results showed that two loci p53 and PGDS, could be potential markers of chemical stress: p53A allele frequency increased in contaminated systems compared to the reference system. In the Vilaine estuary, PGDS polymorphism could be related to pesticide stress.

  8. Variability and trends of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Helena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated with the aid of the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm, applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim mean sea level pressures. The algorithm is employed for the first time to study anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean were checked and verified. The tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems revealed two major anticyclonic routes: over the northern (i.e. from the Iberian towards the Balkan Peninsula) and over the southern (i.e. the North Africa coast) Mediterranean barriers. A transition of the system density and anticyclogenesis maxima is evident throughout the year from solely continental environments in winter and autumn to also maritime in spring and summer. These variations can be attributed to the seasonal variability of the major anticyclonic systems that are involved in this region. The interannual variability of synoptic systems can be attributed to natural low frequency variability. The interannual variations of the system density and strength were linked to the Northern Hemisphere modes of atmospheric variability; e.g. more (less) antiyclonic tracks are observed around the Mediterranean basin during periods of positive (negative) NAO, with a consequent enhancement (decline) of the pressure field. Moreover, possible trends in the frequency and intensity of the anticyclonic systems were explored in an attempt to examine any impacts of recent global warming conditions. Positive trends of system density, genesis and intensity prevail during the cold period over the greater area around the Mediterranean basin. During summer, the general increase in system density is not followed by a corresponding tendency in the number of the generating systems and the intensity. Regarding the depth of the

  9. Seasonal changes in net photosynthesis rates and photosynthetic capacity in leaves of Cistus salvifolius, a European mediterranean semi-deciduous shrub.

    PubMed

    Harley, P C; Tenhunen, J D; Beyschlag, W; Lange, O L

    1987-12-01

    During five different periods between Nov. 1982 and Aug. 1983, the diurnal patterns exhibited in photosynthetic CO2 uptake and stomatal conductance were observed under natural conditions on twigs of Cistus salvifolius, a Mediterranean semi-deciduous shrub which retains a significant proportion of its leaves through the summer drought. During the same periods, net photosynthesis at saturating CO2 partial pressure was measured on the same twigs as a function of irradiance at different temperatures. From these data, photosynthetic capacity, defined here as the CO2- and light-saturated net photosynthesis rate, was obtained as a function of leaf temperature. C. salvifolius is a winter growing species, shoot growth being initiated in Nov. and continuing through May. Photosynthetic capacity was quite high in Nov., March and June, exceeding 40 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at optimum temperature. In Dec., photosynthetic capacity was somewhat reduced, perhaps due to low night-time temperatures (<5°C) during the measurement period. In Aug., capacity in oversummering shoots at optimum temperature fell to less than 8 μmol m(-2) s(-1), due to water trees and perhaps leaf aging. Seasonal changes in maximal photosynthetic rates under ambient conditions were similar, and like those found in co-occurring evergreen sclerophylls. Like the evergreens, Cistus demonstrated considerable stomatal control of transpirational water loss, particularly in oversummering leaves. During each measurement period except Aug. when capacity was quite low, the maximum rates of net photosynthesis measured under ambient conditions were less than half the measured photosynthetic capacities at comparable temperatures, suggesting an apparent excess nitrogen investment in the photosynthetic apparatus.

  10. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes.

  11. Blending Pan-European and local hydrological models for water resource assessment in Mediterranean areas: lessons learnt from a mountainous catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Polo, María; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Saénz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Pimentel, Rafael; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    Global hydrological models provide scientists and technicians with distributed data over medium to large areas from which assessment of water resource planning and use can be easily performed. However, scale conflicts between global models' spatial resolution and the local significant spatial scales in heterogeneous areas usually pose a constraint for the direct use and application of these models' results. The SWICCA (Service for Water Indicators in Climate Change Adaptation) Platform developed under the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) offers a wide range of both climate and hydrological indicators obtained on a global scale with different time and spatial resolutions. Among the different study cases supporting the SWICCA demonstration of local impact assessment, the Sierra Nevada study case (South Spain) is a representative example of mountainous coastal catchments in the Mediterranean region. This work shows the lessons learnt during the study case development to derive local impact indicator tailored to suit the local end-users of water resource in this snow-dominated area. Different approaches were followed to select the most accurate method to downscale the global data and variables to the local level in a highly abrupt topography, in a sequential step approach. 1) SWICCA global climate variable downscaling followed by river flow simulation from a local hydrological model in selected control points in the catchment, together with 2) SWICCA global river flow values downscaling to the control points followed by corrections with local transfer functions were both tested against the available local river flow series of observations during the reference period. This test was performed for the different models and the available spatial resolutions included in the SWICCA platform. From the results, the second option, that is, the use of SWICCA river flow variables, performed the best approximations, once the local transfer functions were applied to the

  12. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  13. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  14. The National Cardiac Societies of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Atar, Dan

    2015-06-01

    The National Cardiac Societies are one of the Constituent Bodies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). They are the backbone of the ESC and together form the "Cardiology of Europe" in 56 European and Mediterranean countries.

  15. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the San Joaquin valley. Santa Catalina and San Clemente Islands, warmed by the morning sun, are visible through the marine stratus ... bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; San Diego is at ...

  16. Autosomal dominant familial Mediterranean fever in Northern European Caucasians associated with deletion of p.M694 residue-a case series and genetic exploration.

    PubMed

    Rowczenio, Dorota M; Iancu, Daniela S; Trojer, Hadija; Gilbertson, Janet A; Gillmore, Julian D; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Tekman, Mehmet; Stanescu, Horia C; Kleta, Robert; Lane, Thirusha; Hawkins, Philip N; Lachmann, Helen J

    2017-02-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the phenotype and response to treatment in patients with autosomal dominant FMF caused by MEFV p.M694del mutation and to use haplotype reconstruction to investigate the possibility of common ancestry. MEFV gene was analysed in 3500 subjects with suspected FMF referred to a single UK centre between 2002 and 2014. Patients with p.M694del underwent additional screening of the SAA1 gene as well as haplotype reconstruction of the MEFV locus. The p.M694del variant was identified in 21 patients, sharing an identical disease haplotype that appears to have arisen about 550 years ago. The SAA1.1 allele was found in four patients, including two with AA amyloidosis. The clinical features comprised typical FMF symptoms with median age at onset of 18 years; three patients presented with AA amyloidosis, of whom two had had symptoms of FMF in retrospect. Fifteen patients had received colchicine treatment, all with excellent responses. The p.M694del variant is associated with autosomal dominantly inherited FMF in Northern European Caucasians. Symptoms may develop later in life than in classical recessive FMF but are otherwise similar, as is the response to colchicine treatment. The 14% incidence of AA amyloidosis may reflect delay in diagnosis associated with extreme rarity of FMF in this population. The common haplotype suggests a single founder living in about 1460. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Vitellogenin gene expression in the intertidal blenny Lipophrys pholis: a new sentinel species for estrogenic chemical pollution monitoring in the European Atlantic coast?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F; Santos, M M; Castro, L Filipe C; Reis-Henriques, M A; Lima, D; Vieira, M N; Monteiro, N M

    2009-01-01

    The presence of estrogenic chemicals (ECs) in the aquatic environment is a growing problem. While most attention was initially given to fresh water and estuarine ecosystems, it is now evident that coastal marine areas are also vulnerable to these pollutants. The use of vitellogenin induction in male fish, a specific biomarker of EC exposure, has been the most widely applied methodology. However, in some occasions, the high mobility and migratory behaviour of common sentinel fish species makes data interpretation difficult. Hence, there is the need to validate new sentinel marine fish species which should display, among other features, a strong homing behaviour. The shanny, Lipophrys pholis, is an intertidal fish that combines many of the required characteristics for a sentinel species: abundance and easy of catch, wide geographical distribution and restricted home range. Thus, in order to evaluate, in the field, the species sensitivity to ECs, L. pholis males were collected at two sites reflecting different degrees of anthropogenic contamination. The vitellogenin II gene (VTGII) was isolated and its liver expression evaluated by RT-PCR in the field samples. A significant induction of gene expression was observed in the specimens collected in the urban area, if compared to the reference site, which suggests exposure to ECs. Moreover, a 21-days laboratory exposure to environmental relevant concentrations of ethinylestradiol (EE2) was also performed. A significant induction of L. pholis VTGII gene in EE2 exposed males was observed suggesting similar sensitivity to that of other marine/estuarine fishes. Even though further validation is currently in progress, the available data indicates that L. pholis is responsive to ECs, thus favouring its future integration in monitoring programmes designed to evaluate the presence of ECs in European marine ecosystems.

  18. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  19. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way.

  20. Observing the Texas Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knap, A. H.; Chapman, P.; DiMarco, S. F.; Walpert, J.; Guinasso, N. L., Jr.; Whilden, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Mexico (GOM), sometimes referred to as the western Mediterranean, is a dynamic and interesting body for study with diverse uses and needs from a wide range of communities. Environmental issues are similar to many other semi-closed basins and the main ones, nutrient and chemical discharge, land run-off and physical currents, as well as oil spills and the many natural seeps creates many issues such as eutrophication, an annual hypoxic zone, Harmful Algal blooms, ocean acidification and oil blowouts to name a few. The Texas Automated Buoy System is constituted of 8 real time coastal buoys operated by the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group. Through a JIP, 2 additional buoys were added at the Flower Garden Banks. to support decision-making should there be a spill. In addition a numerical circulation modeling group at Texas A&M University Oceanography Department was also funded to connect the data from the buoys to a predictive model also funded by TGLO. This observing system has proved its worth over the years as spills have occurred which have been tracked for rapid and effective coastal protection. Recently, other instrumentation has been developed to more holistically study the Gulf of Mexico and particularly the Texas Coast. Eight 5-Hz coastal radars spaced approximated 80 km along the coast are being installed from South Padre Island to the Sabine. Autonomous Surface Vehicles (Autonaut and Liquid Robotics Wave Gliders) will complement the buoy network and coastal radars by establishing a series of transects that will transit through out the observational footprint. The first data emerging from this integration will be presented.

  1. Genetic identification and distribution of the parasitic larvae of Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) in European hake Merluccius merluccius from the Tyrrhenian Sea and Spanish Atlantic coast: implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Paolo; Smaldone, Giorgio; Acerra, Virginia; D'Angelo, Luisa; Anastasio, Aniello; Bellisario, Bruno; Palma, Giuseppe; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2015-04-02

    The consumption of the hake Merluccius merluccius is widespread in European countries, where this fish has a high commercial value. To date, different larval species of Anisakis have been identified as parasites in M. merluccius from European waters, Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) being the two most common. The aim of the study is to present data on the occurrence of Anisakis spp. larvae in the viscera and flesh of M. merluccius. Consequently, the distribution and infection rates of different species of Anisakis in different sites (viscera, and dorsal and ventral fillets) were investigated in hake caught in the central Tyrrhenian Sea (FAO 37.1.3) and the NE Atlantic Ocean (FAO 27 IXa). A sample of N=65 fish individuals (length>26 cm) was examined parasitologically from each fishing ground. The fillets were examined using the pepsin digestion method. A large number (1310) of Anisakis specimens were identified by multilocus allozyme electrophoresis (MAE) and mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis; among these, 814 larvae corresponded to A. simplex (s. s.) and 476 to A. pegreffii. They were found to infect both the flesh and the viscera. The two species co-infected the same individual fish (both in the viscera and in the flesh) from the FAO 27 area, whereas only A. pegreffii was found in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea. The average parasite burden of A. pegreffii in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea was significantly lower to that observed from hake off the Atlantic coast of Spain, both in prevalence and in abundance. In addition, whereas no significant difference in overall prevalence values was recorded between the two Anisakis species in the viscera of the FAO 27 sample, significant differences were found in the abundance levels observed between these species in the flesh, with A. simplex (s. s.) exhibiting significantly higher levels than that observed for A. pegreffii (p<0.001). Given that the pathogenic role in relation to man is known for these two species of

  2. The multidecadal component of the Mediterranean summer variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OrtizBevia, M. J.; RuizdeElvira, A.; Alvarez-Garcia, F. J.; Tasambay-Salazar, M.

    2016-11-01

    This study targets the low frequency components of the anomalous Mediterranean summer climatic variability. This last is characterised here by two indexes obtained from a statistical analysis of Mediterranean sea surface temperature anomalies. The evolution of the first of them, the Western Mediterranean Index, is dominated by a multidecadal timescale. This Index has a strong statistical impact on the summer air temperature anomalies in the European region. In the other index, the Mediterranean Dipole Index, the decadal timescale plays a major part. This last Index is linked to anomalous summer precipitations in some central European regions. A statistical methodology is used in order to identify some feedback relationships between the two Mediterranean indexes and other climate indexes which characterise some global or regional variability. In the case of the Western Mediterranean Index, the analysis reveals significant feedback relationships with two of these indexes. The selected predictors are introduced as variables in a statistical feedback model. The cross-skills scored in a cross-validation hindcast experiment reveals an important potential predictability. In this way, the multidecadal Mediterranean summer sea surface temperature variability appears as the result of two forcings, one related to the north-western Atlantic processes and the other connected to the north tropical Atlantic, and to a weak feedback onto the Atlantic. In the case of the Mediterranean Dipole Mode Index we have not found enough predictive potential in the feedback relationships identified.

  3. A new methodology based on littoral community cartography dominated by macroalgae for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Enric; Torras, Xavier; Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Mangialajo, Luisa; de Torres, Mariona

    2007-01-01

    Macroalgae is a biological key element for the assessment of the ecological status in coastal waters in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC). Here we propose a methodology for monitoring water quality based on the cartography of littoral and upper-sublittoral rocky-shore communities (CARLIT, in short). With the use of spatial databases, GIS, and available information about the value of rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality, it is possible to obtain an environmental quality index representative of the ecological status of rocky coasts. This index, which completely fulfils the requirements of the WFD, is expressed as a ratio between the observed values in the sector of shore that is being assessed and the expected value in a reference condition zone with the same substrate and coastal morphology (Ecological Quality Ratio, EQR). The application of this index to the coast of Catalonia (North-Western Mediterranean) is presented.

  4. Impacts of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on summer distribution of phytoplankton, copepods and ciliates in relation to abiotic variables along the near-shore of the southwestern Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Drira, Zaher; Guermazi, Wassim; Elloumi, Jannet; Maalej, Sami; Aleya, Lotfi; Ayadi, Habib

    2012-02-01

    In connection with the Taparura Project, studies of spatial distribution of the crustacean zooplankton community, nutrients, phytoplankton and ciliates were conducted in July 2007 at 45 stations spread over fifteen transects along the coast north of Sfax. The results showed that the N/P ratio was lower than the Redfield ratio, suggesting potential N limitation. Phytoplankton was characterised by the proliferation of several diatoms, while ciliates were largely dominated by spirotrichs. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton present during the entire study period, comprising 61% of the total zooplankton community. Twelve copepod families were identified at every station, with a high percentage of Oithonidae (77% of copepods) dominated by Oithona nana. The abundance of this species was correlated with that of diatoms, Cocoolithophorideae and ciliated Colpodea, suggesting that O. nana may feed on a wide range of prey. Despite human pressure and industrial activities, the coastal waters north of Sfax showed a wide diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates and zooplankton.

  5. Modelling the background aerosol climatologies (1989-2010) for the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Jerez, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Aerosol levels and composition are influenced by multiple atmospheric physico-chemical processes that can affect them from its release point (as primary aerosol), or via gas-to-particle conversion processes that give rise to secondary aerosols. The contribution of the various aerosol sources, the role of long-range transport and the contribution of primary and secondary particulate matter to the ambient aerosol concentrations over Europe are not well known (Kulmala et al., 2009). Focusing on the Mediterranean, Querol et al. (2009) point out that there is a lack of studies on the variability of particulate matter (PM) along the Mediterranean basin, necessary for understanding the special features that differentiate aerosol processes between the western, eastern and central Mediterranean basins. In this perspective, modelling systems based on state-of-science chemistry transport models (CTMs) are fundamental elements to investigate the transport and chemistry of pollutants behaviour at different scales and to assess the impact of emissions in aerosol levels and composition. Therefore, this study aims to summarise the results on the levels and chemical composition of aerosols along the Mediterranean basin, highlighting the marked gradient between the western-central-eastern coasts. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the seasonality of PM composition and levels. For this purpose, the regional modelling system WRF-CHIMERE-EMEP has been implemented for conducting a full transient simulation for the ERA-Interim period (1989-2010) using year-to-year changing EMEP emissions. The domain of study covers Europe with a horizontal resolution of 25 km and a vertical resolution of 23 layers in the troposphere; however the analysis focuses on the Mediterranean area. The PM levels and composition are compared to the measured values reported by the EMEP network, showing a good agreement with observations for both western and eastern Mediterranean. The modelling results for

  6. African dust outbreaks over the Mediterranean Basin during 2001-2011: concentrations, phenomenology and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pey, Jorge; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Forastiere, Franceso; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    -spring in the eastern side, with occurrence of various severe episodes throughout the year. Overall, African dust emerges as the largest PM10 source in regional background southern sites of the Mediterranean (35-50% of PM10), with seasonal peak contributions to PM10 up to 80% of the total mass in the eastern side. The multi-year study of African dust episodes and their contributions to PM10 concentrations displaysa consistent decreasing trend in the period 2006/2007 to 2011 in 4 of the 17 studied regions, all of them located in the NW of the Mediterranean. Such decrease is almost parallel to that of NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) index for the summer period, being progressively more negative since 2006. As a consequence, a sharp change in the atmospheric circulation over the last 5 years (a similar negative NAO period occurred in the 1950 decade) have affected the number of African dust episodes and consequently the annual dust inputs to PM10observed in the NW part of the Mediterranean. By investigating mean temperatures and geopotential height maps at 850hPa it is evident a displacement of warm air masses accomplishing African dust towards the central Mediterranean in the 2007-2008 period, and towards the NW African coast and the Canary Islands in the 2009-2011 period. Acknowledgements This study has been founded by the LIFE programme of the European Commission under the Grant Agreement LIFE10 ENV/IT/327. Partial founding was received from the Autonomous Government of Catalonia and the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment. PM10 data were obtained from EMEP, Airbase and ACTRIS databases. Most of the interpretations were performed thanks to the support of HYSPLIT model, SKIRON, BSC-DREAM and NRL-NAAPS aerosol maps, NCEP/NCAR meteorological database, and image products from MODIS and SeaWiFs NASA satellites.

