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Sample records for european mediterranean coast

  1. Perkinsus chesapeaki observed in a new host, the European common edible cockle Cerastoderma edule, in the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; Rojas, M; Aceituno, P; Andree, K B; Lacuesta, B; Furones, M D

    2014-03-01

    Histological observations showed the presence of a Perkinsus sp. parasite in Cerastoderma edule tissues for the first time in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. ITS molecular characterization by PCR-RFLP, in situ hybridization and sequencing, identified the parasite as Perkinsus chesapeaki, with a maximum identity of 99-100% with GenBank P. chesapeaki sequences from France and 97% with P. chesapeaki sequences of North American origin when BLAST analysis was carried out. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies placed the European cockle parasite in a well defined cluster together with the other European isolates. This is the first report of P. chesapeaki in the cockle C. edule.

  2. Perkinsus chesapeaki observed in a new host, the European common edible cockle Cerastoderma edule, in the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; Rojas, M; Aceituno, P; Andree, K B; Lacuesta, B; Furones, M D

    2014-03-01

    Histological observations showed the presence of a Perkinsus sp. parasite in Cerastoderma edule tissues for the first time in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. ITS molecular characterization by PCR-RFLP, in situ hybridization and sequencing, identified the parasite as Perkinsus chesapeaki, with a maximum identity of 99-100% with GenBank P. chesapeaki sequences from France and 97% with P. chesapeaki sequences of North American origin when BLAST analysis was carried out. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies placed the European cockle parasite in a well defined cluster together with the other European isolates. This is the first report of P. chesapeaki in the cockle C. edule. PMID:24525498

  3. Meteotsunami occurrence frequency along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Marinella; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A number of research studies describe exceptional destructive meteotsunami events since long time whereas no systematic database is available of moderate events because sea level data were recorded with insufficient resolution. Sea level measurements recently collected with high sampling rate, one per minute or less, by tide gauges positioned along the Mediterranean coasts are examined, aiming to analyze the occurrence of oscillation events in the tsunami frequency range. Sea level data from operating tide stations inside the Mediterranean basin are made publicly available through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Sea Level Monitoring Facility web site (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org/). After the implementation of a rigorous quality check procedure to the raw water level time series, Hilbert transform is applied to two hour high-pass filtered observations to identify tsunami-like oscillation events. Events of seismic origin are identified by consistency between earthquake occurrence and tsunami wave travel time from the earthquake epicenter to the specific tide gauge. Similar analyses are performed to exclude sea waves induced harbor seiches events. A list of probable meteotsunami episodes occurred in the Mediterranean region is so compiled and their occurrence frequency and intensity statistics are evaluated at the different tide gauge sites over the time period of high frequency water level data availability ranging from five to seven years. The effects of atmospheric conditions and seabed topography are discussed. Detection and characterization of meteotsunamis, both of exceptional character and of weak intensity, represent an essential step toward improved assessments of coastal flooding risk along the Mediterranean coasts.

  4. Dry atmospheric inputs of trace metals at the Mediterranean coast of Israel (SE Mediterranean): sources and fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herut, Barak; Nimmo, Malcolm; Medway, Angela; Chester, Roy; Krom, Michael D.

    This study presents the first detailed data on aerosol concentrations of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe and Al) at the SE Mediterranean coast of Israel, and assesses their sources and fluxes. Aerosol samples were collected at two sampling stations (Tel-Shikmona and Maagan Michael) along the coast between 1994 and 1997. Two broad categories of aerosol trace metal sources were defined; anthropogenic (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) and naturally derived elements (Al, Fe, Mn and Cr). The extent of the anthropogenic contribution was estimated by the degree of enrichment of these elements compared to the average crustal composition (EF crust). High values (median >100) were calculated for Cd, Pb and Zn, minor values for Cu and relatively low values (<10) for Fe, Mn and Cr. The crustal-derived elements exhibited a statistically significant seasonal pattern of higher concentrations during spring and autumn (e.g. Al concentrations in some cases during these periods were observed to be in excess of 1500 ng m -3). In the eastern Mediterranean basin crustal-dominated elements are enriched by 2-3 times while others (Cd and Pb) are comparable to the northwestern Mediterranean. The Pb : Cd ratios of ˜150 are higher than in coastal European sites (60-116) or emission materials (˜50). It is speculated that these differences are attributed mainly to the mixing of crustal material with local and European emissions. At present, it is impossible to quantify the latter two fractions. Back trajectory analysis and the subsequent categorization of two main aerosol populations, 'European' and 'North Africa-Arabian', exhibited a significantly different geochemical imprint on the aerosol chemical composition. 'European'-derived air masses indicated significantly higher EF crust values for Cd and Pb due to the greater anthropogenic character of the aerosol population, with a dilution by crustal material of this population leading to comparatively lower EF crust values associated with the North

  5. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool - the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) - devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs.

  6. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  7. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs.

  8. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool - the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) - devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  9. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey.

  10. Characterization of extreme sea level at the European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Alberto; Jorda, Gabriel; Mathis, Moritz; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high sea levels arise as a combination of storm surges and particular high tides events. Future climate simulations not only project changes in the atmospheric circulation, which induces changes in the wind conditions, but also an increase in the global mean sea level by thermal expansion and ice melting. Such changes increase the risk of coastal flooding, which represents a possible hazard for human activities. Therefore, it is important to investigate the pattern of sea level variability and long-term trends at coastal areas. In order to analyze further extreme sea level events at the European coast in the future climate projections, a new setup for the global ocean model MPIOM coupled with the regional atmosphere model REMO is prepared. The MPIOM irregular grid has enhanced resolution in the European region to resolve the North and the Mediterranean Seas (up to 11 x 11 km at the North Sea). The ocean model includes as well the full luni-solar ephemeridic tidal potential for tides simulation. To simulate the air-sea interaction, the regional atmospheric model REMO is interactively coupled to the ocean model over Europe. Such region corresponds to the EuroCORDEX domain with a 50 x 50 km resolution. Besides the standard fluxes of heat, mass (freshwater), momentum and turbulent energy input, the ocean model is also forced with sea level pressure, in order to be able to capture the full variation of sea level. The hydrological budget within the study domain is closed using a hydrological discharge model. With this model, simulations for present climate and future climate scenarios are carried out to study transient changes on the sea level and extreme events. As a first step, two simulations (coupled and uncoupled ocean) driven by reanalysis data (ERA40) have been conducted. They are used as reference runs to evaluate the climate projection simulations. For selected locations at the coast side, time series of sea level are separated on its different

  11. Least Disturbed Condition for European Mediterranean rivers.

    PubMed

    Feio, M J; Aguiar, F C; Almeida, S F P; Ferreira, J; Ferreira, M T; Elias, C; Serra, S R Q; Buffagni, A; Cambra, J; Chauvin, C; Delmas, F; Dörflinger, G; Erba, S; Flor, N; Ferréol, M; Germ, M; Mancini, L; Manolaki, P; Marcheggiani, S; Minciardi, M R; Munné, A; Papastergiadou, E; Prat, N; Puccinelli, C; Rosebery, J; Sabater, S; Ciadamidaro, S; Tornés, E; Tziortzis, I; Urbanič, G; Vieira, C

    2014-04-01

    The present report describes a three-step approach that was used to characterize and define thresholds for the Least Disturbed Condition in Mediterranean streams of four different types, regarding organic pollution and nutrients, hydrological and morphological alterations, and land use. For this purpose, a common database composed of national reference sites (929 records) from seven countries, sampled for invertebrates, diatoms and macrophytes was used. The analyses of reference sites showed that small (catchment <100 km(2)) siliceous and non-siliceous streams were mainly affected by channelization, bank alteration and hydropeaking. Medium-sized siliceous rivers were the most affected by stressors: 25-43% of the samples showed at least slight alterations regarding channelization, connectivity, upstream dam influence, hydropeaking and degradation of riparian vegetation. Temporary streams were the least affected by hydromorphological changes, but they were nevertheless affected by alterations in riparian vegetation. There were no major differences between all permanent stream types regarding water quality, but temporary streams showed lower values for oxygenation (DO) and wider ranges for other variables, such as nitrates. A lower threshold value for DO (60%) was determined for this stream type and can be attributed to the streams' natural characteristics. For all other river types, common limits were found for the remaining variables (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, total P, % of artificial areas, % of intensive and extensive agriculture, % of semi-natural areas in the catchment). These values were then used to select the list of reference sites. The biological communities were characterized, revealing the existence of nine groups of Mediterranean invertebrate communities, six for diatoms and five for macrophytes: each group was characterized by specific indicator taxa that highlighted the differences between groups. PMID:23791044

  12. Least Disturbed Condition for European Mediterranean rivers.

    PubMed

    Feio, M J; Aguiar, F C; Almeida, S F P; Ferreira, J; Ferreira, M T; Elias, C; Serra, S R Q; Buffagni, A; Cambra, J; Chauvin, C; Delmas, F; Dörflinger, G; Erba, S; Flor, N; Ferréol, M; Germ, M; Mancini, L; Manolaki, P; Marcheggiani, S; Minciardi, M R; Munné, A; Papastergiadou, E; Prat, N; Puccinelli, C; Rosebery, J; Sabater, S; Ciadamidaro, S; Tornés, E; Tziortzis, I; Urbanič, G; Vieira, C

    2014-04-01

    The present report describes a three-step approach that was used to characterize and define thresholds for the Least Disturbed Condition in Mediterranean streams of four different types, regarding organic pollution and nutrients, hydrological and morphological alterations, and land use. For this purpose, a common database composed of national reference sites (929 records) from seven countries, sampled for invertebrates, diatoms and macrophytes was used. The analyses of reference sites showed that small (catchment <100 km(2)) siliceous and non-siliceous streams were mainly affected by channelization, bank alteration and hydropeaking. Medium-sized siliceous rivers were the most affected by stressors: 25-43% of the samples showed at least slight alterations regarding channelization, connectivity, upstream dam influence, hydropeaking and degradation of riparian vegetation. Temporary streams were the least affected by hydromorphological changes, but they were nevertheless affected by alterations in riparian vegetation. There were no major differences between all permanent stream types regarding water quality, but temporary streams showed lower values for oxygenation (DO) and wider ranges for other variables, such as nitrates. A lower threshold value for DO (60%) was determined for this stream type and can be attributed to the streams' natural characteristics. For all other river types, common limits were found for the remaining variables (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, total P, % of artificial areas, % of intensive and extensive agriculture, % of semi-natural areas in the catchment). These values were then used to select the list of reference sites. The biological communities were characterized, revealing the existence of nine groups of Mediterranean invertebrate communities, six for diatoms and five for macrophytes: each group was characterized by specific indicator taxa that highlighted the differences between groups.

  13. Ingestion of microplastics by demersal fish from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Martínez-Armental, José; Martínez-Cámara, Ariana; Besada, Victoria; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción

    2016-08-15

    Microplastic pollution has received increased attention over the last few years. This study documents microplastic ingestion in three commercially relevant demersal fish species from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula, the European hake Merluccius merluccius and the red mullet Mullus barbatus. Overall 212 fish were examined, 72 dogfish, 12 hakes and 128 red mullets. The percentage of fish with microplastics was 17.5% (15.3% dogfish, 18.8% red mullets and 16.7% hakes), averaging 1.56±0.5 items per fish, and the size of the microplastics ranged from 0.38 to 3.1mm. These fish species are used currently as biomonitors for marine pollution monitoring within the Spanish Marine Pollution Monitoring Programme (SMP), and may be as well suitable candidates for monitoring spatial and temporal trends of ingested litter. The data presented here represent a baseline for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive descriptor 10 in Spain. PMID:27289284

  14. Ingestion of microplastics by demersal fish from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Martínez-Armental, José; Martínez-Cámara, Ariana; Besada, Victoria; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción

    2016-08-15

    Microplastic pollution has received increased attention over the last few years. This study documents microplastic ingestion in three commercially relevant demersal fish species from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula, the European hake Merluccius merluccius and the red mullet Mullus barbatus. Overall 212 fish were examined, 72 dogfish, 12 hakes and 128 red mullets. The percentage of fish with microplastics was 17.5% (15.3% dogfish, 18.8% red mullets and 16.7% hakes), averaging 1.56±0.5 items per fish, and the size of the microplastics ranged from 0.38 to 3.1mm. These fish species are used currently as biomonitors for marine pollution monitoring within the Spanish Marine Pollution Monitoring Programme (SMP), and may be as well suitable candidates for monitoring spatial and temporal trends of ingested litter. The data presented here represent a baseline for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive descriptor 10 in Spain.

  15. Comparison of the feeding apparatus and diet of European sardines Sardina pilchardus of Atlantic and Mediterranean waters: ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Costalago, D; Garrido, S; Palomera, I

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the feeding apparatus (gill rakers, GR) and the diet composition of European sardine Sardina pilchardus populations living in two contrasting environments were compared: the upwelling area off western Iberia and the comparatively less productive region of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The importance of local adaptations in the trophic ecology of this species was estimated. Sardina pilchardus from the Atlantic Iberian coast and from the north-western Mediterranean Sea have clear differences in the feeding apparatus and diet compositions. Those from the Atlantic Iberian coast have significantly more GRs than S. pilchardus of the same size range in the Mediterranean Sea. While S. pilchardus from the Mediterranean Sea mostly depend on prey ranging between 750-1500 and 3000-4000 µm, corresponding mostly to cladocerans, decapods and copepods, those from the Atlantic depend on smaller prey (50-500 and 1000-1500 µm) that include phytoplankton and copepods, particularly during summer months, and S. pilchardus eggs during the winter. The marked difference between the trophic ecology of S. pilchardus in the two areas studied appears to have originated from different dietary strategies that the two populations have adopted in contrasting feeding environments. These differences are shown to profoundly affect the size and quality of prey consumed, and the effect of cannibalism on the populations. PMID:25846858

  16. Risk Assessment of Organochlorines in Mollusk from the Mediterranean and Red Sea Coasts of Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Khaled, Azza

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues were studied in different mollusk species from the Egyptian Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. The average levels of OCPs in mollusks comprised chlordanes, dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor (DECEM), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The averages of HCHs, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mollusks from the Mediterranean Sea were 1.13±1.21, 1.30±1.27, and 1.40±0.93 ng/g, respectively; from the Red Sea, they were 0.62±0.90, 1.77±1.82, and 6.44±5.05 ng/g, respectively. The analysis of HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs in mollusks indicates a new usage of lindane, PCB congeners, and the input of technical HCH and aged DDT. The data showed that the Red Sea Coast was more affected by PCBs congeners than the Mediterranean Sea Coast, which may be attributed to the different activities along the two coastal areas. Mollusks in the Mediterranean Sea had higher dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor contents than those in the Red Sea. Interestingly, HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs levels were lower than those recommended for Swedish Food Regulation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means that mollusks from these two coastal areas are safe as food.

  17. Risk Assessment of Organochlorines in Mollusk from the Mediterranean and Red Sea Coasts of Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Khaled, Azza

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues were studied in different mollusk species from the Egyptian Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. The average levels of OCPs in mollusks comprised chlordanes, dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor (DECEM), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The averages of HCHs, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mollusks from the Mediterranean Sea were 1.13±1.21, 1.30±1.27, and 1.40±0.93 ng/g, respectively; from the Red Sea, they were 0.62±0.90, 1.77±1.82, and 6.44±5.05 ng/g, respectively. The analysis of HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs in mollusks indicates a new usage of lindane, PCB congeners, and the input of technical HCH and aged DDT. The data showed that the Red Sea Coast was more affected by PCBs congeners than the Mediterranean Sea Coast, which may be attributed to the different activities along the two coastal areas. Mollusks in the Mediterranean Sea had higher dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor contents than those in the Red Sea. Interestingly, HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs levels were lower than those recommended for Swedish Food Regulation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means that mollusks from these two coastal areas are safe as food. PMID:27131056

  18. A new species of Odaginiceps Fiers, 1995 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Tetragonicipitidae) from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaytug, Suphan; Sak, Serdar; Alper, Alp

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Male and female of Odaginiceps korykosensis sp. n. (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Tetragonicipitidae), collected in the intertidal zone of Kızkalesi beach along the Mediterranean coast of Turkey (Mersin Province), are described. The new species is the fifth member of the genus and can easily be distinguished from the other species by the presence of four setae/spines on the second endopodal segment of P4 and by the structure of the caudal rami. Previously, representatives of the genus Odaginiceps have been reported from Gulf of Mexico, off Bermuda and Kenya. Odaginiceps korykosensis sp. n. is the first record of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21594127

  19. Alien bryozoans in the eastern Mediterranean Sea--new records from the coast of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Harmelin, Jean-Georges

    2014-12-09

    The Levant Basin (SE Mediterranean) is the most exposed to the introduction of non-indigenous species. The current assessment of exotic bryozoans present along the coast of Lebanon has been completed by the recording of fourteen cheilostome species (one cryptogenic) collected by diving in 17 localities (2-42 m). This set of exotic bryozoans comprises ten genera, including four (Akatopora Davis, 1934, Drepanophora Harmer, 1957, Mucropetraliella Stach, 1936 and Predanophora Tilbrook, 2006) not previously reported in the Mediterranean, while Celleporaria is the most successful extra-Mediterranean genus with four species in the survey collection. A new Celleporina species, C. bitari n. sp., also collected in the Red Sea, is described. Although lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal is the main pathway for exotic bryozoans in this region, the geographic origin of some species suggests that shipping through Gibraltar Strait is also responsible to a large extent.

  20. Alien bryozoans in the eastern Mediterranean Sea--new records from the coast of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Harmelin, Jean-Georges

    2014-01-01

    The Levant Basin (SE Mediterranean) is the most exposed to the introduction of non-indigenous species. The current assessment of exotic bryozoans present along the coast of Lebanon has been completed by the recording of fourteen cheilostome species (one cryptogenic) collected by diving in 17 localities (2-42 m). This set of exotic bryozoans comprises ten genera, including four (Akatopora Davis, 1934, Drepanophora Harmer, 1957, Mucropetraliella Stach, 1936 and Predanophora Tilbrook, 2006) not previously reported in the Mediterranean, while Celleporaria is the most successful extra-Mediterranean genus with four species in the survey collection. A new Celleporina species, C. bitari n. sp., also collected in the Red Sea, is described. Although lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal is the main pathway for exotic bryozoans in this region, the geographic origin of some species suggests that shipping through Gibraltar Strait is also responsible to a large extent. PMID:25544525

  1. An updated database of Holocene relative sea level changes along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Rovere, Alessio

    2014-05-01

    Present-day sea level variations in the Mediterranean depend on various factors, including recent climatic forcing, tectonic activity, anthropogenic effects, and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA). Mediterranean coasts offer an exceptional opportunity to investigate the various mechanisms that contribute to sea level variations on different time-scales. In fact, geological, geomorphological and archaeological indicators can be coupled with the available instrumental observations. Several areas of the Mediterranean basin are affected by a significant tectonic activity contributing to a widespread coastal instability. The northern Mediterranean coasts are, potentially, the most affected by the process of isostatic adjustment due to the proximity to the former Alpine and Fennoscandian ice sheets. However, GIA-related deformation of the whole Mediterranean basin is mainly driven by water-loading, which contributes to a significant and widespread subsidence whose extension and strength, in turn, directly depend on ice sheet chronology and Earth viscosity. In the Mediterranean, different kinds of RSL markers have been used to reconstruct RSLs: biological, sedimentary, geomorphological and archaeological. The production of such great amount of literature, which is still rapidly growing in number, has led to the obvious consequence of fragmented information, only occasionally reviewed in some localities, but never collected into an organic database to be analysed at the scale of the Mediterranean basin. We aim to create a database of Holocene (last 10 ka) geological data across the Mediterranean basin. This represents a tool of fundamental importance for understanding and tuning GIA models and to assess sea level rise hazards, which are particularly magnified in low-lying or subsiding coastal areas. Here we present the first results of this study carried out both in tectonically active areas (Aegean Sea, Greece) and stable ones (Southern France and Corsica, NE Spanish coast

  2. Management of the Mediterranean Coast in Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.; Conte, D.; Scarascia, L.; Sanchez-Arcilla, A.; Sierra, J. P.; Mosso, C.; Hinkel, J.; Vafeidis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Model projections can provide a rich information on the hazards posed by marine storminess on coastal areas and their evolution in climate change scenarios. When addressing coastal protection issues is however necessary to consider simultaneously different factors, that are usually separately computed, such as sea level rise, storm surges and ocean waves and adopt an approach accounting for their superposition. Further, this information need to be combined with that on the vulnerability of the coastal areas, their morphology and the location of harbors and defenses. This study shows how to use multi-factor projections and geographical information to identify critical parts of the coastline and to suggest to policymaker where to invest resources at country and regional scale. Results are applied to the Mediterranean coastline. Impacts on beaches (e.g. erosion), harbors (e.g. overtopping), human settlements (e.g., flood damage) and their management through enhanced coastal defenses are discussed. This study is part of the RISES-AM project (FP7-EU-603396).

  3. Convective and stratiform precipitation trends in the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Leo, A. M.; Hernández, E.; Queralt, S.; Maqueda, G.

    2013-01-01

    Eastern Iberian Peninsula is characterized by the large occurrence of convective precipitation events, which entail important economic and social damage consequences. In order to prevent and minimize its effects, a good knowledge and understanding of the meteorological processes involved are necessary to be achieved. In this regard, an algorithm for classifying convective and stratiform precipitation components has been applied to a decadal precipitation record. Dataset were provided by National Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET) for the period 1998-2008. Hourly precipitation records have been analyzed. The goals of this study have been: a) to classify total precipitation into its stratiform and convective components in Levante region (located in the Eastern Spanish Coast) and b) to analyze annual and seasonal trends of such components. For determining both convective and stratiform precipitation components, a suitable exponential function has been used. After a computation process, critical precipitation intensity (so-called Rc) is obtained for each year and season of the studied period. Every precipitation episode in Levante region is classified into prevailing convective or stratiform regime according to the threshold value defined by Rc. The results obtained have been compared to Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) to verify the validity of the algorithm. First results show an annual and seasonal significant positive trend in total precipitation and stratiform component for 1998-2008 decade. Further analysis reveals that convective precipitation exhibits no significant trend. Preliminary conclusions state that the total precipitation amount in Levante Region strongly depends on the stratiform component evolution.

  4. First report of Caulerpa taxifolia (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) on the Levantine coast (Turkey, Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cevik, Cem; Yokes, Mehmet Baki; Cavas, Levent; Erkol, Levent Itri; Derici, Osman Baris; Verlaque, Marc

    2007-09-01

    Since its first accidental introduction into the Mediterranean Sea, Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh has spread to six Mediterranean countries and has become a major ecological problem. On the basis of morphological and molecular studies (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)), we report for the first time C. taxifolia on the Levantine coast (Gulf of Iskenderun, SE Turkey). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Iskenderun isolate differs from the invasive aquarium strain first observed in Monaco, and falls in another SW Pacific clade (NE Australia, New Caledonia). The introduction in Turkey by shipping (ballast waters or anchor gears of oil tankers) is possible because C. taxifolia was found in the Gulf of Iskenderun, which is a major Eastern Mediterranean petrochemical region. On the other hand, C. taxifolia strains are available in aquarium shops in Turkey, suggesting aquarium dumping as another possible cause. As far as the intense maritime traffic of the region is concerned, further dispersals of this exotic C. taxifolia strain in the Mediterranean Sea are to be expected.

  5. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments, seawaters and bivalves of the Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S; Attiah, Abdullah

    2015-12-30

    In order to assess metal contamination on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 45 sediment samples, seawaters and bivalve specimens were collected from Rosetta coastal area for Mg, Al, K, Fe, Sr, Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Ce, Ni, Cr and Zr analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that the coastal sediments of Rosetta area were severely enriched, strongly polluted with As, Pb and very highly contaminated with As, Pb, Ni, Ce, mostly as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with other samples from the Arabian Gulf, Red Sea and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Fe, Pb, As, Zn and Ni. The natural sources of heavy metals in the study area are attributed to weathering and decomposition of mountain ranges of the Sudan and Ethiopia, while the anthropogenic ones are the metals produced from industrial, sewage, irrigation and urban runoff.

  6. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments, seawaters and bivalves of the Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S; Attiah, Abdullah

    2015-12-30

    In order to assess metal contamination on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 45 sediment samples, seawaters and bivalve specimens were collected from Rosetta coastal area for Mg, Al, K, Fe, Sr, Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Ce, Ni, Cr and Zr analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that the coastal sediments of Rosetta area were severely enriched, strongly polluted with As, Pb and very highly contaminated with As, Pb, Ni, Ce, mostly as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with other samples from the Arabian Gulf, Red Sea and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Fe, Pb, As, Zn and Ni. The natural sources of heavy metals in the study area are attributed to weathering and decomposition of mountain ranges of the Sudan and Ethiopia, while the anthropogenic ones are the metals produced from industrial, sewage, irrigation and urban runoff. PMID:26563548

  7. First evidence of accumulation of mega boulders on the Mediterranean rocky coast of Provence (southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, C.; Demory, F.; Canut, V.; Dussouillez, P.; Fleury, T. J.

    2011-03-01

    An accumulation of boulders was recently discovered along the rocky coast of the Gulf of Fos located in Provence, in an area exposed to a south-westerly wave regime. The coast around this locality forms the western extremity of the calcareous Nerthe range between Marseille and the Rhône Delta. Several mega blocks are scattered to a distance of 30 m behind the coast line. The largest block (33.5 tonnes) has been transported about 39 m inland, up to about 2 m a.s.l. On the Mediterranean coast, the origin of such blocks is often attributed to tsunami-generated waves, but in the case examined here, although the origin is unclear, the differences in surface state between boulders indicates several events generated by south-westerly storms. Radiocarbon dating on several different shells collected from seven different boulders yields a wide dispersion of ages ranging from 4000 BP to the Modern Period. The differences in surface appearance, as well as the differences of fauna conservation and surface coloration, in some cases in a very fresh state, along with the dispersion of radiocarbon ages, suggest that historic storm events have affected these megablocks.

  8. First assessment of the Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) invasion along the French Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Ruitton, Sandrine; Javel, Fabrice; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Meinesz, Alexandre; Pergent, Gérard; Verlaque, Marc

    2005-10-01

    The introduced green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea has been rapidly spreading in the Mediterranean Sea since 1990. It was first observed in France in 1997 (Marseilles). In early 2004, the stretch of the French Mediterranean coastline and the surface area affected by the invasion were estimated at about 83 km and 4014 ha, respectively. The depth range of colonized areas was usually 10-35 m depth. Shallow (0-10 m) and deep (down to 40 m) dense meadows were rarely observed. In contrast to the dead matte of Posidonia oceanica, which constituted the most widely colonized substratum, dense P. oceanica meadows and fine sand with large ripple-marks were not invaded. Few rocky areas were colonized and coarse sand bottoms were usually colonized below 20 m depth. All the colonized areas were exposed to human activities and more than 40% were fishing areas. Mild climate, suitable substrata, presence of vectors of dispersal and absence of efficient biological control make the French Mediterranean coast particularly vulnerable to the further spread of the alga.

  9. First occurrence of Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on off-coast fish farm cages in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2014-03-01

    The non-indigenous caprellid Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836, native to the western Indian Ocean, was firstly recorded in the Mediterranean Sea in 1994, and all Mediterranean populations discovered to date are related to shoreline areas. A total of ten fish farms were sampled off the coasts of Spain (4), Italy (1), Croatia (2), Greece (1) and Malta (2). This is the first time that C. scaura has been reported from off-coast areas. Reproducing populations have been detected in fouling communities of three tuna farms off the coast of Croatia and Malta, which also signifies the first confirmed record of this species in both countries. The occurrence of successfully established and thriving populations of C. scaura Templeton, 1836 at floating off-coast fish farms underlines the importance of these structures as stepping stones in the species.

  10. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  11. Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast.

    PubMed

    Biré, Ronel; Trotereau, Sophie; Lemée, Rodolphe; Oregioni, Davide; Delpont, Christine; Krys, Sophie; Guérin, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB) and upper-bound (UB) approach was 4.3 and 5.1 µg·kg(-1), respectively, with less than 1% of the results exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) threshold of 30 µg·kg(-1)and the highest values being reported for sea urchins (107.6 and 108.0 µg·kg(-1)). Toxins accumulated almost exclusively in the digestive tube of the tested species, with the exception of octopus, in which there were detectable toxin amounts in the remaining tissues (RT). The mean toxin concentration in the RT of the sampled organisms (fishes, echinoderms and cephalopods) was 0.7 and 1.7 µg·kg(-1) (LB and UB, respectively), with a maximum value of 19.9 µg·kg(-1) for octopus RT. The herbivorous and omnivorous organisms were the most contaminated species, indicating that diet influences the contamination process, and the LC-MS/MS revealed that ovatoxin-a was the only toxin detected. PMID:26308009

  12. Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Biré, Ronel; Trotereau, Sophie; Lemée, Rodolphe; Oregioni, Davide; Delpont, Christine; Krys, Sophie; Guérin, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB) and upper-bound (UB) approach was 4.3 and 5.1 µg·kg−1, respectively, with less than 1% of the results exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) threshold of 30 µg·kg−1 and the highest values being reported for sea urchins (107.6 and 108.0 µg·kg−1). Toxins accumulated almost exclusively in the digestive tube of the tested species, with the exception of octopus, in which there were detectable toxin amounts in the remaining tissues (RT). The mean toxin concentration in the RT of the sampled organisms (fishes, echinoderms and cephalopods) was 0.7 and 1.7 µg·kg−1 (LB and UB, respectively), with a maximum value of 19.9 µg·kg−1 for octopus RT. The herbivorous and omnivorous organisms were the most contaminated species, indicating that diet influences the contamination process, and the LC-MS/MS revealed that ovatoxin-a was the only toxin detected. PMID:26308009

  13. The mediterranean coast of Andalusia (sw spain): the impacts of human coastal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Messina, Enrica; Anfuso, Giorgio; Suffo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Spanish coasts, especially the Andalusia Mediterranean one, were affected over time by progressive urbanization and associated construction of defense structures. Such structures protected small coastal sectors but at places triggered processes of coastal erosion and associated degradation of habitats and ecosystems. A correct management of coastal areas must be based on the monitoring of coastal evolution and human pressure. A useful tool to evaluate the level of human anthropization is the estimation of the "Coastal Armouring", e.g. the quantification of coastal defense structures, infrastructures, ports, etc. In this study, available aerial photographs and satellite images from 1956 to 2011 were scanned and geo-referenced and used for the quantitative assessment of coastal human constructions impact on the studied coastal area. The so called coefficient of technogenous impact (K) was used. It results from the relationship between the total length of all maritime structures (groins, moles, seawalls, dikes, channels, etc.) and the entire length of the study coastal section. For this purpose, the Andalusia coast, about 500 km in length, was divided into sections of 1 km. For each one of such sections the technogenous impact was calculated in the 1956 and 2011 documents. The analysis showed that the degree of anthropization in some areas (for example the Port of Montril) has increased considerably, triggering degradation processes in the nearby coastal areas. Results also evidenced as, in many cases, greatest human impacts are linked to the progressive construction of coastal defense. The lack of a general strategy to combat the erosion problem and the urgency in the short term to protect specific parts of the coast led to a reactive approach based initially in the construction of hard structures. Such interventions locally solved erosion problems but gave rise to drowndrift erosion according to the "domino" effect. A more general management plan is needed

  14. Evidence for paleotsunami deposits at Kefret Saber and El Alamein, Mediterranean coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Asem; Meghraoui, Mustapha; El Gabry, Mohamed; Maouche, Said; Hussein, Hichem; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami deposits and dragged large boulders are investigated along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt in the framework of the EC-Funded ASTARTE project (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839) and the French-Egyptian IMHOTEP project. The targeted zones located west of Alexandria are selected according to historical earthquakes and related inundation events as recorded in archives. Field investigations include: 1) Coastal geomorphology along estuaries, wedge-protected and dune-protected lagunas, and terrace-platforms as potential sites for paleotsunami and boulder records and 2) Investigations of paleotsunamis deposits and their spatial distribution using trenching and coring. The two selected sites at Kefret Saber (immediately west of Marsah Matrouh town) and near El Alamein village are inner lagunas protected by 2 to 40-m-high dunes parallel to the shoreline. Five trenches and six cores dug in Kefret Saber and 1 trench in Alamein revealed an almost identical 5 to 10-cm-thick white sand unit with highly reworked fossil-rich and shells at about 20 to 40-cm-depth, intercalated in light brown laminated sandy and sandy-clay deposits. A total of 50 samples of organic deposits and charcoal fragments were collected from both sites, among which 20 samples have been dated. Dated charcoal in deposits above and below the white sand unit lead us to correlate with the 24 June 1870 major earthquake (M 7.5 - 8.0?) that generated a tsunami with the inundation of Alexandria harbor. Major seismic sources being along the Hellenic subduction zone and Cyprus arc, our progress study of paleotsunami deposits and their distribution along the Egyptian coast will help in a better constraint of the size and recurrence of tsunamis, and their propagation over the east Mediterranean regions.

  15. The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Said, Tarek O; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany; Abd-Allah, Aly M A

    2007-01-01

    Coastal marine sediment samples were collected from 31 sampling stations along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. All sediment samples were analyzed to determine aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) contents and grain size analysis. Total concentrations of 16 EPA-PAHs in the sediments were varied from 88 to 6338 ng g(-1) with an average value of 154 ng g(-1) (dry weight). However, the concentrations of total aliphatic were varied from 1.3 to 69.9 ng g(-1) with an average value of 15.6 ng g(-1) (dry weight). The highest contents of PAHs were found in the Eastern harbor (6338 ng g(-1)), Manzala (5206 ng g(-1)) and El-Jamil East (4895 ng g(-1)) locations. Good correlations observed between a certain numbers of PAH concentrations allowed to identify its origin. The average total organic carbon (TOC) percent was varied from 0.91 to 4.54%. Higher concentration of total pyrolytic hydrocarbons ( summation operatorCOMB) than total fossil hydrocarbons ( summation operatorPHE) declared that atmospheric fall-out is the significant source of PAHs to marine sediments of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. The selected marked compounds, a principal component analysis (PCA) and special PAHs compound ratios (phenanthrene/anthracene vs fluoranthene/pyrene; summation operatorCOMB/ summation operatorEPA-PAHs) suggest the pyrogenic origins, especially traffic exhausts, are the dominant sources of PAHs in most locations. Interferences of rather petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH contaminations were noticed in the harbors due to petroleum products deliveries and fuel combustion emissions from the ships staying alongside the quays. PMID:17058015

  16. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources. PMID:27053053

  17. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources.

  18. Mapping of the Seagrass Cover Along the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey Using Landsat 8 Oli Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirman, T.; Gumusay, M. U.; Tuney, I.

    2016-06-01

    Benthic habitat is defined as ecological environment where marine animals, plants and other organisms live in. Benthic habitat mapping is defined as plotting the distribution and extent of habitats to create a map with complete coverage of the seabed showing distinct boundaries separating adjacent habitats or the use of spatially continuous environmental data sets to represent and predict biological patterns on the seafloor. Seagrass is an essential endemic marine species that prevents coast erosion and regulates carbon dioxide absorption in both undersea and atmosphere. Fishing, mining, pollution and other human activities cause serious damage to seabed ecosystems and reduce benthic biodiversity. According to the latest studies, only 5-10% of the seafloor is mapped, therefore it is not possible to manage resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas. In this study, it is aimed to map seagrass cover using Landsat 8 OLI images in the northern part of Mediterranean coast of Turkey. After pre-processing (e.g. radiometric, atmospheric, water depth correction) of Landsat images, coverage maps are produced with supervised classification using in-situ data which are underwater photos and videos. Result maps and accuracy assessment are presented and discussed.

  19. First evidence of European eels exiting the Mediterranean Sea during their spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Amilhat, Elsa; Aarestrup, Kim; Faliex, Elisabeth; Simon, Gaël; Westerberg, Håkan; Righton, David

    2016-01-01

    The migration route and the spawning site of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are still uncertain. It has been suggested that the Mediterranean eel stock does not contribute to spawning because there is no evidence of eels leaving the Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, we equipped eight female silver eels from the south of France with pop-up satellite tags during escapement from coastal waters. Once in deeper water, the eels quickly established diel vertical migration (DVM) between the upper and lower mesopelagic zone. Five tagged eels were taken by predators within the Mediterranean, but two eels reached the Atlantic Ocean after six months and at distances greater than 2000 km from release. These eels ceased their DVM while they negotiated the Gibraltar Strait, and remained in deep water until they reached the Atlantic Ocean, when they recommenced DVM. Our results are the first to show that eels from Mediterranean can cross the Strait of Gibraltar and continue their migration into the Atlantic Ocean. This finding suggests that Mediterranean countries, as for other EU states, have an important role to play in contributing to conservation efforts for the recovery of the European eel stock. PMID:26906289

  20. First evidence of European eels exiting the Mediterranean Sea during their spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Amilhat, Elsa; Aarestrup, Kim; Faliex, Elisabeth; Simon, Gaël; Westerberg, Håkan; Righton, David

    2016-01-01

    The migration route and the spawning site of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are still uncertain. It has been suggested that the Mediterranean eel stock does not contribute to spawning because there is no evidence of eels leaving the Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, we equipped eight female silver eels from the south of France with pop-up satellite tags during escapement from coastal waters. Once in deeper water, the eels quickly established diel vertical migration (DVM) between the upper and lower mesopelagic zone. Five tagged eels were taken by predators within the Mediterranean, but two eels reached the Atlantic Ocean after six months and at distances greater than 2000 km from release. These eels ceased their DVM while they negotiated the Gibraltar Strait, and remained in deep water until they reached the Atlantic Ocean, when they recommenced DVM. Our results are the first to show that eels from Mediterranean can cross the Strait of Gibraltar and continue their migration into the Atlantic Ocean. This finding suggests that Mediterranean countries, as for other EU states, have an important role to play in contributing to conservation efforts for the recovery of the European eel stock.

  1. First evidence of European eels exiting the Mediterranean Sea during their spawning migration

    PubMed Central

    Amilhat, Elsa; Aarestrup, Kim; Faliex, Elisabeth; Simon, Gaël; Westerberg, Håkan; Righton, David

    2016-01-01

    The migration route and the spawning site of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are still uncertain. It has been suggested that the Mediterranean eel stock does not contribute to spawning because there is no evidence of eels leaving the Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, we equipped eight female silver eels from the south of France with pop-up satellite tags during escapement from coastal waters. Once in deeper water, the eels quickly established diel vertical migration (DVM) between the upper and lower mesopelagic zone. Five tagged eels were taken by predators within the Mediterranean, but two eels reached the Atlantic Ocean after six months and at distances greater than 2000 km from release. These eels ceased their DVM while they negotiated the Gibraltar Strait, and remained in deep water until they reached the Atlantic Ocean, when they recommenced DVM. Our results are the first to show that eels from Mediterranean can cross the Strait of Gibraltar and continue their migration into the Atlantic Ocean. This finding suggests that Mediterranean countries, as for other EU states, have an important role to play in contributing to conservation efforts for the recovery of the European eel stock. PMID:26906289

  2. European cretaceous flints on the coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, K.O.; Kaye, C.A.; Loring, D.H.; Nota, D.J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Flint pebbles and nodules from the Upper Cretaceous chalks of Europe occur offshore and at many seaports along the Atlantic coast of North America, where they were brought as ship's ballast. Isolated pieces imported from Europe as gunflints also are present.

  3. Fractionation profile and mobility pattern of metals in sediments from the Mediterranean Coast, Libya.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Samir M; Okbah, Mohamed A; El Haddad, Huda S; Soliman, Naglaa F

    2015-07-01

    A five-step sequential extraction technique, following Tessier's protocol, has been applied to determine the chemical association of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn with major sedimentary phases (exchangeable, carbonate, manganese and iron oxides, organic and residual fraction) in surface sediments from 14 stations off the Libyan Mediterranean coast. This study is a first approach of chemical fractionation of these metals in one of the most economically important area of the Libyan coastline in Mediterranean Sea. The total metal content was also determined. The total concentration of metals ranged from 5-10.5 mg/kg for Cd, 9.1-22.7 mg/kg for Cu, 141.8-1056.8 mg/kg for Fe, 18.9-56.9 mg/kg for Pb, and 11.6-30.5 mg/kg for Zn. The results of the partitioning study showed that the residual form was the dominant fraction of the selected metals among most of the studied locations. The degree of surface sediment contamination was computed for risk assessment code (RAC), individual contamination factor (ICF), and Global contamination factor (GCF). Risk assessment code classification showed that the relative amounts of easily dissolved phase of trace metals in the sediments are in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd>Cu>Fe. The results of ICF and GCF showed that Sirt and Abu Kammashand had higher GCF than other sites indicating higher environmental risk. In terms of ICF value, a decrease order in environmental risk by trace metals was Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Fe. Therefore, Pb had highest risk to water body.

  4. RAMS-forecasts comparison of typical summer atmospheric conditions over the Western Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Caselles, V.; Estrela, M. J.; Niclòs, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) has been used in order to perform a high-resolution numerical simulation of two meteorological events related to the most common atmospheric environments during the summer over the Western Mediterranean coast: mesoscale circulations and western synoptic advections. In this regard, we take advantage of the operational RAMS configuration running within the real-time forecasting system environment already implemented over this Mediterranean area, precisely in the Valencia Region and nearby areas. The attention of this paper is especially focused on identifying the main features of both events and the ability of the model in resolving the associated characteristics as well as in performing a comprehensive evaluation of the model by means of diverse meteorological observations available within the selected periods over the area of study. Additionally, as this paper is centred in RAMS-based forecasts, two simulations are operated applying the most two recent versions of the RAMS model implemented in the above-mentioned system: RAMS 4.4 and RAMS 6.0. Therefore, a comparison among both versions of the model has been performed as well. Finally, it is our intention to contrast the RAMS forecasts for two completely different atmospheric conditions common with the area of study in the summer. A main difference between the simulation of both meteorological situations has been found in the humidity. In this sense, whilst the model underestimates this magnitude considering the mesoscale event, especially at night time, the model reproduces the daily humidity properly under the western synoptic advection.

  5. [Concept of the Mediterranean diet in modern European nutrition].

    PubMed

    Smoliar, V I

    2001-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the conception of the Mediterranean diet that has become to be shared by many leading nutritionists of Europe over the last decade as a possible reference model of nutrition for inhabitants of many countries of Central, Northern and Eastern Europe. An association is shown between some nutritional factors and indices for general mortality, mortality from ischemic heart disease and cancer of certain localizations. A positive effect has been unraveled of monounsaturated fatty acids together with negative effects of saturated fatty acids on the process of beta-oxidization and mitochondrial functions in the cardiac muscle. On the basis of the analysis of the existing data a conclusion has been reached that annexes to the existing principles of the A. A. Pokrovsky's optimum nourishment formula are necessary. PMID:11692685

  6. RSLR-induced increase of vulnerability to storms along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosom, Eva; Jiménez, José A.; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2014-05-01

    Climate-related hazards are affecting coasts worldwide and they are likely to increase during the next decades (Nicholls et al., 2007). If we also consider that values at exposure are also increasing, coastal areas will very likely be exposed to increasing risks. Due to this, to properly develop sustainable coastal risk management plans it is necessary to consider climate-change induced effects as an additional forcing. Within this context, vulnerability assessment is a useful tool to help managers to make decisions in resource allocation and development of DRR plans. Vulnerability can be simply defined as the potential of a coastal system to be harmed by a given hazard. The negative contribution (susceptibility) is characterized through the magnitude of main induced processes (erosion and inundation) whereas the positive one (resilience) is parameterized in function of beach geomorphology. With respect to extreme events, Bosom and Jiménez (2011) presented a framework to assess coastal vulnerability to storms at regional scale adopting a probabilistic approach. In this work, this framework is enlarged by including the potential effects of RSLR on the vulnerability assessment. Thus, RSLR-driven processes (erosion and inundation) are accounted through their induced modifications on beach morphology that can affect the beach capacity of response or, in other words, its adaptation capacity. The inclusion of this effect in the vulnerability framework significantly changes coastal vulnerability values to storms at any probability of occurrence without the need of considering any change in storminess. The magnitude of the vulnerability increase depends on the considered RSLR scenario and the coastal geomorphology. This integrated framework has been applied to 219 km of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) considering different RSLR scenarios and time projections. Preliminary results obtained for a Tr = 50-y and the medium RSLR scenario (3.8 mm/y + subsidence) indicate a

  7. Numerical evaluation of the wave energy resource along the Atlantic European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes Soares, C.; Bento, A. Rute; Gonçalves, Marta; Silva, Dina; Martinho, Paulo

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper a hindcast system is applied to the analysis of the Atlantic European coast as a whole with specific nestings for sites of interest in each country. The areas included in this study were: Ireland west coast, UK South Western coast, France west coast, northern Spain and Canary Islands and Portugal's continental coast. Two contemporary spectral models were used: WaveWatch III for wave generation, covering almost the entire North Atlantic basin, which outputs are then used as boundary conditions for SWAN which simulates wave transformation in coastal areas. Wind fields were taken from the ERA Interim data base. Results are validated against buoy data. These validations allowed a reformulation, when needed, of the model's configurations in order to better tune its outcomes to the real data. Using the energy transport vectors given by SWAN, the wave power is afterwards calculated and an energy resource assessment is done for a period of several years.

  8. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in commercial cephalopods from the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Picó-Durán, Gabriela; Pulleiro-Potel, Lorena; Abollo, Elvira; Pascual, Santiago; Muñoz, Pilar

    2016-04-15

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of nematode larvae in commercial cephalopods in the Western Mediterranean Sea. A total of 202 animals comprising 123 broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii), 34 European squid (Loligo vulgaris) and 45 common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) were examined using enzymatic digestion. A total of 31 larvae were isolated (prevalence: 14.6%) and identified using molecular analyses which included PCR and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) region. Phylogenetic tree inferred from ITS sequences yielded supported relationships for Anisakis (P: 12.2%) and Hysterothylacium species (P: 4.1%). All parasites were found parasitizing I. coindetii and, as expected, A. pegreffii presented the highest prevalence (11.4%). A. physeteris was also found with a lower prevalence (1.6%) but confirming the role of the broadtail shortfin squid as paratenic host and, its potential host for anisakidosis transmission. A hybrid larva between Anisakis simplex and A. pegreffi was also identified. All Anisakis larvae were found within the visceral cavity; in contrast most of the Hysterothylacium larvae were isolated from the mantle. A significant correlation was found between total nematode prevalence and depth, explained by the presence of larger broadtail shortfin squids inhabiting deeper depths. Therefore, the results obtained in the present study improve the knowledge of the occurrence of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium species in the I. coindetii from the Spanish Mediterranean Sea highlighting the importance of considering I. coindetii as a potential hazard for humans if it is consumed raw or not well cooked and the need of further research in other cephalopods. PMID:26995720

  9. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in commercial cephalopods from the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Picó-Durán, Gabriela; Pulleiro-Potel, Lorena; Abollo, Elvira; Pascual, Santiago; Muñoz, Pilar

    2016-04-15

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of nematode larvae in commercial cephalopods in the Western Mediterranean Sea. A total of 202 animals comprising 123 broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii), 34 European squid (Loligo vulgaris) and 45 common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) were examined using enzymatic digestion. A total of 31 larvae were isolated (prevalence: 14.6%) and identified using molecular analyses which included PCR and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) region. Phylogenetic tree inferred from ITS sequences yielded supported relationships for Anisakis (P: 12.2%) and Hysterothylacium species (P: 4.1%). All parasites were found parasitizing I. coindetii and, as expected, A. pegreffii presented the highest prevalence (11.4%). A. physeteris was also found with a lower prevalence (1.6%) but confirming the role of the broadtail shortfin squid as paratenic host and, its potential host for anisakidosis transmission. A hybrid larva between Anisakis simplex and A. pegreffi was also identified. All Anisakis larvae were found within the visceral cavity; in contrast most of the Hysterothylacium larvae were isolated from the mantle. A significant correlation was found between total nematode prevalence and depth, explained by the presence of larger broadtail shortfin squids inhabiting deeper depths. Therefore, the results obtained in the present study improve the knowledge of the occurrence of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium species in the I. coindetii from the Spanish Mediterranean Sea highlighting the importance of considering I. coindetii as a potential hazard for humans if it is consumed raw or not well cooked and the need of further research in other cephalopods.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Strong Wind Situations near the French Mediterranean Coast: Comparison with FETCH Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzoli, A.; Tedeschi, G.; Resch, F.

    2004-07-01

    A detailed analysis is made of some typical strong wind situations near the French Mediterranean coast. Special attention has been paid to the wind from the north-northwest in the Gulf of Lion, also called the mistral. The analysis is made from both the synoptic and mesoscale point of view with the aid of numerical simulations carried out with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to study the main atmospheric, climatic, and meteorological characteristics of this wind in the Gulf of Lion. Simulations were made with this model during the periods of 20 22 March and 24 26 March 1998. Afterward, a comparison was made with the meteorological measurements collected during the international Flux, Etat de la Mer et Télédétection en Condition de Fetch Variable (FETCH) campaign (Gulf of Lion, March April 1998). The comparison between the simulated wind fields and the values measured by the coastal meteorological stations, an oceanographic buoy, and the ship Atalante at sea help to give full understanding of the complicated physical processes that characterize strong wind situations in coastal zones.


  11. Hepatic sarcocystosis in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Resendes, A R; Juan-Sallés, C; Almeria, S; Majó, N; Domingo, M; Dubey, J P

    2002-02-01

    Fatal hepatic sarcocystosis was diagnosed in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the northeastern Spanish Mediterranean coast based on pathologic findings and the microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of the intralesional parasite. Main gross lesions were icterus, subcutaneous hemorrhages, and hepatic congestion. The most prominent microscopic lesions consisted of severe acute multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis with cholestasis and intralesional protozoa. There was severe chronic pancreatitis with generalized distension of pancreatic ducts by hyaline plugs and adult trematodes. Only asexual stages of the protozoa were found. The parasite in the liver divided by endopolygeny. Schizonts varied in shape and size. Mature schizonts had merozoites randomly arranged or budding peripherally around a central residual body. Schizonts were up to 22 microm long, and merozoites were up to 6 microm long. Ultrastructurally, merozoites lacked rhoptries. This parasite failed to react by immunohistochemistry with anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Sarcocystis neurona antibodies. The microscopic and ultrastructural morphologies of the parasite were consistent with Sarcocystis canis, so far described only from animals in the Unites States. The life cycle and source of S. canis are unknown. The present report of S. canis-like infection in a sea mammal from Spain indicates that the definitive host for this parasite also exists outside of the United States.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sea sediments of the Turkish Mediterranean coast, composition and sources.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Semra G; Topal, Tansel

    2015-03-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 25 surface sediment samples from five sites located at Oludeniz Lagoon of the Turkish Mediterranean coast. The total concentration of the PAHs (1.85 ± 1.39 mg/kg) was lower than the sediments from highly urbanized areas, while it was comparable with the sediments from similar locations. Acenaphthene and chrysene were dominant ones with the concentrations of 0.620 and 0.515 mg/kg, respectively. The isomeric ratios indicated that combustion is the predominant source of PAHs in the sediments. Factor analysis solution supports the same finding with three major factors accounting for 71.7% of the variability in the data. Factor 1 with 43.4% of the total variance identified as a pyrogenic source (coal combustion; 4 rings PAH and traffic related pollution; 5-6 rings PAHs). Factor 2 (explains 39% of the total variance) represents PAHs originating from traffic, and factor 3 (explains 12% of the total variance) represents petrogenic source. Our results suggest that combustion of fossil fuels affects most of the points, followed by combustion of biomass and human activity. PMID:25280504

  13. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  14. Prevalences of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in mollusks from the Spanish Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Joven, Carmen; de Blas, Ignacio; Furones, M. Dolores; Roque, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a well-recognized pathogen of humans. To better understand the ecology of the human-pathogenic variants of this bacterium in the environment, a study on the prevalence in bivalves of pathogenic variants (tlh+ and tdh+ and/or trh+) versus a non-pathogenic one (only tlh+ as species marker for V. parahaemolyticus), was performed in two bays in Catalonia, Spain. Environmental factors that might affect dynamics of both variants of V. parahaemolyticus were taken into account. The results showed that the global prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus found in both bays was 14.2% (207/1459). It was, however, significantly dependent on sampling point, campaign (year) and bivalve species. Pathogenic variants of V. parahaemolyticus (tdh+ and/or trh+) were detected in 3.8% of the samples (56/1459), meaning that the proportion of bivalves who contained tlh gene were contaminated by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains is 27.1% (56/207). Moreover, the presence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (trh+) was significantly correlated with water salinity, thus the probability of finding pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus decreased 1.45 times with every salinity unit (ppt) increased. Additionally, data showed that V. parahaemolyticus could establish close associations with Ruditapes spp. (P-value < 0.001), which could enhance the transmission of illness to human by pathogenic variants, when clams were eaten raw or slightly cooked. This study provides information on the abundance, ecology and characteristics of total and human-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus variants associated with bivalves cultured in the Spanish Mediterranean Coast. PMID:26284033

  15. Air and groundwater pollution in an agricultural region of the Turkish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Semra G; Oztas, Nur Banu; Erduran, M Soner

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution and groundwater pollution in conjunction with agricultural activity were investigated in Antayla province on the Turkish Mediterranean coast. The air pollution was investigated in terms of gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), and particulate matter for a 6-month period in the atmosphere using a "filter pack" system, which was developed and optimized in our laboratory. Ozone was measured by using an automated analyzer. Among all of the gas-phase pollutants, HNO3 had the lowest concentration (0.42 microg x m(-3)) followed by NH3. Agricultural activities seem to be the major source of observed NH3 in the air. The current state of water pollution was investigated in terms of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides around the greenhouses, in which mainly tomato, pepper, and eggplant are cultivated. Water samples were collected from 40 points, 28 of which were wells and 12 of which were surface water. The pesticide concentrations in water samples were determined by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by a gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector (ECD)/nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD) system. In general, surface water samples were more polluted by the pesticides than groundwater samples. The most frequently observed pesticides were chlorpyriphos (57%) and aldrin (79%) in groundwater, and chlorpyriphos (75%), aldrin, and endosulfan sulfate (83%) in surface water samples. The highest concentrations were observed for fenamiphos (394.8 ng/L) and aldrin (68.51 ng/L) in groundwater, and dichlorvos (322.2 ng/L) and endosulfan sulfate (89.5 ng/L) in surface water samples. At least one pesticide had a concentration above the health limit in 38% of all the water samples analyzed.