  7. Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among children in families and schools in Mediterranean and continental Croatian towns.

    PubMed

    Karlović, Dalibor; Martinac, Marko; Gale, Ruza; Markić, Josko; Marcinko, Darko

    2005-06-01

    Among one of the biggest difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is firstly the involvement of different persons, especially parents and teachers, who, together with experts, make the unavoidable subjects in the process of detecting and treating children with AD/HD. Adding to that the standards of living environment, the process becomes even more complex. The aim of this research is to detect if there is a difference in the assessment of AD/HD, given by the parents and teachers in two urban areas, which have culturally and geographically different characteristics (Middle European and Mediterranean). The assessments of children's behavior were conducted in two randomly selected schools; one in Zadar (Mediterranean town on the Adriatic coast) and the other in Zagreb (Middle European city). The children were evaluated by the experts using DSM IV as a gold standard, and by the parents and teachers using Conners rating scales. Analysis of results showed that there were differences in assessment of AD/HD among experts and parents/teachers, and among parents from two towns. Different results given by parents in Zadar and Zagreb, we reasoned, were obtained because of different sensitivity to the problems of hyperactive/impulsive/attention deficiency children's behavior.

  8. Species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from fishes off the Mediterranean coast of Africa, with a description of Philometra rara n. sp. from Hyporthodus haifensis and a molecular analysis of Philometra saltatrix from Pomatomus saltatrix

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) were recorded for the first time from marine perciform fishes off Tunisia and Libya: Philometra rara n. sp. from the rare, deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis (Serranidae) off Libya and Philometra saltatrix Ramachandran, 1973 from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Pomatomidae) off Tunisia. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. Light and scanning electron microscope studies of Ph. rara n. sp. showed that it is characterized by the length of spicules (216–219 μm) and the gubernaculum (90–93 μm), the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio (1:2.32–2.43), and mainly by the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum (shovel-shaped with a wide median smooth field in dorsal view), appearing as having a dorsal protuberance in lateral view, and by the structure of the male caudal mound (dorsally interrupted); large subgravid females (70–137 mm long) are characterized by the presence of four oval submedian cephalic elevations, each of them bearing a pair of cephalic papillae of the outer circle. The finding of Ph. saltatrix off Tunisia confirms that this species is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. A molecular analysis of our Ph. saltatrix specimens and other available philometrid cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) sequences showed that most species have robust clades. Sequences of Ph. saltatrix from Tunisia diverge from Ph. saltatrix from Brazil and the USA, suggesting that speciation is currently occurring between populations from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:28287390

  9. Species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from fishes off the Mediterranean coast of Africa, with a description of Philometra rara n. sp. from Hyporthodus haifensis and a molecular analysis of Philometra saltatrix from Pomatomus saltatrix.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2017-01-01

    Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) were recorded for the first time from marine perciform fishes off Tunisia and Libya: Philometra rara n. sp. from the rare, deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis (Serranidae) off Libya and Philometra saltatrix Ramachandran, 1973 from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Pomatomidae) off Tunisia. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. Light and scanning electron microscope studies of Ph. rara n. sp. showed that it is characterized by the length of spicules (216-219 μm) and the gubernaculum (90-93 μm), the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio (1:2.32-2.43), and mainly by the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum (shovel-shaped with a wide median smooth field in dorsal view), appearing as having a dorsal protuberance in lateral view, and by the structure of the male caudal mound (dorsally interrupted); large subgravid females (70-137 mm long) are characterized by the presence of four oval submedian cephalic elevations, each of them bearing a pair of cephalic papillae of the outer circle. The finding of Ph. saltatrix off Tunisia confirms that this species is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. A molecular analysis of our Ph. saltatrix specimens and other available philometrid cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) sequences showed that most species have robust clades. Sequences of Ph. saltatrix from Tunisia diverge from Ph. saltatrix from Brazil and the USA, suggesting that speciation is currently occurring between populations from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. © F. Moravec et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  10. Crust and upper mantle of the western Mediterranean - Constraints from full-waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    We present a full-waveform tomographic model of the western Mediterranean crust and mantle constructed from complete three-component recordings from permanent and temporary networks. The incorporation of body and multi-mode surface waves in the period range from 12-150 s allows us to jointly resolve crustal and mantle structures, including the Guadalquivir, Tajo and Ebro basins at shallow depth, as well as the western Mediterranean subduction system in the transition zone. No mantle plumes can be detected beneath the European Cenozoic rift system, including the Massif Central. In addition to the well-studied Alboran slab, a strong E-W trending high-velocity anomaly is present around 200-300 km depth beneath the Algerian coast. This previously undetected African slab is detached from the surface and broken into two segments. It may be interpreted as the slab that caused the opening of the Liguro-Provençal basin through successive roll-back between 35-15 Ma.

  11. Fourteen years of forage monitoring on the California Central Coast shows tremendous variation

    Treesearch

    Royce Larsen; Karl Striby; Marc Horney

    2015-01-01

    To better understand forage production (above ground biomass) and precipitation patterns in the Central Coast region of California, the first in a growing network of primary production monitoring sites were established in 2001. The California Central Coast has a Mediterranean climate with cool, moist winters and hot, dry summers, and is dominated by annual grasslands...

  12. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  13. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  14. The east-west-north colonization history of the Mediterranean and Europe by the coastal plant Carex extensa (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Escudero, M; Vargas, P; Arens, P; Ouborg, N J; Luceño, M

    2010-01-01

    Coastal plants are ideal models for studying the colonization routes of species because of the simple linear distributions of these species. Carex extensa occurs mainly in salt marshes along the Mediterranean and European coasts. Variation in cpDNA sequences, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of 24 populations were analysed to reconstruct its colonization history. Phylogenetic relationships indicate that C. extensa together with the South American Carex vixdentata and the southern African Carex ecklonii form a monophyletic group of halophilic species. Analyses of divergence times suggest that early lineage diversification may have occurred between the late Miocene and the late Pliocene (Messinian crisis). Phylogenetic and network analyses of cpDNA variation revealed the monophyly of the species and an ancestral haplotype contained in populations of the eastern Mediterranean. The AFLP and SSR analyses support a pattern of variation compatible with these two lineages. These analyses also show higher levels of genetic diversity and differentiation in the eastern population group, which underwent an east-to-west Mediterranean colonization. Quaternary climatic oscillations appear to have been responsible for the split between these two lineages. Secondary contacts may have taken place in areas near the Ligurian Sea in agreement with the gene flow detected in Corsican populations. The AFLP and SSR data accord with the 'tabula rasa' hypothesis in which a recent and rapid colonization of northern Europe took place from the western Mediterranean after the Last Glacial Maximum. The unbalanced west-east vs. west-north colonization may be as a result of 'high density blocking' effect.

  15. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-09-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference ranging from a factor of 1.5 to even an order of magnitude. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast because densely populated regions with significant human activity contribute relatively more to air pollution than ships, even if these regions attract a lot of ship traffic. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black carbon

  16. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-03-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference from a factor of 1.5 to two orders of magnitude. Despite these large discrepancies in existing ship emission inventories for air pollutants very little has been done to evaluate their consistency with atmospheric measurements at open sea. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black

  17. The distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H in southern Iberia indicates ancient human genetic exchanges along the western edge of the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Candela L; Dugoujon, Jean M; Novelletto, Andrea; Rodríguez, Juan N; Cuesta, Pedro; Calderón, Rosario

    2017-05-19

    The structure of haplogroup H reveals significant differences between the western and eastern edges of the Mediterranean, as well as between the northern and southern regions. Human populations along the westernmost Mediterranean coasts, which were settled by individuals from two continents separated by a relatively narrow body of water, show the highest frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroup H. These characteristics permit the analysis of ancient migrations between both shores, which may have occurred via primitive sea crafts and early seafaring. We collected a sample of 750 autochthonous people from the southern Iberian Peninsula (Andalusians from Huelva and Granada provinces). We performed a high-resolution analysis of haplogroup H by control region sequencing and coding SNP screening of the 337 individuals harboring this maternal marker. Our results were compared with those of a wide panel of populations, including individuals from Iberia, the Maghreb, and other regions around the Mediterranean, collected from the literature. Both Andalusian subpopulations showed a typical western European profile for the internal composition of clade H, but eastern Andalusians from Granada also revealed interesting traces from the eastern Mediterranean. The basal nodes of the most frequent H sub-haplogroups, H1 and H3, harbored many individuals of Iberian and Maghrebian origins. Derived haplotypes were found in both regions; haplotypes were shared far more frequently between Andalusia and Morocco than between Andalusia and the rest of the Maghreb. These and previous results indicate intense, ancient and sustained contact among populations on both sides of the Mediterranean. Our genetic data on mtDNA diversity, combined with corresponding archaeological similarities, provide support for arguments favoring prehistoric bonds with a genetic legacy traceable in extant populations. Furthermore, the results presented here indicate that the Strait of Gibraltar and the adjacent

  18. Summer fire predictability in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Raül; Turco, Marco; Bedía, Joaquín; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Each year approximately 500000 hectares burn in Europe. Most of them are consequence of Mediterranean summer fires that lead to damages to the natural environment causing important economic and life losses. In order to allow the preparedness of adequate prevention measures in European Mediterranean regions, a better understanding of the summer fire predictability is crucial. Climate is a primary driver of the interannual variability of fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, controlling fuel flammability and fuel structure [1, 2]. That is, summer fires are linked to current-year climate values (proxies for the climatic factors that affect fuel flammability) and to antecedent climate variables (proxies for the climatic factors influencing fine fuel availability and connectivity). In our contribution we explore the long-term predictability of wildfires in a Mediterranean region (NE Spain), driving a multiple linear regression model with observed antecedent climate variables and with predicted variables from the ECMWF System-4 seasonal forecast. The approaches are evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation over the period 1983-2010. While the ECMWF System-4 proved of limited usefulness due to its limited skill, the model driven with antecedent climate variables alone allowed for satisfactory long-term prediction of above-normal fire activity, suggesting the feasibility of successful seasonal prediction of summer fires in Mediterranean-type regions. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125: 369-380, 2014.

  19. Soil erosion modelling of the Mediterranean basin in the context of land use and climate changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdan, Olivier; Desprats, Jean-François; Fouché, Julien; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Cheviron, Bruno; Simonneaux, Vincent; Raclot, Damien; Mouillot, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Hydric erosion is one of the major causes of soil degradation. It results from the interaction of several parameters which vary in space and time. Global warming and the land use changes expected during the 21st century are going to influence the soils deterioration and the erosion processes. In order to protect the soil resource under the current bioclimatic context and prevent the future consequences, it is essential to apprehend the erosion risk. Many studies developed the soil erosion risk modelling at various scales from regional to European scale. The MESOEROS project is the first which aims to understand the soil loss risk on the whole Mediterranean basin for the current climate context and also for the predicting climate changes expected for the 21st century. Two models are used: MESALES (expert rules model) and PESERA (physical based model). Both provide the soil erosion risk into five classes. Model inputs, soils properties (crusting and erodibility), climate data, DEM and land use data, come from the most recent and validated datasets, homogenised on the whole study area. After being calibrated with watersheds data and the PESERA modelling on Europe, the two modelling results are analysed. Both MESALES and PESERA present an erosion risk contrast around the Mediterranean basin. MESALES estimates Italia, Andalusia, Catalan and Aragon regions, western part of Greece and Balkan region as threatened areas while PESERA models the arable region of Castellan y Leon, Near East and the high atlas range in Morocco as subjected to an erosion risk. The two methods model parts of northern Morocco, centre and European part of Turkey, Lebanon and northern Portugal at risk while southern France, Libyan coasts and southern Greece are never threatened. Analyses of the parameter influences on the models and the modelling validation allow understanding the integration of climate change on modelling results. MESALES and PESERA point out an evolution of the soil erosion risk

  20. Eutrophication and environmental policy in the Mediterranean Sea: a review.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2012-08-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semienclosed basin connected with the open sea mainly through the Strait of Gibraltar. Due to the circulation pattern and the long residence time ranging between 80 and 100 years, the Mediterranean Sea is a sensitive environment to eutrophication pressures. The main body of water of the Mediterranean is characterized by very low nutrient concentrations, and therefore, the Mediterranean is classified among the most oligotrophic (very poor waters in nutrients) seas of the world's oceans. However, some coastal areas, mainly in the northern part of the basin, receive excessive loads of nutrients from sewage effluents, river fluxes, aquaculture farms, fertilizers, and industrial facilities, showing intense eutrophic phenomena with many adverse effects for the marine ecosystem and humans. Various national and international authorities, in addition to monitoring, have taken legal and administrative measures to mitigate eutrophication trends in the area. The Mediterranean environment is a good paradigm of integration of extensive legal framework, scientific knowledge, and administrative practices. The Barcelona Convention, the Mediterranean Action Plan, and European Union Directives on water quality and coastal management, together with scientific information derived from international research programs in the Mediterranean, provide a sound background for practical actions in eutrophication problems. In the present work, the problem of coastal eutrophication in the Mediterranean is reviewed in connection with public policies of the Mediterranean States based on national and international legislation and scientific knowledge on Mediterranean oceanography-ecology and actions coordinated by international bodies. These common actions and practices on coastal management are also discussed in relation to the need for sustainable development and protection of the coastal zone in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. An unexpected wide population variation of the G1733A polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene: data on the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Esteban, E; Via, M; González-Pérez, E; Santamaría, J; Dugoujon, J M; Vona, G; Harich, N; Luna, F; Saetta, A A; Bissar, N; Moral, P

    2005-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for several cancers (breast, prostate, uterine endometrium, colon, and esophagus). Ethnicity is considered an associated risk factor for some of these cancers. Several case-control genetic studies have been focused in samples of the main ethnic groups, but little is known about the distribution of risk polymorphisms in current populations with accurate ethnic and/or geographic origins. The A allele of the G1733A polymorphism of the AR gene has been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. We provide data from this marker in 12 samples from 7 Mediterranean countries such as Spain, Italy (Sardinia), Greece, Turkey, Morocco, Algeria, and Egypt. A sample from Ivory Coast has also been analyzed. The A allele distribution shows a frequency in the Ivory Coast population (65.17%) that contrasts with the low values found in Northern Mediterraneans (mean average value of 13.98%). North African populations present two-times higher frequencies (average value of 27.19%) than Europeans. The wide population variation range found for the A allele strengthens the potential interest of further screening as a baseline to the design of future preventive and population health programs.

  2. Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijewski, T.; Śmietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2011-02-01

    The genetic constitution of mussels ( Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction between the Black Sea and Mediterranean populations and a higher incidence of M. trossulus than reported so far in northern European populations. The frequency of M. galloprovincialis nuclear alleles was high along the Iberian Peninsula and decreased abruptly along the French coasts with a high frequency of M. edulis alleles in the Bay of Biscay, The Netherlands, Germany, Iceland, Barents and White Seas, and with little evidence of introgression between the two taxa. M. trossulus alleles were observed in the Baltic Sea and Danish Straits as expected. In addition, occurrence of M. trossulus alleles in cold waters of Iceland, Barents Sea and White Sea is reported for the first time.

  3. Adapting Coastal State Indicators to end-users: the iCoast Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarchi, Alessandro; Isotta Cristofori, Elena; Gracia, Vicente; Sairouní, Abdel; García-León, Manuel; Cámaro, Walther; Facello, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The extraordinary development of the built environment and of the population densities in the coastal areas are making coastal communities highly exposed. The sea level rise induced by climate change will worsen this coastal vulnerability scenario and a considerable amount of people are expected to be threatened by coastal flooding in the future. Due to the increasing number of catastrophic events, and the consequent increased number of damages and people affected, over the last decades coastal hazard management has become a fundamental activity in order to improve the resilience of coastal community. In this scenario, iCoast (integrated COastal Alert SysTem) project has been founded to develop a tool able to address coastal risks caused by extreme waves and high sea water levels in European coastal areas. In the framework of iCoast Project, a set of Coastal State Indicators (CSIs) has been developed in order to improve the forecasting and the assessment of coastal risks. CSIs are indeed parameters able to provide end-users with an essential information about coastal hazards and related impacts. Within the iCoast Project, following a comprehensive literature review about existing indicators concerning coastal risks, a list of CSIs have been chosen as parameters that can be derived from the meteorological and the hydrodynamic modules. They include both physical variables used as trigger for meteorological and flood warnings from the majority of the operational National/Regional warning systems and further essential parameters, so called 'storm integrated' coastal-storm indicators, able to describe the physical processes that drive coastal damages, such as erosion, accumulation, flooding, destructions. Nowadays, it is generally acknowledged that communities are not homogenous and hence their different vulnerable groups might need different warnings. Generally, even existing national EWS in developed countries are often ineffective to issue targeted warnings for

  4. The alarming decline of Mediterranean fish stocks.

    PubMed

    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas; Maravelias, Christos D; Tserpes, George

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, fisheries management has succeeded in stabilizing and even improving the state of many global fisheries resources [1-5]. This is particularly evident in areas where stocks are exploited in compliance with scientific advice and strong institutional structures are in place [1, 5]. In Europe, the well-managed northeast (NE) Atlantic fish stocks have been recovering in response to decreasing fishing pressure over the past decade [3-6], albeit with a long way to go for a universal stock rebuild [3, 7]. Meanwhile, little is known about the temporal development of the European Mediterranean stocks, whose management relies on input controls that are often poorly enforced. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of 42 European Mediterranean stocks of nine species in 1990-2010, showing that exploitation rate has been steadily increasing, selectivity (proportional exploitation of juveniles) has been deteriorating, and stocks have been shrinking. We implement species-specific simulation models to quantify changes in exploitation rate and selectivity that would maximize long-term yields and halt stock depletion. We show that stocks would be more resilient to fishing and produce higher long-term yields if harvested a few years after maturation because current selectivity is far from optimal, especially for demersal stocks. The European Common Fisheries Policy that has assisted in improving the state of NE Atlantic fish stocks in the past 10 years has failed to deliver similar results for Mediterranean stocks managed under the same policy. Limiting juvenile exploitation, advancing management plans, and strengthening compliance, control, and enforcement could promote fisheries sustainability in the Mediterranean.

  5. Geographic structure in the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis L.) as revealed by Microsatellite polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Launey, S; Ledu, C; Boudry, P; Bonhomme, F; Naciri-Graven, Y

    2002-01-01

    Genetic differentiation of the flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) was studied along the European coast, from Norway to the Black Sea, by means of variation at five microsatellite loci. The results show a mild but significant isolation-by-distance profile, a noticeable between-sample variance in expected heterozygosity, and a tendency for Atlantic populations to be less variable than Mediterranean ones. This does not provide support for the existence of a single large panmictic population for this larvae-broadcasting species, but rather for the relative independence of local stocks. Comparison with data on allozyme variation from the literature confirms this view. It also leads us to suggest that the behavior of some sampled protein loci may depart from the average, so caution should be used when inferring neutral gene flow.

  6. Mineral dust deposition in Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Bergmatti, Gilles; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Chevaillier, Servanne; Roulet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; Siour, Guillaume; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Massanet, Ana; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Di Sarra, Giogio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Dulac, François; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    North African deserts are the world's largest sources of atmospheric mineral dust produced by aeolian erosion. Saharan dust is frequently transported toward Europe over the Mediterranean basin. When deposited in oceanic areas, mineral dust can constitute a key input of nutrients bioavailable for the oceanic biosphere. For instance, Saharan dust deposited in the in the Mediterranean Sea can be a significant source of nutrient like Fe, P and N during summer and autumn. Our objective is to study the deposition Saharan mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin and to improve how deposition processes are parameterized in 3D regional models. To quantify the deposition flux of Saharan dust in the western Mediterranean region a specific collector (CARAGA) to sample automatically the insoluble atmospheric particle deposition was developed (LISA-ICARE) and a network of CARAGA collectors have been set up. Since 2011, eight CARAGA are then deployed in Frioul, Casset, Montandon and Ersa in France, Mallorca and Granada in Spain, Lampedusa in Italia, and Medenine in Tunisia, along a South-North gradient of almost 2000km from the North African coast to the South of Europe. We observe 10 well identified dust Saharan deposition events at Lampedusa and 6 at Mallorca for a 1-yr sampling period. These dust events are sporadic and the South-North gradient of deposition intensity and frequency is observed (the highest dust mass sampled at the stations are : 2,66 g.m-2 at Lampedusa ; 0,54 g.m-2 at Majorque ; 0,33 g.m-2 at Frioul ; 0,16 g.m-2 at Casset). The ability of the CHIMERE model to reproduce the deposition measurements is tested. The mineral dust plumes simulated over the western Mediterranean basin are also compared to satellite observations (OMI, MODIS) and in-situ measurements performed during the ChArMEx campaign and in the AERONET stations.

  7. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  8. Splenomegaly, macrothombocytopenia and stomatocytosis in healthy Mediterranean subjects (splenomegaly in Mediterranean macrothrombocytopenia).

    PubMed

    von Behrens, W E

    1975-05-01

    Spleen size, stomatocytosis, macrothrombocytopenia, haemoglobin level, white cell count, and abdominal pain episodes were assessed in a coded study of healthy Mediterranean immigrants to Australia. Spleen size was estimated from a length measurement, L, on a standardized plain abdominal radiograph and expressed both as spleen weight and as a spleen length index, L/square root BSA; the platelet count and size parameters were determined electronically and the presence of stomatocytes was evaluated in stained blood films. In relation to 16 Northern European control women 12 of 25 Mediterranean women had radiographic splenomegaly, 10 had macrothrombocytopenia, 9 had stomatocytosis, but none had episodes of abdominal pain. The median spleen weights of the two groups were estimated as 157 and 247 g with ranges from percentile 2.3 to 97.7 of 75 to 328 and 112 to 669 g. Within the Mediterranean group splenomegaly correlated with macrothrombocytopenia (P less than 0.001) but not with stomatocytosis, haemoglobin values or white cell counts. Thus, mild splenomegaly may be expected in Mediterranean macrothrombocytopenia, Mediterranean stomatocytosis appears unrelated, and all of these apparently benign anomalies may be incidental findings in patients from the Italian and Balkan peninsulas.

  9. Alkylphenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in eastern Mediterranean Spanish coastal marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, Alberto; Aguado, Daniel; Martí, Nuria; Pastor, José Manuel; Herráez, Rosa; Campins, Pilar; Seco, Aurora

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports the first results on alkylphenol pollution in edible bivalves from the Spanish coast. Two sampling campaigns (July 2006 and July 2007) were carried out to determine the concentration of nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialys) and clams (Donax trunculus) at 14 sampling sites along the eastern Mediterranean Spanish coast. The results show that NP is the predominant alkylphenol, being the port of Valencia the most polluted area (up to 147 μg/kg wet weight in clams). Moving away from the ports the concentration of NP in bivalves decreased. OP concentration was below its detection limit in most of the studied areas and its maximum concentration (6 μg/kg w/w) was measured in clams from the port of Sagunto. The presence of low levels of PAHs was observed in most of the studied areas. The total PAHs concentration (i.e., sum of the eight measured PAHs) achieved a maximum value of 10.09 μg/kg w/w in the north coast of Valencia city. The distribution pattern of the individual PAHs showed that both pollution sources petrogenic and pyrolytic were present in the sampled areas. Fluoranthene was the most abundant PAH in mussels while benzo(b)fluoranthene in clams. The maximum concentration of 10 μg/kg w/w for benzo(a)pyrene established by the European Commission was never reached, indeed sampled bivalves showed concentrations 10 times lower than this reference value. Thus, they can be considered safe for human consumption. Despite the low contamination levels, the results show an overall pollution of bivalves by alkylphenol and PAHs as well as an increment in the number of polluted areas from 2006 to 2007. Thus, periodical sampling campaigns should be carried out to monitor the long-term tendency of these toxic and persistent pollutants.

  10. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Couto, E; Boffetta, P; Lagiou, P; Ferrari, P; Buckland, G; Overvad, K; Dahm, C C; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V; Trichopoulos, D; Naska, A; Benetou, V; Kaaks, R; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; von Ruesten, A; Panico, S; Pala, V; Vineis, P; Palli, D; Tumino, R; May, A; Peeters, P H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Büchner, F L; Lund, E; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Gonzalez, C A; Navarro, C; Rodríguez, L; Sánchez, M-J; Amiano, P; Barricarte, A; Hallmans, G; Johansson, I; Manjer, J; Wirfärt, E; Allen, N E; Crowe, F; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Moskal, A; Slimani, N; Jenab, M; Romaguera, D; Mouw, T; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Trichopoulou, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. Methods: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study including 142 605 men and 335 873. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was examined using a score (range: 0–9) considering the combined intake of fruits and nuts, vegetables, legumes, cereals, lipids, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. Association with cancer incidence was assessed through Cox regression modelling, controlling for potential confounders. Results: In all, 9669 incident cancers in men and 21 062 in women were identified. A lower overall cancer risk was found among individuals with greater adherence to Mediterranean diet (hazard ratio=0.96, 95% CI 0.95–0.98) for a two-point increment of the Mediterranean diet score. The apparent inverse association was stronger for smoking-related cancers than for cancers not known to be related to tobacco (P (heterogeneity)=0.008). In all, 4.7% of cancers among men and 2.4% in women would be avoided in this population if study subjects had a greater adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern. Conclusion: Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern could reduce overall cancer risk. PMID:21468044

  11. Climatic Feedbacks and Desertification: The Mediterranean Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, M. M.; Estrela, M. J.; Sanz, M. J.; Mantilla, E.; Martín, M.; Pastor, F.; Salvador, R.; Vallejo, R.; Alonso, L.; Gangoiti, G.; Ilardia, J. L.; Navazo, M.; Albizuri, A.; Artíñano, B.; Ciccioli, P.; Kallos, G.; Carvalho, R. A.; Andrés, D.; Hoff, A.; Werhahn, J.; Seufert, G.; Versino, B.

    2005-03-01

    Mesometeorological information obtained in several research projects in southern Europe has been used to analyze perceived changes in the western Mediterranean summer storm regime. A procedure was developed to disaggregate daily precipitation data into three main components: frontal precipitation, summer storms, and Mediterranean cyclogenesis. Working hypotheses were derived on the likely processes involved. The results indicate that the precipitation regime in this Mediterranean region is very sensitive to variations in surface airmass temperature and moisture. Land-use perturbations that accumulated over historical time and greatly accelerated in the last 30 yr may have induced changes from an open, monsoon-type regime with frequent summer storms over the mountains inland to one dominated by closed vertical recirculations where feedback mechanisms favor the loss of storms over the coastal mountains and additional heating of the sea surface temperature during summer. This, in turn, favors Mediterranean cyclogenesis and torrential rains in autumn-winter. Because these intense rains and floods can occur anywhere in the basin, perturbations to the hydrological cycle in any part of the basin can propagate to the whole basin and adjacent regions. Furthermore, present levels of air pollutants can produce greenhouse heating, amplifying the perturbations and pushing the system over critical threshold levels. The questions raised are relevant for the new European Union (EU) water policies in southern Europe and for other regions dominated by monsoon-type weather systems.

  12. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  13. Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Adem; Gezer, Ilknur Albayrak; Ucar, Ramazan; Karahan, Ali Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  14. Towards an operational use of space imagery for oil pollution monitoring in the Mediterranean basin: a demonstration in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Guido; Bernardini, Annalia; David, Matej; Meyer-Roux, Serge; Muellenhoff, Oliver; Perkovic, Marko; Tarchi, Dario; Topouzelis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Studies of operational pollution carried out by European commission - Joint Research Centre in the Mediterranean Sea for the years 1999-2004 are briefly introduced. The specific analysis of the Adriatic Sea for the same period demonstrates that this area has been characterized by a relevant number of illegal discharges from ships. After setting the historical background of the project AESOP (aerial and satellite surveillance of operational pollution in the Adriatic Sea), the content, partners and aim of the project are presented. Finally, the results of the first phase of the AESOP project are presented. The results seem very encouraging. For the first time in the Adriatic, real time detection of oil spills in satellite images and an immediate verification by the Coast Guard has been undertaken. An exploratory activity has also been carried out in collaboration with the University of Ljubljana to use automatic information system (AIS) to identify the ships detected in the satellite images.

  15. Pan-African - Mediterranean Migrations: Implications for Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Diane Brook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine features of the contemporary migrant and refugee flows across Africa northward to the Mediterranean and then to European countries (sometimes called the "new mass migration" and also migrant flows southward to South Africa. In addition, the purpose was to examine dimensions of response and…

  16. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... don't use genetic tests as the sole method of diagnosing familial Mediterranean fever. There's no cure ... may be options, though these treatments are considered experimental. Other medications include rilonacept (Arcalyst) and anakinra (Kineret). ...

  17. Tracking the Mediterranean Abyss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aracri, S.; Schroeder, K.; Chiggiato, J.; Bryden, H. L.; McDonagh, E.; Josey, S. A.; Hello, Y.; Borghini, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is well known to be a miniature ocean with small enough timescales to allow the observation of main oceanographic events, e.g. deep water formation and overturning circulation, in a human life time. This renders the Mediterranean Sea the perfect observatory to study and forecast the behaviour of the world ocean. Considering the coherence between NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation), AMO (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) and Mediterranean oscillation and bearing in mind that the Mediterranean outflow at Gibraltar constitutes a constant source of intermediate, warm and saline water, it has been suggested that "the system composed of the North Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea/Gibraltar Strait and the Arctic Sea/Fram Strait might work as a unique oceanographic entity, with the physical processes within the straits determining the exchange of the fresh and salty waters between the marginal seas and the open ocean".In the light of the present knowledge the Mediterranean might, then, be considered as a key oceanographic observatory site. The deep sea is still challenging to monitor, especially given the latest years lack of fundings and ships availability. Therefore optimizing the existing methods and instrumentation has become a priority. This work is focused on the North-Western Mediterranean basin, where deep water formation events often occur in the Gulf of Lion as well as deep convection in the neighbour Ligurian Sea. A different application of submarine robots - Mermaids- designed to observe underwater seismic waves aiming to improve ocean tomography is presented. In order to improve our knowledge of the North-Western Mediterranean abyssal circulation we track Mermaids extracting their velocity, correcting it and comparing it with the historically estimated values and with the geostrophic velocity extracted from a 40 years long hydrographic datasets.

  18. High resolution simulations and glider observations in the eastern Alboran Sea (Mediterranean Sea): implications for vertical velocity estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Evan; Pascual, Ananda; McWilliams, James C.

    2013-04-01

    The transition region between the Alboran Sea and the Algerian sub-basin to the east is characterised by strong fronts and mesoscale anticyclonic eddies, and has correspondingly raised levels of eddy kinetic energy. The transient Almería-Orán front separates Atlantic Water (AW) flowing into the Mediterranean Sea, and recirculating Mediterranean Water (MW) that intrudes southwestward along the Spanish coast. Quasi-geostrophic vertical motions estimated from a combination of altimetry and glider observations by Ruiz et al. (2009) are of the order of ±1 m day-1, although higher velocities (up to 20-25 m day-1) can be assumed for smaller scale structures embedded within the front, as revealed by chlorophyll data and pointed out by Tintoré et al. (1991). In order to further investigate the vertical velocity spectrum we present results from a high resolution nested modelling study that focuses on the Almería-Orán front. The model is the primitive equation Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). We identify the conditions under which the front forms using a 5 km resolution Mediterranean climatological solution that is run for 15 years. A series of one-way nested simulations then lead to a sub-km solution that permits a high resolution characterisation of the 3D structure of the front. These are then compared with glider observations collected during July 2009. Further, this work will support a high-resolution multi-platform experiment to sample the Almería-Orán front that is to take place in Spring 2014 as part of the European project FP7 PERSEUS.

  19. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): A target species for monitoring litter ingested by marine organisms in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Matiddi, Marco; Hochsheid, Sandra; Camedda, Andrea; Baini, Matteo; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Serena, Fabrizio; Tomassetti, Paolo; Travaglini, Andrea; Marra, Stefano; Campani, Tommaso; Scholl, Francesco; Mancusi, Cecilia; Amato, Ezio; Briguglio, Paolo; Maffucci, Fulvio; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Bentivegna, Flegra; de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment. Ingestion of marine litter can have lethal and sub-lethal effects on wildlife that accidentally ingests it, and sea turtles are particularly susceptible to this threat. The European Commission drafted the 2008/56/EC Marine Strategy Framework Directive with the aim to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES), and the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta, Linnaeus 1758) was selected for monitoring the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. An analogous decision has been made under the UNEP/MAP Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea, following the Ecosystem Approach. This work provides for the first time, two possible scenarios for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive GES, both related to "Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals" in the Mediterranean Sea. The study validates the use of the loggerhead turtle as target indicator for monitoring the impact of litter on marine biota and calls for immediate use of this protocol throughout the Mediterranean basin and European Region. Both GES scenarios are relevant worldwide, where sea turtles and marine litter are present, for measuring the impact of ingested plastics and developing policy strategies to reduce it. In the period between 2011 and 2014, 150 loggerhead sea turtles, found dead, were collected from the Italian Coast, West Mediterranean Sea Sub-Region. The presence of marine litter was investigated using a standardized protocol for necropsies and lab analysis. The collected items were subdivided into 4 main categories, namely, IND-Industrial plastic, USE-User plastic, RUB-Non plastic rubbish, POL-Pollutants and 14 sub-categories, to detect local diversity. Eighty-five percent of the individuals considered (n = 120) were found to have ingested an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g of

  20. Numerical reconstruction of trajectory of small-size surface drifter in the Mediterranean sea. Reconstruction of surface drift in the Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchekinova, Elena Y.; Kumkar, Yogesh; Coppini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we addressed the effects of wind-induced drift on Lagrangian trajectories of surface sea objects using high-resolution ocean forecast and atmospheric data. Application of stochastic Leeway model for prediction of trajectories drift was considered for the numerical reconstruction of the Elba accident that occurred during the period 21.06.2009-22.06.2009: a person on an inflatable raft was lost in the vicinity of the Elba Island coast; from the initial position, the person on a raft drifted southwards in the open sea and later he was found on a partially deflated raft during rescue operation. For geophysical forcing, we used high-resolution currents from the Mediterranean Forecasting System and atmospheric wind from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. To investigate the effect of wind on trajectory behavior, numerical simulations were performed using different categories of drifter-like particles similar to a person on an inflatable raft. An algorithm of spatial clustering was used to differentiate the most probable search areas with a high density of particles. Our results showed that the simulation scenarios using particles with characteristics of draft-limited sea drifters provided better prediction of an observed trajectory in terms of the probability density of particles.

  1. Climate change in Mediterranean mountains during the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Nogués Bravo, David; Araújo, Miguel B; Lasanta, Teodoro; López Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    Mediterranean mountain biomes are considered endangered due to climate change that affects directly or indirectly different key features (biodiversity, snow cover, glaciers, run-off processes, and water availability). Here, we provide an assessment of temperature, precipitation, and spring precipitation changes in Mediterranean mountains under different emission scenarios (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and Atmosphere-Ocean-Coupled General Circulation Models for two periods: 2055 (2040-2069 period) and 2085 (2070-2099). Finally, the future climate trends projected for Mediterranean mountains are compared with those trends projected for non-Mediterranean European mountain ranges. The range of projected warming varies between +1.4 degrees C and 5.1 degrees C for 2055 (+1.6 degrees C and +8.3 degrees C for 2085). Climate models also project a reduction of precipitation, mainly during spring (-17% under Alfi and -4.8% under B1 for 2085). On the contrary, non-Mediterranean European mountains will not experience a reduction of annual and spring precipitation. Implications of predicted climate change for both human and physical features are coupled in an integrated framework to gain a broad perspective on future trends and their consequences.

  2. Seasonality of Arctic Mediterranean Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieper, Christoph; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Mediterranean communicates through a number of passages with the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Most of the volume exchange happens at the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge: warm and saline Atlantic Water flows in at the surface, cold, dense Overflow Water flows back at the bottom and fresh and cold Polar Water flows out along the East Greenland coast. All surface inflows show a seasonal signal whereas only the outflow through the Faroe Bank Channel exhibits significant seasonality. Here we present a quantification of the seasonal cycle of the exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland ridge based on volume estimates of the in- and outflows within the last 20 years (ADCP and altimetry). Our approach is comparatistic: we compare different properties of the seasonal cycle like the strength or the phase between the different in- and outflows. On the seasonal time scale the in- and outflows across the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge are not balanced. The net flux thus has to be balanced by the other passages on the Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait as well as runoff from land.