  16. State of knowledge of the Acotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) from the Mediterranean coasts of Spain: new records and new species.

    PubMed

    Marquina, Daniel; Osca, David; Rodríguez, Jorge; Fernández-Despiau, Estrella; Noreña, Carolina

    2014-03-20

    Along the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, great species diversity is thought to exist, but our knowledge of Iberian polyclads is, in fact, very limited. This study contributes to the Polycladida (Platyhelminthes) of the Iberian Peninsula, in particular those of the Mediterranean coast. Nine species, mainly new species or new records, are described. Imogine stellae sp. nov. from Mar Menor (Murcia, Spain) is described, while I. mediterranea Galleni, 1976 is recorded for the first time in Spain. The genus Planocera Blainville, 1828 within the Mediterranean basin is reviewed: Planocera graffi Lang, 1879 is redescribed, and its synonymisation with Planocera pellucida (Mertens, 1833) considered. Also, the genus Notoplanella Bock, 1931 is represented by two species in Spain, N. inarmata Bock, 1931 type species, from Formentera Island and N. estelae sp. nov., from Mar Menor. Trigonoporus cephalophtalmus Lang, 1884 is rediscovered after the description of Lang (1884). Stylochus neapolitanus (Delle Chiaje, 1841-1844) Lang, 1884 is recorded and S. pilidium (Goette, 1881) is also redescribed, and Leptoplana mediterranea (Bock, 1913) is newly recorded for the Iberian Peninsula.

  17. Quality and Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training in the Mediterranean Countries: Lessons from the European Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Raymond; Baati, Mounir; Seyfried, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the development of the European approach towards quality and quality assurance in vocational education and training (VET) and its relevance for VET reforms in the European Training Foundation (ETF) partner countries. The analysis is based on an ETF project conducted in 2007-2008 in the Mediterranean partner countries to…

  18. An Efficient Rapid Warning System For Earthquakes In The European-mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; di Giovambattista, R.; Tome, M.

    Every year a few damaging earthquakes occur in the European-Mediterranean region. It is therefore indispensable to operate a real-time warning system in order to pro- vide rapidly reliable estimates of the location, depth and magnitude of these seismic events. In order to provide this information in a timely manner both to the scientific community and to the European and national authorities dealing with natural hazards and relief organisation, the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) has federated a network of seismic networks exchanging their data in quasi real-time. Today, thanks to the Internet, the EMSC receives real-time information about earth- quakes from about thirty seismological institutes. As soon as data reach the EMSC, they are displayed on the EMSC Web pages (www.emsc-csem.org). A seismic alert is generated for any potentially damaging earthquake in the European-Mediterranean re- gion, potentially damaging earthquakes being defined as seismic events of magnitude 5 or more. The warning system automatically issues a message to the duty seismolo- gist mobile phone and pager. The seismologist log in to the EMSC computers using a laptop PC and relocates the earthquake by processing together all information pro- vided by the networks. The new location and magnitude are then send, by fax, telex, and email, within one hour following the earthquake occurrence, to national and inter- national organisations whose activities are related to seismic risks, and to the EMSC members. The EMSC rapid warning system has been fully operational for more than 4 years. Its distributed architecture has proved to be an efficient and reliable way for the monitoring of potentially damaging earthquakes. Furthermore, if a major problem disrupts the operational system more than 30 minutes, the duty is taken, over either by the Instituto Geografico National in Spain or by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in Italy. The EMSC operational centre, located at the

  19. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  20. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-06-08

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  1. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  2. Retracing the Quaternary history of sea-level changes in the Spanish Mediterranean-Atlantic coasts: Geomorphological and sedimentological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazo, C.; Goy, J. L.; Dabrio, C. J.; Lario, J.; González-Delgado, J. A.; Bardají, T.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Cabero, A.; Ghaleb, B.; Borja, F.; Silva, P. G.; Roquero, E.; Soler, V.

    2013-08-01

    This study analyses coastal geomorphic responses to the various sea-level changes that occurred throughout the Quaternary period in the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Spain. Particular emphasis is paid to the geomorphic and stratigraphic record of the changes in amplitude, duration and frequency associated with the major gradual climate changes observed in marine cores and ice oxygen-isotope records during the Early and Middle Pleistocene (ca. 2.6 Myr; ca. ~ 1.4-0.8 Myr; ca. ~ 0.4-0.2 Myr) and also with the rapid and abrupt Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate changes. With this aim, the best preserved and most complete sedimentary sequences known in the Spanish Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts covering diverse geodynamic and climatic contexts were selected and analyses. This study is mainly based on field investigation of geomorphic, sedimentologic and stratigraphic features of mapped morphosedimentary units, combined with reliable chronological data. The analyses include the interpretation of sedimentary environments, the 3-D reconstruction of facies and morphosedimentary unit arrangement, paying special attention to the lateral geomorphic relationships between marine and terrestrial morphosedimentary units developed during interglacials under sea-level highstand scenarios. The interglacials occurred during four key Quaternary periods might be related with major gradual changes associated with glacial climate cycles reported from marine and ice oxygen-isotope records. Almost coeval changes in geomorphological styles are reported from all studied areas, regardless of their specific geodynamic context. Results from the Mediterranean realm suggest that this area is more sensitive to climatic and sea level variability than the Spanish Atlantic coast, particularly in the case of rapid and abrupt changes.

  3. Organochlorine compounds in surface sediments from the northern coast of Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean: Levels, possible sources and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, F; Pazi, I; Gonul, L T; Duman, M

    2016-08-15

    Organochlorines (OCs) were determined in sediments collected from different regions of northern coast of Cyprus. The OCPs and Aroclors had a wide range from 2.78 to 306 and 15 to 325ngg(-1), respectively. The highest level was found at Yedi Dalga site. DDE was the most abundant compound. The ratios of metabolites to parent DDT showed that DDTs were derived mostly from the aged and weathered inputs. Comparing our results with the previous studies showed that POPs in sediments were found to be lower than those in samples for Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. The SQG implied that, Aroclor1254 exceeded the TEL values, showing that adverse biological effects are expected occasionally at some of the sediment samples. DDTs were dominant and more ecotoxicological concern in the northern Cyprus. Altogether, it may be summarized that DDTs will impose ecologically hazardous impacts in the sedimentary environment at the present. PMID:27234367

  4. Source characterization of fine and coarse particles at the East Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamane, Yaacov; Perrino, Cinzia; Yossef, Osnat; Catrambone, Maria

    Fine and coarse atmospheric particles were collected in Ashdod—a midsize industrial city on the southeastern Mediterranean coast, and in Gedera—a rural site, to characterize ambient particles and to determine their long-range transport during two major seasons—winter and summer. Manual PM2.5 and PM10 samplers, dichotomous samplers, continuous automated PM10 samplers, and denuders were used to sample particulate and gaseous pollutants. Fine and coarse concentrations in Ashdod were 21.2 and 39.6 μg m -3, and 23.9 and 30.5 μg m -3 in the fall-winter and summer campaigns, respectively. Crustal material, as calcites or dolomites mixed with silicates, dominated the coarse fraction and also the fine fraction on dusty days. In the fall-winter, S, P, and Ni were coupled with minerals. Coarse Ni was associated with crustal material during dust storms, while P originated from shipping and deposition of phosphates in the urban area around. Sulfates dominated the fine fractions in the summer season averaging 12 μg m -3. Multivariate analysis indicated that S was associated with As and Se, V and Ni, both associated with heavy fuel combustion, and Zn and Pb. In winter, those mixed sources were local, but in summer they were part of long-range transport. In the fall-winter, Zn and Pb were strongly associated with Mn, Ga, and Cu—elements emitted from either traffic or metal processing plants. Although the influence of crustal material on both size fractions was significant, most heavy metals were associated with PM2.5. Higher concentrations were linked to a larger number of particles in this fraction, to a larger surface area available for biochemical reaction [Harrison, R., Shi, J., Xi, S., Khan, A., Mark, D., Kinnersley, R., Yin, J., Philos, T., 2000. Measurement of number, mass and size distribution of particles in the atmosphere. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 358, 2567-2579], and finally to a larger concern in regards to health effects.

  5. Medium-term shoreline evolution of the mediterranean coast of Andalusia (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Messina, Enrica; Anfuso, Giorgio; Suffo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Coastal environment is a dynamic system in which numerous natural processes are continuously actuating and interacting among them. As a result, geomorphologic, physical and biological characteristics of coastal environments are constantly changing. Such dynamic balance is nowadays seriously threatened by the strong and increasing anthropic pressure that favors erosion processes, and the associated loss of environmental, ecologic and economic aspects. Sandy beaches are the most vulnerable environments in coastal areas. The aim of this work was to reconstruct the historical evolution of the Mediterranean coastline of Andalusia, Spain. The investigated area is about 500 km in length and includes the provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Granada and Almeria. It is essentially composed by cliffed sectors with sand and gravel pocket beaches constituting independent morphological cells of different dimensions. This study was based on the analysis of aerial photos and satellite images covering a period of 55 years, between 1956 and 2011. Aerial photos were scanned and geo-referenced in order to solve scale and distortion problems. The shoreline was considered and mapped through the identification of the wet / dry sand limit which coincides with the line of maximum run-up; this indicator - representing the shoreline at the moment of the photo - is the most easily identifiable and representative one in microtidal coastal environments. Since shoreline position is linked to beach profile characteristics and to waves, tide and wind conditions at the moment of the photo, such parameters were taken into account in the calculation of shoreline position and changes. Specifically, retreat/accretion changes were reconstructed applying the DSAS method (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) proposed by the US Geological Survey. Significant beach accretion was observed at Playa La Mamola (Granada), with +1 m/y, because the construction of five breakwaters, and at Playa El Cantal (Almeria) and close

  6. Response to storm conditions of two different beaches at the Mediterranean coast of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mrini, Aldelmounim; Anfuso, Giorgio; Nachite, Driss; Taaouati, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades the increased demand for the recreational use of beaches has resulted in the uptake of studies on the morphodynamic processes which are acting on beaches. This knowledge is fundamental for appropriate coastal erosion management, suitable tourist use of littoral and for the design and shape of human construction. The Mediterranean sectors of Moroccan littoral investigated in this study, Ksar Rimal and Cabo Negro beaches, are respectively located north and south of Cabo Negro promontory and, over recent years, have been subject to increasing tourist activity. This has consisted mainly of the construction of two tourist ports (Marina Smir and Kabila), residential developments, hotels and a motorway which runs parallel to the coast, affecting the dune ridges and two lagoons which are of great ecological interest. In detail, the dunes located in the backshore at Ksar Rimal beach, are nowadays occupied by summer houses threaten by coastal retreat. A wide, partially urbanized, backshore is observed at Cabo Negro beach. With the intention of characterize the morphodynamic and seasonal behavior and the response of the studied beaches to storm impact, a beach monitoring program was carried out in the period 2006-2008, with special attention to the February-March 2008 stormy period. On analyzing the information obtained, it was possible to characterize the morphology and sedimentology of the studied beaches, and to calculate beach volumetric variations. Ksar Rimal is an open, exposed beach characterized by an intermediate slope (tan β = 0.10) with medium-coarse sands. The beach showed a reflective beach state characterized by plunging breakers. Small morphological seasonal changes were observed, most important morphological and volumetric variations (about 20 m3/m) taking place after winter storms which usually gave rise to a more dissipative beach profile (tan β = 0.05) characterized by spilling breakers. Beach recovery was quite rapid, usually lasting 2

  7. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter–gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. PMID:26337550

  8. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-12-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible.

  9. Amount and distribution of neustonic micro-plastic off the western Sardinian coast (Central-Western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Caliani, Ilaria; Marra, Stefano; Camedda, Andrea; Coppa, Stefania; Alcaro, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Giannetti, Matteo; Coppola, Daniele; Cicero, Anna Maria; Panti, Cristina; Baini, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Massaro, Giorgio; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Matiddi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A plethora of different sampling methodologies has been used to document the presence of micro-plastic fragments in sea water. European Marine Strategy suggests to improve standard techniques to make future data comparable. We use Manta Trawl sampling technique to quantify abundance and distribution of micro-plastic fragments in Sardinian Sea (Western Mediterranean), and their relation with phthalates and organoclorine in the neustonic habitat. Our results highlight a quite high average plastic abundance value (0.15 items/m(3)), comparable to the levels detected in other areas of the Mediterranean. "Site" is the only factor that significantly explains the differences observed in micro-plastic densities. Contaminant levels show high spatial and temporal variation. In every station, HCB is the contaminant with the lowest concentration while PCBs shows the highest levels. This work, in line with Marine Strategy directives, represents a preliminary study for the analysis of plastic impact on marine environment of Sardinia. PMID:24776304

  10. An Amphisbaenian Skull from the European Miocene and the Evolution of Mediterranean Worm Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Bolet, Arnau; Delfino, Massimo; Fortuny, Josep; Almécija, Sergio; Robles, Josep M.; Alba, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of blanid amphisbaenians (Mediterranean worm lizards) is mainly inferred based on molecular studies, despite their fossils are common in Cenozoic European localities. This is because the fossil record exclusively consists in isolated elements of limited taxonomic value. We describe the only known fossil amphisbaenian skull from Europe – attributed to Blanus mendezi sp. nov. (Amphisbaenia, Blanidae) – which represents the most informative fossil blanid material ever described. This specimen, from the Middle Miocene of Abocador de Can Mata (11.6 Ma, MN7+8) in the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula), unambiguously asserts the presence of Blanus in the Miocene of Europe. This reinforces the referral to this genus of the previously-known, much more incomplete and poorly-diagnostic material from other localities of the European Neogene. Our analysis – integrating the available molecular, paleontological and biogeographic data – suggests that the new species postdates the divergence between the two main (Eastern and Western Mediterranean) extant clades of blanids, and probably precedes the split between the Iberian and North-Western African subclades. This supports previous paleobiogeographic scenarios for blanid evolution and provides a significant minimum divergence time for calibrating molecular analyses of blanid phylogeny. PMID:24896828

  11. Molecular Phylogeny and Ecology of Textularia agglutinans d’Orbigny from the Mediterranean Coast of Israel: A Case of a Successful New Incumbent

    PubMed Central

    Merkado, Gily; Titelboim, Danna; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Holzmann, Maria; Pawlowski, Jan; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Abdu, Uri; Herut, Barak; Abramovich, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Textularia agglutinans d’Orbigny is a non-symbiont bearing and comparatively large benthic foraminiferal species with a widespread distribution across all oceans. In recent years, its populations have considerably expanded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast of the eastern Levantine basin. Despite its exceptionally widespread occurrence, no molecular data have yet been obtained. This study provides the first ribosomal DNA sequences of T. agglutinans complemented with morphological and ecological characterization, which are based on material collected during environmental monitoring of the hard bottom habitats along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, and from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea). Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that all specimens from both provinces belong to the same genetic population, regardless their morphological variability. These results indicate that modern population of T. agglutinans found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian. Our study also reveals that T. agglutinans has an epiphytic life mode, which probably enabled its successful colonization of the hard bottom habitats, at the Mediterranean coast of Israel, which consist of a diverse community of macroalgae. Our study further indicates that the species does not tolerate high SST (> 35°C), which will probably prevent its future expansion in the easternmost Mediterranean in light of the expected rise in temperatures. PMID:26539992

  12. Molecular Phylogeny and Ecology of Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny from the Mediterranean Coast of Israel: A Case of a Successful New Incumbent.

    PubMed

    Merkado, Gily; Titelboim, Danna; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Holzmann, Maria; Pawlowski, Jan; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Abdu, Uri; Herut, Barak; Abramovich, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny is a non-symbiont bearing and comparatively large benthic foraminiferal species with a widespread distribution across all oceans. In recent years, its populations have considerably expanded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast of the eastern Levantine basin. Despite its exceptionally widespread occurrence, no molecular data have yet been obtained. This study provides the first ribosomal DNA sequences of T. agglutinans complemented with morphological and ecological characterization, which are based on material collected during environmental monitoring of the hard bottom habitats along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, and from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea). Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that all specimens from both provinces belong to the same genetic population, regardless their morphological variability. These results indicate that modern population of T. agglutinans found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian. Our study also reveals that T. agglutinans has an epiphytic life mode, which probably enabled its successful colonization of the hard bottom habitats, at the Mediterranean coast of Israel, which consist of a diverse community of macroalgae. Our study further indicates that the species does not tolerate high SST (> 35°C), which will probably prevent its future expansion in the easternmost Mediterranean in light of the expected rise in temperatures. PMID:26539992

  13. Molecular Phylogeny and Ecology of Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny from the Mediterranean Coast of Israel: A Case of a Successful New Incumbent.

    PubMed

    Merkado, Gily; Titelboim, Danna; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Holzmann, Maria; Pawlowski, Jan; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Abdu, Uri; Herut, Barak; Abramovich, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny is a non-symbiont bearing and comparatively large benthic foraminiferal species with a widespread distribution across all oceans. In recent years, its populations have considerably expanded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast of the eastern Levantine basin. Despite its exceptionally widespread occurrence, no molecular data have yet been obtained. This study provides the first ribosomal DNA sequences of T. agglutinans complemented with morphological and ecological characterization, which are based on material collected during environmental monitoring of the hard bottom habitats along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, and from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea). Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that all specimens from both provinces belong to the same genetic population, regardless their morphological variability. These results indicate that modern population of T. agglutinans found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian. Our study also reveals that T. agglutinans has an epiphytic life mode, which probably enabled its successful colonization of the hard bottom habitats, at the Mediterranean coast of Israel, which consist of a diverse community of macroalgae. Our study further indicates that the species does not tolerate high SST (> 35°C), which will probably prevent its future expansion in the easternmost Mediterranean in light of the expected rise in temperatures.

  14. Increasing severity of damage caused by floods in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960-2014), climate change or vulnerability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Alfredo; Gil, Salvador; Lopez, Francisco; Barriendos, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, there has been an increase in physical and economic losses (WMO, CRED and UCL, 2014) that raises serious concerns in society. Climate change projections may explain the rise in flood losses; however, these shouldn't be considered yet (Bouwer, 2011). According to IPCC (2014), there is low confidence in anthropogenic climate change affecting the frequency and magnitude of fluvial floods on a global scale. In other words, this increase in flood events is not completely related to the higher frequency of heavy rainfall. To illustrate the aforementioned, a spatial example can be seen in the study area. In the Spanish Mediterranean coast, we see an increase in economic losses within the last 50 years due to flood events (Gil et al., 2014). It seems that the socio-economic growth and the rise of housing construction (Gaja, 2008) have led to an increase in vulnerability and exposure which are mainly responsible for those losses and the increase in severity of flood events (Pérez et al., 2015). Furthermore, this situation will probably become more precarious if some climate forecasts are met [IPCC, 2014; AEMET, 2015], and if the economic model fails to adopt efficient adaptive measures. Therefore, it is interesting to focus attention on social factors either within the present or future scenario in order to minimise the potential consequences and improve the adaptation. The main objective of this work focuses on the study of the evolution of the severity of the floods in the Spanish Mediterranean coast for the period (1960-2015). To do that, a statistical analysis of the data base [Gil et al., 2014; extended to the entire Spanish Mediterranean coast (MEDIFLOOD)] and a multiscale mapping (local, provincial and regional level) of the frequency of these events will take place in order to make comparisons and show spatiotemporal patterns according to the severity events evolution. Preliminary results show some interesting statistically significant

  15. Toward A Unified Seismic Bulletin For The European-mediterranean Area : Epsi Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedfroid, O.; Epsi Team

    The goal is to develop means and tools that will allow producing of European- Mediterranean seismic bulletin that will serve as a reference for the scientific com- munity. In order to become a useful support for seismic hazard assessment, such a bulletin will be required to present standard and reliable information. EMSC gathers via e-mail manually picked seismic phase arrival times with or without associated locations from almost all the institutes of the European- Mediterranean region in a database ; then bulletins are automatically merged by a unique software. Events are then submitted to an automatic analysis of the location parameters, and, for dubious events, to a manual reprocessing. First studies have shown that, first : the use of local velocity models and the increase of the azimutal coverage for most of the relocated events, then the interactive analysis of each event allow a huge improvement in terms of quality and quantity of the final seismic bulletin. The next step is to define an accurate magnitude estimation for the whole region of interest. Experience shows that the differences in the magnitudes reported by several institutes for a given event may vary up to 1.5 units. Based on enhanced local mag- nitude computation or on the derivation of the seismic moment, three methods are currently being applied on a reference dataset. Scientifical and technical criteria have 1 been defined in order to select the most reliable method. It is then proposed to develop new velocity models for border regions from the analysis of the residuals of calibrated events. Thus a model for France-Italy border have been defined and models for Italy-Slovenia, Italy-Switzerland and France-Spain borders are currently being developed. Another important objective of the project is the installation of autoDRM systems in several institutes in order to improve data exchange. Data and more information can be found at : http://www.emsc- csem.org/Html/EPSI_home.html Keywords

  16. Protein and dry matter degradability of European- and Mediterranean-derived birdsfoot trefoil cultivars grown in the colder continental USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work suggests several European- and Mediterranean-derived cultivars of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) are well adapted to the colder continental USA and produce forage with greater condensed tannin (CT) concentrations, but comparable neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and slightly ...

  17. Anisakid parasites of two forkbeards (Phycis blennoides and Phycis phycis) from the eastern Mediterranean coasts in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Farjallah, Sarra; Ben Slimane, Badreddine; Blel, Hager; Amor, Nabil; Said, Khaled

    2006-12-01

    Two gadiform species with a successive bathymetric and an ecological and economical importance in the Mediterranean fishing industry, Phycis blennoides and Phycis phycis, were selected for the present study. A total of 592 fresh specimens belonging to the Gadiformes genus were obtained from local commercial fisheries. The investigation was centred on anisakid parasites of 272 specimens of the greater forkbeard (P. blennoides) and 320 of the forkbeard (P. phycis) captured off the Mediterranean coasts of Tunisia (eastern Mediterranean Sea). Four species of nematodes were identified: Anisakis simplex s.1., Anisakis physeteris, Hysterothylacium aduncum and Hysterothylacium fabri. The total prevalence was 53.75% in the forkbeard and 51.47% in the greater forkbeard. The highest values of prevalence (38.75%, 2-14), mean intensity (6.74+/-3.4) and mean abundance (2.61) were all obtained for H. fabri L4 in the forkbeard. The most frequent parasite in the greater forkbeard was H. aduncum L3 with 32.35% (1-3) prevalence and values of 1.21+/-0.58 and 0.39 for mean intensity and mean abundance, respectively. The infestation parameters were also analysed according to the host length, and prevalence was highest in P. blennoides longer than 35 cm in respect of all anisakid species. Whilst in P. phycis, the highest prevalence, conditioned by H. fabri parasitisation, was found in fish with length reaching a maximum of more than 40 cm. When the data were grouped seasonally, clear patterns were observed for P. blennoides and P. phycis species, with prevalence and mean intensity of all the anisakid species peaking in spring and summer. PMID:16847607

  18. Application of the CARLIT index along a biogeographical gradient in the Alboran Sea (European Coast).

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Ricardo; de la Fuente, Gina; Vergara, Juan J; Hernández, Ignacio

    2013-07-15

    An index, based on littoral communities assemblages (CARLIT), was applied to assess the ecological status of Northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters, following the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive. The biogeographical particularities of the Alboran Sea suggested a reassessment of this index, and that was the main objective of this work. Due to these biogeographical particularities, two regions were proposed in the studied region, with new reference conditions for each region. Subsequently, by means of a multivariate analysis, littoral community abundances and the CARLIT index were compared with factors related to geomorphology, biogeography and anthropogenic pressures. Overall, the biogeographical component determined the distribution of littoral communities. In contrast, the ecological status yielded by the index only was significantly related to anthropogenic pressures. The results pointed out that the reassessment of the CARLIT index was suitable to evaluate the ecological status of the Alboran Sea. PMID:23673205

  19. Distributions of Pu, Am and Cs in margin sediments from the western Mediterranean (Spanish coast).

    PubMed

    Gascó, C; Antón, M P; Pozuelo, M; Meral, J; González, A M; Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

    2002-01-01

    Continental margins are important areas to be considered when studying the distributions and depositions of pollutants, both conventional and radioactive. Coastal sediments accumulate most of those contaminants which can be introduced following atmospheric and/or fluvial pathways. Moreover, their residence times within the water column are usually shortened due to their affinity to associate with the downward falling particulate matter, more abundant at shallower depths. In this paper the distribution profiles and inventories of plutonium, americium and cesium are detailed, providing useful information about recent sedimentation phenomena such as sediment mixing, slumping processes and bioturbation. Unsupported 210Pb data are used as reliable indicators of enhanced/reduced deposition events. Also, the calculated inventories have enabled the estimation of the radiological contribution of the Spanish Mediterranean margin to the total radioactivity deposited onto the Mediterranean sea floor.

  20. Presence of anisakid larvae in the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, fished off the Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, Claudio; Bossù, Teresa; Scaramozzino, Paola; Nicolini, Giuseppe; Ceddia, Pietro; Mallozzi, Salvatore; Cavallero, Serena; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of anisakid nematode larvae in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fished off the Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy. From February through July 2012, 1,490 specimens of E. encrasicolus caught in three different fishing areas (off Civitavecchia, Anzio, and Gaeta in the northern, central, and southern Lazio region of Italy, respectively) were tested for the presence of anisakid larvae, both by visual microscopic inspection and enzymatic digestion. In each of the three fishing areas, each of two sampling times produced 250 fish (with the exception of one sampling time in Gaeta that produced 240 fish). Larvae of the family Anisakidae were detected with an overall estimated prevalence of 2.3%, and each positive fish harbored a single larva. No anisakid larvae were detected in fish caught off Gaeta. Fish with larvae were significantly longer (standard length) than fish without larvae. Twenty-six larvae (74.3%) were detected by visual inspection of the viscera, eight larvae (22.8%) were detected by visual inspection of the fillets, and one larva (2.8%) was detected after digestion of pooled fillets. Molecular analysis to fully characterize the 35 detected larvae revealed 15 specimens of Anisakis pegreffii, 10 specimens of Hysterothylacium aduncum, and one hybrid genotype of A. pegreffii × Anisakis simplex. For nine specimens, no visible product was obtained after PCR amplification. The overall prevalence for A. pegreffii and H. aduncum was 1.0 and 0.7%, respectively. A comparison between fishes harboring A. pegreffii larvae and those harboring H. aduncum revealed that those with A. pegreffii were significantly heavier. The prevalence of anisakid larvae found in the present study is lower then that reported previously in E. encrasicolus collected in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:23992513

  1. Multiple dermal lipomas in farmed striped seabream Lithognathus mormyrus on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Serafín

    2009-05-27

    Two cases of multiple dermal lipomas were found in cultured striped seabream Lithognathus mormyrus (L.) from the southeast coast of Spain. A histopathological study suggests that pigmented cells may correspond to melanomacrophage aggregates. The presence of these aggregations is likely related to the occurrence of a pathological process of tumoral nature.

  2. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  3. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  4. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  5. Organic pollution and its effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Eastern Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Emmanouil, Christina; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadi-Psyllou, Asimina; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Okay, Oya; Machera, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    Persistent chemicals and emerging pollutants are continuously detected in marine waters and biota. Out of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are significant contaminants with decades of presence in the marine environment. The Mediterranean Sea is an ecosystem directly affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities including industry, municipal, touristic, commercial and agricultural. The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a filter feeder, which presents wide distribution. In this regard, the specific organism was used as a biological indicator for the monitoring and evaluation of pollution in the studied areas with focus on the mentioned chemical groups. Pristine Turkish sites with minimum effect from anthropogenic activities, in contrast with Greek sites which were subjected to heavy industrial and shipping activity, were selected. A gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to monitor 34 compounds (16 EPA priority PAHs and 18 OCs). Analyses of mussel samples in 2011 from sites with the limited anthropogenic pollution shores have shown the occurrence of 11 pollutants (6 PAHs, 5 OCs), while in the samples from sites with intensive activity and expected pollution, 12 PAHs and 6 OCs were detected. Biochemical and biological responses studied only in mussels samples from the sites with the highest contamination showed a situation that was under strong seasonal influence. The intensity of the response was also influenced by deployment duration. Noteworthy correlations were detected among biochemical/biological effects and between mussel body burden and these effects. Continuous monitoring of priority pollutants of East Mediterranean Sea is vital both for ecological and human risk assessment purposes.

  6. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy). Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories). In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody), or habitat (e.g., riverine), etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42%) and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research correlates functional

  7. Links between parasitism, energy reserves and fecundity of European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Lloret, Josep; Muñoz, Marta; Faliex, Elisabeth; Vila, Sílvia; Sasal, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758, is one of the most sought-after target species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. However, this stock currently consists of small individuals, and landings are reported to have decreased considerably. The main purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, the interrelationships between size, fecundity, energy reserves and parasitism in female anchovies, in order to analyse the potential implications for the health of northwestern Mediterranean anchovy stocks arising from the current shortage of large individuals. Results revealed that smaller individuals show lower fecundity, lower lipid content and a higher intensity of certain parasites. As it is known that smaller individuals now predominate in the population, the relationships found in this study indicate that the health of anchovies from the northwestern Mediterranean is currently impaired. PMID:27293748

  8. Links between parasitism, energy reserves and fecundity of European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Lloret, Josep; Muñoz, Marta; Faliex, Elisabeth; Vila, Sílvia; Sasal, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758, is one of the most sought-after target species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. However, this stock currently consists of small individuals, and landings are reported to have decreased considerably. The main purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, the interrelationships between size, fecundity, energy reserves and parasitism in female anchovies, in order to analyse the potential implications for the health of northwestern Mediterranean anchovy stocks arising from the current shortage of large individuals. Results revealed that smaller individuals show lower fecundity, lower lipid content and a higher intensity of certain parasites. As it is known that smaller individuals now predominate in the population, the relationships found in this study indicate that the health of anchovies from the northwestern Mediterranean is currently impaired. PMID:27293748

  9. Yield, morphological characteristics, and chemical composition of European- and Mediterranean-derived birdsfoot trefoil cultivars grown in the colder continental United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commonly grown North American birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) varieties, such as Norcen,0 produce forage with insufficient condensed tannin (CT) concentrations to maximize ruminant livestock performance. Our objective was to identify European and Mediterranean genotypes with higher CT...

  10. ESR dating marine terraces along the Mediterranean coast of the Antakya Graben, SE Turkey: Sea level change and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, Ufuk; Tüysüz, Okan; Blackwell, Bonnie; Genç, Ş. Can; İmren, Caner; Florentin, Jonathan A.; Skinner, Anne

    2015-04-01

    In southeastern Turkey, NE-trending Antakya Graben forms an asymmetric depression filled by Pliocene marine siliciclastic sediment, Pleistocene to Recent fluvial terrace sediment and alluvium. A multi-segmented, dominantly sinistral fault lying along the graben possibly connects the Cyprus Arc in the west to the Amik Triple Junction on the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) in the east. Normal faults, bounding the southeastern margin caused the graben to tilt southeastward and these faults are younger than the sinistral ones. Westward escape of the continental İskenderun Block along the sinistral faults belonging to the DSF in the east and to the Eastern Anatolian Fault in the north caused Antakya Graben to open since Pliocene. In the later stages of this opening, normal faults developed along the southeastern of the graben, leading to differential uplift of the Mediterranean coastal terraces. Tectonic uplift coupled with sea level fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces at elevations ranging from 0.25 m to 180 m above current sea level along the Mediterranean coast. In this study we dated these terrace deposits by using electron spin resonance (ESR) method. In the NW part of the graben, terraces at 30 m above mean sea level (amsl) yield 63±8 ka and correlate with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4. Older units dating to MIS 7 and 5 likely were being eroded to supply some fossils found in this terrace. On the 45 m amsl terrace dates to 114±7 ka, which is the MIS 5d/5e boundary. Terrace deposits at 105 m amsl belong to MIS 5c boundary at 91±13 ka. At Samandağ site at 39 m amsl, molluscs deposited in a large tidal channel indicate MIS 5d/5e boundary at 116 ± 5 ka. Contemporary sediments are seen in different elevations in the SE part of the graben. The youngest samples suggest an age 14±1 ka in the late MIS 2 for the slump topping the 8 m amsl terrace. At the 50 m amsl terrace dates to 89±5 ka and correlate with MIS 5a/5c. Here 180 m amsl terrace gave a

  11. Tsunami hazard assessment along the French Mediterranean coast : detailed modeling of tsunami impacts for the ALDES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quentel, E.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hébert, H.

    2012-04-01

    The catastrophic 2004 tsunami drew the international community's attention to tsunami risk in all basins where tsunamis occurred but no warning system exists. Consequently, under the coordination of UNESCO, France decided to create a regional center, called CENALT, for the north-east Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. This warning system, which should be operational by 2012, is set up by the CEA in collaboration with the SHOM and the CNRS. The French authorities are in charge of the top-down alert system including the local alert dissemination. In order to prepare the appropriate means and measures, they initiated the ALDES (Alerte Descendante) project to which the CEA also contributes. It aims at examining along the French Mediterranean coast the tsunami risk related to earthquakes and landslides. In addition to the evaluation at regional scale, it includes the detailed studies of 3 selected sites; the local alert system will be designed for one of them : the French Riviera. In this project, our main task at CEA consists in assessing tsunami hazard related to seismic sources using numerical modeling. Past tsunamis have affected the west Mediterranean coast but are too few and poorly documented to provide a suitable database. Thus, a synthesis of earthquakes representative of the tsunamigenic seismic activity and prone to induce the largest impact to the French coast is performed based on historical data, seismotectonics and first order models. The North Africa Margin, the Ligurian and the South Tyrrhenian Seas are considered as the main tsunamigenic zones. In order to forecast the most important plausible effects, the magnitudes are estimated by enhancing to some extent the largest known values. Our hazard estimation is based on the simulation of the induced tsunamis scenarios performed with the CEA code. The 3 sites have been chosen according to the regional hazard studies, coastal typology elements and the appropriate DTMs (Digital Terrain Models). The

  12. Impact and recovery from a mass mortality event of the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata populations on the french Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonhomme, D.; Garrabou, J.; Perez, T.; Sartoretto, S.; Harmelin, J. G.

    2003-04-01

    An unprecedented mass mortality occurred in the NW Mediterranean in summer 1999. This event affected 30 species of invertebrates from 5 different Phyla (sponges, cnidarians, molluscs, ascidians, bryozoans) on several hundred kilometres of shoreline from the Bay of Genoa in Italy to the Bay of Marseilles in France. The most affected taxa were sponges and cnidarians. This mass mortality took place under an unusual environmental context characterized by high and stable water column temperatures. The impact of the mass mortality and recovery (1999-2002) of populations of the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata from Provence's coasts (France) have been studied. Most surveyed populations displayed 50 % of affected colonies at different degree (dead, severe and low damage), although a great variability in rates of mortality and tissue loss was also evident depending among sites. The mortality impact decreased with depth, a pattern which supports the hypothesis that temperature played a key role in this event. Surveys on populations for which pre-mortality data (density and size structure) was attested that recovery was far from completion three years after the mortality. Considering the growth rate of P. clavata, full recovery of the most affected local populations will take several decades will be necessary to return to pre-mortality values. In the context of the global change and taking into account the correlation with the temperature, one may expect that the frequency of of these kind of events will increase in the next decades. Dramatic consequences can be expected for the conservation of the affected species in shallow habitats, in particular, and for the Mediterranean biodiversity, in general.

  13. Aeolian beach ridges and their significance for climate and sea level: Concept and insight from the Levant coast (East Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauz, B.; Hijma, M. P.; Amorosi, A.; Porat, N.; Galili, E.; Bloemendal, J.

    2013-06-01

    Relict beach ridges of aeolian origin and associated soils are often used for inferring relative sea level and climate with contrasting results. Most studies link the aeolian coastal deposits to regressive phases, some to high sea-level stands, and a few to intermediate relative sea-level positions. We interpret the apparent contradictions as indicating the lack of an over-arching concept and the inconsistent usage of sea level-related terms. In this paper we present an integrated morpho-sedimentological concept for a microtidal, mid-latitudinal coast and review existing data from the Levant (East Mediterranean) coast to evaluate the concept and to eliminate nomenclatural confusion. A coastal depositional environment in a semi-arid environment consists of shallow-marine, aeolian and alluvial facies which together form an aeolian beach-ridge complex as a package of strata which respond simultaneously to sea-level change. A transgressive complex forms through reworking or overstepping of the coastal foredune and a regressive complex forms by downstepping. Under transgression the aeolian beach ridge represents the highstand deposit and its adjacent shallow marine sediment is the transgressive deposit. Under regression the complex represents the falling stage and the associated downdip surface marks the lowstand. On the Levant coast we find chronologically well-constrained, offlapping aeolian beach ridges as parts of six downstepping beach ridge complexes formed between ~ 200 ka and 10 ka. The complexes represent the falling stage systems tract (FSST) of a short-lived (5th-order) depositional sequence when the shoreline shifted from a position close to the modern coastline to the shelf or below the shelf edge. Three of these FSSTs and their up dip and down dip super bounding surface together form the 4th order (~ 100 ka) sequence of the last interglacial/glacial cycle. The absence of transgressive, highstand and lowstand systems tract is explained by the poor

  14. Source assessment of particulate air pollutants measured at the southwest european coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio, Casimiro A.; Castro, Luis M.; Cerqueira, Mario A.; Santos, Isabel M.; Belchior, Filipa; Salgueiro, Maria L.

    Aerosol particles and gaseous species were measured in air masses transported to the west coast of Portugal, between November 1993 and August 1994. Samples were taken during four monitoring campaigns distributed along the various seasons of the year, integrated in the EC Project: BMCAPE. Aerosol particles were collected with separation in two size fractions and analysed in relation to total mass, water soluble ions, trace elements and black/organic carbon. Local micro-meteorological parameters and air mass backward trajectories were compared with analytical results in order to define characteristic air mass types and to evaluate the origin of pollutants. Average concentrations on the Portuguese west coast, even in maritime air masses, are higher than values observed in remote oceanic locations. This is probably a consequence of continental European air masses recirculation through the eastern Atlantic Ocean, reinforced by situations of mesoscale transport from the Iberian Peninsula. Principal Component Analysis permitted the identification of five source groups for the fine and coarse aerosol fractions, namely combustion plus road traffic, sea salt spray, secondary aerosol production, soil and possibly non-ferrous metallurgy industries. In the aerosol fine fraction road traffic and combustion contribute on average with 25% of the total fine aerosol mass, while sea spray and secondary production represent 14% and 31%, respectively of the mass loading. Sea spray is by far the major contributor to the coarse fraction with an average of 88% of the suspended coarse aerosol mass.

  15. Molecular characterization of Hysterothylacium fabri (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Zeus faber (Pisces: Zeidae) caught off the Mediterranean coasts of Turkey based on nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Yardimci, Banu; Onuk, Ertan Emek; Umur, Sinasi

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, Hysterothylacium fabri was found in the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, Turkey and characterized by sequencing of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2, cox2) markers. Pairwise comparison between the entire ITS fragment including ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 sequences of the H. fabri isolates from the Mediterranean Sea (Turkey, KC852206) and other H. fabri isolates from the South China Sea (JQ520158), the South Korea waters (JX974558) showed differences ranged from 0.1 and 1.1%. With the present study, H. fabri from the Mediterranean Sea was characterized for the first time by sequencing of the cox2 gene. PMID:24148286

  16. Molecular characterization of Hysterothylacium fabri (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Zeus faber (Pisces: Zeidae) caught off the Mediterranean coasts of Turkey based on nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Yardimci, Banu; Onuk, Ertan Emek; Umur, Sinasi

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, Hysterothylacium fabri was found in the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, Turkey and characterized by sequencing of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2, cox2) markers. Pairwise comparison between the entire ITS fragment including ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 sequences of the H. fabri isolates from the Mediterranean Sea (Turkey, KC852206) and other H. fabri isolates from the South China Sea (JQ520158), the South Korea waters (JX974558) showed differences ranged from 0.1 and 1.1%. With the present study, H. fabri from the Mediterranean Sea was characterized for the first time by sequencing of the cox2 gene.

  17. Sea level and current validation for an early warning coastal system on the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ràfols, Laura; abdelmalik, Sairouni; Bravo, Manel; Espino, Manuel; Grifoll, Manel

    2015-04-01

    An early warning coastal system is being implemented on the Catalan coast (North-western Mediterranean Sea) in order to provide high resolution forecast of sea levels, current velocities and wave conditions. The present investigation is focused on the oceanic model, which provides information about sea level and currents. The aim of this study is to validate the sea level and current forecasts obtained with the help of the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS; Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) in a high resolution domain (350 metres). In an attempt to reduce the high computational cost required for such a small grid, the Catalan coast has been divided into a few separate domains, which are run independently of each other. For the initial and boundary conditions, data from the MyOcean-IBI products have been used and the atmospheric forcing fields have been obtained from the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC) and the Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET). For a validation purpose, different study periods have been taken into account. Then, the validation of the model has been done using the available in-situ tide-gauge and buoy measurements and HF satellite data. During energetic events, the interaction between currents and waves is expected to be relevant in the shallower areas. For this reason, a coupled wave-ocean system has been implemented to investigate the improvements in the forecasts when faced with the results of separated simulations. In this case, the ROMS model and the SWAN model (Simulating WAves Nearshore; Booij et al., 1999) have been run as part of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System (Warner et al., 2010), which uses the Model Coupling Toolkit to exchange data fields between the models.

  18. Vulnerability of Mediterranean ecosystems to long-term changes along the coast of Israel.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Although human activity is considered to be a major driving force affecting the distribution and dynamics of Mediterranean ecosystems, the full consequences of projected climate variability and relative sea-level changes on fragile coastal ecosystems for the next century are still unknown. It is unclear how these waterfront ecosystems can be sustained, as well as the services they provide, when relative sea-level rise and global warming are expected to exert even greater pressures in the near future (drought, habitat degradation and accelerated shoreline retreat). Haifa Bay, northern Israel, has recorded a landward sea invasion, with a maximum sea penetration 4,000 years ago, during an important period of urban development and climate instability. Here, we examine the cumulative pressure of climate shifts and relative sea-level changes in order to investigate the patterns and mechanisms behind forest replacement by an open-steppe. We provide a first comprehensive and integrative study for the southern Levant that shows that (i) human impact, through urbanization, has been the main driver behind ecological erosion in the past 4,000 years; (ii) climate pressures have reinforced this impact; and (iii) local coastal changes have played a decisive role in eroding ecosystem resilience. These three parameters, which have closely interacted during the last 4,000 years in Haifa Bay, clearly indicate that for an efficient management of the coastal habitats, anthropogenic pressures linked to urban development must be reduced in order to mitigate the predicted effects of Global Change. PMID:25003703

  19. Vulnerability of Mediterranean ecosystems to long-term changes along the coast of Israel.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Although human activity is considered to be a major driving force affecting the distribution and dynamics of Mediterranean ecosystems, the full consequences of projected climate variability and relative sea-level changes on fragile coastal ecosystems for the next century are still unknown. It is unclear how these waterfront ecosystems can be sustained, as well as the services they provide, when relative sea-level rise and global warming are expected to exert even greater pressures in the near future (drought, habitat degradation and accelerated shoreline retreat). Haifa Bay, northern Israel, has recorded a landward sea invasion, with a maximum sea penetration 4,000 years ago, during an important period of urban development and climate instability. Here, we examine the cumulative pressure of climate shifts and relative sea-level changes in order to investigate the patterns and mechanisms behind forest replacement by an open-steppe. We provide a first comprehensive and integrative study for the southern Levant that shows that (i) human impact, through urbanization, has been the main driver behind ecological erosion in the past 4,000 years; (ii) climate pressures have reinforced this impact; and (iii) local coastal changes have played a decisive role in eroding ecosystem resilience. These three parameters, which have closely interacted during the last 4,000 years in Haifa Bay, clearly indicate that for an efficient management of the coastal habitats, anthropogenic pressures linked to urban development must be reduced in order to mitigate the predicted effects of Global Change.

  20. Ovatoxin-a and Palytoxin Accumulation in Seafood in Relation to Ostreopsis cf. ovata Blooms on the French Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Amzil, Zouher; Sibat, Manoella; Chomerat, Nicolas; Grossel, Hubert; Marco-Miralles, Francoise; Lemee, Rodolphe; Nezan, Elisabeth; Sechet, Veronique

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis are known to cause (often fatal) food poisoning in tropical coastal areas following the accumulation of palytoxin (PLTX) and/or its analogues (PLTX group) in crabs, sea urchins or fish. Ostreopsis spp. occurrence is presently increasing in the northern to north western Mediterranean Sea (Italy, Spain, Greece and France), probably in response to climate change. In France, Ostreopsis. cf. ovata has been associated with toxic events during summer 2006, at Morgiret, off the coast of Marseille, and a specific monitoring has been designed and implemented since 2007. Results from 2008 and 2009 showed that there is a real danger of human poisoning, as these demonstrated bioaccumulation of the PLTX group (PLTX and ovatoxin-a) in both filter-feeding bivalve molluscs (mussels) and herbivorous echinoderms (sea urchins). The total content accumulated in urchins reached 450 µg PLTX eq/kg total flesh (summer 2008). In mussels, the maximum was 230 µg eq PLTX/kg (summer 2009) compared with a maximum of 360 µg found in sea urchins during the same period at the same site. This publication brings together scientific knowledge obtained about the summer development of Ostreopsis spp. in France during 2007, 2008 and 2009. PMID:22412814

  1. Occurrence and behavior of illicit drugs and metabolites in sewage water from the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Valencia region).

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Serrano, Roque; Ferrer, Carlos; Tormos, Isabel; Hernández, Félix

    2014-07-15

    In this work, a study on the occurrence and behavior of illicit drugs and metabolites in sewage water systems has been made. A comprehensive dataset was obtained by analyzing illicit drugs daily in influent and effluent waters from three sewage treatment plants (STPs), over three different weeks. To complete this dataset, monitoring was conducted during an international pop/rock festival, an interesting facet within this study. The STPs selected were sited along the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Castellón province, Valencia region) and represent towns of different sizes, with appreciable variations in the population in the summer period. Illicit drug concentrations in the influents were low, except during the celebration of the music festival, when the levels of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, MDA and MDMA increased. Comparing the influent and effluent concentration data allowed the rough estimation of the removal of illicit drugs and metabolites by each STP. Removal efficiencies were estimated between 75 and 100% for most of the analytes under investigation. The loads discharged into the aquatic ecosystem were also calculated from effluent data. Weekly discharges of drugs and metabolites via effluent sewage waters presented values commonly below 10 g for each individual drug, with the exception of benzoylecgonine, which usually exceeded this level. The increase in population and drug consumption during the music event led to a notable increase in the weekly discharges, reaching values up to 406 g of MDMA and 122 g of benzoylecgonine.

  2. Intense storm activity during the Little Ice Age on the French Mediterranean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezileau, L.

    2010-09-01

    Understanding long-term variability in the frequency of intense storm activity is important for assessing whether changes are controlled by climate evolution. Understanding this variability is also important for predicting present and future community vulnerability and economic loss. Our ability to make these assessments has been limited by the short (less than 100 years) instrument record of storm activity. Storm-induced deposits preserved in the sediments of coastal lagoons offer the opportunity to study the links between climatic conditions and storm activity on longer timescales. Here we present a record of these extreme climatic events in the French mediterrannean coast over the past 1,500 years based on sediment cores from Gulf of Aigues-Mortes lagoons that contain a specific sedimentary and geochemical signature associated with intense storms. Overwash deposits correlate with floods and landfalls of the most intense documented storms in the area. There is no evidence of intense storm landfalls in the region for several hunderd years prior to the late 17th century A.D. The apparent increase in intense storms around 250 years ago occurs during the latter half of the Little Ice Age, a time of lower continental surface temperatures. Comparison of the sediment record with palaeoclimate records indicates that this variability was probably modulated by atmospheric dynamics associated with variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  3. Mediterranean Diet and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified subcohort of 15,798 participants selected from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED) (score range 0–18) was used to assess adherence to MDP on the basis of reported consumption of nine dietary components characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Cox proportional hazards regression, modified for the case-cohort design, was used to estimate the association between rMED and risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS The multiple adjusted hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes among individuals with medium (rMED 7–10 points) and high adherence to MDP (rMED 11–18 points) were 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.01) and 0.88 (0.79–0.97), respectively, compared with individuals with low adherence to MDP (0–6 points) (P for trend 0.013). The association between rMED and type 2 diabetes was attenuated in people <50 years of age, in obese participants, and when the alcohol, meat, and olive oil components were excluded from the score. CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective study, adherence to the MDP, as defined by rMED, was associated with a small reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in this European population. PMID:21788627

  4. Lightning characteristics over the eastern coast of the Mediterranean during different synoptic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ami, Y.; Altaratz, O.; Yair, Y.; Koren, I.

    2015-11-01

    Thunderstorm activity takes place in the eastern Mediterranean mainly through the boreal fall and winter seasons during synoptic systems of Red Sea Trough (RST), Red Sea Trough that closed a low over the sea (RST-CL), and Cyprus Low (during fall - FCL and winter - WCL). In this work we used the Israeli Lightning Location System ground strokes data set, between October 2004 and December 2010, for studying the properties of lightning strokes and their link to the thermodynamic conditions in each synoptic system. It is shown that lightning activity dominates over sea during WCL and FCL systems (with maximum values of 1.5 in WCL, and 2.2 km-2 day-1 in FCL) and have a dominant component over land during the RST and RST-CL days. The stronger instability (high Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) values of 762 ± 457 J kg-1) during RST-CL days together with the higher altitude of the clouds' mixed-phase region (3.6 ± 0.3 km), result in a slightly higher density of ground strokes during this system but a lower fraction of positive ground strokes (3 ± 0.5 %). In general the fraction of positive strokes was found to be inversely correlated with the sea surface temperature: it increases from 1.2 % in early fall to 17.7 % in late winter, during FCL and WCL days. This change could be linked to the variation in the charge center's vertical location during those months. The diurnal cycle in the lightning activity was examined for each synoptic system. During WCL conditions, no preferred times were found through the day, as it relates to the random passage timing of the frontal systems over the study region. During the fall systems (FCL and RST-CL) there is a peak in lightning activity during the morning hours, probably related to the enhanced convection driven by the convergence between the eastern land breeze and the western synoptic winds. The distributions of peak currents in FCL and WCL systems also change from fall to winter and include more strong negative and

  5. Age and season determine European rabbit habitat use in Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; Bravo, Lucía Gálvez

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge about the factors determining habitat use is especially interesting for herbivores living under seasonal climates as they have to deal with food shortage during the drought season. In this context, different-aged individuals are expected to respond differently to seasonal variations because nutritional requirements and predation risk can vary with age. We investigated adult and juvenile European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) habitat use in a Mediterranean ecosystem of central Spain, during spring, summer and winter. Relationships between adult and juvenile rabbit pellet abundances and 11 environmental variables related to food availability and refuge density were analysed by means of multiple regression, and evaluated using information theory to identify the set of models best supported by the data. Density of warren entrances was the more constant predictor of habitat use for juvenile rabbits in all the seasons. Herbaceous vegetation volume had a negative influence and was the strongest predictor for adult rabbit habitat use in spring and winter. In summer, green vegetation cover became the strongest positive habitat use predictor. These results suggest that adults prefer to forage in low volume swards ensuring a wide sensory range for the detection of approaching predators. However, the arrival of summer and its associated food depletion forces them to shift toward more open productive areas where green vegetation persists, but at the expense of higher predation risk. Seasonal variation induces minor changes in juvenile habitat use due to their strong dependence on warrens. Thus, our results show that rabbit habitat use is influenced by animal age and seasonal variations in resources.

  6. Ecological investigation of three geophytes in the Deltaic Mediterranean coast of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Maswada, Hanafey F; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser A

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the ecological features of three geophytes namely Asparagus stipularis, Cyperus capitatus and Stipagrostis lanata which grow naturally in the Nile Delta coast of Egypt. C. capitatus and S. lanata are growing in non-saline sandy soils and can tolerate drought stress while, A. stipularis is growing in saline and non-saline sandy and calcareous clay soils and can tolerate drought and salt stress. Multivariate analysis of the vegetation of 100 sampled stands supporting growth of the three geophytic species in the study area led to the recognition of four vegetation groups namely, (A) Alhagi graecorum, (B) Cyperus capitatus, (C) Lycium schweinfurthii var. schweinfurthii-Asparagus stipularis and (D) Juncus acutus subsp. acutus. Vegetationally, the vegetation groups associated with the three species can be distinguished into two community types. The first one is psammophytic community comprising vegetation groups A and B that may represent the non-saline sand formations (flats, hummocks and dunes). The second one is halophytic community including vegetation groups C and D that may represent the saline sand flats and salt marsh habitat types, respectively. Sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity, sodium cation, chlorides, silt and sand fractions, pH value, moisture content, bicarbonates and available phosphorus were the most effective soil factors that controlling the abundance and distribution of the plant communities associated with the investigated geophytes. This study showed the ecological features of the selected geophytes in terms of their habitats, associated plant communities and the most edaphic factors controlling their richness and distribution in the study area.

  7. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples from Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özmen, S. F.; Cesur, A.; Boztosun, I.; Yavuz, M.

    2014-10-01

    Following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a huge amount of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. It's impact on the environment is of great concern to the good of the public at large. In this regard environmental radioactivity monitoring such as external dose rate and radioactivity measurements in environmental samples has been carried out. For this purpose, several beach sand samples were collected from south coast of the Turkey in September 2011 and radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra (238U), 228Ac (232Th), 40K, 134Cs and 137Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using a high-purity Germanium detector. The measured activity concentrations in beach sand samples ranged from 4.0±0.5 to 21.5±1.8 Bq/kg, 1.8±0.4 to 27.9±2.4 Bq/kg, 19.0±2.2 to 590.3±28.6 Bq/kg and 0.1±0.0 to 1.0±0.1 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs, respectively. However there was no sign of 134Cs in the sample spectrum after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Hence we can safely conclude that there was no significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. The other activities are in good agreement with the published results of neighboring areas. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and the annual effective dose (AED) of beach sand samples were below the world wide average implying that the radiation hazard is insignificant. The data presented in this study would also be very useful to determine the possible future effects of the nuclear power plant to the environment.