  3. Tsunami hazard and vulnerability assessment for the south coast of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Georgiou, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The island of Cyprus is situated in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Anatolian peninsula and is the third largest island in the Mediterranean. In this area tectonic setting is complex and as yet not fully understood. Dominant here are three major tectonic structures, namely the Hellenic arc, the Cyprian arc and the Levantine rift. The Hellenic Arc has the highest tsunamigenic potential with capability of producing destructive regional tsunamis, like the one that occurred in 1303 following a large earthquake near East Crete. The Levantine rift is associated with several tsunamis, mostly but not exclusively local, as shown in the tsunami catalog by Fokaefs and Papadopoulos (2007), but it is tectonically unfavorable to tsunami generation since it is located inland and is marked by faults with predominant strike-slip mechanism (Ryan et al., 2005). The Cyprian Arc runs near the southern coast of the island and can be an important source of tsunamis. In the frame of the European project NearToWarn that is focused on near-shore tsunami generation in the Mediterranean sea, the Cyprian arc is considered as a study area. By means of the fault database compiled in the course of a previous project called TRANSFER, tsunamigenic sources along the arc are taken into account. The most relevant one results to be the Limassol fault that is placed some km off South-West Cyprus striking more or less parallel to the coast. The hazard assessment is carried out by using the worst credible-case scenario technique, that is known to be the most appropriate when tsunami data are insufficient for the application of a probabilistic analysis. For numerical simulations we use the tsunami code UBO-TSUFD allowing one to compute run-up and inundation focused on given target areas with high space resolution by multiple grid nesting. The paper chief interest is on the southern coast of Cyprus, that is the most affected according to historical reports and one of the most

  4. Non-methane hydrocarbons over the Eastern Mediterranean during summer, measured from northwest Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Carina; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Keßel, Stephan; Thorenz, Ute; Baker, Angela; Williams, Jonathan; Lelieveld, Jos

    2015-04-01

    In summer 2014 the CYprus Photochemistry EXperiment (CYPHEX) field campaign took place at an elevated (600m) measurement site in the north western part of Cyprus close (10 km) to the coast (35,96N, 32,4E) in order to investigate the photochemistry and air mass transport of the eastern Mediterranean. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured with a commercial GC-FID (AMA instruments GmbH, Ulm, Germany) with a final dataset consisting of two weeks of continuous, hourly measurements for 10 NMHC. NMHCs are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are emitted by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Their predominant sink in the atmosphere is photochemically driven oxidation by OH radicals. Their atmospheric lifetimes, which range from a few days for more reactive compounds such as pentanes and butanes and up to a month for less reactive ones like ethane, make it possible to deduce photochemical histories and transport regimes from NMHC observations. Furthermore, in the presence of NOx they are important precursors for tropospheric ozone. Backward trajectories show that the airmasses reaching the measurement site had been influenced periodically by emissions from western continental Europe (France, Spain) that crossed the Mediterranean Sea and from eastern continental Europe (Greece and Turkey) more recently influenced by industrial emissions. Varying patterns in NMHC data delineates these two regimes very well, with aged western European air masses being characterized by low level ethane and with toluene and benzene being higher and more variable in plumes from eastern Europe. Additionally, atypical n-butane and i-butane ratios suggest a deviation from the expected predominant oxidation by OH, possibly indicating reaction with chlorine radicals (Cl). The dataset has been evaluated with respect to NMHC sources and oxidative history using different methods of approach.

  5. Egpm - The Proposed European Contribution To The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, A.; Testud, J.; Egpm Science Team

    The U.S. and Japan space agencies (NASA and NASDA, respectively) are presently formulating a new joint mission, called the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), aimed at measuring precipitation on a global basis with sufficient quality, Earth cover- age, and sampling to improve prediction of the Earth's climate, weather, and specific components of the global water cycle. GPM will consist of two components: a large "core" platform inclined at about 65 and equipped with both passive and active mi- crowave instruments, and a constellation of up to eight "drone" satellites (mostly in sun-synchronous orbits), carrying passive MW radiometers to provide global rain- fall coverage at 3-hour intervals (depending on latitude). The mission, which will be launched in the 2007-2008 time frame, is in fact a multinational satellite project. NASA and NASDA will provide the core satellite and two drones, but are expecting international cooperation for the other drones. Noteworthy, GPM would provide a sig- nificant contribution to the monitoring and the understanding of hazardous and flash- flood producing storms along the Mediterranean coasts, and would improve the fore- cast skill of global and regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models through data assimilation of precipitation measurements. Thus, a large part of the European scientific and operational community is strongly interested in GPM. Especially, the operational community related to NWP, nowcasting and hydrological hazards would take advantage of Europe being part of the constellation, because this would guar- antee direct access to real-time data. In this paper, we describe the characteristics of the European GPM (EGPM) constellation member, that has been recently proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to encourage it to directly engage in the international development of GPM.

  6. Worldwide variation of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in 1961-1965 and 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rui; Bach-Faig, Anna; Raidó Quintana, Blanca; Buckland, Genevieve; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2009-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyse the worldwide trends of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), in 1961-1965 and 2000-2003. Data were obtained from the FAO food balance sheets in two periods: 1961-1965 and 2000-2003. In order to have a sample from across the world, forty-one countries were selected. The average of available energy for different food groups was calculated for all selected countries. These values were used to evaluate the adherence to the MD through a variation of Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI). The majority of the forty-one countries in this study have tended to drift away from a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern. Mediterranean Europe and the Other Mediterranean country groups suffered a significant decrease in their MAI values. The Mediterranean European group, especially Greece, experienced the greatest decrease in MAI value. In both periods, the Other Mediterranean countries showed the highest MAI values. In an analysis by countries, Iran had the highest increase in MAI across the time periods, and Egypt occupied the first place in the ranking in 2000-2003. The Northern European group was the only one that registered an increase in MAI, although this was not statistically significant. Many countries in the Mediterranean basin are drifting away from the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP). However, countries in Northern Europe and some other countries around the world are taking on a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern. The Other Mediterranean countries have the closest adherence to the MDP, currently and in the 1960s. Nutrition policy actions to tackle dietary westernisation and preserve the healthy prudent MDP are required.

  7. Biogeography of Mediterranean Invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, R. H.; di Castri, F.

    The Mediterranean basin, California, Chile, the western Cape of South Africa, and southern Australia share a Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. These five regions have differing patterns of human settlement, but similarities in natural vegetation and some faunal assemblages. These likenesses are enhanced with time by an increasing level of biotic exchange among the regions. An initiative of a subcommittee of SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment), which realized that the integrity of many natural ecosystems is being threatened by the ingress of invasive species, this book uniquely documents the introduced floras and faunas, especially plants, buds, and mammals, in these five regions of Mediterranean climate, and aims to increase our understanding of the ecology of biological invasions. In doing so, it points a way to more effectively manage the biota of these regions.

  8. Multiple SNP Markers Reveal Fine-Scale Population and Deep Phylogeographic Structure in European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Iriondo, Mikel; Albaina, Aitor; Pardo, Miguel Angel; Manzano, Carmen; Grant, W. Stewart; Irigoien, Xabier; Estonba, Andone

    2012-01-01

    Geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have detected several genetic subdivisions among European anchovy populations. However, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. We use a multi-marker approach, 47 nDNA and 15 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to analyze 626 European anchovies from the whole range of the species to resolve shallow and deep levels of population structure. Nuclear SNPs define 10 genetic entities within two larger genetically distinctive groups associated with oceanic variables and different life-history traits. MtDNA SNPs define two deep phylogroups that reflect ancient dispersals and colonizations. These markers define two ecological groups. One major group of Iberian-Atlantic populations is associated with upwelling areas on narrow continental shelves and includes populations spawning and overwintering in coastal areas. A second major group includes northern populations in the North East (NE) Atlantic (including the Bay of Biscay) and the Mediterranean and is associated with wide continental shelves with local larval retention currents. This group tends to spawn and overwinter in oceanic areas. These two groups encompass ten populations that differ from previously defined management stocks in the Alboran Sea, Iberian-Atlantic and Bay of Biscay regions. In addition, a new North Sea-English Channel stock is defined. SNPs indicate that some populations in the Bay of Biscay are genetically closer to North Western (NW) Mediterranean populations than to other populations in the NE Atlantic, likely due to colonizations of the Bay of Biscay and NW Mediterranean by migrants from a common ancestral population. Northern NE Atlantic populations were subsequently established by migrants from the Bay of Biscay. Populations along the Iberian

  9. Multiple SNP markers reveal fine-scale population and deep phylogeographic structure in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.).

    PubMed

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Iriondo, Mikel; Albaina, Aitor; Pardo, Miguel Angel; Manzano, Carmen; Grant, W Stewart; Irigoien, Xabier; Estonba, Andone

    2012-01-01

    Geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have detected several genetic subdivisions among European anchovy populations. However, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. We use a multi-marker approach, 47 nDNA and 15 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to analyze 626 European anchovies from the whole range of the species to resolve shallow and deep levels of population structure. Nuclear SNPs define 10 genetic entities within two larger genetically distinctive groups associated with oceanic variables and different life-history traits. MtDNA SNPs define two deep phylogroups that reflect ancient dispersals and colonizations. These markers define two ecological groups. One major group of Iberian-Atlantic populations is associated with upwelling areas on narrow continental shelves and includes populations spawning and overwintering in coastal areas. A second major group includes northern populations in the North East (NE) Atlantic (including the Bay of Biscay) and the Mediterranean and is associated with wide continental shelves with local larval retention currents. This group tends to spawn and overwinter in oceanic areas. These two groups encompass ten populations that differ from previously defined management stocks in the Alboran Sea, Iberian-Atlantic and Bay of Biscay regions. In addition, a new North Sea-English Channel stock is defined. SNPs indicate that some populations in the Bay of Biscay are genetically closer to North Western (NW) Mediterranean populations than to other populations in the NE Atlantic, likely due to colonizations of the Bay of Biscay and NW Mediterranean by migrants from a common ancestral population. Northern NE Atlantic populations were subsequently established by migrants from the Bay of Biscay. Populations along the Iberian

  10. Mediterranean, our sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  11. Paranthias furcifer (Perciformes: Serranidae), a new alien fish in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Dulčić, J; Dragičević, B

    2013-01-01

    A specimen of a creole fish Paranthias furcifer (285 mm total length) was captured in Marina Bay (Croatian coast) in the eastern Adriatic Sea. This is the first Mediterranean record of this species. The possible modes of introduction of species are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Coastal response to climate change: Mediterranean shorelines during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauz, Barbara; Fanelli, Fabio; Elmejdoub, Noureddine; Barbieri, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    The response of shorelines to climate change is controlled by fall and rise of the sea level and by the alteration of the coastal environment due to changing fluvial discharge and biological activity. In the Mediterranean this response is complicated by the geographic proximity of the North Atlantic and the African Monsoon climate systems, by a time and space specific interaction of eustatic and water-load components of sea level and by the mid-latitudinal time lag between orbital forcing and terrestrial response. Here, six Mediterranean coastal records are presented which contribute to our understanding of how mid-latitudinal coasts respond to orbital forcing. The sediment sequences show sharp switches between siliciclastic- and carbonate-dominated nearshore environments where carbonate-rich sediments are composed of oolitic grainstones. From modern analogues it is deduced that the oolitic sediments represent a period of relatively high annual sea-surface temperature and lack of fluvial discharge. The warm-arid period was recorded at ˜114 ka on the southeast Iberian coast, at ˜113 ka on the Levant coast, at ˜110 ka on the coast west of the Nile delta and at ˜83 ka on the north Saharan coast. It lasted 10-20 ka in east (Levant coast) and west (Iberian coast) and lasted 40 ka or more in the central-south of the east Mediterranean. Timing and duration of the coastal proxy allow inferring instantaneous and dominant response to external forcing in the east and west and delayed and prolonged response due to dominant regional forcing in the centre of the East Mediterranean. A 9 m eustatic sea-level highstand during MIS 5e is suggested with a start of the subsequent sea-level fall at ˜118 ka while evidence for multiple MIS 5e highstand and a highstand during MIS 5a remain elusive.

  13. Decadal trends of temperature and salinity on the Western Mediterranean Coast ('Warm Coast' of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Jorge, F.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2006-12-01

    Important annual significant increases of temperature and salinity values have been found to the north of the Almería-Orán Front (Murcia slope), with rates of 0.028±0.028°C and 0.008±0.007, respectively. This warming neither depends on a seasonal nor an annual cycle. The annual rate of heat content due to this temperature increase is 0.85±0.73 W m-2; this lies between the two values reported by Béthoux et al. [1990] and Várgas-Yáñez et al. [2002]. A positive decadal trend in the average pressure of the isopycnal levels produces an upward motion of 43 m from 100 to 180 m depth. Another phenomena detected was the presence of Western Intermediate Water (WIW) in the upper 200 m in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2004.

  14. Exploring the borders of European Phragmites within a cosmopolitan genus

    PubMed Central

    Lambertini, Carla; Sorrell, Brian K.; Riis, Tenna; Olesen, Birgit; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Two Phragmites australis taxa are recognized in Europe: P. australis ssp. altissimus, also known as Phragmites isiaca, in the Mediterranean region and P. australis in the temperate region. Another taxonomic group in the Mediterranean is Phragmites frutescens. European genotypes are diverse genetically, cytologically and morphologically, and are related to African, Asiatic and American genotypes. We investigated chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in Europe and defined the current borders of the European gene pool. Methodology We analysed chloroplast variation with parsimony and genetic distance methods, and compared it with that of nuclear amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellites. We also investigated the phenological pattern of 188 genotypes collected worldwide in a common garden in Denmark. We assumed that non-flowering genotypes could indicate climatic, geographic and/or reproductive barriers to dispersal and would have been recorded in the genetic pattern as groups genetically isolated from, or within, the European pool. Principal results The European P. australis gene pool extends from North America to the Far East and South Africa. However, African and North American genotypes are differentiating from the European genotypes. Mediterranean P. australis is genetically different from temperate P. australis and shares several similarities with Phragmites mauritianus in Africa and Phragmites karka in Asia. Phragmites frutescens shares the cpDNA sequences with both these tropical species. Two DNA bands can distinguish Mediterranean P. australis from P. frutescens and P. mauritianus and from temperate P. australis, and reveal possible hybrids among these species in the Mediterranean region. Phenological data confirmed possible gene flow within the temperate region of Europe, whereas the Mediterranean genotypes did not set inflorescences in Denmark, suggesting reproductive barriers between temperate and Mediterranean P. australis

  15. Modelling of Escherichia coli concentrations in bathing water at microtidal coasts.

    PubMed

    Palazón, A; López, I; Aragonés, L; Villacampa, Y; Navarro-González, F J

    2017-03-24

    Monitoring of the quality of bathing water in line with the European Commission bathing water directive (Directive 2006/7/EC) is a significant economic expense for those countries with great lengths of coastline. In this study a numerical model based on finite elements is generated whose objective is partially substituting the microbiological analysis of the quality of coastal bathing waters. According to a study of the concentration of Escherichia coli in 299 Spanish Mediterranean beaches, it was established that the most important variables that influence the concentration are: monthly sunshine hours, mean monthly precipitation, number of goat cattle heads, population density, presence of Posidonia oceanica, UV, urbanization level, type of sediment, wastewater treatment ratio, salinity, distance to the nearest discharge, and wave height perpendicular to the coast. Using these variables, a model with an absolute error of 10.6±1.5CFU/100ml is achieved. With this model, if there are no significant changes in the beach environment and the variables remain more or less stable, the concentration of E. coli in bathing water can be determined, performing only specific microbiological analyses to verify the water quality.

  16. The Mediterranean pine engraver

    Treesearch

    Jana C. Lee; Sheri L. Smith; Steven J. Seybold

    2005-01-01

    In May 2004, a new exotic bark beetle for North America was discovered in baited flight traps in Fresno, California during an annual bark beetle and woodborer survey by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. This bark beetle was identified as Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), the Mediterranean pine engraver, a well-documented pest of...

  17. VI European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics has reached the sixth edition, marking the tenth year's anniversary. The spirit of the school is to provide a very important occasion for a deep education of young researchers about the main topics of experimental nuclear astrophysics. Moreover, it should be regarded as a forum for the discussion of the last-decade research activity. Lectures are focused on various aspects of primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, including novel experimental approaches and detectors, indirect methods and radioactive ion beams. Moreover, in order to give a wide educational offer, some lectures cover complementary subjects of nuclear astrophysics such as gamma ray astronomy, neutron-induced reactions, short-lived radionuclides, weak interaction and cutting-edge facilities used to investigate nuclear reactions of interest for astrophysics. Large room is also given to young researcher oral contributions. Traditionally, particular attention is devoted to the participation of students from less-favoured countries, especially from the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The school is organised by the Catania Nuclear Astrophysics research group with the collaboration of Dipartimento di Fisica e Astromomia - Università di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare.

  18. Explore Mediterranean in classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balesevic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    I am a science teacher at a primary school and my students are very interested in science. Through this year I will work with my students, organizing several workshops and or results will be presented on poster. I will work with several groups (4-6) students 8th grade. In this poster all activities will be presented, showing how science is easy to learn even in a classroom. 1. Workshop > Chemical characteristic of sea water Using school laboratory each group of students will analyze the physical and chemical characteristic of sea water and they have to explain the results to younger student's 5th and 6th grade. The final result will be presented on poster. 2. Workshop> Meet the Mediterranean life During this workshop students will work in different groups. The aim of the workshop is to meet lots of species that we can find in Mediterranean using movies, phone applications, internet explorer, science books and school collections of invertebrates … 3. Workshop>Stop the pollution Several groups of students have to debate about causes of pollution and possibilities for prevention. At the end of workshop we will organize a quiz. Student's answers and suggestions will be shown on the poster. 4. Workshop> How we see the Mediterranean During this workshop students will make models of Mediterranean in 2d and 3d perspective, using different materials. They can show on models parts of Mediterranean area, country, sea... After making models students need to visit 5th and 6th grade classes, to show them and explain the final results. Few models will be presented on poster

  19. Climate change and drought risk management in Mediterranean watersheds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Maia, R.; Garrido, A.; Hoerling, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    As a result of major droughts and floods over the past two decades, the European Union has expressed major concerns regarding climate change impacts on the resilience of ecosystems and water resources. The EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for action in the field of water olicy committing European Union member states to achieve develop integrated watershed management plans and improve the quality of water bodies by 2015. Key to meeting these goals are understanding and planning for changes in extreme events, groundwater and surface water changes, and the level of integrated water resources management infrastructure. In the northern European basins, water shortages are mostly offset by irrigation systems. This is not the case for southern basins in the Mediterranean (e.g. Guadiana, Ebro, Po), where water supply systems are already stressed, and where socioeconomic losses due to droughts are more significant. Precipitation variability in the Mediterranean basin is characterized by substantial interdecadal variations and long-term trends. This paper presents an assessment of climate and the socioeconomic impacts of drought in the Mediterranean basin including the factors that determine the vulnerability of different sectors to the risks posed by climate change. The studies are based on two projects in which the authors are involved: the European Commission funded PREEMPT project 'Policy-relevant assessment of the socio-economic effects of droughts and floods' and 'Development of methodologies for integration of climate change on water resources managements for the Guadiana Basin', that analyze drought events, economic losses, risk management efforts and the prospect for adaptation. Studies show that the land area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has experienced 10 of the 12 driest winters since 1902 in just the last 20 years. A change in wintertime Mediterranean precipitation toward drier conditions has likely occurred over 1902-2010. Anthropogenic

  20. Wave ensemble forecast in the Western Mediterranean Sea, application to an early warning system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallares, Elena; Hernandez, Hector; Moré, Jordi; Espino, Manuel; Sairouni, Abdel

    2015-04-01

    between the 5th and the 8th day of the prediction. The information obtained is then included in an early warning system, designed in the framework of the European project iCoast (ECHO/SUB/2013/661009) with the aim of set alarms in coastal areas depending on the wave conditions, the sea level, the flooding and the run up in the coast.

  1. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Dimarchopoulou, Donna; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Tsikliras, Athanassios C

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310) of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109) of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes) is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%), diet (29%), growth (25%), maturity (24%), lifespan (19%) and fecundity (17%). The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%). European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), annular seabream (Diplodus annularis), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and bogue (Boops boops) were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays) and mortality/fecundity instead of length

  2. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Dimarchopoulou, Donna; Stergiou, Konstantinos I.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310) of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109) of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes) is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%), diet (29%), growth (25%), maturity (24%), lifespan (19%) and fecundity (17%). The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%). European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), annular seabream (Diplodus annularis), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and bogue (Boops boops) were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays) and mortality/fecundity instead of length

  3. Dioxin compounds in the deep-sea rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) throughout the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotllant, Guiomar; Abad, Esteban; Sardà, Francisco; Ábalos, Manuela; Company, Joan B.; Rivera, Josep

    2006-12-01

    Polychlorodibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the more toxic anthropogenic contaminants. They are fat-soluble and accumulate in animal tissues. Exposure to PCDD/Fs can cause several endocrine, reproductive and developmental problems in animals, including human beings. Several studies have demonstrated that fish and invertebrates living in association with sediments are exposed to and accumulate contaminants, but to date there have been no studies of PCDD/Fs contamination in deep-sea regions. Specimens of Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) were collected from depths of 600-2500 m at different points in the Mediterranean Sea, from the western basin off the coast of Barcelona to the central basin off the Peloponnesian Peninsula, with otter trawl gear. Amounts of PCDD/Fs were measured in different animal tissues by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). This is the first study to report the presence of PCDD/Fs in deep-sea organisms dwelling at depths below 600 m. A. antennatus presented levels of PCDD/Fs of the same order of magnitude, or slightly higher, as those found in shallow-water species ( Melicertus kerathurus) with respect to land-generated contamination. This highlights the widespread distribution of these pollutants and the potential threat posed to the biodiversity of fragile and vulnerable ecosystems such as the deep-sea. PCDD/F levels detected in the edible parts (muscle) of the commercial shrimp A. antennatus were clearly below the toxic limit value established by European legislation. Levels followed the trend muscle

  4. The Vertical Structure, Sources, and Evolution of Aerosols in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Greg; Bourrianne, Thierry; Léon, Jean-François; Pont, Véronique; Mallet, Marc; Lambert, Dominique; Augustin, Patrick; Dulac, François; Junkermann, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The VESSAER campaign (VErtical Structure and Sources of AERosols in the Mediterranean Region) was designed to characterize the different sources of aerosol in the Mediterranean Basin and assess the regional impact of aerosol on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. VESSAER was conducted on an ultra-light aircraft in summer 2012. Research activities included ground-based observations in the central and northern regions of Corsica, as well as aerosol lidar and sunphotometer measurements near the eastern coast. The main scientific goals were to investigate local versus long-range sources of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their vertical stratification in the lower troposphere, study evolution and ageing due to atmospheric processes, and determine aerosol direct radiative impacts over a larger spatial scale. The background aerosol concentrations (D > 0.01 um) within the boundary layer in Corsica were nearly 2000 cm^-3 and increased to ca. 104 cm^-3 during pollution events when back-trajectories originated from coastal areas in France and Italy and the Po Valley. Nearly all of these particles were CCN-active at 0.38% supersaturation, indicating a relatively hygroscopic aerosol. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity revealed that ageing (with respect to CCN-activity) of European emissions occurred exclusively in the boundary layer. Within two days, the European emissions had become hygroscopic, probably a result of cloud processing. In contrast, aerosol hygroscopicity did not change as a function of transport time in elevated aerosol layers, suggesting that photochemical ageing of less hygroscopic material is relatively slow compared to ageing processes in the boundary layer. The vertical profiles clearly showed the long-range transport of dust from the Saharan Desert and pollution from the European continent, which were the two major sources of aerosol during the campaign. Two of the research flights coincided with CALIPSO overpasses, when

  5. Oceans and Coasts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  6. Circulation dynamics of Mediterranean precipitation variability 1948-98

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dünkeloh, A.; Jacobeit, J.

    2003-12-01

    Canonical correlation analysis is used to identify main coupled circulation-rainfall patterns and to relate recent variability and trends of Mediterranean precipitation to large-scale circulation dynamics. Analyses are based on geopotential heights (500 and 1000 hPa levels) for the North Atlantic-European area (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis) and on highly resolved (0.5° × 0.5° ) monthly rainfall grids (Climatic Research Unit, Norwich) selected for the Mediterranean area during the 1948-98 period. Combining monthly analyses with similar characteristics to seasonal samples yields winter (October-March), spring (April-May) and summer (June-September) types of coupled variability; a particular autumn type for the whole Mediterranean does not occur on the monthly time scale. Coupled patterns specifically linked to one or two seasons include an east Atlantic jet (EA-Jet) related pattern for summer and a Mediterranean meridional circulation (MMC) pattern for winter and spring. The most important pattern recurring with dynamical adjustments throughout the whole year reflects the seasonal cycle of the Mediterranean oscillation (MO), which is linked (with seasonal dependence) to the Northern Hemisphere teleconnection modes of the Arctic oscillation (AO) and North Atlantic oscillation (NAO). Winter rainfall trends of the recent decades marked by widespread decreases in the Mediterranean area and by opposite conditions in the southeastern part are linked to particular changes over time in several of the associated circulation patterns. Thus, different regional rainfall changes are integrated into an overall interrelation between Mediterranean rainfall patterns and large-scale atmospheric circulation dynamics.

  7. Mediterranean diet and inflammaging within the hormesis paradigm.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Morena; Ostan, Rita; Biondi, Fiammetta; Bellavista, Elena; Fabbri, Cristina; Bertarelli, Claudia; Salvioli, Stefano; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio; Santoro, Aurelia

    2017-06-08

    A coherent set of epidemiological data shows that the Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects capable of preventing a variety of age-related diseases in which low-grade, chronic inflammation/inflammaging plays a major role, but the underpinning mechanism(s) is/are still unclear. It is argued here that the Mediterranean diet can be conceptualized as a form of chronic hormetic stress, similar to what has been proposed regarding calorie restriction, the most thoroughly studied nutritional intervention. Data on the presence in key Mediterranean foods of a variety of compounds capable of exerting hormetic effects are summarized, and the mechanistic role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 pathway is highlighted. Within this conceptual framework, particular attention has been devoted to the neurohormetic and neuroprotective properties of the Mediterranean diet, as well as to its ability to maintain an optimal balance between pro- and anti-inflammaging. Finally, the European Commission-funded project NU-AGE is discussed because it addresses a number of variables not commonly taken into consideration, such as age, sex, and ethnicity/genetics, that can modulate the hormetic effect of the Mediterranean diet. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  8. Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Models for Mediterranean Subcatchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilek, A.; Berberoglu, S.; Donmez, C.

    2016-06-01

    The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA), a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  9. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  10. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980’s, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  11. Mediterranean Jellyfish Venoms: A Review on Scyphomedusae

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The production of natural toxins is an interesting aspect, which characterizes the physiology and the ecology of a number of marine species that use them for defence/offence purposes. Cnidarians are of particular concern from this point of view; their venoms are contained in specialized structures–the nematocysts–which, after mechanical or chemical stimulation, inject the venom in the prey or in the attacker. Cnidarian stinging is a serious health problem for humans in the zones where extremely venomous jellyfish or anemones are common, such as in temperate and tropical oceanic waters and particularly along several Pacific coasts, and severe cases of envenomation, including also lethal cases mainly induced by cubomedusae, were reported. On the contrary, in the Mediterranean region the problem of jellyfish stings is quite modest, even though they can have anyhow an impact on public health and be of importance from the ecological and economic point of view owing to the implications on ecosystems and on some human activities such as tourism, bathing and fishing. This paper reviews the knowledge about the various aspects related to the occurrence and the stinging of the Mediterranean scyphozoan jellyfish as well as the activity of their venoms. PMID:20479971

  12. [Ethics, culture and psychiatry: the ethics of Mediterranean Europe].

    PubMed

    López-Ibor, Juan-José; Crespo, Hervás

    2003-09-01

    The defence of the rights of the person, in Mediterranean ethics, is based on a synthesis of civic humanism and liberalism, derived from the spirit of Greek democracy and Enlightenment, and including the achievements of the XIX and XX centuries. It tempers liberalism with the principles of social welfare. Present bioethics, specialy in European countries, try to integrate both the mediterranean ethics of virtues and the anglosaxon ethics of principles, further adding and integrating a social element, the principle of solidarity and distributive justice (equity). Therefore, European ethics do not proclaim the autonomy of persons and the independence of the individual from society, but the interdependency of persons and nations. They advocate a greater equity and a better management of resources in health care.

  13. Methylmercury in hair fisherman for Turkish coasts

    SciTech Connect

    Vural, N.; Uenlue, H.

    1996-10-01

    Environmental methylmercury mainly arises from the methylation of inorganic mercury. The change in speciation of mercury from inorganic to methylated forms is the first step in the aquatic bioaccumulation processes. The bioconcentration factor of methylmercury in fish tissue to that in water is usually between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5}. Among seafood, fish products are the main source of methylmercury absorbed by men from the environment. Since Minimata epidemic health injuries and deaths in relation to mercury pollution, environmental and biological monitoring of inorganic and organic mercury species has gained importance through out the world and many reports have been published on the health effects and biological monitoring of mercury compounds including some Mediterranean countries. This study focuses on methylmercury in hair of fisherman living in different geographical Turkish coasts and relationship to eating fish habit. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Southeastern Mediterranean Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This oblique northwestward looking panorama view shows the southeastern Mediterranean (29.0N, 33.0E) in great detail. The Sinai Peninsula, the eastern Arabian Desert, the Nile River Valley and Delta as well as the Qatara Depression in Egypt are all prominently portrayed. Even Mt. Sinai is visible in the lower left center of the view. The dusty atmosphere of the region can be seen as a general haziness in the atmosphere.

  15. Brucella ceti infection in dolphins from the Western Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Pérez, Lola; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Muñoz, Pilar M; Alegre, Fernando; Barberán, Montserrat; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; González-Barrientos, Rocio; Moreno, Edgardo; Blasco, José María; Domingo, Mariano

    2014-09-17

    Brucella ceti infections have been increasingly reported in cetaceans. Brucellosis in these animals is associated with meningoencephalitis, abortion, discospondylitis', subcutaneous abscesses, endometritis and other pathological conditions B. ceti infections have been frequently described in dolphins from both, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, only two reports have been made: one from the Italian Tyrrhenian Sea and the other from the Adriatic Sea. We describe the clinical and pathological features of three cases of B. ceti infections in three dolphins stranded in the Mediterranean Catalonian coast. One striped dolphin had neurobrucellosis, showing lethargy, incoordination and lateral swimming due to meningoencephalitis, A B. ceti infected bottlenose dolphin had discospondylitis, and another striped dolphin did not show clinical signs or lesions related to Brucella infection. A detailed characterization of the three B. ceti isolates was performed by bacteriological, molecular, protein and fatty acid analyses. All the B. ceti strains originating from Mediterranean dolphins cluster together in a distinct phylogenetic clade, close to that formed by B. ceti isolates from dolphins inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean. Our study confirms the severity of pathological signs in stranded dolphins and the relevance of B. ceti as a pathogen in the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  17. Analyzing European Inter-Annual Sea Level Variability Using Tide Gauges and Altimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjär, N.

    2003-12-01

    Along the European coasts, tide gauges have been used to monitor sea level for decades. For the last decade sea level have also been monitored by the T/P satellite altimeter at high spatial low temporal coverage . A comparative analysis of sea level from tide gauge and Topex/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter is an integral part of the European Sea Level Service - Research Infrastructure (ESEAS-RI) project. The seas around Europe are divided into sub basins, realizing that each basin has different characteristics, with regard to the dominant frequencies of the sea level heights, not least due to the physical configuration where narrow straits separates the basins (i.e. the Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea). Our analysis shows good agreement in the frequency response between tide gauges and T/P measurements, especially on timescales of 1-5 years. This holds for both closed basins and the open Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Despite their location on the basin margins, tide gauges capture the inter-annual variability on a wider spatial scale quite well. When analyzing long (50+ yrs) time series from tide gauges, it is evident, that the dominant frequencies within a basin changes over time. However, the frequency change patterns seems to be similar from basin to basin.

  18. Origin of anthropogenic hydrocarbons and halocarbons measured in the summertime European outflow (on Crete in 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, V.; Williams, J.; van Aardenne, J. A.; Salisbury, G.; Hofmann, R.; Lawrence, M. G.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Lelieveld, J.; Krol, M.; Berresheim, H.; Lobert, J. M.; Atlas, E.

    2003-04-01

    During the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study MINOS in August 2001, 87 air samples were collected at the ground-based station Finokalia (35° 19' N, 25° 40' E) on the north coast of Crete and subsequently analysed by GC-MS. The analysis includes various hydrocarbons, organo-halogens, HCFCs and CFCs. These compounds have a wide variety of sources and sinks and a large range of atmospheric lifetimes. By plotting the measured variability of these species against lifetime, we found that the compounds describe a linear relationship. It is shown, based on air mass origin analysis and chemical ratios, that several distinct anthropogenic sources influenced the atmospheric composition in Crete. Propane observations are compared to a global model to assess the fossil fuel related emission inventory. Although the model reproduces the general pattern of the propane variations, the model mixing ratios are systematically too low by a factor of 1.5 to 3, probably due to an underestimation of the propane emissions from east European countries in the underlying global database EDGAR. Another important finding was that methyl chloroform, a compound banned under the Montreal protocol, showed significant enhancements from background, which were well correlated with CFC-113. This suggests continued use and emission of methyl chloroform by one or more European countries. We also discuss the observed variations of bromomethane and suggest that the significant peak observed on 12 August 2001 reflects heavy agricultural use as a soil fumigant in Italy.

  19. A Project for Developing an Original Methodology Intended for Determination of the River Basin/Sub-Basin Boundaries and Codes in Western Mediterranean Basin in Turkey with Perspective of European Union Directives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökgöz, Türkay; Ozulu, Murat; Erdoǧan, Mustafa; Seyrek, Kemal

    2016-04-01

    From the view of integrated river basin management, basin/sub-basin boundaries should be determined and encoded systematically with sufficient accuracy and precision. Today basin/sub-basin boundaries are mostly derived from digital elevation models (DEM) in geographic information systems (GIS). The accuracy and precision of the basin/sub-basin boundaries depend primarily on the accuracy and resolution of the DEMs. In this regard, in Turkey, a survey was made for the first time within the scope of this project to identify current situation, problems and needs in General Directorates of State Hydraulic Works, Water Management, Forestry, Meteorology, Combating Desertification and Erosion, which are the major institutions with responsibility and authority. Another factor that determines the accuracy and precision of basin/sub-basin boundaries is the flow accumulation threshold value to be determined at a certain stage according to a specific methodology in deriving the basin/sub-basin boundaries from DEM. Generally, in Turkey, either the default value given by GIS tool is used directly without any geomorphological, hydrological and cartographic bases or it is determined by trial and error. Although there is a system of catchments and rivers network at 1:250,000 scale and a proper method has already been developed on systematic coding of the basin by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, it is stated that a new system of catchments, rivers network and coding at larger scale (i.e. 1:25,000) is needed. In short, the basin/sub-basin boundaries and codes are not available currently at the required accuracy and precision for the fulfilment of the obligations described in European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD). In this case, it is clear that there is not yet any methodology to obtain such products. However, a series of projects should be completed such that the basin/sub-basin boundaries and codes are the fundamental data infrastructure. This task

  20. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von

  1. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  2. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  3. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  4. Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in the Mediterranean Sea and Adjacent Regions: Biogeographic Relicts of the Last Glacial Period.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, M C

    The harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, is one of the best studied cetacean species owing to its common distribution along the coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. In European waters, strandings are common and bycatch mortalities in commercial fisheries reach alarming numbers. Lethal interactions resulting from human activities together with ongoing environmental changes raise serious concerns about population viability throughout the species' range. These concerns foster the need to fill critical gaps in knowledge of harbour porpoise biology, including population structure, feeding ecology, habitat preference and evolutionary history, that are critical information for planning effective management and conservation efforts. While the species is distributed fairly continuously in the North Atlantic Ocean, it becomes fragmented in the south-eastern part with isolated populations occurring along the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, Northwest Africa and the Black Sea. The latter population is separated from Atlantic populations by the Mediterranean Sea, where the species is almost entirely absent. Understanding the evolutionary history of these populations occurring in marginal habitats holds the potential to reveal fundamental aspects of the species' biology such as the factors determining its distribution, ecological niche, and how past and recent environmental variation have shaped the current population structure. This information can be critical for understanding the future evolution of the species in consideration of ongoing environmental changes. This chapter summarizes the recent advances in our knowledge regarding the populations bordering the Mediterranean Sea with a special emphasis on their ecological and evolutionary history, which has recently been reconstructed from genetic analyses. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  6. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emaneting from its crest. On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of

  7. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emaneting from its crest. On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of

  8. Diversity, environmental requirements, and biogeography of bivalve wood-borers (Teredinidae) in European coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Borges, Luísa Ms; Merckelbach, Lucas M; Sampaio, Iris; Cragg, Simon M