  8. Ecological investigation of three geophytes in the Deltaic Mediterranean coast of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Maswada, Hanafey F; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser A

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the ecological features of three geophytes namely Asparagus stipularis, Cyperus capitatus and Stipagrostis lanata which grow naturally in the Nile Delta coast of Egypt. C. capitatus and S. lanata are growing in non-saline sandy soils and can tolerate drought stress while, A. stipularis is growing in saline and non-saline sandy and calcareous clay soils and can tolerate drought and salt stress. Multivariate analysis of the vegetation of 100 sampled stands supporting growth of the three geophytic species in the study area led to the recognition of four vegetation groups namely, (A) Alhagi graecorum, (B) Cyperus capitatus, (C) Lycium schweinfurthii var. schweinfurthii-Asparagus stipularis and (D) Juncus acutus subsp. acutus. Vegetationally, the vegetation groups associated with the three species can be distinguished into two community types. The first one is psammophytic community comprising vegetation groups A and B that may represent the non-saline sand formations (flats, hummocks and dunes). The second one is halophytic community including vegetation groups C and D that may represent the saline sand flats and salt marsh habitat types, respectively. Sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity, sodium cation, chlorides, silt and sand fractions, pH value, moisture content, bicarbonates and available phosphorus were the most effective soil factors that controlling the abundance and distribution of the plant communities associated with the investigated geophytes. This study showed the ecological features of the selected geophytes in terms of their habitats, associated plant communities and the most edaphic factors controlling their richness and distribution in the study area. PMID:24506033

  9. Impact of maritime air mass trajectories on the Western European coast urban aerosol.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S M; Silva, A I; Freitas, M C; Dzung, H M; Caseiro, A; Pio, C A

    2013-01-01

    Lisbon is the largest urban area in the Western European coast. Due to this geographical position the Atlantic Ocean serves as an important source of particles and plays an important role in many atmospheric processes. The main objectives of this study were to (1) perform a chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM2.5) sampled in Lisbon, (2) identify the main sources of particles, (3) determine PM contribution to this urban area, and (4) assess the impact of maritime air mass trajectories on concentration and composition of respirable PM sampled in Lisbon. During 2007, PM2.5 was collected on a daily basis in the center of Lisbon with a Partisol sampler. The exposed Teflon filters were measured by gravimetry and cut into two parts: one for analysis by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the other by ion chromatography (IC). Principal component analysis (PCA) and multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) were used to identify possible sources of PM2.5 and determine mass contribution. Five main groups of sources were identified: secondary aerosols, traffic, calcium, soil, and sea. Four-day backtracking trajectories ending in Lisbon at the starting sampling time were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. Results showed that maritime transport scenarios were frequent. These episodes were characterized by a significant decrease of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations and exerted a significant role on air quality in this urban area.

  10. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  11. From egg production to recruits: Connectivity and inter-annual variability in the recruitment patterns of European anchovy in the northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina-Alvarez, Andres; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Bernal, Miguel; Roos, David; Palomera, Isabel

    2015-11-01

    We show the application of a Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Model (SEIBM) to understand the recruitment process of European anchovy. The SEIBM is applied to simulate the effects of inter-annual variability in parental population spawning behavior and intensity, and ocean dynamics, on the dispersal of eggs and larvae from the spawning area in the Gulf of Lions (GoL) towards the coastal nursery areas in the GoL and Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean Sea). For each of seven years (2003-2009), we initialize the SEIBM with the real positions of anchovy eggs during the spawning peak, from an acoustics-derived eggs production model. We analyze the effect of spawners' distribution, timing of spawning, and oceanographic conditions on the connectivity patterns, growth, dispersal distance and late-larval recruitment (14 mm larva recruits, R14) patterns. The area of influence of the Rhône river plume was identified as having a high probability of larval recruitment success (64%), but up to 36% of R14 larvae end up in the Catalan Coast. We demonstrate that the spatial paths of larvae differ dramatically from year to year, and suggest potential offshore nursery grounds. We showed that our simulations are coherent with existing recruitment proxies and therefore open new possibilities for fisheries management.

  12. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  13. Fucus spiralis as monitoring tool of metal contamination in the northwest coast of Portugal under the European Water Framework Directives.

    PubMed

    Reis, Pedro A; Cassiano, Júlia; Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    Metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in coastal seawaters and soft tissues of macroalga Fucus spiralis from the northwest coast of Portugal were determined to assess spatial variations of metal bioavailabilities and bioaccumulation factors to compare different ecological quality classifications. Both coastal seawaters and soft tissues of F. spiralis showed significant spatial variations in their metal concentrations along the coast. The macroalgae F. spiralis accumulated more efficiently Cd, Mn and Zn and showed low bioaccumulation factors to Cr, Cu and Fe. Regarding the metal guidelines of the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority, the entire northwest (NW) coast of Portugal in April 2013 should be classified as 'class I--unpolluted' for all metals, except in Ave for Cu ('class II--moderately polluted') and Cavado for Cd and Cu ('class II-moderately polluted'), revealing the low metal bioavailabilities of these seawaters. As there were always significant positive correlations between all metals in seawaters and F. spiralis, this macroalga species was considered a suitable monitoring tool of metal contamination in the NW coast of Portugal and a useful aquatic organism to be included in the European Environmental Specimen Banks in order to establish a real-time environmental monitoring network under the European Water Framework Directives.

  14. Seasonal variation of volatile organic compounds exchange above a periurban Holm oak forest on the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Flavia; Juráň, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano

    2015-04-01

    Bi-directional exchanges of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were investigated on a Mediterranean Holm oak forest in Castelporziano presidential estate, a peri-urban forest near the coast of Tyrrhenian sea, 20 Km from Rome downtown, Italy. Two field campaigns were carried out in January and August 2014 to explore VOCs fluxes in two seasons with different climate conditions and physiological activity of plants. Concentration of 23 compounds was measured using a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). These included biogenic products (BVOC - isoprene, monoterpenes), oxygenated BVOC (OVOC - methanol, acetaldehyde acetone) and VOC of anthropogenic origin (AVOC - acetonitrile, benzene, hexenal, toluene, xylenes). Each half-hour, we switched between measurement at high frequency above the canopy and sampling through a 5-levels gradient from soil to above the canopy. We used the eddy covariance technique to calculate fluxes above the canopy, while gradient measurements were used to estimate in-canopy source and sink distribution by applying an Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model (Karl et al., 2004, J.Geophys.Res). Ozone and NOx concentrations were also measured to better correlate VOCs exchanges with this important secondary pollutant. Low temperatures lead to almost negligible BVOC fluxes during Winter. Summer fluxes were largely represented by BVOC (mainly monoterpenes). The highest fluxes (up to 2.4 nmol m-2 s-1) were recorded in the central hour of the day in response to high light and temperature. Oxygenated compounds (methanol and acetone) showed different behaviour during the two seasons: in Winter a net release of these compounds was observed, while in Summer the canopy acted as a sink for OVOC except for the hottest hours when we observed significant emissions. OVOC source-sink distribution analysis helped identifying the canopy layers which mostly contributed to VOCs exchanges, thus underlining the importance of forest canopies in VOCs exchanges

  15. Mercury distribution and methylmercury mobility in the sediments of three sites on the Lebanese coast, eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Abi-Ghanem, Carine; Nakhlé, Khaled; Khalaf, Gaby; Cossa, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in coastal sediments has been widely studied in clay deposits; however, equivalent results on carbonated sediments are scarce. This article aims to study Hg distribution in Lebanese carbonate coastal marine sediments (Eastern Mediterranean) in order to characterize their contamination level and to explore the postdepositional mobility of methylmercury (MeHg) in the deposits. Vertical distribution profiles of total (HgT) and MeHg have been established for the solid phase of sediment cores collected in various near-shore environments chosen for their hypothetical various degrees of anthropization. In addition, dissolved MeHg was determined in sediment pore waters to test its mobility and potential availability for biota. Three sites on the Lebanese coasts--Akkar, Dora, and Selaata--were selected. Akkar is far from any direct contamination source, whereas Dora, located near the Beirut harbor, is a heavily urbanized and industrialized zone including a huge dump site, and Selaata is near a chemical plant that produces phosphate fertilizers. Particulate HgT concentrations in the sediments varied between <0.04 and 0.65 μg/g, with a proportion of MeHg lower than 1%. Based on a sediment quality guideline (MacDonald et al. 2000), we concluded that Dora bay sediments are heavily contaminated by Hg, with concentrations exceeding the "consensus-based threshold effect" level (0.17 μg/g) and almost reaching the "effects range-medium" level (0.71 μg/g). In spite of the low HgT concentration in Akkar and Selaata sediment (similar to natural carbonated sediment: 0.04 μg/g according to Turekian and Wedephol (1961), a closer analysis of the sediment core vertical profile allows one to observe an anthropogenic impact. This impact might be toxicologically insignificant; however, it allows tracing the time increase of Hg diffuse deposition. On the other hand, dissolved MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.09 and from 0.04 to 8.76 ng/l in the Selaata

  16. Public health research support through the European structural funds in central and eastern Europe and the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health research provides evidence for practice across fields including health care, health promotion and health surveillance. Levels of public health research vary markedly across European Union (EU) countries, and are lowest in the EU's new member states (in Central and Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean). However, these countries now receive most of the EU's Structural Funds, some of which are allocated to research. Methods STEPS, an EU-funded study, sought to assess support for public health research at national and European levels. To identify support through the Structural funds, STEPS drew information from country respondents and internet searches for all twelve EU new member states. Results The EU allocates annually around €7 billion through the Structural Funds for member states' own use on research. These funds can cover infrastructure, academic employment, and direct research grants. The programmes emphasise links to business. Support for health research includes major projects in biosciences, but direct support for public health research was found in only three countries - Cyprus, Latvia and Lithuania. Conclusions Public health research is not prioritised in the EU's Structural Funds programme in comparison with biomedicine. For the research dimension of the new European programme for Structural Funds 2014-2002, ministries of health should propose public health research to strengthen the evidence-base for European public health policy and practice. PMID:22480250

  17. Are we safe? A tool to improve the knowledge of the risk areas: high-resolution floods database (MEDIFLOOD) for Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960 -2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Perez-Morales, Alfredo; Lopez-Martinez, Francisco; Barriendos-Vallve, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula concentrates an important part of the population and economic activities in Spain. Intensive agriculture, industry in the major urban centers, trade and tourism make this region the main center of economic dynamism and one of the highest rates of population and economic growth of southern Europe. This process accelerated after Franco regime started to be more open to the outside in the early sixties of the last century. The main responsible factor for this process is the climate because of warmer temperatures and a large number of sunny days, which has become in the economic slogan of the area. However, this growth process has happened without proper planning to reduce the impact of other climatic feature of the area, floods. Floods are the natural hazard that generates greater impacts in the area.One of the factors that facilitate the lack of strategic planning is the absence of a correct chronology of flood episodes. In this situation, land use plans, are based on inadequate chronologies that do not report the real risk of the population of this area. To reduce this deficit and contribute to a more efficient zoning of the Mediterranean coast according to their floods risk, we have prepared a high-resolution floods database (MEDIFLOOD) for all the municipalities of the Spanish Mediterranean coast since 1960 until 2013. The methodology consists on exploring the newspaper archives of all newspapers with a presence in the area. The searches have been made by typing the name of each of the 180 municipalities of the Spanish coast followed by 5 key terms. Each identified flood has been classified by dates and according to their level of intensity and type of damage. Additionally, we have consulted the specific bibliography to rule out any data gaps. The results are surprising and worrying. We have identified more than 3,600 cases where a municipality has been affected by floods. These cases are grouped into more than 700

  18. The development of nursing: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Salvage, J

    1997-01-01

    What do we mean by "Europe" and what is a European perspective? Those of us living in the European Union (EU) often equate Europe with our own "Western" countries, although as the EU itself expands even the term "Western" is increasingly inaccurate. The 50 Member States of the WHO European Region cover a huge area stretching from the western coast of Greenland to the Mediterranean, the Arctic and the Pacific coasts of the Russian Federation. "WHO Europe" is a loose geographical definition, since it incorporates all the republics of the former Soviet Union, including those in Central Asia.

  19. Differential biomagnification of PCB, PBDE, Hg and Radiocesium in the food web of the European hake from the NW Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Bodiguel, Xavier; Charmasson, Sabine; Loizeau, Véronique; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Tronczyński, Jacek; Cossa, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Consumption of marine organisms represents one of the main exposure sources of contaminants for human populations. To obtain a global view of the contamination in commercial fish in the NW Mediterranean Sea, we analysed four types of priority contaminants (PCBs, PBDEs, Hg and (137)Cs) in the European hake, Merluccius merluccius, from the Gulf of Lions in relation with organism's trophic level (δ(15)N). All contaminants presented a significant increase in concentration in hake muscle with trophic level. However, obvious differences between contaminants were evidenced. Biomagnification factors (BMF and FWMF) along the hake food web were higher for Hg and CB-153 than for BDE-47 and (137)Cs, and increase in contaminant concentration with trophic level occurred at different rates depending on contaminants. Such differences of biomagnification patterns can be related to physico-chemical properties of the different contaminants. PMID:22404970

  20. Freshwater scarcity effects on the aquatic macrofauna of a European Mediterranean-climate estuary.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Baldó, Francisco; Arias, Alberto; Cuesta, Jose A; Fernández-Delgado, Carlos; Vilas, César; Drake, Pilar

    2015-01-15

    In the Mediterranean-climate zone, recurrent drought events and increasing water demand generally lead to a decrease in freshwater input to estuaries. This water scarcity may alter the proper function of estuaries as nursery areas for marine species and as permanent habitat for estuarine species. A 12-year data set of the aquatic macrofauna (fish, decapod and mysid crustaceans) in a Mediterranean estuary (Guadalquivir estuary, South Spain) was analysed to test if water scarcity favours the nursery function of regional estuaries to the detriment of permanent estuarine inhabitants. Target species typically displayed a salinity-related distribution and estuarine salinisation in dry years resulted in a general upstream community displacement. However, annual densities of marine species were neither consistently higher in dry years nor estuarine species during wet years. Exceptions included the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer and the marine shrimp Crangon crangon, which were more abundant in wet and dry years, respectively. High and persistent turbidity, a collateral effect of water scarcity, altered both the structural (salinity-related pattern) and functional (key prey species and predator density) community characteristics, chiefly after the second drought period of the analysis. The observed high inter-year environmental variability, as well as species-specific effects of water scarcity, suggests that exhaustive and long-term sampling programmes will be required for rigorously monitoring the estuarine communities of the Mediterranean-climate region.

  1. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project. PMID:26054458

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in Diplodus annularis, Liza aurata, and Solea vulgaris relevant to their concentration in water and sediment from the southwestern Mediterranean (coast of Sfax).

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn) were measured in the liver, gills, and muscle of Solea vulgaris, Liza aurata, and Diplodus annularis, collected from the south coast of Sfax (Gabes Gulf, southwestern Mediterranean). The concentrations of heavy metals in water exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in μg l(-1)): Fe > Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd whereas the trend is somewhat different in sediments (mg kg(-1) D.W.) Fe > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd. The levels of heavy metals varied significantly among fish species and tissues. Heavy metal levels were found generally higher in the liver and gills than the muscle in all species. The liver was the target organ for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn accumulation. Nickel and lead, however, exhibited their highest concentrations in the gills. The three studied fishes showed a difference in metals accumulation decreasing in following order S. vulgaris > D. annularis > L. aurata. Solea vulgaris with the highest TFwater, TFsediment, and metal concentrations in tissues would be considered as a potential bio-indicator in the south coast of Sfax for the assessment of environmental pollution status. Comparative studies with Luza zone indicate considerable bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) in the various tissues of fish samples of the south coast of Sfax.

  3. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project.

  4. Assessment of the diversity and dynamics of Plum pox virus and aphid populations in transgenic European plums under Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Capote, Nieves; Pérez-Panadés, Jordi; Monzó, César; Carbonell, Emilio; Urbaneja, Alberto; Scorza, Ralph; Ravelonandro, Michel; Cambra, Mariano

    2008-06-01

    The molecular variability of Plum pox virus (PPV) populations was compared in transgenic European plums (Prunus domestica L.) carrying the coat protein (CP) gene of PPV and non-transgenic plums in an experimental orchard in Valencia, Spain. A major objective of this study was to detect recombination between PPV CP transgene transcripts and infecting PPV RNA. Additionally, we assessed the number and species of PPV aphid vectors that visited transgenic and non-transgenic plum trees. Test trees consisted of five different P. domestica transgenic lines, i.e. the PPV-resistant C5 'HoneySweet' line and the PPV-susceptible C4, C6, PT6 and PT23 lines, and non-transgenic P. domestica and P. salicina Lind trees. No significant difference in the genetic diversity of PPV populations infecting transgenic and conventional plums was detected, in particular no recombinant between transgene transcripts and incoming viral RNA was found at detectable levels. Also, no significant difference was detected in aphid populations, including viruliferous individuals, that visited transgenic and conventional plums. Our data indicate that PPV-CP transgenic European plums exposed to natural PPV infection over an 8 year period caused limited, if any, risk beyond the cultivation of conventional plums under Mediterranean conditions in terms of the emergence of recombinant PPV and diversity of PPV and aphid populations.

  5. Spatial distribution and temporal trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Iberian Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    León, V M; Martínez-Gómez, C; García, I; Campillo, J A; Benedicto, J

    2013-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been determined in blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from several Iberian Mediterranean coastal areas through the implementation of a monitoring programme from Spain in the framework of the Mediterranean Pollution Programme (MED POL). The selected areas correspond to sites with differing degrees of exposure to the main pollution sources (hot spots, coastal and reference areas). The sampling campaigns were performed from 2004 to 2009, with samples being taken from May to June, the non-spawning period for mussels in this area. Thirteen PAHs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with specific fluorescence detection. In general, total PAHs concentration was lower than 50 μg kg(-1) d.w., except in areas close to the principal ports and cities (Barcelona, Tarragona, Valencia and Algeciras) where it varies from 75 to 390 μg kg(-1) d.w. Background concentrations have been proposed for PAHs in mussels (23.8 μg kg(-1) d.w.) from Western Mediterranean area. Temporal trends were not statistically significant for PAHs concentrations from 2004 to 2009. Longer monitoring periods would be required to detect a continuous tendency, especially for PAHs because although the efficiency of combustion engines has reduced PAHs emissions, their increasing use could alter this potential reduction. The predominant PAHs were three and four ring congeners in all cases, with the predominance of phenanthrene in mussels sited far from the main PAHs sources. The phenanthrene/anthracene (lower than 10) and fluoranthene/pyrene (higher than 1) ratios indicate that PAHs detected in Spanish Mediterranean coastal mussels are mainly of pyrolytic origin.

  6. Summer rainfall variability in European Mediterranean mountains from the sixteenth to the twentieth century reconstructed from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, D.; Génova, M.; Schmitz, M. F.; Urrutia, R.; Pineda, F. D.

    2014-09-01

    Since the end of the last glacial period, European Mediterranean mountains have provided shelter for numerous species of Eurosiberian and Boreal origin. Many of these species, surviving at the southern limit of their range in Europe and surrounded by Mediterranean ones, are relatively intolerant to summer drought and are in grave danger of loss, as a result of increasingly long and frequent droughts in this region. This is the case of the Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and the Austrian pine ( Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii) which are found on Central Iberian Peninsula at the edge of their natural range. We used a tree ring network of these two species to reconstruct past variations in summer rainfall. The reconstruction, based upon a tree ring composite chronology of the species, dates back to 1570 (adjusted R 2 = 0.49, P < 0.000001) and captures interannual to decadal scale variability in summer precipitation. We studied the spatial representativeness of the rainfall patterns and described the occurrence rate of extremes of this precipitation. To identify associations between macroclimatic factors and tree radial growth, we employed a principal component analysis to calculate the resultant of the relationship between the growth data of both species, using this resultant as a dependent variable of a multiple regression whose independent variables are monthly mean temperature and precipitation from the average records. Spatial correlation patterns between instrumental precipitation datasets for southern Europe and reconstructed values for the 1950-1992 period indicate that the reconstruction captures the regional signal of drought variability in the study region (the origin of this precipitation is convective: thermal low pressure zones induced in the inland northeastern areas of the Iberian Peninsula). There is a clear increase in the recurrence of extreme dry events as from the beginning of twentieth century and an abrupt change to drier conditions. There appears to

  7. Summer rainfall variability in European Mediterranean mountains from the sixteenth to the twentieth century reconstructed from tree rings.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Labourdette, D; Génova, M; Schmitz, M F; Urrutia, R; Pineda, F D

    2014-09-01

    Since the end of the last glacial period, European Mediterranean mountains have provided shelter for numerous species of Eurosiberian and Boreal origin. Many of these species, surviving at the southern limit of their range in Europe and surrounded by Mediterranean ones, are relatively intolerant to summer drought and are in grave danger of loss, as a result of increasingly long and frequent droughts in this region. This is the case of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii) which are found on Central Iberian Peninsula at the edge of their natural range. We used a tree ring network of these two species to reconstruct past variations in summer rainfall. The reconstruction, based upon a tree ring composite chronology of the species, dates back to 1570 (adjusted R(2) = 0.49, P < 0.000001) and captures interannual to decadal scale variability in summer precipitation. We studied the spatial representativeness of the rainfall patterns and described the occurrence rate of extremes of this precipitation. To identify associations between macroclimatic factors and tree radial growth, we employed a principal component analysis to calculate the resultant of the relationship between the growth data of both species, using this resultant as a dependent variable of a multiple regression whose independent variables are monthly mean temperature and precipitation from the average records. Spatial correlation patterns between instrumental precipitation datasets for southern Europe and reconstructed values for the 1950-1992 period indicate that the reconstruction captures the regional signal of drought variability in the study region (the origin of this precipitation is convective: thermal low pressure zones induced in the inland northeastern areas of the Iberian Peninsula). There is a clear increase in the recurrence of extreme dry events as from the beginning of twentieth century and an abrupt change to drier conditions. There

  8. Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales (Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Albères coast (France, North-western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Thibaut, Thierry; Pinedo, Susana; Torras, Xavier; Ballesteros, Enric

    2005-12-01

    Only five of fourteen species of Fucales reported at the end of the XIXth century are currently present in the Albères Coast (France, NW Mediterranean). According to historical data there has been a steady decrease of all the populations since the 1940s. Seven taxa now extinct (Cystoseira crinita, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira foeniculacea f. tenuiramosa, Cystoseira spinosa, Cystoseira spinosa var. compressa, Sargassum hornschuchii and Sargassum vulgare) were considered frequent and some of them were the dominant and engineering species in several phytobenthic assemblages. Moreover, only one of the five species left, shows no signs of regression (Cystoseira compressa), two are considered as rare (Cystoseira caespitosa, Cystoseira zosteroides), and one is very rare (Cystoseira elegans). Cystoseira mediterranea, a species that was reported to make a continuous belt along the shores of the Albères coast, has almost disappeared from some areas. Overgrazing by sea urchins, outcompetition by mussels, habitat destruction, scientific research sampling and, probably, human trampling and chemical pollution are to be blamed for the decline of populations thriving in shallow waters. Deep-water species have been affected by an increase in water turbidity and, probably, chemical pollution and direct plant destruction attributed to net fishing. If degradation of the environmental conditions continues, the remaining Cystoseira species will face a most unwelcome prospect. Even after the removal of the causes that led to its die-off, natural restoration of extinct species seems not to be possible because the decline has also affected populations from nearby areas and zygotes are unable to disperse over long distances. Urgent management actions have to be designed in order to improve the current situation of the populations of Fucales in the Albères coast.

  9. Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales (Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Albères coast (France, North-western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Thibaut, Thierry; Pinedo, Susana; Torras, Xavier; Ballesteros, Enric

    2005-12-01

    Only five of fourteen species of Fucales reported at the end of the XIXth century are currently present in the Albères Coast (France, NW Mediterranean). According to historical data there has been a steady decrease of all the populations since the 1940s. Seven taxa now extinct (Cystoseira crinita, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira foeniculacea f. tenuiramosa, Cystoseira spinosa, Cystoseira spinosa var. compressa, Sargassum hornschuchii and Sargassum vulgare) were considered frequent and some of them were the dominant and engineering species in several phytobenthic assemblages. Moreover, only one of the five species left, shows no signs of regression (Cystoseira compressa), two are considered as rare (Cystoseira caespitosa, Cystoseira zosteroides), and one is very rare (Cystoseira elegans). Cystoseira mediterranea, a species that was reported to make a continuous belt along the shores of the Albères coast, has almost disappeared from some areas. Overgrazing by sea urchins, outcompetition by mussels, habitat destruction, scientific research sampling and, probably, human trampling and chemical pollution are to be blamed for the decline of populations thriving in shallow waters. Deep-water species have been affected by an increase in water turbidity and, probably, chemical pollution and direct plant destruction attributed to net fishing. If degradation of the environmental conditions continues, the remaining Cystoseira species will face a most unwelcome prospect. Even after the removal of the causes that led to its die-off, natural restoration of extinct species seems not to be possible because the decline has also affected populations from nearby areas and zygotes are unable to disperse over long distances. Urgent management actions have to be designed in order to improve the current situation of the populations of Fucales in the Albères coast. PMID:16026805

  10. Update of information on perkinsosis in NW Mediterranean coast: Identification of Perkinsus spp. (Protista) in new locations and hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramilo, Andrea; Carrasco, Noelia; Reece, Kimberly S; Valencia, José M; Grau, Amalia; Aceituno, Patricia; Rojas, Mauricio; Gairin, Ignasi; Furones, M Dolores; Abollo, Elvira; Villalba, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    This study addressed perkinsosis in commercially important mollusc species in the western Mediterranean area. Perkinsus olseni was found in Santa Gilla Lagoon (Sardinia) infecting Ruditapes decussatus, Cerastoderma glaucum and Venerupis aurea, in Balearic Islands infecting Venus verrucosa and in Delta de l'Ebre (NE Spain) parasitising Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus. Perkinsus mediterraneus was detected infecting Ostrea edulis from the Gulf of Manfredonia (SE Italy) and Alacant (E Spain), V. verrucosa and Arca noae from Balearic Islands and Chlamys varia from Balearic Islands, Alacant and Delta de l'Ebre. PMID:25553580

  11. Post-glacial coast development and human settling of the North European Ice Marginal Landscape (IML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregman, I. Kant Baltic Federal State University, Kaliningrad, Russia, E. P. H.; Netherlands, Utrecht University, the; Druzhinina, I. Kant Baltic Federal State University, Kaliningrad, Russia, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    In North Europe, in the Ice Marginal Landscapes (IML) from the Netherlands to Estonia, human settling is in the Late-Pleistocene - Holocene strongly influenced by post-glacial relative coast development(MESO, 2010; SINCOS, 2002-2009; Machu, 2006-2009, IGCP project 346, CoPaF, 2009-2012) and glacio-isostasy. Geological processes like updoming and tectonic block displacements not only influenced sedimentation of river systems in delta's (e.g. Cohen, 2003), but influenced coastal development and human settling too in the North Sea area (e.g. Peeters, 2009; Hijma e.a., 2011) the Wadden areas (e.g. de Langen, 2011) and lagoons (e.g. Druzhinina, 2010). An overview of shoreline development at the distal side of the Late Glacial forbulge related to glaciological and geophysical processes however does not exist and coastal development models are also not correlated with human settling. Our project( 2012 - 2018) has the aim to describe the influence of shifting coast on the way of settling and living of ancient man in the IML. The main questions to be answered are as follow: (i) Is coast development influenced by glaciations a result of interaction between endo- and exogenic (glaciological-, geological-, and geophysical) forces in general and at the local scale of morphological elements? (ii) Did ancient man adept to changes in natural circumstances and what did that mean for his social behavior and economy? (iii) Were forms of human society and economy in the IML primarily dependent on the natural environment with regard to geophysical and geological differences and related to post-glacial response of the earth crust? Detailed integrated studying of "key-areas", with attention to deep geology, will allow to get new insight of the impact of post-glacial shoreline changes and history of man on the coast in the IML with focus on his past (history of relations) and future (impact of climate change. The project is an international project, with participation of institutes all

  12. Phthalate metabolites in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Fourgous, C; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Amilhat, E; Faliex, E; Paris-Palacios, S; Teil, M J; Goutte, A

    2016-11-01

    The levels and fate of phthalate metabolites have been poorly evaluated in fish, despite their potential ecotoxicological impacts. The present study aims to characterize the levels of phthalate metabolites in muscle tissue of yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two coastal Mediterranean lagoons, during three sampling periods. Nine phthalate metabolites were detected in >70% of the samples. Slightly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were detected in March and June compared to October, suggesting possible seasonal variations in environmental release and/or phthalate metabolization process by eels. The large sample size (N=117) made it possible to explore correlations between phthalate metabolites' levels and individual parameters, such as body length, age, body condition and hepatic histo-pathologies. Body length and estimated age poorly correlated with phthalate metabolites, suggesting that eels did not accumulate phthalates during growth, contrary to persistent compounds. Eels presented different grades of hepatic fibrosis and lipidosis. A negative correlation was found between the severity of these pathologies in the liver and the sum of phthalate metabolites levels, supporting the hypothesis that eels with damaged liver are less able to metabolize xenobiotics. PMID:27412480

  13. Phthalate metabolites in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Fourgous, C; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Amilhat, E; Faliex, E; Paris-Palacios, S; Teil, M J; Goutte, A

    2016-11-01

    The levels and fate of phthalate metabolites have been poorly evaluated in fish, despite their potential ecotoxicological impacts. The present study aims to characterize the levels of phthalate metabolites in muscle tissue of yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two coastal Mediterranean lagoons, during three sampling periods. Nine phthalate metabolites were detected in >70% of the samples. Slightly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were detected in March and June compared to October, suggesting possible seasonal variations in environmental release and/or phthalate metabolization process by eels. The large sample size (N=117) made it possible to explore correlations between phthalate metabolites' levels and individual parameters, such as body length, age, body condition and hepatic histo-pathologies. Body length and estimated age poorly correlated with phthalate metabolites, suggesting that eels did not accumulate phthalates during growth, contrary to persistent compounds. Eels presented different grades of hepatic fibrosis and lipidosis. A negative correlation was found between the severity of these pathologies in the liver and the sum of phthalate metabolites levels, supporting the hypothesis that eels with damaged liver are less able to metabolize xenobiotics.

  14. Assessing trace metal pollution through high spatial resolution of surface sediments along the Tunis Gulf coast (southwestern Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Rym; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Fertouna-Bellakhal, Mouna; Chouba, Lassad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-03-01

    Tunis Gulf (northern Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea) is of great economic importance due to its abundant fish resources. Rising urbanization and industrial development in the surrounding area have resulted in an increase in untreated effluents and domestic waste discharged into the gulf via its tributary streams. Metal (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) and major element (Mg, Ca, Na, and K) concentrations were measured in the grain fine fraction <63 μm by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed varying spatial distribution patterns for metals, indicating complex origins and controlling factors such as anthropogenic activities. Sediment metal concentrations are ranked as follows: Fe > Mg > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cd > Hg. Metals tend to be concentrated in proximity to source points, suggesting that the mineral enrichment elements come from sewage of coastal towns and pollution from industrial dumps and located along local rivers, lagoons, and on the gulf shore itself. This study showed that trace metal and major element concentrations in surface sediments along the Tunis Gulf shores were lower than those found in other coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26564186

  15. Assessing trace metal pollution through high spatial resolution of surface sediments along the Tunis Gulf coast (southwestern Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Rym; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Fertouna-Bellakhal, Mouna; Chouba, Lassad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-03-01

    Tunis Gulf (northern Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea) is of great economic importance due to its abundant fish resources. Rising urbanization and industrial development in the surrounding area have resulted in an increase in untreated effluents and domestic waste discharged into the gulf via its tributary streams. Metal (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) and major element (Mg, Ca, Na, and K) concentrations were measured in the grain fine fraction <63 μm by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed varying spatial distribution patterns for metals, indicating complex origins and controlling factors such as anthropogenic activities. Sediment metal concentrations are ranked as follows: Fe > Mg > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cd > Hg. Metals tend to be concentrated in proximity to source points, suggesting that the mineral enrichment elements come from sewage of coastal towns and pollution from industrial dumps and located along local rivers, lagoons, and on the gulf shore itself. This study showed that trace metal and major element concentrations in surface sediments along the Tunis Gulf shores were lower than those found in other coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Climate induced changes on the hydrology of the southern coast of Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria - Matrouh Governorates, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Ludwig, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The Nile Delta is one of the most complex, fragile and densely populated landscapes. It has suffered from abrupt environmental changes including sea level rise, sea water intrusion, and dramatic drawdown in groundwater levels due to severe pumping. The western part of Nile Delta's coast, from Alexandria to Marsa Matruh Governorates, is considered as one of the most vulnerable regions in Nile Delta. Environmentally complicated risks on water and soil coincide with suffering from strategic management problems. The general lack of studies linking sea level rise with socioeconomic impact cause large uncertainties. Such impacts became very critical recently, as subsidence and successive step sliding in the northern coast cause catastrophic disasters in areas with high population and socio-economic importance. Western Coast of Nile Delta is characterized by a succession of limestone and oolitic limestone which is extremely fragile and vulnerable to degradation in addition to dissolution by saline water. This study deals with studying the effect of global warming, sea level rise and severe pumping on the studied area. Examples will be given for soil degradation, subsidence, surface sliding, creeps successive step sliding, and sinkholes due to dissolving and fracturing of the limestone plateau.

  17. [A model of procreation, gender, and marriage: a proposed methodology based on European and Mediterranean ethnography].

    PubMed

    Frigole Reixach, J

    1993-01-01

    This work analyzes the model of procreation described by Delaney for Turkish peasants in rural Anatolia, and provides ethnographic evidence to document existence of such a model elsewhere in Europe and the Mediterranean. A model of procreation is a symbolic system embodying a series of interrelated notions about procreation. The definition of each particular element implies taking into account the entire model. Models of procreation are simultaneously conceptual, explaining reality, and moral, explaining proper behavior. The recommended methodology involves analyzing the relationship between the procreative model and the concepts of gender, marriage, and family. Delaney described a monogenetic model of procreation observed in Anatolia in which men are considered to plant the seed while women are regarded as a kind of field which nourishes what has been planted. Delaney states that the "field" is a space enclosed and protected by the proprietor, who must be assured that the seed is his. Evidence from Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Greece is advanced to support the suggestion that such a model of procreation is more adequate for explaining concepts of man/woman, marriage, procreation, family, unmarriedness, concepts of honor and shame, and concepts of evil eye and witchcraft than are the commonly used analytical categories of sex and sexuality. Among one group of Portuguese fishermen, the definition of a man depends entirely on marriage and fatherhood. Females are considered women at menarche because they are eligible for maternity, but their status becomes more ambiguous at menopause. Marriage, procreation, and family are conceptualized in this procreative model as stages of a single process, which culminates in formation of a family.

  18. European and Mediterranean mercury modelling: Local and long-range contributions to the deposition flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencarelli, Christian N.; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sprovieri, Francesca; Yang, Xin; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is known to have adverse effects on human health, and most human exposure to toxic methylmercury is through fish consumption. Soluble Hg compounds in the marine environment can be methylated in the water column and enter the base of the food chain. Atmospheric deposition is the most important pathway by which Hg enters marine ecosystems. The atmospheric chemistry of Hg has been simulated over Europe and the Mediterranean for the year 2009, using the WRF/Chem model and employing two different gas phase Hg oxidation mechanisms. The contributions to the marine deposition flux from dry deposition, synoptic scale wet deposition and convective wet deposition have been determined. The Hg deposition fluxes resulting from transcontinental transport and local/regional emission sources has been determined using both Br/BrO and O3/OH atmospheric oxidation mechanisms. The two mechanisms give significantly different annual deposition fluxes (129 Mg and 266 Mg respectively) over the modelling domain. Dry deposition is more significant using the O3/OH mechanism, while proportionally convective wet deposition is enhanced using the Br/BrO mechanism. The simulations using the Br/BrO oxidation compared best with observed Hg fluxes in precipitation. Local/regional Hg emissions have the most impact within the model domain during the summer. A comparison of simulations using the 2005 and 2010 AMAP/UNEP Hg emission inventories show that although there is a decrease of 33% in anthropogenic emissions between the two reference years, the total simulated deposition in the regions diminishes by only 12%. Simulations using the 2010 inventory reproduce observations somewhat better than those using the 2005 inventory for 2009.

  19. Cova del Rinoceront (Castelldefels, Barcelona): a terrestrial record for the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5) in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; Julià, R.; García-Fernández, D.; Fornós, J. J.; Vaquero, M.; Allué, E.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Ortiz, J. E.; Torres, T.; Albert, R. M.; Rodríguez-Cintas, À.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Cerdeño, E.; Skinner, A. R.; Asmeron, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Garcés, M.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.; Pike, A. W. G.; Euba, I.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Yagüe, A. S.; Villaescusa, L.; Gómez, S.; Rubio, A.; Pedro, M.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Cova del Rinoceront, a site in NE Iberia, contains a thick sedimentary fill preserving a faunal archive from the penultimate glacial and the the last interglacial periods. Layers I to III have been dated to between 74 and 147 ka, coinciding with MIS 5a to 5e, a period poorly represented in the Mediterranean terrestrial record. The results from Cova del Rinoceront are of broader interest for the reconstruction of ecological dynamics during warm stages and the understanding of the evolution and geographical variation of several taxa. The palaeoecological evidence suggests a landscape dominated by mixed wooded vegetation with mild climatic conditions, slightly more humid than today. Several vertebrate taxa, including Haploidoceros mediterraneus, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis and Glis glis, are documented for the first time in the early Upper Pleistocene of Europe, showing that these species persisted across the region for longer than previously thought. In addition, the recovery of a small lithic assemblage indicates human presence in the surroundings of the site. The 11 m-thick stratigraphic section also provides an ideal setting in which to compare several geochronological methods. U-Th dating of the flowstones that cap the deposit, of speleothems formed along the cave walls, and of speleothems buried by the deposit at different elevations provides minimum and maximum ages of 74 and 175 ka, respectively, for the accumulation. The ages obtained by luminescence, electron spin resonance (ESR), amino acid racemisation (AAR), palaeomagnetism and U-series dating of bone are in good agreement with each other and are stratigraphically consistent. This well-dated faunal succession presents a unique opportunity to assess changes in the Pleistocene fauna of the Mediterranean coast over an interval of more than 100 ka.

  20. Influence of summer conditions on the larval fish assemblage in the eastern coast of Tunisia (Ionian Sea, Southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrad, Rafik; Alemany, Francisco; Rodriguez, José-María; Jarboui, Othman; Lopez-Jurado, José-Luis; Balbin, Rosa

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the summer larval fish assemblage off the eastern coast of Tunisia and its relation to environmental conditions was studied, from ichthyoplankton samples taken during a survey conducted between 23rd June and 9th July 2008. A total of 68 larval fish taxa were identified, 52 to species level. The taxonomic composition and abundance of the larval fish assemblage showed high spatial heterogeneity. Mesoscale hydrographic features, such as eddies, seem to play an important role in the spatial distribution of fish larvae in the area, enhancing concentration and retention. The larval fish assemblage was dominated by the small pelagic species Sardinella aurita (26.6% of the total larval fish abundance), followed by Engraulis encrasicolus (22.6%), Spicara spp. (8.6%) and Mullus barbatus (6.8%). Shannon-Weaver index (H') ranged between 0 and 2.62. The highest values were found offshore, at 95 miles east of Sousse, over depths around 250 m. The diversity was higher in this region as a result of transport by currents and retention by eddies. It has also been shown that the eastern coast of Tunisia is a spawning ground for the tuna species Auxis rochei, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus alalunga. Larvae of mesopelagic fishes represented 5.46% of the total abundance, with Cyclothone braueri, Ceratoscopelus maderensis and Lampanyctus crocodilus being the most important species. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that depth was the most important environmental factor in explaining species distribution.

  1. The Holocene evolution of the beach and inland aeolian sand of the north-central Mediterranean coast of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad

    2015-04-01

    Israel's coastal geomorphology, situated within a Mediterranean climate zone, is characterized by parallel Pleistocene aeolianite ridges, coastal cliffs of aeolianite, and sandy beaches. Lobe-like fields of predominantly stable transverse and parabolic quartz sand dunes protrude 2-7 km inland from the current Mediterranean Sea coastline. However, their migration and accumulation history is still not well-defined. This study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport along the Caesarea-Hadera dunefield in the north-central coastal plain of Israel. In order to achieve these goals, a detailed field survey and sampling campaign was carried out along a west-east and southwest-northeast transect, loyal to the advancement orientations of the currently stable dunes and directions of dominant sand transporting winds. Beach sand, a foredune, a linear dune, and interdunes of parabolic and transverse dunes were sampled down to their aeolianite or red loam (locally named hamra) palaeosol substrate by drilling and analyzing exposed sections. The sampled sediments were sedimentologically analyzed and twenty-five were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The results indicate that beach sand started to accumulate rapidly around 6 ka probably in response to global sea level stabilization. Until around 4 ka, thin sand sheets encroached 2-3 km inland. Sand ages in the range of 1.2-1.1 ka (8th-9th century CE -- Early Moslem period) were found throughout the study area, suggesting a major mobilization of sand, followed by stabilization around 0.6 ka and pedogenesis. By 1.2 ka, the sands had reached their current extent of 5-7 km inland, suggesting transport in a southwest-northeast orientation similar to the advancement orientation of the current transverse and parabolic dunes. The particle-size distributions of the fine to medium-sized aeolian sand showed minor variation linked to inland transport

  2. Microgeographic allozyme differentiation in the hybrid zone of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. and M. edulis L. on the continental European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comesaña, A. S.; Sanjuan, A.

    1997-03-01

    The European Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. and M. edulis L. coexist and hybridize in different proportions in extended areas of the British and Atlantic French coasts. M. galloprovincialis typical allozymes seem to predominate in wave exposed areas, at high levels of attachment and in larger mussels in the British hybrid zone. Mussel samples from exposed and sheltered areas, 200 m apart, and from high and low levels of attachment were collected from a location of the French hybrid zone in 1988 92. Pure M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis populations were also taken as controls. Diagnostic enzyme loci for both Mytilus (EST-D *, LAP-1*, MPI*, ODH*) and AP-1 *, LAP-2* and PGM * loci were studied. The frequencies of the M. galloprovincialis typical alleles were significantly greater in exposed populations than in sheltered samples (e.g. 0.729 to 0.803 vs 0.192 to 0.581 for EST-D *90), and at high level of attachment than at low level for the sheltered area (e.g. 0.581 vs 0.192 for EST-D *90). Putative M. galloprovincialis was more abundant on the exposed coast (0.591 and 0.702) than on the sheltered shore, where it predominated at the high shore but not at the low shore location (0.371 vs 0.045). Significantly positive correlations between shell length and typical M. galloprovincialis compound allele frequencies were found only for populations from exposed areas. Relationships between the Mytilus genetic differentiation and ecological factors are discussed.

  3. Chemical relations between atmospheric aerosols, deposition and stone decay layers on historic buildings at the mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torfs, K.; Van Grieken, R.

    To evaluate the effects of the environment on weathering of historical buildings in the Mediterranean Basin, an elaborate study has been carried out at four monuments, with specific interest directed on the action of air pollution and marine salts. The composition of the atmosphere around the monuments has been investigated by monitoring the aerosols and the total deposition. These results are combined with the stone decay phenomena to interpret the deterioration at the respective monuments. In Eleusis, Greece, a highly industrialized area, high concentrations of heavy metals and sulphate are found in the aerosols and deposition and in the decay layers of the stone, while the marine influence is obscured, in spite of its location close to the sea. In Malta and in Cadiz (Spain), the influence of the sea dominates in the stone weathering process. In Bari (Italy), next to the effects of marine aerosols on the stone decay inside and outside the building, high concentrations of sulphate are observed on the outside stones. The aerosols and depositions reflect a relatively small influence of anthropogenic derived elements; this points out the action of gaseous SO 2 on the stones.

  4. Spatial distribution and multiannual trends of potentially toxic microalgae in shellfish farms along the Sardinian coast (NW Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Bazzoni, Anna Maria; Caddeo, Tiziana; Pulina, Silvia; Padedda, Bachisio M; Satta, Cecilia T; Sechi, Nicola; Lugliè, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the geographical distribution and multiannual trends of potentially toxic harmful algal species (HAS) were analysed at 18 mussel farms in Sardinia (Italy, North-Western Mediterranean Sea) using data derived from the Sardinian Regional Monitoring Programme (1988-2012). The results showed an increasing number of potentially toxic microalgae over the study period. Alexandrium catenella and Alexandrium minutum were the most harmful species detected. From 2002 to 2009, these species caused eight paralytic shellfish poisoning-positive events which temporarily stopped commercial trade of mussels. The statistical analysis indicated that some taxa exhibited temporal increasing trends in their abundance (e.g. Pseudo-nitzschia spp.), significant decrements (e.g. Dinophysis sp.), or both increasing and decreasing significant trends (e.g. A. minutum) at different sites, indicating the necessity of further in-depth studies, especially on certain taxa. Overall, the statistical elaboration of the long-term data provided useful signals for early detection of shellfish contamination by different potentially toxic HAS in defined sites. These signals can be used to develop best management practices.

  5. Comparing the utility of image algebra operations for characterizing landscape changes: the case of the Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Alphan, Hakan

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare various image algebra procedures for their efficiency in locating and identifying different types of landscape changes on the margin of a Mediterranean coastal plain, Cukurova, Turkey. Image differencing and ratioing were applied to the reflective bands of Landsat TM datasets acquired in 1984 and 2006. Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) differencing were also applied. The resulting images were tested for their capacity to detect nine change phenomena, which were a priori defined in a three-level classification scheme. These change phenomena included agricultural encroachment, sand dune afforestation, coastline changes and removal/expansion of reed beds. The percentage overall accuracies of different algebra products for each phenomenon were calculated and compared. The results showed that some of the changes such as sand dune afforestation and reed bed expansion were detected with accuracies varying between 85 and 97% by the majority of the algebra operations, while some other changes such as logging could only be detected by mid-infrared (MIR) ratioing. For optimizing change detection in similar coastal landscapes, underlying causes of these changes were discussed and the guidelines for selecting band and algebra operations were provided.

  6. Relationships between trace elements in Posidonia oceanica shoots and in sediment fractions along Latium coasts (northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Bravo, I; Focaracci, F; Cerfolli, F; Papetti, P

    2016-03-01

    The Mediterranean endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica is widely used as a sensitive bioindicator of trace elements (TEs) in the coastal environment. Therefore, a bulk of data exist on TE levels from impacted versus unpolluted sites while only recent studies started comparing TE accumulation in plant compartments versus both water column and sediment characteristics. In this study, six TEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb) were analyzed in P. oceanica shoots related to depth (-10 and -20 m) and to TE concentrations in the different grain size fractions of the sediment, from two Sites of Community interest (SIC) in the central Tyrrhenian Sea. TE concentrations in both shoots and sediment were generally low, except for Cr. Cu was the only element showing significantly different concentrations at the two sites while As differed significantly between samples taken at different depths. TE concentrations in the unsieved sediment were found uncorrelated to TEs in shoots except for the important nutrient Cu (positive correlation). The finest sediment fractions were enriched in TEs and significantly correlated to Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni concentrations in the shoots. PMID:26869047

  7. Stay off the motorway: Resolving the pre-recruitment life history dynamics of the European anchovy in the SW Mediterranean through a spatially-explicit individual-based model (SEIBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Ignacio A.; Macías, Diego; Solé, Jordi; Ospina-Álvarez, Andrés; Ruiz, Javier

    2013-04-01

    We explore the underlying mechanisms of the early life history dynamics of the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the SW Mediterranean. By using a 3D ROMS hydrodynamic model coupled to an individual-based model (IBM) of the larval stages of the European anchovy, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) the plausible effective spawning zones (those generating late larvae to the known nursery grounds) are mainly found in the vicinity of Malaga Bay, as suggested by published empirical data; (2) the observed, back-calculated growth of larvae sampled in the nursery grounds can be reasonably simulated by a simple temperature-dependent growth model; and (3) the inclusion of biological behavior in the IBM significantly improves the match between the observed and modeled late-larval recruitment and/or growth patterns. We performed simulations for the peak spawning season in 2008, for which survey data were available, and an average climatological run. Hypothesis 1 was accepted, whereas hypothesis 2 resulted in a good imitation of anchovy growth only after 10 days post-hatch. The inclusion of an empirically derived equation for egg buoyancy in the model (hypothesis 3) resulted in a slight improvement of the model of late-larval recruitment patterns. Finally, our model was used to explore possible retention-based nursery areas in the whole Alboran Sea. Our simulations showed to agree well with the existing data both in the European and in the African coast and confer the physics a dominant role in shaping the spatial dynamics of early life stages of anchovy in the area.

  8. "Estuaries and coasts" CLIL* lesson plans in English and geology fieldtrip to Cornwall for students in European section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempelli, Nathalie; Voyer, Karine; Lebourgeois, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    When the European section was created in our high school we had to choose an overarching theme. After considering that we live both in the River Seine estuary and near the English Channel it became obvious that our theme should be "estuaries and coasts". We began the 2012-2013 school year with a day-trip around the River Seine estuary to introduce the theme. First we made a general landscape study from a viewpoint, then we discussed the history of the navigation on the Seine, of local farming on marshland and finally we focused on farmhouse architecture. To conclude we visited the natural reserve near the "Normandy Bridge". As an introduction our poster aims at presenting this part of Normandy. And then we would like to show some examples of our CLIL lesson plans about this chosen topic. The aim of a CLIL lesson is to create interactive speaking between students working in pairs or in groups. There are three different stages: - Warm-up activities - In-depth study: listening, reading, echoing, looking for information on the internet, making a slide show and doing an oral presentation, participating to a role play… - Assessment : using what has been learnt to answer questions Finally we wish to present our field trip to Cornwall. We have already done it twice before (in 2002 and 2004) and this year it is scheduled in May 2013 with our European section students. The aim of this trip is to study geology and botany in English in order to extend what we teach in our CLIL lessons about estuaries and coasts. It also helps promoting exchanges with British families and building intercultural knowledge and understanding. Our program includes for example, fossil hunting and studying the Jurassic cliffs in Charmouth, observing an old ocean crust in Coverack, visiting Saint-Mickael's mount, discovering a tin mine in Geevor, walking through the "Lost Gardens of Heligan" and thus discovering an example of this world-renowned restored English garden, and last but not least having

  9. Anisakid parasites of two forkbeards (Phycis blennoides and Phycis phycis) from the Mediterranean coasts of Andalucía (Southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Valero, A; Paniagua, M I; Hierro, I; Díaz, V; Valderrama, M J; Benítez, R; Adroher, F J

    2006-03-01

    An epidemiological survey of anisakids was carried out on 209 specimens of greater forkbeard (Phycis blennoides) and 58 of forkbeard (Phycis phycis) captured off the Mediterranean coasts of Andalucía (southern Spain). Four species of nematodes were identified: Anisakis simplex s.l., Anisakis physeteris, Hysterothylacium aduncum and Hysterothylacium fabri. The total prevalence was 62.06% in the forkbeard and 58.85% in the greater forkbeard. The highest values of prevalence (56.90%), mean intensity (5.21) and mean abundance (2.96) were all obtained for H. fabri in the forkbeard. The most frequent parasite in the greater forkbeard was H. aduncum with 51.20% prevalence and values of 3.00 and 1.53 for mean intensity and mean abundance, respectively. The infestation parameters were also analyzed according to the host length, observing a maximum of parasitized fish (91.67%) in samples of P. blennoides longer than 40 cm, while in P. phycis, the highest prevalence (82.35%), conditioned by H. fabri parasitization, was found in fish with lengths between 30 and 35 cm. PMID:16168705

  10. Factors determining the dynamics of toxic blooms of Alexandrium minutum during a 10-year study along the shallow southwestern Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdenadher, Moufida; Hamza, Asma; Fekih, Wafa; Hannachi, Imen; Zouari Bellaaj, Amel; Bradai, Mohamed Nejmeddine; Aleya, Lotfi

    2012-06-01

    Many blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum have been recorded since 1990 in the Gulf of Gabes (southwestern Mediterranean Sea). To understand the determining factors of bloom formation, we studied the distribution of A. minutum in relation to environmental factors in samples taken at shallow sandy (<1 m) beach stations and a lagoon between 1997 and 2006. This was accompanied by laboratory experiments to identify A. minutum. The species forms harmful algal blooms (HABs) in stations subjected to anthropogenic eutrophication and in confined lagoons, living under conditions of varying salinity which gives it a unique opportunity to broaden its physiological tolerance and increase its colonisation potential. Increases in phosphorus appear to be more important than nitrogen or temperature in the control of A. minutum. The stations sampled all along the coast present specific hydrographic properties (shallowness, turbulence) suggesting that factors other than temperature and nutrients influence Alexandrium distribution, the exception being Boughrara Lagoon where the species developed in accordance with published data. Our findings and their interpretations indicate that the mechanism of the sudden A. minutum blooms along the nearshore of the Gulf of Gabes was complex and differed from that of true coastal ecosystems.