    2014-02-13

    Bivalve teredinids inflict great destruction to wooden maritime structures. Yet no comprehensive study was ever carried out on these organisms in European coastal waters. Thus, the aims of this study were to: investigate the diversity of teredinids in European coastal waters; map their past and recent distributions to detect range expansion or contraction; determine salinity-temperature (S-T) requirements of species; flag, for future monitoring, the species that pose the greatest hazard for wooden structures. A total of nine teredinid species were found established in European coastal waters. Seven were considered cryptogenic, of unknown origin, and two were considered alien species. Teredo navalis and Nototeredo norvagica were the species with the widest distribution in European waters. Recently, T. navalis has been reported occurring further east in the Baltic Sea but it was not found at a number of sites on the Atlantic coast of southern Europe. The Atlantic lineage of Lyrodus pedicellatus was the dominant teredinid in the southern Atlantic coast of Europe. In the Mediterranean six teredinid species occurred in sympatry, whereas only three of these occurred in the Black Sea. The species that pose the greatest hazard to wooden maritime structures in European coastal areas are T. navalis and the two lineages of L. pedicellatus. Combined data from field surveys and from the literature made it possible to determine the diversity of established teredinid species and their past and recent distribution in Europe. The environmental requirements of species, determined using climatic envelopes, produced valuable information that assisted on the explanation of species distribution. In addition, the observed trends of species range extension or contraction in Teredo navalis and in the two lineages of Lyrodus pedicellatus seem to emphasise the importance of temperature and salinity as determinants of the distribution of teredinids, whereas their life history strategy seems

  9. Diversity, environmental requirements, and biogeography of bivalve wood-borers (Teredinidae) in European coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bivalve teredinids inflict great destruction to wooden maritime structures. Yet no comprehensive study was ever carried out on these organisms in European coastal waters. Thus, the aims of this study were to: investigate the diversity of teredinids in European coastal waters; map their past and recent distributions to detect range expansion or contraction; determine salinity-temperature (S-T) requirements of species; flag, for future monitoring, the species that pose the greatest hazard for wooden structures. Results A total of nine teredinid species were found established in European coastal waters. Seven were considered cryptogenic, of unknown origin, and two were considered alien species. Teredo navalis and Nototeredo norvagica were the species with the widest distribution in European waters. Recently, T. navalis has been reported occurring further east in the Baltic Sea but it was not found at a number of sites on the Atlantic coast of southern Europe. The Atlantic lineage of Lyrodus pedicellatus was the dominant teredinid in the southern Atlantic coast of Europe. In the Mediterranean six teredinid species occurred in sympatry, whereas only three of these occurred in the Black Sea. The species that pose the greatest hazard to wooden maritime structures in European coastal areas are T. navalis and the two lineages of L. pedicellatus. Conclusions Combined data from field surveys and from the literature made it possible to determine the diversity of established teredinid species and their past and recent distribution in Europe. The environmental requirements of species, determined using climatic envelopes, produced valuable information that assisted on the explanation of species distribution. In addition, the observed trends of species range extension or contraction in Teredo navalis and in the two lineages of Lyrodus pedicellatus seem to emphasise the importance of temperature and salinity as determinants of the distribution of teredinids, whereas

  10. Coast Guard SOF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Treasury. The Coast Guard’s military character was born in the period when it served as the nation’s only navy, between the end of the War of...sheep. If you have a capacity for violence and no empathy for your fellow citizens, then you have defined an aggressive sociopath —a wolf. But what...have been born had the Coast Guard remained in the Treasury Department alongside US Customs dur- ing the early years of the drug war. Properly resourced

  11. First Gammaherpesvirus detection in a free-living Mediterranean bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Lecis, Roberta; Tocchetti, Marco; Rotta, Andrea; Naitana, Salvatore; Ganges, Llilianne; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Recently, herpes viruses have been detected in different cetacean species from the Atlantic and in Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). While pathogens such as cetacean morbillivirus have been widely studied following recent epizootics, herpesvirus (HV) distribution and pathogenic effects in cetaceans are still understudied. This study reports the first molecular identification of a Gammaherpesvirus in the genital mucosa of a free-living Mediterranean bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) stranded off the coast of central Italy. Sequenced herpesviral PCR product was closely related to other HVs recently isolated in the genital mucosa of various cetacean species.

  12. The low frequency Western Mediterranean summer variability: relevance, feedbacks and predictability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Ortizbevia Maria; Antonio, Ruizdeelvira; Francisco Jose, Alvarez-Garcia; Miguel, Tasambay-Salazar

    2016-04-01

    In a recent study, OrtizBeviá et al. (2012) have defined a seasonal index, the Western Mediterranean Index, in order to characterize the Western Mediterranean summer variability. They have found there a statistically significant feedback between the Mediterranean and the North Pacific variability, characterized by the Pacific North America Mode Index. They have detected also a feedback between the Western Mediterranean in summer and the variability of some areas of the North Atlantic basin. Based on these statistical linear relationship they proposed a model to forecast the part of the Western Mediterranean variability represented by the Western Mediterranean Index in summer and autumn and validate it through some hindcast experiments, with a moderate, but significant skill. OrtizBeviá et al.(2012) presented also the evidence of the existence of a low frequency, multidecadal component in the Western Mediterranean summer variability. In the work to be presented here we extend the previous one, focusing on the long term variability. We perform similar statistical analysis on selected data fields that span more than 100 years. We add a second index to the characterisation of the Western Mediterranean variability and are then able to show the relevance of the Western Mediterranean summer variability for european air temperature and precipitation seasonal anomalies. Our analyses show that the variability represented by two North Atlantic Indexes play a key role in the Western Mediterranean summer variability. They also proof the existence of a feedback between this variability and that of the Pacific North America Mode, for an extended period of more than 140 years. The performance of the different predictive models built on the basis of those linear relationships are tested in a series of hindcast experiments. References Ortiz Beviá, M. J.; Alvarez García

  13. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  14. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  15. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  16. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ... or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been ...

  17. Earth - Eastern Australia Coast

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-28

    This false color image of the Eastern Coast of Australia was obtained by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft at about 3:00 p.m. PST, Dec. 8, 1990, at a range of more than 35,000 miles. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00121

  18. Identifying the drivers of abundance and size of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Northwestern Mediterranean lagoons.

    PubMed

    Delpy, Floriane; Albouy-Boyer, Séverine; Pagano, Marc; Thibault, Delphine; Blanchot, Jean; Guilhaumon, François; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Bonnet, Delphine

    2016-08-01

    Acknowledged as among the worst invasive marine species, Mnemiopsis leidyi has spread through European Seas since the mid-1980's. Here we report a bimonthly survey conducted in 2010-11 in three lagoons (Bages-Sigean, Thau and Berre) and at two adjacent coastal stations (Sète and SOMLIT-Marseille) along the French Mediterranean coast. M. leidyi was present only in Berre and Bages-Sigean with maximum abundances observed in late summer. M. leidyi adults were present year round in Berre with the largest organisms (∼6 cm) observed in April. In Bages-Sigean, they occurred in sufficient abundance to be recorded by fishermen between August and November. Multiple linear regressions highlighted that abundance in both lagoons was mainly influenced by direct effects of salinity and chlorophyll-a, and temperature to a lesser extent. While M. leidyi has not yet been recorded in Thau, the lagoon is continually monitored to detect the potential establishment of M. leidyi.

  19. Seabed substrates and sedimentation rates of the European Seas - EMODnet-Geology2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Alanen, Ulla; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet Geology 2

    2015-04-01

    Seas and oceans are important for us. However, increased human activities in marine and coastal areas have altered marine ecosystems worldwide. To ensure sustainable use of marine resources and health of the seas, improved management is needed. The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive targets to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of the EU's marine waters by 2020. However, it has been acknowledged that the poor access to data on the marine environment was a handicap to government decision-making, a barrier to scientific understanding and a break on the economy. The effective management of the broad marine areas requires spatial datasets covering all European marine areas. As a consequence the European Commission adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) in 2009 to combine dispersed marine data into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 and it will run for 3 years. The partnership includes 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. The partners, mainly from the marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - EuroGeoSurveys), aim to assemble marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). In comparison to the urEMODnet project (2009-2012) the data will be more detailed and aim to cover much larger area. The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first seabed substrate map for the European Seas, as well as data/map showing sedimentation rates at the seabed. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on seabed substrates will be delivered in the portal, in addition to the existing 1:1 million map layer from

  20. Wild and semi-domesticated food plant consumption in seven circum-Mediterranean areas.

    PubMed

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Della, Athena; Giusti, Maria Elena; De Pasquale, Caterina; Lenzarini, Cinzia; Censorii, Elena; Gonzales-Tejero, Maria Reyes; Sanchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Ramiro-Gutierrez, Jose M; Skoula, Melpomeni; Johnson, Chris; Sarpaki, Anaya; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Jorhi, Said; El-Demerdash, Mohamed; El-Zayat, Mustafa; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-08-01

    The use of local Mediterranean food plants is at the brink of disappearance. Even though there is relatively abundant information on inventories of wild edible taxa, there is also a crucial need to understand how these plants are consumed and when and how these consumption phenomena change over time and place around the Mediterranean. Additionally, it is important to study such knowledge systems and find innovative ways of infusing them to the future Mediterranean generations. During the years 2003-2006 a circum-Mediterranean ethnobotanical field survey for wild food plants was conducted in selected study sites in seven Mediterranean areas (European Union-funded RUBIA Project). Structured and semi-structured questionnaires have been administered to indigenous people and 294 wild food plant taxa were documented in the survey. A comparative analysis of the data was undertaken showing that the quantity and quality of traditional knowledge varies among the several study areas and is closely related to the traditions, environment and cultural heritage of each country. More similarities of wild edible popular use were revealed between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Mediterranean.

  1. Epidemiology of Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Mediterranean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Girmenia, Corrado; Serrao, Alessandra; Canichella, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Infections by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), in particular, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp), are a significant public health challenge worldwide. Resistance to carbapenems in enterobacteriaceae is linked to different mechanisms, including the production of the various types of enzymes like KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48. Despite several attempts to control the spread of these infections at the local and national level, the epidemiological situation for CRKp had worsened in the last years in the Mediterranean area. The rate and types of CRKp isolates greatly differ in the various Mediterranean countries. KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is diffused particularly in the European countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and is endemic in Greece and Italy. On the contrary, OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae is endemic in Turkey and Malta and diffused at inter-regional level particularly in some North African and Middle East countries. The spread of these multiresistant pathogens in the world and the Mediterranean countries has been related to various epidemiological factors including the international transfer of patients coming from endemic areas. PMID:27441063

  2. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  3. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) from the Ionian sandy coasts of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Conti, Erminia; Dattilo, Sandro; Costa, Giovanni; Puglisi, Concetto

    2016-07-01

    The Ionian beaches of Sicily are of particular ecological interest because they include the basin of the largest active volcano in Europe and hosts both sites subject to natural protection constraints, as well as important industrial settlements. Consequently, the possibilities for these areas to become polluted are numerous. The sandhopper Talitrus saltator has proven to be a good bioindicator of contamination by numerous trace metals on some European coasts. Nevertheless, no data are available for the populations inhabiting the shores of the southern Mediterranean. Now, as metal accumulation has been shown to vary intraspecifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate trace metal accumulation in adults of T. saltator inhabiting Ionian coastal areas of Sicily and make an assessment of natural and anthropogenic metal pollution of this strip of coast. We also extended our survey to As, Co, Mo, Se, Sn and V never investigated before in this species. Significant differences in metal concentration among sites were found in both sand samples and amphipod tissues. The highest metal content was observed near the mouth of Simeto, the longest river of Sicily which collects waters coming from the volcanic territory of Mount Etna. The bioaccumulation of Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn in T. saltator is fully confirmed; it is also proven for As and Mo and assumed for Cr, Fe, Mn and V. Our outcomes let us to evaluate the prevailing influence of telluric contamination of the Ionian sandy shores of Sicily by trace metals. We also come to the conclusion that in the northern sites, pollution originates from volcanic emission while anthropogenic influence prevails in the southern ones.

  4. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries.

  5. Redescriptions of two frequently recorded but poorly known hemiurid digeneans, Lecithochirium musculus (Looss, 1907) (Lecithochiriinae) and Ectenurus lepidus Looss, 1907 (Dinurinae), based on material from the western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Carreras-Aubets, Marta; Montero, Francisco E; Kostadinova, Aneta; Gibson, David I; Carrassón, Maite

    2012-07-01

    Two frequently reported but poorly known hemiurid digeneans, Lecithochirium musculus (Looss, 1907) (Lecithochiriinae), from the stomach of Trachinus draco and Citharus linguatula, and Ectenurus lepidus Looss, 1907 (Dinurinae), from the stomach of Spicara maena, are redescribed based on material from off the Barcelona coast of the western Mediterranean. The two species are commented upon, and Lecithochirium israelense Fischthal, 1980 is considered a synonym of L. musculus. Records of the two species in the Mediterranean Basin and North East Atlantic region are summarised.

  6. Do Mediterranean crickets Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) come from the Mediterranean? Largescale phylogeography and regional gene flow.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M; Ferguson, J W H

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the degree of between-population genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, as well as the possible causes of such differentiation. Using cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, we estimate genetic variation in G. bimaculatus from seven South African and two Mediterranean populations. Within-population genetic variation in Europe (two haplotypes, one unique to a single individual) suggest low effective population size and strong bottlenecks with associated founder effects, probably due to cold winter environments in Europe that limit reproduction to a short part of the summer. The likely cause for this is the daily maxima in winter temperatures that fall below the critical level of 16 degrees C (enabling normal calling and courtship behaviour) in Mediterranean Europe, whereas the equivalent temperatures in southern Africa are above this limit and enable reproduction over a large part of the year. European genetic variants were either shared with Africa or closely related to African haplotypes. For survival, European populations are probably dependent on immigration from other areas, including Africa. South African populations have low but measurable gene flow with Europe and show significant between-population genetic differentiation (30 haplotypes). Isolation-by-distance is not sufficient to explain the degree of between-population genetic differences observed, and a large degree of dispersal is also required in order to account for the observed patterns. Differences in morphology and calling behaviour among these populations are underlied by these genetic differences.

  7. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Galil, Bella S.; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided. PMID:22207817

  8. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  9. Northeast Coast, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    The northeast coast of Hokkaido and Kunashir Island, Japan (44.0N, 143.0E) are seen bordered by drifting sea ice. The sea ice has formed a complex pattern of eddies in response to surface water currents and winds. Photos of this kind aid researchers in describing local ocean current patterns and the effects of wind speed and direction on the drift of surface material, such as ice floes or oil. Kunashir is the southernmost of the Kuril Islands.

  10. Southeastern Mediterranean Panorama

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-152-180 (5-24 June 1991) --- The Sinai Peninsula dominates this north-looking, oblique view. According to NASA photo experts studying the STS 40 imagery, the Red Sea in the foreground is clear of river sediment because of the prevailing dry climate of the Middle East. The great rift of the Gulf of Aqaba extends northward to Turkey (top right) through the Dead Sea. The international boundary between Israel and Egypt, reflecting different rural landscapes, stands out clearly. The Nile River runs through the frame. NASA photo experts believe the haze over the Mediterranean to be wind-borne dust. The photo was taken with an Aero-Linhof large format camera.

  11. Qibla in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rius-Piniés, Mònica

    Orientation toward Mecca has been compulsory for Muslims in all time periods and in all places. In fact, mosques were built in such a way as to help believers to pray toward the right direction. Nevertheless, the alignment of the sacred buildings was not always exact, and many did not actually face the Kaaba. There are many reasons for this "mistake", the main one being that at the time of the construction of the most important mosques, the astronomical and geographical knowledge needed to make accurate calculations was lacking. In the Mediterranean area, the scholars who were most involved in this task were the fuqahā' (experts in Islamic jurisprudence) who were sometimes well versed in astronomical knowledge or, at least, were skilled in the practice of popular astronomy. The combination of astronomy and religion, mixed with the political and topographical conditions, produces a unique area of study which remains controversial today.

  12. Familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Padeh, Shai; Berkun, Yackov

    2016-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the oldest and most common of the hereditary autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs). A large body of information has been accumulated over recent years on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The purpose of this review is to bring an up-to-date summary of the clinic manifestations, diagnostic criteria and treatment of FMF. An overview of the pathophysiologic basis of FMF as part of the AID is discussed. Over the last year, attempts to establish new criteria for childhood FMF, new guidelines for treatment and follow-up of disease and novel treatment for FMF were made. A comparison of the different disease severity scores for research purposes suggests that a new score is needed. New evidence for antiinterleukin-1 blockade as a new treatment modality is described. New diagnostic criteria, disease severity score, treatment and follow-up guidelines have been proposed, and need validation in the next several years.