  11. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits. PMID:20230603

  12. Diversity and distribution of unicellular opisthokonts along the European coast analyzed using high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Javier; Mallo, Diego; Massana, Ramon; de Vargas, Colomban; Richards, Thomas A.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2015-01-01

    Summary The opisthokonts are one of the major super-groups of eukaryotes. It comprises two major clades: 1) the Metazoa and their unicellular relatives and 2) the Fungi and their unicellular relatives. There is, however, little knowledge of the role of opisthokont microbes in many natural environments, especially among non-metazoan and non-fungal opisthokonts. Here we begin to address this gap by analyzing high throughput 18S rDNA and 18S rRNA sequencing data from different European coastal sites, sampled at different size fractions and depths. In particular, we analyze the diversity and abundance of choanoflagellates, filastereans, ichthyosporeans, nucleariids, corallochytreans and their related lineages. Our results show the great diversity of choanoflagellates in coastal waters as well as a relevant role of the ichthyosporeans and the uncultured marine opisthokonts (MAOP). Furthermore, we describe a new lineage of marine fonticulids (MAFO) that appears to be abundant in sediments. Therefore, our work points to a greater potential ecological role for unicellular opisthokonts than previously appreciated in marine environments, both in water column and sediments, and also provides evidence of novel opisthokont phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the importance of high throughput sequencing approaches to unravel the diversity and distribution of both known and novel eukaryotic lineages. PMID:25556908

  13. Diversity and distribution of unicellular opisthokonts along the European coast analysed using high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Javier; Mallo, Diego; Massana, Ramon; de Vargas, Colomban; Richards, Thomas A; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2015-09-01

    The opisthokonts are one of the major super groups of eukaryotes. It comprises two major clades: (i) the Metazoa and their unicellular relatives and (ii) the Fungi and their unicellular relatives. There is, however, little knowledge of the role of opisthokont microbes in many natural environments, especially among non-metazoan and non-fungal opisthokonts. Here, we begin to address this gap by analysing high-throughput 18S rDNA and 18S rRNA sequencing data from different European coastal sites, sampled at different size fractions and depths. In particular, we analyse the diversity and abundance of choanoflagellates, filastereans, ichthyosporeans, nucleariids, corallochytreans and their related lineages. Our results show the great diversity of choanoflagellates in coastal waters as well as a relevant representation of the ichthyosporeans and the uncultured marine opisthokonts (MAOP). Furthermore, we describe a new lineage of marine fonticulids (MAFO) that appears to be abundant in sediments. Taken together, our work points to a greater potential ecological role for unicellular opisthokonts than previously appreciated in marine environments, both in water column and sediments, and also provides evidence of novel opisthokont phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the importance of high-throughput sequencing approaches to unravel the diversity and distribution of both known and novel eukaryotic lineages.

  14. Evidence for post last-glacial-maximum punctuated sea level rise found on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Oded; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2015-04-01

    The eustatic sea level curve for the eastern Mediterranean presents a general trend characterized by rapid post last-glacial-maximum rise (20,000 years ago), slowing approximately 6000 years ago and stabilizing at current sea-level 4000 years ago. Sea level evidence from portions of the Israeli coastline, suggest minimal to no hydro-glacio-isostatic influence on the local relative sea level curve, and no tectonic offsets for at least the past two thousand years. Recently, a submerged series of relict wave cut notches and erosional pits were identified along a sequence of coastal sites located approximately 20 km from one another (Michmoret, Olga, Caesarea, Dor) at 3 m and 6 m water depths. The features were carved into an upper-Pleistocene to Holocene eolianite sandstone, the age of which was previously constrained by OSL measurements to MIS 1-3. Elsewhere, similar features are widely used as sea-level markers. In this study, at some of the sites, we found a coinciding 3 m to 6 m submerged cliff with overhanging upper part, morphology that is comparable to the morphology of the modern coastal cliff. These submerged features should either suggest a tectonic offset, which is not favorable for the study area, or they might suggest that sea level rise has not been gradual, but rather punctuated, exhibiting pulses of sea level rise followed by periods of sea level stagnation. For the study site, the last stagnation took place at a few meters below current sea-level and enabled the development of the observed wave induced morphology within the eolianite. At present sea level, similar features exist and are being actively formed within the same host rock. At some of the sites, artificially-cut archaeological features from about the last 2000 years present with notches or erosional pits thereby providing insight into the period of time required for their creation due to their archaeological associations. Sea level rise might impacts the coastline significantly, with

  15. Methodology for local tsunami hazard mapping and assessment for Mediterranean and North Atlantic coasts, SCHEMA Project (EC FP6).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillande, R.; Gardi, A.; Salaun, T.; Laboudigue, A.; Koscielny, M.; Tinti, S.; Silva, A.; Novikova, T.; Lesne, O.; Mangin, A.

    2009-04-01

    assessed and represented for some of the factors and land use features are added for a first representation of vulnerability. For the chosen location, the final global hazard map is produced by the extraction of each maximum tsunami scenario for some parameters with a potential use for coastal zone planning and management. Each tsunami scenario and its associated hazards are a tool for early warning, alert, crisis management and rescue operations by relief operators. Considering the rarity of tsunamis both in Seychelles and in the western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic, the probability of occurrence is not considered as a relevant parameter in this first stage of the analysis.

  16. Generation and evaluation of typical meteorological year datasets for greenhouse and external conditions on the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M. D.; López, J. C.; Baeza, E.; Céspedes, A.; Meca, D. E.; Bailey, B.

    2015-08-01

    radiation transmission of approximately 65 % and rely on manual control of ventilation which constitute the majority in the south-east of Spain and in most Mediterranean greenhouse areas.

  17. Generation and evaluation of typical meteorological year datasets for greenhouse and external conditions on the Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M D; López, J C; Baeza, E; Céspedes, A; Meca, D E; Bailey, B

    2015-08-01

    radiation transmission of approximately 65 % and rely on manual control of ventilation which constitute the majority in the south-east of Spain and in most Mediterranean greenhouse areas.

  18. Application of a wind-wave-current coupled model in the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean sea), for wind energy purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Palomares, Ana; Navarro, Jorge; Grifoll, Manel; Pallares, Elena; Espino, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    This work shows the main results of the HAREAMAR project (including HAREMAR, ENE2012-38772-C02-01 and DARDO, ENE2012-38772-C02-02 projects), concerning the local Wind, Wave and Current simulation at St. Jordi Bay (NW Mediterranean Sea). Offshore Wind Energy has become one of the main topics within the research in Wind Energy research. Although there are quite a few models with a high level of reliability for wind simulation and prediction in onshore places, the wind prediction needs further investigations for adaptation to the Offshore emplacements, taking into account the interaction atmosphere-ocean. The main problem in these ocean areas is the lack of wind data, which neither allows for characterizing the energy potential and wind behaviour in a particular place, nor validating the forecasting models. The main objective of this work is to reduce the local prediction errors, in order to make the meteo-oceanographic hindcast and forecast more reliable. The COAWST model (Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave Sediment Transport Model; Warner et al., 2010) system has been implemented in the region considering a set of downscaling nested meshes to obtain high-resolution outputs in the region. The adaptation to this particular area, combining the different wind, wave and ocean model domains has been far from simple, because the grid domains for the three models differ significantly. This work shows the main results of the COAWST model implementation to this particular area, including both monthly and other set of tests in different atmospheric situations, especially chosen for their particular interest. The time period considered for the validation is the whole year 2012. A comparative study between the WRF, SWAN and ROMS model outputs (without coupling), the COWAST model outputs, and a buoy measurements moored in the region was performed for this year. References Warner, J.C., Armstrong, B., He, R., and Zambon, J.B., 2010, Development of a Coupled Ocean

  19. Spatial, temporal and ontogenetic variation in diet of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) on the Algerian coast (SW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacha, M.; Amara, R.

    2009-11-01

    The diet of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus was studied in three regions (Béjaia, Bénisaf and Ghazaouet) along the Algerian coast. Ontogenetic, spatial and seasonal variations in anchovy diet were investigated using multivariate analyses and analysed in relation with sea surface temperature and chlorophyll- a. 46 prey taxa of varying size between 0.57 mm ( Euterpina acutifrons) and 6.8 mm (fish larvae) were recorded. Whatever the season, the region or the fish size, anchovy is exclusively zooplanktivorous and copepods were the most present prey, constituting 87% by number of the prey taken and found in 98% of the anchovy stomachs examined. However, their occurrence and number varied according to the different areas, seasons and fish size. During its first year of life, anchovy feeds almost exclusively on copepods (mainly small and medium size prey). As anchovy grows, copepods are gradually substituted by large crustaceans such as decapods and amphipods. Hierarchical cluster analysis, analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) and similarities percentage (SIMPER) indicated a distinct diet of anchovy of the bay of Bejaia from those of the bays of Bénisaf and Ghazaouet probably due to differences in hydrologic conditions. Diet differences also occurred between seasons. Summer and spring have distinct prey assemblages each and showed low diet similarities with the two other seasons. More prey species were found in the diet during winter (36) and autumn (30) and the vacuity index was lower in winter. Temporal variability in satellite-derived chlorophyll- a matched the seasonal variability in the diversity of the anchovy prey and feeding intensity as reflected by the vacuity index, suggesting further investigation of the potential use of satellite-derived chlorophyll- a data as a proxy for anchovy feeding intensity.

  20. Presence of plastic debris in loggerhead turtle stranded along the Tuscany coasts of the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals (Italy).

    PubMed

    Campani, Tommaso; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Cancelli, Fabrizio; Mancusi, Cecilia; Serena, Fabrizio; Marsili, Letizia; Casini, Silvia; Fossi, Maria Cristina

    2013-09-15

    This work evaluated the presence and the frequency of occurrence of marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of 31 Caretta caretta found stranded or accidentally bycaught in the North Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine debris were present in 71% of specimens and were subdivided in different categories according to Fulmar Protocol (OSPAR 2008). The main type of marine debris found was user plastic, with the main occurrence of sheetlike user plastic. The small juveniles showed a mean±SD of marine debris items of 19.00±23.84, while the adult specimens showed higher values of marine litter if compared with the juveniles (26.87±35.85). The occurrence of marine debris observed in this work confirms the high impact of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea in respect to other seas and oceans, and highlights the importance of Caretta caretta as good indicator for marine litter in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of European Union. PMID:23896406

  1. Major ions anomalies and contamination status by trace metals in sediments from two hot spots along the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shreadah, Mohamed A; Shobier, Aida H; Ghani, Safaa A Abdel; El Zokm, Gehan M; Said, Tarek O

    2015-05-01

    The major constituents and trace metals in the surface sediments collected from the Western Harbor and El-Mex Bay along the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast were studied. The concentrations of major constituents decreased in the following order: Ca > Si > Mg > Na > K for the Western Harbor and El-Mex Bay. Additionally, the ranking order of trace metals was Fe > Al > Pb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Sn > V > As > Cd > Se for the Western Harbor. For El-Mex Bay, the decreasing order was Fe > Al > Mn > Sn > Pb > Zn > Cu > V > As > Cd > Se. Fe, Al, Zn, Pb, Cu, V, Cd and Sn in the Western Harbor occurred in higher concentrations than in El-Mex Bay. A higher concentration of Mn was observed in El-Mex Bay. Two pollution indicators, enrichment factor (EF) and metal pollution index (MPI), and several sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were used to evaluate the status of metal pollution. Based on the mean EF values of the studied metals, surface sediments of the Western Harbor and El-Mex Bay revealed that they are enriched with metals from anthropogenic sources. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed that the mean measurements for all metals across the Western Harbor and El-Mex Bay are significantly different at a 0.05 significance level. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied in result interpretation. The spatial distribution of the different parameters was illustrated.

  2. Trophic relationships at intrannual spatial and temporal scales of macro and megafauna around a submarine canyon off the Catalonian coast (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Fanelli, Emanuela; Papiol, Vanesa; Maynou, Francesc

    2010-04-01

    The spatial and temporal changes of near-bottom macrofauna (suprabenthos and macroplankton) and the trophic relationships of megabenthic decapod crustaceans were analyzed off the Catalonian coasts (western Mediterranean) around Berenguera submarine canyon in four periods (April and December 1991, March and July 1992) and four zones (within Berenguera Canyon at ca. 450 m, and on adjacent slope at ca. 400, 600 m and 1200 m). In March 1992, we found the highest macrofauna abundance and the smallest sizes in the canyon, suggesting a positive effect of river discharges on suprabenthos recruitment. By contrast, macroplankton (decapods, fishes and euphausiids) did not show higher recruitment into canyons. After analyzing the diet of 23 decapod crustaceans, we found a significant segregation between guilds feeding on zooplankton and on benthos. Zooplankton (euphausiids and Pasiphaeidae) and infauna (polychaetes, Calocaris macandreae and ophiuoroids) were consistently the main prey exploited by decapod crustaceans around Berenguera Canyon. We also found some macrophyte ( Posidonia oceanica) consumption, which was higher in periods of water column homogeneity (winter-spring and late autumn). Positive correlations between decapods' gut fullness ( F) and decapod abundance indicate feeding aggregations, while positive correlations were also found between F and Llobregat River (situated ca. 18 km from Berenguera head) flow 1 to 2 months before sampling. Increases in F were delayed only 1 month when zooplankton feeders were analyzed alone, while benthos feeders did not show significant relationships with any environmental variables. That indicates that the response of megabenthic decapods feeding on benthos to environmental shifts is slower than that of zooplankton feeders. The importance of river flows in enhancing food supply of macro- and megabenthos dwelling close to submarine canyons was apparent, with a delay in the fauna response of 0-2 months after river flow peaks.

  3. Variation of extreme climate events along a Mediterranean (35N) and an Eastern European transect (23E) transect: Results from the MICE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, C.; Akylas, E.; Good, P.

    2003-04-01

    It is widely recognized that changes in the severity and frequency of extreme climate events, such as windstorm and heatwaves, are likely to be more important than changes in the average climate. The EU-funded project MICE (Modeling the Impacts of Climate Extremes) seeks to identify the likely changes in the occurrence of extremes of rainfall, temperature and windstorm due to global warming, using information from climate models as a basis, and to study the impacts of these changes in selected European environments. As participants in MICE, we have carried out analyses of extremes with the following objectives : (i) to compare modeled and observed data in the Eastern Mediterranean so as to evaluate the ability of the global climate model HadCM3 to reproduce the occurrence of extreme events and (ii) to analyze model output with respect to future changes in the occurrence of extremes along two selected transects in the Mediterranean (35oN) and the Eastern Europe (23oE).Our analysis seeks to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of extreme event occurrence along the above mentioned transects. For the comparison of gridded and station data, we selected the HadCM3 cells that cover Greece and compared with meteorological observations from two representative stations for the period 1961-1990.This comparison is more qualitative since the spatial resolution of HadCM3 does not allow a direct comparison with station data. It aids however to determine whether the model exhibits a cold or warm temperature bias in its continental or marine gridboxes respectively. Future changes in extreme event occurrence have been analyzed using two different forcing scenarios from HadCM3 global climate model. We separated land and sea gridboxes and examined the variations of future extremes events related to temperature, wind and precipitation up to 2100 along the Mediterranean and Eastern European land and sea transects.

  4. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    rinaldi, eleonora; colella, simone; santoleri, rosalia

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, seen as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool in order to understand the response of marine ecosystem to human pressures. This is particularly important along the coastal regions, in which the strong anthropization and the irrational exploitation of resources represent a persistent threat to the biodiversity. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using Ocean Color (OC) data to monitor the environmental changes in Mediterranean Sea and to develop a method for detecting trend from OC data that can constitute a new indicator of the water quality within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation. In this study the Mediterranean merged Case1-Case2 chlorophyll product, produced by CNR-ISAC and distributed in the framework of MyOcean, is analyzed. This product is obtained by using two different bio-optical algorithms for open ocean (Case1) and coastal turbid (Case2) waters; this improves the quality of the Chl satellite estimates, especially near the coast. In order to verify the real capability of the this product for estimating Chl trend and for selecting the most appropriated statistical test to detect trend in the Mediterranean Sea, a comparison between OC and in situ data are carried out. In-situ Chl data are part of the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet) of the European Environmental Agency (EEA). Four different statistical approaches to estimate trend have been selected and used to compare trend values obtained with in-situ and OC data. Results show that the best agreement between in-situ and OC trend is achieved using the Mann- Kendall test. The Mediterranean trend map obtained applying this test to the de-seasonalized OC time series shows that, in accordance with the results of many authors, the case 1 waters of Mediterranean sea are characterized by a negative trend. However, the most intense trend signals, both negative

  5. Equilibrium of vegetation and climate at the European rear edge. A reference for climate change planning in mountainous Mediterranean regions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Labourdette, Diego; Martínez, Felipe; Martín-López, Berta; Montes, Carlos; Pineda, Francisco D

    2011-05-01

    Mediterranean mountains harbour some of Europe's highest floristic richness. This is accounted for largely by the mesoclimatic variety in these areas, along with the co-occurrence of a small area of Eurosiberian, Boreal and Mediterranean species, and those of Tertiary Subtropical origin. Throughout the twenty-first century, we are likely to witness a climate change-related modification of the biogeographic scenario in these mountains, and there is therefore a need for accurate climate regionalisations to serve as a reference of the abundance and distribution of species and communities, particularly those of a relictic nature. This paper presents an objective mapping method focussing on climate regions in a mountain range. The procedure was tested in the Cordillera Central Mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, in the western Mediterranean, one of the ranges occupying the largest area of the Mediterranean Basin. This regionalisation is based upon multivariate analyses and upon detailed cartography employing 27 climatic variables. We used spatial interpolation of data based on geographic information. We detected high climatic diversity in the mountain range studied. We identified 13 climatic regions, all of which form a varying mosaic throughout the annual temperature and rainfall cycle. This heterogeneity results from two geographically opposed gradients. The first one is the Mediterranean-Euro-Siberian variation of the mountain range. The second gradient involves the degree of oceanicity, which is negatively related to distance from the Atlantic Ocean. The existing correlation between the climatic regions detected and the flora existing therein enables the results to be situated within the projected trends of global warming, and their biogeographic and ecological consequences to be analysed.

  6. Beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas: evidence of central European glacial refugia for a temperate forest mammal species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Deffontaine, V; Libois, R; Kotlík, P; Sommer, R; Nieberding, C; Paradis, E; Searle, J B; Michaux, J R

    2005-05-01

    This study details the phylogeographic pattern of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, a European rodent species strongly associated with forest habitat. We used sequences of 1011 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene from 207 bank voles collected in 62 localities spread throughout its distribution area. Our results reveal the presence of three Mediterranean (Spanish, Italian and Balkan) and three continental (western, eastern and 'Ural') phylogroups. The endemic Mediterranean phylogroups did not contribute to the post-glacial recolonization of much of the Palaearctic range of species. Instead, the major part of this region was apparently recolonized by bank voles that survived in glacial refugia in central Europe. Moreover, our phylogeographic analyses also reveal differentiated populations of bank voles in the Ural mountains and elsewhere, which carry the mitochondrial DNA of another related vole species, the ruddy vole (Clethrionomys rutilus). In conclusion, this study demonstrates a complex phylogeographic history for a forest species in Europe which is sufficiently adaptable that, facing climate change, survives in relict southern and northern habitats. The high level of genetic diversity characterizing vole populations from parts of central Europe also highlights the importance of such regions as a source of intraspecific genetic biodiversity.

  7. The E glycoprotein plays an essential role in the high pathogenicity of European-Mediterranean IS98 strain of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Alsaleh, Khaled; Khou, Cécile; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Vàzquez, Ana; de Arellano, Eva Ramírez; Després, Philippe; Pardigon, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread arbovirus in the world. Several recent outbreaks and epizootics have been reported in Europe and the Mediterranean basin with increased virulence. In contrast to the well-characterized American and Australian strains, little is known about the virulence determinants of the WNV European-Mediterranean strains. To investigate the viral factors involved in the virulence of these strains, we generated chimeras between the highly neuropathogenic Israel 1998 (IS-98-ST1, IS98) strain and the non-pathogenic Malaysian Kunjin virus (KJMP-502). In vivo analyses in a mouse model of WNV pathogenesis shows that chimeric virus where KJMP-502 E glycoprotein was replaced by that of IS98 is neuropathogenic, demonstrating that this protein is a major virulence determinant. Presence of the N-glycosylation site had limited impact on virus virulence and the 5'UTR does not seem to influence pathogenesis. Finally, mice inoculated with KJMP-502 virus were protected against lethal IS98 infection.

  8. The E glycoprotein plays an essential role in the high pathogenicity of European-Mediterranean IS98 strain of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Alsaleh, Khaled; Khou, Cécile; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Vàzquez, Ana; de Arellano, Eva Ramírez; Després, Philippe; Pardigon, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread arbovirus in the world. Several recent outbreaks and epizootics have been reported in Europe and the Mediterranean basin with increased virulence. In contrast to the well-characterized American and Australian strains, little is known about the virulence determinants of the WNV European-Mediterranean strains. To investigate the viral factors involved in the virulence of these strains, we generated chimeras between the highly neuropathogenic Israel 1998 (IS-98-ST1, IS98) strain and the non-pathogenic Malaysian Kunjin virus (KJMP-502). In vivo analyses in a mouse model of WNV pathogenesis shows that chimeric virus where KJMP-502 E glycoprotein was replaced by that of IS98 is neuropathogenic, demonstrating that this protein is a major virulence determinant. Presence of the N-glycosylation site had limited impact on virus virulence and the 5'UTR does not seem to influence pathogenesis. Finally, mice inoculated with KJMP-502 virus were protected against lethal IS98 infection. PMID:26896935

  9. Beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas: evidence of central European glacial refugia for a temperate forest mammal species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Deffontaine, V; Libois, R; Kotlík, P; Sommer, R; Nieberding, C; Paradis, E; Searle, J B; Michaux, J R

    2005-05-01

    This study details the phylogeographic pattern of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, a European rodent species strongly associated with forest habitat. We used sequences of 1011 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene from 207 bank voles collected in 62 localities spread throughout its distribution area. Our results reveal the presence of three Mediterranean (Spanish, Italian and Balkan) and three continental (western, eastern and 'Ural') phylogroups. The endemic Mediterranean phylogroups did not contribute to the post-glacial recolonization of much of the Palaearctic range of species. Instead, the major part of this region was apparently recolonized by bank voles that survived in glacial refugia in central Europe. Moreover, our phylogeographic analyses also reveal differentiated populations of bank voles in the Ural mountains and elsewhere, which carry the mitochondrial DNA of another related vole species, the ruddy vole (Clethrionomys rutilus). In conclusion, this study demonstrates a complex phylogeographic history for a forest species in Europe which is sufficiently adaptable that, facing climate change, survives in relict southern and northern habitats. The high level of genetic diversity characterizing vole populations from parts of central Europe also highlights the importance of such regions as a source of intraspecific genetic biodiversity. PMID:15836645

  10. Parasite communities of European perch, Perca fluviatilis L. (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Percidae) from Lake Łebsko (Central Coast, Poland).

    PubMed

    Morozińska-Gogol, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Communities of parasites of European perch from lake Łebsko were studied and compared with similar communities from the Polish coastal zone. Parasites comprised 18 autogenic and 5 allogenic species. Most individual parasites belonged to allogenic species and were in larval stages. The majority of specimens were eye parasites with Tylodelphys clavata as the eudominant species. The dominant species, Acanthocephalus lucii, belongs to the intestine parasite community. Three marine species were found: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium aduncum and Echinorchynhus gadi. The results indicate that the parasite fauna consists mostly of freshwater species, common in various types of European waters, while marine species were rarely observed. PMID:24171303

  11. Whole genome semiconductor based sequencing of farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Mediterranean genetic stocks using a DNA pooling approach.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Geraci, Claudia; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Fontanesi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is an important marine species for commercial and sport fisheries and aquaculture production. Recently, the European sea bass genome has been sequenced and assembled. This resource can open new opportunities to evaluate and monitor variability and identify variants that could contribute to the adaptation to farming conditions. In this work, two DNA pools constructed from cultivated European sea bass were sequenced using a next generation semiconductor sequencing approach based on Ion Proton sequencer. Using the first draft version of the D. labrax genome as reference, sequenced reads obtained a total of about 1.6 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), spread all over the chromosomes. Transition/transversion (Ti/Tv) was equal to 1.28, comparable to what was already reported in Salmon species. A pilot homozygosity analysis across the D. labrax genome using DNA pool sequence datasets indicated that this approach can identify chromosome regions with putative signatures of selection, including genes involved in ion transport and chloride channel functions, amino acid metabolism and circadian clock and related neurological systems. This is the first study that reported genome wide polymorphisms in a fish species obtained with the Ion Proton sequencer. Moreover, this study provided a methodological approach for selective sweep analysis in this species. PMID:27020381

  12. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  13. Microzooplankton diversity: relationships of tintinnid ciliates with resources, competitors and predators from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco to the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, J. R.; Claustre, H.; Carlotti, F.; Plounevez, S.; Moutin, T.

    2002-07-01

    We examined tintinnid (loricate ciliate microzooplankton) diversity using data from 11 stations between the Moroccan upwelling system and the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean. Taxonomic and morphological diversity of tintinnids was compared to phytoplankton distribution and size-structure, to the abundance of competitors in the form of oligotrich ciliates, and predators as copepods. Tintinnid taxonomic diversity was estimated as numbers of species and the Shannon Index, H'; morphological diversity was quantified by substituting size classes of lorica dimensions for species. Total chlorophyll was partitioned into micro-, nano- and pico-fractions using pigment data and a size-diversity was estimated by considering the 3 size classes as 3 species. Along a west-to-east gradient, average water column concentrations of most organism groups declined approximately an order of magnitude yielding tight correlations. However, tintinnid diversity, both taxonomic and morphological, increased from the Atlantic upwelling station into the western basin of the Mediterranean, and declined slightly towards the Eastern Mediterranean, paralleling shifts in the chlorophyll size-diversity estimate. Diversity varied with absolute or relative abundance of oligotrich or copepods, but different diversity metrics were significantly correlated only with phytoplankton size-diversity. We conclude that tintinnid diversity more closely reflects resource diversity than competitive interactions or predation.

  14. Monitoring the impact of litter in large vertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD): constraints, specificities and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Galgani, F; Claro, F; Depledge, M; Fossi, C

    2014-09-01

    In its decision (2010/477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement, ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socio-economic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of "ingestion" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species. PMID:24612883

  15. Mediterranean and central-eastern European countries host viruses of two different clades of plum pox virus strain M.

    PubMed

    Dallot, Sylvie; Glasa, Miroslav; Jevremovic, Darko; Kamenova, Ivanka; Paunovic, Svetlana; Labonne, Gérard

    2011-03-01

    The genetic diversity of plum pox virus strain M (PPV-M) was assessed by analyzing 28 isolates collected in 8 European countries. Two genomic fragments spanning the (Cter)P3-6K1-(Nter)CI coding region as well as the full coat protein coding region were sequenced directly from PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the geographical origin of the collected isolates was clearly associated with two different PPV-M clades. Moreover, the pattern of substitutions in the CP gene shed light on the evolutionary relationships between PPV-M and the recombinant strains PPV-Rec and PPV-T.

  16. Middle Triassic chirotherid trackways on earthquake influenced intertidal limulid reproduction flats of the European Germanic Basin coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus

    2012-09-01

    Chirotherid footprints of Synaptichnium, Chirotherium and Isochirotherium appeared during the late Early (Aegean) to early Late (Carnian) Triassic in central Europe. These taxa are partly revised herein, using both perfect and variably preserved tracks, and very long trackways from an upper Pelsonian intertidal-flat megatracksite of the Germanic Basin coast Pelsonian (Karlstadt Formation). The global Middle Triassic distribution of those footprints suggests seasonal migrations across Pangaea of possible archosauriform reptile trackmakers, such as Euparkeria, Ticinosuchus, Arizonasaurus and Batrachotomus, caused by horseshoe-crab mass migrations into tidal-flat beach reproductive zones in the Germanic Basin. Such seasonal migrations may even suggest a Pangaea-wide food-chain reaction, possibly including the mobilization of fish, marine and terrestrial reptiles, and of which situation the Germanic Basin intertidal-flats is a globally unique example.

  17. Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 ± 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617

  18. Growth and feeding patterns of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) early life stages in the Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Ignacio A.; Folkvord, Arild; Palomera, Isabel; Quílez-Badía, Gemma; Kallianoti, Fotini; Tselepides, Anastasios; Kallianotis, Argyris

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe inter- and intra-annual variations in the environmental characteristics of the North-eastern Aegean Sea and to relate these changes to the egg and larval distributions, growth and feeding of larval anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus). Four cruises, two in July and two in September in 2003 and 2004 were performed. The distributions of eggs and larvae were associated with i) salinity fronts related to the Black Sea Water and ii) shallow areas of high productivity over the continental shelf, some of them with high riverine influence. The first published description of the anchovy larval diet in the Eastern Mediterranean was conducted in individuals ranging from 2.2 to 17 mm standard length. The number of non-empty guts was relatively high (between 20% and 30%), and the diet was described through 15 main items. The mean size of the prey increased with larval size, and was generally dominated by prey widths smaller than 80 μm (mainly the nauplii and copepodite stages of copepods). Small larvae positively selected copepod nauplii. As larvae grew, they shifted to larger copepod stages. At all sizes, larvae rejected abundant taxa like cladocerans. The average trophic level calculated for anchovy of all size ranges was 2.98 ± 0.16 (SE). Growth rates varied from 0.41 to 0.75 mm d -1, with the highest growth rates generally observed in September. Variability in the Black Sea Water influence and the recorded inter- and intra-annual changes in primary and secondary production, combined with marked changes in temperature over the first 20 m depth, are used to frame the discussion regarding the observed significant differences in growth rates in terms of both length and weight.

  19. Contribution to the top-down alert system associated with the upcoming French tsunami warning center (CENALT): tsunami hazard assessment along the French Mediterranean coast for the ALDES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loevenbruck, A.; Quentel, E.; Hebert, H.

    2011-12-01

    The catastrophic 2004 tsunami drew the international community's attention to tsunami risk in all basins where tsunamis occurred but no warning system exists. Consequently, under the coordination of UNESCO, France decided to create a regional center, called CENALT, for the north-east Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. This warning system, which should be operational by 2012, is set up by the CEA in collaboration with the SHOM and the CNRS. The French authorities are in charge of the top-down alert system including the local alert dissemination. In order to prepare the appropriate means and measures, they initiated the ALDES (Alerte Descendante) project to which the CEA also contributes. It aims at examining along the French Mediterranean coast the tsunami risk related to earthquakes and landslides. In addition to the evaluation at regional scale, it includes the detailed studies of 3 selected sites; the local alert system will be designed for one of them. In this project, our main task at CEA consists in assessing tsunami hazard related to seismic sources using numerical modeling. Tsunamis have already affected the west Mediterranean coast; however past events are too few and poorly documented to provide a suitable database. Thus, a synthesis of earthquakes representative of the tsunamigenic seismic activity and prone to induce the largest impact to the French coast is performed based on historical data, seismotectonics and first order models. The North Africa Margin, the Ligurian and the South Tyrrhenian Seas are considered as the main tsunamigenic zones. In order to forecast the most important plausible effects, the magnitudes are estimated by enhancing to some extent the largest known values. Our hazard estimation is based on the simulation of the induced tsunamis scenarios performed with the CEA code. Models of propagation in the basin and off the French coast allow evaluating the potential threat at regional scale in terms of sources location and

  20. EU-sponsored effort improves monitoring of circulation variability in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, G. M. R.; Cardin, V.; Cruzado, A.; Fusco, G.; Gacic, M.; Galli, C.; Gasparini, G. P.; Gervais, T.; Kovacevic, V.; Millot, C.; DeLa Villeon, L. Petit; Spaggiari, G.; Tonani, M.; Tziavos, C.; Velasquez, Z.; Zervakis, Walne V.; Zodiatis, G.

    The Mediterranean Sea, bordered by many North African countries and opening eastward to the Black Sea, is a strategic area for Europe. Its coast is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. A large part of a coastal nation's gross national product is produced through fishing, transportation, recreation, and other industries that depend on a healthy marine coastal environment. The risk of an incident likely to release harmful substances and cause massive pollution is considered high, as the Mediterranean is a major route for merchant vessels and the transport of oil and gas. Due to this risk, Mediterranean coastal countries need to organize and prepare for accidental marine pollution. Such permanent efforts have to be made at national, regional, and European levels. The management of this culturally diverse area presents a challenge.

  1. Behaviour of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on a rehabilitated sandy beach on the European Atlantic Coast (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, Filipa; Rossano, Claudia; Nourisson, Delphine; Gambineri, Simone; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and human controls are widely accepted as the main structuring forces of the macrofauna communities on sandy beaches. A population of the talitrid amphipod Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) was investigated on an exposed sandy beach on the Atlantic coast of Portugal (Leirosa beach) to estimate orientation capabilities and endogenous rhythms in conditions of recent changes in the landscape (artificial reconstruction of the foredune) and beach morphodynamics (stabilization against erosion from the sea). We tested sun orientation of talitrids on the beach and recorded their locomotor activity rhythms under constant conditions in the laboratory. The orientation data were analysed with circular statistics and multiple regression models adapted to angular distributions, to highlight the main factors and variables influencing the variation of orientation. The talitrids used the sun compass, visual cues (landscape and sun visibility) to orient and the precision of orientation varied according to the tidal regime (rising or ebbing tides). A well-defined free-running rhythm (circadian with in addition a bimodal rhythmicity, likely tidal) was highlighted in this population. This showed a stable behavioural adaptation on a beach that has experienced a process of artificial stabilization of the dune through nourishment actions over a decade. Monitoring the conditions of such dynamic environments and the resilience capacity of the inhabiting macroinfauna is a main challenge for sandy beach ecologists.

  2. There are many Mediterranean diets.

    PubMed

    Noah, A; Truswell, A S

    2001-01-01

    Interest in Mediterranean diet began 30 years ago, when Ancel Keys published the results of the famous Seven Countries Study, Since 1945, almost 1.3 million people have come to Australia from Mediterranean countries as new settlers. There are 18 countries with coasts on the Mediterranean sea: Spain, southern France, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Malta, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. This study from which this report derives aims to investigate the influence of the food habits of immigrants from Mediterranean countries on Australian food intake. Here we look at the 'traditional' food habits of the above Mediterranean countries as told by 102 people we interviewed in Sydney, who came from 18 Mediterranean countries to Sydney. Most of the informants were women, their age ranged from 35 to 55 years. The interview was open-ended and held in the informant's home. It usually lasted around 1 1/2 hours. The interview had three parts. Personal information was obtained, questions relating to the food habits of these people back in their original Mediterranean countries and how their food intake and habits have changed in Australia were also asked. From the interviews, we have obtained a broad picture of 'traditional' food habits in different Mediterranean countries. The interview data was checked with books of recipes for the different countries. While there were similarities between the countries, there are also important differences in the food habits of the Mediterranean countries. Neighbouring countries' food habits are closer than those on opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea. We suggest that these food habits can be put into four groups. The data here refer to food habits in Mediterranean countries 20 or 30 years ago, as they were recovering from the Second World War. There is no single ideal Mediterranean diet. Nutritionists who use the concept should qualify the individual country and the time in

  3. Bioremediation of Southern Mediterranean oil polluted sites comes of age.

    PubMed

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel; Mapelli, Francesca; Cherif, Ameur; Lafraya, Alvaro; Malkawi, Hanan I; Yakimov, Michail M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Blaghen, Mohamed; Golyshin, Peter N; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Boon, Nico; Magagnini, Mirko; Fava, Fabio

    2013-09-25

    Mediterranean Sea is facing a very high risk of oil pollution due to the high number of oil extractive and refining sites along the basin coasts, and the intense maritime traffic of oil tankers. All the Mediterranean countries have adopted severe regulations for minimizing pollution events and bioremediation feasibility studies for the most urgent polluted sites are undergoing. However, the analysis of the scientific studies applying modern 'meta-omics' technologies that have been performed on marine oil pollution worldwide showed that the Southern Mediterranean side has been neglected by the international research. Most of the studies in the Mediterranean Sea have been done in polluted sites of the Northern side of the basin. Those of the Southern side are poorly studied, despite many of the Southern countries being major oil producers and exporters. The recently EU-funded research project ULIXES has as a major objective to increase the knowledge of the bioremediation potential of sites from the Southern Mediterranean countries. ULIXES is targeting four major polluted sites on the coastlines of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, including seashore sands, lagoons, and oil refinery polluted sediments. The research is designed to unravel, categorize, catalogue, exploit and manage the diversity and ecology of microorganisms thriving in these polluted sites. Isolation of novel hydrocarbon degrading microbes and a series of state of the art 'meta-omics' technologies are the baseline tools for improving our knowledge on biodegradation capacities mediated by microbes under different environmental settings and for designing novel site-tailored bioremediation approaches. A network of twelve European and Southern Mediterranean partners is cooperating for plugging the existing gap of knowledge for the development of novel bioremediation processes targeting such poorly investigated polluted sites. PMID:23727339

  4. Bioremediation of Southern Mediterranean oil polluted sites comes of age.

    PubMed

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel; Mapelli, Francesca; Cherif, Ameur; Lafraya, Alvaro; Malkawi, Hanan I; Yakimov, Michail M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Blaghen, Mohamed; Golyshin, Peter N; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Boon, Nico; Magagnini, Mirko; Fava, Fabio

    2013-09-25

    Mediterranean Sea is facing a very high risk of oil pollution due to the high number of oil extractive and refining sites along the basin coasts, and the intense maritime traffic of oil tankers. All the Mediterranean countries have adopted severe regulations for minimizing pollution events and bioremediation feasibility studies for the most urgent polluted sites are undergoing. However, the analysis of the scientific studies applying modern 'meta-omics' technologies that have been performed on marine oil pollution worldwide showed that the Southern Mediterranean side has been neglected by the international research. Most of the studies in the Mediterranean Sea have been done in polluted sites of the Northern side of the basin. Those of the Southern side are poorly studied, despite many of the Southern countries being major oil producers and exporters. The recently EU-funded research project ULIXES has as a major objective to increase the knowledge of the bioremediation potential of sites from the Southern Mediterranean countries. ULIXES is targeting four major polluted sites on the coastlines of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, including seashore sands, lagoons, and oil refinery polluted sediments. The research is designed to unravel, categorize, catalogue, exploit and manage the diversity and ecology of microorganisms thriving in these polluted sites. Isolation of novel hydrocarbon degrading microbes and a series of state of the art 'meta-omics' technologies are the baseline tools for improving our knowledge on biodegradation capacities mediated by microbes under different environmental settings and for designing novel site-tailored bioremediation approaches. A network of twelve European and Southern Mediterranean partners is cooperating for plugging the existing gap of knowledge for the development of novel bioremediation processes targeting such poorly investigated polluted sites.

  5. Toward an european Med HF-radar coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molcard, A.; Fraunie, P.

    2010-12-01

    The monitoring of coastal areas through HF radar is developping in the european Mediterranean coasts, through national and international projects. Surface current maps may be used for process studies, forecast correction through assimilation, or for practical applications in transport studies (jellyfish, oil-spill, search-and-rescue operations). Results of radar campaigns in the North-western Mediterranean (evidence of mesoscale eddy in the Gulf of Lions and identification of dynamical structures by FSLE in the Ligurian Sea) are shown, as well as techniques for current reconstruction using a single site. A new inter-regional european project started in summer 2010, regrouping 5 countries for an integrated oil-spill coastal awarness network is presented.

  6. Analysis of mercury and methylmercury concentrations, and selenium:mercury molar ratios for a toxicological assessment of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the most recent stranding event along the Adriatic coast (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Chiaravalle, E; Gavinelli, S; Monaco, G; Rizzi, M; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    Mass stranding of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is a rare event in the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2014, a pod of seven sperm whales became stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the seventh occurrence of this type since 1555 in this sea basin. Total concentrations of mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) were measured from brain, muscle, liver and kidney of three female sperm whales, which died in this event. Analyses showed considerable, age-dependent variations in Hg and Se concentrations in the different organs. The contamination levels of T-Hg in the liver (up to 200 mg kg(-1)) and brain (up to 21 mg kg(-1)) samples were markedly higher than those in the kidney and muscle samples. The liver and brain also showed the highest Se levels. Se:Hg molar ratios ⩾1 were observed in all the organs of the three sperm whales, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg toxicity. The risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity was assessed by comparing our values to thresholds set for neurotoxicity in mammals, and the role of Se in the detoxification process of T-Hg/MeHg is discussed herein.

  7. Analysis of mercury and methylmercury concentrations, and selenium:mercury molar ratios for a toxicological assessment of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the most recent stranding event along the Adriatic coast (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Chiaravalle, E; Gavinelli, S; Monaco, G; Rizzi, M; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    Mass stranding of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is a rare event in the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2014, a pod of seven sperm whales became stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the seventh occurrence of this type since 1555 in this sea basin. Total concentrations of mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) were measured from brain, muscle, liver and kidney of three female sperm whales, which died in this event. Analyses showed considerable, age-dependent variations in Hg and Se concentrations in the different organs. The contamination levels of T-Hg in the liver (up to 200 mg kg(-1)) and brain (up to 21 mg kg(-1)) samples were markedly higher than those in the kidney and muscle samples. The liver and brain also showed the highest Se levels. Se:Hg molar ratios ⩾1 were observed in all the organs of the three sperm whales, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg toxicity. The risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity was assessed by comparing our values to thresholds set for neurotoxicity in mammals, and the role of Se in the detoxification process of T-Hg/MeHg is discussed herein. PMID:26233668

  8. First detailed data on metazoan parasites of the rare species short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi (Teleostei: Belonidae) from Tunisian coast, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Châari, Manel; Derbel, Hela; Neifar, Lassâd

    2016-01-01

    Forty five specimens of the short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi, a rare belonid species largely confused with the garfish Belone belone from Tunisian coast Sea were examined for metazoan parasite. Nine metazoan parasites species were identified: one monogenean (Axine sp.), 4 digeneans (Lecithostaphylus retroflexus, Tergestia acanthocephala, Aponurus laguncula and Condylocotyla pilodora metacercaria), one copepod (Bomolochus bellones), one isopod (Irona nana), one acanthocephalan (Telosentis exiguus) and one nematod Hysterotylacium sp. Most of parasite species were new records for B. svetovidovi in Tunisia. In the parasite fauna of B. svetovidovi, digenean C. pilodora metacercaria was the most prevalent species (42%) followed by Monogenea Axine sp. (36%). The total length of the host did not influence parasitic infection in B. svetovidovi. The metazoan parasite composition of B. svetovidovi revealed great similarity than those of B. belone from Tunisia supporting same ecological behavior of both hosts. PMID:27262955

  9. First detailed data on metazoan parasites of the rare species short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi (Teleostei: Belonidae) from Tunisian coast, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Châari, Manel; Derbel, Hela; Neifar, Lassâd

    2016-01-01

    Forty five specimens of the short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi, a rare belonid species largely confused with the garfish Belone belone from Tunisian coast Sea were examined for metazoan parasite. Nine metazoan parasites species were identified: one monogenean (Axine sp.), 4 digeneans (Lecithostaphylus retroflexus, Tergestia acanthocephala, Aponurus laguncula and Condylocotyla pilodora metacercaria), one copepod (Bomolochus bellones), one isopod (Irona nana), one acanthocephalan (Telosentis exiguus) and one nematod Hysterotylacium sp. Most of parasite species were new records for B. svetovidovi in Tunisia. In the parasite fauna of B. svetovidovi, digenean C. pilodora metacercaria was the most prevalent species (42%) followed by Monogenea Axine sp. (36%). The total length of the host did not influence parasitic infection in B. svetovidovi. The metazoan parasite composition of B. svetovidovi revealed great similarity than those of B. belone from Tunisia supporting same ecological behavior of both hosts.

  10. Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels and toxicity in sediments and fishes from the Mediterranean Sea (southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Zohra, Ben Salem; Habib, Ayadi

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in sediment is regarded as a global crisis with a large share in industrializing cities like Sfax (Tunisia). Seven heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn), and one metalloid such as Arsenic (As) in sediments and fish (D. annularis, L. aurata, and S. vulgaris) were investigated from the Southern coast of Sfax in Tunisia. The range of metals in sediments were 13.11-36; 4.42-7.92; 8.23-28.56; 50,564-11,956; 2.9-6.8; 9.13-30.51; 65.06-151.50, and 47-546 kg(-1) DW for As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The level of studied metals in sediment samples exceeded the limits of the quality assessment guidelines (SQGs). The potential ecological risk index (PERI) proved that the investigated region could pose moderate risk for the aquatic biota. Metal bioaccumulation in the fish muscles varied significantly among species. Indeed, S. vulgaris and D. annularis accumulated higher amount of metal than L. aurata. The target hazard quotients (THQ) of individual heavy metals in fish, except for As and Hg, revealed safe levels for human consumption. Nevertheless, the total THQ indexes exceeded 1 suggesting the combined effects on muscles fish, which may constitute a risk to population's health. PMID:27040542

  11. Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels and toxicity in sediments and fishes from the Mediterranean Sea (southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Zohra, Ben Salem; Habib, Ayadi

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in sediment is regarded as a global crisis with a large share in industrializing cities like Sfax (Tunisia). Seven heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn), and one metalloid such as Arsenic (As) in sediments and fish (D. annularis, L. aurata, and S. vulgaris) were investigated from the Southern coast of Sfax in Tunisia. The range of metals in sediments were 13.11-36; 4.42-7.92; 8.23-28.56; 50,564-11,956; 2.9-6.8; 9.13-30.51; 65.06-151.50, and 47-546 kg(-1) DW for As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The level of studied metals in sediment samples exceeded the limits of the quality assessment guidelines (SQGs). The potential ecological risk index (PERI) proved that the investigated region could pose moderate risk for the aquatic biota. Metal bioaccumulation in the fish muscles varied significantly among species. Indeed, S. vulgaris and D. annularis accumulated higher amount of metal than L. aurata. The target hazard quotients (THQ) of individual heavy metals in fish, except for As and Hg, revealed safe levels for human consumption. Nevertheless, the total THQ indexes exceeded 1 suggesting the combined effects on muscles fish, which may constitute a risk to population's health.

  12. Study of the impact of cyclogenesis at the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribo, M.; Llasat, C.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is usually affected by high impact weather events, generating high impacts in all Mediterranean countries and causing important damages. This basin is surrounded by mountains and arid regions, and the interaction of the air flow with the orography barriers produces many effects, the most important is the formation of low pressure centers. This is one of the reasons why the Mediterranean Sea is considered to be the most cyclogenetic area in the world (Jansà, 1997). Floods are also one of the most important natural hazards in the Mediterranean Basin. Flood events occur when soil absorption, runoff or drainage cannot adequately disperse intense rainfall from quasi-stationary or stationary weather systems in short time periods. In some occasions these floods produce high social impact in the affected areas. Our work presents the study of the relationship between the flood episodes and the presence of cyclones in the Mediterranean Basin during those episodes, between 1990 and 2004. Information about social impact of each event has also been considered. To do these analyses the MEDEX database (MEDiterranean EXperiment on cyclones that produce high impact weather in the Mediterranean) has been improved in the frame work of the European FLASH project, and information about cyclones and rainfall has been extracted from the MEDEX cyclones database. A total of 217 flood events had been identified. Once the presence of one or more cyclones during each flood episode has been identified, temporal and regional analyses were made to determine the distribution of the cyclonic centers and to study the evolution of the events. Mediterranean cyclogenesis is leaded by influence of external systems (along the African coast, from the Atlantic Ocean, and from the west of Europe), although the majority of the cyclones (87% of the studied cases) are generated in the Mediterranean Basin, under influence of preexistent systems. There are different Mediterranean

  13. Dust in the Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 24, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), acquired this true-color image of a large cloud of dust blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea. The dust storm has persisted in the region for at least a week. In this image, the brownish dust plume appears to originate about 260 miles (400 km) east of Algiers, Algeria, and is blowing toward the northwest coast of Sardinia, Italy. SeaWiFS flies aboard the OrbView-2 Satellite. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE

  14. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels.

  15. The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2014-07-14

    Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MD) and genetic variation in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene have been reported to be associated with TAG and glucose metabolism. It is uncertain whether there is any interaction between these factors. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the association of adherence to a MD and rs780094 (G>A) SNP in the GCKR gene with the markers of cardiometabolic risk, and to investigate the interaction between genetic variation and MD adherence. We studied 20 986 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED: range 0-18) was used to assess MD adherence. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the rMED, genotype and cardiometabolic continuous traits, adjusting for potential confounders. In adjusted analyses, we observed independent associations of MD adherence and genotype with cardiometabolic risk, with the highest risk group (AA genotype; lowest rMED) having higher concentrations of TAG, total cholesterol and apoB (12·5, 2·3 and 3·1%, respectively) v. those at the lowest risk (GG genotype; highest rMED). However, the associations of MD adherence with metabolic markers did not differ by genotype, with no significant gene-diet interactions for lipids or for glycated Hb. In conclusion, we found independent associations of the rMED and of the GCKR genotype with cardiometabolic profile, but found no evidence of interaction between them.

  16. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Gosling, Anna L; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  17. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Gosling, Anna L; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa.

  18. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Gosling, Anna L.; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  19. Mediterranean diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you should take a calcium supplement. Wine is a common part of a Mediterranean eating ... but some people should not drink alcohol. Avoid wine if you are prone to alcohol abuse, pregnant, ...

  20. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels. PMID:23739809

  1. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  2. Tsunamigenic potential of Mediterranean fault systems and active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricca, Patrizio; Babeyko, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Since the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) is under development by the European scientific community, it becomes necessary to define guidelines for the characterization of the numerous parameters must be taken into account in a fair assessment of the risk. Definition of possible tectonic sources and evaluation of their potential is one of the principal issues. In this study we systematically evaluate tsunamigenic potential of up-to-now known real fault systems and active subduction interfaces in the NEAMTWS region. The task is accomplished by means of numerical modeling of tsunami generation and propagation. We have simulated all possible uniform-slip ruptures populating fault and subduction interfaces with magnitudes ranging from 6.5 up to expected Mmax. A total of 15810 individual ruptures were processed. For each rupture, a tsunami propagation scenario was computed in linear shallow-water approximation on 1-arc minute bathymetric grid (Gebco_08) implying normal reflection boundary conditions. Maximum wave heights at coastal positions (totally - 23236 points of interest) were recorded for four hours of simulation and then classified according to currently adopted warning level thresholds. The resulting dataset allowed us to classify the sources in terms of their tsunamigenic potential as well as to estimate their minimum tsunamigenic magnitude. Our analysis shows that almost every source in the Mediterranean Sea is capable to produce local tsunami at the advisory level (i.e., wave height > 20 cm) starting from magnitude values of Mw=6.6. In respect to the watch level (wave height > 50 cm), the picture is less homogeneous: crustal sources in south-west Mediterranean as well as East-Hellenic arc need larger magnitudes (around Mw=7.0) to trigger watch levels even at the nearby coasts. In the context of the regional warning (i.e., source-to-coast distance > 100 km) faults also behave more heterogeneously in respect to the minimum

  3. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  4. Miocene shift of European atmospheric circulation from trade wind to westerlies.

    PubMed

    Quan, Cheng; Liu, Yu-Sheng Christopher; Tang, Hui; Utescher, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The modern European climatic regime is peculiar, due to its unitary winter but diverse summer climates and a pronounced Mediterranean climate in the south. However, little is known on its evolution in the deep time. Here we reconstruct the European summer climate conditions in the Tortonian (11.62-7.246 Ma) using plant fossil assemblages from 75 well-dated sites across Europe. Our results clearly show that the Tortonian Europe mainly had humid to subhumid summers and no arid climate has been conclusively detected, indicating that the summer-dry Mediterranean-type climate has not yet been established along most of the Mediterranean coast at least by the Tortonian. More importantly, the reconstructed distribution pattern of summer precipitation reveals that the Tortonian European must have largely been controlled by westerlies, resulting in higher precipitation in the west and the lower in the east. The Tortonian westerly wind field appears to differ principally from the trade wind pattern of the preceding Serravallian (13.82-11.62 Ma), recently deduced from herpetofaunal fossils. Such a shift in atmospheric circulation, if ever occurred, might result from the development of ice caps and glaciers in the polar region during the Late Miocene global cooling, the then reorganization of oceanic circulation, and/or the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. PMID:25012454

  5. Miocene shift of European atmospheric circulation from trade wind to westerlies

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Cheng; Liu, Yu-Sheng (Christopher); Tang, Hui; Utescher, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The modern European climatic regime is peculiar, due to its unitary winter but diverse summer climates and a pronounced Mediterranean climate in the south. However, little is known on its evolution in the deep time. Here we reconstruct the European summer climate conditions in the Tortonian (11.62–7.246 Ma) using plant fossil assemblages from 75 well-dated sites across Europe. Our results clearly show that the Tortonian Europe mainly had humid to subhumid summers and no arid climate has been conclusively detected, indicating that the summer-dry Mediterranean-type climate has not yet been established along most of the Mediterranean coast at least by the Tortonian. More importantly, the reconstructed distribution pattern of summer precipitation reveals that the Tortonian European must have largely been controlled by westerlies, resulting in higher precipitation in the west and the lower in the east. The Tortonian westerly wind field appears to differ principally from the trade wind pattern of the preceding Serravallian (13.82–11.62 Ma), recently deduced from herpetofaunal fossils. Such a shift in atmospheric circulation, if ever occurred, might result from the development of ice caps and glaciers in the polar region during the Late Miocene global cooling, the then reorganization of oceanic circulation, and/or the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. PMID:25012454

  6. Miocene shift of European atmospheric circulation from trade wind to westerlies.

    PubMed

    Quan, Cheng; Liu, Yu-Sheng Christopher; Tang, Hui; Utescher, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The modern European climatic regime is peculiar, due to its unitary winter but diverse summer climates and a pronounced Mediterranean climate in the south. However, little is known on its evolution in the deep time. Here we reconstruct the European summer climate conditions in the Tortonian (11.62-7.246 Ma) using plant fossil assemblages from 75 well-dated sites across Europe. Our results clearly show that the Tortonian Europe mainly had humid to subhumid summers and no arid climate has been conclusively detected, indicating that the summer-dry Mediterranean-type climate has not yet been established along most of the Mediterranean coast at least by the Tortonian. More importantly, the reconstructed distribution pattern of summer precipitation reveals that the Tortonian European must have largely been controlled by westerlies, resulting in higher precipitation in the west and the lower in the east. The Tortonian westerly wind field appears to differ principally from the trade wind pattern of the preceding Serravallian (13.82-11.62 Ma), recently deduced from herpetofaunal fossils. Such a shift in atmospheric circulation, if ever occurred, might result from the development of ice caps and glaciers in the polar region during the Late Miocene global cooling, the then reorganization of oceanic circulation, and/or the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift.