  13. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Migita, Kiyoshi; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Yazaki, Masahide; Nonaka, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Akinori; Toma, Tomoko; Kishida, Dai; Uehara, Ritei; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Jiuchi, Yuka; Masumoto, Junya; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Hiroaki; Terai, Chihiro; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Kawakami, Atsushi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Yasunami, Michio; Yachie, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by MEditerranean FeVer gene (MEFV) mutations. In Japan, patients with FMF have been previously reported, including a mild or incomplete form. Several factors are presumed to contribute to the variable penetrance and to the phenotypic variability of FMF. We conducted the current study to investigate the correlation of variable clinical presentations and MEFV genotypic distributions in Japanese FMF patients. We analyzed demographic, clinical, and genetic data for 311 FMF patients enrolled in the study. Clinically, we classified FMF into 2 phenotypes: 1) the “typical” form of FMF, and 2) the “atypical” form of FMF according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. Patients with the typical FMF phenotype had a higher frequency of febrile episodes, a shorter duration of febrile attacks, more frequent thoracic pain, abdominal pain, a family history of FMF, and MEFV exon 10 mutations. Conversely, patients with the atypical FMF phenotype had a lower frequency of fever episodes and more frequent arthritis in atypical distribution, myalgia, and MEFV exon 3 mutations. Multivariate analysis showed that the variable associated with typical FMF presentation was the presence of MEFV exon 10 mutations. Typical FMF phenotype frequencies were decreased in patients carrying 2 or a single low-penetrance mutations compared with those carrying 2 or a single high-penetrance mutations (M694I), with an opposite trend for the atypical FMF phenotype. In addition, patients having more than 2 MEFV mutations had a younger disease onset and a higher prevalence of thoracic pain than those carrying a single or no mutations. Thus, MEFV exon 10 mutations are associated with the more typical FMF phenotype. In contrast, more than half of the Japanese FMF patients without MEFV exon 10 mutations presented with an atypical FMF phenotype, indicating that Japanese FMF patients tend to be divided into 2 phenotypes by a variation

  14. Tidal notches in Mediterranean Sea: a comprehensive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, Fabrizio; Lo Presti, Valeria; Rovere, Alessio; Ferranti, Luigi; Anzidei, Marco; Furlani, Stefano; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Orru, Paolo E.; Scicchitano, Giovanni; Sannino, Gianmaria; Spampinato, Cecilia R.; Pagliarulo, Rossella; Deiana, Giacomo; de Sabata, Eleonora; Sansò, Paolo; Vacchi, Matteo; Vecchio, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Recent works (Evelpidou et al., 2012) suggest that the modern tidal notch is disappearing worldwide due sea level rise over the last century. In order to assess this hypothesis, we measured modern tidal notches in several of sites along the Mediterranean coasts. We report observations on tidal notches cut along carbonate coasts from 73 sites from Italy, France, Croatia, Montenegro, Greece, Malta and Spain, plus additional observations carried outside the Mediterranean. At each site, we measured notch width and depth, and we described the characteristics of the biological rim at the base of the notch. We correlated these parameters with wave energy, tide gauge datasets and rock lithology. Our results suggest that, considering 'the development of tidal notches the consequence of midlittoral bioerosion' (as done in Evelpidou et al., 2012) is a simplification that can lead to misleading results, such as stating that notches are disappearing. Important roles in notch formation can be also played by wave action, rate of karst dissolution, salt weathering and wetting and drying cycles. Of course notch formation can be augmented and favoured also by bioerosion which can, in particular cases, be the main process of notch formation and development. Our dataset shows that notches are carved by an ensemble rather than by a single process, both today and in the past, and that it is difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle them and establish which one is prevailing. We therefore show that tidal notches are still forming, challenging the hypothesis that sea level rise has drowned them.

  15. Alien Marine Fishes Deplete Algal Biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

    2011-01-01

    One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less ‘barrens’, we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to ‘barrens’ implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast. PMID:21364943

  16. Orthodontics in the Mediterranean Area.

    PubMed

    Calò, Claudia; Garino, Francesco; Cozzani, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    The article describes on the results of the first Workshop that SIDO organized in December 2005 in Cairo getting together twenty Countries who discussed Orthodontics in the Mediterranean Area. The aim was to take a picture, for the first time, of the state of Orthodontics in the different Mediterranean Countries using it as basis for a further co-operation. Progress in Orthodontics (published in English, indexed in Medline, free of charge website and downloading) was offered by SIDO as the means for a scientific and organizational sharing, and to spread a Mediterranean Orthodontic culture all over the world. The first step toward mutual understanding was completed and for the first time we collected data and the Mediterranean Orthodontic Integration Project (MOIP), on which we can base a coming meeting and debate, was introduced.

  17. First record of anisakid juveniles (Nematoda) in the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax (family: Moronidae), and their role as bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Quraishy, Saleh Al; El-Mahdi, Magda; Al-Ghamdi, Ali; Mostafa, Nesma

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the anisakid nematode distribution pattern in the fish collected from coasts of Mediterranean Sea, Egypt, during the period September 2010-April 2011. Two hundred thirty out of 300 (76.7%) Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass) marine fishes belonging to family Moronidae were dissected and found to be infected with larva three nematodes. The larvae had been studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The present work represents the first record of the presence of the parasite in this fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni) in parasites as well as in tissues of fish were measured. The presented results showed that the nematode parasites are able to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues and in some cases that they are able to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in a higher amount than host tissues. This demonstrated their sustainability as bioindicators of environmental pollution by removing heavy metals and help in the survival of fish.

  18. Molecular characterization of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Raphidascaridae) from different fish caught off the Tunisian coast based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Amor, Nabil; Farjallah, Sarra; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2011-11-01

    Larval forms of the genus Hysterothylacium have been previously reported in teleost fish from the North African coasts of central Mediterranean Sea by morphological analysis. In the present study, samples identified morphologically as Hysterothylacium aduncum (n = 62), from Merluccius merluccius, Trachurus mediterraneus and Pagellus erythrinus from different geographical locations of the Tunisian coasts, were genetically characterised by sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of the sequences obtained with those available in public gene databases confirmed that all the samples from the Tunisian coasts belong to a single species, namely H. aduncum. All specimens from the Tunisian coasts showed one indel in position 787 in ITS-2 sequences not reported by any of the previously published sequences from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea) and the East Greenland Sea, suggesting the existence of a population-specific pattern exhibiting a low differentiation of this parasite in this area. This is the first molecular characterization of H. aduncum from the Tunisian coasts using ITS rDNA sequences which allows the definition of genetic markers for their unequivocal identification, and provides further biological data on these nematodes in marine fish off the Tunisian coasts, improving the picture of the occurrence of these taxa in the North African coasts of central Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Modelling the transport and accumulation of floating marine debris in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Mansui, J; Molcard, A; Ourmières, Y

    2015-02-15

    In the era of plastic and global environmental issues, when large garbage patches have been observed in the main oceanic basins, this work is the first attempt to explore the possibility that similar permanent accumulation structures may exist in the Mediterranean Sea. The questions addressed in this work are: can the general circulation, with its sub-basins scale gyres and mesoscale instabilities, foster the concentration of floating items in some regions? Where are the more likely coastal zones impacted from open ocean sources? Multi-annual simulations of advected surface passive debris depict the Tyrrhenian Sea, the north-western Mediterranean sub-basin and the Gulf of Sirte as possible retention areas. The western Mediterranean coasts present very low coastal impact, while the coastal strip from Tunisia to Syria appears as the favourite destination. No permanent structure able to retain floating items in the long-term were found, as the basin circulation variability brings sufficient anomalies.

  20. Turbulent mixing in the eddy transport of Western Mediterranean Intermediate Water to the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forryan, A.; Allen, J. T.; Edhouse, E.; Silburn, B.; Reeve, K.; Tesi, E.

    2012-09-01

    Western Mediterranean Intermediate Water (WIW) is formed in winter in the North-Western Mediterranean. WIW, identifiable as a distinct temperature minimum layer between Atlantic-Mediterranean Interface waters and the denser Levantine Intermediate Water, is carried down the east coast of Spain in anticyclonic mode water eddies, or “weddies” eventually reaching the Alboran sea. A previous detailed analysis of a weddy in the vicinity of the Almeria-Oran front indicated that it could have accounted for 10% of a winter's production of WIW, but this analysis was unable to consider turbulent dissipation. In this study we present microstructure measurements across a similar observation of WIW in the vicinity of the Almeria-Oran front and show that this figure could be conservative by 15-50% due to the turbulent dissipation associated with a weddy.

  1. Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, G.; Fortibuoni, T.; Gristina, M.; Sinopoli, M.; Fiorentino, F.

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the nurseries of seven commercially important demersal species of the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): red mullet, European hake, horned octopus, deep-water rose shrimp, greater forkbeard, Norway lobster and giant red shrimp. An eleven-year series of data collected through experimental trawling in the Strait of Sicily during spring and autumn was analyzed. The spatio-temporal persistence of the high-density aggregations (hot spots) of juvenile individuals in their first year of life was investigated to identify habitats that serve as nurseries. The density of recruits within the persistent nurseries was used as a proxy of the unit area contribution of individuals which recruit to the adult population. The spatial distribution patterns of the recruits of most the species were well defined and very stable in the long term. Persistent and potentially highly productive nurseries of European hake, deep-water rose shrimp and greater forkbeard were identified off the southern coast of Sicily. Persistent areas of recruits concentration were also observed for the other species investigated, but their specific potential contribution of individuals to the adult population was not substantial compared to adjacent grounds. The close or overlapped localization of sites which regularly host vulnerable life stages of different exploited species, revealed an area of great ecological significance which probably plays a major role in the dynamics of the fishery resources in the Strait of Sicily. Appropriate spatial protection measures of this area, including marine protected area designation, could complement conventional management approach for ensuring the long-term sustainability of these fisheries and stocks conservation.

  2. Genetic diversity of wild European and Mediterranean pear species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many pear species are native to Europe, the Middle East, and Northern Africa. These seemingly distinct species readily hybridize resulting in nomenclatures that do not reflect their phylogenetic history. We have used microsatellite and chloroplast sequence markers as well as phenotypic traits to dif...

  3. Italy, the European Union, and Mediterranean Migrants: Opportunity from Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    refugees become a long-term challenge, or a short-term flare up of circumstance? The answer to this question is fairly straightforward: once refugees...an- aging-europe/. 352 Ibid. 353 Stefano Solare , “How Immigrants Are Saving the Italian Economy and Pensions,” Open Migration, March 6, 2016...isis.html. 92 Solare , Stefano. “How Immigrants Are Saving the Italian Economy and Pensions.” Open Migration. March 6, 2016. http://openmigration.org

  4. Cancer and Mediterranean dietary traditions.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Kuper, H; Trichopoulos, D

    2000-09-01

    The incidence of cancer overall in Mediterranean countries is lower than in Scandinavian countries, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This is mostly accounted for by the lower incidence among Mediterranean countries of cancer of the large bowel, breast, endometrium, and prostate. These forms of cancer have been linked to dietary factors, particularly low consumption of vegetables and fruit, and to a certain extent, high consumption of meat. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by high consumption of foods of plant origin, relatively low consumption of red meat, and high consumption of olive oil, which in several studies has been reported to be more beneficial against cancer than other forms of added lipids. By taking into account the established or presumed nutritional causation of major forms of cancer and the composition of the traditional Mediterranean diet, estimates can be derived concerning the fraction of cancer occurrence in highly developed Western countries that could be attributed to their diets in comparison with the healthy traditional Mediterranean diet. Although estimates can only be crude, it can be calculated that up to 25% of the incidence of colorectal cancer, approximately 15% of the incidence of breast cancer, and approximately 10% of the incidence of prostate, pancreas, and endometrial cancer could be prevented if the populations of highly developed Western countries could shift to the traditional healthy Mediterranean diet.

  5. Variability in regional background aerosols within the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Pérez, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Theodosi, C.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Kubilay, N.; Koçak, M.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study is the identification of major factors controlling levels and chemical composition of aerosols in the regional background (RB) along the Mediterranean Basin (MB). To this end, data on PM levels and speciation from Montseny (MSY, Northeastern Spain), Finokalia (FKL, Southern Greece) and Erdemli (ERL, Southern Turkey) for the period 2001 to 2008 are evaluated. Important differences on PM levels and composition are evident when comparing the Western and Eastern MBs. The results manifest W-E and N-S PM10 and PM2.5 gradients along the MB, attributed to the higher frequency and intensity of African dust outbreaks in the EMB, while for PM1 very similar levels are encountered. PM in the EMB is characterized by higher levels of crustal material and sulphate as compared to WMB (and central European sites), however, RB nitrate and OC+EC levels are relatively constant across the Mediterranean and lower than other European sites. Marked seasonal trends are evidenced for PM levels, nitrate (WMB), ammonium and sulphate. Also relatively higher levels of V and Ni (WMB) are measured in the Mediterranean basin, probably as a consequence of high emissions from fuel-oil combustion (power generation, industrial and shipping emissions). Enhanced sulphate levels in EMB compared to WMB were measured. The high levels of sulphate in the EMB may deplete the available gas-phase NH3 so that little ammonium nitrate can form due to the low NH3 levels. This study illustrates the existence of three very important features within the Mediterranean that need to be accounted for when modeling climate effects of aerosols in the area, namely: (a) the increasing gradient of dust from WMB to EMB; (b) the change of hygroscopic behavior of mineral aerosols (dust) via nitration and sulphation; and (c) the abundance of highly hygroscopic aerosols during high insolation (low cloud formation) periods.

  6. Variability in regional background aerosols within the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Pérez, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Theodosi, C.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Kubilay, N.; Koçak, M.

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this study is the identification of major factors controlling levels and chemical composition of aerosols in the regional background (RB) along the Mediterranean Basin (MB). To this end, data on PM levels and speciation from Montseny (MSY, NE Spain), Finokalia (FKL, Southern Greece) and Erdemli (ERL, Southern Turkey) for the period 2001 to 2008 are evaluated. Important differences on PM levels and composition are evident when comparing the Western and Eastern MBs. The results manifest W-E and N-S PM10 and PM2.5 gradients along the MB, attributed to the higher frequency and intensity of African dust outbreaks in the EMB, while for PM1 very similar levels are encountered. PM in the EMB is characterized by higher levels of crustal material and sulphate as compared to WMB (and central European sites), however, RB nitrate and OC + EC levels are relatively constant across the Mediterranean and lower than other European sites. Marked seasonal trends are evidenced for PM levels, nitrate (WMB), ammonium and sulphate. Also relatively higher levels of V and Ni (WMB) are measured in the Mediterranean basin, probably as a consequence of high emissions from fuel-oil combustion (power generation, industrial and shipping emissions). Enhanced sulphate levels in EMB compared to WMB were measured. The high levels of sulphate in the EMB may deplete the available gas-phase NH3 so that little ammonium nitrate can form due to the low NH3 levels. This study illustrates the existence of three very important features within the Mediterranean that need to be accounted for when modeling climate effects of aerosols in the area, namely: a) the increasing gradient of dust from WMB to EMB; b) the change of hygroscopic behavior of mineral aerosols (dust) via nitration and sulfation; and c) the abundance of highly hygroscopic aerosols during high insolation (low cloud formation) periods.

  7. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  8. Inconsistencies in coastal dune genesis and development in the western Mediterranean Cabopino Dune system, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Malvárez, Gonzalo; Jackson, Derek; Navas, Fatima

    2016-04-01

    It is generally agreed that a falling sea level regime is required in the long term to establish dunes as distinctive landform features along a coast. Sedimentary (supply) bodies from fluvial, glacial sources or marine platform processes also need to be in place. In most Atlantic-facing coastal dune systems the current morpho-sedimentary structures are usually associated with the period between 18K BP and present when both glacial and riverine sediments emplaced sediments within the active zone of present sea level to help form beaches and dunes. Mediterranean coastal dunes fronted by steep continental shelves, such as in the western Mediterranean coast of southern Spain are, however, not associated with glacial deposits and thus are only present in association with river mouths and/or coastal lagoons. Their development is attributed to very recent sediment supply, which, combined with other forcing factors such as wind and waves, several orders of magnitude below those of north Atlantic systems, explains their limited extent. Some coastal dune fields however, do not seem to respond to this general pattern because of their scale and, more importantly, their origin linked possibly to marine platform processes rather than riverine or lagoonal development. Here, we examine the Cabopino dune system in southern Spain offering a conceptual model of their genesis and development as an "Atlantic" dune system within a Mediterranean setting. This is demonstrated by their scale (the largest in the Spanish Mediterranean) and their morphodynamic link to nearshore and platform processes in the last 18,000 years.

  9. Calibration of magnitude scales for earthquakes of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardini, Domenico; di Donato, Maria; Boschi, Enzo

    In order to provide the tools for uniform size determination for Mediterranean earthquakes over the last 50-year period of instrumental seismology, we have regressed the magnitude determinations for 220 earthquakes of the European-Mediterranean region over the 1977-1991 period, reported by three international centres, 11 national and regional networks and 101 individual stations and observatories, using seismic moments from the Harvard CMTs. We calibrate M(M0) regression curves for the magnitude scales commonly used for Mediterranean earthquakes (ML, MWA, mb, MS, MLH, MLV, MD, M); we also calibrate static corrections or specific regressions for individual observatories and we verify the reliability of the reports of different organizations and observatories. Our analysis shows that the teleseismic magnitudes (mb, MS) computed by international centers (ISC, NEIC) provide good measures of earthquake size, with low standard deviations (0.17-0.23), allowing one to regress stable regional calibrations with respect to the seismic moment and to correct systematic biases such as the hypocentral depth for MS and the radiation pattern for mb; while mb is commonly reputed to be an inadequate measure of earthquake size, we find that the ISC mb is still today the most precise measure to use to regress MW and M0 for earthquakes of the European-Mediterranean region; few individual observatories report teleseismic magnitudes requiring specific dynamic calibrations (BJI, MOS). Regional surface-wave magnitudes (MLV, MLH) reported in Eastern Europe generally provide reliable measures of earthquake size, with standard deviations often in the 0.25-0.35 range; the introduction of a small (±0.1-0.2) static station correction is sometimes required. While the Richter magnitude ML is the measure of earthquake size most commonly reported in the press whenever an earthquake strikes, we find that ML has not been computed in the European-Mediterranean in the last 15 years; the reported local

  10. Trophic structure of pelagic species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Navarro, Joan; Coll, Marta; Layman, Craig A.; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Ecological knowledge of food web interactions within pelagic marine communities is often limited, impairing our capabilities to manage these ecologically and economically important marine fish species. Here we used stable isotope analyses to investigate trophic interactions in the pelagic ecosystem of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during 2012 and 2013. Our results suggest that European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, and anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, are consumers located at relatively low levels of the pelagic food web. Unexpectedly, the round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, appeared to be located at a higher trophic level than the other small pelagic fish species, although previous studies found similarity in their diets. Isotope data suggested that trophic niches of species within the genera Trachurus spp. and Scomber spp., were distinct. Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda, European hake Merluccius merluccius and European squid Loligo vulgaris, appeared to feed at higher trophic levels than other species. Despite some intraspecific seasonal variability for some species, community trophic structure appeared relatively stable through the year. These data provide an important step for developing models of food web dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Ancient wells and their geoarchaeological significance in detecting tectonics of the Israel Mediterranean coastline region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, Yaacov; Eldar, Iris

    1987-01-01

    Eight ancient water wells, representing the late Bronze Age to the Crusades period (ca. 3100 700 B.P.), have recently been excavated (six by the authors) and reopened at archaeological sites (tels) along the southern and central Mediterranean coast of Israel. Evidence of ancient freshwater levels directly reflects on possible neotectonics of the region and on eustatic changes of sea level. There is substantial disagreement about the tectonic stability of the Israel Mediterranean coastal region during the past 3500 yr, whether there was a large-magnitude tectonic event (one of the largest known for recent times) during the period in discussion or whether the region was tectonically quiet. We tested the instability hypothesis by using geoarchaeological data from the wells and found no evidence for significant tectonic deformation of the central and southern Israel coast in the past 3100 yr. The “ancient water-well” method can, with appropriate modifications, be used all around the Mediterranean and other coasts elsewhere in the world where ground-water-sea-level relations are alike. Now in the digging of wells we must not disdain reflection, but must devote much acuteness and skill to the consideration of the natural principles of things. Vitruvius Pollio, Architectura, Book VIII, Chapter VI (25 B.C.)

  12. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-15

    SL3-87-355 (July-September 1973) --- A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emanating from its crest. (The altitude is approximate because the height of the volcano changes with each eruption). On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of color infrared film in which vegetation appears red. This is very evident on the slopes of Etna, in the Monti Nebrodi area at upper let, and in the local areas in the lower part of the picture. Studies of Mount Etna and related volcanic features will be undertaken by Professor Roberto Cassinis of Servizio Geologio d?Italia, Rome. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior?s Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    NAVFAC Southwest Lora E. Morrow Deputy for Small Business NAVFAC Southwest NAVFAC Southwest Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast August...REPORT DATE 13 AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast 5a...S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast

  14. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  15. The MedCLIVAR program and the climate of the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.; Gacic, M.; Gomis, G.; Garcia-Herrera, R.; Giorgi, F.; Planton, S.; Trigo, R.; Theocharis, A.; Tsimplis, M. N.; Ulbrich, U.; Xoplaki, E.

    2012-04-01

    MedCLIVAR has become an independent platform for scientific discussion, the exchange of information and the coordination of activities across scientific groups around the Mediterranean. The scientific objects of the programme include past climate variability, connections between the Mediterranean and global climate, the Mediterranean Sea circulation and sea level, feedbacks on the global climate system, and the regional responses to greenhouse gas, air pollution, and aerosols. A strength of the MedCLIVAR programme is the development of a multidisciplinary vision of the evolution of Mediterranean climate, which includes atmospheric, marine and terrestrial components at multiple time scales, covering the range from paleo-reconstructions to future climate scenarios. MedCLIVAR has promoted scientific dissemination with many publication and by producing two books, which review the climate-related knowledge of the Mediterranean basin, one published at the beginning of the project and the second just recently finalized. Over these years, MedCLIVAR (www.medclivar.eu) has held 6 workshops and 2 schools, assigned 31 young scientist exchange grants and 7 senior scientist short visits, sponsored or co-sponsored 11 scientific meetings and organized annual sessions during the European Geophysical Union general assembly. A systematic archive of observations and model data simulations on the Mediterranean Climate, in order to both share data across the scientific community and ensure the data availability for 10 years, is presently being organized at the WDCC (http://cera-www.dkrz.de/CERA/MedCLIVAR.html)

  16. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  17. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  18. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-30

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  19. Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and mortality in subjects with diabetes. Prospective results from the MOLI-SANI study.

    PubMed

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; De Curtis, Amalia; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2016-03-01

    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower mortality in a general population but limited evidence exists on the effect of a Mediterranean diet on mortality in subjects with diabetes. We aim to examine the association between the Mediterranean diet and mortality in diabetic individuals. Prospective cohort study on 1995 type 2 diabetic subjects recruited within the MOLI-SANI study. Food intake was recorded by the European Project Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was appraised by the Greek Mediterranean diet score. Hazard ratios were calculated using multivariable Cox-proportional hazard models. During follow-up (median 4.0 years), 109 all-cause including 51 cardiovascular deaths occurred. A 2-unit increase in Mediterranean diet score was associated with 37% (19%-51%) lower overall mortality. Data remained unchanged when restricted to those being on a hypoglycaemic diet or on antidiabetic drug treatment. A similar reduction was observed when cardiovascular mortality only was considered (hazard ratio = 0.66; 0.46-0.95). A Mediterranean diet-like pattern, originated from principal factor analysis, indicated a reduced risk of overall death (hazard ratio = 0.81; 0.62-1.07). The effect of Mediterranean diet score was mainly contributed by moderate alcohol drinking (14.7% in the reduction of the effect), high intake of cereals (12.2%), vegetables (5.8%) and reduced consumption of dairy and meat products (13.4% and 3.4% respectively). The traditional Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of both total and cardiovascular mortality in diabetic subjects, independently of the severity of the disease. Major contributions were offered by moderate alcohol intake, high consumption of cereals, fruits and nuts and reduced intake of dairy and meat products. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  20. European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations

    PubMed Central

    Seldin, Michael F; Shigeta, Russell; Villoslada, Pablo; Selmi, Carlo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K

    2006-01-01

    Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between “northern” and “southern” European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek) have >85% membership in the “southern” population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the “northern” population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the “southern” population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies. PMID:17044734

  1. Glacial history of the European marine mussels Mytilus, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages

    PubMed Central

    Śmietanka, B; Burzyński, A; Hummel, H; Wenne, R

    2014-01-01

    Mussels of the genus Mytilus have been used to assess the circumglacial phylogeography of the intertidal zone. These mussels are representative components of the intertidal zone and have rapidly evolving mitochondrial DNA, suitable for high resolution phylogeographic analyses. In Europe, the three Mytilus species currently share mitochondrial haplotypes, owing to the cases of extensive genetic introgression. Genetic diversity of Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus and Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied using a 900-bp long part of the most variable fragment of the control region from one of their two mitochondrial genomes. To this end, 985 specimens were sampled along the European coasts, at sites ranging from the Black Sea to the White Sea. The relevant DNA fragments were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Contrary to the earlier findings, our coalescence and nested cladistics results show that only a single M. edulis glacial refugium existed in the Atlantic. Despite that, the species survived the glaciation retaining much of its diversity. Unsurprisingly, M. galloprovincialis survived in the Mediterranean Sea. In a relatively short time period, around the climatic optimum at 10 ky ago, the species underwent rapid expansion coupled with population differentiation. Following the expansion, further contemporary gene flow between populations was limited. PMID:24619178

  2. Glacial history of the European marine mussels Mytilus, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    PubMed

    Smietanka, B; Burzyński, A; Hummel, H; Wenne, R

    2014-09-01

    Mussels of the genus Mytilus have been used to assess the circumglacial phylogeography of the intertidal zone. These mussels are representative components of the intertidal zone and have rapidly evolving mitochondrial DNA, suitable for high resolution phylogeographic analyses. In Europe, the three Mytilus species currently share mitochondrial haplotypes, owing to the cases of extensive genetic introgression. Genetic diversity of Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus and Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied using a 900-bp long part of the most variable fragment of the control region from one of their two mitochondrial genomes. To this end, 985 specimens were sampled along the European coasts, at sites ranging from the Black Sea to the White Sea. The relevant DNA fragments were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Contrary to the earlier findings, our coalescence and nested cladistics results show that only a single M. edulis glacial refugium existed in the Atlantic. Despite that, the species survived the glaciation retaining much of its diversity. Unsurprisingly, M. galloprovincialis survived in the Mediterranean Sea. In a relatively short time period, around the climatic optimum at 10 ky ago, the species underwent rapid expansion coupled with population differentiation. Following the expansion, further contemporary gene flow between populations was limited.

  3. Adaptive evolution of Mediterranean pines.

    PubMed

    Grivet, Delphine; Climent, José; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Neale, David B; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2013-09-01

    Mediterranean pines represent an extremely heterogeneous assembly. Although they have evolved under similar environmental conditions, they diversified long ago, ca. 10 Mya, and present distinct biogeographic and demographic histories. Therefore, it is of special interest to understand whether and to what extent they have developed specific strategies of adaptive evolution through time and space. To explore evolutionary patterns, the Mediterranean pines' phylogeny was first reconstructed analyzing a new set of 21 low-copy nuclear genes with multilocus Bayesian tree reconstruction methods. Secondly, a phylogenetic approach was used to search for footprints of natural selection and to examine the evolution of multiple phenotypic traits. We identified two genes (involved in pines' defense and stress responses) that have likely played a role in the adaptation of Mediterranean pines to their environment. Moreover, few life-history traits showed historical or evolutionary adaptive convergence in Mediterranean lineages, while patterns of character evolution revealed various evolutionary trade-offs linking growth-development, reproduction and fire-related traits. Assessing the evolutionary path of important life-history traits, as well as the genomic basis of adaptive variation is central to understanding the past evolutionary success of Mediterranean pines and their future response to environmental changes.

  4. Niche relations among three sympatric Mediterranean carnivores.

    PubMed

    Fedriani, Jose M; Palomares, Francisco; Delibes, Miguel

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies carried out in the Doñana National Park reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were killed by Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), whereas similar-sized Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) were not. Therefore, we predicted that fox would avoid lynx predation risk by niche segregation whereas we did not expect such a segregation between badger and lynx. As an approach for evaluating our predictions, we compared their diet, activity patterns, and habitat use in an area of Doñana where the three carnivores are sympatric. Lynxes preyed almost uniquely on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and though badgers and foxes were omnivorous, rabbits also were a major prey, resulting in high overlaps throughout the year. However, badgers preyed largely on small rabbits, whereas lynxes and foxes preyed mainly on medium-sized rabbits. There were also interspecific differences in activity patterns. Maximum levels of activity among lynxes were during sunrise and dusk (49-67%). Foxes were most active during dusk and night (34-67%), and badgers were mainly nocturnal (53-87%). Though there were seasonal differences in the amount of activity of each species, specific activity patterns changed little throughout the year. There was a strong difference in annual habitat use by the three species (P < 0.0001). Lynxes used mainly the Mediterranean scrubland during both the active (PMAX) and the resting (PMIN) periods. During PMIN, foxes used the Mediterranean scrubland intensively (40% of locations on average), but during PMAX, they used the pastureland much more intensively despite this habitat being poorer in their main prey (rabbits). As a consequence, foxes and lynxes exhibited segregation in their habitat use during the active period. Badgers also used the Mediterranean scrubland intensively, especially during PMIN. There were no seasonal differences in habitat use for lynx and fox, but there was for badgers (P < 0.015). Within the study area, the three species

  5. STS-57 Earth observation of the Eastern Mediterranean, Nile River, Asia Minor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Earth observation of the Eastern Mediterranean. From a high vantage point over the Nile River, this north-looking view shows the eastern Mediterranean and the entire landmass of Asia Minor, with the Black Sea dimly visible at the horizon. Many of the Greek islands can be seen in the Aegean Sea (top left), off the coast of Asia Minor. Cyprus is visible under atmospheric dust in the northeastern corner of the Mediterranean. The dust cloud covers the east end of the Mediterranean, its western edge demarcated by a line that cuts the center of the Nile Delta. This dust cloud originated far to the west, in Algeria, and moved northeast. A gyre of clouds in the southeast corner of the Mediterranean indicates a complementary counterclockwise (cyclonic) circulation of air. The Euphrates River appears as a thin green line (upper right) in the yellow Syrian desert just south of the mountains of Turkey. The Dead Sea (lower right) lies in a rift valley which extends north into Turkey and sout

  6. The controversial path of Atlantic Water in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciappa, Achille Carlo

    2014-04-01

    The Atlantic Water (AW) path suggested by two decades of thermal satellite data observations in the Eastern Mediterranean is similar to the path followed by the AW in the Western Mediterranean but is in contrast with the scheme proposed after the Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM) experiment during the 1990s. Evidence of the AW path along the Libyo-Egyptian coast (Libyo-Egyptian Current; LEC) and around anti-cyclonic eddies of variable size and position (Libyo-Egyptian Eddies; LEEs) is reported in XBT transects, high resolution models and drifter trajectories. In the POEM scheme, the AW was carried eastwards by the Mid-Mediterranean Jet (MMJ) flowing in the middle of the Levantine basin. The MMJ is still noted in recent drifter trajectory analyses, and seasonal surveys and glider missions report that the AW is transferred towards the Levantine basin by the MMJ in subsurface layers. The issue is investigated in this study by considering whether the determination of the AW path and the resolution of the surface circulation are, unlike in the Western Mediterranean, two distinct problems. Historical hydrographic datasets and numerical experiments illustrated in this study demonstrate that satellite observations in the Eastern Mediterranean reveal the path of the surface water of Atlantic origin, which is modified by heating and evaporation into the saltier and warmer Levantine Surface Water (LSW), but do not reveal the path of the submerged AW that maintains the distinctive character of fresh AW in the Levantine basin. Differences between the surface and the submerged circulation in the Mersa-Matruh area explain the reason for the discrepancy. In summer the AW departs from the Sicily Channel at the sea surface and crosses the Ionian Sea in a surface layer 30 m deep. At the entrance to the Levantine basin, part of the AW re-circulates westwards in two separate branches, one directed to the Southern Ionian and the other towards the Central Ionian

  7. Cosmogenic nuclides application on French Mediterranean shore platform development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, Jérémy; Lebourg, Thomas; Godard, Vincent; Dewez, Thomas; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Marçot, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Rocky shorelines are among the most common elements of the world's littoral zone, and the potential effects of rising sea level on the ever increasing populations require a better understanding of their dynamics. The sinuosity and heterogeneity of the shoreline morphology at large and intermediate wavelengths (1-100 km) results from their constant evolution under the combined influence of marine and continental forcings. This macro-scale organization is the expression of the action of elementary erosion processes acting at shorter wavelengths (<1 km) which lead to the development of shore platforms by landward retreat of cliff edges. Modern analytical techniques (laser-scaning, micro-erosion meters, aerial surveys) constitute appropriate methods to identify and quantify processes of cliff retreat to 1-100 yrs time-scales. But over this time frame, shore platform development appears imperceptible. Precise knowledge of long-term erosion rates are needed to understand rocky shore evolution, and develop quantitative modeling of platform development. Rocky coasts constitute a Quaternary sea level evolution archive that is partly preserved and progressively destroyed. One major challenges is to determine the degree to which coast morphologies are (i) contemporary, (ii) or ancient features inherited, (iii) or partly inherited from Quaternary interglacial stages. In order to fill the lack of long term coast morphodynamic data, we use cosmogenic nuclides (36Cl) to study abrasion surfaces carved in carbonates lithologies along the French Mediterranean coast, in a microtidal environment (Côte Bleue, West of Marseille). 36Cl concentration heritage influences strongly our interpretations in terms of age and denudation of the surfaces. We propose to constrain heritage in sampling oldest relic marine surfaces at 10m of altitude, and along recent cliff scarp. 36Cl concentrations show that the lowest platforms near sea level are contemporary and the highest ones (8-14 m above sea

  8. Planktonic dinoflagellates of the northern Levantine Basin, northeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Polat, Sevim; Koray, Tufan

    2007-08-01

    In the present study, a checklist of planktonic dinoflagellates was prepared from studies conducted on the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey and by evaluating previously conducted studies. The sampling areas included Iskenderun Bay, the coast near Karataş at the west end of the Bay, and Babadillimani Bight, situated at the west of Mersin Bay, and its surroundings. The data of the present study derives from over 90 locations visited between 1994 and 2004. A total of 174 taxa were reported. Ceratium (57 taxa) and Protoperidinium (28 taxa) were the most species-rich genera. The most common taxa were Ceratium kofoidii, Ceratium trichoceros, Ceratium tripos var. atlanticum, Protoperidinium divergens, Protoperidinium steinii, Ceratocorys horrida, Goniodoma acuminatum and Gonyaulax polygramma. Toxic species such as Dinophysis caudata, Dinophysis tripos were reported, and Scrippsiella trochoidea and Prorocentrum micans, which are known as red tide species elsewhere, were also common. The number of species is similar to those along other coasts of the Levantine Basin. However, some species were observed that had not previously been reported for the Levantine Basin, which can be attributed to the fact that the number of studies conducted in the region has increased and that new species may have entered the environment.

  9. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    PubMed

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  10. Predicting the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royden, L.

    2011-12-01

    From ~30 Ma onwards, the evolution of the Mediterranean region has been dominated by the rapid migration of thin-skinned thrust-belts. Thrust belt migration has been accommodated by the opening of "back arc type" basins within the upper plate of the thrust belts. Migration of these thrust belts is associated with the migration of subduction systems where subduction and thrusting are driven largely by negative slab buoyancy. Where the subducting slab has large negative buoyancy, thrust belt migration is commonly rapid. Where buoyant continental lithosphere enters the subduction system, subduction ceases quickly. Hence the large-scale tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean basin is largely pre-conditioned by its paleogeography. This can be quantitatively illustrated for the Hellenic subduction system where the post Eocene evolution of the Hellenic thrust belt can be ascribed to the buoyancy of the lithosphere subducted. Entry of the Ionian oceanic lithosphere into a slow-moving trench at 10-15 Ma explains the increase in subduction rate along the central part of the trench, to ~35 mm/yr at present, while subduction rates along strike to the northeast, where continental/transitional crust is subducted, remain less than ~10 mm/yr. Using quantitative modeling of the Hellenic subduction system in post Eocene time, it is possible to approximate how this thrust belt, and the active subduction belt of the eastern Mediterranean, will evolve over the next 10 m.y. This exercise suggests that the large-scale evolution of the eastern Mediterranean basin will be strikingly similar to that of the western Mediterranean basin from 20-0 Ma. This highlights the common dynamic mechanism that shapes the large scale deformation and morphology of the Mediterranean basin.

  11. Characterization of Aerosol Episodes in the Greater Mediterranean Sea Area from Satellite Observations (2000-2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gkikas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Torres, O.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm able to identify and characterize episodes of different aerosol types above sea surfaces of the greater Mediterranean basin (GMB), including the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of Iberia and northwest Africa, is presented in this study. Based on this algorithm, five types of intense (strong and extreme) aerosol episodes in the GMB are identified and characterized using daily aerosol optical properties from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMIAura. These aerosol episodes are: (i) biomass-burning/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) dust/sea-salt (DSS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The identification and characterization is made with our algorithm using a variety of aerosol properties, namely aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent (a), fine fraction (FF), effective radius (reff) and Aerosol Index (AI). During the study period (2000e2007), the most frequent aerosol episodes are DD, observed primarily in the western and central Mediterranean Sea, and off the northern African coasts, 7 times/year for strong episodes and 4 times/year for extreme ones, on average. The DD episodes yield 40% of all types of strong aerosol episodes in the study region, while they account for 71.5% of all extreme episodes. The frequency of occurrence of strong episodes exhibits specific geographical patterns, for example the BU are mostly observed along the coasts of southern Europe and off the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, the MX episodes off the Spanish Mediterranean coast and over the Adriatic and northern Aegean Sea, while the DSS ones over the western and central Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, the extreme episodes for all but DD aerosol display more patchy spatial patterns. The strong episodes exhibit AOD at 550