  7. Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring water quality parameters for Mediterranean Lakes of European Union water framework directive (WFD) and as a system of surveillance of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms (SCyanoHABs).

    PubMed

    Gómez, José Antonio Domínguez; Alonso, Covadonga Alonso; García, Ana Alonso

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing has been used from the 1980s to study inland water quality. However, it was not until the beginning of the twenty-first century that CHRIS (an experimental multi-angle sensor with good spectral and spatial resolutions) and MERIS (with good temporal and spectral resolutions) started to acquire imagery with very good resolutions, which allowed to develop a reliable imagery acquisition system so as to consider remote sensing as an inland water management tool. This paper presents the methodology developed, from the field data acquisition with which to build a freshwater spectral library and the study of different atmospheric correction systems for CHRIS mode 2 and MERIS images, to the development of algorithms to determine chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations and bloom sites. All these algorithms allow determining water eutrophic and ecological states, apart from generating surveillance maps of toxic cyanobacteria with the main objective of Assessment of the Water Quality as it was used for Monitoring Ecological Water Quality in smallest Mediterranean Reservoirs integrated in the Intercalibration Exercise of European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). We keep on using it to monitor the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) in Spain inland water.

  8. Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring water quality parameters for Mediterranean Lakes of European Union water framework directive (WFD) and as a system of surveillance of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms (SCyanoHABs).

    PubMed

    Gómez, José Antonio Domínguez; Alonso, Covadonga Alonso; García, Ana Alonso

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing has been used from the 1980s to study inland water quality. However, it was not until the beginning of the twenty-first century that CHRIS (an experimental multi-angle sensor with good spectral and spatial resolutions) and MERIS (with good temporal and spectral resolutions) started to acquire imagery with very good resolutions, which allowed to develop a reliable imagery acquisition system so as to consider remote sensing as an inland water management tool. This paper presents the methodology developed, from the field data acquisition with which to build a freshwater spectral library and the study of different atmospheric correction systems for CHRIS mode 2 and MERIS images, to the development of algorithms to determine chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations and bloom sites. All these algorithms allow determining water eutrophic and ecological states, apart from generating surveillance maps of toxic cyanobacteria with the main objective of Assessment of the Water Quality as it was used for Monitoring Ecological Water Quality in smallest Mediterranean Reservoirs integrated in the Intercalibration Exercise of European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). We keep on using it to monitor the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) in Spain inland water. PMID:21243424

  9. Contrasted phylogeographic patterns on mitochondrial DNA of shallow and deep brittle stars across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Sergi; Pérez-Portela, Rocío

    2016-09-02

    Previous studies on Ophiothrix in European waters demonstrated the existence of two distinct species, Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiothrix sp. II. Using phylogenetic and species delimitation techniques based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rRNA) we prove the existence of a new congeneric species (Ophiothrix sp. III), occurring in the deep Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Alboran Sea. We compared phylogeographic patterns of these three Ophiothrix species to test whether closely related species are differentially affected by past demographic events and current oceanographic barriers. We used 432 sequences (137 of O. fragilis, 215 of Ophiothrix sp. II, and 80 of Ophiothrix sp. III) of the 16S rRNA from 23 Atlantic-Mediterranean locations for the analyses. We observed different geographic and bathymetric distributions, and contrasted phylogeography among species. Ophiothrix fragilis appeared genetically isolated between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, attributed to past vicariance during Pleistocene glaciations and a secondary contact associated to demographic expansion. This contrasts with the panmixia observed in Ophiothrix sp. II across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area. Results were not conclusive for Ophiothrix sp. III due to the lack of a more complete sampling within the Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Contrasted phylogeographic patterns on mitochondrial DNA of shallow and deep brittle stars across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    Taboada, Sergi; Pérez-Portela, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on Ophiothrix in European waters demonstrated the existence of two distinct species, Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiothrix sp. II. Using phylogenetic and species delimitation techniques based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rRNA) we prove the existence of a new congeneric species (Ophiothrix sp. III), occurring in the deep Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Alboran Sea. We compared phylogeographic patterns of these three Ophiothrix species to test whether closely related species are differentially affected by past demographic events and current oceanographic barriers. We used 432 sequences (137 of O. fragilis, 215 of Ophiothrix sp. II, and 80 of Ophiothrix sp. III) of the 16S rRNA from 23 Atlantic-Mediterranean locations for the analyses. We observed different geographic and bathymetric distributions, and contrasted phylogeography among species. Ophiothrix fragilis appeared genetically isolated between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, attributed to past vicariance during Pleistocene glaciations and a secondary contact associated to demographic expansion. This contrasts with the panmixia observed in Ophiothrix sp. II across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area. Results were not conclusive for Ophiothrix sp. III due to the lack of a more complete sampling within the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27585743

  11. Contrasted phylogeographic patterns on mitochondrial DNA of shallow and deep brittle stars across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Sergi; Pérez-Portela, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on Ophiothrix in European waters demonstrated the existence of two distinct species, Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiothrix sp. II. Using phylogenetic and species delimitation techniques based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rRNA) we prove the existence of a new congeneric species (Ophiothrix sp. III), occurring in the deep Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Alboran Sea. We compared phylogeographic patterns of these three Ophiothrix species to test whether closely related species are differentially affected by past demographic events and current oceanographic barriers. We used 432 sequences (137 of O. fragilis, 215 of Ophiothrix sp. II, and 80 of Ophiothrix sp. III) of the 16S rRNA from 23 Atlantic-Mediterranean locations for the analyses. We observed different geographic and bathymetric distributions, and contrasted phylogeography among species. Ophiothrix fragilis appeared genetically isolated between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, attributed to past vicariance during Pleistocene glaciations and a secondary contact associated to demographic expansion. This contrasts with the panmixia observed in Ophiothrix sp. II across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area. Results were not conclusive for Ophiothrix sp. III due to the lack of a more complete sampling within the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27585743

  12. Variability and trends of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Helena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated with the aid of the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm, applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim mean sea level pressures. The algorithm is employed for the first time to study anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean were checked and verified. The tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems revealed two major anticyclonic routes: over the northern (i.e. from the Iberian towards the Balkan Peninsula) and over the southern (i.e. the North Africa coast) Mediterranean barriers. A transition of the system density and anticyclogenesis maxima is evident throughout the year from solely continental environments in winter and autumn to also maritime in spring and summer. These variations can be attributed to the seasonal variability of the major anticyclonic systems that are involved in this region. The interannual variability of synoptic systems can be attributed to natural low frequency variability. The interannual variations of the system density and strength were linked to the Northern Hemisphere modes of atmospheric variability; e.g. more (less) antiyclonic tracks are observed around the Mediterranean basin during periods of positive (negative) NAO, with a consequent enhancement (decline) of the pressure field. Moreover, possible trends in the frequency and intensity of the anticyclonic systems were explored in an attempt to examine any impacts of recent global warming conditions. Positive trends of system density, genesis and intensity prevail during the cold period over the greater area around the Mediterranean basin. During summer, the general increase in system density is not followed by a corresponding tendency in the number of the generating systems and the intensity. Regarding the depth of the

  13. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes. PMID:26434500

  14. Evaluation of clonality and carbapenem resistance mechanisms among Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex and Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in European and Mediterranean countries and detection of two novel β-lactamases, GES-22 and VIM-35.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Mariana; Costello, Sarah E; Woosley, Leah N; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Davies, Todd A; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated doripenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex (ACB; n = 411) and Enterobacteriaceae (n = 92) isolates collected from patients from 14 European and Mediterranean countries during 2009 to 2011 for the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes and clonality. Following susceptibility testing, carbapenem-resistant (doripenem MIC, >2 μg/ml) isolates were screened for carbapenemases. New β-lactamase genes were expressed in a common background and susceptibility was tested. Class 1 integrons were sequenced. Clonality was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (Pasteur scheme). Relative expression of β-lactam intrinsic resistance mechanisms was determined for carbapenemase-negative Enterobacteriaceae. ACB and Enterobacteriaceae displayed 58.9 and 0.9% doripenem resistance, respectively. bla(OXA-23), bla(OXA-58), and bla(OXA-24/OXA-40) were detected among 277, 77, and 29 ACB, respectively (in 8, 6, and 5 countries). Ten Turkish isolates carried bla(GES-11) or bla(GES-22). GES-22 (G243A and M169L mutations in GES-1) had an extended-spectrum β-lactamase profile. A total of 33 clusters of ≥ 2 ACB isolates were observed, and 227 isolates belonged to sequence type 2/international clone II. Other international clones were limited to Turkey and Israel. Doripenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae increased significantly (0.7 to 1.6%), and 15 blaKPC-2- and 22 blaKPC-3-carrying isolates, mostly belonging to clonal complexes 11 and 258, were observed. Enterobacteriaceae isolates producing OXA-48 (n = 16; in Turkey and Italy), VIM-1 (n = 10; in Greece, Poland, and Spain), VIM-26 (n = 1; in Greece), and IMP-19, VIM-4, and the novel VIM-35 (n = 1 each from Poland) were detected. VIM-35 had one substitution compared to VIM-1 (A235T) and a similar susceptibility profile. One or more resistance mechanisms were identified in 4/6 carbapenemase-negative Enterobacteriaceae. This broad evaluation confirms results

  15. 7000 years of paleostorm activity in the NW Mediterranean Sea in response to Holocene climate events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Dezileau, Laurent; Colin, Christophe; Briqueu, Louis; Bouchette, Frédéric; Martinez, Philippe; Siani, Giuseppe; Raynal, Olivier; Von Grafenstein, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    A high-resolution record of paleostorm events along the French Mediterranean coast over the past 7000 years was established from a lagoonal sediment core in the Gulf of Lions. Integrating grain size, faunal analysis, clay mineralogy and geochemistry data with a chronology derived from radiocarbon dating, we recorded seven periods of increased storm activity at 6300-6100, 5650-5400, 4400-4050, 3650-3200, 2800-2600, 1950-1400 and 400-50 cal yr BP (in the Little Ice Age). In contrast, our results show that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1150-650 cal yr BP) was characterised by low storm activity. The evidence for high storm activity in the NW Mediterranean Sea is in agreement with the changes in coastal hydrodynamics observed over the Eastern North Atlantic and seems to correspond to Holocene cooling in the North Atlantic. Periods of low SSTs there may have led to a stronger meridional temperature gradient and a southward migration of the westerlies. We hypothesise that the increase in storm activity during Holocene cold events over the North Atlantic and Mediterranean regions was probably due to an increase in the thermal gradient that led to an enhanced lower tropospheric baroclinicity over a large Central Atlantic-European domain.

  16. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  17. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  18. The National Cardiac Societies of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Atar, Dan

    2015-06-01

    The National Cardiac Societies are one of the Constituent Bodies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). They are the backbone of the ESC and together form the "Cardiology of Europe" in 56 European and Mediterranean countries.

  19. Ageing of aerosol and their radiative properties in the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Greg; Léon, Jean-François; Pont, Véronique; Mallet, Marc; Augustin, Patrick; Dulac, François; Junkermann, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The VESSAER campaign (VErtical Structure and Sources of AERosols in the Mediterranean Region) identified different sources of aerosol in the Mediterranean Basin and assessed the regional impact of aerosol on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. The airborne aspect of VESSAER was conducted on an ultra-light aircraft in summer 2012. Ground-based activities included observations in the central and northern regions of Corsica, as well as aerosol LIDAR and sun photometer measurements on the eastern coast. The main scientific goals were to investigate local versus long-range sources of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their vertical structure in the lower troposphere, study evolution and ageing related to atmospheric processes, and determine aerosol direct radiative impacts over a larger spatial scale in the Mediterranean Basin. Even though Corsica is separated by from the European continent by ca. 100 km with no immediate sources of urban aerosol, the background concentrations in Corsica were similar to those in the continental European boundary layer. The background total aerosol concentrations within the boundary layer in Corsica are nearly 2000 cm-3. Nearly all of the particles in the boundary layer (> 90%) are CCN-active at 0.37% supersaturation as they had become hygroscopic during their transport. Ageing (with respect to CCN-activity) of European emissions occurred exclusively in the boundary layer and not in aerosol layers aloft. In contrast, aerosol hygroscopicity did not change as a function of transport time in elevated aerosol layers, suggesting that photochemical ageing of less hygroscopic material is relatively slow compared to ageing processes in the boundary layer. The vertical profiles clearly show the long-range transport of dust from the Saharan Desert and pollution from the European continent -- which were the two major sources of aerosol during the campaign. Two of the research flights coincided with CALIPSO overpasses, when

  20. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  1. European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) for Geology - A sea-bed substrate map for European marine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanen, Ulla; Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet-Geology 2

    2014-05-01

    The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the European Seas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.

  2. Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  3. Genetic identification and distribution of the parasitic larvae of Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) in European hake Merluccius merluccius from the Tyrrhenian Sea and Spanish Atlantic coast: implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Paolo; Smaldone, Giorgio; Acerra, Virginia; D'Angelo, Luisa; Anastasio, Aniello; Bellisario, Bruno; Palma, Giuseppe; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of the hake Merluccius merluccius is widespread in European countries, where this fish has a high commercial value. To date, different larval species of Anisakis have been identified as parasites in M. merluccius from European waters, Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) being the two most common. The aim of the study is to present data on the occurrence of Anisakis spp. larvae in the viscera and flesh of M. merluccius. Consequently, the distribution and infection rates of different species of Anisakis in different sites (viscera, and dorsal and ventral fillets) were investigated in hake caught in the central Tyrrhenian Sea (FAO 37.1.3) and the NE Atlantic Ocean (FAO 27 IXa). A sample of N=65 fish individuals (length>26 cm) was examined parasitologically from each fishing ground. The fillets were examined using the pepsin digestion method. A large number (1310) of Anisakis specimens were identified by multilocus allozyme electrophoresis (MAE) and mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis; among these, 814 larvae corresponded to A. simplex (s. s.) and 476 to A. pegreffii. They were found to infect both the flesh and the viscera. The two species co-infected the same individual fish (both in the viscera and in the flesh) from the FAO 27 area, whereas only A. pegreffii was found in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea. The average parasite burden of A. pegreffii in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea was significantly lower to that observed from hake off the Atlantic coast of Spain, both in prevalence and in abundance. In addition, whereas no significant difference in overall prevalence values was recorded between the two Anisakis species in the viscera of the FAO 27 sample, significant differences were found in the abundance levels observed between these species in the flesh, with A. simplex (s. s.) exhibiting significantly higher levels than that observed for A. pegreffii (p<0.001). Given that the pathogenic role in relation to man is known for these two species of

  4. The multidecadal component of the Mediterranean summer variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OrtizBevia, M. J.; RuizdeElvira, A.; Alvarez-Garcia, F. J.; Tasambay-Salazar, M.

    2016-09-01

    This study targets the low frequency components of the anomalous Mediterranean summer climatic variability. This last is characterised here by two indexes obtained from a statistical analysis of Mediterranean sea surface temperature anomalies. The evolution of the first of them, the Western Mediterranean Index, is dominated by a multidecadal timescale. This Index has a strong statistical impact on the summer air temperature anomalies in the European region. In the other index, the Mediterranean Dipole Index, the decadal timescale plays a major part. This last Index is linked to anomalous summer precipitations in some central European regions. A statistical methodology is used in order to identify some feedback relationships between the two Mediterranean indexes and other climate indexes which characterise some global or regional variability. In the case of the Western Mediterranean Index, the analysis reveals significant feedback relationships with two of these indexes. The selected predictors are introduced as variables in a statistical feedback model. The cross-skills scored in a cross-validation hindcast experiment reveals an important potential predictability. In this way, the multidecadal Mediterranean summer sea surface temperature variability appears as the result of two forcings, one related to the north-western Atlantic processes and the other connected to the north tropical Atlantic, and to a weak feedback onto the Atlantic. In the case of the Mediterranean Dipole Mode Index we have not found enough predictive potential in the feedback relationships identified.

  5. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-10-25

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation. In the middle troposphere, Asian and to a lesser extent North American pollution is transported from the west. Additional Asian pollution from the east, transported from the monsoon in the upper troposphere, crosses the Mediterranean tropopause, which pollutes the lower stratosphere at middle latitudes.

  6. Modelling the background aerosol climatologies (1989-2010) for the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Jerez, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Aerosol levels and composition are influenced by multiple atmospheric physico-chemical processes that can affect them from its release point (as primary aerosol), or via gas-to-particle conversion processes that give rise to secondary aerosols. The contribution of the various aerosol sources, the role of long-range transport and the contribution of primary and secondary particulate matter to the ambient aerosol concentrations over Europe are not well known (Kulmala et al., 2009). Focusing on the Mediterranean, Querol et al. (2009) point out that there is a lack of studies on the variability of particulate matter (PM) along the Mediterranean basin, necessary for understanding the special features that differentiate aerosol processes between the western, eastern and central Mediterranean basins. In this perspective, modelling systems based on state-of-science chemistry transport models (CTMs) are fundamental elements to investigate the transport and chemistry of pollutants behaviour at different scales and to assess the impact of emissions in aerosol levels and composition. Therefore, this study aims to summarise the results on the levels and chemical composition of aerosols along the Mediterranean basin, highlighting the marked gradient between the western-central-eastern coasts. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the seasonality of PM composition and levels. For this purpose, the regional modelling system WRF-CHIMERE-EMEP has been implemented for conducting a full transient simulation for the ERA-Interim period (1989-2010) using year-to-year changing EMEP emissions. The domain of study covers Europe with a horizontal resolution of 25 km and a vertical resolution of 23 layers in the troposphere; however the analysis focuses on the Mediterranean area. The PM levels and composition are compared to the measured values reported by the EMEP network, showing a good agreement with observations for both western and eastern Mediterranean. The modelling results for

  7. A new methodology based on littoral community cartography dominated by macroalgae for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Enric; Torras, Xavier; Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Mangialajo, Luisa; de Torres, Mariona

    2007-01-01

    Macroalgae is a biological key element for the assessment of the ecological status in coastal waters in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC). Here we propose a methodology for monitoring water quality based on the cartography of littoral and upper-sublittoral rocky-shore communities (CARLIT, in short). With the use of spatial databases, GIS, and available information about the value of rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality, it is possible to obtain an environmental quality index representative of the ecological status of rocky coasts. This index, which completely fulfils the requirements of the WFD, is expressed as a ratio between the observed values in the sector of shore that is being assessed and the expected value in a reference condition zone with the same substrate and coastal morphology (Ecological Quality Ratio, EQR). The application of this index to the coast of Catalonia (North-Western Mediterranean) is presented.

  8. African dust outbreaks over the Mediterranean Basin during 2001-2011: concentrations, phenomenology and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pey, Jorge; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Forastiere, Franceso; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    -spring in the eastern side, with occurrence of various severe episodes throughout the year. Overall, African dust emerges as the largest PM10 source in regional background southern sites of the Mediterranean (35-50% of PM10), with seasonal peak contributions to PM10 up to 80% of the total mass in the eastern side. The multi-year study of African dust episodes and their contributions to PM10 concentrations displaysa consistent decreasing trend in the period 2006/2007 to 2011 in 4 of the 17 studied regions, all of them located in the NW of the Mediterranean. Such decrease is almost parallel to that of NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) index for the summer period, being progressively more negative since 2006. As a consequence, a sharp change in the atmospheric circulation over the last 5 years (a similar negative NAO period occurred in the 1950 decade) have affected the number of African dust episodes and consequently the annual dust inputs to PM10observed in the NW part of the Mediterranean. By investigating mean temperatures and geopotential height maps at 850hPa it is evident a displacement of warm air masses accomplishing African dust towards the central Mediterranean in the 2007-2008 period, and towards the NW African coast and the Canary Islands in the 2009-2011 period. Acknowledgements This study has been founded by the LIFE programme of the European Commission under the Grant Agreement LIFE10 ENV/IT/327. Partial founding was received from the Autonomous Government of Catalonia and the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment. PM10 data were obtained from EMEP, Airbase and ACTRIS databases. Most of the interpretations were performed thanks to the support of HYSPLIT model, SKIRON, BSC-DREAM and NRL-NAAPS aerosol maps, NCEP/NCAR meteorological database, and image products from MODIS and SeaWiFs NASA satellites.

  9. Molecular and morphological characterisation of two species of the genus Ellipsomyxa Køie, 2003 (Ceratomyxidae) from the gall-bladder of Liza saliens (Risso) off Tunisian coasts of the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Aouatef; Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Mansour, Lamjed

    2016-07-01

    During examination of some species of the family Mugilidae, two coelozoic myxozoans were observed in the gall-bladder of the leaping mullet, Liza saliens (Risso). Spore morphology allowed us to allocate them to the genus Ellipsomyxa Køie, 2003, one of which is described here as new. Ellipsomyxa kalthoumi n. sp. was observed forming globular pseudoplasmodia and free spores floating in the bile. Mature spores are ellipsoidal, measuring 13-21 × 10-15 (17.2 × 13.2) µm and possessing two equal spherical polar capsules, 5-6 (5.5) µm in diameter, opening subterminally in opposite directions, with nine polar filament coils. Morphological data and molecular analysis of the small subunit rDNA sequences helped identify this parasite as a new species of Elliposmyxa. The second species identified as E. mugilis (Sitjà-Bobadilla & Alvarez-Pellitero, 1993) has oval spores with rounded ends, measuring 10-11 × 7-9 (10.5 × 8.0) µm and possessing two polar subspherical capsules, 2.7-3.0 (2.8) µm in diameter, opening subterminally in opposite directions. Spore morphometry and molecular study of the small subunit (SSU) of the rRNA gene identified this species as E. mugilis described from the same host in the Western Mediterranean off Spain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Elliposmyxa as a monophyletic clade and showed that E. mugilis, E. syngnathi Køie & Karlsbakk, 2009, E. adlardi Whipps & Font, 2012 and E. gobii Køie, 2003 group in a subclade containing the Tunisian isolate of E. mugilis whereas E. kalthoumi n. sp. appears in a second subclade together with four Australian species, E. maniliensis Heiniger & Adlard, 2014, E. apogoni Heiniger & Adlard, 2014, E. nigropunctatis Heiniger & Adlard, 2014 and E. arothroni Heiniger & Adlard, 2014. PMID:27307172

  10. Macrogeographical population differentiation in oceanic environments: a case study of European hake (Merluccius merluccius), a commercially important fish.

    PubMed

    Lundy, C J; Moran, P; Rico, C; Milner, R S; Hewitt, G M

    1999-11-01

    Polymorphism at six microsatellite loci was used to study genetic variability and population structure in six geographically distant natural populations of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L.). Four hundred and eighty-three individuals were sampled from Trondheimsfjord in Norway, the Celtic Sea, the southern Bay of Biscay, Faro off Portugal, the Mediterranean Sea north of the coast of Tunisia and the Adriatic Sea. Population subdivision was found between Mediterranean and Atlantic samples, theta = 0.029 (P < 0. 001). No substructuring was found between samples within the Mediterranean Sea, theta = 0.003 and RST = 0.007 (P > 0.05). The Atlantic population structure appears to be more complex than previously suggested by the placement of stock boundaries by the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES). Analyses based on various models of microsatellite evolution all suggest that differentiation exists between Bay of Biscay and Portugese samples, theta = 0.013 (P < 0.001), RST = 0.036 (P < 0. 001) which are currently managed as one stock. By contrast, fixation indices indicated no differentiation between southern Bay of Biscay samples and Celtic Sea samples, theta = 0.003 (P = 0.02), phiST = 0. 007 (P = 0.10) which are managed as separate stocks. These results suggest that if the observed trends are stable through time, current management policy of European hake may need revision. PMID:10620232

  11. Crust and upper mantle of the western Mediterranean - Constraints from full-waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    We present a full-waveform tomographic model of the western Mediterranean crust and mantle constructed from complete three-component recordings from permanent and temporary networks. The incorporation of body and multi-mode surface waves in the period range from 12-150 s allows us to jointly resolve crustal and mantle structures, including the Guadalquivir, Tajo and Ebro basins at shallow depth, as well as the western Mediterranean subduction system in the transition zone. No mantle plumes can be detected beneath the European Cenozoic rift system, including the Massif Central. In addition to the well-studied Alboran slab, a strong E-W trending high-velocity anomaly is present around 200-300 km depth beneath the Algerian coast. This previously undetected African slab is detached from the surface and broken into two segments. It may be interpreted as the slab that caused the opening of the Liguro-Provençal basin through successive roll-back between 35-15 Ma.

  12. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  13. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  14. The east-west-north colonization history of the Mediterranean and Europe by the coastal plant Carex extensa (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Escudero, M; Vargas, P; Arens, P; Ouborg, N J; Luceño, M

    2010-01-01

    Coastal plants are ideal models for studying the colonization routes of species because of the simple linear distributions of these species. Carex extensa occurs mainly in salt marshes along the Mediterranean and European coasts. Variation in cpDNA sequences, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of 24 populations were analysed to reconstruct its colonization history. Phylogenetic relationships indicate that C. extensa together with the South American Carex vixdentata and the southern African Carex ecklonii form a monophyletic group of halophilic species. Analyses of divergence times suggest that early lineage diversification may have occurred between the late Miocene and the late Pliocene (Messinian crisis). Phylogenetic and network analyses of cpDNA variation revealed the monophyly of the species and an ancestral haplotype contained in populations of the eastern Mediterranean. The AFLP and SSR analyses support a pattern of variation compatible with these two lineages. These analyses also show higher levels of genetic diversity and differentiation in the eastern population group, which underwent an east-to-west Mediterranean colonization. Quaternary climatic oscillations appear to have been responsible for the split between these two lineages. Secondary contacts may have taken place in areas near the Ligurian Sea in agreement with the gene flow detected in Corsican populations. The AFLP and SSR data accord with the 'tabula rasa' hypothesis in which a recent and rapid colonization of northern Europe took place from the western Mediterranean after the Last Glacial Maximum. The unbalanced west-east vs. west-north colonization may be as a result of 'high density blocking' effect.

  15. Heavy metals in different fishes from the middle eastern coast in Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza-Chaffai, A.; Romeo, M.; Abed, E.A.

    1996-05-01

    Considerable information has been reported on trace metal concentrations of various fishes in the Mediterranean area, but there is a lack of data in the concentrations of trace metals in fishes from the southern Mediterranean. For this reason, work was done to establish a baseline of heavy metal concentrations on fishes from the coast of Sfax (middle eastern coast of Tunisia). This coast has been industrialized for many years. Nevertheless, touristic activities have been developing for the last years. This study examines the accumulation pattern of copper, cadmium, and zinc in individual organs (muscle, liver and gonad) of fishes. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Soil erosion modelling of the Mediterranean basin in the context of land use and climate changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdan, Olivier; Desprats, Jean-François; Fouché, Julien; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Cheviron, Bruno; Simonneaux, Vincent; Raclot, Damien; Mouillot, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Hydric erosion is one of the major causes of soil degradation. It results from the interaction of several parameters which vary in space and time. Global warming and the land use changes expected during the 21st century are going to influence the soils deterioration and the erosion processes. In order to protect the soil resource under the current bioclimatic context and prevent the future consequences, it is essential to apprehend the erosion risk. Many studies developed the soil erosion risk modelling at various scales from regional to European scale. The MESOEROS project is the first which aims to understand the soil loss risk on the whole Mediterranean basin for the current climate context and also for the predicting climate changes expected for the 21st century. Two models are used: MESALES (expert rules model) and PESERA (physical based model). Both provide the soil erosion risk into five classes. Model inputs, soils properties (crusting and erodibility), climate data, DEM and land use data, come from the most recent and validated datasets, homogenised on the whole study area. After being calibrated with watersheds data and the PESERA modelling on Europe, the two modelling results are analysed. Both MESALES and PESERA present an erosion risk contrast around the Mediterranean basin. MESALES estimates Italia, Andalusia, Catalan and Aragon regions, western part of Greece and Balkan region as threatened areas while PESERA models the arable region of Castellan y Leon, Near East and the high atlas range in Morocco as subjected to an erosion risk. The two methods model parts of northern Morocco, centre and European part of Turkey, Lebanon and northern Portugal at risk while southern France, Libyan coasts and southern Greece are never threatened. Analyses of the parameter influences on the models and the modelling validation allow understanding the integration of climate change on modelling results. MESALES and PESERA point out an evolution of the soil erosion risk

  17. Eutrophication and environmental policy in the Mediterranean Sea: a review.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2012-08-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semienclosed basin connected with the open sea mainly through the Strait of Gibraltar. Due to the circulation pattern and the long residence time ranging between 80 and 100 years, the Mediterranean Sea is a sensitive environment to eutrophication pressures. The main body of water of the Mediterranean is characterized by very low nutrient concentrations, and therefore, the Mediterranean is classified among the most oligotrophic (very poor waters in nutrients) seas of the world's oceans. However, some coastal areas, mainly in the northern part of the basin, receive excessive loads of nutrients from sewage effluents, river fluxes, aquaculture farms, fertilizers, and industrial facilities, showing intense eutrophic phenomena with many adverse effects for the marine ecosystem and humans. Various national and international authorities, in addition to monitoring, have taken legal and administrative measures to mitigate eutrophication trends in the area. The Mediterranean environment is a good paradigm of integration of extensive legal framework, scientific knowledge, and administrative practices. The Barcelona Convention, the Mediterranean Action Plan, and European Union Directives on water quality and coastal management, together with scientific information derived from international research programs in the Mediterranean, provide a sound background for practical actions in eutrophication problems. In the present work, the problem of coastal eutrophication in the Mediterranean is reviewed in connection with public policies of the Mediterranean States based on national and international legislation and scientific knowledge on Mediterranean oceanography-ecology and actions coordinated by international bodies. These common actions and practices on coastal management are also discussed in relation to the need for sustainable development and protection of the coastal zone in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21956336

  18. Eutrophication and environmental policy in the Mediterranean Sea: a review.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2012-08-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semienclosed basin connected with the open sea mainly through the Strait of Gibraltar. Due to the circulation pattern and the long residence time ranging between 80 and 100 years, the Mediterranean Sea is a sensitive environment to eutrophication pressures. The main body of water of the Mediterranean is characterized by very low nutrient concentrations, and therefore, the Mediterranean is classified among the most oligotrophic (very poor waters in nutrients) seas of the world's oceans. However, some coastal areas, mainly in the northern part of the basin, receive excessive loads of nutrients from sewage effluents, river fluxes, aquaculture farms, fertilizers, and industrial facilities, showing intense eutrophic phenomena with many adverse effects for the marine ecosystem and humans. Various national and international authorities, in addition to monitoring, have taken legal and administrative measures to mitigate eutrophication trends in the area. The Mediterranean environment is a good paradigm of integration of extensive legal framework, scientific knowledge, and administrative practices. The Barcelona Convention, the Mediterranean Action Plan, and European Union Directives on water quality and coastal management, together with scientific information derived from international research programs in the Mediterranean, provide a sound background for practical actions in eutrophication problems. In the present work, the problem of coastal eutrophication in the Mediterranean is reviewed in connection with public policies of the Mediterranean States based on national and international legislation and scientific knowledge on Mediterranean oceanography-ecology and actions coordinated by international bodies. These common actions and practices on coastal management are also discussed in relation to the need for sustainable development and protection of the coastal zone in the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Grandidierella bonnieroides Stephensen, 1948 (Amphipoda, Aoridae)-first record of an established population in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Iaciofano, Davide; Lubinevsky, Hadas; Galil, Bella S

    2016-01-01

    The first record in the Mediterranean Sea of the invasive aorid amphipod crustacean Grandidierella bonnieroides is presented. A widespread circumtropical species, recorded off the Saudi coast of the Arabian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Suez Canal, it may have been introduced into the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal. This tube-builder species of soft bottoms recently established a population in the polluted Haifa Bay, Israel. Further, this is the first Mediterranean record of the genus. PMID:27394471

  20. Grandidierella bonnieroides Stephensen, 1948 (Amphipoda, Aoridae)-first record of an established population in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Iaciofano, Davide; Lubinevsky, Hadas; Galil, Bella S

    2016-03-17

    The first record in the Mediterranean Sea of the invasive aorid amphipod crustacean Grandidierella bonnieroides is presented. A widespread circumtropical species, recorded off the Saudi coast of the Arabian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Suez Canal, it may have been introduced into the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal. This tube-builder species of soft bottoms recently established a population in the polluted Haifa Bay, Israel. Further, this is the first Mediterranean record of the genus.

  1. Consensus Document on Intermittent Claudication from the Central European Vascular Forum (C.E.V.F.)-3rd revision (2013) with the sharing of the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, and the North Africa and Middle East Chapter of International Union of Angiology.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, G M; Kalodiki, E; L Gašpar, L; Martini, R; Minar, E; Angelides, N; Nicolaides, A N; Novo, S; Visonà, A; Prior, M; Arosio, E; Hussein, E A; Poredos, P; Antignani, P L; Avram, R; Roztocil, K; Stvrtinova, V; Kozak, M; Vacula, I

    2014-08-01

    This paper is the review of the Consensus Document on Intermittent Claudication of the Central European Vascular Forum (CEVF), published in 2008, and and shared with the North Africa and Middle East Chapter of International Union of Angiology and the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery. The Document presents suggestions for general practitioners and vascular specialists for more precise and appropriate management of PAD, particularly of intermittent claudication, and underlines the investigations that should be required by GPs and what the GP should expect from the vascular specialist (angiologist, vascular surgeon). The idea of the Faculty is to produce a short document, which is an easy reference in daily clinical practice, both for the GPs and vascular specialists.

  2. Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijewski, T.; Śmietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2011-02-01

    The genetic constitution of mussels ( Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction between the Black Sea and Mediterranean populations and a higher incidence of M. trossulus than reported so far in northern European populations. The frequency of M. galloprovincialis nuclear alleles was high along the Iberian Peninsula and decreased abruptly along the French coasts with a high frequency of M. edulis alleles in the Bay of Biscay, The Netherlands, Germany, Iceland, Barents and White Seas, and with little evidence of introgression between the two taxa. M. trossulus alleles were observed in the Baltic Sea and Danish Straits as expected. In addition, occurrence of M. trossulus alleles in cold waters of Iceland, Barents Sea and White Sea is reported for the first time.

  3. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:24114475

  4. Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dando, P. R.; Stüben, D.; Varnavas, S. P.

    1999-08-01

    Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea results from the collision of the African and European plates, with the subduction of the oceanic part of the African plate below Europe. High heat flows in the resulting volcanic arcs and back-arc extensional areas have set-up hydrothermal convection systems. Most of the known hydrothermal sites are in shallow coastal waters, <200 m depth, so that much of the reported fluid venting is of the gasohydrothermal type. The hydrothermal liquids are of varying salinities, both because of phase separation as a result of seawater boiling at the low pressures and because of significant inputs of rainfall into the hydrothermal reservoirs at some sites. The major component of the vented gas is carbon dioxide, with significant quantities of sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, methane and hydrogen also being released. Acid leaching of the underlying rocks leads to the mobilisation of heavy metals, many of which are deposited sub-surface although there is a conspicuous enrichment of metals in surficial sediments in venting areas. Massive polymetalic sulphides have been reported from some sites. No extant vent-specific fauna have been described from Mediterranean sites. There is a reduced diversity of fauna within the sediments at the vents. In contrast, a high diversity of epifauna has been reported and the vent sites are areas of settlement for exotic thermophilic species. Large numbers of novel prokaryotes, especially hyperthermophilic crenarchaeota, have been isolated from Mediterranean hydrothermal vents. However, their distribution in the subsurface biosphere and their role in the biogeochemistry of the sites has yet to be studied.

  5. The European coastal zone: characterization and first assessment of ecosystem metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeau, Frédéric; Smith, Stephen V.; Gentili, Bernard; Frankignoulle, Michel; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2004-08-01

    The geomorphic, oceanographic, terrestrial and anthropogenic attributes of the European coastal zone are described and published data on ecosystem function (primary production and respiration) are reviewed. Four regions are considered: the Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the European Atlantic coast including the North Sea. The metabolic database (194 papers) suffers from a non-homogeneous geographical coverage with no usable data for the Black Sea which was therefore excluded from this part of our study. Pelagic gross primary production in European open shelves is, by far, the most documented parameter with an estimated mean of 41 mmol C m -2 d -1, the lowest value is reported in the Mediterranean Sea (21 mmol C m -2 d -1) and the highest one in the Atlantic/North Sea area (51 mmol C m -2 d -1). Microphytobenthic primary production, mostly measured in shallow areas, is extrapolated to the entire 0-200 m depth range. Its contribution to total primary production is low in all regions (mean: 1.5 mmol C m -2 d -1). Although macrophyte beds are very productive, a regional production estimate is not provided in this study because their geographical distribution along the European coastline remains unknown. Measurements of pelagic community respiration are clearly too sparse, especially below the euphotic zone, to yield an accurate picture of the fate of organic matter produced in the water column. With a mean value of 17 mmol C m -2 d -1, benthic community respiration consumes approximately 40% of the pelagic organic matter production. Estuaries generally exhibit high metabolic rates and a large range of variation in all parameters, except microphytobenthic primary production. Finally, the problem of eutrophication in Europe is discussed and the metabolic data obtained in the framework of the Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) project are compared with available direct measurements of net ecosystem production.

  6. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  7. Mineral dust deposition in Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Bergmatti, Gilles; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Chevaillier, Servanne; Roulet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; Siour, Guillaume; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Massanet, Ana; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Di Sarra, Giogio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Dulac, François; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    North African deserts are the world's largest sources of atmospheric mineral dust produced by aeolian erosion. Saharan dust is frequently transported toward Europe over the Mediterranean basin. When deposited in oceanic areas, mineral dust can constitute a key input of nutrients bioavailable for the oceanic biosphere. For instance, Saharan dust deposited in the in the Mediterranean Sea can be a significant source of nutrient like Fe, P and N during summer and autumn. Our objective is to study the deposition Saharan mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin and to improve how deposition processes are parameterized in 3D regional models. To quantify the deposition flux of Saharan dust in the western Mediterranean region a specific collector (CARAGA) to sample automatically the insoluble atmospheric particle deposition was developed (LISA-ICARE) and a network of CARAGA collectors have been set up. Since 2011, eight CARAGA are then deployed in Frioul, Casset, Montandon and Ersa in France, Mallorca and Granada in Spain, Lampedusa in Italia, and Medenine in Tunisia, along a South-North gradient of almost 2000km from the North African coast to the South of Europe. We observe 10 well identified dust Saharan deposition events at Lampedusa and 6 at Mallorca for a 1-yr sampling period. These dust events are sporadic and the South-North gradient of deposition intensity and frequency is observed (the highest dust mass sampled at the stations are : 2,66 g.m-2 at Lampedusa ; 0,54 g.m-2 at Majorque ; 0,33 g.m-2 at Frioul ; 0,16 g.m-2 at Casset). The ability of the CHIMERE model to reproduce the deposition measurements is tested. The mineral dust plumes simulated over the western Mediterranean basin are also compared to satellite observations (OMI, MODIS) and in-situ measurements performed during the ChArMEx campaign and in the AERONET stations.

  8. Adapting Coastal State Indicators to end-users: the iCoast Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarchi, Alessandro; Isotta Cristofori, Elena; Gracia, Vicente; Sairouní, Abdel; García-León, Manuel; Cámaro, Walther; Facello, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The extraordinary development of the built environment and of the population densities in the coastal areas are making coastal communities highly exposed. The sea level rise induced by climate change will worsen this coastal vulnerability scenario and a considerable amount of people are expected to be threatened by coastal flooding in the future. Due to the increasing number of catastrophic events, and the consequent increased number of damages and people affected, over the last decades coastal hazard management has become a fundamental activity in order to improve the resilience of coastal community. In this scenario, iCoast (integrated COastal Alert SysTem) project has been founded to develop a tool able to address coastal risks caused by extreme waves and high sea water levels in European coastal areas. In the framework of iCoast Project, a set of Coastal State Indicators (CSIs) has been developed in order to improve the forecasting and the assessment of coastal risks. CSIs are indeed parameters able to provide end-users with an essential information about coastal hazards and related impacts. Within the iCoast Project, following a comprehensive literature review about existing indicators concerning coastal risks, a list of CSIs have been chosen as parameters that can be derived from the meteorological and the hydrodynamic modules. They include both physical variables used as trigger for meteorological and flood warnings from the majority of the operational National/Regional warning systems and further essential parameters, so called 'storm integrated' coastal-storm indicators, able to describe the physical processes that drive coastal damages, such as erosion, accumulation, flooding, destructions. Nowadays, it is generally acknowledged that communities are not homogenous and hence their different vulnerable groups might need different warnings. Generally, even existing national EWS in developed countries are often ineffective to issue targeted warnings for

  9. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role.

  10. Alkylphenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in eastern Mediterranean Spanish coastal marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, Alberto; Aguado, Daniel; Martí, Nuria; Pastor, José Manuel; Herráez, Rosa; Campins, Pilar; Seco, Aurora

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports the first results on alkylphenol pollution in edible bivalves from the Spanish coast. Two sampling campaigns (July 2006 and July 2007) were carried out to determine the concentration of nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialys) and clams (Donax trunculus) at 14 sampling sites along the eastern Mediterranean Spanish coast. The results show that NP is the predominant alkylphenol, being the port of Valencia the most polluted area (up to 147 μg/kg wet weight in clams). Moving away from the ports the concentration of NP in bivalves decreased. OP concentration was below its detection limit in most of the studied areas and its maximum concentration (6 μg/kg w/w) was measured in clams from the port of Sagunto. The presence of low levels of PAHs was observed in most of the studied areas. The total PAHs concentration (i.e., sum of the eight measured PAHs) achieved a maximum value of 10.09 μg/kg w/w in the north coast of Valencia city. The distribution pattern of the individual PAHs showed that both pollution sources petrogenic and pyrolytic were present in the sampled areas. Fluoranthene was the most abundant PAH in mussels while benzo(b)fluoranthene in clams. The maximum concentration of 10 μg/kg w/w for benzo(a)pyrene established by the European Commission was never reached, indeed sampled bivalves showed concentrations 10 times lower than this reference value. Thus, they can be considered safe for human consumption. Despite the low contamination levels, the results show an overall pollution of bivalves by alkylphenol and PAHs as well as an increment in the number of polluted areas from 2006 to 2007. Thus, periodical sampling campaigns should be carried out to monitor the long-term tendency of these toxic and persistent pollutants.

  11. Pan-African - Mediterranean Migrations: Implications for Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Diane Brook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine features of the contemporary migrant and refugee flows across Africa northward to the Mediterranean and then to European countries (sometimes called the "new mass migration" and also migrant flows southward to South Africa. In addition, the purpose was to examine dimensions of response and adaptation in…

  12. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  13. Towards an operational use of space imagery for oil pollution monitoring in the Mediterranean basin: a demonstration in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Guido; Bernardini, Annalia; David, Matej; Meyer-Roux, Serge; Muellenhoff, Oliver; Perkovic, Marko; Tarchi, Dario; Topouzelis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Studies of operational pollution carried out by European commission - Joint Research Centre in the Mediterranean Sea for the years 1999-2004 are briefly introduced. The specific analysis of the Adriatic Sea for the same period demonstrates that this area has been characterized by a relevant number of illegal discharges from ships. After setting the historical background of the project AESOP (aerial and satellite surveillance of operational pollution in the Adriatic Sea), the content, partners and aim of the project are presented. Finally, the results of the first phase of the AESOP project are presented. The results seem very encouraging. For the first time in the Adriatic, real time detection of oil spills in satellite images and an immediate verification by the Coast Guard has been undertaken. An exploratory activity has also been carried out in collaboration with the University of Ljubljana to use automatic information system (AIS) to identify the ships detected in the satellite images.

  14. Diversity of magnetotactic bacteria from a French pristine Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Fuduche, Maxime; Postec, Anne; Davidson, Sylvain; Chauvin, Jean-Paul; Galès, Grégoire; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Ollivier, Bernard; Wu, Long-Fei; Pradel, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize intracellular magnetite and/or greigite magnetosome crystals. They play a significant role in both iron and sulfur cycles in sedimentary aquatic environments. To get insight into the bio-geochemical contribution of MTB, more studies concerning their ecology and their distribution in diverse habitats are necessary. The MTB community of an oil-industry polluted area of the French Mediterranean coast has been previously investigated. Here, we investigate the MTB community from coastal sediments of a Mediterranean pristine area using optical and transmission electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. A particularly high diversity of MTB was observed, with cocci phylogenetically distributed across the order Magnetococcales, including a novel cluster with sequences from the Mediterranean Sea designated as "Med group", and novel morphotypes. PMID:25487117

  15. Numerical reconstruction of trajectory of small-size surface drifter in the Mediterranean sea. Reconstruction of surface drift in the Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchekinova, Elena Y.; Kumkar, Yogesh; Coppini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we addressed the effects of wind-induced drift on Lagrangian trajectories of surface sea objects using high-resolution ocean forecast and atmospheric data. Application of stochastic Leeway model for prediction of trajectories drift was considered for the numerical reconstruction of the Elba accident that occurred during the period 21.06.2009-22.06.2009: a person on an inflatable raft was lost in the vicinity of the Elba Island coast; from the initial position, the person on a raft drifted southwards in the open sea and later he was found on a partially deflated raft during rescue operation. For geophysical forcing, we used high-resolution currents from the Mediterranean Forecasting System and atmospheric wind from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. To investigate the effect of wind on trajectory behavior, numerical simulations were performed using different categories of drifter-like particles similar to a person on an inflatable raft. An algorithm of spatial clustering was used to differentiate the most probable search areas with a high density of particles. Our results showed that the simulation scenarios using particles with characteristics of draft-limited sea drifters provided better prediction of an observed trajectory in terms of the probability density of particles.

  16. Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangoiti, Gotzon; Millán, Millán M.; Salvador, Rosa; Mantilla, Enrique

    During the warm season (March-September), high ozone concentrations have been reported at the coastal and mountain monitoring stations of the eastern Iberia coast (Millán et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D7) 8811, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4 (2000) 487). The vegetation protection threshold of current Directive 92/72/EEC and the World Health Organisation guideline for the protection of crops and semi-natural vegetation are systematically exceeded during the whole period. The main objective of the present study is to search for the origin of these chronic pollution levels: to search for the reason(s) for such high O 3 concentrations during such a long period. A mesoscale model is used to reproduce the diurnal cycle of winds and stability/layering over the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB), at a sufficient space/temporal resolution, under a typical recursive synoptic condition during the warm season: data from the flight tracks of the European Project—Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area—are used to substantiate the model results. Times of residence and the final distribution of pollutants entering the WMB are estimated using single-particle Lagrangian trajectories and a multiple-particle dispersion model. Our results show that the marine boundary layer and the lower troposphere in the region between the Balearic Islands and eastern Iberia are subject to a flow regime that tends to accumulate pollutants within large circulations, covering the entire western basin. We have also shown a diurnal pulsation of the Tramontana/Mistral wind regime, which can transport new pollutants into the area (background concentrations of 50-65 ppb of O 3 of continental European origin) that are added to local emissions and re-circulated within the coastal breezes at eastern Iberia for periods of more than five days. Local emissions and wind configuration contribute to increase the O 3 concentrations up to 100 ppb and even more.

  17. Seasonality of Arctic Mediterranean Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieper, Christoph; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Mediterranean communicates through a number of passages with the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Most of the volume exchange happens at the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge: warm and saline Atlantic Water flows in at the surface, cold, dense Overflow Water flows back at the bottom and fresh and cold Polar Water flows out along the East Greenland coast. All surface inflows show a seasonal signal whereas only the outflow through the Faroe Bank Channel exhibits significant seasonality. Here we present a quantification of the seasonal cycle of the exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland ridge based on volume estimates of the in- and outflows within the last 20 years (ADCP and altimetry). Our approach is comparatistic: we compare different properties of the seasonal cycle like the strength or the phase between the different in- and outflows. On the seasonal time scale the in- and outflows across the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge are not balanced. The net flux thus has to be balanced by the other passages on the Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait as well as runoff from land.

  18. Tsunami hazard and vulnerability assessment for the south coast of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Georgiou, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The island of Cyprus is situated in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Anatolian peninsula and is the third largest island in the Mediterranean. In this area tectonic setting is complex and as yet not fully understood. Dominant here are three major tectonic structures, namely the Hellenic arc, the Cyprian arc and the Levantine rift. The Hellenic Arc has the highest tsunamigenic potential with capability of producing destructive regional tsunamis, like the one that occurred in 1303 following a large earthquake near East Crete. The Levantine rift is associated with several tsunamis, mostly but not exclusively local, as shown in the tsunami catalog by Fokaefs and Papadopoulos (2007), but it is tectonically unfavorable to tsunami generation since it is located inland and is marked by faults with predominant strike-slip mechanism (Ryan et al., 2005). The Cyprian Arc runs near the southern coast of the island and can be an important source of tsunamis. In the frame of the European project NearToWarn that is focused on near-shore tsunami generation in the Mediterranean sea, the Cyprian arc is considered as a study area. By means of the fault database compiled in the course of a previous project called TRANSFER, tsunamigenic sources along the arc are taken into account. The most relevant one results to be the Limassol fault that is placed some km off South-West Cyprus striking more or less parallel to the coast. The hazard assessment is carried out by using the worst credible-case scenario technique, that is known to be the most appropriate when tsunami data are insufficient for the application of a probabilistic analysis. For numerical simulations we use the tsunami code UBO-TSUFD allowing one to compute run-up and inundation focused on given target areas with high space resolution by multiple grid nesting. The paper chief interest is on the southern coast of Cyprus, that is the most affected according to historical reports and one of the most

  19. Evidence of ocean circulation change from European eel remains in archaeological and palaeontological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A.; Heinrich, D.; Barrett, J. H.; Benecke, N.; Locker, A.

    2009-04-01

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) spawns in the Sargasso Sea and depends on the Gulf Stream/North Atlantic Drift to complete its larval migration to the coasts of Europe and North Africa. The spatial distribution of the fish was very different in historic and prehistoric times in comparison to the present. A database of the spatial and temporal distribution of eel remains in archaeological and palaeontological sites is presented and used to assess the spatial distribution of populations from the height of the last glacial maximum. The results show that the eel was absent from northern Europe until about 11000 years ago. The reason was probably due to a southerly displacement of the Gulf Stream carrying the larval migration from the Sargasso Sea. However, additional factors preventing eel populations in northern Europe may have also been the colder temperatures in the Arctic tundra landscape that existed at the time and the extreme distance to the European Atlantic coast along the Channel River. The archaeological record shows that eels were absent from the Baltic Sea until about 6700 cal BC, but there is some indication of an earlier presence during Yoldia Sea stage at the beginning of the Holocene. Only in southern Europe south of the Gironde river basin were eel populations maintained through the last glaciation. The species may have survived the last glaciation in a relatively restricted area in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast of western Europe. Published palaeontological and genetic information gives important insights into climatic, geologic, and tectonic events on longer time scales.

  20. Past distributions of the European freshwater eel from archaeological and palaeontological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.; Heinrich, D.; Barrett, J. H.; Benecke, N.; Locker, A.

    2008-07-01

    The spatial distribution of the European freshwater eel ( Anguilla anguilla) was very different in historic and prehistoric times in comparison to the present. A database of the spatial and temporal distribution of eel remains in archaeological and palaeontological sites is presented and used to assess the spatial distribution of populations from the height of the last glacial maximum. The results show that the eel was absent from northern Europe until about 11 000 years ago. The reason was probably a southerly displacement of the Gulf Stream carrying the larval migration from the Sargasso Sea. However, additional factors preventing eel populations in northern Europe may have also been the colder temperatures in the Arctic tundra landscape that existed at the time and the extreme distance to the European Atlantic coast along the Channel River. The archaeological record shows that eels were absent from the Baltic Sea until about 6700 cal BC, but there is some indication of an earlier presence during the Yoldia Sea stage at the beginning of the Holocene. Only in southern Europe south of the Gironde river basin were eel populations maintained through the last glaciation. The species may have survived the last glaciation in a relatively restricted area in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast of western Europe. Published palaeontological and genetic information gives important insights into climatic, geologic, and tectonic events on longer time scales. The oldest subfossil remains from Pleistocene sediments in northern Europe are approaching the age of the estimated genetic divergence of the European and American eel populations, and hence the species identity of the oldest subfossil remains may be ambiguous.

  1. Exploring the borders of European Phragmites within a cosmopolitan genus

    PubMed Central

    Lambertini, Carla; Sorrell, Brian K.; Riis, Tenna; Olesen, Birgit; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Two Phragmites australis taxa are recognized in Europe: P. australis ssp. altissimus, also known as Phragmites isiaca, in the Mediterranean region and P. australis in the temperate region. Another taxonomic group in the Mediterranean is Phragmites frutescens. European genotypes are diverse genetically, cytologically and morphologically, and are related to African, Asiatic and American genotypes. We investigated chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in Europe and defined the current borders of the European gene pool. Methodology We analysed chloroplast variation with parsimony and genetic distance methods, and compared it with that of nuclear amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellites. We also investigated the phenological pattern of 188 genotypes collected worldwide in a common garden in Denmark. We assumed that non-flowering genotypes could indicate climatic, geographic and/or reproductive barriers to dispersal and would have been recorded in the genetic pattern as groups genetically isolated from, or within, the European pool. Principal results The European P. australis gene pool extends from North America to the Far East and South Africa. However, African and North American genotypes are differentiating from the European genotypes. Mediterranean P. australis is genetically different from temperate P. australis and shares several similarities with Phragmites mauritianus in Africa and Phragmites karka in Asia. Phragmites frutescens shares the cpDNA sequences with both these tropical species. Two DNA bands can distinguish Mediterranean P. australis from P. frutescens and P. mauritianus and from temperate P. australis, and reveal possible hybrids among these species in the Mediterranean region. Phenological data confirmed possible gene flow within the temperate region of Europe, whereas the Mediterranean genotypes did not set inflorescences in Denmark, suggesting reproductive barriers between temperate and Mediterranean P. australis

  2. Climate change and drought risk management in Mediterranean watersheds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Maia, R.; Garrido, A.; Hoerling, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    As a result of major droughts and floods over the past two decades, the European Union has expressed major concerns regarding climate change impacts on the resilience of ecosystems and water resources. The EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for action in the field of water olicy committing European Union member states to achieve develop integrated watershed management plans and improve the quality of water bodies by 2015. Key to meeting these goals are understanding and planning for changes in extreme events, groundwater and surface water changes, and the level of integrated water resources management infrastructure. In the northern European basins, water shortages are mostly offset by irrigation systems. This is not the case for southern basins in the Mediterranean (e.g. Guadiana, Ebro, Po), where water supply systems are already stressed, and where socioeconomic losses due to droughts are more significant. Precipitation variability in the Mediterranean basin is characterized by substantial interdecadal variations and long-term trends. This paper presents an assessment of climate and the socioeconomic impacts of drought in the Mediterranean basin including the factors that determine the vulnerability of different sectors to the risks posed by climate change. The studies are based on two projects in which the authors are involved: the European Commission funded PREEMPT project 'Policy-relevant assessment of the socio-economic effects of droughts and floods' and 'Development of methodologies for integration of climate change on water resources managements for the Guadiana Basin', that analyze drought events, economic losses, risk management efforts and the prospect for adaptation. Studies show that the land area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has experienced 10 of the 12 driest winters since 1902 in just the last 20 years. A change in wintertime Mediterranean precipitation toward drier conditions has likely occurred over 1902-2010. Anthropogenic

  3. VI European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics has reached the sixth edition, marking the tenth year's anniversary. The spirit of the school is to provide a very important occasion for a deep education of young researchers about the main topics of experimental nuclear astrophysics. Moreover, it should be regarded as a forum for the discussion of the last-decade research activity. Lectures are focused on various aspects of primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, including novel experimental approaches and detectors, indirect methods and radioactive ion beams. Moreover, in order to give a wide educational offer, some lectures cover complementary subjects of nuclear astrophysics such as gamma ray astronomy, neutron-induced reactions, short-lived radionuclides, weak interaction and cutting-edge facilities used to investigate nuclear reactions of interest for astrophysics. Large room is also given to young researcher oral contributions. Traditionally, particular attention is devoted to the participation of students from less-favoured countries, especially from the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The school is organised by the Catania Nuclear Astrophysics research group with the collaboration of Dipartimento di Fisica e Astromomia - Università di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare.

  4. Wave ensemble forecast in the Western Mediterranean Sea, application to an early warning system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallares, Elena; Hernandez, Hector; Moré, Jordi; Espino, Manuel; Sairouni, Abdel

    2015-04-01

    between the 5th and the 8th day of the prediction. The information obtained is then included in an early warning system, designed in the framework of the European project iCoast (ECHO/SUB/2013/661009) with the aim of set alarms in coastal areas depending on the wave conditions, the sea level, the flooding and the run up in the coast.

  5. Eutrophication and some European waters of restricted exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tett, Paul; Gilpin, Linda; Svendsen, Harald; Erlandsson, Carina P.; Larsson, Ulf; Kratzer, Susanne; Fouilland, Eric; Janzen, Carol; Lee, Jae-Young; Grenz, Christian; Newton, Alice; Ferreira, João Gomes; Fernandes, Teresa; Scory, Serge

    2003-11-01

    Regions of Restricted Exchange (RREs) are an important feature of the European coastline. They are historically preferred sites for human settlement and aquaculture and their ecosystems, and consequent human use, may be at risk from eutrophication. The OAERRE project (EVK3-CT1999-0002) concerns 'Oceanographic Applications to Eutrophication in Regions of Restricted Exchange'. It began in July 2000, and studies six sites. Four of these sites are fjords: Kongsfjorden (west coast of Spitzbergen); Gullmaren (Skagerrak coast of Sweden); Himmerfjärden (Baltic coast of Sweden); and the Firth of Clyde (west coast of Scotland). Two are bays sheltered by sand bars: Golfe de Fos (French Mediterranean); and Ria Formosa (Portuguese Algarve). Together they exemplify a range of hydrographic and enrichment conditions. The project aims to understand the physical, biogeochemical and biological processes, and their interactions, that determine the trophic status of these coastal marine RRE through the development of simple screening models to define, predict and assess eutrophication. This paper introduces the sites and describes the component parts of a basic screening model and its application to each site using historical data. The model forms the starting point for the OAERRE project and views an RRE as a well-mixed box, exchanging with the sea at a daily rate E determined by physical processes, and converting nutrient to phytoplankton chlorophyll at a fixed yield q. It thus uses nutrient levels to estimate maximum biomass; these preliminary results are discussed in relation to objective criteria used to assess trophic status. The influence of factors such as grazing and vertical mixing on key parameters in the screening model are further studied using simulations of a complex 'research' model for the Firth of Clyde. The future development of screening models in general and within OAERRE in particular is discussed. In addition, the paper looks ahead with a broad discussion of

  6. Barotropic coastal currents in the Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Piacsek, S.A.; Allard, R.

    1994-12-31

    In the winter-spring season many areas of the Mediterranean become weakly stratified and in shallow areas nearly homogeneous, thus increasing the barotropic contribution of the wind-driven circulation. Furthermore, the sea level changes and flows through the straits are strongly coupled to the atmospheric pressure changes over diurnal and weekly time scales, such flows being predominantly barotropic. An added impetus to revisit the barotropic response is the recent availability of synoptic winds and pressure fields with 45 km resolution. In this paper the authors have studied the barotropic response with a 1-layer free surface numerical model for the period September 1992 to April 1993 with 6-hourly synoptic winds. The model and topography resolution was 3.5 km, and the coefficient of horizontal friction was varied between 10 and 50m{sup 2}/sec. Emphasis is on flows near coasts and in straits.

  7. The Vertical Structure, Sources, and Evolution of Aerosols in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Greg; Bourrianne, Thierry; Léon, Jean-François; Pont, Véronique; Mallet, Marc; Lambert, Dominique; Augustin, Patrick; Dulac, François; Junkermann, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The VESSAER campaign (VErtical Structure and Sources of AERosols in the Mediterranean Region) was designed to characterize the different sources of aerosol in the Mediterranean Basin and assess the regional impact of aerosol on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. VESSAER was conducted on an ultra-light aircraft in summer 2012. Research activities included ground-based observations in the central and northern regions of Corsica, as well as aerosol lidar and sunphotometer measurements near the eastern coast. The main scientific goals were to investigate local versus long-range sources of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their vertical stratification in the lower troposphere, study evolution and ageing due to atmospheric processes, and determine aerosol direct radiative impacts over a larger spatial scale. The background aerosol concentrations (D > 0.01 um) within the boundary layer in Corsica were nearly 2000 cm^-3 and increased to ca. 104 cm^-3 during pollution events when back-trajectories originated from coastal areas in France and Italy and the Po Valley. Nearly all of these particles were CCN-active at 0.38% supersaturation, indicating a relatively hygroscopic aerosol. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity revealed that ageing (with respect to CCN-activity) of European emissions occurred exclusively in the boundary layer. Within two days, the European emissions had become hygroscopic, probably a result of cloud processing. In contrast, aerosol hygroscopicity did not change as a function of transport time in elevated aerosol layers, suggesting that photochemical ageing of less hygroscopic material is relatively slow compared to ageing processes in the boundary layer. The vertical profiles clearly showed the long-range transport of dust from the Saharan Desert and pollution from the European continent, which were the two major sources of aerosol during the campaign. Two of the research flights coincided with CALIPSO overpasses, when

  8. Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Models for Mediterranean Subcatchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilek, A.; Berberoglu, S.; Donmez, C.

    2016-06-01

    The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA), a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  9. Dioxin compounds in the deep-sea rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) throughout the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotllant, Guiomar; Abad, Esteban; Sardà, Francisco; Ábalos, Manuela; Company, Joan B.; Rivera, Josep

    2006-12-01

    Polychlorodibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the more toxic anthropogenic contaminants. They are fat-soluble and accumulate in animal tissues. Exposure to PCDD/Fs can cause several endocrine, reproductive and developmental problems in animals, including human beings. Several studies have demonstrated that fish and invertebrates living in association with sediments are exposed to and accumulate contaminants, but to date there have been no studies of PCDD/Fs contamination in deep-sea regions. Specimens of Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) were collected from depths of 600-2500 m at different points in the Mediterranean Sea, from the western basin off the coast of Barcelona to the central basin off the Peloponnesian Peninsula, with otter trawl gear. Amounts of PCDD/Fs were measured in different animal tissues by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). This is the first study to report the presence of PCDD/Fs in deep-sea organisms dwelling at depths below 600 m. A. antennatus presented levels of PCDD/Fs of the same order of magnitude, or slightly higher, as those found in shallow-water species ( Melicertus kerathurus) with respect to land-generated contamination. This highlights the widespread distribution of these pollutants and the potential threat posed to the biodiversity of fragile and vulnerable ecosystems such as the deep-sea. PCDD/F levels detected in the edible parts (muscle) of the commercial shrimp A. antennatus were clearly below the toxic limit value established by European legislation. Levels followed the trend muscle

  10. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  11. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  12. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980’s, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  13. Mediterranean Jellyfish Venoms: A Review on Scyphomedusae

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The production of natural toxins is an interesting aspect, which characterizes the physiology and the ecology of a number of marine species that use them for defence/offence purposes. Cnidarians are of particular concern from this point of view; their venoms are contained in specialized structures–the nematocysts–which, after mechanical or chemical stimulation, inject the venom in the prey or in the attacker. Cnidarian stinging is a serious health problem for humans in the zones where extremely venomous jellyfish or anemones are common, such as in temperate and tropical oceanic waters and particularly along several Pacific coasts, and severe cases of envenomation, including also lethal cases mainly induced by cubomedusae, were reported. On the contrary, in the Mediterranean region the problem of jellyfish stings is quite modest, even though they can have anyhow an impact on public health and be of importance from the ecological and economic point of view owing to the implications on ecosystems and on some human activities such as tourism, bathing and fishing. This paper reviews the knowledge about the various aspects related to the occurrence and the stinging of the Mediterranean scyphozoan jellyfish as well as the activity of their venoms. PMID:20479971

  14. Methylmercury in hair fisherman for Turkish coasts

    SciTech Connect

    Vural, N.; Uenlue, H.

    1996-10-01

    Environmental methylmercury mainly arises from the methylation of inorganic mercury. The change in speciation of mercury from inorganic to methylated forms is the first step in the aquatic bioaccumulation processes. The bioconcentration factor of methylmercury in fish tissue to that in water is usually between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5}. Among seafood, fish products are the main source of methylmercury absorbed by men from the environment. Since Minimata epidemic health injuries and deaths in relation to mercury pollution, environmental and biological monitoring of inorganic and organic mercury species has gained importance through out the world and many reports have been published on the health effects and biological monitoring of mercury compounds including some Mediterranean countries. This study focuses on methylmercury in hair of fisherman living in different geographical Turkish coasts and relationship to eating fish habit. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Southeastern Mediterranean Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This oblique northwestward looking panorama view shows the southeastern Mediterranean (29.0N, 33.0E) in great detail. The Sinai Peninsula, the eastern Arabian Desert, the Nile River Valley and Delta as well as the Qatara Depression in Egypt are all prominently portrayed. Even Mt. Sinai is visible in the lower left center of the view. The dusty atmosphere of the region can be seen as a general haziness in the atmosphere.

  16. A Project for Developing an Original Methodology Intended for Determination of the River Basin/Sub-Basin Boundaries and Codes in Western Mediterranean Basin in Turkey with Perspective of European Union Directives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökgöz, Türkay; Ozulu, Murat; Erdoǧan, Mustafa; Seyrek, Kemal

    2016-04-01

    From the view of integrated river basin management, basin/sub-basin boundaries should be determined and encoded systematically with sufficient accuracy and precision. Today basin/sub-basin boundaries are mostly derived from digital elevation models (DEM) in geographic information systems (GIS). The accuracy and precision of the basin/sub-basin boundaries depend primarily on the accuracy and resolution of the DEMs. In this regard, in Turkey, a survey was made for the first time within the scope of this project to identify current situation, problems and needs in General Directorates of State Hydraulic Works, Water Management, Forestry, Meteorology, Combating Desertification and Erosion, which are the major institutions with responsibility and authority. Another factor that determines the accuracy and precision of basin/sub-basin boundaries is the flow accumulation threshold value to be determined at a certain stage according to a specific methodology in deriving the basin/sub-basin boundaries from DEM. Generally, in Turkey, either the default value given by GIS tool is used directly without any geomorphological, hydrological and cartographic bases or it is determined by trial and error. Although there is a system of catchments and rivers network at 1:250,000 scale and a proper method has already been developed on systematic coding of the basin by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, it is stated that a new system of catchments, rivers network and coding at larger scale (i.e. 1:25,000) is needed. In short, the basin/sub-basin boundaries and codes are not available currently at the required accuracy and precision for the fulfilment of the obligations described in European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD). In this case, it is clear that there is not yet any methodology to obtain such products. However, a series of projects should be completed such that the basin/sub-basin boundaries and codes are the fundamental data infrastructure. This task

  17. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von

  18. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    plate (Sardinia, Corsica, Balearic Islands, Kabylies, Calabria, Peloritani Mountains). The bulk of igneous activity in the central-western Mediterranean is believed to have tapped mantle 'wedge' regions, metasomatized by pressure-related dehydration of the subducting slabs. The presence of subduction-related igneous rocks with a wide range of chemical composition has been related to the interplay of several factors among which the pre-metasomatic composition of the mantle wedges (i.e., fertile vs. refractory mineralogy), the composition of the subducting plate (i.e., the type and amount of sediment cover and the alteration state of the crust), the variable thermo-baric conditions of magma formation, coupled with variable molar concentrations of CO 2 and H 2O in the fluid phase released by the subducting plates are the most important. Compared to classic collisional settings (e.g., Himalayas), the central-western Mediterranean area shows a range of unusual geological and magmatological features. These include: a) the rapid formation of extensional basins in an overall compressional setting related to Africa-Europe convergence; b) centrifugal wave of both compressive and extensional tectonics starting from a 'pivotal' region around the Gulf of Lyon; c) the development of concomitant Cenozoic subduction zones with different subduction and tectonic transport directions; d) subduction 'inversion' events (e.g., currently along the Maghrebian coast and in northern Sicily, previously at the southern paleo-European margin); e) a repeated temporal pattern whereby subduction-related magmatic activity gives way to magmas of intraplate geochemical type; f) the late-stage appearance of magmas with collision-related 'exotic' (potassic to ultrapotassic) compositions, generally absent from simple subduction settings; g) the relative scarcity of typical calcalkaline magmas along the Italian peninsula; h) the absence of igneous activity where it might well be expected (e.g., above the

  19. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  20. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  1. On the summer coast parallel winds off the west coast of Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijo, Nádia; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2016-04-01

    During summer the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula is under the effect of persistent coast parallel northerly winds, called Nortada (northerly wind in Portuguese). The synoptic forcing behind the Nortada is caused by the semi-permanent Azores High and the thermal low pressure system in-land central Iberia. The associated pressure gradient gives rise to coastal parallel winds as the result of the geostrophically adjusted response to this synoptic pattern. In turn the persistence of the Nortada induces the development of upwelling systems from the Galicia to Algarve, off the west coast of Iberia, bringing deep cold nutrient-rich water to the shelf and to the surface. This cold water sharpens the temperature and pressure gradients at the coast, leading to a further increase of the wind speed at the coast. The summer regional climate of the coastal western Iberian area is modulated by the Nortada. The structure and climatology characterization of the summer Nortada is investigated through analyses of close to surface wind data produced by a regional 9km horizontal resolution atmospheric hindcast. This regional data was produced using the WRF model, forced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis, and covers the period 1989-2007. The link between the Nortada and the Iberian coastal low level jet is also studied.

  2. Climate reconstruction based on planktic and benthic foraminifera from a short core from the Gulf of Taranto, Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauel, Anna-Lena; Mueller, Inigo; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; de Lange, Gert J.

    2010-05-01

    The MOCCHA Project (Multidisciplinary study of continental/ocean climate dynamics using high-resolution records from the eastern Mediterranean) aims at reconstructing climate change from high sedimentation rate sediments in the Gulf of Taranto. Being highly affected by riverine input as well as being influenced by marine water masses, this region is a very promising site for reconstructing Holocene climate variability, especially in the context of anthropogenic influence on climate. Here we present a dataset based on stable isotope measurements of planktic and benthic foraminifera from a short sediment core covering the last two centuries. The comparison with regional historical temperature and precipitation records covering the last hundred years and with global temperature reconstructions emphasize the potential of this site for climate and environmental reconstructions. Based on a previous calibration study on an extensive set of surface sediments taken around the southern Italian coast we established that the planktic foraminifera, while being highly affected by different salinity and nutrient distributions related to circulation patterns of major water masses, dominantly record summer temperature conditions. Furthermore, the isotopic composition of the benthic species allows to reconstruct carbon cycling, bottom water properties and the organic matter fluxes to the seafloor. The present short-core study allows to continue our calibration of geochemical signals on a longer time scale and to gain further insight in the climate and environmental evolution in the Mediterranean. This work has been made possible thanks to the support from the European Science Foundation (ESF) under the EUROCORES Program EuroMARC and from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF).

  3. Diversity, environmental requirements, and biogeography of bivalve wood-borers (Teredinidae) in European coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bivalve teredinids inflict great destruction to wooden maritime structures. Yet no comprehensive study was ever carried out on these organisms in European coastal waters. Thus, the aims of this study were to: investigate the diversity of teredinids in European coastal waters; map their past and recent distributions to detect range expansion or contraction; determine salinity-temperature (S-T) requirements of species; flag, for future monitoring, the species that pose the greatest hazard for wooden structures. Results A total of nine teredinid species were found established in European coastal waters. Seven were considered cryptogenic, of unknown origin, and two were considered alien species. Teredo navalis and Nototeredo norvagica were the species with the widest distribution in European waters. Recently, T. navalis has been reported occurring further east in the Baltic Sea but it was not found at a number of sites on the Atlantic coast of southern Europe. The Atlantic lineage of Lyrodus pedicellatus was the dominant teredinid in the southern Atlantic coast of Europe. In the Mediterranean six teredinid species occurred in sympatry, whereas only three of these occurred in the Black Sea. The species that pose the greatest hazard to wooden maritime structures in European coastal areas are T. navalis and the two lineages of L. pedicellatus. Conclusions Combined data from field surveys and from the literature made it possible to determine the diversity of established teredinid species and their past and recent distribution in Europe. The environmental requirements of species, determined using climatic envelopes, produced valuable information that assisted on the explanation of species distribution. In addition, the observed trends of species range extension or contraction in Teredo navalis and in the two lineages of Lyrodus pedicellatus seem to emphasise the importance of temperature and salinity as determinants of the distribution of teredinids, whereas

  4. The low frequency Western Mediterranean summer variability: relevance, feedbacks and predictability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Ortizbevia Maria; Antonio, Ruizdeelvira; Francisco Jose, Alvarez-Garcia; Miguel, Tasambay-Salazar

    2016-04-01

    In a recent study, OrtizBeviá et al. (2012) have defined a seasonal index, the Western Mediterranean Index, in order to characterize the Western Mediterranean summer variability. They have found there a statistically significant feedback between the Mediterranean and the North Pacific variability, characterized by the Pacific North America Mode Index. They have detected also a feedback between the Western Mediterranean in summer and the variability of some areas of the North Atlantic basin. Based on these statistical linear relationship they proposed a model to forecast the part of the Western Mediterranean variability represented by the Western Mediterranean Index in summer and autumn and validate it through some hindcast experiments, with a moderate, but significant skill. OrtizBeviá et al.(2012) presented also the evidence of the existence of a low frequency, multidecadal component in the Western Mediterranean summer variability. In the work to be presented here we extend the previous one, focusing on the long term variability. We perform similar statistical analysis on selected data fields that span more than 100 years. We add a second index to the characterisation of the Western Mediterranean variability and are then able to show the relevance of the Western Mediterranean summer variability for european air temperature and precipitation seasonal anomalies. Our analyses show that the variability represented by two North Atlantic Indexes play a key role in the Western Mediterranean summer variability. They also proof the existence of a feedback between this variability and that of the Pacific North America Mode, for an extended period of more than 140 years. The performance of the different predictive models built on the basis of those linear relationships are tested in a series of hindcast experiments. References Ortiz Beviá, M. J.; Alvarez García

  5. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  6. Seabed substrates and sedimentation rates of the European Seas - EMODnet-Geology2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Alanen, Ulla; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet Geology 2

    2015-04-01

    Seas and oceans are important for us. However, increased human activities in marine and coastal areas have altered marine ecosystems worldwide. To ensure sustainable use of marine resources and health of the seas, improved management is needed. The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive targets to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of the EU's marine waters by 2020. However, it has been acknowledged that the poor access to data on the marine environment was a handicap to government decision-making, a barrier to scientific understanding and a break on the economy. The effective management of the broad marine areas requires spatial datasets covering all European marine areas. As a consequence the European Commission adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) in 2009 to combine dispersed marine data into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 and it will run for 3 years. The partnership includes 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. The partners, mainly from the marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - EuroGeoSurveys), aim to assemble marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). In comparison to the urEMODnet project (2009-2012) the data will be more detailed and aim to cover much larger area. The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first seabed substrate map for the European Seas, as well as data/map showing sedimentation rates at the seabed. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on seabed substrates will be delivered in the portal, in addition to the existing 1:1 million map layer from

  7. The Construction of Scrub in California and the Mediterranean Borderlands: Climatic and Edaphic Climax Mosaic or Anthropogenic Artifact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigue, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    There is a marked difference in the representation of Mediterranean scrub vegetation (e.g., chaparral, maquis) in North American and European literature in biogeography and ecology. Authors discussing this vegetation in the California context accept that it is a natural response to the Mediterranean climates, with their late summer and fall fires, and steep terrain. Debate here focusses on the extent to which humans have modified or, indeed, can modify "natural" fire regimes. European authors frame this vegetation instead as a secondary successional formation in a landscape that "should" be dominated by oak woodland and forest. The widespread presence of Mediterranean scrub is cast as an artifact of human disturbance over thousands of years, mediated through overgrazing, deforestation, accelerated erosion, and anthropogenic fire. This poster will present a content analysis of the Mediterranean scrub literature, in order to engage both traditions in the construction of a unified framework for these pyrogenic formations.

  8. Epidemiology of Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Mediterranean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Girmenia, Corrado; Serrao, Alessandra; Canichella, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Infections by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), in particular, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp), are a significant public health challenge worldwide. Resistance to carbapenems in enterobacteriaceae is linked to different mechanisms, including the production of the various types of enzymes like KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48. Despite several attempts to control the spread of these infections at the local and national level, the epidemiological situation for CRKp had worsened in the last years in the Mediterranean area. The rate and types of CRKp isolates greatly differ in the various Mediterranean countries. KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is diffused particularly in the European countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and is endemic in Greece and Italy. On the contrary, OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae is endemic in Turkey and Malta and diffused at inter-regional level particularly in some North African and Middle East countries. The spread of these multiresistant pathogens in the world and the Mediterranean countries has been related to various epidemiological factors including the international transfer of patients coming from endemic areas. PMID:27441063

  9. Identifying the drivers of abundance and size of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Northwestern Mediterranean lagoons.

    PubMed

    Delpy, Floriane; Albouy-Boyer, Séverine; Pagano, Marc; Thibault, Delphine; Blanchot, Jean; Guilhaumon, François; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Bonnet, Delphine

    2016-08-01

    Acknowledged as among the worst invasive marine species, Mnemiopsis leidyi has spread through European Seas since the mid-1980's. Here we report a bimonthly survey conducted in 2010-11 in three lagoons (Bages-Sigean, Thau and Berre) and at two adjacent coastal stations (Sète and SOMLIT-Marseille) along the French Mediterranean coast. M. leidyi was present only in Berre and Bages-Sigean with maximum abundances observed in late summer. M. leidyi adults were present year round in Berre with the largest organisms (∼6 cm) observed in April. In Bages-Sigean, they occurred in sufficient abundance to be recorded by fishermen between August and November. Multiple linear regressions highlighted that abundance in both lagoons was mainly influenced by direct effects of salinity and chlorophyll-a, and temperature to a lesser extent. While M. leidyi has not yet been recorded in Thau, the lagoon is continually monitored to detect the potential establishment of M. leidyi. PMID:27262669

  10. Identifying the drivers of abundance and size of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Northwestern Mediterranean lagoons.

    PubMed

    Delpy, Floriane; Albouy-Boyer, Séverine; Pagano, Marc; Thibault, Delphine; Blanchot, Jean; Guilhaumon, François; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Bonnet, Delphine

    2016-08-01

    Acknowledged as among the worst invasive marine species, Mnemiopsis leidyi has spread through European Seas since the mid-1980's. Here we report a bimonthly survey conducted in 2010-11 in three lagoons (Bages-Sigean, Thau and Berre) and at two adjacent coastal stations (Sète and SOMLIT-Marseille) along the French Mediterranean coast. M. leidyi was present only in Berre and Bages-Sigean with maximum abundances observed in late summer. M. leidyi adults were present year round in Berre with the largest organisms (∼6 cm) observed in April. In Bages-Sigean, they occurred in sufficient abundance to be recorded by fishermen between August and November. Multiple linear regressions highlighted that abundance in both lagoons was mainly influenced by direct effects of salinity and chlorophyll-a, and temperature to a lesser extent. While M. leidyi has not yet been recorded in Thau, the lagoon is continually monitored to detect the potential establishment of M. leidyi.

  11. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  12. The forgotten tragedy of unidentified dead in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Tidball Binz, M; Penados, L; Prieto, J; Finegan, O; Grandi, M

    2015-05-01

    The need to identify the dead - an issue of paramount importance for the forensic sciences - and its importance for humanitarian, administrative, judicial and other purposes are universal values enshrined by domestic and international law. However, for hundreds of men, women and children, migrants, who die every year in their attempt to cross the Mediterranean Sea to reach Europe this fundamental right remains unfulfilled. In order to address and bring solutions to this tragedy the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) carried out an assessment in 2012 and 2013 across European Mediterranean countries affected by irregular immigration across the sea (Italy, Greece, Malta, Portugal, France, Spain). An international meeting in 2013 among Southern European countries led to recommendations which should serve as a road-map for action. They are already guiding activities of the ICRC and other participant institutions. The Council of Europe, which endorsed the recommendations, has since stepped up its efforts to prevent and resolve the humanitarian consequences of migration, including the unidentified dead. Among other things it has called on its Member States to "set up a proper system of data collection of the mortal remains of people who lose their lives in the Mediterranean and make it swiftly accessible to relatives". PMID:25770023

  13. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries. PMID:25107993

  14. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries.

  15. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  16. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) from the Ionian sandy coasts of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Conti, Erminia; Dattilo, Sandro; Costa, Giovanni; Puglisi, Concetto

    2016-07-01

    The Ionian beaches of Sicily are of particular ecological interest because they include the basin of the largest active volcano in Europe and hosts both sites subject to natural protection constraints, as well as important industrial settlements. Consequently, the possibilities for these areas to become polluted are numerous. The sandhopper Talitrus saltator has proven to be a good bioindicator of contamination by numerous trace metals on some European coasts. Nevertheless, no data are available for the populations inhabiting the shores of the southern Mediterranean. Now, as metal accumulation has been shown to vary intraspecifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate trace metal accumulation in adults of T. saltator inhabiting Ionian coastal areas of Sicily and make an assessment of natural and anthropogenic metal pollution of this strip of coast. We also extended our survey to As, Co, Mo, Se, Sn and V never investigated before in this species. Significant differences in metal concentration among sites were found in both sand samples and amphipod tissues. The highest metal content was observed near the mouth of Simeto, the longest river of Sicily which collects waters coming from the volcanic territory of Mount Etna. The bioaccumulation of Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn in T. saltator is fully confirmed; it is also proven for As and Mo and assumed for Cr, Fe, Mn and V. Our outcomes let us to evaluate the prevailing influence of telluric contamination of the Ionian sandy shores of Sicily by trace metals. We also come to the conclusion that in the northern sites, pollution originates from volcanic emission while anthropogenic influence prevails in the southern ones.

  17. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) from the Ionian sandy coasts of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Conti, Erminia; Dattilo, Sandro; Costa, Giovanni; Puglisi, Concetto

    2016-07-01

    The Ionian beaches of Sicily are of particular ecological interest because they include the basin of the largest active volcano in Europe and hosts both sites subject to natural protection constraints, as well as important industrial settlements. Consequently, the possibilities for these areas to become polluted are numerous. The sandhopper Talitrus saltator has proven to be a good bioindicator of contamination by numerous trace metals on some European coasts. Nevertheless, no data are available for the populations inhabiting the shores of the southern Mediterranean. Now, as metal accumulation has been shown to vary intraspecifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate trace metal accumulation in adults of T. saltator inhabiting Ionian coastal areas of Sicily and make an assessment of natural and anthropogenic metal pollution of this strip of coast. We also extended our survey to As, Co, Mo, Se, Sn and V never investigated before in this species. Significant differences in metal concentration among sites were found in both sand samples and amphipod tissues. The highest metal content was observed near the mouth of Simeto, the longest river of Sicily which collects waters coming from the volcanic territory of Mount Etna. The bioaccumulation of Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn in T. saltator is fully confirmed; it is also proven for As and Mo and assumed for Cr, Fe, Mn and V. Our outcomes let us to evaluate the prevailing influence of telluric contamination of the Ionian sandy shores of Sicily by trace metals. We also come to the conclusion that in the northern sites, pollution originates from volcanic emission while anthropogenic influence prevails in the southern ones. PMID:26990940

  18. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  19. Qibla in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rius-Piniés, Mònica

    Orientation toward Mecca has been compulsory for Muslims in all time periods and in all places. In fact, mosques were built in such a way as to help believers to pray toward the right direction. Nevertheless, the alignment of the sacred buildings was not always exact, and many did not actually face the Kaaba. There are many reasons for this "mistake", the main one being that at the time of the construction of the most important mosques, the astronomical and geographical knowledge needed to make accurate calculations was lacking. In the Mediterranean area, the scholars who were most involved in this task were the fuqahā' (experts in Islamic jurisprudence) who were sometimes well versed in astronomical knowledge or, at least, were skilled in the practice of popular astronomy. The combination of astronomy and religion, mixed with the political and topographical conditions, produces a unique area of study which remains controversial today.

  20. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Migita, Kiyoshi; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Yazaki, Masahide; Nonaka, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Akinori; Toma, Tomoko; Kishida, Dai; Uehara, Ritei; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Jiuchi, Yuka; Masumoto, Junya; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Hiroaki; Terai, Chihiro; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Kawakami, Atsushi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Yasunami, Michio; Yachie, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by MEditerranean FeVer gene (MEFV) mutations. In Japan, patients with FMF have been previously reported, including a mild or incomplete form. Several factors are presumed to contribute to the variable penetrance and to the phenotypic variability of FMF. We conducted the current study to investigate the correlation of variable clinical presentations and MEFV genotypic distributions in Japanese FMF patients. We analyzed demographic, clinical, and genetic data for 311 FMF patients enrolled in the study. Clinically, we classified FMF into 2 phenotypes: 1) the “typical” form of FMF, and 2) the “atypical” form of FMF according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. Patients with the typical FMF phenotype had a higher frequency of febrile episodes, a shorter duration of febrile attacks, more frequent thoracic pain, abdominal pain, a family history of FMF, and MEFV exon 10 mutations. Conversely, patients with the atypical FMF phenotype had a lower frequency of fever episodes and more frequent arthritis in atypical distribution, myalgia, and MEFV exon 3 mutations. Multivariate analysis showed that the variable associated with typical FMF presentation was the presence of MEFV exon 10 mutations. Typical FMF phenotype frequencies were decreased in patients carrying 2 or a single low-penetrance mutations compared with those carrying 2 or a single high-penetrance mutations (M694I), with an opposite trend for the atypical FMF phenotype. In addition, patients having more than 2 MEFV mutations had a younger disease onset and a higher prevalence of thoracic pain than those carrying a single or no mutations. Thus, MEFV exon 10 mutations are associated with the more typical FMF phenotype. In contrast, more than half of the Japanese FMF patients without MEFV exon 10 mutations presented with an atypical FMF phenotype, indicating that Japanese FMF patients tend to be divided into 2 phenotypes by a variation

  1. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  2. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Galil, Bella S.; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided. PMID:22207817

  3. Alien Marine Fishes Deplete Algal Biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

    2011-01-01

    One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less ‘barrens’, we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to ‘barrens’ implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast. PMID:21364943

  4. Tidal notches in Mediterranean Sea: a comprehensive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, Fabrizio; Lo Presti, Valeria; Rovere, Alessio; Ferranti, Luigi; Anzidei, Marco; Furlani, Stefano; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Orru, Paolo E.; Scicchitano, Giovanni; Sannino, Gianmaria; Spampinato, Cecilia R.; Pagliarulo, Rossella; Deiana, Giacomo; de Sabata, Eleonora; Sansò, Paolo; Vacchi, Matteo; Vecchio, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Recent works (Evelpidou et al., 2012) suggest that the modern tidal notch is disappearing worldwide due sea level rise over the last century. In order to assess this hypothesis, we measured modern tidal notches in several of sites along the Mediterranean coasts. We report observations on tidal notches cut along carbonate coasts from 73 sites from Italy, France, Croatia, Montenegro, Greece, Malta and Spain, plus additional observations carried outside the Mediterranean. At each site, we measured notch width and depth, and we described the characteristics of the biological rim at the base of the notch. We correlated these parameters with wave energy, tide gauge datasets and rock lithology. Our results suggest that, considering 'the development of tidal notches the consequence of midlittoral bioerosion' (as done in Evelpidou et al., 2012) is a simplification that can lead to misleading results, such as stating that notches are disappearing. Important roles in notch formation can be also played by wave action, rate of karst dissolution, salt weathering and wetting and drying cycles. Of course notch formation can be augmented and favoured also by bioerosion which can, in particular cases, be the main process of notch formation and development. Our dataset shows that notches are carved by an ensemble rather than by a single process, both today and in the past, and that it is difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle them and establish which one is prevailing. We therefore show that tidal notches are still forming, challenging the hypothesis that sea level rise has drowned them.

  5. Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, G.; Fortibuoni, T.; Gristina, M.; Sinopoli, M.; Fiorentino, F.

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the nurseries of seven commercially important demersal species of the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): red mullet, European hake, horned octopus, deep-water rose shrimp, greater forkbeard, Norway lobster and giant red shrimp. An eleven-year series of data collected through experimental trawling in the Strait of Sicily during spring and autumn was analyzed. The spatio-temporal persistence of the high-density aggregations (hot spots) of juvenile individuals in their first year of life was investigated to identify habitats that serve as nurseries. The density of recruits within the persistent nurseries was used as a proxy of the unit area contribution of individuals which recruit to the adult population. The spatial distribution patterns of the recruits of most the species were well defined and very stable in the long term. Persistent and potentially highly productive nurseries of European hake, deep-water rose shrimp and greater forkbeard were identified off the southern coast of Sicily. Persistent areas of recruits concentration were also observed for the other species investigated, but their specific potential contribution of individuals to the adult population was not substantial compared to adjacent grounds. The close or overlapped localization of sites which regularly host vulnerable life stages of different exploited species, revealed an area of great ecological significance which probably plays a major role in the dynamics of the fishery resources in the Strait of Sicily. Appropriate spatial protection measures of this area, including marine protected area designation, could complement conventional management approach for ensuring the long-term sustainability of these fisheries and stocks conservation.

  6. First record of anisakid juveniles (Nematoda) in the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax (family: Moronidae), and their role as bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Quraishy, Saleh Al; El-Mahdi, Magda; Al-Ghamdi, Ali; Mostafa, Nesma

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the anisakid nematode distribution pattern in the fish collected from coasts of Mediterranean Sea, Egypt, during the period September 2010-April 2011. Two hundred thirty out of 300 (76.7%) Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass) marine fishes belonging to family Moronidae were dissected and found to be infected with larva three nematodes. The larvae had been studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The present work represents the first record of the presence of the parasite in this fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni) in parasites as well as in tissues of fish were measured. The presented results showed that the nematode parasites are able to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues and in some cases that they are able to accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in a higher amount than host tissues. This demonstrated their sustainability as bioindicators of environmental pollution by removing heavy metals and help in the survival of fish.

  7. Sequencing type material resolves the identity and distribution of the generitype Lithophyllum incrustans, and related European species L. hibernicum and L. bathyporum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J; Rindi, Fabio; Adey, Walter H; Heesch, Svenja; Peña, Viviana; Le Gall, Line; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    DNA sequences from type material in the nongeniculate coralline genus Lithophyllum were used to unambiguously link some European species names to field-collected specimens, thus providing a great advance over morpho-anatomical identifi-cation. In particular, sequence comparisons of rbcL, COI and psbA genes from field-collected specimens allowed the following conclusion: the generitype species, L. incrustans, occurs mostly as subtidal rhodoliths and crusts on both Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, and not as the common, NE Atlantic, epilithic, intertidal crust reported in the literature. The heterotypic type material of L. hibernicum was narrowed to one rhodolith belonging in Lithophyllum. As well as occurring as a subtidal rhodolith, L. hibernicum is a common, epilithic and epizoic crust in the intertidal zone from Ireland south to Mediterranean France. A set of four features distinguished L. incrustans from L. hibernicum, including epithallial cell diameter, pore canal shape of sporangial conceptacles and sporangium height and diameter. An rbcL sequence of the lectotype of Lithophyllum bathyporum, which was recently proposed to accommodate Atlantic intertidal collections of L. incrustans, corresponded to a distinct taxon hitherto known only from Brittany as the subtidal, bisporangial, lectotype, but also occurs intertidally in Atlantic Spain. Specimens from Ireland and France morpho-anatomically identified as L. fasciculatum and a specimen from Cornwall likewise identified as L. duckerae were resolved as L. incrustans and L. hibernicum, respectively.

  8. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  9. Modelling the transport and accumulation of floating marine debris in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Mansui, J; Molcard, A; Ourmières, Y

    2015-02-15

    In the era of plastic and global environmental issues, when large garbage patches have been observed in the main oceanic basins, this work is the first attempt to explore the possibility that similar permanent accumulation structures may exist in the Mediterranean Sea. The questions addressed in this work are: can the general circulation, with its sub-basins scale gyres and mesoscale instabilities, foster the concentration of floating items in some regions? Where are the more likely coastal zones impacted from open ocean sources? Multi-annual simulations of advected surface passive debris depict the Tyrrhenian Sea, the north-western Mediterranean sub-basin and the Gulf of Sirte as possible retention areas. The western Mediterranean coasts present very low coastal impact, while the coastal strip from Tunisia to Syria appears as the favourite destination. No permanent structure able to retain floating items in the long-term were found, as the basin circulation variability brings sufficient anomalies. PMID:25534631

  10. Molecular characterization of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Raphidascaridae) from different fish caught off the Tunisian coast based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Amor, Nabil; Farjallah, Sarra; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2011-11-01

    Larval forms of the genus Hysterothylacium have been previously reported in teleost fish from the North African coasts of central Mediterranean Sea by morphological analysis. In the present study, samples identified morphologically as Hysterothylacium aduncum (n = 62), from Merluccius merluccius, Trachurus mediterraneus and Pagellus erythrinus from different geographical locations of the Tunisian coasts, were genetically characterised by sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of the sequences obtained with those available in public gene databases confirmed that all the samples from the Tunisian coasts belong to a single species, namely H. aduncum. All specimens from the Tunisian coasts showed one indel in position 787 in ITS-2 sequences not reported by any of the previously published sequences from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea) and the East Greenland Sea, suggesting the existence of a population-specific pattern exhibiting a low differentiation of this parasite in this area. This is the first molecular characterization of H. aduncum from the Tunisian coasts using ITS rDNA sequences which allows the definition of genetic markers for their unequivocal identification, and provides further biological data on these nematodes in marine fish off the Tunisian coasts, improving the picture of the occurrence of these taxa in the North African coasts of central Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21519865

  11. Chemical contamination baseline in the Western basin of the Mediterranean Sea based on transplanted mussels.

    PubMed

    Andral, Bruno; Galgani, François; Tomasino, Corinne; Bouchoucha, Marc; Blottiere, Charlotte; Scarpato, Alfonso; Benedicto, José; Deudero, Salud; Calvo, Monica; Cento, Alexandro; Benbrahim, Samir; Boulahdid, Moustapha; Sammari, Cherif

    2011-08-01

    The MYTILOS project aimed at drawing up a preliminary report on coastal chemical contamination at the scale of the Western Mediterranean (continental coasts of the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and Maghreb) based on a transplanted mussels methodology validated along the French coasts since 1996 by Ifremer and the Rhône Méditerranée & Corsica water board. MYTILOS is backed up by the INTERREG III B/MEDOC programme, the PNUE/PAM-MEDPOL and Rhône Méditerranée & Corsica water board. Three cruises (2004, 2005, 2006) have taken place to assess the first state of chemical contamination along the Western Mediterranean shores with the same methodology. Approximately 120 days were spent at sea deploying and retrieving 123 mussel bags. The results obtained for all studied contaminants were equivalent to those obtained along the French coast according the RINBIO network. These similarities relate to both the highest measured levels and background levels throughout the 123 stations. The areas of greatest impact were mainly urban and industrial centers and the outlets of major rivers, with a far higher midsea impact on the dilution of organic compounds than on metals. Metal levels measured in midsea zones were found to be similar to those in natural shellfish populations living along the coast. On a global scale we can observe that the contaminants levels in the Mediterranean Sea are in the same range as in other areas worldwide. Overall, the research demonstrates the reliability of this methodology for marine pollution monitoring, especially in the Mediterranean sea. PMID:20862467

  12. Inconsistencies in coastal dune genesis and development in the western Mediterranean Cabopino Dune system, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Malvárez, Gonzalo; Jackson, Derek; Navas, Fatima

    2016-04-01

    It is generally agreed that a falling sea level regime is required in the long term to establish dunes as distinctive landform features along a coast. Sedimentary (supply) bodies from fluvial, glacial sources or marine platform processes also need to be in place. In most Atlantic-facing coastal dune systems the current morpho-sedimentary structures are usually associated with the period between 18K BP and present when both glacial and riverine sediments emplaced sediments within the active zone of present sea level to help form beaches and dunes. Mediterranean coastal dunes fronted by steep continental shelves, such as in the western Mediterranean coast of southern Spain are, however, not associated with glacial deposits and thus are only present in association with river mouths and/or coastal lagoons. Their development is attributed to very recent sediment supply, which, combined with other forcing factors such as wind and waves, several orders of magnitude below those of north Atlantic systems, explains their limited extent. Some coastal dune fields however, do not seem to respond to this general pattern because of their scale and, more importantly, their origin linked possibly to marine platform processes rather than riverine or lagoonal development. Here, we examine the Cabopino dune system in southern Spain offering a conceptual model of their genesis and development as an "Atlantic" dune system within a Mediterranean setting. This is demonstrated by their scale (the largest in the Spanish Mediterranean) and their morphodynamic link to nearshore and platform processes in the last 18,000 years.

  13. European Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    A special six-article section of this journal is devoted to the theme of "European Education" (EU): (1) "Reform of EU Educational Policy" (Volker Thomas); (2) "Living in Europe, Working for Europe" (Volker Thomas); (3) "EURES Helps to Find Jobs" (Volker Thomas); (4) "Help for Higher Education Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe" (Siegbert…

  14. European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations

    PubMed Central

    Seldin, Michael F; Shigeta, Russell; Villoslada, Pablo; Selmi, Carlo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K

    2006-01-01

    Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between “northern” and “southern” European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek) have >85% membership in the “southern” population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the “northern” population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the “southern” population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies. PMID:17044734

  15. Searching for Tsunami deposits along the Lebanese Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, A. R.; Tapponnier, P.; Switzer, A. D.; Jessika, N.

    2012-12-01

    Lebanon has a long coastline making it prone to tsunami waves generated from many distant or nearby sources within the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Important Tsunamigenic sources are frequent in the Hellenic Trench, but the Levantine Basin also has a number of important active submarine faults such as the Cypriot subduction zone or the offshore faults associated with the Levant Fault System: the Mount-Lebanon Thrust system or the offshore Carmel Fault, all potential tsunami-sources. A relatively small number of historical earthquakes associated with these faults resulted in tsunami events mentioned in the historical record of the region. The best known and most destructive of all these is the AD 551 earthquake on the offshore Mount-Lebanon Thrust. It resulted in a well-described historical tsunami event that affected many localities over the Lebanese coast. Submarine landslides and/or marine volcanic eruptions in the Mediterranean also may have resulted in similar events. In order to better understand the tsunami hazard in the eastern Mediterranean in general and over the Lebanese coast in particular, and to establish a geology-based catalog of tsunami events in the area we surveyed the shoreline of Lebanon searching for indicators of potential tsunami deposits or morphological signatures. This task is challenged by the extensive urban development of the Lebanese coast that left very few unmodified coastal areas. Many interesting sites wit potential tsunami traces were identified. Dislocated large boulders are frequently observed over the Lebanese coastline. A number of these can be the remnants of old tsunami events. Few sites with abundant marine shells and pumice were identified that can also be related to tsunami events. In the beach deposits of the Damour area, south of Beirut we excavated one first 15m long, 7m wide and 4 to 5m deep trench. The trench shows a beachface setting with different sedimentary units. Preliminary results from on-going sedimentological

  16. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  17. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  18. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  19. The MedCLIVAR program and the climate of the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.; Gacic, M.; Gomis, G.; Garcia-Herrera, R.; Giorgi, F.; Planton, S.; Trigo, R.; Theocharis, A.; Tsimplis, M. N.; Ulbrich, U.; Xoplaki, E.

    2012-04-01

    MedCLIVAR has become an independent platform for scientific discussion, the exchange of information and the coordination of activities across scientific groups around the Mediterranean. The scientific objects of the programme include past climate variability, connections between the Mediterranean and global climate, the Mediterranean Sea circulation and sea level, feedbacks on the global climate system, and the regional responses to greenhouse gas, air pollution, and aerosols. A strength of the MedCLIVAR programme is the development of a multidisciplinary vision of the evolution of Mediterranean climate, which includes atmospheric, marine and terrestrial components at multiple time scales, covering the range from paleo-reconstructions to future climate scenarios. MedCLIVAR has promoted scientific dissemination with many publication and by producing two books, which review the climate-related knowledge of the Mediterranean basin, one published at the beginning of the project and the second just recently finalized. Over these years, MedCLIVAR (www.medclivar.eu) has held 6 workshops and 2 schools, assigned 31 young scientist exchange grants and 7 senior scientist short visits, sponsored or co-sponsored 11 scientific meetings and organized annual sessions during the European Geophysical Union general assembly. A systematic archive of observations and model data simulations on the Mediterranean Climate, in order to both share data across the scientific community and ensure the data availability for 10 years, is presently being organized at the WDCC (http://cera-www.dkrz.de/CERA/MedCLIVAR.html)

  20. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  1. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-30

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  2. Temperature changes along the Spanish Mediterranean shelf waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Yanez, M.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Salat, J.; Pascual, J.

    2003-04-01

    Temperature and salinity of intermediate and deep waters of the western Mediterranean have rised during the XX century. These changes are well documented in the specialised literature (Bethoux et al., 1998, Rholing and Bryden, 1992, Tsimplis and Baker, 2000). Nevertheless it is not yet clear whether these changes are due to global warming and a change in the deep water formation conditions in the western Mediterranean or if it is imported from the eastern basin. In the second case, an increase of salinity of the eastern basin due to damming of the main rivers would be the main cause. Trend detection in coastal waters where intermediate waters influence is negligible, would help to clarify this problem. Nevertheless, it is more difficult to detect significant trends in coastal waters due to the intense noise and seasonal cycles superimposed to these trends (if existing). The number of degrees of freedom needed for the significant detection is higher and regular sampling programs are needed. Unfortunately, standard stations periodically sampled are scarce. Here we present results from two of these periodic programs conducted by IEO and ICM along the Spanish Mediterranean shelf (RADIALES project and L'startit coastal station). This work is divided into two parts. The first one is devoted to the revision of the main hypothesis involved in the statistic treatment of time series, such as normal distribution, independence of residuals, seasonal cycles removing, etc...., while the second part will focus on the comparison of time series along the Spanish coast, the study of temperature trends and its possible relation with NAO index. The most striking result is the detection of a intense warming trend which is common to the north-western and south-western stations for the last part of the XX century. Bibliography. Bethoux, J.P., B. Gentili, D. Taillez, warming and freshwater budget change in the Mediterranean since the 1940s, their possible relation to the greenhouse effect

  3. Glacial history of the European marine mussels Mytilus, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    PubMed

    Smietanka, B; Burzyński, A; Hummel, H; Wenne, R

    2014-09-01

    Mussels of the genus Mytilus have been used to assess the circumglacial phylogeography of the intertidal zone. These mussels are representative components of the intertidal zone and have rapidly evolving mitochondrial DNA, suitable for high resolution phylogeographic analyses. In Europe, the three Mytilus species currently share mitochondrial haplotypes, owing to the cases of extensive genetic introgression. Genetic diversity of Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus and Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied using a 900-bp long part of the most variable fragment of the control region from one of their two mitochondrial genomes. To this end, 985 specimens were sampled along the European coasts, at sites ranging from the Black Sea to the White Sea. The relevant DNA fragments were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Contrary to the earlier findings, our coalescence and nested cladistics results show that only a single M. edulis glacial refugium existed in the Atlantic. Despite that, the species survived the glaciation retaining much of its diversity. Unsurprisingly, M. galloprovincialis survived in the Mediterranean Sea. In a relatively short time period, around the climatic optimum at 10 ky ago, the species underwent rapid expansion coupled with population differentiation. Following the expansion, further contemporary gene flow between populations was limited. PMID:24619178

  4. Glacial history of the European marine mussels Mytilus, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages

    PubMed Central

    Śmietanka, B; Burzyński, A; Hummel, H; Wenne, R

    2014-01-01

    Mussels of the genus Mytilus have been used to assess the circumglacial phylogeography of the intertidal zone. These mussels are representative components of the intertidal zone and have rapidly evolving mitochondrial DNA, suitable for high resolution phylogeographic analyses. In Europe, the three Mytilus species currently share mitochondrial haplotypes, owing to the cases of extensive genetic introgression. Genetic diversity of Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus and Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied using a 900-bp long part of the most variable fragment of the control region from one of their two mitochondrial genomes. To this end, 985 specimens were sampled along the European coasts, at sites ranging from the Black Sea to the White Sea. The relevant DNA fragments were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Contrary to the earlier findings, our coalescence and nested cladistics results show that only a single M. edulis glacial refugium existed in the Atlantic. Despite that, the species survived the glaciation retaining much of its diversity. Unsurprisingly, M. galloprovincialis survived in the Mediterranean Sea. In a relatively short time period, around the climatic optimum at 10 ky ago, the species underwent rapid expansion coupled with population differentiation. Following the expansion, further contemporary gene flow between populations was limited. PMID:24619178

  5. Phylogeography of the European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio): A critically endangered species.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, Olivier; Desse-Berset, Nathalie; Hänni, Catherine; Hughes, Sandrine; Berrebi, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) was once a common species throughout Europe, but the sole remaining natural population presently inhabits the Gironde Estuary in France (Atlantic coast). The species was classified as 'Critically Endangered' in 1996, and the Gironde population is now on the verge of extinction. In this setting, and for the first time, we present the past phylogeographical features of this species throughout Europe along with an assessment of its former genetic diversity. This study was based on a molecular analysis (mtDNA CR sequencing) of 10 living specimens from the Gironde Estuary, 55 museum specimens that had been caught along 19th and 20th centuries, and 59 archaeological remains dating back to 260-5000years BP, from which mitochondrial DNA was extracted and amplified. Although discontinuous, the produced data provided a realistic image of the former structure of A. sturio in Europe. Reconstruction of the phylogenetic trees and haplotypes network led to the identification of several clades. The mitochondrial genetic diversity of this species was found to be much greater at the core (Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean and Adriatic regions) than along the margins (Atlantic-Northern Europe, Black Sea) of its range. A series of hypotheses on the dates and causes of changes in the species' major structures are put forward on the basis of these data. Finally, competition with A. oxyrinchus, a sibling species whose presence in Northern Europe was recently reconsidered, is presented as a major factor in the evolution of this species.

  6. Glacial history of the European marine mussels Mytilus, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    PubMed

    Smietanka, B; Burzyński, A; Hummel, H; Wenne, R

    2014-09-01

    Mussels of the genus Mytilus have been used to assess the circumglacial phylogeography of the intertidal zone. These mussels are representative components of the intertidal zone and have rapidly evolving mitochondrial DNA, suitable for high resolution phylogeographic analyses. In Europe, the three Mytilus species currently share mitochondrial haplotypes, owing to the cases of extensive genetic introgression. Genetic diversity of Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus and Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied using a 900-bp long part of the most variable fragment of the control region from one of their two mitochondrial genomes. To this end, 985 specimens were sampled along the European coasts, at sites ranging from the Black Sea to the White Sea. The relevant DNA fragments were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Contrary to the earlier findings, our coalescence and nested cladistics results show that only a single M. edulis glacial refugium existed in the Atlantic. Despite that, the species survived the glaciation retaining much of its diversity. Unsurprisingly, M. galloprovincialis survived in the Mediterranean Sea. In a relatively short time period, around the climatic optimum at 10 ky ago, the species underwent rapid expansion coupled with population differentiation. Following the expansion, further contemporary gene flow between populations was limited.

  7. Phylogeography of the European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio): A critically endangered species.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, Olivier; Desse-Berset, Nathalie; Hänni, Catherine; Hughes, Sandrine; Berrebi, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) was once a common species throughout Europe, but the sole remaining natural population presently inhabits the Gironde Estuary in France (Atlantic coast). The species was classified as 'Critically Endangered' in 1996, and the Gironde population is now on the verge of extinction. In this setting, and for the first time, we present the past phylogeographical features of this species throughout Europe along with an assessment of its former genetic diversity. This study was based on a molecular analysis (mtDNA CR sequencing) of 10 living specimens from the Gironde Estuary, 55 museum specimens that had been caught along 19th and 20th centuries, and 59 archaeological remains dating back to 260-5000years BP, from which mitochondrial DNA was extracted and amplified. Although discontinuous, the produced data provided a realistic image of the former structure of A. sturio in Europe. Reconstruction of the phylogenetic trees and haplotypes network led to the identification of several clades. The mitochondrial genetic diversity of this species was found to be much greater at the core (Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean and Adriatic regions) than along the margins (Atlantic-Northern Europe, Black Sea) of its range. A series of hypotheses on the dates and causes of changes in the species' major structures are put forward on the basis of these data. Finally, competition with A. oxyrinchus, a sibling species whose presence in Northern Europe was recently reconsidered, is presented as a major factor in the evolution of this species. PMID:26424382

  8. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece. PMID:17361068

  9. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece.

  10. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) from Western Sahara and Greece.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Assumpció; Cantos, Gemma; Aguilar, Alex; Androukaki, Eugenia; Dendrinos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    Blubber from Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) from the Western Sahara coast (Atlantic), sampled during 1996-1999, and from the Greek coast (Mediterranean), sampled during 1995-1999, was analyzed for organochlorine pollutants (OCs). In both populations, no significant difference was found between sexes. In the Atlantic population, mature females presented greater percentages of higher chlorinated PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners in relation to total PCBs (sum of 25 congeners) than pups, indicating a differential transfer of PCB congeners through lactation. In the Mediterranean, the reduced sample size of adult individuals precluded proper statistical investigation of age-related variation. Significant differences in concentrations and pollutant patterns were found between populations. Thus, Mediterranean individuals presented significantly higher levels of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), tPCB, and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) concentrations and DDE/tDDT and tDDT/tPCB ratios than their counterparts from the Atlantic. Moreover, the relative proportion of different congeners in relation to the total PCB load (congener/tPCB) was also different between the two areas. The 100*tDDT/tPCB ratio in Atlantic seals was 38.46, which indicates a predominance of industrial inputs over those associated with agriculture. Conversely, in the Mediterranean seal population, the 100*tDDT/tPCB ratio was 177.1, denoting a proportionally higher contribution of pollutants of agricultural origin. PMID:17499843

  11. A coasting cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1989-01-01

    A Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with energy density decreasing in expansion as 1/R-squared, where R is the Robertson-Walker scale factor, is studied. In such a model the universe expands with constant velocity; hence the term coasting cosmology. Observational consequences of such a model include the age of the universe, the luminosity distance-redshift relation (the Hubble diagram), the angular diameter distance-redshift relation, and the galaxy number count as a function of redshift. These observations are used to limit the parameters of the model. Among the interesting consequences of the model are the possibility of an ever-expanding closed universe, a model universe with multiple images at different redshifts of the same object, a universe with Omega - 1 not equal to 0 stable in expansion, and a closed universe with radius smaller than 1/H(0).

  12. Networking environmental metadata: a pilot project for the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, N.; Benito, M.; Abou El-Magd, I.; Mazzetti, P.; Ndong, C.

    2012-04-01

    To better exploit any environmental dataset it is necessary to provide detailed information (metadata) capable to furnish the best data description. Operating environmental data and information networking requires the long-term investment of financial and human resources. As these resources are scarce, ensuring sustainability can be a struggle. Then, to use more effectively human and economic resources and to avoid duplication, it is essential to test existing models and, where appropriate, replicate strategies and experiences. For the above reasons, it has been programmed to pilot a project to implement and test a metadata catalogue's networking, involving Countries afferent the Mediterranean Region, to demonstrate that the adoption of open source and free software and international interoperability standards can contribute to the alignment of I&TC resources to achieve environmental information sharing. This pilot, planned in the frame of the EGIDA FP7 European Project, aims to support the implementation of a replication methodology for the establishment of national/regional environmental information nodes on the bases of the System of Systems architecture concept, to support the exchange of environmental information in the frame of the Barcelona Convention and to incept a Mediterranean scale joint contribution to GEOSS focusing on partnership, infrastructures and products. To establish the partnership and to conduce interoperability tests, this pilot project build on the Info-RAC (Information and Communication Activity Centre of the United Nation Environmental Programme - Mediterranean Action Plan) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations) networks.

  13. 78 FR 68444 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... European Continent-US East Coast Service Space Charter Agreement. Parties: MSC Mediterranean Shipping... the trade between the North West European Continent and the U.S. East Coast. Dated: November 8,...

  14. Characterization of aerosol episodes in the greater Mediterranean Sea area from satellite observations (2000-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Torres, O.

    2016-03-01

    An algorithm able to identify and characterize episodes of different aerosol types above sea surfaces of the greater Mediterranean basin (GMB), including the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of Iberia and northwest Africa, is presented in this study. Based on this algorithm, five types of intense (strong and extreme) aerosol episodes in the GMB are identified and characterized using daily aerosol optical properties from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMI-Aura. These aerosol episodes are: (i) biomass-burning/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) dust/sea-salt (DSS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The identification and characterization is made with our algorithm using a variety of aerosol properties, namely aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), fine fraction (FF), effective radius (reff) and Aerosol Index (AI). During the study period (2000-2007), the most frequent aerosol episodes are DD, observed primarily in the western and central Mediterranean Sea, and off the northern African coasts, 7 times/year for strong episodes and 4 times/year for extreme ones, on average. The DD episodes yield 40% of all types of strong aerosol episodes in the study region, while they account for 71.5% of all extreme episodes. The frequency of occurrence of strong episodes exhibits specific geographical patterns, for example the BU are mostly observed along the coasts of southern Europe and off the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, the MX episodes off the Spanish Mediterranean coast and over the Adriatic and northern Aegean Sea, while the DSS ones over the western and central Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, the extreme episodes for all but DD aerosol display more patchy spatial patterns. The strong episodes exhibit AOD at 550 nm as high as 1.6 in the southernmost parts of central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, which rise up to 5 for the extreme, mainly DD and DSS, episodes. Although more

  15. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  16. Seismic noise recored by seafloor observatories at Mediterranean sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mariagrazia; Monna, Stephen; Frugoni, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is an area highly exposed to geo-hazards, such as seismic and volcanic activity. Real-time and continuous monitoring of its coastal areas is needed to ensure rapid warning and mitigate the effects of natural disasters. Seafloor observatories for near-real-time and real-time interactive long-term monitoring of ocean processes which are part of the EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory, www.emso-eu.org) Research Infrastructure, have been deployed in sites of the Mediterranean basin. We present long-term time series acquired by GEOSTAR-class seafloor observatories deployed in four sites of Mediterranean areas: Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas (deep seafloor Central-Mediterranean sites) and the Marmara Sea and Gulf of Corinth (shallow seafloor Eastern-Mediterranean sites). We generated a reference model of the background seismic noise based on data collected from seismometers installed on board seafloor observatories. We concentrate on interesting and peculiar features of the noise signal in the frequency band 0.003-50 Hz. The main contribution in the short period band >5Hz (<2s) comes from anthropic noise (e.g. shipping noise). In this band we also find a peak around 0.8Hz (1.25s) which appears to be a persistent characteristic of the Mediterranean basins. Seasonal variations (summer-winter) are visible in the microseismic band 0.05-0.5Hz (2-20s). In particular in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian deep seafloor sites we can distinguish the splitting of the DF (Double Frequency peak) in the long period (LPDF) and the short period (SPDF) peaks. Our study shows the presence of the LPDF, well visible at the deep seafloor sites, and seasonal variations of the LPDF and the SPDF amplitudes ratio, suggesting that the SPDF depends on the sea wave regime generated by local winds. For the deep seafloor sites we can also appreciate the contribution of infragravity waves (<0.05Hz). Our observations confirm the dependence of the

  17. The Role of Hydrodynamic Processes on Anchovy Eggs and Larvae Distribution in the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea): A Case Study for the 2004 Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S.; Patti, Bernardino; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the link between ocean hydrodynamics and distribution of small pelagic fish species is fundamental for the sustainable management of fishery resources. Both commercial and scientific communities are indeed seeking to provide services that could “connect the dots” among in situ and remote observations, numerical ocean modelling, and fisheries. In the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, in the Sicily Channel the reproductive strategy of the European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is strongly influenced by the oceanographic patterns, which are often visible in sea surface temperature satellite data. Based on these experimental evidences, we propose here a more general approach where the role of ocean currents, wind effects, and mesoscale activity are tied together. To investigate how these features affect anchovy larvae distribution, we pair ichthyoplankton observations to a wide remote sensing data set, and to Lagrangian numerical simulations for larval transport. Our analysis shows that while the wind-induced coastal current is able to transport anchovy larvae from spawning areas to the recruiting area off the Sicilian south-eastern tip, significant cross-shore transport due to the combination of strong northwesterly mistral winds and topographic effects delivers larvae away from the coastal conveyor belt. We then use a potential vorticity approach to describe the occurrence of larvae cross-shore transport. We conclude that monitoring and quantifying the upwelling on the southern Sicilian coast during the spawning season allows to estimate the cross-shore transport of larvae and the consequent decrease of individuals within the recruiting area. PMID:25915489

  18. The role of hydrodynamic processes on anchovy eggs and larvae distribution in the sicily channel (mediterranean sea): a case study for the 2004 data set.

    PubMed

    Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S; Patti, Bernardino; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the link between ocean hydrodynamics and distribution of small pelagic fish species is fundamental for the sustainable management of fishery resources. Both commercial and scientific communities are indeed seeking to provide services that could "connect the dots" among in situ and remote observations, numerical ocean modelling, and fisheries. In the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, in the Sicily Channel the reproductive strategy of the European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is strongly influenced by the oceanographic patterns, which are often visible in sea surface temperature satellite data. Based on these experimental evidences, we propose here a more general approach where the role of ocean currents, wind effects, and mesoscale activity are tied together. To investigate how these features affect anchovy larvae distribution, we pair ichthyoplankton observations to a wide remote sensing data set, and to Lagrangian numerical simulations for larval transport. Our analysis shows that while the wind-induced coastal current is able to transport anchovy larvae from spawning areas to the recruiting area off the Sicilian south-eastern tip, significant cross-shore transport due to the combination of strong northwesterly mistral winds and topographic effects delivers larvae away from the coastal conveyor belt. We then use a potential vorticity approach to describe the occurrence of larvae cross-shore transport. We conclude that monitoring and quantifying the upwelling on the southern Sicilian coast during the spawning season allows to estimate the cross-shore transport of larvae and the consequent decrease of individuals within the recruiting area. PMID:25915489

  19. An 80 kyr-long continuous speleothem record from Dim Cave, SW Turkey with paleoclimatic implications for the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Shulmeister, James; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Uysal, I Tonguç; Feng, Yue-Xing; Nguyen, Ai Duc; Yüce, Galip

    2015-01-01

    Speleothem-based stable isotope records are valuable in sub-humid and semi-arid settings where many other terrestrial climate proxies are fragmentary. The Eastern Mediterranean is one such region. Here we present an 80-kyr-long precisely-dated (by U-series) and high-resolution oxygen (δ(18)O) and carbon (δ(13)C) records from Dim Cave (~36°N) in SW Turkey. The glacial-interglacial δ(18)O variations in the Dim Cave speleothem are best explained in terms of changes in the trajectories of winter westerly air masses. These are along a northerly (European) track (isotopically less depleted) during the early last glaciation but are gradually depressed southward closer to the modern westerly track along the North African coast (more depleted) after c.50 kyr and remain in the southern track through the Last Glacial Maximum. The southward displacement of the westerly track reflects growth of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and its impact on westerly wind fields. Changes in δ(13)C are interpreted as reflecting soil organic matter composition and/or thickness. δ(13)C values are significantly more negative in interglacials reflecting active carbonic acid production in the soil and less negative in glacial times reflecting carbonate rock values. Several Heinrich events are recorded in the Dim record indicating intensification of westerly flow across this part of the EM.

  20. The role of hydrodynamic processes on anchovy eggs and larvae distribution in the sicily channel (mediterranean sea): a case study for the 2004 data set.

    PubMed

    Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S; Patti, Bernardino; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the link between ocean hydrodynamics and distribution of small pelagic fish species is fundamental for the sustainable management of fishery resources. Both commercial and scientific communities are indeed seeking to provide services that could "connect the dots" among in situ and remote observations, numerical ocean modelling, and fisheries. In the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, in the Sicily Channel the reproductive strategy of the European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is strongly influenced by the oceanographic patterns, which are often visible in sea surface temperature satellite data. Based on these experimental evidences, we propose here a more general approach where the role of ocean currents, wind effects, and mesoscale activity are tied together. To investigate how these features affect anchovy larvae distribution, we pair ichthyoplankton observations to a wide remote sensing data set, and to Lagrangian numerical simulations for larval transport. Our analysis shows that while the wind-induced coastal current is able to transport anchovy larvae from spawning areas to the recruiting area off the Sicilian south-eastern tip, significant cross-shore transport due to the combination of strong northwesterly mistral winds and topographic effects delivers larvae away from the coastal conveyor belt. We then use a potential vorticity approach to describe the occurrence of larvae cross-shore transport. We conclude that monitoring and quantifying the upwelling on the southern Sicilian coast during the spawning season allows to estimate the cross-shore transport of larvae and the consequent decrease of individuals within the recruiting area.

  1. An 80 kyr-long continuous speleothem record from Dim Cave, SW Turkey with paleoclimatic implications for the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Shulmeister, James; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Tonguç Uysal, I.; Feng, Yue-Xing; Duc Nguyen, Ai; Yüce, Galip

    2015-01-01

    Speleothem-based stable isotope records are valuable in sub-humid and semi-arid settings where many other terrestrial climate proxies are fragmentary. The Eastern Mediterranean is one such region. Here we present an 80-kyr-long precisely-dated (by U-series) and high-resolution oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) records from Dim Cave (~36°N) in SW Turkey. The glacial-interglacial δ18O variations in the Dim Cave speleothem are best explained in terms of changes in the trajectories of winter westerly air masses. These are along a northerly (European) track (isotopically less depleted) during the early last glaciation but are gradually depressed southward closer to the modern westerly track along the North African coast (more depleted) after c.50 kyr and remain in the southern track through the Last Glacial Maximum. The southward displacement of the westerly track reflects growth of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and its impact on westerly wind fields. Changes in δ13C are interpreted as reflecting soil organic matter composition and/or thickness. δ13C values are significantly more negative in interglacials reflecting active carbonic acid production in the soil and less negative in glacial times reflecting carbonate rock values. Several Heinrich events are recorded in the Dim record indicating intensification of westerly flow across this part of the EM. PMID:26337921

  2. An 80 kyr-long continuous speleothem record from Dim Cave, SW Turkey with paleoclimatic implications for the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Shulmeister, James; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Uysal, I Tonguç; Feng, Yue-Xing; Nguyen, Ai Duc; Yüce, Galip

    2015-01-01

    Speleothem-based stable isotope records are valuable in sub-humid and semi-arid settings where many other terrestrial climate proxies are fragmentary. The Eastern Mediterranean is one such region. Here we present an 80-kyr-long precisely-dated (by U-series) and high-resolution oxygen (δ(18)O) and carbon (δ(13)C) records from Dim Cave (~36°N) in SW Turkey. The glacial-interglacial δ(18)O variations in the Dim Cave speleothem are best explained in terms of changes in the trajectories of winter westerly air masses. These are along a northerly (European) track (isotopically less depleted) during the early last glaciation but are gradually depressed southward closer to the modern westerly track along the North African coast (more depleted) after c.50 kyr and remain in the southern track through the Last Glacial Maximum. The southward displacement of the westerly track reflects growth of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and its impact on westerly wind fields. Changes in δ(13)C are interpreted as reflecting soil organic matter composition and/or thickness. δ(13)C values are significantly more negative in interglacials reflecting active carbonic acid production in the soil and less negative in glacial times reflecting carbonate rock values. Several Heinrich events are recorded in the Dim record indicating intensification of westerly flow across this part of the EM. PMID:26337921

  3. Immunoglobulin genes in Andalusia (Spain). Genetic diversity in the Mediterranean space.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Lima, César; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Hernández, Candela L; Reales, Guillermo; Calderón, Rosario

    2014-11-01

    Andalusia is the most densely populated region of Spain since ancient times, and has a rich history of contacts across the Mediterranean. Earlier studies have underlined the relatively high frequency of the Sub-Saharan GM 1,17 5* haplotype in western Andalusia (Huelva province, n=252) and neighbouring Atlantic regions. Here, we provide novel data on GM/KM markers in eastern Andalusians (n=195) from Granada province, where African GM*1,17 5* frequency is relatively high (0.044). The most frequent GM haplotypes in Andalusia parallel the most common in Europe. Altogether, these data allow us to gain insight into the genetic diversity of southern Iberia. Additionally, we assess population structure by comparing our Iberian samples with 41 Mediterranean populations. GM haplotype variation across the Mediterranean reflects intense and complex interactions between North Africans and South Europeans along human history, highlighting that African influence over the Iberian Peninsula does not follow an isotropic pattern.

  4. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of striped dolphins suggest decline of pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

    PubMed

    Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Drago, M

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea subject to high mercury (Hg) pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the objective of discerning temporal changes in marine Hg pollution in the oceanic waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, we analysed liver and kidney from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) collected during 2007-2009 and compared them with previous results from a similar sample from 1990-1993. The effect of body length and sex on tissue Hg concentrations was investigated to ensure an unbiased comparison between the periods. The Hg concentrations did not show significant sex-related differences in any tissue or period but were correlated positively with body length. Using body length as a covariate, Hg concentrations in liver and kidney were higher in 1990-1993 than in 2007-2009. This result suggests that measures to reduce emissions in Western European countries have been effective in reducing mercury pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

  5. Immunoglobulin genes in Andalusia (Spain). Genetic diversity in the Mediterranean space.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Lima, César; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Hernández, Candela L; Reales, Guillermo; Calderón, Rosario

    2014-11-01

    Andalusia is the most densely populated region of Spain since ancient times, and has a rich history of contacts across the Mediterranean. Earlier studies have underlined the relatively high frequency of the Sub-Saharan GM 1,17 5* haplotype in western Andalusia (Huelva province, n=252) and neighbouring Atlantic regions. Here, we provide novel data on GM/KM markers in eastern Andalusians (n=195) from Granada province, where African GM*1,17 5* frequency is relatively high (0.044). The most frequent GM haplotypes in Andalusia parallel the most common in Europe. Altogether, these data allow us to gain insight into the genetic diversity of southern Iberia. Additionally, we assess population structure by comparing our Iberian samples with 41 Mediterranean populations. GM haplotype variation across the Mediterranean reflects intense and complex interactions between North Africans and South Europeans along human history, highlighting that African influence over the Iberian Peninsula does not follow an isotropic pattern. PMID:25444709

  6. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2015-05-27

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  7. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  8. An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (waves and storm surge) for coastal impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Despite their outstanding relevance in coastal processes, a study of the sea surface dynamics due to atmospheric wind and pressure variations are rather limited in comparison with the mean sea level rise. Data of waves and surges along the European region are scarce and in-homogeneous, not only in terms of spatial coverage but also in terms of temporal coverage. This study presents two databases focused on a historical reconstruction of: (i) the wind-generated waves (GOW) and (ii) the meteorological sea level component (GOS). The GOW and GOS datasets cover the whole European coast (North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) at high-spatial resolution from 1979 to present. The meteorological sea level component (storm surge) has been generated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). To take into account non-linear interactions between tides and surges, both dynamics were simulated jointly. Final results of meteorological component of sea level were obtained by subtracting the astronomical tide from the simulated sea surface. The model was set-up for Europe using an orthogonal grid, with a horizontal resolution ranging between 3.5 to 11 km. A spatial domain of approximately 5 km was used for the Black Sea. Local coastal waves can be the integrated result of the ocean surface over a large region of influence. GOW-Europe is designed from a multigrid approach based on the overlapping of two-way nested domains. The coarser spatial resolution along the European coast of GOW is 15 km. The generation and propagation of the sea surface waves of GOW-Europe are simulated with the model WAVEWATCH III v4.18. Effects of non-linear wave-wave interactions, whitecapping and depth-induced refraction are considered in the propagation model. In order to validate GOW and GOS over Europe with available observations, an exhaustive comparison with in-situ and remote measurements was developed. In-situ buoys and tide-gauges are used to compare hourly time

  9. Occurrence of the Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 in two Mediterranean coastal habitats: Temporary visitor or permanent resident?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Carrozzo, Leonardo; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Loreto; Marini, Gabriele; Pinna, Maurizio

    2013-12-01

    Coastal habitats worldwide are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) that can alter community and ecosystem processes. Invasions are of particular concern for the Mediterranean Sea, and IAS-related descriptors of good ecological status have been recently proposed in European reference regulations.

  10. First record of the moray eel Gymnothorax reticularis, Bloch, 1795 in the Mediterranean Sea, with a note on its taxonomy and distribution.

    PubMed

    Stern, Nir; Goren, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    The first Red-Sea Indo-Pacific alien moray eel in the Eastern Mediterranean is reported here. A single specimen ot Gymnothorax reticularis was captured by a commercial bottom-trawl vessel off the northern coast of Israel. Morphological and anatomical similarities with the single known Red-Sea specimen raise an old taxonomic dilemma.

  11. Recent nutrient dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kitack; Moon, Ji-Young

    2016-04-01

    The concentrations of nitrate (N) and phosphate (P), and the N:P ratio in the upper water column of the Mediterranean Sea (MED) were examined using observational data (~173,000 data points) collected since 1980s. The observed trends were found to distinctly evolve in the western and eastern MED. In the western MED the N and P concentrations have rapidly increased over time and was broadly consistent with the riverine input history from the populated areas surrounding the western MED. Contrarily, the N and P concentrations in the eastern MED markedly increased up until the mid-1995 and briefly remained high between 1995 and 2000. The N concentration rapidly decreased thereafter. In particular, the three-phase temporal transition of N and P in the eastern MED (increase-constant-decline) was more consistent with the emission history of pollutant nitrogen from the western European continent, in which regulation of emissions of pollutant nitrogen has been in place since 1970s. Our analysis implies that the recent N dynamics in the upper MED appeared to be sensitive to input dynamics of anthropogenic N, via atmospheric deposition and river. This conclusion is further strengthened by good agreement between the integrated rate of increase in the upper-water N inventory and the total anthropogenic N input during the past 30 years.

  12. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    PubMed

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S; Gasol, Josep M; Gertwagen, Ruthy; Gil, João; Guilhaumon, François; Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen; Kitsos, Miltiadis-Spyridon; Koukouras, Athanasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Laxamana, Elijah; López-Fé de la Cuadra, Carlos M; Lotze, Heike K; Martin, Daniel; Mouillot, David; Oro, Daniel; Raicevich, Sasa; Rius-Barile, Josephine; Saiz-Salinas, Jose Ignacio; San Vicente, Carles; Somot, Samuel; Templado, José; Turon, Xavier; Vafidis, Dimitris; Villanueva, Roger; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-08-02

    The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet-undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular, the Strait of

  13. The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S.; Gasol, Josep M.; Gertwagen, Ruthy; Gil, João; Guilhaumon, François; Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen; Kitsos, Miltiadis-Spyridon; Koukouras, Athanasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Laxamana, Elijah; López-Fé de la Cuadra, Carlos M.; Lotze, Heike K.; Martin, Daniel; Mouillot, David; Oro, Daniel; Raicevich, Saša; Rius-Barile, Josephine; Saiz-Salinas, Jose Ignacio; San Vicente, Carles; Somot, Samuel; Templado, José; Turon, Xavier; Vafidis, Dimitris; Villanueva, Roger; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet—undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular, the Strait of

  14. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock.

    PubMed

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L

    2014-01-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period.

  15. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock.

    PubMed

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L

    2014-01-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period. PMID:25424371

  16. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L.

    2014-11-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period.

  17. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock

    PubMed Central

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L.

    2014-01-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period. PMID:25424371

  18. Life History Traits Reflect Changes in Mediterranean Butterfly Communities Due to Forest Encroachment.

    PubMed

    Slancarova, Jana; Bartonova, Alena; Zapletal, Michal; Kotilinek, Milan; Faltynek Fric, Zdenek; Micevski, Nikola; Kati, Vasiliki; Konvicka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Southern Balkans, part of the Mediterranean global biodiversity hot-spot, is threatened by land use intensification and abandonment, the latter causing forest encroachment of formerly open habitats. We investigated the impact of forest encroachment on butterfly species richness, community species composition and the representation of life history traits by repeated seasonal visits of 150 one-hectare sites in five separate regions in three countries-Greece, Bulgaria, and the Republic of Macedonia (FYROM-the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)- 10 replicates for each habitat type of grasslands, open formations and scrub forest within each region. Grasslands and open formations sites hosted in average more species and more red-listed species than scrub forest, while no pattern was found for numbers of Mediterranean species. As shown by ordination analyses, each of the three habitat types hosted distinct butterfly communities, with Mediterranean species inclining either towards grasslands or open formations. Analysing the representation of life history traits revealed that successional development from grasslands and open formations towards scrub forest shifts the community composition towards species overwintering in earlier stages, having fewer generations per year, and inhabiting large European or Eurosiberian (e.g. northern) ranges; it decreases the representation of Mediterranean endemics. The loss of grasslands and semi-open formations due to forest encroachment thus threatens exactly the species that should be the focus of conservation attention in the Mediterranean region, and innovative conservation actions to prevent ongoing forest encroachment are badly needed.

  19. The tropical caprellid amphipod Paracaprella pusilla: a new alien crustacean in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Macarena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Paracaprella pusilla Mayer (Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel 17:1-55, 1890), originally described from Brazil, is one of the most abundant caprellid amphipod species in tropical and subtropical seas around the world. During a survey of caprellid amphipods from marinas along the Balearic Island (Western Mediterranean Sea) carried out between November 2011 and August 2012, we found two established populations of P. pusilla in Mallorca and Ibiza, respectively. So far, its occurrence in European waters was reported only from southwestern Spain in 2010. This record represents a northward range expansion of the species' distribution, which is found for the first time in the Mediterranean. This is also the first record of the genus Paracaprella in the Mediterranean Sea. The most probable introduction vector was ship fouling. We also found the invasive caprellid Caprella scaura Templeton (Trans Entomol Soc Lond 1:185-198, 1836) in Mallorca and Menorca, which is recorded for the first time in the Balearic Islands, confirming its rapid expansion along the Mediterranean. When comparing reproductive traits between both alien species, we found that P. pusilla has a higher fecundity than C. scaura for the same female size. Taking into account this evidence, the species may be expected to appear in other Mediterranean and adjacent areas.

  20. Mediterranean dietary pattern and mortality among young women: a cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sandin, Sven; Lagiou, Areti; Mucci, Lorelei; Wolk, Alicja; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2006-08-01

    Studies of diet and health focus increasingly on dietary patterns. Although the traditional Mediterranean diet is perceived as being healthy, there is little information on its possible benefit to young people. We studied whether closer adherence to the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with overall and cancer mortality in a cohort of 42,237 young women, aged 30-49 years at enrollment, who were recruited in 1991-2 from the general population in the Uppsala Health Care Region, Sweden, and followed up, almost completely, for about 12 years. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by a 10-point score incorporating the characteristics of this diet. Among women less than 40 years old at enrollment--whose causes of death are mainly cancer with probable genetic influences, injuries or suicide--there was no association of the Mediterranean diet score with total or cancer mortality. Among women 40-49 years old at enrollment, a 2-point increase in the score was associated with considerable reductions in overall mortality (13%; 95% CI 1%, 23%; P approximately 0.05) and cancer mortality (16%; 95% CI -1%, 29%; P approximately 0.06). Few cardiovascular deaths occurred in this cohort of young women. The findings of the present study in a northern European population of young women indicate that closer adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern reduces mortality even among young persons.

  1. Life History Traits Reflect Changes in Mediterranean Butterfly Communities Due to Forest Encroachment

    PubMed Central

    Slancarova, Jana; Bartonova, Alena; Zapletal, Michal; Kotilinek, Milan; Faltynek Fric, Zdenek; Micevski, Nikola; Kati, Vasiliki; Konvicka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Southern Balkans, part of the Mediterranean global biodiversity hot-spot, is threatened by land use intensification and abandonment, the latter causing forest encroachment of formerly open habitats. We investigated the impact of forest encroachment on butterfly species richness, community species composition and the representation of life history traits by repeated seasonal visits of 150 one-hectare sites in five separate regions in three countries—Greece, Bulgaria, and the Republic of Macedonia (FYROM—the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)— 10 replicates for each habitat type of grasslands, open formations and scrub forest within each region. Grasslands and open formations sites hosted in average more species and more red-listed species than scrub forest, while no pattern was found for numbers of Mediterranean species. As shown by ordination analyses, each of the three habitat types hosted distinct butterfly communities, with Mediterranean species inclining either towards grasslands or open formations. Analysing the representation of life history traits revealed that successional development from grasslands and open formations towards scrub forest shifts the community composition towards species overwintering in earlier stages, having fewer generations per year, and inhabiting large European or Eurosiberian (e.g. northern) ranges; it decreases the representation of Mediterranean endemics. The loss of grasslands and semi-open formations due to forest encroachment thus threatens exactly the species that should be the focus of conservation attention in the Mediterranean region, and innovative conservation actions to prevent ongoing forest encroachment are badly needed. PMID:26999008

  2. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W), though mostly cloud covered in this view, is still readily identifiable because of the distinctive features of the Texas Gulf Coast. Galveston Island, Galveston Bay and the coastal prairie are in the clear. Most of the city of Houston is cloud covered but the Gulf Freeeway connecting Houston and Galveston can be traced for most of it's route.

  3. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W) is clearly represented in this view from space. The area covered stretches almost 300 miles from Aransas Pass, on the Texas coast in the south to Cameron, Louisiana in the north. The sharp detail of both the natural and cultural features throughout the scene is especially evident in the Houston area where highways, major streets, airport runways and even some neighborhood lanes can be easily seen.

  4. Thunderstorm, Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This thunderstorm along the Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.0W), USA is seen as the trailing edge of a large cloud mass formed along the leading edge of a spring frontal system stretching northwest to southeast across the Texas Gulf Coast. This system brought extensive severe weather and flooding to parts of Texas and surrounding states. Muddy water discharging from coastal streams can be seen in the shallow Gulf of Mexico as far south as Lavaca Bay.

  5. Fish assemblages of Mediterranean marine caves.

    PubMed

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  6. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  7. Three new species of the genus Paraleucilla Dendy, 1892 (Porifera, Calcarea) from the coast of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Menegola, Carla; Lanna, Emilio

    2014-02-13

    Three new species of calcareous sponges from the coast of Bahia State, NE Brazil are described. All of them belong to the genus Paraleucilla (Calcaronea, Leucosolenida, Amphoriscidae): P. solangeae sp. nov., P. oca sp. nov., and P. incomposita sp. nov. The number of species recorded from the Bahia coast has thus increased from 10 to 13. Including these new species, there are now 50 calcareous sponge species known from the entire Brazilian coast. Paraleucilla is now composed of 11 species, six of them occurring along the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The remaining species occur mainly in the Indian Ocean, and also in the Pacific Ocean, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. An identification key for all Paraleucilla species is provided. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Solange Peixinho, to acknowledge her contribution to our understanding of the biodiversity of Calcarea from the Bahia coast in Brazil.

  8. Nutrient and Phytoplankton Analysis of a Mediterranean Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiá, M. T.; Rodilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected ( Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  9. Nutrient and phytoplankton analysis of a Mediterranean coastal area.

    PubMed

    Sebastiá, M T; Rodilla, M

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected (Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  10. Characterization of PM10 sources in the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Marconi, M.; Frosini, D.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.; di Sarra, A.; Pace, G.; Meloni, D.; Bommarito, C.; Monteleone, F.; Anello, F.; Sferlazzo, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mediterranean Basin atmosphere is influenced by both strong natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions and is also subject to important climatic forcings. Several programs have addressed the study of the Mediterranean basin; nevertheless important pieces of information are still missing. In this framework, PM10 samples were collected on a daily basis on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E; 45 m a.s.l.), which is far from continental pollution sources (the nearest coast, in Tunisia, is more than 100 km away). After mass gravimetric measurements, different portions of the samples were analyzed to determine the ionic content by ion chromatography (IC), the soluble metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and the total (soluble + insoluble) elemental composition by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). Data from 2007 and 2008 are used in this study. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was applied to the 2-year long data set of PM10 mass concentration and chemical composition to assess the aerosol sources affecting the central Mediterranean basin. Seven sources were resolved: sea salt, mineral dust, biogenic emissions, primary particulate ship emissions, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and combustion emissions. Source contributions to the total PM10 mass were estimated to be about 40 % for sea salt, around 25 % for mineral dust, 10 % each for secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, and 5 % each for primary particulate ship emissions, biogenic emissions, and combustion emissions. Large variations in absolute and relative contributions are found and appear to depend on the season and on transport episodes. In addition, the secondary sulfate due to ship emissions was estimated and found to contribute by about one-third to the total sulfate mass. Results for the sea-salt and mineral dust sources were compared with estimates of the same contributions obtained from independent approaches, leading to an

  11. Characterization of PM10 sources in the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Marconi, M.; Frosini, D.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.; di Sarra, A.; Pace, G.; Meloni, D.; Bommarito, C.; Monteleone, F.; Anello, F.; Sferlazzo, D. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Mediterranean Basin atmosphere is influenced by both strong natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions, and is also subject to important climatic forcings. Several programs have addressed the study of the Mediterranean basin; nevertheless important pieces of information are still missing. In this framework, PM10 samples were collected on a daily basis on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E, 45 m a.s.l.), which is far from continental pollution sources (the nearest coast, in Tunisia, is more than 100 km away). After mass gravimetric measurements, different portions of the samples were analyzed to determine the ionic content by Ion Chromatography (IC), the soluble metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), and the total (soluble + insoluble) elemental composition by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Data from years 2007 and 2008 are used in this study. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was applied to the 2 year long data set of PM10 mass concentration and chemical composition to assess the aerosol sources affecting the Central Mediterranean basin. Seven sources were resolved: sea-salt, mineral dust, biogenic emissions, primary particulate ship emissions, secondary sulphate, secondary nitrate, and combustion emissions. Source contributions to the total PM10 mass were estimated to be about 40 % for sea-salt, around 25 % for mineral dust, 10 % each for secondary nitrate and secondary sulphate, and 5 % each for primary particulate ship emissions, biogenic emissions, and combustion emissions. Large variations in absolute and relative contributions are found and appear to depend on the season and on transport episodes. In addition, the secondary sulphate due to ship emissions was estimated, and found to contribute by about one third to the total sulphate mass. Results for the sea-salt and mineral dust sources were compared with estimates of the same contributions obtained from independent approaches, leading

  12. Seismicity of California's north coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    At least three moment magnitude (M) 7 earthquakes occurred along California's north coast in the second half of the nineteenth century. The M 7.3 earthquake on 23 November 1873 occurred near the California-Oregon coast and likely was located on the Cascadia subduction zone or within the North American plate. The M 7.0 + earthquake on 9 May 1878 was located about 75 km offshore near the Mendocino fault. The surface-wave magnitude (M(s)) 7.0 earthquake on 16 April 1899 was located about 150 km offshore within the Gorda plate. There were at least three M 7 north-coast earthquakes in the 35 years before 1906, two M 7 earthquakes in the 20 years after 1906, no M 7 earthquakes from 1923 until 1980, and four M 7 earthquakes since 1980. The relative seismic quiescence after 1906 for M 7 earthquakes along California's north coast mimics the post-1906 seismic quiescence in the San Francisco Bay area for M 6 earthquakes. The post-1906 relative quiescence did not extend to lower magnitudes in either area. The 18 April 1906 earthquake apparently influenced the rate of occurrence of M 7 north-coast earthquakes as it apparently influenced the rate of M 6 earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area. The relative seismic quiescence along the California north-coast region after 1906 should be taken into account when evaluating seismic hazards in northwest California.

  13. Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing Warming Trend.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. Numerous species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three environmental variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent warming in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms

  14. Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing Warming Trend.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. Numerous species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three environmental variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent warming in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms

  15. Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing Warming Trend

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E.; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. Numerous species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three environmental variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent warming in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms

  16. Palaeotsunamis and tsunami hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    England, Philip; Howell, Andrew; Jackson, James; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-10-28

    The dominant uncertainties in assessing tsunami hazard in the Eastern Mediterranean are attached to the location of the sources. Reliable historical reports exist for five tsunamis associated with earthquakes at the Hellenic plate boundary, including two that caused widespread devastation. Because most of the relative motion across this boundary is aseismic, however, the modern record of seismicity provides little or no information about the faults that are likely to generate such earthquakes. Independent geological and geophysical observations of two large historical to prehistorical earthquakes, in Crete and Rhodes, lead to a coherent framework in which large to great earthquakes occurred not on the subduction boundary, but on reverse faults within the overlying crust. We apply this framework to the less complete evidence from the remainder of the Hellenic plate boundary zone, identifying candidate sources for future tsunamigenic earthquakes. Each such source poses a significant hazard to the North African coast of the Eastern Mediterranean. Because modern rates of seismicity are irrelevant to slip on the tsunamigenic faults, and because historical and geological data are too sparse, there is no reliable basis for a probabilistic assessment of this hazard, and a precautionary approach seems advisable. PMID:26392624

  17. Heat flow map of the western Mediterranean basins

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, J.P.; Burrus, J.; Vedova, B.D.

    1988-08-01

    More than 400 terrestrial heat flow determinations have been carried our in the western Mediterranean basins. These include results of detailed surveys in the Ligurian Sea and in the Gulf of Lions and Tyrrhenian basins, as well as sparse measurements in the Gulf of Valencia and the Algerian basin. Most of the measurements are surficial, obtained from the temperatures sensed by outrigged thermistors mounted on weight-driven probes penetrating the sediment to 3 to 10 m. Thermal conductivity was measured either on cores or in situ. The authors present a heat flow map of the western Mediterranean basins based on the available geothermal results. Mean regional heat flow values range from 55 to 105 mW m/sup /minus/2/ in the Lugiran and Gulf of Lions basin and from 50 to 200 m mW m/sup /minus/2/ in the Tyrrhenian Sea. In the latter basin, high heat flow characterizes areas of recent intensive thinning of the continental crust and associated incipient oceanic crust formation. In the former basins, heat flow tends to increase from the Provencal coast of France to the Corsican and Sardinian margins, which may reflect on increasing heat contribution from the mantle.

  18. Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Colonial Waterbirds in the Mediterranean Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1996-01-01

    (excerpt from Forword) The Mediterranean Symposium, part of the annual conference of The Colonial Waterbird Society in October 1993 in Arles, France, was the successful culmination of ideas shared among leading European waterbird and wetland scientists... Both invited and contributed papers focused on two areas - breeding biology (especially of threatened or little known species), and feeding ecology. Eighteen oral presentations were given and 27 poster papers were developed.

  19. Volatile constituents of aerial parts of two Mediterranean species of Inula: Inula crithmoides L. and I. verbascifolia (Willd.) Hausskn. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fontana, Gianfranco; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice; Formisano, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Inula crithmoides L. grows along the Mediterranean coasts and is used as an edible vegetable as the young leaves or shoots are eaten raw, cooked or pickled. Inula verbascifolia (Willd.) Hausskn. is a quite localised species growing mainly along the Adriatic Sea coasts. In this study the volatile components of the aerial part of both species are described. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of 41 components in I.crithmoides and 75 compounds in I.verbascifolia, respectively, and a very different profile in the composition of the two species. The chemotaxonomy of I. crithmoides, by comparison with other data reported in the literature, is discussed.

  20. The Mediterranean is becoming saltier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghini, M.; Bryden, H.; Schroeder, K.; Sparnocchia, S.; Vetrano, A.

    2014-08-01

    The deep waters of the western Mediterranean Sea have become saltier and warmer for at least the past 40 years at rates of about 0.015 and 0.04 °C per decade. Here we show that two processes contribute to these increases in temperature and salinity. On interannual timescales, deep water formation events in severe winters transmit increasingly salty intermediate waters into the deep water. The second process is a steady downward flux of heat and salt associated with salt finger mixing down through the halocline-thermocline that connects the Levantine Intermediate Water with the deep water. We illustrate these two processes with observations from repeat surveys of the western Mediterranean basin we have made over the past 10 years.

  1. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    PubMed

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  2. ENSURF: multi-model sea level forecast - implementation and validation results for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, B.; Brouwer, R.; Beckers, J.; Paradis, D.; Balseiro, C.; Lyons, K.; Cure, M.; Sotillo, M. G.; Hackett, B.; Verlaan, M.; Fanjul, E. A.

    2012-03-01

    ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of several storm surge or circulation models and near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals: 1. providing easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate visualization tool; 2. generation of better forecasts of sea level, including confidence intervals, by means of the Bayesian Model Average technique (BMA). The Bayesian Model Average technique generates an overall forecast probability density function (PDF) by making a weighted average of the individual forecasts PDF's; the weights represent the Bayesian likelihood that a model will give the correct forecast and are continuously updated based on the performance of the models during a recent training period. This implies the technique needs the availability of sea level data from tide gauges in near-real time. The system was implemented for the European Atlantic facade (IBIROOS region) and Western Mediterranean coast based on the MATROOS visualization tool developed by Deltares. Results of validation of the different models and BMA implementation for the main harbours are presented for these regions where this kind of activity is performed for the first time. The system is currently operational at Puertos del Estado and has proved to be useful in the detection of calibration problems in some of the circulation models, in the identification of the systematic differences between baroclinic and barotropic models for sea level forecasts and to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an overall probabilistic forecast, based on the BMA method.

  3. Morbilliviruses in Mediterranean monk seals.

    PubMed

    van de Bildt, M W; Vedder, E J; Martina, B E; Sidi, B A; Jiddou, A B; Ould Barham, M E; Androukaki, E; Komnenou, A; Niesters, H G; Osterhaus, A D

    1999-09-01

    Two morbilliviruses were isolated from Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus), one from a stranded animal in Greece and the other one from carcasses washed ashore during a mass die-off in Mauritania. From both viruses N and P gene fragments were sequenced and compared to those of other known morbilliviruses. The monk seal morbilliviruses most closely resembled previously identified cetacean morbilliviruses, indicating that interspecies transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds has occurred. PMID:10515264

  4. Ecological quality of some Tunisian coast and lagoon locations, by using benthic community parameters and biotic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afli, Ahmed; Ayari, Rakia; Zaabi, Sana

    2008-11-01

    Three Tunisian coastal and lagoon sites, variously affected by human activities, and differing according to their degree of communication with the sea, were studied. The total organic matter content and the granulometry of the sediment were measured and the macro-invertebrates were sampled and identified. Currently due to the lack of an efficient single biotic index for quality assessment, indications from these measurements can contribute to enrich our knowledge of the southern Mediterranean areas. Several biotic indices (AMBI, BENTIX, BOPA, BOPA modified, I2EC, ITI), most of which have been used in the context of the European Water Framework Directive, and some other structural parameters were used. The results show that the Bizerte lagoon, an almost closed area characterized mainly by extreme salinity/temperature and with a strong fluctuation of nutrients, appears biologically more impoverished. The Dkhila coast, which is more open to the sea, however, appears to be less dominated by the principal species. Biotic indices showed that the most polluted areas included the region exposed to urban inputs of Bizerte, the mouth of Hamdoun wadi and the harbour areas. In these locations, benthic macrofauna is dominated by opportunistic species like Capitella capitata, Scolelepis fuliginosa, Prionospio malmgreni, Polydora sp., Cirratulus cirratus and Cirriformia tentaculata. Other stations, which are farther from the sources of disturbance such as the mouths of the principal Wadis, the south of the Bizerte ship canal and the south of the Tunis bay, appear to be in good ecological condition and hosted a variety of sensitive species, Other stations were classified differently by the biotic indices used mainly because of the lack of a real inter-calibration of the various classification methodologies used by these indices.

  5. Analysis of Evaporation Sources and Hydrological Cycle over the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, A.; Jacob, D.

    2010-09-01

    Mediterranean hydrological cycle is investigated in this work. Evaporation sources climatology for precipitation is calculated and analyzed for winter and summer seasons in the period from 1961 to 2002. Air parcels are tracked backwards to assess moisture sources that contribute to local precipitation over chosen locations. The regions considered are south Europe and Mediterranean areas. High resolution datasets (25 km x 25 km) from two different climate simulations are used in this analysis. The simulations were carried out using the regional atmosphere (REMO) and ocean (MPIOM) models developed at Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. One simulation was carried out using only the atmospheric component with prescribed sea surface temperature from reanalysis data. The second simulation was performed with an atmosphere-ocean coupled version to include an active air-sea interaction in the Mediterranean Sea. Strong seasonally differences in spatial distribution and magnitude for the moisture sources are observed. In winter, when the marine evaporation is higher, the main source of evaporation is located at the sea side near the western and nortern coasts of Europe and north of the Mediterranean Sea, meanwhile in summer, the mayor moisture contribution comes from land areas and larger recycling ratio values are observed.

  6. Large Scale Moisture Fluxes that are related to dry and wet conditions over Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Sinan; Luterbacher, Juerg; Xoplaki, Elena; Turkes, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Large scale moisture flux analysis was carried out for the Mediterranean Basin in order to investigate the large scale atmospheric controls on moisture flux convergence that are related to dry and wet conditions. The seasonal moisture budget (precipitation minus evaporation) was calculated using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction - National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data for the period 1949-2014. We focus on winter and summer circulation patterns for explaining the changes in dry and wet conditions rather than spring and autumn, as the transitional nature and characterization of these seasons are more uncertain in the Mediterranean basin. The driest and wettest years were chosen according to Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the differences between those years and average conditions were compared statistically and graphically. According to results, large scale climate changes over Mediterranean Region are linked to significant changes of the moisture fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico region and partially in the US East coast especially for wet years. Therefore the climatic role of the Gulf Stream for extreme climate conditions over Mediterranean region should be investigated.

  7. Partial duration series distributions of the European dry spell lengths for the second half of the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, C.; Lana, Xavier; Burgueño, A.; Martínez, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    A spatial analysis of partial duration series, PDS, of the dry spell lengths, DSL, is applied to 267 European stations during years 1951-2000. A DSL is defined as the number of consecutive days with precipitation below 0.1 mm/day. For every station, PDS are made of DSL longer than those corresponding to 95th empirical percentile. The L-skewness and L-kurtosis diagram of the PDS distributions shows that most of the stations fit well a generalised Pareto, GP, model. Only four rain gauge records at the southeast Mediterranean coast notably depart from this model. In addition, DSL maps for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 years are introduced by taking into account GP parameters, which are estimated by fitting the GP distribution to empirical PDS distributions of DSL. A comparative study with those obtained in a previous paper, for the whole DSL series and the corresponding best distribution model (Pearson type III), shows that the differences of DSL for the different return periods keep within ±10 % in most of rain gauges. Moreover, a principal component analysis, PCA, is applied to the four first L-moments of the 267 rain gauges. Then, a regionalization in 11 groups is obtained after the clustering process. Finally, a regional frequency analysis is attempted, being possible to assign a GP parent distribution with different parameters to 7 out of the 11 groups.

  8. Regional and long-range transport scenarios for photo-oxidants on the Mediterranean basin in summer

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.; Mantilla, E.; Salvador, R.; Kallos, G.

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric research, begun in 1988, has shown that the dynamics of air pollutants in the Mediterranean basin in summer are governed by processes ranging from local to large meso-scale with diurnal cycles. Large scale convection over some regions, and up-slope winds in others, can inject aged pollutants into the Mid-troposphere, where they can participate in long-range processes within Southern and Central Europe. Two scenarios have been identified for the regional and long-range transport of photo-oxidants and other pollutants within, and out of, the Western Mediterranean basin. The first scenario involves the pollutants injected over the Spanish Central Plateau directly into the mid-troposphere, and the second, the reservoir layers created along the Mediterranean coast. In the second scenario the key components are: the semi-permanent high(er) pressure area over the colder waters in the Gulf of Lion-Western Mediterranean basin, the mountain ranges which surround it, and the coastal processes. During the day the coastal circulations renovate the upper reservoir layers while the lower ones are drawn inland with the sea-breeze, and effective flow is mostly perpendicular to the coast.

  9. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas

    PubMed Central

    Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narščius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  10. Tsunami deposits in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and implications for hazard assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Raphael; Wassmer, Patrick; Roger, Jean; Loevenbruck, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Significant earthquakes occur along the north Algerian and Carboneras faults (e.g. Djijelli 1865, Zemmouri 2003) and they may generate tsunamis in the western Mediterranean Basin and Alboran Sea, where tsunami hazard are poorly documented. The coast of southern Spain and Balearic Islands are densely populated, with touristic areas and important harbors. The 2003 event generated a small tsunami in the Balearic Islands (ships were moved by oscillations during more than 2 hours in some harbors). Reicherter et al. (2009) found evidences of two past tsunamis in lagoon of the Cabo de Gata (near Almeria), which they ascribed to the 1522 earthquake and an earlier event (< 850 BP). Field surveys along the coasts of Mallorca and Menorca islands revealed few evidences of past tsunamis. Thin sandy layers with marine bioclasts, possibly deposited by tsunamis, were found in three areas at altitudes always lower than 2m. Boulder clusters were found along the southern coast of Mallorca, but they could have been deposited by storms as well. These investigations are realized in the framework of the MAREMOTI project, funded by the French ANR and leaded by the CEA - DASE. Reicherter, K., Becker-Heidmann, P., 2009. Tsunami deposits in the western Mediterranean: remains of the 1522 Almeria earthquake? Geological Society Special Publications, London, 316, 217-235.

  11. Analysis of current intensification in the Northwest Mediterranean shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestres, M.; Grifoll, M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2016-02-01

    Flow intensification episodes lasting more than 12 h are observed occasionally at different locations along the Northwestern Mediterranean coast. In the last years, these pulses have hindered ship operations outside the Barcelona harbour, thus attracting the attention of the port authorities. In this paper, the strongest intensification events in the Barcelona coast area are quantified and characterized in order to identify the mechanisms which generate them. For this, current, sea level and meteorological measured and modelled data, at local and regional scale, are analysed. The results show that the flow accelerations are due to the combination of a narrow coastal shelf and the prevalence of a strong and sustained wind from the NE to SE. The synoptic atmospheric conditions that lead to this meteorological scenario are described. For one of the events, the presence and contribution to the current fluctuations of a coastal trapped wave, likely generated at the Eastern edge of the Gulf of Lions shelf, and other factors such as a freshwater discharge are also identified and discussed.

  12. Distribution and assessment of marine debris in the deep Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Michela; di Lorenzo, Bianca; Farcomeni, Alessio; Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Santangelo, Giovanni; Cau, Angelo; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Cau, Alessandro; Sacco, Flavio; Canese, Simonepietro

    2015-03-15

    Marine debris is a recognized global ecological concern. Little is known about the extent of the problem in the Mediterranean Sea regarding litter distribution and its influence on deep rocky habitats. A quantitative assessment of debris present in the deep seafloor (30-300 m depth) was carried out in 26 areas off the coast of three Italian regions in the Tyrrhenian Sea, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The dominant type of debris (89%) was represented by fishing gears, mainly lines, while plastic objects were recorded only occasionally. Abundant quantities of gears were found on rocky banks in Sicily and Campania (0.09-0.12 debris m(-2)), proving intense fishing activity. Fifty-four percent of the recorded debris directly impacted benthic organisms, primarily gorgonians, followed by black corals and sponges. This work provides a first insight on the impact of marine debris in Mediterranean deep ecosystems and a valuable baseline for future comparisons. PMID:25604749

  13. Distribution and assessment of marine debris in the deep Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Michela; di Lorenzo, Bianca; Farcomeni, Alessio; Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Santangelo, Giovanni; Cau, Angelo; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Cau, Alessandro; Sacco, Flavio; Canese, Simonepietro

    2015-03-15

    Marine debris is a recognized global ecological concern. Little is known about the extent of the problem in the Mediterranean Sea regarding litter distribution and its influence on deep rocky habitats. A quantitative assessment of debris present in the deep seafloor (30-300 m depth) was carried out in 26 areas off the coast of three Italian regions in the Tyrrhenian Sea, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The dominant type of debris (89%) was represented by fishing gears, mainly lines, while plastic objects were recorded only occasionally. Abundant quantities of gears were found on rocky banks in Sicily and Campania (0.09-0.12 debris m(-2)), proving intense fishing activity. Fifty-four percent of the recorded debris directly impacted benthic organisms, primarily gorgonians, followed by black corals and sponges. This work provides a first insight on the impact of marine debris in Mediterranean deep ecosystems and a valuable baseline for future comparisons.

  14. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; Van Campo, Elise

    2016-04-29

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20(th) century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas.

  15. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; Van Campo, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20th century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas. PMID:27126207

  16. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; van Campo, Elise

    2016-04-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20th century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas.

  17. Trace elements in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean: A 10-years perspective.

    PubMed

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Goffman, Oz; Harlavan, Yehudit; Kress, Nurit; Morick, Danny; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Shefer, Edna; Kerem, Dan

    2016-08-15

    Concentrations of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and As, in kidney, liver, muscle and blubber from 7 specimens of Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast (IMC) from 2006 to 2011 (2011-series) were determined and compared to previous data on S. coeruleoalba from the IMC (2001-series). No differences were observed in essential and toxic elements concentrations, between the two series, except for hepatic Mn which was higher in the latter. Hg/Se molar ratios in blubber, kidney and liver increased linearly with log Hg concentrations, while muscle was more heterogenic in this respect. Means (±SD) of hepatic Hg concentrations (134±89 and 181±200mgkg(-1), from the 2011 and 2001 series, respectively) were similar to that found in 2007-2009 specimens from Spain, possibly reflecting the relatively high natural background levels of mercury in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27210566

  18. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; Van Campo, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20(th) century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas. PMID:27126207

  19. Toward a dynamic biogeochemical division of the Mediterranean Sea in a context of global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Olivier Irisson, Jean; Guieu, Cecile; Gasparini, Stephane; Ayata, Sakina; Koubbi, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    European project PERSEUS (Protecting EuRopean Seas and borders through the intelligence US of surveillance) and the French program MERMEX (Marine Ecosystems Response in the Mediterranean Experiment).

  20. Future local and remote influences on Mediterranean ozone air quality and climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Steve; Martin, Maria Val; Emmons, Louisa; Rap, Alex; Heald, Colette; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

    2013-04-01

    under both RCP scenarios, and a significant increase in ozone between 5-10km. Using tagged regional NOy and tropospheric ozone tracers, we show that this ozone increase is coincident with an increase in easterly import of ozone and precursors in upper tropospheric outflow from Asian monsoon convection in 2050. We present a breakdown of the projected Mediterranean ozone changes by precursor source (anthropogenic and biogenic), and contributions due to changes in climate. Finally, we estimate the implications of the predicted changes in tropospheric composition for Mediterranean air quality and climate in 2050, and the consequences for the effectiveness of European policies aimed at protecting the region's climate and public health.

  1. Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route

    PubMed Central

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Brucato, Nicolas; Duranthon, Francis; Guilaine, Jean; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    The Neolithic is a key period in the history of the European settlement. Although archaeological and present-day genetic data suggest several hypotheses regarding the human migration patterns at this period, validation of these hypotheses with the use of ancient genetic data has been limited. In this context, we studied DNA extracted from 53 individuals buried in a necropolis used by a French local community 5,000 y ago. The relatively good DNA preservation of the samples allowed us to obtain autosomal, Y-chromosomal, and/or mtDNA data for 29 of the 53 samples studied. From these datasets, we established close parental relationships within the necropolis and determined maternal and paternal lineages as well as the absence of an allele associated with lactase persistence, probably carried by Neolithic cultures of central Europe. Our study provides an integrative view of the genetic past in southern France at the end of the Neolithic period. Furthermore, the Y-haplotype lineages characterized and the study of their current repartition in European populations confirm a greater influence of the Mediterranean than the Central European route in the peopling of southern Europe during the Neolithic transition. PMID:21628562

  2. Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route.

    PubMed

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Brucato, Nicolas; Duranthon, Francis; Guilaine, Jean; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2011-06-14

    The Neolithic is a key period in the history of the European settlement. Although archaeological and present-day genetic data suggest several hypotheses regarding the human migration patterns at this period, validation of these hypotheses with the use of ancient genetic data has been limited. In this context, we studied DNA extracted from 53 individuals buried in a necropolis used by a French local community 5,000 y ago. The relatively good DNA preservation of the samples allowed us to obtain autosomal, Y-chromosomal, and/or mtDNA data for 29 of the 53 samples studied. From these datasets, we established close parental relationships within the necropolis and determined maternal and paternal lineages as well as the absence of an allele associated with lactase persistence, probably carried by Neolithic cultures of central Europe. Our study provides an integrative view of the genetic past in southern France at the end of the Neolithic period. Furthermore, the Y-haplotype lineages characterized and the study of their current repartition in European populations confirm a greater influence of the Mediterranean than the Central European route in the peopling of southern Europe during the Neolithic transition.

  3. Influence of Different Environmental Variables on Energy and Carbon Fluxes in a Mediterranean Maquis Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucco, V.; Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies show that, in the Mediterranean area, global climate changes are likely causing an increase in frequency and intensity of drought periods as well as in the number of warmer days and nights. Mediterranean maquis (schlerophyll species) is a typical evergreen ecosystem consisting of short shrubs with leathery leaves sparsely distributed. It is adapted to live in a semi-arid climate as that of Mediterranean coasts and can survive to these environmental stress condition, being able to recover after autumn rainfall. However, increased environmental stress condition may determine changes in vegetation behavior in the long period. The aim of this study is to show the seasonal variability of sensible and latent heat, and CO2 exchanges measured, with the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique, over a Mediterranean Maquis site. It is located, about 600 m far from the sea, in the Capo Caccia peninsula (municipal district of Alghero (SS), Italy) within a natural reserve called "Le Prigionette", also known as Arca di Noé, in the North-West Sardinia coast (40.61° N, 8.15° E, 74 m asl). Due to this proximity of the EC tower to the sea, the ecosystem vertical exchanges and their footprint may be differently affected by sea and land breeze during days and nights, respectively. A four-component net radiometer, a quantum sensor, and a meteorological station were also set up for ancillary measurements as well as four heat plates in four different positions to account for under canopy and bare soil conditions in the Maquis ecosystem. Therefore, the influence of different environmental variables, such as soil/air temperature, atmospheric conditions and soil moisture content, on energy and carbon fluxes will be investigated and their effect on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface fluxes will be analyzed.

  4. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries. PMID:16057188

  5. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  6. Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Lucchetti, Dario; Melotti, Paolo; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Zambon, Stefano; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach. PMID:25020099

  7. Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Lucchetti, Dario; Melotti, Paolo; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Zambon, Stefano; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach.

  8. Mediterranean diets: are they environmentally responsible?

    PubMed

    Gussow, J D

    1995-06-01

    Dietary recommendations made to promote health seldom, if ever, take account of environmental implications of producing recommended foods. This paper considers several aspects of the traditional Mediterranean diet in relation to global sustainability. Plant-centered diets, such as those consumed around the Mediterranean Sea during the 1950s and 1960s, would be environmentally beneficial because they imply need for a much smaller population of domestic animals and, consequently, lowered demand on soil, water, and energy resources. Although fish consumption is high in some Mediterranean diets, fish should not be used to replace animal flesh because all of the world's major fisheries are currently overexploited. As for the appropriateness of Mediterranean fresh fruit and vegetables (which would need to be imported into non-Mediterranean regions), locally producible substitutes should be used wherever possible to reduce the environmental costs of transporting food great distances. Research is needed to examine the environmental consequences of certain exports such as olive oil.

  9. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Shift in trophic level of Mediterranean mariculture species.

    PubMed

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Adamopoulos, Nikolaos; Pauly, Daniel; Mente, Eleni

    2014-08-01

    The mean trophic level of the farmed fish species in the Mediterranean has been increasing. We examined the farming-up hypothesis (i.e., the increase in the production of high-trophic-level species) in the Mediterranean by determining the trophic level of the aquafeeds (i.e., what the fish are fed) of 5 species of farmed marine fishes: common dentex (Dentex dentex), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and red porgy (Pagrus sp.). The mean trophic level of aquafeed used in mariculture from 1950 to 2011 was higher (3.93) than the prey farmed fish consume in the wild (3.72) and increased at a faster rate (0.48/decade) compared with that based on their diets in the wild (0.43/decade). Future expected replacement of the fishmeal and oil in aquafeeds by plant materials may reverse the farming-up trend, although there are a number of concerns regarding operational, nutritional, environmental, and economic issues. The farming-up reversal can be achieved in an ecologically friendly manner by facilitating the mariculture of low-trophic-level fishes and by promoting high efficiency in the use of living marine resources in aquafeeds.

  11. Shift in trophic level of Mediterranean mariculture species.

    PubMed

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Adamopoulos, Nikolaos; Pauly, Daniel; Mente, Eleni

    2014-08-01

    The mean trophic level of the farmed fish species in the Mediterranean has been increasing. We examined the farming-up hypothesis (i.e., the increase in the production of high-trophic-level species) in the Mediterranean by determining the trophic level of the aquafeeds (i.e., what the fish are fed) of 5 species of farmed marine fishes: common dentex (Dentex dentex), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and red porgy (Pagrus sp.). The mean trophic level of aquafeed used in mariculture from 1950 to 2011 was higher (3.93) than the prey farmed fish consume in the wild (3.72) and increased at a faster rate (0.48/decade) compared with that based on their diets in the wild (0.43/decade). Future expected replacement of the fishmeal and oil in aquafeeds by plant materials may reverse the farming-up trend, although there are a number of concerns regarding operational, nutritional, environmental, and economic issues. The farming-up reversal can be achieved in an ecologically friendly manner by facilitating the mariculture of low-trophic-level fishes and by promoting high efficiency in the use of living marine resources in aquafeeds. PMID:24628519

  12. Annual and spatial variation in the abundance length and condition of juvenile turbot ( Psetta maxima L.) on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland: 2000-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Paula S.; Brophy, Deirdre; McGrath, David; O'Callaghan, Roisin; Comerford, Stephen; Casburn, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Turbot ( Psetta maxima Linnaeus) is a high value commercially exploited marine flatfish which occurs in European waters, from the Northeast Atlantic to the Arctic Circle, the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea. In Ireland, turbot are the most valuable commercial non-quota species. Very little is known about their population dynamics in the wild, in particular during the sandy beach nursery phase of the life history. In 2000, a survey was established to assess flatfish species on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland. Eleven sandy beaches were assessed for 0+ turbot by beach seining, over an eight year period (2000-2007) during the months of August and September. The objective of the study was to estimate juvenile turbot abundance and size structure to determine if any spatial and annual trends existed. Large scale variability in the recruitment of fish to nursery grounds may be indicative of fluctuations in the adult stock. Turbot were found to recruit to five beaches consistently over the eight year period. Temporal and spatial variability in the relative abundance and length of turbot was discerned, with no apparent overall trend. However, certain nursery grounds were shown in most of the years examined to support higher abundances of turbot in comparison to other areas over the eight year period. Turbot abundances on nursery grounds were significantly correlated with mean spring sea temperatures during the pelagic stage. The condition of turbot did not significantly differ on an annual or spatial scale. Mean densities of 0+ turbot along the Irish coast were found to be similar and at times higher than other areas in Europe, ranging from 0.1 (± 0.3) individuals 1000 m - 2 to 18.5 (± 6.9) individuals 1000 m - 2 . Mean turbot total length on beaches ranged from 3.8 cm (± 0.6) to 6.6 cm (± 4.3). The observed spatial and temporal variability in abundance and length highlights the need for long-term studies when assessing juvenile flatfish populations. Results

  13. Optical and Microphysical Retrievals of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds off the Coast of Namibia from Satellite and Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, and fundamental atmospheric research. The archived MODIS Collection 5 cloud products processing stream will be used to analyze low water cloud scenes off the Namibian and Angolan coasts during SAFARI 2000 time period, as well as other years. Pixel-level Terra and Aqua MODIS retrievals (l. km spatial resolution at nadir) and gridded (1' uniform grid) statistics of cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius will be presented, including joint probability distributions between the two quantities. In addition, perspectives from the MODIS Airborne Simulator, which flew on the ER-2 during SAFARI 2000 providing high spatial resolution retrievals (50 m at nadir), will be presented as appropriate. The H-SAF Program requires an experimental operational European-centric Satellite Precipitation Algorithm System (E-SPAS) that produces medium spatial resolution and high temporal resolution surface rainfall and snowfall estimates over the Greater European Region including the Greater Mediterranean Basin. Currently, there are various types of experimental operational algorithm methods of differing spatiotemporal resolutions that generate global precipitation estimates. This address will first assess the current status of these methods and then recommend a methodology for the H-SAF Program that deviates somewhat from the current approach under development but one that takes advantage of existing techniques and existing software developed for the TRMM Project and available through the public domain.

  14. DNA barcoding reveals a cryptic nemertean invasion in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Ángel; Machordom, Annie

    2013-09-01

    For several groups, like nemerteans, morphology-based identification is a hard discipline, but DNA barcoding may help non-experts in the identification process. In this study, DNA barcoding is used to reveal the cryptic invasion of Pacific Cephalothrix cf. simula into Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. Although DNA barcoding is a promising method for the identification of Nemertea, only 6 % of the known number of nemertean species is currently associated with a correct DNA barcode. Therefore, additional morphological and molecular studies are necessary to advance the utility of DNA barcoding in the characterisation of possible nemertean alien invasions.

  15. Ivory Coast: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in the Ivory Coast begins with an overview of the usage patterns of French, the official language, and the five most commonly used native languages: Jula, Anyi-Baoule, Senoufo, Bete, and Dan. Recent Ivorian efforts at language planning, development, and research are also highlighted. A matrix follows that…

  16. French in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  17. Mediterranean Tropical-like Cyclones: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchia, Leone; von Storch, Hans; Gualdi, Silvio

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin is characterized by the genesis of a large number of cyclonic systems. Most of the cyclones generated in this area have a baroclinic nature. A few storms every year, however, develop a dynamical evolution similar to the one of tropical cyclones, showing an axis-symmetric vertical profile, a warm core, a cloud-free eye surrounded by a cloud cover with spiral shape, and winds up to the hurricane speed. The strongest between such storms exhibit a striking resemblance to the lower-latitudes hurricanes, except for the mesoscale spatial extent, and have thus been termed medicanes (Mediterranean hurricanes). Medicanes are considered rare phenomena, - the number of observed cases documented in the literature is around ten - but are associated to severe damage on coastal areas. Due to the scarcity of observations over sea, and to the coarse resolution of the long-term reanalysis datasets, it is difficult to construct a homogeneous statistics of the formation of medicanes. Using an approach (tested on a number of historical medicane cases) based on the high-resolution dynamical downscaling of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and exploiting an objective detection algorithm specifically designed to single out the features of medicanes, the statistical properties of such storms (annual cycle, decadal and inter-annual variability, geographical distribution, trends) over the last six decades have been studied in a systematic way, and the linkage between the frequency of medicanes formation and synoptic patterns has been investigated. It was found that medicanes occur indeed with a low frequency, and that they are formed mostly during the cold season in the western Mediterranean and in the region extending between the Ionian Sea and the northern coast of Africa. The analysis of the environmental factors related with the formation of medicanes shows that the genesis mechanism requires a sufficiently large difference between the sea surface temperature and the

  18. The approach of the PREFER project to wildfire prevention and damage assessment in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Tampellini, Maria Lucia; Vimercati, Marco; Hirn, Barbara; Sebastian-Lopez, Ana; Diagourtas, Dimitri; Eftychidis, Georgios; Clandillon, Stephen; Caspard, Mathilde; Oliveira, Sandra; Lourenco, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus Emergency project funded from the 2012 FP7 Space Work Programme, and it is aimed at developing products and services that will contribute to improve the European capacity to respond to the preparedness, prevention, and recovery management steps in the case of forest fire emergency cycle, with focus on the Mediterranean area. It is well known from the most recent reports on state of Europe's forests that the Mediterranean area is particularly affected by uncontrolled forest fires, with a number of negative consequences on ecosystems, such as desertification and soil erosion, and on the local economy. Most likely, the current risks of forest fires will be exacerbated by climate change. In particular, the climate of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin is projected to warm at a rate exceeding the global average. Wild fires will therefore remain the most serious threat to Southern European forests. In this situation, the need to collect better information and more knowledge concerning future risks of forest fires and fire prevention in the Mediterranean area is widely recognized to be a major urgent one. As part of the Copernicus programme (i.e. the European Earth Observation Programme), PREFER is based on advanced geo-information products using in particular the earth observation data acquired and developed in the frame of Copernicus. The objective of the PREFER project, started at the end of 2012, 8 partners (from Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Greece) involved and three years schedule, is the design, development and demonstration of a pre-operational "end-to-end" information service, fully exploiting satellite sensors data and able to support prevention/ preparedness and recovery phases of the Forest Fires emergency cycle in the EU Mediterranean Region. The PREFER information is as general as to be usable in the different countries of the Mediterranean Region, and acts in full complement to already existing services, such as the EC

  19. EGPM - The proposed European contribution to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, A.; Egpm Mission Advisory Group

    2003-04-01

    At the beginning of January 2002, an international scientific consortium (the EGPM Science Team) constituted by numerous scientists involved in several disciplines related to precipitation, submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) a proposal titled "EGPM: European contribution to the Global Precipitation Mission" in response to ESA's second call for proposals for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions (EEOMs). The principle objective of the EGPM proposal was to encourage ESA to directly engage in the international organization for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission formulated by NASA and NASDA, by providing one member of the GPM constellation of satellites aimed at providing frequent global rainfall observations for an extended operations period starting in the time frame of 2007. Noteworthy, a large part of the European scientific and operational community is strongly interested in GPM. Especially, the operational community related to NWP, nowcasting and hydrological hazards would take advantage of Europe being part of the constellation, because this would guarantee direct access to real-time data. The proposed EGPM satellite should satisfy, in association with the overall GPM constellation, the following "regional" requirements: - Improve the rainfall estimation accuracy with respect to SSM/I; - Enhance the detectability of light rain and snowfall, specifically over land, as appropriate for Northern Europe and Canada and in mid-latitude oceanic perturbations; - Provide a significant contribution to the monitoring and the understanding of hazardous and flash-flood producing storms along the Mediterranean coasts; - Improve the forecast skill of global and regional NWP models through data assimilation of precipitation measurements; - Provide direct-read-out data for real-time applications, as well as global data acquisition. To this end, the scientific payload of the EGPM satellite would consist of an advanced conically scanning microwave radiometer

  20. Total mercury and its distribution in blue crab and deep water pink shrimp from Alexandria coast.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, E K; Moharram, Y G; el-Sokkary, I; Telb, A I

    1987-01-01

    Total mercury content and its distribution in muscles and viscera of male and female blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rothbum) and deep water pink shrimp (Parapenacus longirostris) collected from the 3 main fishing grounds near the Alexandria coast in the Mediterranean sea was estimated. The results indicate that the mercury content in the muscles of both species differ according to fishing areas, size, sex, and species. More than 75% of total mercury were accumulated in the viscera of both species which indicates that the mercury entered in these organisms via the feed chain.

  1. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    In response to the EC call ENV.2012.6.4-2 (Long-term monitoring experiments in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept - FP7-ENV-2012-two-stage) a wide community of volcanological institutions proposed the project Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV), which is in the negotiation phase at the time of writing. The Consortium is composed by 18 European University and research institutes, four Small or Medium Enterprises (SME) and two non-European University and research institutes. MED-SUV will improve the consortium capacity of assessment of volcanic hazards in Supersites of Southern Italy by optimising and integrating existing and new observation/monitoring systems, by a breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes and by increasing the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities. More than 3 million of people are exposed to potential volcanic hazards in a large region in the Mediterranean Sea, where two among the largest European volcanic areas are located: Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. This project will fully exploit the unique detailed long-term in-situ monitoring data sets available for these volcanoes and integrate with Earth Observation (EO) data, setting the basic tools for a significant step ahead in the discrimination of pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of volcanic phenomena observed on these volcanoes, which can be assumed as archetypes of 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcano, together with the long-term multidisciplinary data sets give an exceptional opportunity to improve the understanding of a very wide spectrum of geo-hazards, as well as implementing and testing a large variety of innovative models of ground deformation and motion. Important impacts on the European industrial sector are expected, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new

  2. Sequencing type material resolves the identity and distribution of the generitype Lithophyllum incrustans, and related European species L. hibernicum and L. bathyporum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J; Rindi, Fabio; Adey, Walter H; Heesch, Svenja; Peña, Viviana; Le Gall, Line; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    DNA sequences from type material in the nongeniculate coralline genus Lithophyllum were used to unambiguously link some European species names to field-collected specimens, thus providing a great advance over morpho-anatomical identifi-cation. In particular, sequence comparisons of rbcL, COI and psbA genes from field-collected specimens allowed the following conclusion: the generitype species, L. incrustans, occurs mostly as subtidal rhodoliths and crusts on both Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, and not as the common, NE Atlantic, epilithic, intertidal crust reported in the literature. The heterotypic type material of L. hibernicum was narrowed to one rhodolith belonging in Lithophyllum. As well as occurring as a subtidal rhodolith, L. hibernicum is a common, epilithic and epizoic crust in the intertidal zone from Ireland south to Mediterranean France. A set of four features distinguished L. incrustans from L. hibernicum, including epithallial cell diameter, pore canal shape of sporangial conceptacles and sporangium height and diameter. An rbcL sequence of the lectotype of Lithophyllum bathyporum, which was recently proposed to accommodate Atlantic intertidal collections of L. incrustans, corresponded to a distinct taxon hitherto known only from Brittany as the subtidal, bisporangial, lectotype, but also occurs intertidally in Atlantic Spain. Specimens from Ireland and France morpho-anatomically identified as L. fasciculatum and a specimen from Cornwall likewise identified as L. duckerae were resolved as L. incrustans and L. hibernicum, respectively. PMID:26986797

  3. Retrieval of eddy dynamics from SMOS sea surface salinity measurements in the Algerian Basin (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Olmedo, Estrella; Turiel, Antonio; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; García-Ladona, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    The circulation in the Algerian Basin is characterized by the presence of fresh-core eddies that propagate along the coast or at distances between 100 and 200 km from the coast. Enhancements in the processing of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) data have allowed to produce, for the first time, satellite sea surface salinity (SSS) maps in the Mediterranean Sea that capture the signature of Algerian eddies. SMOS data can be used to track them for long periods of time, especially during winter. SMOS SSS maps are well correlated with in situ measurements although the former has a smaller dynamical range. Despite this limitation, SMOS SSS maps capture the key dynamics of Algerian eddies allowing to retrieve velocities from SSS with the correct sign of vorticity.

  4. Mineral composition of some varieties of beans from Mediterranean and Tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Naccari, Clara; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Rastrelli, Luca; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this study has been evaluated the mineral composition (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Sb, V, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of some varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata and V. angularis) from Mediterranean and Tropical areas of the world (Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast); the correlation between beans mineral composition in micro and macroelements and botanical and/or geographical origin; trace elements dietary intake by beans consumption. The results showed a correlation between beans mineral composition and their geographical origin, with higher values in Ivory Coast samples. Moreover, minerals content found confirmed the importance of these legumes in the diet for the significant content of essential micro and macroelements and a safe consumption of beans for the low residual levels of toxic metals. PMID:26940501

  5. Modelling surface currents in the Eastern Levantine Mediterranean using surface drifters and satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Leila; Brajard, Julien; Fakhri, Milad; Hayes, Daniel; Mortier, Laurent; Poulain, Pierre-Marie

    2016-08-01

    We present a new and fast method that blends altimetric and drifter positions data in order to predict the surface velocity in the Eastern Levantine Mediterranean. The method relies on a variational assimilation approach where a velocity correction is continuously obtained by matching observed drifter positions with those predicted by a simple advection model. The background velocity used in the advection of the drifters is the aggregate of a geostrophic and a wind-driven component and the velocity correction is constrained to be divergence free. The algorithm employs a sliding time window that assimilates at once and inside each frame, an entire trajectory of drifters. We show that with few drifters, our method improves the estimation of velocity in two typical situations: an eddy between the Lebanese coast and Cyprus, and velocities along the Lebanese coast.

  6. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean)

    PubMed Central

    Derbel, H.; Châari, M.; Neifar, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia). A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed. PMID:22550623

  7. Mineral composition of some varieties of beans from Mediterranean and Tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Naccari, Clara; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Rastrelli, Luca; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this study has been evaluated the mineral composition (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Sb, V, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of some varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata and V. angularis) from Mediterranean and Tropical areas of the world (Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast); the correlation between beans mineral composition in micro and macroelements and botanical and/or geographical origin; trace elements dietary intake by beans consumption. The results showed a correlation between beans mineral composition and their geographical origin, with higher values in Ivory Coast samples. Moreover, minerals content found confirmed the importance of these legumes in the diet for the significant content of essential micro and macroelements and a safe consumption of beans for the low residual levels of toxic metals.

  8. Assessing the coexistence of Mediterranean oak species having different hygrophilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Paola, Arianna; Trabucco, Antonio; Paquette, Alain; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work (Di Paola et al., 2011) we defined a mathematical model to explain the observed copresence of trees having different responses to water stress (i.e. drought sensitive but flood resistant (hygrophilous species) and vice versa (non-hygrophilous species)). The model admits different equilibria, the most interesting of which is that of coexistence for which we found out the necessary condition for its stability and biological meaningful. Such model predicts that a stable forest with coexistence of both the species must have an evapotranspiration (ET) that ranges between the ETs that occur in the cases of stable forests with single species. With the present work we want to test the validity of the model on the copresence of typical endemism of deciduous and evergreen oaks species of the Mediterranean. Justifications are: oak trees represent the vegetation climax stage in the Mediterranean climate type. There are many observed and cited cases of such copresence in literature and most of them are explained by the different responses to water stress between deciduous and evergreen leaf habit. Lastly, the Mediterranean climate, characterized by hot dry summers and rainy winters, subject these species to the double stress of summer drought and flood winter (dynamics on which the model focuses on). To do that we mainly use 3 open source dataset: 1) the Modis actual evapotranspiration global maps, from which we derived the mean annual evapotranspiration of the period 2000-2011; 2) The mean actual evapotranspiration global map (period 1950-2000, supposing a land cover of green grass) provided by the CGIAR-CSI; 3) the European tree species distribution provided by the Joint Research Center from which we extracted the distribution of the main endemic oaks species of the Mediterranean area. The results show that i) the choice of leaf habit (Deciduous vs. Evergreen) as a proxy for hygrophilous and non-hygrophilous distinction is reasonable for this case study; ii

  9. Biogenic emissions from Pinus halepensis: a typical species of the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, V.; Dumergues, L.; Solignac, G.; Torres, L.

    2005-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions by vegetation present in the Mediterranean area are not well known. They may contribute with anthropogenic VOC emissions to the tropospheric ozone formation that reaches important level in the European Mediterranean region. The present work, carried out as part of the European ESCOMPTE project «fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions», adds a new contribution to the inventory of the main natural hydrocarbons sources likely to participate in the ozone production. The corresponding measurement campaign was conducted in La Barben, a site close to Marseilles (France), with the aim to quantify the terpenic emission pattern and the behaviour of Pinus halepensis, an important Mediterranean species slightly studied. The determination of biogenic emissions from P. halepensis was done by the enclosure of an intact branch in a Teflon cuvette. Main emitted monoterpenes were β trans-ocimene and linalool. The total monoterpenic emission rates thus recorded were found to reach maximum values around 30 μg g dry weight-1 h -1. The normalized emission rates calculated at 30 °C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 with Guenther's algorithm was 14.76, 8.65 and 4.05 μg g dry weight-1 h -1, respectively, for the total monoterpenes, β trans-ocimene and linalool.

  10. Chalk coast dynamics: Implications for understanding rock coast evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Cherith; Robinson, David

    2011-12-01

    Rock cliffs and shore platforms are linked components of the world's coastal zone. Understanding of the dynamics of their relationships has been hindered by the often imperceptible changes that occur within human time scales. The Cretaceous Chalk coasts of northwest Europe, and particularly those of southeast England, are among the most dynamic, and most intensively studied, cliffed rock coasts in the world. Perceptible changes to both cliffs and platforms have been measured on monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal time scales. Through a review of previously published data and the addition of data not previously published, average cliff retreat rates are calculated as 0.49 ± 0.38 m y - 1 and platform erosion rates 3.999 ± 3.208 mm y - 1 . This paper highlights some of the interactions over time and space between process and measurement that continue to limit our understanding of the dynamics of rock coasts; in particular the link between rates of cliff retreat and platform erosion. It concludes by identifying fruitful areas for future research.

  11. The relevance of the Mediterranean Region to colonial waterbird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Crivelli, Alain J.; Hafner, Heinz; Fasola, Mauro; Erwin, R. Michael; McCrimmon, Donald A.=

    1996-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is the largest partially enclosed sea in the world and provides habitat to more than 100 species of waterbirds from the Palearctic-North African-Middle Eastern regions. Even though the Mediterranean suffers from pollution, has little tidal influence, and is oligotrophic, more than half of the western Palearctic populations of numerous waterfowl species winter in the region. Thirty-three species of colonial waterbirds breed along the 46,000 km Mediterranean coastline with nine species considered threatened or endangered, mostly because of wetland loss and degradation. The long history of human activity and scientific investigations in the region has taught some valuable lessons. In the area of colonial waterbird biology and conservation, we have learned important lessons about the value of long-term monitoring and research on selected populations. From marking studies of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) results have been used to derive useful information about metapopulation dynamics. Involvement of both African and European biologists allowed year-round Studies of these species that yielded valuable spin-offs for training in avian and wetland conservation. We have also learned the value of man-made wetlands as feeding and nesting sites for some colonial waterbirds. Careful evaluations of the habitat quality of different types of wetlands are required, as in contaminant levels such as lead shot and pesticides. Wetland conservationists have also learned from some instructive mistakes. Dam construction and agricultural incentive programs sponsored by the European Community, the World Bank, and others from the past have largely ignored impacts on wetlands and wildlife. In some areas, economic ventures such as aquaculture operations and salt mining have not involved waterbird habitat needs in their planning. Research and conservation needs include: (1) establishing regional monitoring programs and

  12. First evidence for an earthquake-induced tsunami and tsunamites in the western Mediterranean: the 1522 Almera earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, C.; Reicherter, K.; Huebscher, C. P.; Becker-Heidmann, P.

    2005-12-01

    The 1522 Almeri-a earthquake (M > 6.5) affected large areas in the western Mediterranean and caused more than 2500 causalities. Different epicentral areas have been suspected, mainly along the 50 km long sinistral Carboneras Fault Zone (CFZ), however no on-shore surface ruptures and paleoseismological evidences for this event have been found. High-resolution sea floor imaging (narrow beam sediment profiler) yields evidence for an offshore rupture along a strand of the CFZ that is supported by evaluation of historic documents. We present a new isoseist map of the 1522 Almeri-a earthquake. Based on these data, a new epicentral area precisely at the observed sea floor rupture area is proposed at N 36°42', W 2°23' in the Gulf of Almeri-a. Drilling in lagunas and salinas of the near-by Cabo de Gata area proved sedimentary evidence for paleo-tsunamis along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Several coarse grained intervals with fining-up and thinning-up sequences, rip-off clasts, shells of lamellibranchs and foraminifera show erosive bases. The coarse-grained intervals show up to three sequences divided from the next one by a small clayey layer. These intervals are interpreted as tsunamites. We have also found multiple intercalations of those coarse grained layers downhole, which is interpreted as either an expression of repeated earthquake activity or tsunami-like waves induced by submarine slides triggered seismic shaking in the Gulf of Almeri-a. The coast of southern Spain, the Costa de Sol, is one of the touristic hot spots in the Mediterranean Europe and very densely populated. Hence, the impact on the vulnerability is of great concern for society and economy, considering destructive earthquakes in costal residential and industrial areas, especially a holiday and recreation area in the western Mediterranean region. Our evidence suggests a certain tsunami potential and hazard for offshore active and seismogenic faults in the western Mediterranean region.

  13. Effects of Extreme Climate on Mediterranean Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xoplaki, Elena

    2009-04-01

    Climate Extremes During Recent Millennia and Their Impact on Mediterranean Societies; Athens, Greece, 13-16 September 2008; Climatic extremes in the past few thousand years have severely affected societies throughout the Mediterranean region and have changed the outcome of historical events in some instances. Climatic extremes—droughts, floods, prolonged cold and heat—affect society in a variety of ways, operating through famine, disease, and social upheaval. These topics were discussed at an interdisciplinary symposium at the National and Kapodistrian University, in Greece, that brought together climatologists, paleoclimatologists, anthropologists, geologists, archaeologists, and historians working in the greater Mediterranean region.

  14. Foreword: Mediterranean diet and climatic change.

    PubMed

    Serra-Majem, Lluís; Bach-Faig, Anna; Miranda, Gemma; Clapes-Badrinas, Carmen

    2011-12-01

    Changes in diet, reducing animal products and increasing consumption of vegetables can not only benefit human health and the overall use of land, but can also play a decisive role in the politics of climate change mitigation. In this sense, the Mediterranean diet (MD) is presented as a sustainable cultural model, respectful of the environment, whose adherence in Mediterranean countries should contribute to mitigating climate change. The recognition of the MD as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2010 obliges the Mediterranean Diet Foundation to continue waging this recovery process and to promote our ancient food traditions in a prism of sustainability and commitment to the environment.

  15. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  16. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  17. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  18. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  19. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  20. Future local and remote influences on Mediterranean ozone air quality and climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, S.; Val Martin, M.; Heald, C. L.; Lamarque, J.; Tilmes, S.; Emmons, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    layer ozone and sulfate aerosol throughout the tropospheric column over the Mediterranean under both RCP scenarios, and an increase in ozone of up to 14 ppbv between 5-10km. This ozone increase is coincident with an increase in easterly import of ozone precursors in upper tropospheric outflow from Asian monsoon convection. We present a breakdown of contributions to the projected ozone changes from changes in emissions and from climate-driven changes. We estimate the implications of the predicted changes in tropospheric composition for Mediterranean air quality and climate in 2050, and the consequences for the effectiveness of European policies aimed at protecting the region's climate and public health.

  1. Holocene environmental change and its impact on sediment dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusar, Bert; Verstraeten, Gert; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Bakker, Johan

    2011-10-01

    Investigators have studied past environmental change in the Eastern Mediterranean region from a number of perspectives. While climate reconstructions and palynological research have focused on forces that drive the geomorphologic system, many researchers have attempted to use sediment archive studies to identify periods of change in sediment dynamics. Due to the large variability in environmental parameters and the variety of landscapes present in the Eastern Mediterranean region, research has focused on sediment archives ranging from small colluvial sites to deltas of large rivers on the Mediterranean coast. As the cultural record for the region is extremely rich, the main goal of palaeo-environmental research in the Eastern Mediterranean has been to identify the relative importance of human impact on the landscape. Nevertheless, sediment archives have significant limitations: chronological control for many palaeo-environmental records is highly uncertain, and rates of landscape change are oftentimes difficult to assess. Most palaeo-environmental research has been conducted on or near archeological sites, where direct human impact may obscure the indirect impact on sediment dynamics through land-use changes. Quantification and modeling of sediment dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean environment offer one solution. When erosion and sediment transport rate analyses are incorporated, periods of relatively important change can be identified. Using multiple approaches the relative importance of the main driving forces, climate and land use, become distinguishable. Since field-based data from the actual sediment archives remain vital, an overview of numerous studies in the Eastern Mediterranean is provided in order to draw a general picture for different time periods and the relative scale of regional landscape development during the Holocene. A comparison of sediment dynamics with the record of driving forces indicates that while climate was the main driver of the

  2. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the period 1 May to 30 June 1973 material was processed and interpreted for use in analyzing the three ocean seasons along the California coast. ERTS imagery from the first season of the year, called the Davidson Current period, was mosaiced and analyzed. The second season of the year, the Upwelling period, was mosaiced and interpretation was initiated. Imagery for the third ocean season, the Oceanic period, is being collected for future study.

  3. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  4. Mediterranean monitoring and forecasting operational system for Copernicus Marine Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppini, Giovanni; Drudi, Massimiliano; Korres, Gerasimos; Fratianni, Claudia; Salon, Stefano; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Clementi, Emanuela; Zacharioudaki, Anna; Grandi, Alessandro; Delrosso, Damiano; Pistoia, Jenny; Solidoro, Cosimo; Pinardi, Nadia; Lecci, Rita; Agostini, Paola; Cretì, Sergio; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Palermo, Francesco; Konstantinidou, Anna; Storto, Andrea; Simoncelli, Simona; Di Pietro, Pier Luigi; Masina, Simona; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Ravdas, Michalis; Mancini, Marco; Aloisio, Giovanni; Fiore, Sandro; Buonocore, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The MEDiterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Center (Med-MFC) is part of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS, http://marine.copernicus.eu/), provided on an operational mode by Mercator Ocean in agreement with the European Commission. Specifically, Med MFC system provides regular and systematic information about the physical state of the ocean and marine ecosystems for the Mediterranean Sea. The Med-MFC service started in May 2015 from the pre-operational system developed during the MyOcean projects, consolidating the understanding of regional Mediterranean Sea dynamics, from currents to biogeochemistry to waves, interfacing with local data collection networks and guaranteeing an efficient link with other Centers in Copernicus network. The Med-MFC products include analyses, 10 days forecasts and reanalysis, describing currents, temperature, salinity, sea level and pelagic biogeochemistry. Waves products will be available in MED-MFC version in 2017. The consortium, composed of INGV (Italy), HCMR (Greece) and OGS (Italy) and coordinated by the Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change (CMCC, Italy), performs advanced R&D activities and manages the service delivery. The Med-MFC infrastructure consists of 3 Production Units (PU), for Physics, Biogechemistry and Waves, a unique Dissemination Unit (DU) and Archiving Unit (AU) and Backup Units (BU) for all principal components, guaranteeing a resilient configuration of the service and providing and efficient and robust solution for the maintenance of the service and delivery. The Med-MFC includes also an evolution plan, both in terms of research and operational activities, oriented to increase the spatial resolution of products, to start wave products dissemination, to increase temporal extent of the reanalysis products and improving ocean physical modeling for delivering new products. The scientific activities carried out in 2015 concerned some improvements in the physical, biogeochemical and

  5. Extreme waves seasonality analysis: An application in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartini, L.; Cassola, F.; Besio, G.

    2015-09-01

    A nonstationary model based on a time-dependent version of the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD)-Poisson point process model has been implemented and applied to model extreme wave heights in the Mediterranean basin. Thirty-two years of wave hindcast data have been provided by a forecast/hindcast numerical chain model operational at the University of Genoa (www.dicca.unige.it/meteocean" http://www.dicca.unige.it/meteocean"www.dicca.unige.it/meteocean). The nonstationary behavior of wave height maxima prompted the modeling of GEV parameters with harmonic functions. Harmonics have been introduced to model seasonal cycles within a year, also taking into account long-term trend and covariates effects. The model has been applied on eight locations corresponding to buoys belonging to the RON (Rete Ondametrica Nazionale), chosen in order to represent best the main features and variability of waves along the Italian coast. The best performing model is chosen among a large set of possible candidates identified by different combinations of wave heights maxima and model parameters. Direct comparison with stationary results has been performed; furthermore, the model has demonstrated a good performance in gathering different seasonal behaviors related to the main meteorological forcing standing on the Mediterranean Sea. Trends related to extreme significant wave heights have also been evaluated in order to offer some insight into decadal-scale wave climate. Results achieved show how the use of a nonstationary statistical model together with the analysis of the main meteorological forcings characterizing the area could prove useful in understanding wave climate related to atmospheric dynamics.

  6. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  7. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  8. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    PubMed

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  9. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  10. Design for end-user acceptance: requirements for work clothing for fishermen in Mediterranean and northern fishing grounds.

    PubMed

    Storholmen, Tore Christian Bjorsvik; Naesgaard, Ole Petter; Faerevik, Hilde; Reitan, Jarl; Holmen, Ingunn Marie; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2012-01-01

    Fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations, and as many as 24,000 fishermen around the world suffer fatal injuries or drowning at sea every year. Although fishermen in the European fishing fleet work in harsh and dangerous environments, many fishermen do not use personal protective clothing and buoyancy aids due to reduced work comfort and poor functionality. This emphasizes the importance of designing work clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE) with functionality that matches the fishermen's needs. The aim of this study was to identify the requirements for work clothing in terms of comfort, protection, and safety for fishermen operating in northern fishing grounds and in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, we investigated whether fishermen in the Mediterranean prioritize work-clothing requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. Interviews and observations of fishermen provided us with the requirements for work clothing for fishermen. A questionnaire was then distributed to a selection of European fishermen. The study showed that fishermen operating in the Mediterranean prioritized their requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. There was good agreement on requirements regarding work comfort. Safety requirements, such as integrated buoyancy, were ranked as less important by the Mediterranean fishermen compared to fishermen in northern fishing grounds. The results of this study provide a basis for the development of work clothing and PPE for fishermen. Work clothing and PPE that fulfil the requirements are likely to obtain end-user acceptance and thus improve safety for fishermen at sea. PMID:22669810

  11. Thermal mapping, geothermal source location, natural effluents and plant stress in the Mediterranean coast of Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delascuevas, R. N. (Principal Investigator); Dearagon, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained by HCMM satellite over a complex area in eastern Spain were evaluated and found to be most useful in studying macrostructures in geology and in analyzing marine currents, layers, and areas (although other satellites provide more data). The upper scale to work with HCMM data appears to be 1:2.000.000. Techniques used in preprocessing, processing, and analyzing imagery are discussed as well as methods for pattern recognition. Surface temperatures obtained for soils, farmlands, forests, geological structures, and coastal waters are discussed. Suggestions are included for improvements needed to achieve better results in geographic areas similar to the study area.

  12. The multifunctional artificial reef and its role in the defence of the Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    López, I; Tinoco, H; Aragonés, L; García-Barba, J

    2016-04-15

    Multifunctional artificial reefs (MFAR) are being implemented around the world, due to their ability to provide an environment where a sports-economic-recreational use and environmental improvement is implemented, and are also elements of coastal defence. However, a lot of failures have been recorded, possibly due to disregarded local factors in the formulations used, and there is no method that has encompassed all these factors, in order to take them into account in its design. The aim of this paper was to provide the coastal engineer with a method that would be used for the design of such reefs. To do this, the Babilonia beach of Guardamar del Segura, Alicante (Spain), was chosen because it is a fully anthropised area (with houses in the Maritime-Terrestrial Public Domain, marina, channelling and river mouth) with continuous regression, in which all the elements considered in this study, were treated. Based on the performance obtained in studies and projects worldwide, the climatic characteristics, biocenosis, sediment transport, settlements and liquefaction and the evolution of the coastline, were analysed. The multidisciplinary study carried out showed that with the implementation of a MFAR, the problem was reversed. Furthermore, the area was provided with a playful-economic use, and could be used 60% of the time, by surfers whose skill level were low to intermediate, without forgetting that the diversity of the marine ecosystem in the area was increased.

  13. The multifunctional artificial reef and its role in the defence of the Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    López, I; Tinoco, H; Aragonés, L; García-Barba, J

    2016-04-15

    Multifunctional artificial reefs (MFAR) are being implemented around the world, due to their ability to provide an environment where a sports-economic-recreational use and environmental improvement is implemented, and are also elements of coastal defence. However, a lot of failures have been recorded, possibly due to disregarded local factors in the formulations used, and there is no method that has encompassed all these factors, in order to take them into account in its design. The aim of this paper was to provide the coastal engineer with a method that would be used for the design of such reefs. To do this, the Babilonia beach of Guardamar del Segura, Alicante (Spain), was chosen because it is a fully anthropised area (with houses in the Maritime-Terrestrial Public Domain, marina, channelling and river mouth) with continuous regression, in which all the elements considered in this study, were treated. Based on the performance obtained in studies and projects worldwide, the climatic characteristics, biocenosis, sediment transport, settlements and liquefaction and the evolution of the coastline, were analysed. The multidisciplinary study carried out showed that with the implementation of a MFAR, the problem was reversed. Furthermore, the area was provided with a playful-economic use, and could be used 60% of the time, by surfers whose skill level were low to intermediate, without forgetting that the diversity of the marine ecosystem in the area was increased. PMID:26851763

  14. [Mediterranean diet. Characteristics and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Serra Majem, Lluís; García Alvarez, Alicia; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the concept of Mediterranean Diet or Diets and to describe the associated health benefits recognised by the scientific community. The characteristics of the Mediterranean Diet are described as well as the effects the foods comprising it have on the most common pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition's consensus based Healthy Diet Pyramid, along with Greece's pyramid for food guidelines for the adult population (from the Greek Ministry of Health), are presented and compared. They are the graphic representation of the food and physical activity guides of two typically Mediterranean countries. Nutritional and sociological trends are also discussed and their impact on the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet. PMID:15584472

  15. Night Views Over the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Mediterranean Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 6, 2011, from 22:58:09 to 23:13:15 GMT,...

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin - Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy.

    PubMed

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S

    2015-06-15

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders.

  17. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy

    PubMed Central

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders. PMID:26084000

  18. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin - Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy.

    PubMed

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S

    2015-06-01

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders. PMID:26084000

  19. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,…

  20. Coasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edward K.; Cliff, Ursula

    1974-01-01

    This article compares two approaches to regional planning. In San Francisco, a citizen-initiated supra-agency was organized to prevent overdevelop ment of the coastline. The New York coastline, developed by one man, Robert Moses, is now victim of an inadequate and inefficient system of development that ecologically threatens the area. (MA)

  1. Performance evaluation of Wavewatch III in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Besio, Giovanni; Cassola, Federico; Mazzino, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    For this study, we analyzed the performance of the wave model Wavewatch III® forced by a limited area atmospheric model in the Mediterranean Sea. The simulation results have been compared to buoy measurements through single point statistical indicators such as normalized bias and symmetrically normalized root mean square error. A performance evaluation of the growth-dissipation source terms and their reference parameterizations was carried out on seventeen case studies corresponding to storms in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea and off the Mediterranean Spanish coast. The source terms introduced by Ardhuin et al. (2010) proved to be the best overall choice, although they led to an overestimation in the significant wave height under calm conditions and to an underestimation under severe conditions. A sensitivity analysis in the parameter space was performed within the neighborhood of the reference parameterization of Ardhuin et al. (2010), and a calibration was carried out to reduce the overall positive bias in the significant wave height. Furthermore, to investigate the effect from the wind forcing resolution, wind data with different resolutions was used in a sensitivity analysis. Because mesoscale features are relevant to the overall Mediterranean wave dynamics, we carried out a further investigation into the impact of the resolution on a different set of ten case studies characterized by strong mesoscale patterns. A comparison of the simulations with the measurements using single point statistical indicators shows that the high resolution results are affected by the so-called double penalty effect, although in some cases, they apparently provide a better qualitative description of the event. Finally, a hindcast covering 32 years (from 1979 to 2010) was developed using a reference parameterization from Ardhuin et al. (2010) and its calibrated variant. An analysis of the performance of the calibrated parameterization on the hindcast dataset reveals that it performs

  2. Ecology and ethnoecology of dusky grouper [garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)] along the coast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina; Silvano, Renato AM

    2008-01-01

    Dusky grouper (garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus) is an important catch for several artisanal small-scale fisheries along the Brazilian coast. It is a sedentary, monandric, and late maturing protogynous species, which makes it vulnerable to overharvesting even though it is mainly caught through hook and line or spear fishing through free diving. Lack of information on the ecology and biology of this species in Brazil is astonishing. Much of the information found in the literature concerns Mediterranean dusky groupers. Studies compiling local knowledge (ethnoecology) about fish species complement biological data, and have been fundamental for effective fisheries management. In this study, our objectives are to obtain data about dusky grouper through fish catches and analysis of stomach contents and gonad maturation (macroscopic analyses), along with interviews from fishermen from six small-scales communities from the southern (Pântano do Sul, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State) to the northern Brazilian coast (Porto Sauípe, Bahia State). We conclude that precautionary approaches and 'data-less' management approaches are needed in the coast of Brazil. Research on this species and on the potential of aquaculture for its cultivation, are urgent, due to the apparent vulnerability and decrease of dusky grouper along the coast of Brazil. PMID:18793394

  3. Ecology and ethnoecology of dusky grouper [garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)] along the coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina; Silvano, Renato Am

    2008-09-15

    Dusky grouper (garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus) is an important catch for several artisanal small-scale fisheries along the Brazilian coast. It is a sedentary, monandric, and late maturing protogynous species, which makes it vulnerable to overharvesting even though it is mainly caught through hook and line or spear fishing through free diving. Lack of information on the ecology and biology of this species in Brazil is astonishing. Much of the information found in the literature concerns Mediterranean dusky groupers. Studies compiling local knowledge (ethnoecology) about fish species complement biological data, and have been fundamental for effective fisheries management. In this study, our objectives are to obtain data about dusky grouper through fish catches and analysis of stomach contents and gonad maturation (macroscopic analyses), along with interviews from fishermen from six small-scales communities from the southern (Pântano do Sul, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State) to the northern Brazilian coast (Porto Sauípe, Bahia State). We conclude that precautionary approaches and 'data-less' management approaches are needed in the coast of Brazil. Research on this species and on the potential of aquaculture for its cultivation, are urgent, due to the apparent vulnerability and decrease of dusky grouper along the coast of Brazil.

  4. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  5. Comparison of the biology, dynamics, and secondary production of Talorchestia brito (Amphipoda, Talitridae) in Atlantic (Portugal) and Mediterranean (Tunisia) populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, S. C.; Marques, J. C.; Pardal, M. A.; Bouslama, M. F.; El Gtari, M.; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, F.

    2003-12-01

    The biology, population dynamics, and production of Talorchestia brito were studied at two sandy beaches located on the Atlantic (Portugal) and on the Mediterranean (Tunisia) coasts, respectively. The seasonal variation in abundance and the overall densities were similar in both populations. Reproduction occurred from February to September in the Atlantic, and from March to early November in the Mediterranean. The sex ratio was male biased in the Atlantic, and female biased in the Mediterranean. Based on data from the Atlantic population, both abundance and the proportion of reproductive females were positively correlated with temperature, while the proportion of juveniles in the population was positively correlated with temperature and sediment moisture. On average, individuals from the Atlantic were larger than the ones from the Mediterranean. Life span was estimated at six to nine months in the Atlantic, and five to eight months in the Mediterranean. Talorchestia brito was shown to be a semiannual species, with iteroparous females producing two broods per year, and exhibited a bivoltine life cycle. The minimum age required for males' and females' sexual differentiation and for female sexual maturation was shorter in the Mediterranean. Growth production ( P) was estimated at 0.19 g m -2 y -1 ash free dry weight (AFDW; 4.3 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Atlantic population, and 0.217 g m -2 y -1 AFDW (4.9 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Mediterranean one. Elimination production ( E) was estimated at 0.35 g m -2 y -1 AFDW (7.9 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Atlantic, and 0.28 g m -2 y -1 AFDW (6.3 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Mediterranean. The average annual biomass ( overlineB) (standing stock) was estimated at 0.032 g m -2 in the Atlantic beach, and 0.029 g m -2 in the Mediterranean one, resulting, respectively, in P/ overlineB ratios of 5.9 and 7.5 and E/ overlineB ratios of 10.8 and 9.6. Like other talitrids, T. brito exhibited geographic variation in morphometrical characteristics, sex ratio

  6. Phylogeography, historical demography and habitat suitability modelling of freshwater fishes inhabiting seasonally fluctuating Mediterranean river systems: a case study using the Iberian cyprinid Squalius valentinus.

    PubMed

    Perea, S; Doadrio, I

    2015-07-01

    The Mediterranean freshwater fish fauna has evolved under constraints imposed by the seasonal weather/hydrological patterns that define the Mediterranean climate. These conditions have influenced the genetic and demographic structure of aquatic communities since their origins in the Mid-Pliocene. Freshwater species in Mediterranean-type climates will likely constitute genetically well-differentiated populations, to varying extents depending on basin size, as a consequence of fragmentation resulting from drought/flood cycles. We developed an integrative framework to study the spatial patterns in genetic diversity, demographic trends, habitat suitability modelling and landscape genetics, to evaluate the evolutionary response of Mediterranean-type freshwater fish to seasonal fluctuations in weather. To test this evolutionary response, the model species used was Squalius valentinus, an endemic cyprinid of the Spanish Levantine area, where seasonal weather fluctuations are extreme, although our findings may be extrapolated to other Mediterranean-type species. Our results underscore the significant role of the Mediterranean climate, along with Pleistocene glaciations, in diversification of S. valentinus. We found higher nuclear diversity in larger drainage basins, but higher mitochondrial diversity correlated to habitat suitability rather than basin size. We also found strong correlation between genetic structure and climatic factors associated with Mediterranean seasonality. Demographic and migration analyses suggested population expansion during glacial periods that also contributed to the current genetic structure of S. valentinus populations. The inferred models support the significant contribution of precipitation and temperature to S. valentinus habitat suitability and allow recognizing areas of habitat stability. We highlight the importance of stable habitat conditions, fostered by typical karstic springs found on the Mediterranean littoral coasts, for the

  7. Impact of river regulation on a Mediterranean delta: Assessment of managed versus unmanaged scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergillos, Rafael J.; Rodríguez-Delgado, Cristóbal; Millares, Agustín.; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel; Losada, Miguel A.

    2016-07-01

    This work addresses the effects of the construction of a reservoir 19 km from the mouth on the dynamics of the Guadalfeo delta (southern Spain), a Mediterranean delta in a semiarid and high-mountain basin. The sediment volume transported as bed load and accumulated in the delta was estimated under two scenarios by means of a calibrated hydrological model: a managed scenario, considering the flows drained by the dam, and an unmanaged scenario, considering the absence of such infrastructure. Bathymetric and topographic measurements were analyzed and correlated with the fluvial and maritime forcing agents. Results indicate that the reservoir has significantly modified the dynamics downstream: the coast has lost almost 0.3 hm3 of sediments since the entry into operation of the dam, generating a 1.4 km coastline retreat around the mouth, with a maximum retreat of 87 m (92% of the initial). The beach profile decreased by up to 820 m2, whereas the average decrease around the mouth was equal to 214 m2. Under unmanaged conditions, more than 2 hm3 of bed load would have reached the coast. Based on the results, three new management scenarios of flows drained by the dam, in combination with bypassed sediment from the reservoir, were proposed to prevent more severe consequences in the delta and the silting of the reservoir. The proposed methodology for new management scenarios can be extended to other worldwide deltas, especially to those in semiarid and Mediterranean basins, and it represents an advanced tool for decision making.

  8. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective. PMID:26881847

  9. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective. PMID:26881847

  10. Contribution of mono and polysaccharides to heterotrophic N2 fixation at the eastern Mediterranean coastline.

    PubMed

    Rahav, E; Giannetto, M J; Bar-Zeev, E

    2016-01-01

    N2 fixation should be a critical process in the nitrogen-poor surface water of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Despite favorable conditions, diazotroph abundance and N2 fixation rates remains low for reasons yet explained. The main goal of this study was to investigate the limiting nutrients for diazotrophy in this oligotrophic environment. Hence, we conducted dedicated bottle-microcosms with eastern Mediterranean Sea water that were supplemented with mono and polysaccharides as well as inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous. Our results indicate that the diazotrophic community expressing nifH was primarily represented by heterotrophic Proteobacteria. N2 fixation and heterotrophic bacterial activity increased up-to tenfold following two days of dark incubations, once seawater was supplemented with organic carbon substrate in the form of glucose (monosaccharides) or gum-xanthan (polysaccharide surrogate). Furthermore, our results point that carbon-rich polysaccharides, such as transparent exopolymer particles, enhance heterotrophic N2 fixation, by forming microenvironments of intense metabolic activity, high carbon: nitrogen ratio, and possibly low O2 levels. The conclusions of this study indicate that diazotrophs in the eastern Mediterranean coast are primarily limited by organic carbon substrates, as possibly in many other marine regions.

  11. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic var