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Sample records for european nuclear physics

  1. Nuclear Simulation and Radiation Physics Investigations of the Target Station of the European Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Filges, Detlef; Neef, Ralf-Dieter; Schaal, Hartwig

    2000-10-15

    The European Spallation Neutron Source (ESS) delivers high-intensity pulsed particle beams with 5-MW average beam power at 1.3-GeV incident proton energy. This causes sophisticated demands on material and geometry choices and a very careful optimization of the whole target system. Therefore, complex and detailed particle transport models and computer code systems have been developed and used to study the nuclear assessment of the ESS target system. The purpose here is to describe the methods of calculation mainly based on the Monte Carlo code to show the performance of the ESS target station. The interesting results of the simulations of the mercury target system are as follows: time-dependent neutron flux densities, energy deposition and heating, radioactivity and afterheat, materials damage by radiation, and high-energy source shielding. The results are discussed in great detail. The validity of codes and models, further requirements to improve the methods of calculation, and the status of running and planned experiments are given also.

  2. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  3. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  4. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  5. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  6. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  7. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  8. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  9. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  10. European physics impact - to a first approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starckx, Senne

    2013-05-01

    Physics-based industries contributed around 14%, or €3800bn, to the total value of the European economy in 2010 - exceeding that of the construction and retail sectors combined - according to a report by the European Physical Society (EPS).

  11. Panel report: nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A; Hartouni, Edward P

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that supports the

  12. Nuclear Physics Review

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Anchoring low-energy nuclear physics to the fundamental theory of strong interactions remains an outstanding challenge. I review the current progress and challenges of the endeavor to use lattice QCD to bridge this connection. This is a particularly exciting time for this line of research as demonstrated by the spike in the number of different collaborative efforts focussed on this problem and presented at this conference. I first digress and discuss the 2013 Ken Wilson Award.

  13. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1991-01-01

    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  14. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of two critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments are reviewed. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He-C and He-N and He-O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as D-2 plus He-3 are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N(nu), is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of tau(n) = 890 + or - 4s (tau(1/2) = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N(nu) = 2.6 + or - 0.3 (1 sigma), providing a reasonable fit (1.3 sigma) to three families but making a fourth light (m(nu) less than or equal to 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedly unlikely (approx. greater than 4.7 sigma). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-baryon phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions.

  15. Physics through the 1990s: Nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical introduction to nuclear physics. A description of the major advances in the field follows, with chapters on nuclear structure and dynamics, fundamental forces in the nucleus, and nuclei under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and spin. Impacts of nuclear physics on astrophysics and the scientific and societal benefits of nuclear physics are then discussed. Another section deals with scientific frontiers, describing research into the realm of the quark-gluon plasma; the changing description of nuclear matter, specifically the use of the quark model; and the implications of the standard model and grand unified theories of elementary-particle physics; and finishes with recommendations and priorities for nuclear physics research facilities, instrumentation, accelerators, theory, education, and data bases. Appended are a list of national accelerator facilities, a list of reviewers, a bibliography, and a glossary.

  16. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. ):)

    1989-12-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of the 2 critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. This paper reviews the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He--C and He--N and He--O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as {sup 2}D plus {sup 3}He are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N{sub {nu}}, is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of {tau}{sub n} = 890 {plus minus} 4s ({tau}{sub {1/2}} = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N{sub {nu}} = 2.6 {plus minus} 0.3 (1{sigma}) providing a reasonable fit (1.3{sigma}) to 3 families but making a fourth light (m{sub {nu}} {approx lt}10 MeV) neutrino family exceedingly unlikely ({approx gt}4.7{sigma}) (barring significant systematic errors either in D + {sup 3}He, and Li and/or {sup 4}He and/or {tau}{sub n}). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-hadron phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Nuclear physics and astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated a variety of research topics on the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics during the past year. We have continued our study of dihyperon states in dense matter and have started to make a connection between their properties in the core of neutron stars with the ongoing experimental searches at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We started to build a scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts using the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars close to an active galactic nucleous. We have been reconsidering the constraints due to neutron star cooling rates on the equation of state for high density matter in the light, of recent findings which show that the faster direct Urca cooling process is possible for a range of nuclear compositions. We have developed a model for the formation of primordial magnetic fields due to the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition. Encouraged by the most recent observational developments, we have investigated the possible origin of the boron and beryllium abundances. We have greatly improved the calculations of the primordial abundances of these elements I>y augmenting the reaction networks and by updating the most recent experimental nuclear reaction rates. Our calculations have shown that the primordial abundances are much higher than previously thought but that the observed abundances cannot be explained by primordial sources alone. We have also studied the origin of the boron and beryllium abundances due to cosmic ray spallation. Finally, we have continued to address the solar neutrino problem by investigating the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the MSW solution for a full three-family treatment of MSW mixing.

  18. PREFACE: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Europhysics Conference `Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III' (NPA3) took place from 26 31 March 2007 in Dresden, Germany, hosted by Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The present special issue of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics contains all peer-reviewed contributions to the proceedings of this conference. NPA3 is the third conference in the Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics series of conferences devoted to the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. The first and second editions of the series were held in 2002 and 2005 in Debrecen, Hungary. NPA3 has been organized under the auspices of the Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society as its XXI Divisional Conference. The conference marks the 50th anniversary of the landmark paper B2FH published in 1957 by E M Burbidge, G R Burbidge, W A Fowler and F Hoyle. A public lecture by Claus Rolfs (Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany) commemorated the progress achieved since 1957. NPA3 aimed to bring together experimental and theoretical nuclear physicists, astrophysicists and astronomers to address the important part played by nuclear physics in current astrophysical problems. A total of 130 participants from 71 institutions in 26 countries attended the conference, presenting 33 invited and 38 contributed talks and 25 posters on six subject areas. The astrophysical motivation and the nuclear tools employed to address it are highlighted by the titles of the subject areas: Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Stellar Nucleosynthesis and Low Cross Section Measurement Explosive Nucleosynthesis and Nuclear Astrophysics with Photons Nuclei far from Stability and Radioactive Ion Beams Dense Matter in Neutron Stars and Relativistic Nuclear Collisions Neutrinos in Nuclear Astrophysics The presentations and discussions proved that Nuclear Astrophysics is a truly interdisciplinary subject. The remarkable progress in astronomical observations achieved in recent years is matched by advances in

  19. Soviet Theater Nuclear Capabilities: The European Nuclear Balance in Transition,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-31

    there may have been little fear of the massive Soviet invasion,’ Western European states were concerned that the vastly superior Soviet forces would...gun arnd the 2dbvw nomras as well as the Mann m n to Eser Europe. it iseeoal to aomu. Visit at beat 150 152mm gun hie a nuclear uk mimo . PNM V- pr

  20. Nuclear medicine technologist training in European countries.

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr

    2002-08-01

    This article overviews the training of nuclear medicine technologists in chosen European countries, the United States and Canada. There are basically two types of training: at medical schools following secondary school, without any university degree, usually on a 2- or 3-year basis, or else as a university course, leading to a BSc degree after 3 years, and in some countries to an MSc degree after an additional 2 years. In the United States both systems coexist, while in Europe the picture varies from country to country. The number of hours devoted to nuclear medicine also varies between curricula. Some efforts are being made to unify this system by transition to the university model of education in many European countries.

  1. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  2. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  3. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  4. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  5. Nuclear Cluster Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Masayasu

    2011-05-06

    Predictive power of theory needs good models and accurate calculation methods to solve the Schroedinger equations of the systems concerned. We present some examples of successful predictions based on the nuclear cluster models of light nuclei and hypernuclei and on the calculation methods that have been developed by Kyushu group.

  6. PREFACE: EPS Euroconference XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference: New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    It was with great pleasure that the Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of the University of Pavia and the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) Structure of Pavia organised the XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the European Physical Society, which was held in the historical buildings of the University of Pavia from 5-9 September 2005. The Conference was devoted to the discussion of the most recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the field of Nuclear Physics applications, as well as of the latest developments in technological tools related to Nuclear Physics research. The University of Pavia has a long tradition in Physics and in Applied Physics, being the site where Alessandro Volta developed his "pila", the precursor of the modern battery. This is the place where the first experiments with electricity were conducted and where the term "capacitance" used for capacitors was invented. Today the University hosts a Triga Mark II nuclear reactor, which is used by the Departments of the University of Pavia and by other Universities and private companies as well. Moreover, Pavia is the site selected for the construction of the CNAO complex "Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica" (National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy), planned for 2005-2008 which represents a unique facility in Italy and will be among the first complexes of this type in Europe. The Conference has gathered together experts in various fields from different countries and has been the occasion to review the present status and to discuss the new emerging trends in Nuclear Physics and its applications to multidisciplinary researches and the development of new technologies. The following topics were treated: Nuclear Techniques in Medicine and Life Sciences (Cancer Therapy, new Imaging and Diagnostics Tools, Radioisotope production, Radiation Protection and Dosimetry). Applications of Nuclear Techniques in Art, Archaeometry and other Interdisciplinary fields

  7. (Theoretical nuclear physics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discussed the following topics: Consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; vacuum polarization in a finite system; isovector correlations in QHD description of nuclear matter; nuclear response functions in quasielastic electron scattering; charge density differences for nuclei near {sup 208}Pb in quantum hadro-dynamics; excitation of the 10.957 MeV 0{sup {minus}}; T=0 state in {sup 16}O by 400 MeV protons; deformed chiral nucleons; new basis for exact vacuum calculations in 3-spatial dimensions; second order processes in the (e,e{prime}d) reaction; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{Lambda} and {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{Sigma}{sup 0} + c.c; and radiative capture of protons by light nuclei at low energies.

  8. Theoretical nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rost, E.; Shephard, J.R.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Exact 1-loop vacuum polarization effects in 1 + 1 dimensional QHD; exact 1-fermion loop contributions in 1 + 1 dimensional solitons; exact scalar 1-loop contributions in 1 + 3 dimensions; exact vacuum calculations in a hyper-spherical basis; relativistic nuclear matter with self- consistent correlation energy; consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; transverse response functions in the {triangle}-resonance region; hadronic matter in a nontopological soliton model; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda} {Lambda}} reaction; 0+ and 2+ strengths in pion double-charge exchange to double giant-dipole resonances; and nucleons in a hybrid sigma model including a quantized pion field.

  9. Theoretical nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.D.

    1990-10-01

    This report contains small papers on the following topics: ground state correlations of nuclei in relativistic random phase approximation; instability of infinite nuclear matter in the relativistic hartree approximation; charge density differences for nuclei near {sup 208}Pb in relativistic models; meson exchange current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadro-dynamics; analysis of the O{sup +} {yields} O{sup {minus}} reaction at intermediate energies; contributions of reaction channels to the {sup 6}Li(p,{gamma}){sup 7}Be Reaction; deformed chiral nucleons; vacuum polarization in a finite system; second order processes in the (e,e{prime}d) reaction; sea contributions in Dirac RPA for finite nuclei; and momentum cutoffs in the sea.

  10. Processing multidimensional nuclear physics data

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.

    1994-11-15

    Modern Ge detector arrays for gamma-ray spectroscopy are producing data sets unprecedented in size and event multiplicity. Gammasphere, the DOE sponsored array, has the following characteristics: (1) High granularity (110 detectors); (2) High efficiency (10%); and (3) Precision energy measurements (Delta EE = 0.2%). Characteristics of detector line shape, the data set, and the standard practice in the nuclear physics community to the nuclear gamma-ray cascades from the 4096 times 4096 times 4096 data cube will be discussed.

  11. Lattice QCD and Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos

    2007-03-01

    A steady stream of developments in Lattice QCD have made it possible today to begin to address the question of how nuclear physics emerges from the underlying theory of strong interactions. Central role in this understanding play both the effective field theory description of nuclear forces and the ability to perform accurate non-perturbative calculations in lo w energy QCD. Here I present some recent results that attempt to extract important low energy constants of the effective field theory of nuclear forces from lattice QCD.

  12. Application of nuclear physics in medical physics and nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear physics has a long history of influencing and advancing medical fields. At TRIUMF we use the applications of nuclear physics to diagnose several diseases via medical isotopes and treat cancer by using proton beams. The Life Science division has a long history of producing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes but we are also investigating the production of SPECT and PET isotopes with a potential shortage for clinical operation or otherwise limited access to chemists, biologists and medical researchers. New targets are being developed, aided by a simulation platform investigating the processes inside a target under proton irradiation - nuclear, thermodynamic, and chemical. Simulations also aid in the development of new beam-shaping devices for TRIUMF's Proton Therapy facility, Canada's only proton therapy facility, as well as new treatment testing systems. Both promise improved treatment delivery for cancer patients.

  13. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.

  14. [Experimental nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in {sup 86}Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone {sup 84}Sr and with {sup 84}Zr. The K=14 (t {sub {1/2}} = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in {sup 176}W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for {sup 14}O+{alpha} and {sup 17}F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne({alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne(p){sup 18}F reactions in order to determine the rates of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of {beta}n{alpha} coincidences from the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N({beta}{sup {minus}}{nu}){sup 16}O({alpha}){sup 12}C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e{sup +} triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  15. Extreme Light Infrastructure: nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.; Habs, D.; Negoita, F.; Ursescu, D.

    2011-06-01

    The spectacular progress of electron and heavy-ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high-power laser has opened the way for new methods of investigations in nuclear physics and related fields. On the other hand, upshifting the photon energies of a high repetition TW-class laser through inverse Compton scattering on electron bunches classically accelerated, a high-flux narrow bandwidth gamma beam can be produced. With such a gamma beam in the 1-20 MeV energy range and a two-arms 10-PW class laser system, the pillar of "Extreme Light Infrastructure" to be built in Bucharest will focus on nuclear phenomena and their practical applications. Nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental QED aspects as well as applications in material and life sciences, radioactive waste management and homeland security will be studied using the high-power laser, the gamma beam or combining the two. The article includes a general description of ELI-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, an overview of the Physics Case and some details on the few, most representative proposed experiments.

  16. The Physical Tourist. A European Study Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We organized and led a European study course for American undergraduate university students to explore the early history of relativity and quantum theory. We were inspired by The Physical Tourist articles published in this journal on Munich, Bern, Berlin, Copenhagen, and Göttingen. We describe this adventure both for others wishing to teach such a course and for anyone wishing to walk in the footsteps of the physicists who revolutionized physics in the early decades of the twentieth century.

  17. European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics, organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society, is a major international conference that reviews biennially since 1971 the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The latest conferences in this series were held in Stockholm, Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisbon, and Aachen. Jointly organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the 23rd edition of this conference took place in Vienna, Austria. Among the topics covered were Accelerators, Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Detector R&D and Data Handling, Education and Outreach, Flavour Physics and Fundamental Symmetries, Heavy Ion Physics, Higgs and New Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Perturbative Field Theory and String Theory, QCD and Hadronic Physics, as well as Top and Electroweak Physics.

  18. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    This is the final report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington on work supported in part by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC06-81ER40048. It contains chapters on giant dipole resonances in excited nuclei, nucleus-nucleus reactions, astrophysics, polarization in nuclear reactions, fundamental symmetries and interactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ultra-relativistic heavy ions, medium energy reactions, work by external users, instrumentation, accelerators and ion sources, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, a Ph. D. degree granted in the 1990-1991 academic year, and publications. Refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. PREFACE: 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, Richard

    2004-12-01

    chaired by Henry Hutchinson (RAL, Chilton), and to the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion journal team (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol), for their work on this conference. At the 2004 European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics, plenary invited speakers whose talks spanned the entire field were followed, each day, by multiple parallel sessions which also included invited talks. Invited speakers in both these categories were asked to contribute papers to this special issue (the contributed papers at this conference, and at all recent conferences in this series, are archived at http://epsppd.epfl.ch). The Programme Committee is very grateful to the many invited speakers who have responded positively to this request. Invited papers appear here in their order of presentation during the week beginning 28 June 2004; this ordering provides an echo of the character of the conference, as it was experienced by those who took part. Programme Committee 2004 Professor Richard Dendy UKAEA Culham Division, UK Chairman and guest editor Dr Jean-Luc Dorier Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Lausanne, Switzerland (Co-ordinator of dusty plasmas and guest editor) Professor Jürgen Meyer-ter-Vehn Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany (Co-ordinator of laser-plasma interaction and beam plasma physics and guest editor) Dr Peter Norreys Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK (Scientific Secretary and guest editor) Dr Emilia R Solano CIEMAT Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Madrid, Spain ( Co-ordinator of magnetic confinement fusion and guest editor) Dr Shalom Eliezer Soreq Nuclear Research Centre, Israel Dr Wim Goedheer FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen, Netherlands Professor Henry Hutchinson Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK Professor John Kirk Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany Dr Raymond Koch Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Brussels, Belgium Professor Gerrit Kroesen Technische

  20. Nuclear Physics for Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.

    2009-05-04

    A brief overview is given of the different lines of research developed under the INFN project 'Compact Stellar Objects and Dense Hadronic Matter' (acronym CT51). The emphasis of the project is on the structure of Neutron Stars (NS) and related objects. Starting from crust, the different Nuclear Physics problems are described which are encountered going inside a NS down to its inner core. The theoretical challenges and the observational inputs are discussed in some detail.

  1. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  2. The history of physics and European physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Fabio; Giannetto, Enrico

    1996-07-01

    In the last fifteen years a small group of European physicists has been working towards an approach to physics education based on the actual practices of physics research. The standard presentation through traditional textbooks plus didactic laboratory is rejected, and instead case studies contributing and borrowing from contemporary history, philosophy and sociology of science are provided. Analysis of original papers, scientific debates, institutional settings are often accompanied by reconstructions of important historical instruments. The resulting interplay between theories, instruments and experimental results offers a view of physics fascinating and entertaining, closer to the actual scientists' activities, deprived of many traditional ideological assumptions, open to the students interpretations and often in tune with contemporary findings of science educators. The group's activities are quietly flourishing, have acquired institutional recognition in the European Physical Society, and are now coordinated with the ones organized around the journal Science & Education and the International History, Philosophy and Science Teaching Group.

  3. Nuclear physics frontier at RCNP, Osaka University

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, H. J.

    2014-03-05

    Cyclotron accelerator facility and research activities at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, are presented. A special focus is given on several topics in nuclear physics where interesting and important experiment results relevant to the nuclear structure as well as the nuclear astrophysics have been reported.

  4. The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 2013 Europhysics conference on High Energy Physics is a biennial conference organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society since 1971. The conference in this series usually attracts 600-700 participants and is one of the worlds largest conferences in this field. The latest conferences in this series were held in Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisabon and Aachen. The conference has parallel, plenary and poster sessions as well as an industrial exhibition. The conference is jointly organised by the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm University, Chalmers University of Technology, Lund University, Uppsala University, Nordita and the Oskar Klein Centre. Topics covered are: Standard Model and Beyond Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Neutrino Physics Flavour Physics CP Violation and Tests of Fundamental Symmetries QCD and Hadronic Physics Heavy Ions Astroparticle Physics High Energy Astrophysics Cosmology Non-perturbative Field Theory String Theory Detectors and Data Handling Accelerator R&D Future Facilities. Special ECFA session 20 July: Particle Physics after the European strategy update

  5. Nuclear Physics and Hadron Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Braunn, B.

    2011-12-13

    Hadron therapy uses light charged particles beams (mainly proton and {sup 12}C ions) to irradiate tumors. These beams present a ballistic advantage with a maximum energy deposition at the end of the path. A large dose can be delivered inside a deep tumor while the surrounding healthy tissues are preserved. There is an obvious advantage in using these beams but the beam control has to be achieved and all the physical processes leading to the energy deposition have to be fully under control. This treatment protocol requires accurate control devices and a good knowledge of the physical processes occurring all along the path of the projectile in human tissues. In this report, we will present one example of a beam monitor for the proton therapy. We will also present the experimental program which has been initiated to obtain fundamental data on the nuclear fragmentation process.

  6. Nuclear matter physics at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senger, P.

    2016-08-01

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram is one of the most exciting and challenging projects of modern nuclear physics. In particular, the investigation of nuclear matter at high baryon densities offers the opportunity to find characteristic structures such as a first-order phase transition with a region of phase coexistence and a critical endpoint. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. Equally important is the quantitative experimental information on the properties of hadrons in dense matter which may shed light on chiral symmetry restoration and the origin of hadron masses. Worldwide, substantial efforts at the major heavy-ion accelerators are devoted to the clarification of these fundamental questions, and new dedicated experiments are planned at future facilities like CBM at FAIR in Darmstadt and MPD at NICA/JINR in Dubna. In this article the perspectives for MPD at NICA will be discussed.

  7. Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Raymond, Ed.

    In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

  8. FOREWORD: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Naftali; Hass, Michael; Paul, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The fifth edition of the bi-annual 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics (NPA)' conference series was held in Eilat, Israel on April 3-8, 2011. This Conference is also designated as the 24th Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the EPS. The main purpose of this conference, as that of the four previous ones in this series, is to deal with those aspects of nuclear physics that are directly related to astrophysics. The concept of such a meeting was conceived by the Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society in 1998. At that time, the idea of such a conference was quite new and it was decided that this meeting would be sponsored by the EPS. The first meeting, in January 2001, was planned and organized in Eilat, Israel. Due to international circumstances the conference was moved to Debrecen, Hungary. Subsequent conferences were held in Debrecen again, in Dresden, Germany, and in Frascati, Italy (moved from Gran Sasso due to the tragic earthquake that hit the L'Aquila region). After 10 years the conference finally returned to Eilat, the originally envisioned site. Eilat is a resort town located on the shore of the Gulf of Eilat, which connects Israel to the Red Sea and further south to the Indian Ocean. It commands spectacular views of the desert and mountains, offering unique touristic attractions. The local scientific backdrop of the conference is the fact that the Israeli scientific scene exhibits a wide variety of research activities in many areas of nuclear physics and astrophysics. A new accelerator, SARAF at Soreq Nuclear Research Center is presently undergoing final acceptance tests. SARAF will serve as a platform for production of radioactive ion beams and nuclear-astrophysics research in Israel. The meeting in Eilat was organized by four Israeli scientific institutions, Hebrew University, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Tel Aviv University and the Weizmann Institute of Science. The welcome reception and lectures were held at the King Solomon hotel and

  9. WELCOME SPEECH: EPS Euroconference XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference: New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. C.

    2006-06-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, On behalf of the European Physical Society it is my pleasure to welcome you to the Conference: NEW TRENDS IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY This is the 19th International Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the Nuclear Physics Board of the EPS. It is a relatively new experience for the Board to support a Conference in an area so closely linked to applications and technology. I am therefore very pleased to see such a good response to the initiative of Professor Scannicchio and his local Organizing Committee under Professor Zenoni's Chairmanship. I would like to take this opportunity to say a few words about the EPS Nuclear Physics Board. The Board consists of 18 people (10 elected plus up to 10 co-opted) from across Europe, with me as Chair. Elections by members of the Division are held if there is competition for a vacancy, which is announced in Europhysics News. The Board exchanges observers with NuPECC. The Board has 3 major activities: 1. Divisional Scientific Meetings of which this is one. There are usually two per year, but this year there are three. Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics 2 (NPA2), Debrecen, Hungary, 16 20 May 2005. This conference, New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology, Pavia, 5 9 September 2005. "Sandanski 3" Co-ordination Meeting in Nuclear Science organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, and the Institute for Nuclear Research and Energy, Sofia, which will be held in Albena, Bulgaria, 25 September to 2 October 2005. This grew out of two earlier meetings in 1995 and 2001 in Sandanski, Bulgaria. The aim of these meetings was to foster and support scientific collaborations in nuclear physics between eastern and western European countries. 2. The Board awards two prizes, usually in alternate years: The Lise Meitner Prize for outstanding contributions in the field of Nuclear Science. The 2004 recipients were Bent Herskind and Peter Twin for their pioneering work on rapidly

  10. Intriguing Trends in Nuclear Physics Articles Authorship

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.

    2014-11-06

    A look at how authorship of physics publications (particularly nuclear publications) have changed throughout the decades by comparing data mined from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) with observations.

  11. European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Novellino, Antonio; D'Angelo, Paolo; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Loubrieu, Thomas; Rickards, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    The EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu) makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS associates and its regional operational systems (ROOSs), and it is bringing together two very different marine communities: the "real time" ocean observing institute/centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge of ocean data validation, quality check and update for marine environmental monitoring. The EMODnet-Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data (www.emodnet-physics.eu/map) it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unless complexity, it provides data access to users, it is aimed at attracting new data holders, better and more data. With a long-term vision for a pan European Ocean Observation System sustainability, the EMODnet-Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS Regional components and the empowerment and improvement of their data management infrastructure. In turn, EMODnet-Physics already implemented high-level interoperability features (WMS, Web catalogue, web services, etc…) to facilitate connection and data exchange with the ROOS and the Institutes within the ROOSs (www.emodnet-physics.eu/services). The on-going EMODnet-Physics structure delivers environmental marine physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) as monitored by fixed stations, ARGO floats, drifting buoys, gliders, and ferry-boxes. It does provide discovering of data sets (both NRT - near real time - and Historical data sets), visualization and free

  12. PREFACE: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics VI (NPA6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics VI conference was the 6th event of the NPA biannual conference series. Previous events of this series were held at the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen, Hungary, in 2002 and 2005; at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany, in 2007; at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), L'Aquila, Italy, in 2009; and in Eilat, Israel, in 2011. This edition of the NPA conference series was organized by the European Physical Society (EPS) through its Nuclear Physics Division, corresponding to the 26th edition of the Topical Conferences of the EPS. As in previous editions, the goal of the NPA conference was to bring together the specialists in the fields of Nuclear Physics (theory and experiment) and Nuclear Astrophysics (theory and observation), providing the appropriate forum for review and discussion of the status and prospects of the field of Nuclear Astrophysics. During the discussions, special attention was given to the Nuclear Physics aspects that have an impact in Astrophysics.

  13. Maintenance of European nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.W.; Schoenecke, P.L.

    1987-05-01

    European practice and attitude toward maintenance have been reviewed and discussed face-to-face. Important but sometimes subtle differences with the US situation appear. Among the more obvious differences is the more cooperative relationship between the industry and the government.

  14. Theoretical nuclear physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    As the three-year period FY93-FY96 ended, there were six senior investigators on the grant full-time: Bulgac, Henley, Miller, Savage, van Kolck and Wilets. This represents an increase of two members from the previous three-year period, achieved with only a two percent increase over the budget for FY90-FY93. In addition, the permanent staff of the Institute for Nuclear Theory (George Bertsch, Wick Haxton, and David Kaplan) continued to be intimately associated with our physics research efforts. Aurel Bulgac joined the Group in September, 1993 as an assistant professor, with promotion requested by the Department and College of Arts and Sciences by September, 1997. Martin Savage, who was at Carnegie-Mellon University, jointed the Physics Department in September, 1996. U. van Kolck continued as research assistant professor, and we were supporting one postdoctoral research associate, Vesteinn Thorssen, who joined us in September, 1995. Seven graduate students were being supported by the Grant (Chuan-Tsung Chan, Michael Fosmire, William Hazelton, Jon Karakowski, Jeffrey Thompson, James Walden and Mitchell Watrous).

  15. Nuclear Physics Made Very, Very Easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The fundamental approach to nuclear physics was prepared to introduce basic reactor principles to various groups of non-nuclear technical personnel associated with NERVA Test Operations. NERVA Test Operations functions as the field test group for the Nuclear Rocket Engine Program. Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program is the combined efforts of Aerojet-General Corporation as prime contractor, and Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory as the major subcontractor, for the assembly and testing of nuclear rocket engines. Development of the NERVA Program is under the direction of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office, a joint agency of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. PREFACE: XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof

    2011-10-01

    In the present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the 'XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics', which was held from 4-7 January 2011 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings consist of 19 contributions that were presented as invited talks at the meeting. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. From the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium has been organized every year without interruption, which makes the present Symposium the 34th in a row. The scientific program consisted of 27 invited talks and 17 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure (Draayer, Pittel, Van Isacker, Fraser, Lerma, Cejnar, Hirsch, Stránský and Rath) and nuclear reactions (Aguilera, Gómez-Camacho, Scheid, Navrátil and Yennello) to radioactive beams (Padilla-Rodal and Galindo-Uribarri), nuclear astrophysics (Aprahamian, Civitarese and Escher), hadronic physics (Bijker, Valcarce and Hess), fundamental symmetries (Liu, Barrón-Palos and Baessler) and LHC physics (Menchaca-Rocha and Paic). The high quality of the talks, the prestige of the speakers and the broad spectrum of subjects covered in the meeting, shows that nuclear physics is a very active area at the frontier of scientific research which establishes bridges between many different disciplines. Libertad Barr

  17. Fantasy physics for nuclear testers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    In November a group of scientists will scour a small patch of the Middle East for signs that a nuclear explosion has taken place. Edwin Cartlidge describes their delicate mission and the sophisticated gadgetry they will rely on.

  18. Nuclear physics: a short course

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2010-09-10

    Basic properties of atomic nuclei are reviewed. Starting with the energy and length scales for microscopic processes, we go through the charge density inside the nucleus, nuclear masses and abundances, and nuclear decays. The Liquid Drop Model is presented along with some extensions. Microscopic models are introduced, with emphasis in the shell model. Alpha, beta and gamma decays are commented with some detail, including the symmetry laws which govern these decays.

  19. Overview of Nuclear Physics at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Robert D.

    2013-08-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and associated experimental equipment at Jefferson Lab comprise a unique facility for experimental nuclear physics. This facility is presently being upgraded, which will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential to address important topics in nuclear, hadronic, and electroweak physics. Further in the future, it is envisioned that the Laboratory will evolve into an electron-ion colliding beam facility.

  20. The Standard Model of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detmold, William

    2015-04-01

    At its core, nuclear physics, which describes the properties and interactions of hadrons, such as protons and neutrons, and atomic nuclei, arises from the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the complexities of nuclei result in severe computational difficulties that have historically prevented the calculation of central quantities in nuclear physics directly from this underlying theory. The availability of petascale (and prospect of exascale) high performance computing is changing this situation by enabling us to extend the numerical techniques of lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD), applied successfully in particle physics, to the more intricate dynamics of nuclear physics. In this talk, I will discuss this revolution and the emerging understanding of hadrons and nuclei within the Standard Model.

  1. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  2. PREFACE: Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Sean

    2012-09-01

    , Rutherford's great-granddaughter, and Professor Stephen Watts, Head of the School of Physics and Astronomy at Manchester, for opening the exhibition as part of the welcome reception for the conference. The reception was only possible with support from Canberra Industries. We are grateful to His Excellency Mr Derek Leask, New Zealand High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, to Professor Rod Coombs, Deputy President of The University of Manchester, and to Professor David Phillips, the President of the Royal Society of Chemistry, for their contributions to the formal opening of the conference. Manchester City Council kindly supported a civic reception hosted by the Lord Mayor of the City of Manchester, Councillor Harry Lyons JP, at Manchester Town Hall. The Ogden Trust helped support the conference dinner and Professor George Dracoulis provided an entertaining after dinner speech. Thank you for these contributions to the social programme of the conference. In addition to the exhibition at the Museum, which was open to the public until October 2011, the conference programme also included a series of public evening lectures and we are grateful both to the speakers (David Jenkins, Alan Perkins and John Roberts) and to those providing support for the public engagement activities (the Institute of Physics Nuclear Physics Group, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine, the Nuclear Institute and the Science and Technology Facilities Council). We would also like to thank the European Physical Society for providing conference travel grants to a number of young scientists. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the other members of the UK Organising Committee for their help in making the conference a success and for their work in putting these proceedings together. In addition, the International Advisory Committee provided essential advice that contributed to the selection of the plenary speakers who were without exception engaging, interesting and entertaining

  3. Advances in the physics basis for the European DEMO design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Angioni, C.; Artaud, J.-F.; Bernert, M.; Fable, E.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Jenko, F.; Maget, P.; Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F.; Poli, E.; Ramogida, G.; Reux, C.; Schneider, M.; Sieglin, B.; Villone, F.; Wischmeier, M.; Zohm, H.

    2015-06-01

    In the European fusion roadmap, ITER is followed by a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO), for which a conceptual design is under development. This paper reports the first results of a coherent effort to develop the relevant physics knowledge for that (DEMO Physics Basis), carried out by European experts. The program currently includes investigations in the areas of scenario modeling, transport, MHD, heating & current drive, fast particles, plasma wall interaction and disruptions.

  4. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K.

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  5. VI European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics has reached the sixth edition, marking the tenth year's anniversary. The spirit of the school is to provide a very important occasion for a deep education of young researchers about the main topics of experimental nuclear astrophysics. Moreover, it should be regarded as a forum for the discussion of the last-decade research activity. Lectures are focused on various aspects of primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, including novel experimental approaches and detectors, indirect methods and radioactive ion beams. Moreover, in order to give a wide educational offer, some lectures cover complementary subjects of nuclear astrophysics such as gamma ray astronomy, neutron-induced reactions, short-lived radionuclides, weak interaction and cutting-edge facilities used to investigate nuclear reactions of interest for astrophysics. Large room is also given to young researcher oral contributions. Traditionally, particular attention is devoted to the participation of students from less-favoured countries, especially from the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The school is organised by the Catania Nuclear Astrophysics research group with the collaboration of Dipartimento di Fisica e Astromomia - Università di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare.

  6. Towards a Conceptual Diagnostic Survey in Nuclear Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnle, Antje; Mclean, Stewart; Aliotta, Marialuisa

    2011-01-01

    Understanding students' prior beliefs in nuclear physics is a first step towards improving nuclear physics instruction. This paper describes the development of a diagnostic survey in nuclear physics covering the areas of radioactive decay, binding energy, properties of the nuclear force and nuclear reactions, that was administered to students at…

  7. Learning to Embrace Nuclear Physics through Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avadanei, Camelia

    2010-01-01

    Due to its achievements, nuclear physics is more and more present in life of every member of the society. Its applications in the medical field and in nuclear energy, as well as the advanced research, always pushing the limits of science towards micro cosmos and macro cosmos, are subjects frequently presented in the media. In addition to their invaluable benefits, these achievements involve also particular rules to prevent potential risks. These risks are also underlined by the media, often being presented in an unfriendly manner. Specialists in nuclear physics are familiar with these problems complying with the specific rules in order to reduce risks at insignificant levels. The development of a specific field ("Radiation protection") defining norms and requirements for "assuring the radiological safety of the workers, population and environment," and its dynamics represent a proof of a responsible attitude regarding nuclear safety. Dedicated international bodies and experts analyze and rigorously evaluate risks in order to draw the right ways of managing activity in the field. The improvement of the formal and informal education of public regarding the real risks of nuclear applications is very important in order to understand and better assimilate some general rules concerning the use of these techniques, as well as for their correct perception, leading to an increase of interest towards nuclear physics. This educational update can be started even from elementary school and continued in each stage of formal education in adapted forms. The task of informing general public is to be carried out mainly by specialists who, unlike 30-40 years ago, can rely on a much more efficient generation of communications' mean. Taking into account the lack of interest for nuclear, an attractive way of presenting the achievements and future possibilities of nuclear physics would contribute to youth orientation towards specific universities in order to become next generation of

  8. Learning to Embrace Nuclear Physics through Education

    SciTech Connect

    Avadanei, Camelia

    2010-01-21

    Due to its achievements, nuclear physics is more and more present in life of every member of the society. Its applications in the medical field and in nuclear energy, as well as the advanced research, always pushing the limits of science towards micro cosmos and macro cosmos, are subjects frequently presented in the media. In addition to their invaluable benefits, these achievements involve also particular rules to prevent potential risks. These risks are also underlined by the media, often being presented in an unfriendly manner. Specialists in nuclear physics are familiar with these problems complying with the specific rules in order to reduce risks at insignificant levels. The development of a specific field ('Radiation protection') defining norms and requirements for 'assuring the radiological safety of the workers, population and environment', and its dynamics represent a proof of a responsible attitude regarding nuclear safety. Dedicated international bodies and experts analyze and rigorously evaluate risks in order to draw the right ways of managing activity in the field. The improvement of the formal and informal education of public regarding the real risks of nuclear applications is very important in order to understand and better assimilate some general rules concerning the use of these techniques, as well as for their correct perception, leading to an increase of interest towards nuclear physics. This educational update can be started even from elementary school and continued in each stage of formal education in adapted forms. The task of informing general public is to be carried out mainly by specialists who, unlike 30-40 years ago, can rely on a much more efficient generation of communications' mean. Taking into account the lack of interest for nuclear, an attractive way of presenting the achievements and future possibilities of nuclear physics would contribute to youth orientation towards specific universities in order to become next generation of

  9. Experimental Nuclear Physics Activity in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, E.; de Marco, N.

    2003-04-01

    The experimental Nuclear Physics activity of the Italian researchers is briefly reviewed. The experiments, that are financially supported by the INFN, are done in strict collaboration by more than 500 INFN and University researchers. The experiments cover all the most important field of the modern Nuclear Physics with probes extremely different in energy and interactions. Researches are done in all the four National Laboratories of the INFN even if there is a deeper involvement of the two national laboratories expressly dedicated to Nuclear Physics: the LNL (Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro) and LNS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud) where nuclear spectroscopy and reaction dynamics are investigated. All the activities with electromagnetic probes develops in abroad laboratories as TJNAF, DESY, MAMI, ESFR and are dedicated to the studies of the spin physics and of the nucleon resonance; hypernuclear and kaon physics is investigated at LNF. A strong community of researchers work in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ions field in particular at CERN with the SPS Pb beam and in the construction of the ALICE detector for heavy-ion physics at the LHC collider. Experiments of astrophysical interest are done with ions of very low energy; in particular the LUNA accelerator facility at LNGS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso) succeeded measuring cross section at solar energies, below or near the solar Gamow peak. Interdisciplinary researches on anti-hydrogen atom spectroscopy and on measurements of neutron cross sections of interest for ADS development are also supported.

  10. Semi-classical methods in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, David M.

    These lecture notes present an introduction to some semi-classical techniques which have applications in nuclear physics. Topics discussed include the WKB method, approaches based on the Feynman path integral, the Gutzwiller trace formula for level density fluctuations and the Thomas-Fermi approximation and the Vlasov equation for many-body problems. There are applications to heavy ion fusion reactions, bremsstrahlung emission in alpha decay and nuclear response functions.

  11. EDITORIAL 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Tito; Hidalgo, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    participants, and finally basic and astrophysical plasmas (BAP). New strategies are required to achieve a more balanced participation of these four areas of knowledge in future meetings, but the large number of participants and the overall high quality of the invited talks were particularly relevant this year. In the preparation of the Conference Programme we tried to present an updated view of plasma physics and to integrate suggestions coming from the scientific community, in particular through the use of the EPS PPD Open Forum. As mentioned, two evening sessions took place during the Conference. This year, the traditional evening on ITER was replaced by a session dedicated to inertial fusion, organized by D Batani, where the main installations and experiments on laser fusion around the world were presented and critically discussed. The other session, dedicated to plasma physics education, was organized by N Lopes-Cardoso, and discussed the specific educational issues of plasma physics and fusion, and presented the training programmes existing in Europe. As a concluding remark, we would like to thank our colleagues of the Programme Committee and, in particular, the coordinators of the subcommittees, Clarisse Bourdelle and Arthur Peters for MCF, Javier Honrubia for BPIF, Christoph Hollenstein for LTP, and Uli Stroth for BAP, for their generous help, suggestions and support. Due to the large number of participants, the smooth and efficient local organization, and the high overall quality of the plenary and invited presentations, the 37th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics can be considered an undeniable success. I hope you will find, in this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, an interesting and useful account of this event. Outstanding scientists honoured at the 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics During the Conference the EPS Plasma Physics Division rewarded researchers who have achieved outstanding scientific or technological results

  12. Physics in the Confrontation of Nuclear Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toevs, James

    2011-03-01

    Had the detonations on 9/11 involved nuclear explosives rather than jet fuel the number of deaths and the costs would have been multiplied by 100 or 1,000. This talk will briefly describe the nuclear threat and then focus on the technologies, both extant and evolving, for the detection and interdiction of clandestine trafficking of nuclear weapons and nuclear and radiological material. The methods vary from passive detection of heat, gamma radiation, neutrons, or other signatures from nuclear material, through radiological approaches to examine contents of vehicles and cargo containers, to active interrogation concepts that are under development. All of these methods have major physics components ranging from simple gamma ray detection as learned in a senior undergraduate lab to the latest ideas in muon production and acceleration.

  13. Fundamental physics possibilities at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkby, Esben; N-Nbar Collaboration; Soldner, Torsten; ANNI Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The construction of the European Spallation Source ESS is ongoing in Lund, Sweden. This new high power spallation source with its long-pulse structure opens up new possibilities for fundamental physics experiments. This paper focusses on two proposals for fundamental physics at the ESS: The ANNI instrument and the neutron-anti-neutron oscillation experiment.

  14. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

  15. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  16. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

  17. Dedicated storage rings for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The use of internal targets in circulating beams of electron storage and stretcher rings has been widely discussed recently as a method of achieving high luminosity under conditions of low background, and good energy resolution, with minimal demands for beam from an injecting accelerator. In the two critical areas of the technology, ring design and target development, research is very active, and the prospects for major advances are very bright. Reasonable extrapolations of the current state of the art suggest for many problems in nuclear physics, particularly polarization physics of the nucleon and few body nuclei, internal target measurement may be the optimum experimental technique. This paper, discusses the comparative merit of internal target rings and external beam experiments, reviews briefly current research efforts in the critical areas of the technology, and establishes one goal for the discussions at the workshop. It appears that storage rings dedicated to internal target physics may offer a powerful option for future advances in nuclear physics.

  18. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  19. American particle and nuclear physics planning

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2014-10-01

    In the United States the planning process relevant to future deep inelastic scattering involves both the high energy physics and nuclear physics funding and the two communities. In Canada there is no such split between the communities. Within the past two years there have been several planning initiatives and there may be more to come. We review the current status of both the planning and the plans.

  20. The nuclear physics of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2014-05-01

    We explore the unique and fascinating structure of neutron stars. Although neutron stars are of interest in many areas of Physics, our aim is to provide an intellectual bridge between Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. We argue against the naive perception of a neutron star as a uniform assembly of neutrons packed to enormous densities. Rather, by focusing on the many exotic phases that are speculated to exist in a neutron star, we show how the reality is different and far more interesting.

  1. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    The UMass group has concentrated on using electromagnetic probes, particularly the electron in high-energy scattering experiments at the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC). Plans are also being made for high energy work at the Continuous Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The properties of this accelerator should permit a whole new class of coincidence experiments to be carried out. At SLAC UMass has made major contributions toward the plans for a cluster-jet gas target and detector system at the 16 GeV PEP storage ring. For the future CEBAF accelerator, tests were made of the feasibility of operating wire drift chambers in the vicinity of a continuous electron beam at the University Illinois microtron. At the same time a program of studies of the nuclear structure of more complex nuclei has been continued at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center and in Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K laboratory. At the MIT-Bates Accelerator, because of an unforeseen change in beam scheduling as a result of problems with the T{sub 20} experiment, the UMass group was able to complete data acquisition on experiments involving 180{degrees} elastic magnetic scattering on {sup 117}Sn and {sup 41}Ca. A considerable effort has been given to preparations for a future experiment at Bates involving the high-resolution threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron. The use of these chambers should permit a high degree of discrimination against background events in the measurement of the almost neutrino-like small cross sections that are expected. In Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K facility, single arm (e,e{prime}) measurements were made in November of 1987 on {sup 10}B in order to better determine the p{sub 3/2} wave function from the transition from the J{sup pi} = 3{sup +} ground state to the O{sup +} excited state at 1.74 MeV. In 1988, (e,e{prime}p) coincidence measurements on {sup 10}B were completed. The objective was to obtain information on the p{sub 3/2} wave function by another means.

  2. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    This paper covers the following topics: Experiment 87-02: Threshold Electrodisintegration of the Deuteron at High Q{sup 2}; Measurement of the 5th Structure Function in Deuterium and {sup 12}C; Single-Particle Densities of sd-Shell Nuclei; Experiment 84-28: Transverse Form Factors of {sup 117}Sn; Experiment 82-11: Elastic Magnetic Electron Scattering from {sup 13}C; Experiment 89-09: Measurement of the Elastic Magnetic Form Factor of {sup 3}He at High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 89-15: Coincidence Measurement of the D(e,e{prime}p) Cross-Section at Low Excitation Energy and High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 87-09: Measurement of the Quadrupole Contribution to the N {yields} {Delta} Excitation; Experiment E-140: Measurement of the x-, Q{sup 2} and A-Dependence of R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}; PEP Beam-Gas Event Analysis: Physics with the SLAC TPC/2{gamma} Detector; Drift Chamber Tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory; Experiment PR-89-031: Multi-nucleon Knockout Using the CLAS Detector; Electronics Design for the CLAS Region 1 Drift Chamber; Color Transparencies in the Electroproduction of Nucleon Resonances; and Experiment PR-89-015: Study of Coincidence Reactions in the Dip and Delta-Resonance Regions.

  3. PREFACE: XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.; Bijker, R.

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo The XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held at Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico from January 3-6 2012. Conceived in 1978 as a small meeting, over the years and thanks to the efforts of various organizing committees, the symposium has become a well known international conference on nuclear physics. To the best of our knowledge, the Mexican Symposium on Nuclear Physics represents the conference series with longest tradition in Latin America and one of the longest-running annual nuclear physics conferences in the world. The Symposium brings together leading scientists from all around the world, working in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, physics with radioactive ion beams, hadronic physics, nuclear astrophysics, neutron physics and relativistic heavy-ion physics. Its main goal is to provide a relaxed environment where the exchange of ideas, discussion of new results and consolidation of scientific collaboration are encouraged. To celebrate the 35th edition of the symposium 53 colleagues attended from diverse countries including: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Japan, Saudi Arabia and USA. We were happy to have the active participation of Eli F Aguilera, Eduardo Andrade, Octavio Castaños, Alfonso Mondragón, Stuart Pittel and Andrés Sandoval who also participated in the first edition of the Symposium back in 1978. We were joined by old friends of Cocoyoc (Stuart Pittel, Osvaldo Civitarese, Piet Van Isacker, Jerry Draayer and Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri) as well as several first time visitors that we hope will come back to this scientific meeting in the forthcoming years. The scientific program consisted of 33 invited talks, proposed by the international advisory committee, which nicely covered the topics of the Symposium giving a balanced perspective between the experimental and the theoretical work that is currently underway in each line of research. Fifteen posters complemented the scientific sessions giving the opportunity

  4. The harmonic oscillator and nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional harmonic oscillator plays a central role in nuclear physics. It provides the underlying structure of the independent-particle shell model and gives rise to the dynamical group structures on which models of nuclear collective motion are based. It is shown that the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator features a rich variety of coherent states, including vibrations of the monopole, dipole, and quadrupole types, and rotations of the rigid flow, vortex flow, and irrotational flow types. Nuclear collective states exhibit all of these flows. It is also shown that the coherent state representations, which have their origins in applications to the dynamical groups of the simple harmonic oscillator, can be extended to vector coherent state representations with a much wider range of applicability. As a result, coherent state theory and vector coherent state theory become powerful tools in the application of algebraic methods in physics.

  5. Nuclear Physics Laboratory 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1980-09-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: astrophysics and cosmology, fundamental symmetries, nuclear structure and reactions, radiative capture, medium energy physics, heavy ion reactions, research by outside users, accelerators and ion sources, instrumentation and experimental techniques, and computers and computing. Publications are listed. (WHK)

  6. Chinese-English Nuclear and Physics Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. Foreign Technology Div.

    The Nuclear and Physics Dictionary is one of a series of Chinese-English technical dictionaries prepared by the Foreign Technology Division, United States Air Force Systems Command. The purpose of this dictionary is to provide rapid reference tools for translators, abstractors, and research analysts concerned with scientific and technical…

  7. The role of symmetry in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachello, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    The role of discrete symmetries in nuclear physics is briefly reviewed within the context of the algebraic cluster model (ACM). The symmetries D3 (triangle) for 3α and Td (tetrahedron) for 4α are discussed and evidence shown for their occurrence in 12C (D3) and 16O (Td).

  8. A Vision of Nuclear and Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper will consist of a selected, personal view of some of the issues associated with the intersections of nuclear and particle physics. As well as touching on the recent developments we will attempt to look at how those aspects of the subject might evolve over the next few years.

  9. New nuclear physics for big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Richard N.; Brune, Carl R.; Fuller, George M.; Smith, Christel J.

    2010-11-15

    We discuss nuclear reactions which could play a role in big bang nucleosynthesis. Most of these reactions involve lithium and beryllium isotopes and the rates for some of these have not previously been included in BBN calculations. Few of these reactions are well studied in the laboratory. We also discuss novel effects in these reactions, including thermal population of nuclear target states, resonant enhancement, and nonthermal neutron reaction products. We perform sensitivity studies which show that even given considerable nuclear physics uncertainties, most of these nuclear reactions have minimal leverage on the standard BBN abundance yields of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. Although a few have the potential to alter the yields significantly, we argue that this is unlikely.

  10. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools.

    PubMed

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.

  11. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics and Low Energy Nuclear Physics - Part 1. Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Arcones, Almudena; Escher, Jutta E.; Others, M.

    2016-04-04

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21 - 23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9 - 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12 - 13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long-standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.

  12. Is Nuclear Physics Interesting? Nuclear Physics for Undergraduates -- Strategies and Topics for Teaching the Underprepared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrow, Charles H.

    2004-05-01

    Admit it or not, you face hard questions when you teach nuclear physics to undergraduates. How can you engage the interest of novice students? Of non-science students? Of physics students with limited preparation? Will you teach them the physics of the nucleus or will it be taxonomy and poetry? How much time will you spend on pre-quantum nuclear physics, e.g., radioactivity and α, β, and γ radiations? On crucial experiments? On atomic beams, detectors, particle spectrographs, reactors and accelerators? On nuclear levels, angular momentum, and parity? On models of the nucleus? On muons, pions or kaons? Will you teach new nuclear physics from RHIC and Jefferson Lab? What can you teach when your best prepared students have only rudimentary quantum mechanics and no idea of quantum field theory? What text will you use? How will you know if your course succeeds? I will give several different, sometimes inconsistent answers to these questions. I will present some syllabi, assess some texts, and describe strategies for organizing the intellectual content of the course and for engaging students in it. I will also describe ways to embed nuclear physics in the undergraduate curriculum in places other than those explicitly labeled nuclear physics.'

  13. Resource Letter FNP-1: Frontiers of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsch, G. F.

    2004-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a bibliography of the current research activities in nuclear physics and also a guide for finding useful nuclear data. The major areas included are nuclear structure and reactions, symmetry tests, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, high-density matter, and nuclear instrumentation.

  14. PREFACE: XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof; Fossion, Ruben; Lizcano, David

    2010-04-01

    The attached PDF gives a full listing of contributors and organisation members. In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the "XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics", that was held from January 5-8, 2010 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings contain the plenary talks that were presented during the conference. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters, were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. After the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium was organized every year without interruption which makes the present one the 33rd in a row. This year's meeting was dedicated to the memory of Marcos Moshinsky, who passed away on April 1, 2009. Dr. Moshinsky was the most distinguished pioneer and promoter of nuclear physics in Mexico and Latin America and holds the record of 31 (out of 32) participations at the Symposium. In the inaugural session, Alejandro Frank (ICN-UNAM), Peter Hess (ICN-UNAM) and Jorge Flores (IF-UNAM) spoke in his honor and recalled the virtues that characterized him as a teacher, scientist, founder of schools and academic institutions, colleague and friend. His generosity, excellence and honesty were emphasized as the personal qualities that characterized both his personal and academic life. moshinksky_photo "Marcos Moshinsky (1921-2009)" The scientific program consisted of 26 invited talks and 20 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear

  15. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-04-01

    This is the April 1989 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Labortaory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, computer systems, instrumentation, and the Laboratory`s booster linac work. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1988-1989 academic year, and publications. Refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-05-01

    This is the May 1988 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, the Laboratory`s booster linac project work, instrumentation, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1987-88 academic year, and publications. Refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. A European perspective on the US nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Many Europeans believe that the main problems which have impeded progress in solving the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States have been a series of ideological and political hang-ups and these, coupled with excessive bureaucracy, have made logical decision making on the back-end problems impossible. This situation has been caused by a succession of political nondecisions. Public confidence in nuclear generation was thereby undermined and, because of plentiful supplies of other energy sources, there was no urgent need to expand the nuclear program in the United States. Since uranium was cheap and fast reactors not commercially attractive, there was no economic incentive to reprocess fuel from existing reactors in the United States. The problem facing the United States is that of managing the large stocks of spent fuel which have arisen over many years. A logical way forward for the United States would appear to be as follows: build more storage for spent fuel; consider overseas reprocessing to provide plutonium; develop reprocessing technology; and develop direct disposal technology.

  18. Green's function Monte Carlo in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    We review the status of Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) methods as applied to problems in nuclear physics. New methods have been developed to handle the spin and isospin degrees of freedom that are a vital part of any realistic nuclear physics problem, whether at the level of quarks or nucleons. We discuss these methods and then summarize results obtained recently for light nuclei, including ground state energies, three-body forces, charge form factors and the coulomb sum. As an illustration of the applicability of GFMC to quark models, we also consider the possible existence of bound exotic multi-quark states within the framework of flux-tube quark models. 44 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Proton-rich nucleosynthesis and nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, T.; Froehlich, C.

    2012-11-12

    Although the detailed conditions for explosive nucleosynthesis are derived from astrophysical modeling, nuclear physics determines fundamental patterns in abundance yields, not only for equilibrium processes. Focussing on the {nu}p- and the {gamma}-process, general nucleosynthesis features within the range of astrophysical models, but (mostly) independent of details in the modelling, are presented. Remaining uncertainties due to uncertain Q-values and reaction rates are discussed.

  20. Nuclear physics with radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kozub, Raymond L.

    2015-07-23

    This is a final report on DOE Grant No. DE FG02 96ER40955, which was active at Tennessee Technological University (TTU) from 1 March 1996 to 29 May 2015. Generally, this report will provide an overall summary of the more detailed activities presented in the progress reports, numbered DOE/ER/40955-1 through DOE/ER/40955-18, which were submitted annually to the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics.

  1. The European nuclear power industry: Restructuring for combined strength and worldwide leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Norman, R.E.; Reich, W.J.; Hill, L.J.

    1993-06-18

    The European nuclear power industry is being restructured from an industry drawn along national lines to a European-wide industry. This, in part, reflects growth of the European Economic Community, but it also reflects changes in the international nuclear power industry. The objectives of the participants, beyond better integration of the nuclear industry in Western Europe, are to (1) obtain European leadership of the worldwide commercial nuclear power industry, (2) improve medium- and long-term safety of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) power reactors, and (3) reduce domestic concerns about nuclear power. The activities to achieve these goals include (1) formation of Nuclear Power International (a joint venture of the German and French nuclear power plant vendors for design and construction of nuclear power plants), (2) formation of a utility group to forge agreement throughout Europe on what the requirements are for the next generation of nuclear power plants, and (3) agreement by regulators in multiple European countries to harmonize regulations. This is to be achieved before the end of the decade. These changes would allow a single design of nuclear power plant to be built anywhere in Europe. The creation of European-wide rules (utility requirements, engineering standards, and national regulations) would create strong economic and political forces for other European countries (Eastern Europe and FSU) to meet these standards.

  2. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.

    2014-10-19

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  3. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; ...

    2014-10-19

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-bodymore » interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

  4. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; ...

    2015-09-09

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit,more » and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2015-09-09

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  6. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2015-07-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  7. Tools for the Future of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geesaman, Donald

    2014-03-01

    The challenges of Nuclear Physics, especially in understanding strongly interacting matter in all its forms in the history of the universe, place ever higher demands on the tools of the field, including the workhorse, accelerators. These demands are not just higher energy and higher luminosity. To recreate the matter that fleetingly was formed in the origin of the heavy elements, we need higher power heavy-ion accelerators and creative techniques to harvest the isotopes. We also need high-current low-energy accelerators deep underground to detect the very slow rate reactions in stellar burning. To explore the three dimensional distributions of high-momentum quarks in hadrons and to search for gluonic excitations we need high-current CW electron accelerators. Understanding the gluonic structure of nuclei and the three dimensional distributions of partons at lower x, we need high-luminosity electron-ion colliders that also have the capabilities to prepare, preserve and manipulate the polarization of both beams. A search for the critical point in the QCD phase diagram demands high luminosity beams over a broad range of species and energy. With advances in cavity design and construction, beam manipulation and cooling, and ion sources and targets, the Nuclear Physics community, in the U.S. and internationally has a coordinated vision to deliver this exciting science. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  8. Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

  9. PREFACE: 12th Conference on ''Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    These Proceedings contain the invited and contributed papers presented at the 12th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 8-10 October 2008. As usual, the meeting was held at il Palazzone, a 16th century castle owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennal conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of Nuclear Physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to promote collaborations between different groups. There were about 50 participants at the conference, coming from 14 Italian Universities (Cagliari, Catania, Ferrara, Firenze, Genova, Lecce, Milano, Napoli, Padova, Pavia, Pisa, Roma, Trento, Trieste). The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on six main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems, Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics, Nuclear Astrophysics, Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter, Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes. Winfried Leidemann, Maria Colonna, Marcello Lissia, Elena Santopinto, Silvia Lenzi and Omar Benhar took the burden of giving general talks on these topics and reviewing the research activities of the various Italian groups. In addition, 19 contributed papers were presented, most of them by young participants. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Gianfranco Prete from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the Italian radioactive ion beam facility SPES and the status of the European project EURISOL, while Nicola Colonna from the INFN, Bari, gave an overview of the perspectives of development of fourth-generation nuclear reactors. We would like to thank the authors of the general reports for their hard work in reviewing the main achievements in

  10. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  11. Nuclear Physics in a biological context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    A solid tissue can be soft like fat or brain, stiff like striated muscle and heart, or rigid like bone -- and of course every cell has a nucleus that contributes in some way small or large to tissue mechanics. Indeed, nuclei generally exhibit rheology and plasticity that reflects both the chromatin and the nuclear envelope proteins called lamins, all of which change in differentiation. Profiling of tissue nuclei shows that the nuclear intermediate filament protein Lamin-A/C varies over 30-fold between adult tissues and scales strongly with micro-elasticity of tissue, while other nuclear envelope components such as Lamin-B exhibit small variations. Lamin-A/C has been implicated in aging syndromes that affect muscle and fat but not brain, and we find nuclei in brain-derived cells are indeed dominated by Lamin-B and are much softer than nuclei derived from muscle cells with predominantly Lamin-A/C. In vitro, matrix elasticity can affect expression of nuclear envelope components in adult stem cells, and major changes in Lamin-A/C are indeed shown to direct lineage with lower levels favoring soft tissue and higher levels promoting rigid tissue lineage. Further molecular studies provide evidence that the nucleus transduces physical stress. References: (1) J.D. Pajerowski, K.N. Dahl, F.L. Zhong, P.J. Sammak, and D.E. Discher. Physical plasticity of the nucleus in stem cell differentiation. PNAS 104: 15619-15624 (2007). (2) A. Buxboim, I. Ivanova, and D.E. Discher. Matrix Elasticity, Cytoskeletal Forces, and Physics of the Nucleus: how deeply do cells `feel' outside and in? Journal of Cell Science 123: 297-308 (2010).

  12. Applied nuclear physics in support of SBSS

    SciTech Connect

    Strottman, D.

    1995-10-01

    Since the advent of the 800-MeV proton linear accelerator over 3 decades ago, the facilities on the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) mesa have pioneered many developments that provide unique capabilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in the world. New technologies based on the use of the world`s most intense, medium-energy linac, LAMPF, are being developed. They include destruction of long-lived components of nuclear waste, plutonium burning, energy production, production of tritium, and experiments for the science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program. The design, assessment, and safety analysis of potential facilities involve the understanding of complex combinations of nuclear processes, which in turn establish new requirements on nuclear data that transcend the traditional needs of the fission and fusion reactor communities. Other areas of technology such as neutron and proton therapy applications are also placing new requirements on nuclear data. The proposed Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) now under discussion combined with the appropriate instrumentation will have unique features and capabilities of which there were previously only aspirations.

  13. White paper on nuclear astrophysics and low energy nuclear physics Part 1: Nuclear astrophysics

    DOE PAGES

    Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.; Beers, Timothy C.; ...

    2016-12-28

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21–23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9–10, 2012more » Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). Our white paper is informed informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12–13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. Answers to long standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade because of the developments outlined in this white paper.« less

  14. White paper on nuclear astrophysics and low energy nuclear physics Part 1: Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Bernstein, Lee A.; Blackmon, Jeffrey C.; Messer, Bronson; Brown, B. Alex; Brown, Edward F.; Brune, Carl R.; Champagne, Art E.; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron J.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib; Escher, Jutta E.; Fields, Brian D.; Fröhlich, Carla; Herwig, Falk; Hix, William Raphael; Iliadis, Christian; Lynch, William G.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Nunes, Filomena; O’Shea, Brian W.; Prakash, Madappa; Pritychenko, Boris; Reddy, Sanjay; Rehm, Ernst; Rogachev, Grigory; Rutledge, Robert E.; Schatz, Hendrik; Smith, Michael S.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Steiner, Andrew W.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Townsley, Dean M.; Wiescher, Michael; Zegers, Remco G. T.; Zingale, Michael

    2016-12-28

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21–23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9–10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). Our white paper is informed informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12–13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. Answers to long standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade because of the developments outlined in this white paper.

  15. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, J M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J; Wiedeking, M; Wilk, P A; Wu, C Y

    2009-05-11

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  16. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  17. Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics Eli-Np Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.

    2015-06-01

    The development of high power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular High energy, Nuclear and Astrophysics as well as societal applications in Material Science, Nuclear Energy and Medicine. The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) has selected a proposal based on these new premises called "ELI" for Extreme Light Infrastructure. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW class lasers and a Back Compton Scattering High Brilliance and Intense Low Energy Gamma Beam , a marriage of Laser and Accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  18. What's next in nuclear physics with RIB's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonson, Björn

    2016-02-01

    The physics with energetic radioactive beams has had a tremendous development over the 30 years that have passed since Isao Tanihata's famous experiments at Berkeley. The experiments and the subsequent understanding that halo structure occur for some very exotic nuclei have attracted so much interest and given so many novel ideas that one may speak about a paradigm shift. I shall here give some, personal, ideas about "What's next". This is an interesting task and I shall not say that it is difficult but rather challenging. I shall, however, start by giving a few milestones, preceding the 1985 break-through, that were of key importance for creating our sub-field of modern nuclear physics.

  19. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-12-31

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

  20. Nuclear cardiology core syllabus of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

    PubMed

    Gimelli, Alessia; Neglia, Danilo; Schindler, Thomas H; Cosyns, Bernard; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Kitsiou, Anastasia

    2015-04-01

    The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for Nuclear Cardiology is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in nuclear cardiology. It represents a framework for the development of training curricula and provides expected knowledge-based learning outcomes to the nuclear cardiology trainees.

  1. Laser-based acceleration for nuclear physics experiments at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesileanu, O.; Asavei, Th.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Negoita, F.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    As part of the Extreme Light pan-European research infrastructure, Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Romania will focus on topics in Nuclear Physics, fundamental Physics and applications, based on very intense photon beams. Laser-based acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy ions is a prerequisite for a multitude of laser-driven nuclear physics experiments already proposed by the international research community. A total of six outputs of the dual-amplification chain laser system, two of 100TW, two of 1PW and two of 10PW will be employed in 5 experimental areas, with the possibility to use long and short focal lengths, gas and solid targets, reaching the whole range of laser acceleration processes. We describe the main techniques and expectations regarding the acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy nuclei at ELI-NP, and some physics cases for which these techniques play an important role in the experiments.

  2. Parental Analysis of Introgressive Hybridization between African and European Honeybees Using Nuclear DNA Rflps

    PubMed Central

    Hall, H. G.

    1990-01-01

    African honeybees, introduced into Brazil 33 years ago, have spread through most of South and Central America and have largely replaced the extant European bees. Due to a paucity of genetic markers, genetic interactions between European and African bees are not well understood. Three restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), detected with random, nuclear DNA probes, are described. The polymorphisms are specific to bees of European descent, possibly specific to certain European races. Each European marker was found present at a high frequency in U.S. colonies but absent in South African bees. Previous mitochondrial DNA studies of neotropical bees have revealed negligible maternal gene flow from managed European apiaries into feral African populations. The findings reported here with nuclear DNA show paternal gene flow between the two but suggest asymmetries in levels of introgressive hybridization. Managed colonies in southern Mexico, derived from European maternal lines, showed diminished levels of the European nuclear markers, reflecting significant hybridization with African drones. The European alleles were present only at low frequencies in feral swarms from the same area. The swarms were of African maternal descent. In Venezuelan colonies, also derived from African maternal lines, the European markers were almost totally absent. The results point to limited paternal introgression from European colonies into the African honeybee populations. These findings dispute other views regarding modes of Africanization. PMID:1974226

  3. Parental analysis of introgressive hybridization between African and European honeybees using nuclear DNA RFLPs.

    PubMed

    Hall, H G

    1990-07-01

    African honeybees, introduced into Brazil 33 years ago, have spread through most of South and Central America and have largely replaced the extant European bees. Due to a paucity of genetic markers, genetic interactions between European and African bees are not well understood. Three restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), detected with random, nuclear DNA probes, are described. The polymorphisms are specific to bees of European descent, possibly specific to certain European races. Each European marker was found present at a high frequency in U.S. colonies but absent in South African bees. Previous mitochondrial DNA studies of neotropical bees have revealed negligible maternal gene flow from managed European apiaries into feral African populations. The findings reported here with nuclear DNA show paternal gene flow between the two but suggest asymmetries in levels of introgressive hybridization. Managed colonies in southern Mexico, derived from European maternal lines, showed diminished levels of the European nuclear markers, reflecting significant hybridization with African drones. The European alleles were present only at low frequencies in feral swarms from the same area. The swarms were of African maternal descent. In Venezuelan colonies, also derived from African maternal lines, the European markers were almost totally absent. The results point to limited paternal introgression from European colonies into the African honeybee populations. These findings dispute other views regarding modes of Africanization.

  4. Open Questions in Stellar Nuclear Physics: I

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2004-09-13

    No doubt, among the most exciting discoveries of the third millennium thus far are oscillations of massive neutrinos and dark energy that leads to an accelerated expansion of the Universe. Accordingly, Nuclear Physics is presented with two extraordinary challenges: the need for precise (5% or better) prediction of solar neutrino fluxes within the Standard Solar Model, and the need for an accurate (5% or better) understanding of stellar evolution and in particular of Type Ia super nova that are used as cosmological standard candle. In contrast, much confusion is found in the field with contradicting data and strong statements of accuracy that can not be supported by current data. We discuss an experimental program to address these challenges and disagreements.

  5. Open Questions in Stellar Nuclear Physics: II

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2004-09-13

    No doubt, among the most exciting discoveries of the third millennium thus far are oscillations of massive neutrinos and dark energy that leads to an accelerated expansion of the Universe. Accordingly, Nuclear Physics is presented with two extraordinary challenges: the need for precise (5% or better) prediction of solar neutrino fluxes within the Standard Solar Model, and the need for an accurate (5% or better) understanding of stellar evolution and in particular of Type Ia super nova that are used as cosmological standard candle. In contrast, much confusion is found in the field with contradicting data and strong statements of accuracy that can not be supported by current data. We discuss an experimental program to address these challenges and disagreements.

  6. A possible biomedical facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

    PubMed

    Dosanjh, M; Jones, B; Myers, S

    2013-05-01

    A well-attended meeting, called "Brainstorming discussion for a possible biomedical facility at CERN", was held by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on 25 June 2012. This was concerned with adapting an existing, but little used, 78-m circumference CERN synchrotron to deliver a wide range of ion species, preferably from protons to at least neon ions, with beam specifications that match existing clinical facilities. The potential extensive research portfolio discussed included beam ballistics in humanoid phantoms, advanced dosimetry, remote imaging techniques and technical developments in beam delivery, including gantry design. In addition, a modern laboratory for biomedical characterisation of these beams would allow important radiobiological studies, such as relative biological effectiveness, in a dedicated facility with standardisation of experimental conditions and biological end points. A control photon and electron beam would be required nearby for relative biological effectiveness comparisons. Research beam time availability would far exceed that at other facilities throughout the world. This would allow more rapid progress in several biomedical areas, such as in charged hadron therapy of cancer, radioisotope production and radioprotection. The ethos of CERN, in terms of open access, peer-reviewed projects and governance has been so successful for High Energy Physics that application of the same to biomedicine would attract high-quality research, with possible contributions from Europe and beyond, along with potential new funding streams.

  7. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 12: Reactor Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Course l: Radiation Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  9. Summaries of FY 1992 research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the research projects supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics in the Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics during FY 1992. This Division is a component of the Office of Energy Research and provides about 85% of the funding for nuclear physics research in the United States. The objectives of the Nuclear Physics Program are two-fold: (1) to understand the interactions and structures of atomic nuclei and nuclear matter and the fundamental forces of nature as manifested in nuclear matter and (2) to foster application of this knowledge to other sciences and technical disciplines. These summaries are intended to provide a convenient guide for those interested in the research supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics. We remind the readers that this compilation is just an overview of the Nuclear Physics Program. What we attempt to portray correctly is the breadth of the program and level of activity in the field of nuclear physics research as well as the new capabilities and directions that continually alter the public face of the nuclear sciences. We hope that the limitations of space, constraints of fon-nat, and rigors of editing have not extinguished the excitement of the science as it was originally portrayed.

  10. European Particle Physics Masterclasses Make Students into Scientists for a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Kobel, M.; Hillebrandt, D.; Engeln, K.; Euler, M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the European particle physics masterclasses attracted 3000 students from 18 European countries to visit one of 58 universities and education centres. The participants worked with data from real high energy particle collisions, learned about particle physics, and experienced research and education environments at European universities. In…

  11. VIEW OF STEEL PLATE DOOR IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY, BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STEEL PLATE DOOR IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY, BETWEEN LABORATORY AND SP-SE REACTOR ROOM,LEVEL -15’, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  12. Teaching Nuclear Physics in a General Education Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesher, Shelly R.

    2017-01-01

    The general public is unaware how physics shapes the world. This is especially true for nuclear physics, where many people are scared of the words ``nuclear'' and ``radiation''. To combat these perceptions, the Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin - La Crosse teaches a general education class on nuclear weapons, energy, and policy in society. This includes the social, economic, cultural, and political aspects surrounding the development of nuclear weapons and their place in the world, especially in current events. This talk will discuss the course, how it has grown, and sample student responses.

  13. Optimizing Nuclear Physics Codes on the XT5

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman-Baker, Rebecca J; Nam, Hai Ah

    2011-01-01

    Scientists studying the structure and behavior of the atomic nucleus require immense high-performance computing resources to gain scientific insights. Several nuclear physics codes are capable of scaling to more than 100,000 cores on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's petaflop Cray XT5 system, Jaguar. In this paper, we present our work on optimizing codes in the nuclear physics domain.

  14. European coordination for coastal HF radar data in EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Julien; Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Griffa, Annalisa; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Montero, Pedro; Montovani, Carlo; Ayensa, Garbi; Vila, Begoña; Rubio, Anna; Sagarminaga, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    HFR data access and tools. In this context, a coordinated action between EuroGOOS HF Radar Task Team and EMODnet Physics has been pushed to achieve a pilot integration of the data from existing HF radar systems, with the following operational objectives: definition of needed metadata; standardization for data format and QC; recommendation for the implementation of HF radar data in Regional and European Portals. This coordinated action for organizing and creating links between operators of HF radar platforms will benefit to the implementation of this key information in the European Marine Observation Data Network.

  15. Spes: Exotic Beams for Nuclear Physics Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrighetto, Alberto; Manzolaro, Mattia; Corradetti, Stefano; Scarpa, Daniele; Vasquez, Jesu; Rossignoli, Massimo; Monetti, Alberto; Calderolla, Michele; Prete, Gianfranco

    2014-02-01

    The SPES project at Laboratori di Legnaro of INFN (Italy) is concentrating on the production of neutron-rich radioactive nuclei for nuclear physics experiments using uranium fission at a rate of 1013 fission/s. The emphasis on neutron-rich isotopes is justified by the fact that this vast territory has been little explored. The Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) will be produced by the ISOL technique using proton induced fission on a direct target of UCx. The most critical element of the SPES project is the Multi-Foil Direct Target. Up to the present time, the proposed target represents an innovation in terms of its capability to sustain the primary beam power. This talk will present the status of the project financed by INFN, which is actually in the construction phase at Legnaro. In particular, developments related to the target and the ion-source activities using the surface ion source, plasma ion source, and laser ion source techniques will be reported.

  16. The Nuclear Physics of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the thermonuclear incineration of white dwarfs, which are the evolutionary terminus of low-mass stars; these supernovae are a primary source of iron in the universe and the premier distance indicator for cosmological studies. Current and future observational surveys are uncovering tantalizing clues about the as-yet-unknown progenitors of these explosions. In this talk, I shall review the nuclear physics of the explosion, with a particular emphasis on the role of weak interactions. Electron captures during the pre-explosive ``simmering'' and the explosion make the nucleosynthetic yields more neutron-rich. This provides in principle a way to constrain the nature of the progenitor from observations. I shall also highlight recent experimental constraints on electron-capture rates and prospects for further experimental studies, such as at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams. Support by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements) is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Nuclear Physics with 10 PW laser beams at Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.

    2014-05-01

    The field of the uncharted territory of high-intensity laser interaction with matter is confronted with new exotic phenomena and, consequently, opens new research perspectives. The intense laser beams interacting with a gas or solid target generate beams of electrons, protons and ions. These beams can induce nuclear reactions. Electrons also generate ions high-energy photons via bremsstrahlung processes which can also induce nuclear reactions. In this context a new research domain began to form in the last decade or so, namely nuclear physics with high power lasers. The observation of high brilliance proton beams of tens of MeV energy from solid targets has stimulated an intense research activity. The laser-driven particle beams have to compete with conventional nuclear accelerator-generated beams. The ultimate goal is aiming at applications of the laser produced beams in research, technology and medicine. The mechanism responsible for ion acceleration are currently subject of intensive research in many laboratories in the world. The existing results, experimental and theoretical, and their perspectives are reviewed in this article in the context of IZEST and the scientific program of ELI-NP.

  18. Evolving landscape of low-energy nuclear physics publications

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.

    2016-10-01

    Evolution of low-energy nuclear physics publications over the last 120 years has been analyzed using nuclear physics databases. An extensive study of Nuclear Science References, Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data (EXFOR), and Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) contents provides a unique picture of refereed and non-refereed nuclear physics references. Significant fractional contributions of non-refereed reports, private communications and conference proceedings in EXFOR and ENSDF databases in the 1970’s reflect extensive experimental campaigns and an insufficient number of research journals. This trend has been reversed in recent years because the number of measurements is much lower, while number of journals is higher. In addition, nuclear physics results are mainly published in a limited number of journals, such as Physical Review C and Nuclear Physics A. In the present work, historic publication trends and averages have been extracted and analyzed using nuclear data mining techniques. Lastly, the results of this study and implications are discussed and conclusions presented.

  19. Evolving landscape of low-energy nuclear physics publications

    DOE PAGES

    Pritychenko, B.

    2016-10-01

    Evolution of low-energy nuclear physics publications over the last 120 years has been analyzed using nuclear physics databases. An extensive study of Nuclear Science References, Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data (EXFOR), and Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) contents provides a unique picture of refereed and non-refereed nuclear physics references. Significant fractional contributions of non-refereed reports, private communications and conference proceedings in EXFOR and ENSDF databases in the 1970’s reflect extensive experimental campaigns and an insufficient number of research journals. This trend has been reversed in recent years because the number of measurements is much lower, while number of journals ismore » higher. In addition, nuclear physics results are mainly published in a limited number of journals, such as Physical Review C and Nuclear Physics A. In the present work, historic publication trends and averages have been extracted and analyzed using nuclear data mining techniques. Lastly, the results of this study and implications are discussed and conclusions presented.« less

  20. New frontiers in nuclear physics with high-power lasers and brilliant monochromatic gamma beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.; Balabanski, D. L.; Negoita, F.; Tesileanu, O.; Ur, C. A.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    The development of high power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics as well as societal applications in material science, nuclear energy and applications for medicine. The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures has selected a proposal based on these new premises called the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI). The ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for nuclear physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense low-energy gamma beam, a combination of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. This unique combination of beams that are unique worldwide allows us to develop an experimental program in nuclear physics at the frontiers of present-day knowledge as well as society driven applications. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility as well as the new perspectives in nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and nuclear astrophysics will be presented.

  1. Status and Prospects of Hirfl Experiments on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H. S.; Zheng, C.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhan, W. L.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Sun, Z. Y.; Wang, J. S.; Gan, Z. G.; Huang, W. X.; Ma, X. W.

    HIRFL is an accelerator complex consisting of 3 accelerators, 2 radioactive beams lines, 1 storage rings and a number of experimental setups. The research activities at HIRFL cover the fields of radio-biology, material science, atomic physics, and nuclear physics. This report mainly concentrates on the experiments of nuclear physics with the existing and planned experimental setups such as SHANS, RIBLL1, ETF, CSRe, PISA and HPLUS at HIRFL.

  2. Division of Nuclear Physics Mentoring Award Talk: Nuclear Physics Mentoring on the US-Mexico Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    The physics of the atomic nucleus keeps yielding its secrets little by little as it has done for the last 80 years. As generations of nuclear physicists retire, new ones are needed to take their place and, as our society becomes more ethnically diverse, efforts should be made to be more inclusive in the composition of these new generations. In this talk some reflections about these points will be presented in connection to 24 years of mentoring experience on the US-Mexico border.

  3. Nuclear Matrix Model: A path to nuclear physics from superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Koji

    2011-10-21

    We derive nuclear forces and nuclear density saturation from large N{sub c} QCD, by applying AdS/CFT correspondence of string theory, called holographic QCD. This is made possible by a new description of a multi-baryon system in the holographic QCD. The description employs a matrix quantum mechanics which can be derived via the correspondence. This talk is based on collaboration work with N. Iizuka and P. Yi [1], with N. Iizuka [2, 3] and with T. Morita [4].

  4. Lattice QCD Calculations in Nuclear Physics towards the Exascale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Balint

    2017-01-01

    The combination of algorithmic advances and new highly parallel computing architectures are enabling lattice QCD calculations to tackle ever more complex problems in nuclear physics. In this talk I will review some computational challenges that are encountered in large scale cold nuclear physics campaigns such as those in hadron spectroscopy calculations. I will discuss progress in addressing these with algorithmic improvements such as multi-grid solvers and software for recent hardware architectures such as GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi, Knights Landing. Finally, I will highlight some current topics for research and development as we head towards the Exascale era This material is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office Of Science, Offices of Nuclear Physics, High Energy Physics and Advanced Scientific Computing Research, as well as the Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  5. Contributions of basic nuclear physics to the nuclear waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocard, Hubert

    2002-04-01

    Nuclear fission is presently a contested method of electricity production. The issue of nuclear waste management stands out among the reasons why. On the other hand, the nuclear industry has demonstrated its capacity to reliably generate cheap electricity while producing negligible amounts of greenhouse gases. These assets explain why this form of energy is still considered among the options for the long term production of electricity at least in developed countries. However, in order to tackle the still not adequately answered question of the waste, new schemes may have to be considered. Among those which have been advanced recently, the less polluting cycles such as those based on Thorium rather than Uranium and/or the transmutation of the minor actinides and some long lived fission products of the present cycle have been actively investigated. In both cases, it turns that the basic knowledge underlying these methods is either missing or incomplete. This situation opens a window of opportunity for useful contributions from basic nuclear physicists. This article describes some of them and presents the ongoing activities as well as some of the projects put forth for the short or medium term. .

  6. PREFACE: XXXVI Symposium on Nuclear Physics (Cocoyoc 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Morales-Agiss, Irving; Martínez-Quiroz, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    logo The XXXVI Symposium on Nuclear Physics, organized by the Division of Nuclear Physics of the Mexican Physical Society, took place from 7-10 January, 2013. As it is customary, the Symposium was held at the Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Conference photograph This international venue with many years of tradition was attended by outstanding physicists, some of them already regulars to this meeting and others who joined us for the first time; a total of 45 attendees from different countries (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico and the United States). A variety of topics related to nuclear physics (nuclear reactions, radioactive beams, nuclear structure, fundamental neutron physics, sub-nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics, among others) were presented in 26 invited talks and 10 contributed posters. Local Organizing Committee Libertad Barrón-Palos (IF-UNAM)) Enrique Martínez-Quíroz (ININ)) Irving Morales-Agiss (ICN-UNAM)) International Advisory Committee Osvaldo Civitarese (UNLP, Argentina) Jerry P Draayer (LSU, USA)) Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri (ORNL, USA)) Paulo Gomes (UFF, Brazil)) Piet Van Isacker (GANIL, France)) James J Kolata (UND, USA)) Reiner Krücken (TRIUMF, Canada)) Jorge López (UTEP, USA)) Stuart Pittel (UD, USA)) W Michael Snow (IU, USA)) Adam Szczepaniak (IU, USA)) Michael Wiescher (UND, USA)) A list of participants is available in the PDF

  7. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  8. Theoretical nuclear physics at Yale University

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Brief summaries of past and planned activities in the following areas are given: models of nuclear structure; models of hadronic structure; hot nuclei; chaos in nuclei; reactions and structure; dissipation, diffusion, and collective motion; and modeling equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems.

  9. White paper on nuclear astrophysics and low-energy nuclear physics, Part 2: Low-energy nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Carlson, Joe; Carpenter, Michael P.; Casten, Richard; ...

    2017-05-01

    In preparation for the 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan (LRP), the DNP town meetings on Nuclear Astrophysics and Low-Energy Nuclear Physics were held at the Mitchell Center on the campus of Texas A&M University August 21–23, 2014. Participants met in a number of topic-oriented working groups to discuss progress since the 2007 LRP, compelling science opportunities, and the resources needed to advance them. These considerations were used to determine priorities for the next five to ten years. In addition, approximately 270 participants attended the meetings, coming from US national laboratories, a wide range of US universities and other research institutionsmore » and universities abroad.« less

  10. Nuclear Physics in a Coffee Cup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses physical phenomena which can be demonstrated by using a coffee cup, involving the short-range field, alpha-particle scattering, standing waves, and Bohr's closed electron orbits. Indicates that observation of the physics of the classroom in everyday objects can attract student interest in physics learning. (CC)

  11. PREFACE: XIV Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2014-07-01

    This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 29-31 October, 2013. The meeting was held at the Palazzone, an elegant Renaissance Villa, commissioned by the Cardinal Silvio Passerini (1469-1529), Bishop of Cortona, and presently owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennial Conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of nuclear physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to stimulate new ideas and promote collaborations between different research groups. The Conference was attended by 46 participants, coming from 13 Italian Universities and 11 Laboratories and Sezioni of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN. The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on the following main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems Nuclear Structure Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Quark-Gluon Plasma Nuclear Astrophysics Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited review talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Giacomo De Angelis from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the INFN SPES radioactive ion beam project. Sara Pirrone, INFN Sezione di Catania, gave a talk on the symmetry energy and isospin physics with the CHIMERA detector. Finally, Mauro Taiuti (Università di Genova), National Coordinator of the INFN-CSN3 (Nuclear Physics Experiments), reported on the present status and future challenges of experimental nuclear physics in Italy. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of INFN who helped make the conference possible. I Bombaci, A Covello

  12. Differential evolution algorithm for global optimizations in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chong

    2017-04-01

    We explore the applicability of the differential evolution algorithm in finding the global minima of three typical nuclear structure physics problems: the global deformation minimum in the nuclear potential energy surface, the optimization of mass model parameters and the lowest eigenvalue of a nuclear Hamiltonian. The algorithm works very effectively and efficiently in identifying the minima in all problems we have tested. We also show that the algorithm can be parallelized in a straightforward way.

  13. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2011-01-01

    Innovation has been accelerated by nuclear physics in the areas of improving our health; making the world safer; electricity, environment, archaeology; better computers; contributions to industry; and training the next generation of innovators.

  14. Proceedings of the XVIIIth international symposium on nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, H.; Seeliger, D.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the XVIII International Symposium on nuclear physics. Topics covered include: fission fragment distributions; fundamental fission problems; theory of nuclear fission; fragment de-excitation; ternary fission; spontaneous-fission and decay; induced fission; heavy-ion reactions; and applications of fission.

  15. Importance of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    We show that nuclear physics is extremely important for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.

  16. Physical cryptographic verification of nuclear warheads.

    PubMed

    Kemp, R Scott; Danagoulian, Areg; Macdonald, Ruaridh R; Vavrek, Jayson R

    2016-08-02

    How does one prove a claim about a highly sensitive object such as a nuclear weapon without revealing information about the object? This paradox has challenged nuclear arms control for more than five decades. We present a mechanism in the form of an interactive proof system that can validate the structure and composition of an object, such as a nuclear warhead, to arbitrary precision without revealing either its structure or composition. We introduce a tomographic method that simultaneously resolves both the geometric and isotopic makeup of an object. We also introduce a method of protecting information using a provably secure cryptographic hash that does not rely on electronics or software. These techniques, when combined with a suitable protocol, constitute an interactive proof system that could reject hoax items and clear authentic warheads with excellent sensitivity in reasonably short measurement times.

  17. Physical cryptographic verification of nuclear warheads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, R. Scott; Danagoulian, Areg; Macdonald, Ruaridh R.; Vavrek, Jayson R.

    2016-08-01

    How does one prove a claim about a highly sensitive object such as a nuclear weapon without revealing information about the object? This paradox has challenged nuclear arms control for more than five decades. We present a mechanism in the form of an interactive proof system that can validate the structure and composition of an object, such as a nuclear warhead, to arbitrary precision without revealing either its structure or composition. We introduce a tomographic method that simultaneously resolves both the geometric and isotopic makeup of an object. We also introduce a method of protecting information using a provably secure cryptographic hash that does not rely on electronics or software. These techniques, when combined with a suitable protocol, constitute an interactive proof system that could reject hoax items and clear authentic warheads with excellent sensitivity in reasonably short measurement times.

  18. Physical cryptographic verification of nuclear warheads

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, R. Scott; Danagoulian, Areg; Macdonald, Ruaridh R.; Vavrek, Jayson R.

    2016-01-01

    How does one prove a claim about a highly sensitive object such as a nuclear weapon without revealing information about the object? This paradox has challenged nuclear arms control for more than five decades. We present a mechanism in the form of an interactive proof system that can validate the structure and composition of an object, such as a nuclear warhead, to arbitrary precision without revealing either its structure or composition. We introduce a tomographic method that simultaneously resolves both the geometric and isotopic makeup of an object. We also introduce a method of protecting information using a provably secure cryptographic hash that does not rely on electronics or software. These techniques, when combined with a suitable protocol, constitute an interactive proof system that could reject hoax items and clear authentic warheads with excellent sensitivity in reasonably short measurement times. PMID:27432959

  19. Nuclear Physics in the SciDAC Era

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards

    2009-08-01

    Lattice QCD currently provides our only means of solving QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) -- the theory of the strong nuclear force -- in the low-energy regime, and thus of crucial importance for theoretical and experimental research programs in High Energy and Nuclear Physics. Under the SciDAC program, a software infrastructure has been developed for lattice QCD that effectively utilize the capabilities of the INCITE facilities. These developments have enabled a new generation of Nuclear Physics calculations investigating the spectrum and structure of matter, such as the origin of mass and spin. This software infrastructure is described and recent results are reviewed.

  20. Nuclear physics problems for accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.K.; Woosley, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of p(e/sup -/nu)n and of (p,..gamma..) reactions on /sup 56/Ni during a thermonuclear runaway on a neutron star surface is pointed out. A fast 16-isotope approximate nuclear reaction network is developed that is suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations of such events.

  1. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Women in nuclear science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, B. H.

    1996-03-01

    The field of nuclear science has seen an unusually large number of discoveries by women this century. This article focuses on the acclaimed work of Marie Curie, her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie, Lise Meitner and Maria Goeppert-Mayer.

  2. Actinide nuclear data for reactor physics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.C.; Wright, R.Q. ); England, T.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Calculational methodologies and data sources used to predict and recommend fission-product yields and delayed neutron and prompt neutron data for a number of actinide nuclides are presented and discussed. This compilation of nuclear data is the result of a nearly three-year effort under the Japan/US Actinide Program (JUSAP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide nuclear data supporting the preliminary design of an actinide burner reactor. In this type of reactor, minor actinides are the major components of the fuel. Nuclear data for these minor actinides are, therefore, essential in the design of such reactors. Fission yield, delayed neutron, and prompt neutron data are presented in the report for the following nuclides: Neptumium-237, Plutonium-238, -240, and -242, Americium-241 and -243, and Curium-242, -243, -244, -246, and -248. Additionally, prompt neutron data are also presented for these nuclides (except Plutonium-240, -242 and Curium-242) and for Curium-245 and -247. As in all compilations of nuclear data, the information in this report is subject to change as newer data become available. Most of the data presented here are based on calculational methodologies and should be revised as experimental data become available. The release of Version 6 of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-6) is expected to be completed in 1991 and should replace this evaluation in areas of overlap although no serious discrepancies are expected between this compilation and ENDF/B-6. Because of the large amount of data comprising this compilation and limitations in publishing such a voluminous report, a complete listing of the explicit data is not included in this report. The data are, however, available from the authors on 5 {1/2}-in. high-density (1.2-Mbyte) diskettes. The file contents and formats are described in the text, and examples are given in the appendices. 34 refs., 18 tabs.

  3. Novel scintillators and silicon photomultipliers for nuclear physics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David

    2015-06-01

    Until comparatively recently, scintillator detectors were seen as an old-fashioned tool of nuclear physics with more attention being given to areas such as gamma-ray tracking using high-purity germanium detectors. Next-generation scintillator detectors, such as lanthanum bromide, which were developed for the demands of space science and gamma- ray telescopes, are found to have strong applicability to low energy nuclear physics. Their excellent timing resolution makes them very suitable for fast timing measurements and their much improved energy resolution compared to conventional scintillators promises to open up new avenues in nuclear physics research which were presently hard to access. Such "medium-resolution" spectroscopy has broad interest across several areas of contemporary interest such as the study of nuclear giant resonances. In addition to the connections to space science, it is striking that the demands of contemporary medical imaging have strong overlap with those of experimental nuclear physics. An example is the interest in PET-MRI combined imaging which requires putting scintillator detectors in a high magnetic field environment. This has led to strong advances in the area of silicon photomultipliers, a solid-state replacement for photomultiplier tubes, which are insensitive to magnetic fields. Broad application to nuclear physics of this technology may be foreseen.

  4. OVERVIEW OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY (IMMEDIATELY EAST OF SPSE REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY (IMMEDIATELY EAST OF SP-SE REACTOR ROOM), LEVEL -15’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE SLIDING STEEL PLATE DOOR BETWEEN LABORATORY AND REACTOR ROOM - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  5. AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Presti, P.

    1998-07-01

    This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments.

  6. Women in Nuclear Physics: A Case Study in Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jill

    1998-10-01

    While current participation rates for women hover at the 5% level of working PhD physicists in the US, there have been times in history when the participation rates were much higher in some sub-disciplines. Nuclear physics is a case in point, particularly in the first half of this century. At the 1933 Solvay conference, three of the forty attendees (7.5%) were women, and two of them were previous or future Nobel Laureates. Nuclear physics has also had a much higher percentage of major contributions by women than have other sub-disciplines of physics. Of the physicists who have won Nobel Prizes (Marie Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Maria Goeppert Mayer, and Rosalyn Yalow) all have specialized in nuclear physics. What about the field of nuclear physics has made it so much more attractive to women, and allowed them a better chance at success? I propose that the presence of a strong role model in Marie Curie, the lack of an established `old guard' in a developing field, and historical circumstances, such as the need for wartime replacements for male scientists, have all contributed to making nuclear physics a warmer climate for women.

  7. Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.F.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

  8. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics. These activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current programs include in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in solar neutrino physics at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada and at SAGE in Russia, and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerators and reactor facilities around the world. Summaries of the individual research projects are included. Areas of research covered are: fundamental symmetries, weak interactions and nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; ultra-relativistic heavy ions; and atomic and molecular clusters.

  9. University of Washington, Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington supports a broad program of experimental physics research. The current program includes in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in double beta decay and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerator and reactor facilities around the world. This book is divided into the following areas: nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries and weak interactions; accelerator mass spectrometry; atomic and molecular clusters; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; external users; electronics, computing, and detector infrastructure; Van de Graff, superconducting booster and ion sources; nuclear physics laboratory personnel; degrees granted for 1994--1995; and list of publications from 1994--1995.

  10. WTEC panel report on European nuclear instrumentation and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, James D.; Lanning, David D.; Beltracchi, Leo; Best, Fred R.; Easter, James R.; Oakes, Lester C.; Sudduth, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Control and instrumentation systems might be called the 'brain' and 'senses' of a nuclear power plant. As such they become the key elements in the integrated operation of these plants. Recent developments in digital equipment have allowed a dramatic change in the design of these instrument and control (I&C) systems. New designs are evolving with cathode ray tube (CRT)-based control rooms, more automation, and better logical information for the human operators. As these new advanced systems are developed, various decisions must be made about the degree of automation and the human-to-machine interface. Different stages of the development of control automation and of advanced digital systems can be found in various countries. The purpose of this technology assessment is to make a comparative evaluation of the control and instrumentation systems that are being used for commercial nuclear power plants in Europe and the United States. This study is limited to pressurized water reactors (PWR's). Part of the evaluation includes comparisons with a previous similar study assessing Japanese technology.

  11. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  12. Ion traps in nuclear physics-Recent results and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eronen, Tommi; Kankainen, Anu; Äystö, Juha

    2016-11-01

    Ion traps offer a way to determine nuclear binding energies through atomic mass measurements with a high accuracy and they are routinely used to provide isotopically or even isomerically pure beams of short-living ions for post-trap decay spectroscopy experiments. In this review, different ion-trapping techniques and progresses in recent nuclear physics experiments employing low-energy ion traps are discussed. The main focus in this review is on the benefit of recent high accuracy mass measurements to solve some key problems in physics related to nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics as well as neutrinos. Also, several cases of decay spectroscopy experiments utilizing trap-purified ion samples are summarized.

  13. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Miller, J

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  14. NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, V.; Denikin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. P.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rachkov, V. A.; Naumenko, M. A.; Saiko, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Principles underlying the organization and operation of the NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics (http://nrv.jinr.ru) are described. This base includes a vast body of digitized experimental data on the properties of nuclei and on cross sections for nuclear reactions that is combined with a wide set of interconnected computer programs for simulating complex nuclear dynamics, which work directly in the browser of a remote user. Also, the current situation in the realms of application of network information technologies in nuclear physics is surveyed. The potential of the NRV knowledge base is illustrated in detail by applying it to the example of an analysis of the fusion of nuclei that is followed by the decay of the excited compound nucleus formed.

  15. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  16. Enhancement of minority involvement in DOE nuclear physics programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of continuing efforts to interact with a large number of minority students, the Minority Program in the ANL Physics Division has succeeded in attracting many highly qualified students to apply for participation in the programs of the Physics Division and other ANL divisions. The program is directed toward the identification of institutions with relatively strong physics programs and with faculty interested in stimulating their students to pursue research activities, particularly summer programs. During visits to colleges, lectures are presented and are followed by discussion of activities in physics, at Argonne and other national laboratories, and the possibilities for graduate study, employment, etc. Additional activities included attending meetings of the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science and of the Society of Black Physics Students. As a result of these efforts, 42 applications were received for the summer program in 1994. A total of 24 offers were made for the Summer Research Participation program in conjunction with Argonne`s Department of Educational Programs. A number of former participants are currently enrolled in graduate programs in physics; one student is working on his Ph.D. thesis in Nuclear Physics in the Physics Division. Various institutions will be visited during this year and several meetings of minority groups will be attended. These ongoing interactions are generating institutional relationships that will enrich the physics programs in minority institutions and substantially enhance minority involvement not only in nuclear physics, but in other branches of physics and science.

  17. Nuclear Science Outreach in the World Year of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Margaret

    2006-04-01

    The ability of scientists to articulate the importance and value of their research has become increasingly important in the present climate of declining budgets, and this is most critical in the field of nuclear science ,where researchers must fight an uphill battle against negative public perception. Yet nuclear science encompasses important technical and societal issues that should be of primary interest to informed citizens, and the need for scientists trained in nuclear techniques are important for many applications in nuclear medicine, national security and future energy sources. The NSAC Education Subcommittee Report [1] identified the need for a nationally coordinated effort in nuclear science outreach, naming as its first recommendation that `the highest priority for new investment in education be the creation by the DOE and NSF of a Center for Nuclear Science Outreach'. This talk will review the present status of public outreach in nuclear science and highlight some specific efforts that have taken place during the World Year of Physics. [1] Education in Nuclear Science: A Status Report and Recommendations for the Beginning of the 21^st Century, A Report of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee Subcommittee on Education, November 2004, http://www.sc.doe.gov/henp/np/nsac/docs/NSACCReducationreportfinal.pdf.

  18. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics. [Indiana Univ. Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C J; Macfarlane, M H; Matsui, T; Serot, B D

    1993-01-01

    A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e[prime]p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus[endash]nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark[endash]gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon[endash]nucleon force.

  19. New applications of renormalization group methods in nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Furnstahl, R J; Hebeler, K

    2013-12-01

    We review recent developments in the use of renormalization group (RG) methods in low-energy nuclear physics. These advances include enhanced RG technology, particularly for three-nucleon forces, which greatly extends the reach and accuracy of microscopic calculations. We discuss new results for the nucleonic equation of state with applications to astrophysical systems such as neutron stars, new calculations of the structure and reactions of finite nuclei, and new explorations of correlations in nuclear systems.

  20. Geographic structure of European anchovy: A nuclear-DNA study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Magoulas, Antonios; Borsa, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    Atlantic-Mediterranean anchovies were genetically characterized at two polymorphic nuclear loci (intron 6 of two creatine-kinase genes) and compared to reference Engraulis albidus and E. encrasicolus samples from the northern Western Mediterranean to provide new insights into their geographic structure. Northeastern Atlantic anchovy, represented by one sample from the Canary archipelago and one sample from the Alboran Sea, were genetically distinct from Mediterranean E. encrasicolus (Weir and Cockerham's ^θ = 0.027-0.311), indicating geographic isolation from either side of the Almería-Oran oceanographic front. Generally smaller genetic differences were evident among anchovy populations from different sub-basins in the Mediterranean ( ^θ = - 0.019-0.116), the genetic differences between Black Sea and Ionian Sea/Aegean Sea anchovies being the strongest ( ^θ = 0.002-0.116). There was no evidence of the presence of E. albidus in our samples outside Camargue (northern shore of the Western Mediterranean). However, a sample from the southern Western Mediterranean appeared to be genetically intermediate between E. albidus and Mediterranean E. encrasicolus, indicating possible hybridization. Anchovy from the Benguela current system off southern Africa possessed allele frequencies characteristic of E. albidus at one locus and Northeastern Atlantic anchovy at the other locus, suggesting past introgression.

  1. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    From fighting cancer to assuring food is safe to protecting our borders, nuclear physics impacts the lives of people around the globe every day. In learning about the nucleus of the atom and the forces that govern it, scientists develop a depth of knowledge, techniques and remarkable research tools that can be used to develop a variety of often unexpected, practical applications. These applications include devices and technologies for medical diagnostics and therapy, energy production and exploration, safety and national security, and for the analysis of materials and environmental contaminants. This brochure by the Office of Nuclear Physics of the USDOE Office of Science discusses nuclear physics and ways in which its applications fuel our economic vitality, and make the world and our lives safer and healthier.

  2. New light in nuclear physics: The extreme light infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabanski, D. L.; Popescu, R.; Stutman, D.; Tanaka, K. A.; Tesileanu, O.; Ur, C. A.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), to become operational in 2019, is a new Research Center built in Romania that will use extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics research. The ELI-NP facility will combine two large equipments with state-of-the-art parameters, namely a 2 × 10 PW high-power laser system and a very brilliant gamma-beam system delivering beams with energies up to 19.5 MeV. The laser and gamma-beam systems under construction and typical proposed first-phase experiments are described.

  3. Supernovae, compact stars and nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1989-08-25

    We briefly review the current understanding of supernova. We investigate the implications of rapid rotation corresponding to the frequency of the new pulsar reported in the supernovae remnant SN1987A. It places very stringent conditions on the equation of state if the star is assumed to be bound by gravity alone. We find that the central energy density of the star must be greater than 12 times that of nuclear density to be stable against the most optimistic estimate of general relativistic instabilities. This is too high for the matter to plausibly consist of individual hadrons. We conclude that the newly discovered pulsar, if its half-millisecond signals are attributable to rotation, cannot be a neutron star. We show that it can be a strange quark star, and that the entire family of strange stars can sustain high rotation under appropriate conditions. We discuss the conversion of a neutron star to strange star, the possible existence of a crust of heavy ions held in suspension by centrifugal and electric forces, the cooling and other features. 39 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. PREFACE: International Nuclear Physics Conference 2010 (INPC2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, Jens

    2011-09-01

    The International Nuclear Physics Conference 2010 (INPC 2010) was held from 4-9 July in Vancouver, Canada, hosted by TRIUMF, the Canadian National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics. The INPC is the main conference in the field of nuclear physics, endorsed and supported by IUPAP (International Union for Pure and Applied Physics) and held every three years. This year's conference was the 25th in the series and attracted over 750 delegates (150 graduate students) from 43 countries. The conference's hallmark is its breadth in nuclear physics; topics included structure, reactions, astrophysics, hadronic structure, hadrons in nuclei, hot and dense QCD, new accelerators and underground nuclear physics facilities, neutrinos and nuclei, and applications and interdisciplinary research. The conference started with a public lecture 'An Atom from Vancouver' by L Krauss (Arizona), who gave a broad perspective on how nuclear physics is key to a deeper understanding of how the Universe was formed and the birth, life, and death of stars. The conference opened its scientific plenary program with a talk by P Braun-Munzinger (GSI/EMMI Darmstadt) who highlighted the progress that has been made since the last conference in Tokyo 2007. The presentation showcased theoretical and experimental examples from around the world. All topics were well represented by plenary sessions and well attended afternoon parallel sessions where over 250 invited and contributed talks were presented, in addition to over 380 poster presentations. The poster sessions were among the liveliest, with high participation and animated discussions from graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. Many opportunities were found to connect to fellow nuclear physicists across the globe and, particularly for conferences like the INPC which span an entire field, many unexpected links exist, often leading to new discussions or collaborations. Among the scientific highlights were the presentations in the fields of

  5. PREFACE: XXXVIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics (Cocoyoc 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.

    2015-09-01

    The 38th edition of the Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held at Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico from January 6-9, 2015. As in previous years, the Symposium brought together leading scientists from all around the world, working on: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, physics with radioactive ion beams, hadronic physics, nuclear astrophysics, neutron physics and relativistic heavy-ion physics. The scientific program consisted of 27 invited talks, proposed by the international advisory committee that covered, in a balanced way, the experimental and theoretical work that currently is undergoing in the research fields of the Symposium. Ten posters complemented the program, providing students with an opportunity to bring their work to the attention of visiting scientists. This year, the conference activities also included a special talk presented by Archaeologist Omar Espinosa Severino about the ancient ruins found in Chalcatzingo, a village located approximately a 40 minute drive from the conference venue. The talk was followed by a visit to the archaeological site, guided by the group led by Archaeologist Mario Cordova Tello. The present volume contains 14 research articles based on invited talks presented at the Symposium. I would like to thank all the authors for their enthusiastic contribution. Special thanks to the anonymous referees for the time devoted to the review process, their input helped to maintain a high standard of the Conference Proceedings. Finally I would also like to thank the Symposiums' International Advisory Committee and the Sponsoring Organizations that made this event possible.

  6. Physics of Nuclear Collisions at High Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hwa, Rudolph C.

    2012-05-01

    A wide range of problems has been investigated in the research program during the period of this grant. Although the major effort has been in the subject of heavy-ion collisions, we have also studied problems in biological and other physical systems. The method of analysis used in reducing complex data in multiparticle production to simple descriptions can also be applied to the study of complex systems of very different nature. Phase transition is an important phenomenon in many areas of physics, and for heavy-ion collisions we study the fluctuations of multiplicities at the critical point. Human brain activities as revealed in EEG also involve fluctuations in time series, and we have found that our experience enables us to find the appropriate quantification of the fluctuations in ways that can differentiate stroke and normal subjects. The main topic that characterizes the research at Oregon in heavy-ion collisions is the recombination model for the treatment of the hadronization process. We have avoided the hydrodynamical model partly because there is already a large community engaged in it, but more significantly we have found the assumption of rapid thermalization unconvincing. Recent results in studying LHC physics lead us to provide more evidence that shower partons are very important even at low p_T, but are ignored by hydro. It is not easy to work in an environment where the conventional wisdom regards our approach as being incorrect because it does not adhere to the standard paradigm. But that is just what a vibrant research community needs: unconventional approach may find evidences that can challenge the orthodoxy. An example is the usual belief that elliptic flow in fluid dynamics gives rise to azimuthal anisotropy. We claim that it is only sufficient but not necessary. With more data from LHC and more independent thinkers working on the subject what is sufficient as a theory may turn out to be incorrect in reality. Another area of investigation that

  7. Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

  8. PREFACE: XIX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications (VARNA 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, Chavdar; Dimitrova, Sevdalina; Voronov, Victor

    2012-05-01

    This volume contains the lectures and short talks given at the XIX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications. The School was held from 19-25 September 2011 in 'Club Hotel Bolero' located in the 'Golden Sands' (Zlatni Pyasaci) Resort Complex on the Black Sea coast, near Varna, Bulgaria. The School was organized by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The co-organizer of the School was the Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - Dubna. According to long-standing tradition the School has been held every second year since 1973. The School's program has been restructured according to our enlarged new international links and today it is more similar to an international conference than to a classical nuclear physics school. This new image attracts many young scientists and students from around the world. This year - 2011, we had the pleasure of welcoming more than 50 distinguished scientists as lecturers. Additionally, 14 young colleagues received the opportunity to each present a short contribution. The program ranged from recent achievements in areas such as nuclear structure and reactions to the hot topics of the application of nuclear methods, reactor physics and nuclear safety. The 94 participants enjoyed the scientific presentations and discussions as well as the relaxing atmosphere at the beach and during the pleasant evenings. The main topics were as follows: Nuclear excitations at various energies Nuclei at high angular moments and temperature Structure and reactions far from stability Symmetries and collective phenomena Methods for lifetime measurements Astrophysical aspects of nuclear structure Neutron nuclear physics Nuclear data Advanced methods in nuclear waste treatment Nuclear methods for applications Several colleagues helped with the organization of the School. We would like

  9. PREFACE: XX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications (Varna2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, Chavdar; Dimitrova, Sevdalina

    2014-09-01

    The present volume contains the lectures and short talks given at the XX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications. The School was held from 16-22 September 2013 in 'Club Hotel Bolero' located in 'Golden Sands' (Zlatni Pyasaci) Resort Complex on the Black Sea coast, near Varna, Bulgaria. The School was organized by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Co-organizer of the School was the Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - Dubna. Financial support was also provided by the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science. According to the long-standing tradition the School has been held every second year since 1973. The School's program has been restructured according to our enlarged new international links and today it is more similar to an international conference than to a classical nuclear physics school. This new image attracts many young scientists and students from around the world. This year, 2013, we had the pleasure to welcome more than sixty distinguished scientists as lecturers. Additionally, twenty young colleagues received the opportunity to present a short contribution. Ninety-four participants altogether enjoyed the scientific presentations and discussions as well as the relaxing atmosphere at the beach and during the pleasant evenings. The program of the School ranged from latest results in fundamental areas such as nuclear structure and reactions to the hot issues of application of nuclear methods, reactor physics and nuclear safety. The main topics have been the following: Nuclear excitations at various energies. Nuclei at high angular moments and temperature. Structure and reactions far from stability. Symmetries and collective phenomena. Methods for lifetime measurements. Astrophysical aspects of nuclear structure. Neutron nuclear physics. Nuclear data. Advanced methods in

  10. Physics with post-accelerated beams at ISOLDE: nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pietro, A.; Riisager, K.; Van Duppen, P.

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear-reaction studies have until now constituted a minor part of the physics program with post-accelerated beams at ISOLDE, mainly due to the maximum energy of REX-ISOLDE of around 3 MeV/u that limits reaction work to the mass region below A = 100. We give an overview of the current experimental status and of the physics results obtained so far. Finally, the improved conditions given by the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade are described.

  11. Networking for High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Harvey B.

    2007-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the status and outlook for the world's research networks and major international links used by the high energy physics and other scientific communities, network technology advances on which our community depends and in which we have an increasingly important role, and the problem of the Digital Divide, which is a primary focus of ICFA's Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC). Wide area networks of sufficient, and rapidly increasing end-to-end capability are vital for every phase of high energy physicists' work. Our bandwidth usage, and the typical capacity of the major national backbones and intercontinental links used by our field have progressed by a factor of more than 1000 over the past decade, and the outlook is for a similar increase over the next decade. This striking exponential growth trend, outstripping the growth rates in other areas of information technology, has continued in the past year, with many of the major national, continental and transoceanic networks supporting research and education progressing from a 10 Gigabits/sec (Gbps) backbone to multiple 10 Gbps links in their core. This is complemented by the use of point-to-point "light paths" to support the most demanding applications, including high energy physics, in a growing list of cases. As we approach the era of LHC physics, the growing need to access and transport Terabyte-scale and later 10 to 100 Terabyte datasets among more than 100 "Tier1" and "Tier2" centers at universities and laboratories spread throughout the world has brought the key role of networks, and the ongoing need for their development, sharply into focus. Bandwidth itself on an increasing scale is not enough. Realizing the scientific wealth of the LHC and our other major scientific programs depends crucially on our ability to use the bandwidth efficiently and reliably, with reliable high rates of data throughput, and effectively, where many parallel large-scale data

  12. Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, W. J.

    1995-05-31

    This report describes an on-going research initiative for the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR): investigating the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, i.e. collisions between massive nuclei which have been accelerated to kinetic energies so large that the rest mass of the ions is a negligible fraction of their total mass-energy. This progress report is being submitted in conjunction with a 3-year grant-renewal proposal, containing additional materials. Three main categories drive the UALRGultra-relativistic heavy ion research. (1) investigations of multi-particle Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlations in the CERN and RHIC energy domains strongly influence the URHI experimental effort, (2) participation in the NA49 Experiment to study 33 TeV (160 GeV/nucleon) Pb on Pb collisions using the SPS facili& at CERN, and (3) participation in the STAR collaboration which is developing a major detector for use with the STAR Experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), being built at BNL.

  13. Nucleosynthesis: a field with still many open nuclear physics questions

    SciTech Connect

    Goriely, S.

    2010-06-01

    Stellar nucleosynthesis is a vastly interdisciplinary field. There is a large number of different problems invoked calling for a variety of different and complementary research fields. Impressive progress has been made for the last decades in the various fields related to nucleosynthesis, especially in experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as in ground-based or space astronomical observations and astrophysical modellings. In spite of that success, major problems and puzzles remain. The three major nucleosynthesis processes called for to explain the origin of the elements heavier than iron are described and the major pending questions discussed. As far as nuclear physics is concerned, good quality nuclear data is known to be a necessary condition for a reliable modelling of stellar nucleosynthesis. Through some specific examples, the need for further theoretical or experimental developments is also critically discussed in view of their impact on nucleosynthesis predictions.

  14. Bringing atomic and nuclear physics laboratory data into the classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Eric B.; Larimer, Ruth-Mary; Rech, Gregory; Lee, Jeffrey; Vue, Chue; Leubane, Tholoana; Zamvil, Kenneth; Guthrie, Laura

    2003-05-27

    To illustrate a number of basic concepts in atomic and nuclear physics, we have developed three websites where students can analyze data from modern laboratories. By working through the on-line procedures, students will become acquainted with characteristic x-ray spectra, the concept of half-life, x-ray fluorescence, and neutron activation analysis.

  15. Nuclear and fundamental physics instrumentation for the ANS project

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.J.; Raman, S.; Arterburn, J.; McManamy, T.; Peretz, F.J.; Faust, H.; Piotrowski, A.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes work carried out during the period 1991-1995 in connection with the refinement of the concepts and detailed designs for nuclear and fundamental physics research instrumentation at the proposed Advanced Neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Initially, emphasis was placed on refining the existing System Design Document (SDD-43) to detail more accurately the needs and interfaces of the instruments that are identified in the document. The conceptual designs of these instruments were also refined to reflect current thinking in the field of nuclear and fundamental physics. In particular, the on-line isotope separator (ISOL) facility design was reconsidered in the light of the development of interest in radioactive ion beams within the nuclear physics community. The second stage of this work was to define those instrument parameters that would interface directly with the reactor systems so that these parameters could be considered for the ISOL facility and particularly for its associated ion source. Since two of these options involved ion sources internal to the long slant beam tube, these were studied in detail. In addition, preliminary work was done to identify the needs for the target holder and changing facility to be located in the tangential through-tube. Because many of the planned nuclear and fundamental physics instruments have similar needs in terms of detection apparatus, some progress was also made in defining the parameters for these detectors. 21 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, University of Washington April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report contains short discusses on topics in the following areas: astrophysics; giant resonances and photonuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries; accelerator mass spectrometry; medium energy nuclear physics; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; cluster fusion; instrumentation; van de graaff accelerators and ion sources; and computer data acquisition systems. (LSP)

  17. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, University of Washington April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, John G.; Ramirez, Maria G.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains short discusses on topics in the following areas: astrophysics; giant resonances and photonuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries; accelerator mass spectrometry; medium energy nuclear physics; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; cluster fusion; instrumentation; van de graaff accelerators and ion sources; and computer data acquisition systems. (LSP)

  18. How to Stimulate Students' Interest in Nuclear Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbanowska-Ciemuchowska, Stefania; Giembicka, Magdalena Anna

    2011-01-01

    Teaching nuclear physics in secondary schools offers us a unique possibility to increase our students' awareness of the influence that modern science and its achievements have on the everyday life of contemporary people. Students gain an opportunity to learn in what ways the outcome of laboratory research is put to use in such fields as medicine,…

  19. Reporting nuclear cardiology: a joint position paper by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

    PubMed

    Trägårdh, Elin; Hesse, Birger; Knuuti, Juhani; Flotats, Albert; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kitsiou, Anastasia; Hacker, Marcus; Verberne, Hein J; Edenbrandt, Lars; Delgado, Victoria; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Galderisi, Maurizio; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Nieman, Koen; Rosenhek, Raphael; Agostini, Denis; Gimelli, Alessia; Lindner, Oliver; Slart, Riemert; Ubleis, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The report of an imaging procedure is a critical component of an examination, being the final and often the only communication from the interpreting physician to the referring or treating physician. Very limited evidence and few recommendations or guidelines on reporting imaging studies are available; therefore, an European position statement on how to report nuclear cardiology might be useful. The current paper combines the limited existing evidence with expert consensus, previously published recommendations as well as current clinical practices. For all the applications discussed in this paper (myocardial perfusion, viability, innervation, and function as acquired by single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography or hybrid imaging), headings cover laboratory and patient demographics, clinical indication, tracer administration and image acquisition, findings, and conclusion of the report. The statement also discusses recommended terminology in nuclear cardiology, image display, and preliminary reports. It is hoped that this statement may lead to more attention to create well-written and standardized nuclear cardiology reports and eventually lead to improved clinical outcome.

  20. NP2010: An Assessment and Outlook for Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, James

    2014-05-22

    This grant provided partial support for the National Research Council’s (NRC) decadal survey of nuclear physics. This is part of NRC’s larger effort to assess and discuss the outlook for different fields in physics and astronomy, Physics 2010, which takes place approximately every ten years. A report has been prepared as a result of the study that is intended to inform those who are interested about the current status of research in this area and to help guide future developments of the field. A pdf version of the report is available for download, for free, at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13438. Among the principal conclusions reached in the report are that the nuclear physics program in the United States has been especially well managed, principally through a recurring long-range planning process conducted by the community, and that current opportunities developed pursuant to that planning process should be exploited. In the section entitled “Building the Foundation for the Future,” the report notes that attention needs to be paid to certain elements that are essential to the continued vitality of the field. These include ensuring that education and research at universities remain a focus for funding and that a plan be developed to ensure that forefront-computing resources, including exascale capabilities when developed, be made available to nuclear science researchers. The report also notes that nimbleness is essential for the United States to remain competitive in a rapidly expanding international nuclear physics arena and that streamlined and flexible procedures should be developed for initiating and managing smaller-scale nuclear science projects.

  1. Physical examination of the potential tissue donor, what do European tissue banks do?

    PubMed

    Van Geyt, Caroline; Van Wijk, Marja; Bokhorst, Arlinke; Beele, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    According to the EU Directive 2006/17/EC, European tissue banks are required to perform a physical examination on every potential tissue donor. The directive itself, however, does not specify the content of this examination. The aim of this study was to investigate the current practice of physical examination in European tissue banks. A questionnaire was drawn up and sent to the members of the European Association of Tissue Banks and the European Eye Bank Association. Information was gathered on the type of procurement; the personnel involved (number, educational background and training); the content of physical examination; the problems encountered; and the outcome of the performed physical examinations. Completed questionnaires were received from 32 European tissue banks (response rate of 35%). Of these tissue banks, 73% perform a physical examination. The most frequently encountered problems are the inability to open the mouth due to rigor mortis, the inability to examine the total body surface and the incapacity to palpate the lymph nodes. Tissue banks reject potential donors, based on the results of the physical examination in 5% of cases (median rejection rate). Twenty-seven percent of the responding tissue banks do not perform a physical examination. This was most often due to a lack of adequate educational background and/or a lack of appropriate training.

  2. European MSc Programs in Nuclear Sciences - To meet the Need of Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis; Priest, Nick; Garelick, Hemda; Tamponnet, Christian; Mitchell, Peter

    2009-08-19

    A stakeholder needs assessment, carried out under the EU-EURAC and EU-ENEN II projects, clearly showed that, at the European level, there are a significant and constant need for post-graduates with skills in radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation dosimetry and environmental modelling and a smaller, but still important, demand for radiobiologists and bio-modellers. Most of these needs are from government organizations. If only the nuclear industry is considered, then the largest demand is for radiochemists and radiation protection dosimetrists. Given this spectrum of need and existing capacity in the areas of radiobiology it was concluded that the needs identified would be most efficiently met by three new degree programs: European MSc Radiation Protection European MSc Analytical Radiochemistry European MSc Radioecology. All three master programs would be developed using the framework provided by the Bologna Convention and the lecturing could be shared among specialist Scientists within a network of collaborating universities. Therefore, educational plans have been developed for the above MSc degrees. These plans envisage each degree comprising three modules that are common to all the degrees (3x10 ECTS credits), three specialist modules (3x10 ECTS credits) and a research project (1x60 ECTS credits). The courses should be aimed, not only to fill the identified European postgraduate education gap in radiological sciences, but also to provide a modular structure that is easily accessed by stakeholders for CPD training. It is anticipated that the European Masters will meet the academic training requirements of qualified 'experts', as defined by the European Commission and the IAEA. At the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) a pilot MSc in Radioecology has successfully been initiated in collaboration with UK and France.

  3. European MSc Programs in Nuclear Sciences—To meet the Need of Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis; Priest, Nick; Garelick, Hemda; Tamponnet, Christian; Mitchell, Peter

    2009-08-01

    A stakeholder needs assessment, carried out under the EU-EURAC and EU-ENEN II projects, clearly showed that, at the European level, there are a significant and constant need for post-graduates with skills in radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation dosimetry and environmental modelling and a smaller, but still important, demand for radiobiologists and bio-modellers. Most of these needs are from government organizations. If only the nuclear industry is considered, then the largest demand is for radiochemists and radiation protection dosimetrists. Given this spectrum of need and existing capacity in the areas of radiobiology it was concluded that the needs identified would be most efficiently met by three new degree programs: • European MSc Radiation Protection • European MSc Analytical Radiochemistry • European MSc Radioecology. All three master programs would be developed using the framework provided by the Bologna Convention and the lecturing could be shared among specialist Scientists within a network of collaborating universities. Therefore, educational plans have been developed for the above MSc degrees. These plans envisage each degree comprising three modules that are common to all the degrees (3×10 ECTS credits), three specialist modules (3×10 ECTS credits) and a research project (1×60 ECTS credits). The courses should be aimed, not only to fill the identified European postgraduate education gap in radiological sciences, but also to provide a modular structure that is easily accessed by stakeholders for CPD training. It is anticipated that the European Masters will meet the academic training requirements of qualified experts", as defined by the European Commission and the IAEA. At the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) a pilot MSc in Radioecology has successfully been initiated in collaboration with UK and France.

  4. The ELI-NP facility for nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur, C. A.; Balabanski, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Gales, S.; Morjan, I.; Tesileanu, O.; Ursescu, D.; Ursu, I.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is aiming to use extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics research. The facility, currently under construction at Magurele-Bucharest, will comprise a high power laser system and a very brilliant gamma beam system. The technology involved in the construction of both systems is at the limits of the present-day's technological capabilities. The high power laser system will consist of two 10 PW lasers and it will produce intensities of up to 1023-1024 W/cm2. The gamma beam, produced via Compton backscattering of a laser beam on a relativistic electron beam, will be characterized by a narrow bandwidth (<0.5%) and tunable energy of up to almost 20 MeV. The research program of the facility covers a broad range of key topics in frontier fundamental physics and new nuclear physics. A particular attention is given to the development of innovative applications. In the present paper an overview of the project status and the overall performance characteristics of the main research equipment will be given. The main fundamental physics and applied research topics proposed to be studied at ELI-NP will also be briefly reviewed.

  5. The expression of nuclear and membrane estrogen receptors in the European eel throughout spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Vílchez, M Carmen; Tveiten, Helge; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Dufour, Sylvie; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) can bind to nuclear estrogen receptors (ESR) or membrane estrogen receptors (GPER). While mammals possess two nuclear ESRs and one membrane GPER, the European eel, like most other teleosts, has three nuclear ESRs and two membrane GPERs, as the result of a teleost specific genome duplication. In the current study, the expression of the three nuclear ESRs (ESR1, ESR2a and ESR2b) and the two membrane GPERs (GPERa and GPERb) in the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis of the European eel was measured, throughout spermatogenesis. The eels were first transferred from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW), inducing parallel increases in E2 plasma levels and the expression of ESRs. This indicates that salinity has a stimulatory effect on the E2 signalling pathway along the BPG axis. Stimulation of sexual maturation by weekly injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induced a progressive decrease in E2 plasma levels, and different patterns of expression of ESRs and GPERs in the BPG axis. The expression of nuclear ESRs increased in some parts of the brain, suggesting a possible upregulation due to a local production of E2. In the testis, the highest expression levels of the nuclear ESRs were observed at the beginning of spermatogenesis, possibly mediating the role of E2 as spermatogonia renewal factor, followed by a sharply decrease in the expression of ESRs. Conversely, there was a marked increase observed in the expression of both membrane GPERs throughout spermatogenesis, suggesting they play a major role in the final stages of spermatogenesis.

  6. Uncertainty quantification in lattice QCD calculations for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas R.; Detmold, William; Orginos, Kostas; Savage, Martin J.

    2015-02-05

    The numerical technique of Lattice QCD holds the promise of connecting the nuclear forces, nuclei, the spectrum and structure of hadrons, and the properties of matter under extreme conditions with the underlying theory of the strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics. A distinguishing, and thus far unique, feature of this formulation is that all of the associated uncertainties, both statistical and systematic can, in principle, be systematically reduced to any desired precision with sufficient computational and human resources. As a result, we review the sources of uncertainty inherent in Lattice QCD calculations for nuclear physics, and discuss how each is quantified in current efforts.

  7. European particle physics masterclasses make students into scientists for a day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, K. E.; Kobel, M.; Hillebrandt, D.; Engeln, K.; Euler, M.

    2007-11-01

    In 2005 the European particle physics masterclasses attracted 3000 students from 18 European countries to visit one of 58 universities and education centres. The participants worked with data from real high energy particle collisions, learned about particle physics, and experienced research and education environments at European universities. In an evaluation of the masterclasses 70% of the participants reported that they learned 'much' or 'very much' about the organization of scientific research and more than 80% of the participants, in some countries more than 95%, highly appreciated the masterclass programme in general. The appreciation of the masterclasses was independent of gender, pre-knowledge of particle physics and computer knowledge. An event like the masterclasses, where the students are engaged in an experimental research process, has the potential to add valuable experiences to physics education in school environments.

  8. Western European nuclear forces. A British, a French, and an American view

    SciTech Connect

    Witney, N.; Debouzy, O.; Levine, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Each of the three papers that make up this report focuses on the question: What is the best rationale for the continued existence of the West European-British and French-nuclear forces in the post- cold war period. The three analyses are not symmetrical. The British and French papers discuss the specifics of their own forces, and in doing so come up with similar rationales, each of which invokes what both papers term a European Vocation for the two forces operating in increasingly close cooperation with one another. The American paper is based on a view of U.S. interests in these forces which values their retention but questions the European Vocation as the primary premise. The three papers share a common structure, each providing a description of the past-the French paper with a more thoroughgoing description of a more complex past-as a basis for examining future alternatives. They also share the premise that it is in the real interests of not only Britain and France, but also of the United States and of international stability, that the British and French retain their forces. That is why the central issue throughout the report is not the real need, but rather the ranonale for the forces, the set of arguments that will convince the electorates of the two countries that their real interests dictate retention of their nuclear forces. (KAR) P. 8.

  9. Physics Leads to Free Elections in the Nuclear Age.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2001-10-01

    ------------- Complex historical development on our planet, utilizing the knowledge of physics, has reached a powerful technology of nuclear intercontinental missiles, conceivably controllable through a computerized "push-button". Whenever this technology falls under the control of an irresponsible, miscalculating, or, insane dictator, with sufficiently powerful means of a huge, mass-produced, nuclear-missile built-up, anywhere on our planet, the very survival of all humanity on our planet could be threatened. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that this technology be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of free elections, in any country on our planet, wherever and whenever a total nuclear holocaust could originate.

  10. Hybrid cardiac imaging: SPECT/CT and PET/CT. A joint position statement by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), the European Society of Cardiac Radiology (ESCR) and the European Council of Nuclear Cardiology (ECNC).

    PubMed

    Flotats, Albert; Knuuti, Juhani; Gutberlet, Matthias; Marcassa, Claudio; Bengel, Frank M; Kaufmann, Philippe A; Rees, Michael R; Hesse, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in software and hardware have enabled the integration of dual imaging modalities into hybrid systems, which allow combined acquisition of the different data sets. Integration of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) scanners into PET/CT systems has shown improvement in the management of patients with cancer over stand-alone acquired CT and PET images. Hybrid cardiac imaging either with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or PET combined with CT depicts cardiac and vascular anatomical abnormalities and their physiologic consequences in a single setting and appears to offer superior information compared with either stand-alone or side-by-side interpretation of the data sets in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Hybrid systems are also advantageous for the patient because of the single short dual data acquisition. However, hybrid cardiac imaging has also generated controversy with regard to which patients should undergo such integrated examination for clinical effectiveness and minimization of costs and radiation dose, and if software-based fusion of images obtained separately would be a useful alternative. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), the European Society of Cardiac Radiology (ESCR) and the European Council of Nuclear Cardiology (ECNC) in this paper want to present a position statement of the institutions on the current roles of SPECT/CT and PET/CT hybrid cardiac imaging in patients with known or suspected CAD.

  11. Materials for Active Engagement in Nuclear and Particle Physics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loats, Jeff; Schwarz, Cindy; Krane, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Physics education researchers have developed a rich variety of research-based instructional strategies that now permeate many introductory courses. Carrying these active-engagement techniques to upper-division courses requires effort and is bolstered by experience. Instructors interested in these methods thus face a large investment of time to start from scratch. This NSF-TUES grant, aims to develop, test and disseminate active-engagement materials for nuclear and particle physics topics. We will present examples of these materials, including: a) Conceptual discussion questions for use with Peer Instruction; b) warm-up questions for use with Just in Time Teaching, c) ``Back of the Envelope'' estimation questions and small-group case studies that will incorporate use of nuclear and particle databases, as well as d) conceptual exam questions.

  12. Majorana: From Atomic and Molecular, to Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, R.; Angilella, G. G. N.

    2006-10-01

    In the centennial of Ettore Majorana's birth (1906-1938?), we re-examine some aspects of his fundamental scientific production in atomic and molecular physics, including a not well known short communication. There, Majorana critically discusses Fermi's solution of the celebrated Thomas-Fermi equation for electron screening in atoms and positive ions. We argue that some of Majorana's seminal contributions in molecular physics already prelude to the idea of exchange interactions (or Heisenberg-Majorana forces) in his later workson theoretical nuclear physics. In all his papers, he tended to emphasize the symmetries at the basis of a physical problem, as well as the limitations, rather than the advantages, of the approximations of the method employed.

  13. Research program in nuclear and solid state physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The spectra of prompt gamma rays emitted following nuclear pion absorption were studied to determine the states of excited daughter nuclei, and the branching ratios for these states. Studies discussed include the negative pion absorption of C-12, S-32, and N-14; and the positive pion absorption on 0-16. Abstracts of papers submitted to the conference of the American Physical Society are included.

  14. A simple digital delay for nuclear physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. G.; Cruz, C.

    2014-05-01

    A simple high precision digital delay for nuclear physics experiments was developed using fast ECL electronics. The circuit uses an oscillator synchronized with the signal to be delayed and a presettable counter. It is capable of delaying a negative NIM signal by 2 μs with a precision better than 50 ps. The circuit was developed for use in slow-fast coincidence units for Perturbed Angular Correlation spectrometers but it is not limited to this application.

  15. Monolithic electronics for nuclear and high-energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    Electronic instrumentation for large fixed-target and collider experiments is rapidly moving to the use of highly integrated electronics wherever it is cost effective. This trend is aided by the development of circuit building blocks useful for nuclear and high-energy physics instrumentation and has accelerated recently with the development of monolithic silicon chips with multiple functions on one substrate. Examples of recent developments are given, together with remarks on the rationale for use of monolithic electronics and economic considerations.

  16. FEL development at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, N. A.

    1993-07-01

    There are three different FEL projects at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics: 1) the FEL on the VEPP-3 storage ring which operates in the visible and ultraviolet region; 2) the high power FEL using a racetrack microtron recuperator (this machine will provide an average power of about tens of kilowatt in the infrared region); and 3) the compact infrared FEL project, using a microton, and a powerful FEL on a dedicated superconducting storage ring, which is under consideration now.

  17. Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Laboratory for Nuclear Science. High Energy Physics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, Richard

    2014-07-30

    High energy and nuclear physics research at MIT is conducted within the Laboratory for Nuclear Science (LNS). Almost half of the faculty in the MIT Physics Department carry out research in LNS at the theoretical and experimental frontiers of subatomic physics. Since 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy has funded the high energy physics research program through grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 (other grants and cooperative agreements provided decades of support prior to 2004). The Director of LNS serves as PI. The grant supports the research of four groups within LNS as “tasks” within the umbrella grant. Brief descriptions of each group are given here. A more detailed report from each task follows in later sections. Although grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 has ended, DOE continues to fund LNS high energy physics research through five separate grants (a research grant for each of the four groups, as well as a grant for AMS Operations). We are pleased to continue this longstanding partnership.

  19. The contribution of medical physics to nuclear medicine: a physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ell, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    This paper is the second in a series of invited perspectives by four pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine clinical specialist each take a backward look and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here is a backward look from a nuclear medicine physician's perspective.

  20. Summary Comments: Nuclear Physics and Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    The Nuclear Physics and Gamma-ray Sources for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation (NPNSNP) meeting held in Tokai-mura, Japan from January 28th to 30th, 2014 revealed both the rapid evolution and growth of monoenergetic, laser-Compton, gamma-ray source technology and the emergence of numerous important applications enabled by this technology. More than 500M of large-scale source and development activities were represented at the meeting, including all of the major projects in the United States, Europe and Japan. The meeting was both highly stimulating intellectually and provided an excellent venue for the exploration of new collaborations between groups...

  1. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity.

  2. European adults’ physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  3. A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

    2014-04-01

    We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

  4. Taming the SQUID: How a nuclear physics education (mostly) helped my career in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    My degree is in experimental nuclear physics, specifically studying the interaction of pions with nuclei. But after graduation I accepted a post-doctoral research position with a team based on applications of the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) to the study of the human brain. Despite knowing nothing about the brain or SQUIDs to start with, I have gone on to enjoy a career in applications of the SQUID and other sensors to the detection of weak magnetic fields in a variety of problems from brain studies (magnetoencephalography) to ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance for detection of explosives and illicit material. In this talk I will present some background on SQUIDs and their application to the detection of ultra-weak magnetic fields of biological and non-biological origin. I will also provide a little insight into what it has been like to use a nuclear physics background to pursue other types of science.

  5. Precision Nuclear Beta Spectroscopy as a Probe for BSM Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprow, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    The shape of nuclear beta decay spectra is sensitive to new physics such as scalar and tensor currents, and weak magnetism. By selecting an appropriate nuclear species, it is possible to disentangle these effects. 45Ca, which undergoes a predominantly Gamow-Teller transition with an end-point energy of 256 keV, is an excellent probe for tensor couplings. Recently, the 45Ca beta decay spectrum was measured in the Caltech/UCNA 4 π magnetic spectrometer instrumented with large, highly-pixelated Si detectors at the Los Alamos National Laboratory UCN facility. This detection system, in conjunction with an extremely thin foil source preparation, allows for a full reconstruction of events to build a precise spectrum. Preliminary results of the analysis of this data will be presented.

  6. Many-body Green functions in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speth, J.; Lyutorovich, N.

    Many-body Green functions are a very efficient formulation of the many-body problem. We review the application of this method to nuclear physics problems. The formulas which can be derived are of general applicability, e.g., in self-consistent as well as in nonself-consistent calculations. With the help of the Landau renormalization, one obtains relations without any approximations. This allows to apply conservation laws which lead to important general relations. We investigate the one-body and two-body Green functions as well as the three-body Green function and discuss their connection to nuclear observables. The generalization to systems with pair correlations are also presented. Numerical examples are compared with experimental data.

  7. Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2013-03-01

    During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

  8. My Life in Nuclear Physics, Photography, and Opera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Norton M.

    2012-06-01

    I sketch my life as an experimental nuclear physicist, beginning as a graduate student at Harvard University from 1948 to 1951, then as a postdoctoral fellow at the Cavendish Laboratory from 1951 to 1952, and finally as a faculty member at the University of Minnesota from 1952 until my retirement in 1991. I also carried out research at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, Indiana University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and I participated in a number of summer schools and international conferences on nuclear physics. I also have worked in photography and opera. Over the years, I met and collaborated with many people in many walks of life who became friends for life.

  9. The s process: Nuclear physics, stellar models, and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käppeler, F.; Gallino, R.; Bisterzo, S.; Aoki, Wako

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis in the s process takes place in the He-burning layers of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and during the He- and C-burning phases of massive stars. The s process contributes about half of the element abundances between Cu and Bi in solar system material. Depending on stellar mass and metallicity the resulting s-abundance patterns exhibit characteristic features, which provide comprehensive information for our understanding of the stellar life cycle and for the chemical evolution of galaxies. The rapidly growing body of detailed abundance observations, in particular, for AGB and post-AGB stars, for objects in binary systems, and for the very faint metal-poor population represents exciting challenges and constraints for stellar model calculations. Based on updated and improved nuclear physics data for the s-process reaction network, current models are aiming at an ab initio solution for the stellar physics related to convection and mixing processes. Progress in the intimately related areas of observations, nuclear and atomic physics, and stellar modeling is reviewed and the corresponding interplay is illustrated by the general abundance patterns of the elements beyond iron and by the effect of sensitive branching points along the s-process path. The strong variations of the s-process efficiency with metallicity bear also interesting consequences for galactic chemical evolution.

  10. An introduction to using the FORTRAN programs provided with Computational Nuclear Physics 1 Nuclear Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boytos, Matthew A.; Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The authors of this paper have provided a set of ready-to-run FORTRAN programs that should be useful in the field of theoretical nuclear physics. The purpose of this document is to provide a simple synopsis of the programs and their use. A separate section is devoted to each program set and includes: abstract; files; compiling, linking, and running; obtaining results; and a tutorial.

  11. Nuclear and Particle Physics Simulations: The Consortium of Upper-Level Physics Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Roberta; Moloney, Michael J.; Philpott, John; Rothberg, Joseph

    1995-06-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  12. The use of nuclear physics and high energy physics detectors in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina

    2013-06-01

    The development of radiation detectors in the field of nuclear and particle physics has had a terrific impact in medical imaging since this latter discipline took off in late '70 with the invention of the CT scanners. The massive use in Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics of position sensitive gas detectors, of high Z and high density scintillators coupled to Photomultiplier (PMT) and Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT), and of solid state detectors has triggered during the last 30 years a series of novel applications in Medical Imaging with ionizing radiation. The accelerated scientific progression in genetics and molecular biology has finally generated what it is now called Molecular Imaging. This field of research presents additional challenges not only in the technology of radiation detector, but more and more in the ASIC electronics, fast digital readout and parallel software. In this paper we will try to present how Nuclear Physics/High Energy Physics and Medical Imaging have both benefited by the cross-fertilization of research activities between the two fields and how much they will take advantage in the future.

  13. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Physical activity and cancer.

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Anderson, Annie S; Scoccianti, Chiara; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Timothy J; Norat, Teresa; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity is a complex, multidimensional behavior, the precise measurement of which is challenging in free-living individuals. Nonetheless, representative survey data show that 35% of the European adult population is physically inactive. Inadequate levels of physical activity are disconcerting given substantial epidemiologic evidence showing that physical activity is associated with decreased risks of colon, endometrial, and breast cancers. For example, insufficient physical activity levels are thought to cause 9% of breast cancer cases and 10% of colon cancer cases in Europe. By comparison, the evidence for a beneficial effect of physical activity is less consistent for cancers of the lung, pancreas, ovary, prostate, kidney, and stomach. The biologic pathways underlying the association between physical activity and cancer risk are incompletely defined, but potential etiologic pathways include insulin resistance, growth factors, adipocytokines, steroid hormones, and immune function. In recent years, sedentary behavior has emerged as a potential independent determinant of cancer risk. In cancer survivors, physical activity has shown positive effects on body composition, physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety, and self-esteem. Physical activity may also carry benefits regarding cancer survival, but more evidence linking increased physical activity to prolonged cancer survival is needed. Future studies using new technologies - such as accelerometers and e-tools - will contribute to improved assessments of physical activity. Such advancements in physical activity measurement will help clarify the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk and survival. Taking the overall existing evidence into account, the fourth edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people be physically active in everyday life and limit the time spent sitting.

  14. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  15. Nuclear Physics Activities in Asia and ANPhA

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.

    2011-05-06

    On 18 July 2009 the Asian Nuclear Physics Association (ANPhA) has been officially launched in Beijing by the representatives from China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam. Since then Australia, India, Mongolia and Taiwan have joined to ANPhA and now the member country/region has increased to eight. Some activities and features on ANPhA are introduced. In addition, pleasant collaboration with Professor Arima by the author in regard to the Gamow-Teller quenching problem is also briefly mentioned.

  16. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Martínez-Gómez, David; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno, Luis A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Mauro, Beatrice; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Marcos, Ascensión; Beghin, Laurent; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-07-15

    The authors' aim in this cross-sectional study was to characterize levels of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents from 9 European countries. The study comprised 2,200 European adolescents (1,184 girls) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as average intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was also objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of the 20-m shuttle run test. Level of maternal education was reported by the adolescents. A higher proportion of boys (56.8% of boys vs. 27.5% of girls) met the physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA. Adolescents spent most of the registered time in sedentary behaviors (9 hours/day, or 71% of the registered time). Both average intensity and MVPA were higher in adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time was lower in the high-fitness group. There were no physical activity or sedentary time differences between maternal education categories. These data provide an objective measure of physical activity and amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in a relatively large number of European adolescents.

  17. Implementation status of the extreme light infrastructure - nuclear physics (ELI-NP) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    The Project Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is part of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) Roadmap. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  18. Implementation status of the extreme light infrastructure - nuclear physics (ELI-NP) project

    SciTech Connect

    Gales, S. Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-02-24

    The Project Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is part of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) Roadmap. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  19. Atmospheric transport patterns and possible consequences for the European North after a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Baklanov, A; Mahura, A; Jaffe, D; Thaning, L; Bergman, R; Andres, R

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine possible impacts and consequences of a hypothetical accident at the Kola nuclear plant in north-west Russia on different geographical regions: Scandinavia, central Europe, European FSU and Taymyr. The period studied is 1991-1996. An isentropic trajectory model has been used to calculate forward trajectories that originated over the nuclear accident region. Atmospheric transport patterns were identified using the isentropic trajectories and a cluster analysis technique. From the trajectory model results, a number of cases were chosen for examination in detail using more complete transport models. For this purpose, the models MATHEW/ADPIC, DERMA and a newly developed FOA Random Displacement Model have been used to simulate the radionuclide transport and contamination in the case of a nuclear accident and their results have been compared with those of the trajectory modelling. Estimation of the long-term consequences for populations after an accident has been performed for several specific dates by empirical models and correlation between fallout and doses to humans on the basis of the Chernobyl accident exposures in Scandinavia.

  20. Applications of nuclear physics to interdisciplinary research and to industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey

    2000-04-01

    Techniques that have been developed to understand nuclear structure can be used for interdisciplinary research and to determine useful properties. Both microscopic and macroscopic techniques can be used. The introduction discusses the diversity of fields that can benefit from applying nuclear physics techniques. Three current areas of research are used as illustrations. The use of gamma-ray spectroscopy following thermal neutron capture to better understand the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. Such measurements can be performed from orbit, on landers or on rovers, but each type of measurement puts different constraints on the instrument design. Nuclear resonant reaction analysis has recently been used to better understand the chemical kinetics in the curing of cement. Elemental concentrations of hydrogen have been measured with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers at the grain surface and about 20 nanometers at a depth of about two microns as a function of time during the reaction. Finally, x-ray techniques are being developed to provide an x-ray fluorescence instrument that can be used safely and reliably at a crime scene for investigative purposes. Unique problems of applying laboratory techniques to random, human-occupied locations and the requirements for providing a technically viable analysis that will be accepted by our legal system will be discussed.

  1. Vision of nuclear physics with photo-nuclear reactions by laser-driven γ beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Tajima, T.; Schreiber, J.; Barty, C. P. J.; Fujiwara, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2009-11-01

    A laser-accelerated dense electron sheet with an energy E=tilde{γ} mc^2 can be used as a relativistic mirror to coherently reflect a second laser with photon energy ħω, thus generating by the Doppler boost [A. Einstein, Annalen der Physik 17, 891 (1905); D. Habs et al., Appl. Phys. B 93, 349 (2008)] brilliant high-energy photon beams with hbarω^'=4tilde{γ}^2hbarω and short duration for many new nuclear physics experiments. While the shortest-lived atomic levels are in the atto-second range, nuclear levels can have lifetimes down to zeptoseconds. We discuss how the modulation of electron energies in phase-locked laser fields used for as-measurements [E. Goulielmakis et al., Science 317, 769 (2007)] can be carried over to the new direct measurement of fs-zs nuclear lifetimes by modulating the energies of accompanying conversion electrons or emitted protons. In the field of nuclear spectroscopy we discuss the new perspective as a function of increasing photon energy. In nuclear systems a much higher sensitivity is predicted to the time variation of fundamental constants compared to atomic systems [V. Flambaum, arXiv:nucl-th/0801.1994v1 (2008)]. For energies up to 50 keV Mössbauer-like recoilless absorption allows to produce nuclear bosonic ensembles with many delocalized coherent polaritons [G.V. Smirnov et al., Phys. Rev. A 71, 023804 (2005)] for the first time. Using the ( γ, n) reaction to produce cold, polarized neutrons with a focusing ellipsoidal device [P. Böni, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 586, 1 (2008); Ch. Schanzer et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 529, 63 (2004)], brilliant cold polarized micro-neutron beams become available. The compact and relatively cheap laser-generated γ beams may serve for extended studies at university-based facilities.

  2. Experimental Studies of Nuclear Physics Input for γ -Process Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Philipp; Heim, Felix; Mayer, Jan; Netterdon, Lars; Zilges, Andreas

    The predictions of reaction rates for the γ process in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model crucially depend on nuclear physics input-parameters as optical-model potentials (OMP) or γ -ray strength functions. Precise cross-section measurements at astrophysically relevant energies help to constrain adopted models and, therefore, to reduce the uncertainties in the theoretically predicted reaction rates. During the last years, several cross-sections of charged-particle induced reactions on heavy nuclei have been measured at the University of Cologne. Either by means of the in-beam method at the HORUS γ -ray spectrometer or the activation technique using the Cologne Clover Counting Setup, total and partial cross-sections could be used to further constrain different models for nuclear physics input-parameters. It could be shown that modifications on the α -OMP in the case of the 112Sn(α , γ ) reaction also improve the description of the recently measured cross sections of the 108Cd(α , γ ) and 108Cd(α , n) reaction and other reactions as well. Partial cross-sections of the 92Mo(p, γ ) reaction were used to improve the γ -strength function model in 93Tc in the same way as it was done for the 89Y(p, γ ) reaction.

  3. Nb3Sn SRF Cavities for Nuclear Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremeev, Grigory

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear physics experiments rely increasingly on accelerators, which employ superconducting RF (SRF) technology. CEBAF, SNS, FRIB, ESS, among others exploit the low surface resistance of SRF cavities to efficiently accelerate particle beams towards experimental targets. Niobium is the cavity material of choice for all current or planned SRF accelerators, but it has been long recognized that other superconductors with high superconducting transition temperatures have the potential to surpass niobium for SRF applications. Among the alternatives, Nb3Sn coated cavities are the most advanced on the path to practical applications: Nb3Sn coatings on R&D cavities have Tc consistently close the optimal 18 K, very low RF surface resistances, and very recently were shown to reach above Hc1 without anomalous RF surface resistance increase. In my talk I will discuss the prospects of Nb3Sn SRF cavities, the research efforts to realize Nb3Sn coatings on practical multi-cell accelerating structures, and the path toward possible inclusion in CEBAF. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  4. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors for Nuclear Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2015-10-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Nowadays, advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from the old generation of multi wire gaseous chamber (MWPCs) to a new family commonly refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGD technologies combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Several technical breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area MPGDs, making them cost effective and high performance detector candidates for future nuclear physics (NP) and high energy physics (HEP) experiments. We give in the present talk, an overview of the state of the art of the MPGDs. We will then briefly present the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 with the goal of further advancing technological developments and applications of MPGDs and associated electronic-readout systems. Finally we report on the rich and diverse R&D activities on MPGDs to prepare for the detector challenges of the next generation of accelerators and for the frontiers of physics research.

  5. INTRODUCTION: Trends in Physics EPS-7: Proceedings of the Seventh General Conference of the European Physical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åberg, T.; Stenholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Seventh General Conference of the European Physical Society "Trends in Physics" was held in Finland, August 10-14, 1987. The conference sites were the Finlandia Hall in Helsinki and the Helsinki University of Technology in Espoo. Seventy-five plenary and invited talks were presented together with about hundred and forty posters. In this special issue we have been able to include the majority of the plenary and invited talks. They cover a large area of contemporary physics from cosmology to biophysics. In addition a section has been devoted to the role of physics in our human society. In our compilation of the papers we have not attempted to follow the organisation of the conference, but the contributions are arranged so that the readers can find their way through the material in as easy a way as we have been able to achieve. We are very grateful to the authors for their contributions to these Proceedings, which in many ways reflect the exciting progress physics has made during recent years. It is, of course, impossible to cover all aspects of the development of physics in a five days conference. Nevertheless after having had access to all the manuscripts we feel that the international programme committee did an excellent job. This successful result was achieved largely through the efforts of the Program Committee Chairman, Professor Klaus Dransfeld. We think that it is a remarkable achievement of the European Physical Society to run these general physics conferences, where physicists representing widely diverse fields can meet and discover that they still share a common language.

  6. Graphical study of reasons for engagement in physical activity in European Union.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Daniel; Cubedo, Marta; Ríos, Martín

    2013-01-01

    We collect data on 15 reasons why people in the 27 EU countries engage in physical activity, from the European Commission's Special Eurobarometer. A graphical output was obtained using classical Principal Component Analysis techniques in order to analyse types of motivation in the EU. Cluster Analysis method were used to define the interrelationship between the data in the 27 countries. People in Sweden, Denmark and Finland were the most highly motivated. High rates were detected in Austria, Germany, Slovenia, Estonia, Luxembourg and Latvia while low rates were found in Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Greece, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. The lowest motivation rates were in the Netherlands. Regarding the reasons for engaging in exercise (a sport or physical activity), we observed two motivation types. The first group was related to health and physical appearance while the second was associated with social reasons: to be with friends, to better integrate into society, to meet people from other cultures. For citizens of Latvia, Bulgaria and Romania, health and physical appearance carried greater importance than the European average while for citizens of Germany, Finland and Sweden the second motivation type was higher than the European average.

  7. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity.

  8. Aurel Sandulescu—a life dedicated to nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liotta, R. J.

    2013-02-01

    I was surprised to receive an invitation letter from Andrei Dorobantu, whom I did not know, to give a talk about pairing excitations at the Predeal International School of 1978, which I accepted. This was the first time that I would visit Romania, and I knew very little about the research that was performed in the country. In my talk I was showing the role of the pairing mode in a rather popular theory at that time which was called Nuclear Field Theory. Suddenly I was interrupted in a rather brusque fashion by a man with an acute and loud voice, telling me that it has been shown by somebody that the Nuclear Field Theory does not converge. I was very upset by this interruption, particularly because he was right. I told him this and asked him to wait up at the end of my talk. During the coffee break the man came to me and presented himself. It was the first time I came into contact with the extraordinary person that is Aurel Sandulescu. During the coffee break we spoke about his research, especially in alpha decay. I was interested in this subject because just then I had started to perform calculations in relation to experiments carried out at my Institution in Stockholm, which at that time was called the Research Institute of Physics. We continued with our discussions during the whole duration of the School, often with his wife, Violeta, present. I became amazed by the extensive work he had done since the late 1950s on microscopic treatments of alpha decay. He had studied the decay of both normal and superfluid as well as spherical and deformed nuclei, all within the framework of the shell model or its BCS equivalent. I was very enthusiastic about this, since I was convinced that one should, in principle, be able to describe the decay process by using a shell model representation. I was disappointed to realize that he did not agree with me. I insisted that from a purely theoretical point of view the shell model was, rather more than a model, an excellent

  9. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, July 1, 1994--June 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, M.K.; Griffin, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    This progress report contains 36 items of research work done by ten members of the University of Maryland Nuclear Theory Group with 21 outside collaborators from various institutions in the US, Canada, Korea and Europe. The report is in four sections, each representing major and basic areas of interest in nuclear theory. The sections are as follows: (1) hadrons in nuclei and nuclear matter; (2) hadron physics; (3) relativistic dynamics in quark, hadron and nuclear physics; (4) heavy ion dynamics and related processes.

  10. Physical Activity Interventions in Schools for Improving Lifestyle in European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Rocha, Nuno B.F; Helmich, Ingo; Budde, Henning; Machado, Sergio; Wegner, Mirko; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Vellante, Marcello; Baum, Antonia; Guicciardi, Marco; Patten, Scott B; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background : In the last decades, children’s and adolescents’ obesity and overweight have increased in European Countries. Unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle have been recognized to determine such an epidemic. Schools represent an ideal setting to modify harmful behaviors, and physical activity could be regarded as a potential way to avoid the metabolic risks related to obesity. Methods : A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize the evidence of school-based interventions aimed to promote, enhance and implement physical activity in European schools. Only randomized controlled trials were included, carried out in Europe from January 2000 to April 2014, universally delivered and targeting pupils aged between 3 and 18 years old. Results : Forty-seven studies were retrieved based either on multicomponent interventions or solely physical activity programs. Most aimed to prevent obesity and cardiovascular risks among youths. While few studies showed a decrease in BMI, positive results were achieved on other outcomes, such as metabolic parameters and physical fitness. Conclusion : Physical activity in schools should be regarded as a simple, non-expensive and enjoyable way to reach all the children and adolescents with adequate doses of moderate to vigorous physical activity. PMID:25834629

  11. The Atomic and Nuclear Physics of Atomic EDMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Atomic Electric-Dipole-Moment (EDM) measurements employ low-energy atomic and precision-measurement techniques to measure the effects of elementary particle forces that affect the distribution of charge and mass in the nucleus, which is probed by the atomic electrons. Experiments and their interpretation strongly overlap atomic and nuclear physics in the experimental and theoretical problems presented. On the experimental side, the atomic EDM couples to electric fields while the magnetic dipole moment couples to magnetic fields requiring exquisite control and characerization of the magnetic fields. Measuring the tiny frequency shifts requires clock-comparisons and a large signal-to-noise ratio for frequency resolution much smaller than the linewidths, which are lmitied by observation times. To address the experimental challenges, I will discuss systematic effects related to magnetic fields and techniques of magnetometry and co-magntometery as well as optical pumping and related techniques that enhance signal-to-noise. I will also address the interpretation of atomic EDMs in terms of a set of low-energy parameters that relate to effective-field-theory coefficients, and I will empshaize the need for improved calculations from both atomic-theory and nuclear theory.

  12. Nonlocalized clustering: a new concept in nuclear cluster structure physics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Funaki, Y; Horiuchi, H; Ren, Zhongzhou; Röpke, G; Schuck, P; Tohsaki, A; Xu, Chang; Yamada, T

    2013-06-28

    We investigate the α+^{16}O cluster structure in the inversion-doublet band (Kπ=0(1)±}) states of 20Ne with an angular-momentum-projected version of the Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Röpke (THSR) wave function, which was successful "in its original form" for the description of, e.g., the famous Hoyle state. In contrast with the traditional view on clusters as localized objects, especially in inversion doublets, we find that these single THSR wave functions, which are based on the concept of nonlocalized clustering, can well describe the Kπ=0(1)- band and the Kπ=0(1)+ band. For instance, they have 99.98% and 99.87% squared overlaps for 1- and 3- states (99.29%, 98.79%, and 97.75% for 0+, 2+, and 4+ states), respectively, with the corresponding exact solution of the α+16O resonating group method. These astounding results shed a completely new light on the physics of low energy nuclear cluster states in nuclei: The clusters are nonlocalized and move around in the whole nuclear volume, only avoiding mutual overlap due to the Pauli blocking effect.

  13. Annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Snover, K.; Fulton, B.

    1996-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington has for over 40 years supported a broad program of experimental physics research. Some highlights of the research activities during the past year are given. Work continues at a rapid pace toward completion of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in January 1997. Following four years of planning and development, installation of the acrylic vessel began last July and is now 50% complete, with final completion scheduled for September. The Russian-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) has completed a successful {sup 51}Cr neutrino source experiment. The first data from {sup 8}B decay have been taken in the Mass-8 CVC/Second Class Current study. The analysis of the measured barrier distributions for Ca-induced fission of prolate {sup 192}Os and oblate {sup 194}Pt has been completed. In a collaboration with a group from the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre they have shown that fission anisotropies at energies well above the barrier are not influenced by the mass asymmetry of the entrance channel relative to the Businaro-Gallone critical asymmetry. They also have preliminary evidence at higher bombarding energy that noncompound nucleus fission scales with the mean square angular momentum, in contrast to previous suggestions. The authors have measured proton and alpha particle emission spectra from the decay of A {approximately} 200 compound nuclei at excitation energies of 50--100 MeV, and used these measurements to infer the nuclear temperature. The investigations of multiparticle Bose-Einstein interferometry have led to a new algorithm for putting Bose-Einstein and Coulomb correlations of up to 6th order into Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-relativistic collision events, and to a new fast algorithm for extracting event temperatures.

  14. Superallowed nuclear beta decay: Precision measurements for basic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J. C.

    2012-11-01

    For 60 years, superallowed 0+→0+ nuclear beta decay has been used to probe the weak interaction, currently verifying the conservation of the vector current (CVC) to high precision (±0.01%) and anchoring the most demanding available test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix (±0.06%), a fundamental pillar of the electroweak standard model. Each superallowed transition is characterized by its ft-value, a result obtained from three measured quantities: the total decay energy of the transition, its branching ratio, and the half-life of the parent state. Today's data set is composed of some 150 independent measurements of 13 separate superallowed transitions covering a wide range of parent nuclei from 10C to 74Rb. Excellent consistency among the average results for all 13 transitions - a prediction of CVC - also confirms the validity of the small transition-dependent theoretical corrections that have been applied to account for isospin symmetry breaking. With CVC consistency established, the value of the vector coupling constant, GV, has been extracted from the data and used to determine the top left element of the CKM matrix, Vud. With this result the top-row unitarity test of the CKM matrix yields the value 0.99995(61), a result that sets a tight limit on possible new physics beyond the standard model. To have any impact on these fundamental weak-interaction tests, any measurement must be made with a precision of 0.1% or better - a substantial experimental challenge well beyond the requirements of most nuclear physics measurements. I overview the current state of the field and outline some of the requirements that need to be met by experimentalists if they aim to make measurements with this high level of precision.

  15. Superallowed nuclear beta decay: Precision measurements for basic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J. C.

    2012-11-20

    For 60 years, superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} nuclear beta decay has been used to probe the weak interaction, currently verifying the conservation of the vector current (CVC) to high precision ({+-}0.01%) and anchoring the most demanding available test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix ({+-}0.06%), a fundamental pillar of the electroweak standard model. Each superallowed transition is characterized by its ft-value, a result obtained from three measured quantities: the total decay energy of the transition, its branching ratio, and the half-life of the parent state. Today's data set is composed of some 150 independent measurements of 13 separate superallowed transitions covering a wide range of parent nuclei from {sup 10}C to {sup 74}Rb. Excellent consistency among the average results for all 13 transitions - a prediction of CVC - also confirms the validity of the small transition-dependent theoretical corrections that have been applied to account for isospin symmetry breaking. With CVC consistency established, the value of the vector coupling constant, G{sub V}, has been extracted from the data and used to determine the top left element of the CKM matrix, V{sub ud}. With this result the top-row unitarity test of the CKM matrix yields the value 0.99995(61), a result that sets a tight limit on possible new physics beyond the standard model. To have any impact on these fundamental weak-interaction tests, any measurement must be made with a precision of 0.1% or better - a substantial experimental challenge well beyond the requirements of most nuclear physics measurements. I overview the current state of the field and outline some of the requirements that need to be met by experimentalists if they aim to make measurements with this high level of precision.

  16. Pipken Award: Nuclear physics mysteries revealed by precision ion trap measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Physics is a fundamental science discipline for over 100 years, and started with precision measurements by Rutherford. Much has been learned and understood in the meantime, but some questions remain and also new nuclear phenomena have been discovered. Precision experiments open new venue to address these. Ion trap technologies, originally conceived for atomic and molecular physics have been adapted to the specific requirements stemming from nuclear physics, for example, to couple ion traps to accelerators and achieve very high speed and efficiencies. In this talk I will show some recent examples and technical developments pertaining to nuclear physics questions and phenomena and how they are addressed with precision ion trap measurements.

  17. The communication of physical science uncertainty in European National Adaptation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, S; Dessai, S; Paavola, J; Forster, P M

    Many European countries have developed National Adaptation Strategies (NAS) to guide adaptation to the expected impacts of climate change. There is a need for more structured communication of the uncertainties related to future climate and its impacts so that adaptation actions can be planned and implemented effectively and efficiently. We develop a novel uncertainty assessment framework for comparing approaches to the inclusion and communication of physical science uncertainty, and use it to analyse ten European NAS. The framework is based on but modifies and integrates the notion of the "cascade of uncertainties" and the NUSAP (Numeral Unit Spread Assessment Pedigree) methodology to include the overarching assessment categories of Numerical Value, Spread, Depth and Substantiation. Our assessment indicates that there are marked differences between the NAS in terms of inclusion and communication of physical science uncertainty. We find that there is a bias towards the communication of quantitative uncertainties as opposed to qualitative uncertainties. Through the examination of the English and German NAS, we find that similar stages of development in adaptation policy planning can nevertheless result in differences in handling physical science uncertainty. We propose that the degree of transparency and openness on physical science uncertainty is linked to the wider socio-political context within which the NAS are framed. Our methodology can help raise awareness among NAS users about the explicit and embedded information on physical science uncertainty within the existing NAS and would help to design more structured uncertainty communication in new or revised NAS.

  18. PREFACE: The 6th Nordic Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Vaagen, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    After an unintended time gap of five years, the series of regular Nordic meetings on nuclear physics was continued with the 6th Nordic Meeting, August 10-15, 1989. The site was Utgarden in the outskirts of Kopervik, the administration center for the Saga island of Karmøy on the west-coast of Norway. Utgarden, a "peoples high-school'' with a kitchen, housing facility and a neighboring modern gymnasium with fine lecture halls, proved to be an inexpensive and adequate site for the meeting. From the time of the Vikings, the sound between Karmøyy and the mainland has been a vital part of the way to the north. Mobility and international orientation is still a signature of an area where today essential parts of Norway's oil- and metal industry are located. The conference program included a session on nuclear physics in industry and society, with contributed talks from a number of companies and technology/research institutions, which also sponsored the meeting. Lunch visits to Hydro's aluminium plant on Karmøy or alternatively to Statoil's gas terminal on the mainland, were included in the program. The scientific program gives a cross section of nuclear physics activities in which researchers from the Nordic countries are involved nowadays. The spectrum is rich, and the emphasis has shifted to higher energies than was the case five years ago. We appreciate the possibility to present this overview in a separate volume of Physica Scripta. The present issue covers nearly all the talks given at the meeting. The order deviates, however, somewhat from that of the conference program. The organizing committee tried to encourage in various ways the participation of young physicists; this effort was truely rewarded. The young participants put their imprint on the activities in the lecture halls and even more on the soccer arena. The meeting was sponsored by The University of Bergen, The Nordic Accelerator Committee, NORDITA, The Norwegian Research Council for Science and the

  19. Phylogenetic relationships in European Ceriporiopsis species inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Tomšovský, Michal; Menkis, Audrius; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify taxonomy and examine evolutionary relationships within European Ceriporiopsis species using a combined analysis of the large subunit (nLSU) nuclear rRNA and small subunit (mtSSU) mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences. Data from the ITS region were applied to enhance the view of the phylogenetic relationships among different species. The studied samples grouped into four complex clades, suggesting that the genus Ceriporiopsis is polyphyletic. The generic type Ceriporiopsis gilvescens formed a separate group together with Ceriporiopsis guidella and Phlebia spp. in the phlebioid clade. In this clade, the closely related species Ceriporiopsis resinascens and Ceriporiopsis pseudogilvescens grouped together with Ceriporiopsis aneirina. C. resinascens and C. pseudogilvescens have identical LSU and SSU sequences but differ in ITS. Ceriporiopsis pannocincta also fell in the phlebioid clade, but showed closer proximity to Gloeoporus dichrous than to C. gilvescens or C. aneirina-C. pseudogilvescens-C. resinascens group. Another clade was composed of a Ceriporiopsis balaenae-Ceriporiopsis consobrina group and was found to be closely related to Antrodiella and Frantisekia, with the overall clade highly reminiscent of the residual polyporoid clade. The monotypic genus Pouzaroporia, erected in the past for Ceriporiopsis subrufa due to its remarkable morphological differences, also fell within the residual polyporoid clade. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora held an isolated position from the other species of the genus. Therefore, the previously proposed name Gelatoporia subvermispora has been adopted for this species. Physisporinus rivulosus appeared unrelated to two other European Physisporinus species. Moreover, Ceriporiopsis (=Skeletocutis) jelicii grouped in a separate clade, distinct from Ceriporiopsis species. Finally, the ITS data demonstrated the proximity of some Ceriporiopsis species (Ceriporiopsis portcrosensis and Ceriporiopsis

  20. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War. Papers Based on a Symposium of the Forum on Physics and Society of the American Physical Society, (Washington, D.C., April 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Philip; And Others

    Three papers on nuclear weapons and nuclear war, based on talks given by distinguished physicists during an American Physical Society-sponsored symposium, are provided in this booklet. They include "Caught Between Asymptotes" (Philip Morrison), "We are not Inferior to the Soviets" (Hans A. Bethe), and "MAD vs. NUTS"…

  1. The Role of Nuclear Physics in Understanding the Cosmos and the Origin of Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-05-06

    This popular lecture, given in the conference celebrating contributions of Akito Arima to physics on the occasion of his 80th anniversary, outlines the role of nuclear physics in understanding the origin of elements.

  2. Special Issue on "Neutrino Oscillations: Celebrating the Nobel Prize in Physics 2015" in Nuclear Physics B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Takaaki Kajita from the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration and Arthur B. McDonald from the SNO Collaboration ;for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass;. Furthermore, the Daya Bay, K2K and T2K, KamLAND, SNO, and Super-Kamiokande Collaborations shared the Fundamental Physics Breakthrough Prize the same year. In order to celebrate this successful and fruitful year for neutrino oscillations, the editors and the publisher of Nuclear Physics B decided to publish a Special Issue on neutrino oscillations. We invited prominent scientists in the area of neutrino physics that relates to neutrino oscillations to write contributions for this Special Issue, which was open to both original research articles as well as review articles. The authors of this Special Issue consist of e.g. the two Nobel Laureates, International Participants of the Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden (August 19-24, 2004), selected active researchers, and members from large experimental collaborations with major results in the last ten years. In total, this Special Issue consists of 28 contributions. Please note that the cover of this Special Issue contains a figure from each of the 26 contributions that have figures included.

  3. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics Research

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey J.

    2012-03-02

    IThe National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,000 users and hosting some 550 projects that involve nearly 700 codes for a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-scale computing resources NERSC provides critical staff support and expertise to help scientists make the most efficient use of these resources to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Science. In May 2011, NERSC, DOE’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for NP research over the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC’s continuing involvement in anticipating future user needs and deploying necessary resources to meet these demands. The workshop revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing NP computing. The key requirements include: 1. Larger allocations of computational resources at NERSC; 2. Visualization and analytics support; and 3. Support at NERSC for the unique needs of experimental nuclear physicists. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. The results are based upon representative samples, called “case studies,” of the needs of science teams within NP. The case studies were prepared by NP workshop participants and contain a summary of science goals, methods of solution, current and future computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, “multi-core” environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report also includes a section with NERSC responses to the workshop findings. NERSC has many initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings and all of the action items are aligned with NERSC strategic plans.

  4. Molecular differentiation of Central European blowfly species (Diptera, Calliphoridae) using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers.

    PubMed

    GilArriortua, Maite; Saloña Bordas, Marta I; Köhnemann, Stephan; Pfeiffer, Heidi; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2014-09-01

    A challenging step in medical, veterinary and forensic entomology casework is the rapid and accurate identification of insects to estimate the period of insect activity (PIA), which usually approximates the post-mortem interval (PMI). The morphological identification of insect evidence is hampered by species similarities, especially at the early larval stages. However, DNA-based species identification is more accurate and reliable. In this study, we improved the suitability and efficacy of the standard mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode region of 658 bp combined with an additional region of 616 bp of the same gene. We also tested the usefulness of other mitochondrial and nuclear loci, such as the non-coding region included in mitochondrial Cyt-b-tRNA(ser)-ND1 (495-496 bp) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (310-337 bp). We classified a total of 54 specimens from five blowfly species belonging to three Calliphoridae genera commonly found in Central Europe: Phormia (P. regina), Calliphora (C. vicina) and Lucilia (L. sericata, L. ampullacea and L. caesar). Additionally included were the Cyt-b (307 bp) sequences for P. regina species and GenBank recorded information about the studied loci for select species. The results revealed the robustness of COI (616 bp) and ITS2 (310-337 bp) as diagnostic tools to be added to the widely established COI barcode (658 bp). Their higher discriminatory power allows for more precise and reliable identifications, even within more complex genera (Lucilia). This work also contributes new nucleotide sequences that are useful for accurate species diagnosis and new sequence data of Calliphoridae interspecific variability in the European Westphalia region (Germany).

  5. Nuclear and membrane progestin receptors in the European eel: Characterization and expression in vivo through spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Vílchez, María C; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Dufour, Sylvie; Asturiano, Juan F; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Pérez, Luz

    2017-02-11

    Characterization of all the progestin receptor genes (PRs) found in the European eel has been performed. There were five membrane PRs (mPRs): mPRα (alpha), mPRAL1 (alpha-like1), mPRAL2 (alpha-like2), mPRγ (gamma), mPRδ (delta) and two nuclear PRs (nPRs or PGRs): pgr1 and pgr2. In silico studies showed that the C and E(F) domains of Pgr are well conserved among vertebrates whereas the A/B domain is not. Phylogeny and synteny analyses suggest that eel duplicated pgr (pgr1 and pgr2) originated from the teleost-specific third whole genome duplication (3R). mPR phylogeny placed three eel mPRs together with the mPRα clade, being termed mPRα, mPRAL1 and mPRAL2, while the other two eel mPRs clustered with mPRγ and mPRδ clades, respectively. The in vivo study showed differential expression patterns along the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. An increase in nPR transcripts was observed in brain (in pgr1) and pituitary (in pgr1 and pgr2) through the spermatogenesis, from the spermatogonia B/spermatocyte stage to the spermiation stage. In the testis, mPRγ, mPRδ and pgr2 transcripts showed the highest levels in testis with A spermatogonia as dominant germ cell, while the highest mPRα, mPRAL1 and mPRAL2 transcripts were observed in testis from spermiating males, where the dominant germ cell were spermatozoa. Further studies should elucidate the role of both nuclear and membrane progestin receptors on eel spermatogenesis.

  6. Seasonal variation in physical activity and sedentary time in different European regions. The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Williams, Craig A; Hagströmer, Maria; Manios, Yannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Béghin, Laurent; Polito, Angela; De Henauw, Stefaan; Valtueña, Jara; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Denes; Alexy, Ute; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This report aims (1) to examine the association between seasonality and physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in European adolescents and (2) to investigate whether this association was influenced by geographical location (Central-North versus South of Europe), which implies more or less extreme weather and daylight hours. Valid data on PA, sedentary time and seasonality were obtained in 2173 adolescents (1175 females; 12.5-17.5 years) included in this study. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometers. ANCOVA was conducted to analyse the differences in PA and sedentary time across seasons. Results showed that girls had lower levels of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and average PA, and spent more time in sedentary activities in winter compared with spring (all P < 0.05). Stratified analyses showed differences in PA and sedentary time between winter and spring in European girls from Central-North of Europe (P < 0.05 for sedentary time). There were no differences between PA and sedentary time across seasonality in boys. In conclusion, winter is related with less time spent in MVPA, lower average PA and higher time spent in sedentary activities in European adolescent girls, compared with spring. These differences seem to mainly occur in Central-North Europe.

  7. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  8. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  9. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  10. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  11. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  12. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as 12C and 16O . All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the 12C (α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  13. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  14. Clines of nuclear DNA markers suggest a largely neolithic ancestry of the European gene pool.

    PubMed

    Chikhi, L; Destro-Bisol, G; Bertorelle, G; Pascali, V; Barbujani, G

    1998-07-21

    Comparisons between archaeological findings and allele frequencies at protein loci suggest that most genes of current Europeans descend from populations that have been expanding in Europe in the last 10, 000 years, in the Neolithic period. Recent mitochondrial data have been interpreted as indicating a much older, Paleolithic ancestry. In a spatial autocorrelation study at seven hypervariable loci in Europe (four microsatellites, two larger, tandem-repeat loci, and a sequence polymorphism) broad clinal patterns of DNA variation were recognized. The observed clines closely match those described at the protein level, in agreement with a possible Near Eastern origin for the ancestral population. Separation times between populations were estimated on the basis of a stepwise mutation model. Even assuming low mutation rates and long generation times, we found no evidence for population splits older than 10,000 years, with the predictable exception of Saami (Lapps). The simplest interpretation of these results is that the current nuclear gene pool largely reflects the westward and northward expansion of a Neolithic group. This conclusion is now supported by purely genetic evidence on the levels and patterns of microsatellite diversity, rather than by correlations of biological and nonbiological data. We argue that many mitochondrial lineages whose origin has been traced back to the Paleolithic period probably reached Europe at a later time.

  15. Thin-thick hydrogen target for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gheller, J.-M.; Juster, F.-P.; Authelet, G.; Relland, J.

    2014-01-29

    In spectroscopic studies of unstable nuclei, hydrogen targets are of key importance. The CHyMENE Project aims to provide to the nuclear physics community a thin and pure solid windowless hydrogen or deuterium target. CHyMENE project must respond to this request for the production of solid Hydrogen. The solid hydrogen target is produced in a continuous flow (1 cm/s) by an extrusion technique (developed with the PELIN laboratory) in a vacuum chamber. The shape of the target is determined by the design of the nozzle at the extrusion process. For the purpose, the choice is a rectangular shape with a width of 10 mm and a thickness in the range of 30-50 microns necessary for the physics objectives. The cryostat is equipped with a GM Cryocooler with sufficient power for the solidification of the hydrogen in the lower portion of the extruder. In the higher part of the cryostat, the hydrogen gas is first liquefied and partially solidified. It is then compressed at 100 bars in the cooled extruder before expulsion of the film through the nozzle at the center of the reaction vacuum chamber. After the previous step, the solid hydrogen ribbon falls by gravity into a dedicated chamber where it sublimes and the gas is pumped and evacuated in a exhaust line. This paper deals with the design of the cryostat with its equipment, with the sizing of the thermal bridge (Aluminum and copper), with the results regarding the contact resistance as well as with the vacuum computations of the reaction and recovery hydrogen gas chambers.

  16. A Program in Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Gerald

    2015-03-23

    We report here on the final stages of the Berman grant. The study of the spectrum and properties of the excited states of the nucleon (the N* states) is one of the highest-priority goals of nuclear physics and one of the major programs of Jefferson Lab, especially in Hall B. We have most recently focused our attention on exclusive studies (in both spin and strangeness) of the neutron in the deuteron. Our g13 experiment, “Production of Kaons from the Deuteron with Polarized Photons” [Nadel-Turonski (2006)], was carried out between October 2006 and June 2007. This experiment was done using both linearly and circularly polarized photons, mainly to try to unscramble the multitude of wide and overlapping N* states and to measure their properties by studying in fine detail their decays into strange-particle reaction channels. To this end, one of our students, Edwin Munevar, has analyzed the γn→K+Σ- reaction channel for his Ph.D. topic. The strangeness-production channels constitute the subject of the original GW group’s g13 proposal. But the g13 data set, by virtue of its statistics, polarization, and kinematic coverage, is ideally suited for many other reaction channels as well. Among these is the azimuthal angular asymmetry for deuteron photodisintegration, which was analyzed by another of our students, Nicholas Zachariou, for his Ph.D. topic, with help from Nickolay Ivanov (from the Yerevan Physics Institute in Armenia). This study required a deuterium target and a linearly polarized photon beam.

  17. Perspective on the Development of Nuclear Physics in the Past 100 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, John P.

    2008-06-01

    The course of nuclear physics is reviewed in the period from just before Hideki Yukawa's birth through the middle of the 20th century. Some information on Yukawa's first paper is presented. Then some general observations about the present state of the field of nuclear physics and of science are given.

  18. Trip report: European Communities 1989 International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Brussels, Belgium, October 24-27, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The European community is conducting research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. The prime objective is to develop effective techniques to ensure the protection of man and his environment against the potential hazards of nuclear installations that have been shut down. The results of the 1979--1983 research program were presented in a conference held in Luxembourg. This program was primarily concerned with decommissioning nuclear power plants. The 1984--1988 program was extended to all types of nuclear installations. Fuel fabrication, enrichment and reprocessing plants, and research and development facilities having fulfilled their useful purposes are also awaiting decommissioning. This Program has produced numerous scientific and technical achievements. Great progress has in particular been achieved in the reduction of metal waste arising from decommissioning, due to advances in areas such as the development of aggressive decontamination procedures and of techniques for melting and recycling low-level radioactive waste metal.

  19. Physical activity and lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Steindorf, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Rundle, Andrew; Veglia, Fabrizio; Vineis, Paolo; Johnsen, Nina Fønns; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Schulz, Mandy; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kalapothaki, Victoria; Koliva, Maria; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Peeters, Petra H; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Agudo, Antonio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Quirós, José R; Martínez, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Janzon, Lars; Berglund, Göran; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Norat, Teresa; Jenab, Mazda; Cust, Anne; Riboli, Elio

    2006-11-15

    Research conducted predominantly in male populations on physical activity and lung cancer has yielded inconsistent results. We examined this relationship among 416,277 men and women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Detailed information on recent recreational, household and occupational physical activity, smoking habits and diet was assessed at baseline between 1992 and 2000. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using Cox regression. During 6.3 years of follow-up we identified 607 men and 476 women with incident lung cancer. We did not observe an inverse association between recent occupational, recreational or household physical activity and lung cancer risk in either males or females. However, we found some reduction in lung cancer risk associated with sports in males (adjusted RR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.98; highest tertile vs. inactive group), cycling (RR = 0.73; 0.54-0.99) in females and non-occupational vigorous physical activity. For occupational physical activity, lung cancer risk was increased for unemployed men (adjusted RR = 1.57; 1.20-2.05) and men with standing occupations (RR = 1.35; 1.02-1.79) compared with sitting professions. There was no evidence of heterogeneity of physical activity associations across countries, or across any of the considered cofactors. For some histologic subtypes suggestive sex-specific reductions, limited by subgroup sizes, were observed, especially with vigorous physical activity. In total, our study shows no consistent protective associations of physical activity with lung cancer risk. It can be assumed that the elevated risks found for occupational physical activity are not produced mechanistically by physical activity itself but rather reflect exposure to occupation-related lung cancer risk factors.

  20. [Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions]. [Nuclear Physics Group, Univ. of New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The experimental goals are focused on developing an understanding of strong interactions and the structure of hadronic systems by determination of the electromagnetic response; these goals will be accomplished through coincidence detection of final states. Nuclear modeling objectives are to organize and interpret the data through a consistent description of a broad spectrum of reaction observables; calculations are performed in a nonrelativistic diagrammatic framework as well as a relativistic QHD approach. Work is described according to the following arrangement: direct knockout reactions (completion of [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p), [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]pp) progress, large acceptance detector physics simulations), giant resonance studies (intermediate-energy experiments with solid-state detectors, the third response function in [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]p[sub 0]) and [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p[sub 0]), comparison of the [sup 12]C(e, e[prime]p[sub 0]) and [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p[sub 3]) reactions, quadrupole strength in the [sup 16]O(e,e[prime][alpha][sub 0]) reaction, quadrupole strength in the [sup 12]C(e,e[prime][alpha]) reaction, analysis of the [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]p[sub 1]) and [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p[sub 3]) angular distributions, analysis of the [sup 40]Ca(e,e[prime]x) reaction at low q, analysis of the higher-q [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]x) data from Bates), models of nuclear structure (experimental work, Hartree-Fock calculations, phonon excitations in spherical nuclei, shell model calculations, variational methods for relativistic fields), and instrumentation development efforts (developments at CEBAF, CLAS contracts, BLAST developments).

  1. Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 2008 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Ed., Brian L; Dart, Ed., Eli; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Ernest, Michael; Hitchcock, Daniel; Johnston, William; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Maguire, Charles; Olson, Douglas; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Watson, Chip; Vale, Carla

    2008-11-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In May 2008, ESnet and the Nuclear Physics (NP) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the NP Program Office. Most of the key DOE sites for NP related work will require significant increases in network bandwidth in the 5 year time frame. This includes roughly 40 Gbps for BNL, and 20 Gbps for NERSC. Total transatlantic requirements are on the order of 40 Gbps, and transpacific requirements are on the order of 30 Gbps. Other key sites are Vanderbilt University and MIT, which will need on the order of 20 Gbps bandwidth to support data transfers for the CMS Heavy Ion program. In addition to bandwidth requirements, the workshop emphasized several points in regard to science process and collaboration. One key point is the heavy reliance on Grid tools and infrastructure (both PKI and tools such as GridFTP) by the NP community. The reliance on Grid software is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, continued development and support of Grid software is very important to the NP science community. Another key finding is that scientific productivity is greatly enhanced by easy researcher-local access to instrument data. This is driving the creation of distributed repositories for instrument data at collaborating institutions, along with a corresponding increase in demand for network-based data transfers and the tools

  2. Strings, quarkonium and nuclear physics in lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Christopher Robert

    2000-11-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD, is currently accepted as the correct theory of quark and gluon interactions, a theory that embodies many of our modern notions about the links between mathematical symmetry and physical reality. It is also, for many interesting phenomena, a strongly-coupled theory. Traditional perturbation theory can not be applied to low-energy QCD; new, non-perturbative methods are required. Lattice QCD is the most successful non-perturbative, first-principles approach to investigations of QCD physics. The QCD field equations are discretised on a space-time grid, making them well-suited to numerical simulation. We have performed lattice simulations to investigate three separate problems in low-energy QCD. First, the nature of the strong nuclear force was examined through the simpler system of two interacting heavy-light mesons. The inter-meson binding potential was extracted from lattice simulations, and was in quantitative agreement with the Yukawa model of pion exchange. Next we investigated the phenomenon of string-breaking. The QCD static-quark potential is confining-the gluon field between spatially separated quarks forms a narrow flux `string', with energy that increases linearly with the quark separation. For large separations, the field energy is sufficient for the system to decay into a static-light meson pair. To date, evidence for this `string-breaking' effect has been elusive. We presented a lattice operator that produces the desired effect, even in the absence of light sea-quarks. This has implications for current string- breaking investigations. Finally, we attempted precision simulations of the charmonium ( cc¯) meson family using a non-relativistic effective theory of heavy-quark interactions known as NRQCD. The charm quark is a challenge for lattice simulations-large discrepancies exist between experimental measurements and lattice results for the charmonium spectrum. We performed NRQCD simulations of the charmonium system to examine

  3. REACTOR PHYSICS MODELING OF SPENT NUCLEAR RESEARCH REACTOR FUEL FOR SNM ATTRIBUTION AND NUCLEAR FORENSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, M.; Beals, D.; Webb, R.; Nichols, T.

    2010-06-09

    Nuclear research reactors are the least safeguarded type of reactor; in some cases this may be attributed to low risk and in most cases it is due to difficulty from dynamic operation. Research reactors vary greatly in size, fuel type, enrichment, power and burnup providing a significant challenge to any standardized safeguard system. If a whole fuel assembly was interdicted, based on geometry and other traditional forensics work, one could identify the material's origin fairly accurately. If the material has been dispersed or reprocessed, in-depth reactor physics models may be used to help with the identification. Should there be a need to attribute research reactor fuel material, the Savannah River National Laboratory would perform radiochemical analysis of samples of the material as well as other non-destructive measurements. In depth reactor physics modeling would then be performed to compare to these measured results in an attempt to associate the measured results with various reactor parameters. Several reactor physics codes are being used and considered for this purpose, including: MONTEBURNS/ORIGEN/MCNP5, CINDER/MCNPX and WIMS. In attempt to identify reactor characteristics, such as time since shutdown, burnup, or power, various isotopes are used. Complexities arise when the inherent assumptions embedded in different reactor physics codes handle the isotopes differently and may quantify them to different levels of accuracy. A technical approach to modeling spent research reactor fuel begins at the assembly level upon acquiring detailed information of the reactor to be modeled. A single assembly is run using periodic boundary conditions to simulate an infinite lattice which may be repeatedly burned to produce input fuel isotopic vectors of various burnups for a core level model. A core level model will then be constructed using the assembly level results as inputs for the specific fuel shuffling pattern in an attempt to establish an equilibrium cycle. The

  4. Physical activity in European adolescents and associations with anxiety, depression and well-being.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; O'Regan, Grace; Keeley, Helen; Cannon, Mary; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cozman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Podlogar, Tina; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar; Sisask, Merike; Tubiana, Alexandra; Värnik, Peeter; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, physical activity, sport participation and associations with well-being, anxiety and depressive symptoms were examined in a large representative sample of European adolescents. A school-based survey was completed by 11,110 adolescents from ten European countries who took part in the SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) study. The questionnaire included items assessing physical activity, sport participation and validated instruments assessing well-being (WHO-5), depressive symptoms (BDI-II) and anxiety (SAS). Multi-level mixed effects linear regression was used to examine associations between physical activity/sport participation and mental health measures. A minority of the sample (17.9 % of boys and 10.7 % of girls; p < 0.0005) reported sufficient activity based on WHO guidelines (60 min + daily). The mean number of days of at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous activity in the past 2 weeks was 7.5 ± 4.4 among boys and 5.9 days ± 4.3 among girls. Frequency of activity was positively correlated with well-being and negatively correlated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms, up to a threshold of moderate frequency of activity. In a multi-level mixed effects model more frequent physical activity and participation in sport were both found to independently contribute to greater well-being and lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms in both sexes. Increasing activity levels and sports participation among the least active young people should be a target of community and school-based interventions to promote well-being. There does not appear to be an additional benefit to mental health associated with meeting the WHO-recommended levels of activity.

  5. Changes and tracking of physical activity across seven years in Mexican-American and European-American mothers.

    PubMed

    Sallis, J F; Greenlee, L; McKenzie, T L; Broyles, S L; Zive, M M; Berry, C C; Brennan, J; Nader, P R

    2001-01-01

    Longitudinal changes in physical activity among 129 Mexican-American (mean age 30.8; SD = 5.6) and 97 European-American (mean age 31.2; SD = 5.4) women were studied. Two physical activity recall interviews were administered at baseline and 7 years later. At baseline, European-American women reported more vigorous leisure activity (p < .005) than Mexican-Americans, and Mexican-Americans reported more moderate work activity (p < .02) than European-Americans. Virtually all components of physical activity increased significantly over the 7 years. Pearson tracking correlations for total energy expenditure were about r = 0.30. The finding that both groups increased physical activity overtime was unexpected and was unrelated to a reduction in the number of preschool children in the homes over time.

  6. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzutiello, Robert J

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear  medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics  Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to:• Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years,• Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and• Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists.As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission.

  7. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzuitello, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to: Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years, Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists. As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission. PACS number: 01.40.G.

  8. European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) policy statement 12.1: Recommendations on medical physics education and training in Europe 2014.

    PubMed

    Caruana, C J; Christofides, S; Hartmann, G H

    2014-09-01

    In 2010, EFOMP issued Policy Statement No. 12: "The present status of Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe. New perspectives and EFOMP recommendations" to be applied to education and training in Medical Physics within the context of the developments in the European Higher Education Area arising from the Bologna Declaration and with a view to facilitate the free movement of Medical Physics professionals within Europe. Concurrently, new recommendations regarding qualifications frameworks were published by the European Parliament and Council which introduced new terminology and a new qualifications framework - the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) for lifelong learning. In addition, a new European directive involving the medical use of ionizing radiations and set to replace previous directives in this area was in the process of development. This has now been realized as Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 which has repealed directive 97/43/Euratom. In this regard, a new document was developed in the context of the EC financed project "European Guidelines on the Medical Physics Expert" and published as RP174. Among other items, these guidelines refer to the mission statement, key activities, qualification framework and curricula for the specialty areas of Medical Physics relating to radiological devices and protection from ionizing radiation. These developments have made necessary an update of PS12; this policy statement provides the necessary update.

  9. A recipe for EFT uncertainty quantification in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnstahl, R. J.; Phillips, D. R.; Wesolowski, S.

    2015-03-01

    The application of effective field theory (EFT) methods to nuclear systems provides the opportunity to rigorously estimate the uncertainties originating in the nuclear Hamiltonian. Yet this is just one source of uncertainty in the observables predicted by calculations based on nuclear EFTs. We discuss the goals of uncertainty quantification in such calculations and outline a recipe to obtain statistically meaningful error bars for their predictions. We argue that the different sources of theory error can be accounted for within a Bayesian framework, as we illustrate using a toy model.

  10. Simulating European heatwaves with WRF - a multi-physics ensemble approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegehuis, Annemiek; Vautard, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Teuling, Ryan

    2014-05-01

    There is a need to simulate mega heatwaves as impacts are large and they are expected to become more frequent in the future. Current climate models are calibrated on the current climate without such impacting events. Studies with model ensembles have been done, but less with physics ensembles. Here we investigate what physics are suitable to simulate the heatwaves of 2003 (Europe) and 2010 (Russia) with WRF, a regional climate model. We run the model over 200 times with different combinations of physics. We find that only few combinations can simulate the observed temperatures during the heatwaves, but also during a normal summer. Monthly precipitation is mostly overestimated, while the observations of monthly global European radiation lay on average in the middle of the model simulations. Most of the variation between simulations is due to the convection scheme. We rank all runs based on observed temperature, precipitation and radiation. The 5 best performing runs are also tested for other regions and variables. In our opinion these physic combinations can best be used to perform further heatwave analysis when using WRF.

  11. Somatic Rearrangement in B Cells: It's (Mostly) Nuclear Physics.

    PubMed

    Aiden, Erez Lieberman; Casellas, Rafael

    2015-08-13

    We discuss how principles of nuclear architecture drive typical gene rearrangements in B lymphocytes, whereas translocation hot spots and recurrent lesions reflect the extent of AID-mediated DNA damage and selection.

  12. Physical Limitations of Nuclear Propulsion for Earth to Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, John A.; Patton, Bruce; Rhys, Noah O.; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An assessment of current nuclear propulsion technology for application in Earth to Orbit (ETO) missions has been performed. It can be shown that current nuclear thermal rocket motors are not sufficient to provide single stage performance as has been stated by previous studies. Further, when taking a systems level approach, it can be shown that NTRs do not compete well with chemical engines where thrust to weight ratios of greater than I are necessary, except possibly for the hybrid chemical/nuclear LANTR (LOX Augmented Nuclear Thermal Rocket) engine. Also, the ETO mission requires high power reactors and consequently large shielding weights compared to NTR space missions where shadow shielding can be used. In the assessment, a quick look at the conceptual ASPEN vehicle proposed in 1962 in provided. Optimistic NTR designs are considered in the assessment as well as discussion on other conceptual nuclear propulsion systems that have been proposed for ETO. Also, a quick look at the turbulent, convective heat transfer relationships that restrict the exchange of nuclear energy to thermal energy in the working fluid and consequently drive the reactor mass is included.

  13. Nuclear physics information needed for accelerator driven transmutation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Bowman, C.D.; Arthur, E.D.; Young, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    There is renewed interest in using accelerator driven neutron sources to address the problem of high-level long-lived nuclear waste. Several laboratories have developed systems that may have a significant impact on the future use of nuclear power, adding options for dealing with long-lived actinide wastes and fission products, and for power production. This paper describes a new Los Alamos concept using thermal neutrons and examines the nuclear data requirements. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Nuclear Data Measurements for 21st Century Reactor Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; Jerald D. Cole; Mark W. Drigert; James K. Jewell; Christopher A. McGrath; David W. Nigg; Edward L. Reber

    2003-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has embarked on a long-term program to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy. This is in response to the overall national plan for accelerated development of domestic energy resources on several fronts, punctuated by recent dramatic events that have emphasized the need for the US to reduce its dependence on foreign petroleum supplies. Key aspects of the DOE-NE agenda are embodied in the Generation-IV (Gen-IV) advanced nuclear energy systems development program and in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) program. The planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current nuclear power reactor systems as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. The success of the overall NE effort will depend not only on sophisticated system development and engineering, but also on the advances in the supporting sciences and technologies. Of these, one of the most important is the improvement of the relevant fundamental nuclear science data bases, especially the evaluated neutron interaction cross section files that serve as the foundation of all reactor system designs, operating strategies, and fuel cycle engineering activities. The new concepts for reactors and fuel cycles involve the use of transuranic nuclides that were previously of little interest, and where experimentally measured information is lacking. The current state of the cross section database for some of these nuclides is such that design computations for advanced fast-spectrum reactor systems and fuel cycles that incorporate such materials in significant quantities are meaningful only for approximate conceptual applications. No actual system could reliably be designed according to currently accepted standards, nor

  15. Physical and functional interaction of human nuclear uracil-DNA glycosylase with proliferating cell nuclear antigen☆

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Rinkei; Bennett, Samuel E.

    2011-01-01

    Uracil residues arise in DNA by the misincorporation of dUMP in place of dTMP during DNA replication or by the deamination of cytosine in DNA. Uracil-DNA glycosylase initiates DNA base excision repair of uracil residues by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the N-glycosylic bond linking the uracil base to deoxyribose. In human cells, the nuclear form of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG2) contains a conserved PCNA-binding motif located at the N-terminus that has been implicated experimentally in binding PCNA. Here we use purified preparations of UNG2 and PCNA to demonstrate that UNG2 physically associates with PCNA. UNG2 co-eluted with PCNA during size exclusion chromatography and bound to a PCNA affinity column. Association of UNG2 with PCNA was abolished by the addition of 100 mM NaCl, and significantly decreased in the presence of 10 mM MgCl2. The functional significance of the UNG2·PCNA association was demonstrated by UNG2 activity assays. Addition of PCNA (30–810 pmol) to standard uracil-DNA glycosylase reactions containing linear [uracil-3H]DNA stimulated UNG2 catalytic activity up to 2.6-fold. UNG2 activity was also stimulated by 7.5 mM MgCl2. The stimulatory effect of PCNA was increased by the addition of MgCl2; however, the dependence on PCNA concentration was the same, indicating that the effects of MgCl2 and PCNA on UNG2 activity occurred by independent mechanisms. Loading of PCNA onto the DNA substrate was required for stimulation, as the activity of UNG2 on circular DNA substrates was not affected by the addition of PCNA. Addition of replication factor C and ATP to reactions containing 90 pmol of PCNA resulted in two-fold stimulation of UNG2 activity on circular DNA. PMID:16216562

  16. [Studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics]. Technical progress report, [October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder. The experimental program in intermediate-energy nuclear physics is very broadly based; it includes pion-nucleon and pion-nucleus studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF, kaon-nucleus scattering at the AGS, and equipment development for experiments at the next generation of accelerator facilities.

  17. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott; Bruner, Blake D; KOZUB, RAYMOND L; Roberts, Luke F; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Hix, William Raphael; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2008-01-01

    We ran new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio eta given current observational uncertainties. We also ran sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the eta constraint.

  18. Current status of the HED instrument design at the European XFEL for studying plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsutsumi, M.; Appel, K.; Thorpe, I.; Priebe, G.; Pelka, A.; Cowan, T.; Tschentscher, Th.

    2014-10-01

    The High Energy Density Physics (HED) instrument at the European XFEL will provide an unique platform for experiments combining hard x-ray FEL radiation (3 -- 24 keV range) and the capability to generate matter under extreme conditions of pressure, temperature or electric field using high energy optical lasers (100 TW Ti-Sapphire and 100 J/ns diode-pumped laser) or pulsed magnets (30 T). Scientific applications will be studies of matter occurring inside exoplanets, of new extreme-pressure phases and solid-density plasmas, and of structural phase transitions of complex solids in high magnetic fields. Following the delivery of the technical design documents, the HED instrument is presently completed with the goal of first x-ray beam in spring 2017. User operation shall start at the end of 2017. The talk includes a presentation of the current HED instrument design as following from specific experiment requirements, which will be discussed.

  19. Nuclear Physics Issues of r-Process Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratz, K.-L.

    2006-03-13

    Nucleosynthesis theory predicts that about half of the chemical elements above iron are formed in explosive stellar scenarios by the r-process, i.e. a combination of rapid neutron captures, inverse photodisintegrations, and slower {beta}-decays, {beta}-delayed processes, as well as fission and possibly interactions with neutrinos. A correct modelling of this process, therefore, requires the knowledge of nuclear properties very far from stability and a detailed description of the astrophysical environments. With respect to nuclear data, after an initial period of measuring classical 'waiting-point' nuclei with magic neutron numbers, recent investigations have paid special attention to shape transitions and the erosion of classical shell gaps with possible occurrence of new magic numbers. The status of experimental and theoretical nuclear data on masses and {beta}-decay properties will be briefly reviewed, and consequences on the overall r-process matter flow up to the cosmochronometers 232Th and 238U will be discussed.

  20. Three-Dimensional Nuclear Chart--Understanding Nuclear Physics and Nucleosynthesis in Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nuclear charts were created using toy blocks, which represent the atomic masses per nucleon number and the total half-lives for each nucleus in the entire region of the nuclear mass. The bulk properties of the nuclei can be easily understood by using these charts. Subsequently, these charts were used in outreach activities…

  1. Effect of oxidation on physical properties of nuclear grade graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hideto; Fujii, Kimio; Imai, Hisashi; Kurosawa, Takeshi

    1985-11-01

    Changes in thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). electrical resistivity, and Young's modulus were measured for the two nuclear grade graphites IG-11 and H451 oxidized thermally in air at 723 K and by water vapor at 1123 K. Thermal conductivity, CTE and Young's modulus decreased and electrical resistivity increased owing to the oxidation. The changes were dependent on the graphites as well as the oxidation condition. The results were analyzed and discussed. Furthermore the changes in thermal shock resistance were discussed for the thermally oxidized nuclear grade graphites.

  2. Nuclear physics from lattice QCD at strong coupling.

    PubMed

    de Forcrand, Ph; Fromm, M

    2010-03-19

    We study numerically the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD with one flavor of massless staggered quarks. We determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature and chemical potential, including a tricritical point. We clarify the nature of the low temperature dense phase, which is strongly bound "nuclear" matter. This strong binding is explained by the nuclear potential, which we measure. Finally, we determine, from this first-principles limiting case of QCD, the masses of "atomic nuclei" up to A=12 "carbon".

  3. The nuclear physics of the hydrogen burning in the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formicola, Alba; Corvisiero, Pietro; Gervino, Gianpiero

    2016-04-01

    Underground nuclear astrophysics focuses its efforts towards a deeper knowledge of the nuclear reactions that rule stellar evolution processes and enable the synthesis of the elements of the periodic table. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, the cross-sections of the key reactions of the hydrogen burning have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained by the LUNA Collaboration are reviewed, and their contributions to the solution of the solar neutrino problem and to the age of the globular cluster are discussed.

  4. Nuclear Energy Minicourse, Career Oriented Pre-Technical Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas Independent School District, TX.

    This instructional guide, intended for student use, develops the concept of nuclear energy through a series of sequential activities. A technical development of the subject is pursued with examples stressing practical aspects of the concepts. Included in the minicourse are: (1) the rationale, (2) terminal behavioral objectives, (3) enabling…

  5. PREFACE: 11th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics: Shell Model and Nuclear Structure - achievements of the past two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The 11th International Seminar on Nuclear Physics was held in Ischia from May 12 to May 16, 2014. This Seminar was dedicated to Aldo Covello, who has been the promoter of this series of meetings, which started in Sorrento in 1986 and continued with meetings held every two or three years in the Naples area. Aldo's idea was to offer to a group of researchers, actively working in selected fields of Nuclear Physics, the opportunity to confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. The choice for the period of the year, Spring, as well as the sites chosen reflected this intent. The first meeting was of a purely theoretical nature, but it was immediately clear that the scope of these conferences needed to be enlarged calling into play the experimental community. Then, starting from the second meeting, all the following ones have been characterized by fruitful discussion between theoretical and experimental researchers on current achievements and future developments of nuclear structure. This may be read, in fact, as one of the motivating factors for Aldo's election as Fellow of the American Physical Society in 2008 "... for his outstanding contributions to the international nuclear physics community by providing, for over two decades, a venue for theorists and experimentalists to share their latest ideas." The present meeting, organized by Aldo's former students and with the benefit of his suggestions, has maintained this tradition. The title "Shell model and nuclear structure: achievements of the past two decades" recalls that of the 2nd International Spring Seminar "Shell Model and Nuclear Structure: where do we stand?". The main aim of this 11th Seminar was, in fact, to discuss the changes of the past two decades on our view of nuclei in terms of shell structure as well as the perspectives of the shell model, which has been one of the key points in Aldo's research. This point is well accounted by the Opening Speech of Igal Talmi, one of the fathers of the

  6. Perspectives for photonuclear research at the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipescu, D.; Anzalone, A.; Balabanski, D. L.; Belyshev, S. S.; Camera, F.; La Cognata, M.; Constantin, P.; Csige, L.; Cuong, P. V.; Cwiok, M.; Derya, V.; Dominik, W.; Gai, M.; Gales, S.; Gheorghe, I.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Mazzocchi, C.; Orlin, V. N.; Pietralla, N.; Sin, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Stopani, K. A.; Tesileanu, O.; Ur, C. A.; Ursu, I.; Utsunomiya, H.; Varlamov, V. V.; Weller, H. R.; Zamfir, N. V.; Zilges, A.

    2015-12-01

    The perspectives for photonuclear experiments at the new Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility are discussed in view of the need to accumulate novel and more precise nuclear data. The parameters of the ELI-NP gamma beam system are presented. The emerging experimental program, which will be realized at ELI-NP, is presented. Examples of day-one experiments with the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique, photonuclear reaction measurements, photofission experiments and studies of nuclear collective excitation modes and competition between various decay channels are discussed. The advantages which ELI-NP provides for all these experiments compared to the existing facilities are discussed.

  7. Overview of Nuclear Physics Data: Databases, Web Applications and Teaching Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCutchan, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The mission of the United States Nuclear Data Program (USNDP) is to provide current, accurate, and authoritative data for use in pure and applied areas of nuclear science and engineering. This is accomplished by compiling, evaluating, and disseminating extensive datasets. Our main products include the Evaluated Nuclear Structure File (ENSDF) containing information on nuclear structure and decay properties and the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) containing information on neutron-induced reactions. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), through the website www.nndc.bnl.gov, provides web-based retrieval systems for these and many other databases. In addition, the NNDC hosts several on-line physics tools, useful for calculating various quantities relating to basic nuclear physics. In this talk, I will first introduce the quantities which are evaluated and recommended in our databases. I will then outline the searching capabilities which allow one to quickly and efficiently retrieve data. Finally, I will demonstrate how the database searches and web applications can provide effective teaching tools concerning the structure of nuclei and how they interact. Work supported by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  8. Nuclear physics with advanced brilliant gamma beams at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur, Călin A.; Filipescu, Dan; Gheorghe, Ioana; Iancu, Violeta; Suliman, Gabriel; Teşileanu, Ovidiu

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility is dedicated to nuclear physics studies with the use of extreme electromagnetic radiation. One of the main research system to be installed and operated in the facility is an outstanding high brilliance gamma beam system. The Gamma Beam System of ELI-NP will produce intense, quasi-monochromatic gamma beams via inverse Compton scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The gamma beams available at ELI-NP will allow for the performance of photo-nuclear reactions aiming to reveal the intimate structure of the atomic nucleus. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, photo-fission, photo-disintegration reactions above the particle threshold will be used to study the dipole response of nuclei, the structure of the Pygmy resonances, nuclear processes relevant for astrophysics, production and study of exotic neutron-rich nuclei.

  9. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics. Policy Statement No. 12: The present status of Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe. New perspectives and EFOMP recommendations.

    PubMed

    Eudaldo, Teresa; Olsen, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    A recently published EFOMP's survey on the status of Education and Training in Europe, has showed the important role played by the NMOs in the organisation of the Medical Physics education and training in most countries and their efforts to fulfil EFOMP recommendations. However, despite of this, there is still a wide variety of approaches within Europe, not only in the education and training programmes but also in professional practice. There is right now some European issues that can affect not only education and training but also the future of Medical Physics as a profession: 1. the harmonisation of the architecture of the European Higher Education System, arising from the "Bologna Declaration", for 2010, 2. the recently issued European directive: "Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications". EFOMP is now challenged to make recommendations for education and training in Medical Physics, within the context of the current developments in the European Higher Education Area arising from "The Bologna Declaration", and with a view to facilitate the free movement of professionals within Europe, according to the new Directive.

  10. The Thrill of Discovery: Nuclear Physics Research in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khalili, J. S.

    2005-04-01

    To many people outside our field, both scientists and the general public, nuclear physics is no longer regarded as being at the forefront of scientific endeavour. Indeed it is often met with outright hostility. Other physicists will point out that the last time a Nobel Prize was awarded in the field was in 1975 . This paper, based on a lecture delivered during an Open Plenary Session of the recent International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC2004, which was aimed at a non-specialist audience, will seek to dispel this myth. Nuclear physics is currently enjoying a period of rapid advances. Many new discoveries have been made in the past few years, from neutron halos and nuclear molecules to a new form of radioactive decay via two protons; from hints of a new particle consisting of five quarks to new 'superheavy' elements. This talk will give a personal perspective on why, far from looking with envy at our neighbours in areas of physics that currently enjoy a higher media profile, we have more than enough to keep us busy and excited in the 21st century. to Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson for their work on models of nuclear structure. This author would argue, however, that the 2004 prize was also for nuclear physics: to Gross, Politzer and Wilczek for "the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction".

  11. Nuclear physics insights for new-physics searches using nuclei: Neutrinoless ββ decay and dark matter direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Javier

    2017-03-01

    Experiments using nuclei to probe new physics beyond the Standard Model, such as neutrinoless ββ decay searches testing whether neutrinos are their own antiparticle, and direct detection experiments aiming to identify the nature of dark matter, require accurate nuclear physics input for optimizing their discovery potential and for a correct interpretation of their results. This demands a detailed knowledge of the nuclear structure relevant for these processes. For instance, neutrinoless ββ decay nuclear matrix elements are very sensitive to the nuclear correlations in the initial and final nuclei, and the spin-dependent nuclear structure factors of dark matter scattering depend on the subtle distribution of the nuclear spin among all nucleons. In addition, nucleons are composite and strongly interacting, which implies that many-nucleon processes are necessary for a correct description of nuclei and their interactions. It is thus crucial that theoretical studies and experimental analyses consider β decays and dark matter interactions with a coupling to two nucleons, called two-nucleon currents.

  12. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  13. The Wisdom of Sages: Nuclear Physics Education, Knowledge-Inquiry, and Wisdom-Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry in nuclear physics education. In the spirit of an earlier study of 57 senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students, this work focuses here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one such book. "Particles and Nuclei: an introduction to the physical…

  14. The physics and technology basis entering European system code studies for DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Kembleton, R.; Bachmann, C.; Biel, W.; Bolzonella, T.; Ciattaglia, S.; Cismondi, F.; Coleman, M.; Donné, A. J. H.; Eich, T.; Fable, E.; Federici, G.; Franke, T.; Lux, H.; Maviglia, F.; Meszaros, B.; Pütterich, T.; Saarelma, S.; Snickers, A.; Villone, F.; Vincenzi, P.; Wolff, D.; Zohm, H.

    2017-01-01

    A large scale program to develop a conceptual design for a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) has been initiated in Europe. Central elements are the baseline design points, which are developed by system codes. The assessment of the credibility of these design points is often hampered by missing information. The main physics and technology content of the central European system codes have been published (Kovari et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 3054-69, 2016 Fusion Eng. Des. 104 9-20, Reux et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 073011). In addition, this publication discusses key input parameters for the pulsed and conservative design option \\tt{EU DEMO1 2015} and provides justifications for the parameter choices. In this context several DEMO physics gaps are identified, which need to be addressed in the future to reduce the uncertainty in predicting the performance of the device. Also the sensitivities of net electric power and pulse duration to variations of the input parameters are investigated. The most extreme sensitivity is found for the elongation ( Δ {κ95}=10 % corresponds to Δ {{P}\\text{el,\\text{net}}}=125 % ).

  15. Fundamental Physics Activities in the Hme Directorate of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Minster, Olivier

    The Human Spaceflight, Microgravity, and Exploration (HME) Directorate of the European Space Agency is strongly involved in fundamental physics research. One of the major activities in this field is represented by the ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) mission. ACES will demonstrate the high performances of a new generation of atomic clocks in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). Following ACES, a vigorous research program has been recently approved to develop a second generation of atomic quantum sensors for space applications: atomic clocks in the optical domain, aiming at fractional frequency stability and accuracy in the low 10-18 regime; inertial sensors based on matter-wave interferometry for the detection of tiny accelerations and rotations; a facility to study degenerate Bose gases in space. Tests of quantum physics on large distance scales represent another important issue addressed in the HME program. A quantum communication optical terminal has been proposed to perform a test of Bell's inequalities on pairs of entangled photons emitted by a source located on the ISS and detected by two ground stations. In this paper, present activities and future plans will be described and discussed.

  16. Stroke-Related Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviours of Chinese and European Canadians: Implications for Physical Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyi; Jongbloed, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To improve cross-cultural health education on risk-reducing behaviour change by examining the stroke-related knowledge, beliefs, and behaviours of Chinese Canadians (CCs). Methods: Participants (103 first-generation CCs and 101 European Canadians [ECs] representing the dominant cultural group in Canada) completed a cross-sectional questionnaire about knowledge, health behaviours, and beliefs related to stroke. Results: Compared with ECs, CCs were less aware of risk factors, warning signs, and appropriate responses to stroke in others. Information sources about stroke included mass media, family, and friends. CCs were less likely to smoke and drink alcohol but were also less likely to be physically active or to participate in structured exercise, less likely to have a healthy diet, and more likely to report stress. Conclusions: Theoretical dimensions of culture may explain variations in stroke-related knowledge, behaviours, and beliefs between CCs and ECs. Awareness of cultural differences can help physical therapists evaluate clients and appropriately tailor lifestyle-related health education. PMID:24799757

  17. Review of nuclear physics experimental data for space radiation.

    PubMed

    Norbury, John W; Miller, Jack

    2012-11-01

    The available nuclear fragmentation data relevant to space radiation studies are reviewed. It is found that there are serious gaps in the data. Helium data are missing in the intervals 280 MeV n-3 GeV n and >15 GeV n. Carbon data are missing >15 GeV n. Iron projectile data are missing at all energies except in the interval 280 MeV n-3 GeV n.

  18. Particle and nuclear physics instrumentation and its broad connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarteau, M.; Lipton, R.; Nicholson, H.; Shipsey, I.

    2016-10-01

    Subatomic physics shares with other basic sciences the need to innovate, invent, and develop tools, techniques, and technologies to carry out its mission to explore the nature of matter, energy, space, and time. In some cases, entire detectors or technologies developed specifically for particle physics research have been adopted by other fields of research or in commercial applications. In most cases, however, the development of new devices and technologies by particle physics for its own research has added value to other fields of research or to applications beneficial to society by integrating them in the existing technologies. Thus, detector research and development has not only advanced the current state of technology for particle physics, but has often advanced research in other fields of science and has underpinned progress in numerous applications in medicine and national security. At the same time particle physics has profited immensely from developments in industry and applied them to great benefit for the use of particle physics detectors. This symbiotic relationship has seen strong mutual benefits with sometimes unexpected far reach.

  19. Particle and nuclear physics instrumentation and its broad connections

    DOE PAGES

    Demarteau, Marcel; Lipton, Ron; Nicholson, Howard; ...

    2016-12-20

    Subatomic physics shares with other basic sciences the need to innovate, invent, and develop tools, techniques, and technologies to carry out its mission to explore the nature of matter, energy, space, and time. In some cases, entire detectors or technologies developed specifically for particle physics research have been adopted by other fields of research or in commercial applications. In most cases, however, the development of new devices and technologies by particle physics for its own research has added value to other fields of research or to applications beneficial to society by integrating them in the existing technologies. Thus, detector researchmore » and development has not only advanced the current state of technology for particle physics, but has often advanced research in other fields of science and has underpinned progress in numerous applications in medicine and national security. At the same time particle physics has profited immensely from developments in industry and applied them to great benefit for the use of particle physics detectors. Finally, this symbiotic relationship has seen strong mutual benefits with sometimes unexpected far reach.« less

  20. Particle and nuclear physics instrumentation and its broad connections

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, Marcel; Lipton, Ron; Nicholson, Howard; Shipsey, Ian

    2016-12-20

    Subatomic physics shares with other basic sciences the need to innovate, invent, and develop tools, techniques, and technologies to carry out its mission to explore the nature of matter, energy, space, and time. In some cases, entire detectors or technologies developed specifically for particle physics research have been adopted by other fields of research or in commercial applications. In most cases, however, the development of new devices and technologies by particle physics for its own research has added value to other fields of research or to applications beneficial to society by integrating them in the existing technologies. Thus, detector research and development has not only advanced the current state of technology for particle physics, but has often advanced research in other fields of science and has underpinned progress in numerous applications in medicine and national security. At the same time particle physics has profited immensely from developments in industry and applied them to great benefit for the use of particle physics detectors. Finally, this symbiotic relationship has seen strong mutual benefits with sometimes unexpected far reach.

  1. News Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

  2. Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel of Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S at the National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Lucian

    2009-05-01

    The Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S (RR-VVR-S) located in Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, was designed for research and radioisotope production. It was commissioned in 1957 and operated without any event or accident for forty years until shut down in 1997. In 2002, by government decree, it was permanently shutdown for decommissioning. The National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) is responsible for decommissioning the RR-VVR-S, the first nuclear decommissioning project in Romania. In this context, IFIN-HH prepared and obtained approval from the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body for the Decommissioning Plan. One of the most important aspects for decommissioning the RR-VVR-S is solving the issue of the fresh and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored on site in wet storage pools. In the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy and in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Rosatom State Corporation, Romania repatriated all fresh HEU fuel to the Russian Federation in 2003 and the HEU SNF will be repatriated to Russia in 2009. With the experience and lessons learned from this action and with the financial support of the Romanian Government it will be possible for Romania to also repatriate the LEU SNF to the Russian Federation before starting the dismantling and decontamination of the nuclear facility. [4pt] In collaboration with K. Allen, Idaho National Laboratory, USA; L. Biro, National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, Romania; and M. Dragusin, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania.

  3. 10 CFR 73.55 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage. 73.55 Section 73.55 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.55 Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear... objective to provide high assurance that activities involving special nuclear material are not inimical...

  4. 10 CFR 73.55 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage. 73.55 Section 73.55 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.55 Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear... objective to provide high assurance that activities involving special nuclear material are not inimical...

  5. Physical particularities of nuclear reactors using heavy moderators of neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, G. G.; Shmelev, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    In nuclear reactors, thermal neutron spectra are formed using moderators with small atomic weights. For fast reactors, inserting such moderators in the core may create problems since they efficiently decelerate the neutrons. In order to form an intermediate neutron spectrum, it is preferable to employ neutron moderators with sufficiently large atomic weights, using 233U as a fissile nuclide and 232Th and 231Pa as fertile ones. The aim of the work is to investigate the properties of heavy neutron moderators and to assess their advantages. The analysis employs the JENDL-4.0 nuclear data library and the SCALE program package for simulating the variation of fuel composition caused by irradiation in the reactor. The following main results are obtained. By using heavy moderators with small neutron moderation steps, one is able to (1) increase the rate of resonance capture, so that the amount of fertile material in the fuel may be reduced while maintaining the breeding factor of the core; (2) use the vacant space for improving the fuel-element properties by adding inert, strong, and thermally conductive materials and by implementing dispersive fuel elements in which the fissile material is self-replenished and neutron multiplication remains stable during the process of fuel burnup; and (3) employ mixtures of different fertile materials with resonance capture cross sections in order to increase the resonance-lattice density and the probability of resonance neutron capture leading to formation of fissile material. The general conclusion is that, by forming an intermediate neutron spectrum with heavy neutron moderators, one can use the fuel more efficiently and improve nuclear safety.

  6. Research in theoretical nuclear and neutrino physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sarcevic, Ina

    2014-06-14

    The main focus of the research supported by the nuclear theory grant DE-FG02-04ER41319 was on studying parton dynamics in high-energy heavy ion collisions, perturbative approach to charm production and its contribution to atmospheric neutrinos, application of AdS/CFT approach to QCD, neutrino signals of dark mattter annihilation in the Sun and on novel processes that take place in dense stellar medium and their role in stellar collapse, in particular the effect of new neutrino interactions on neutrino flavor conversion in Supernovae. We present final technical report on projects completed under the grant.

  7. Physical Security Modeling for the Shipboard Nuclear Weapons Security Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    STATISTICS 3-11 NSWC TR 82-50 REFERENCES 3-1) Chapman, L.D., and Engi, D.,"Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (Snap)-Overview," NUREG /CR-0960, SAND79...34 NUREG /CR-0725, SAND79-0617, Sandia Laboratories, March 1979. 3-3) Grant III, F.H., Engi, D., and Chapman, L.D.,"User’s Guide for SNAP," NUREG /CR...34 Science Applications, Inc., SAI-78-995-LJ, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission report NUREG /CR-0532, December 1978 4-5) McDaniel, T. and Huszar, L

  8. Nuclear physics award for faculty in undergraduate institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of the {open_quotes}Faculty Program{close_quotes} is to enhance undergraduate science education through faculty awards for minority and historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) faculty that will allow them to participate directly in the ANL Physics Division research program and increase the number of undergraduates involved in research. Although the program was approved late in FY 1994, the Physics Division, with the cooperation of DEP, began the program during the Summer with the appointment of a Hispanic theorist. Undergraduate students are already working with the faculty member who is in the process of preparing an independent funding proposal for continuing research collaboration. It is anticipated that several minority faculty members and their students will be involved in research collaborations in the Physics Division during FY 1995 summer and beyond. In order to extend the limited resources of this program, participants are placed through existing educational programs whenever possible, thereby obtaining supplemental support.

  9. A physical and economic model of the nuclear fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Erich Alfred

    A model of the nuclear fuel cycle that is suitable for use in strategic planning and economic forecasting is presented. The model, to be made available as a stand-alone software package, requires only a small set of fuel cycle and reactor specific input parameters. Critical design criteria include ease of use by nonspecialists, suppression of errors to within a range dictated by unit cost uncertainties, and limitation of runtime to under one minute on a typical desktop computer. Collision probability approximations to the neutron transport equation that lead to a computationally efficient decoupling of the spatial and energy variables are presented and implemented. The energy dependent flux, governed by coupled integral equations, is treated by multigroup or continuous thermalization methods. The model's output includes a comprehensive nuclear materials flowchart that begins with ore requirements, calculates the buildup of 24 actinides as well as fission products, and concludes with spent fuel or reprocessed material composition. The costs, direct and hidden, of the fuel cycle under study are also computed. In addition to direct disposal and plutonium recycling strategies in current use, the model addresses hypothetical cycles. These include cycles chosen for minor actinide burning and for their low weapons-usable content.

  10. A Request for Planning Funds for a Research and Study Abroad Facility in Geneva, Switzerland in Affiliation with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    campbell, myron

    2013-03-31

    To create a research and study abroad program that would allow U.S. undergraduate students access to the world-leading research facilities at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the World Health Organization, various operations of the United Nations and other international organizations based in Geneva.The proposal is based on the unique opportunities currently existing in Geneva. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now operational at CERN, data are being collected, and research results are already beginning to emerge. At the same time, a related reduction of activity at U.S. facilities devoted to particle physics is expected. In addition, the U.S. higher-education community has an ever-increasing focus on international organizations dealing with world health pandemics, arms control and human rights, a nexus also centered in Geneva.

  11. Nuclear physics (of the cell, not the atom)

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru; Marko, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is physically distinct from the cytoplasm in ways that suggest new ideas and approaches for interrogating the operation of this organelle. Chemical bond formation and breakage underlie the lives of cells, but as this special issue of Molecular Biology of the Cell attests, the nonchemical aspects of cell nuclei present a new frontier to biologists and biophysicists. PMID:25368422

  12. Nuclear physics (of the cell, not the atom).

    PubMed

    Pederson, Thoru; Marko, John F

    2014-11-05

    The nucleus is physically distinct from the cytoplasm in ways that suggest new ideas and approaches for interrogating the operation of this organelle. Chemical bond formation and breakage underlie the lives of cells, but as this special issue of Molecular Biology of the Cell attests, the nonchemical aspects of cell nuclei present a new frontier to biologists and biophysicists.

  13. Teaching Undergraduates about Nuclear Arms and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear arms education is being addressed in many academic disciplines and can be approached from many viewpoints. Rationale, ethical issues, instructional strategies, European views, and course materials are considered. A syllabus and references are also included for a course titled "Physics of Nuclear Arms and Nuclear War." (DH)

  14. Nuclear physics: quantitative single-cell approaches to nuclear organization and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lionnet, T; Wu, B; Grünwald, D; Singer, R H; Larson, D R

    2010-01-01

    The internal workings of the nucleus remain a mystery. A list of component parts exists, and in many cases their functional roles are known for events such as transcription, RNA processing, or nuclear export. Some of these components exhibit structural features in the nucleus, regions of concentration or bodies that have given rise to the concept of functional compartmentalization--that there are underlying organizational principles to be described. In contrast, a picture is emerging in which transcription appears to drive the assembly of the functional components required for gene expression, drawing from pools of excess factors. Unifying this seemingly dual nature requires a more rigorous approach, one in which components are tracked in time and space and correlated with onset of specific nuclear functions. In this chapter, we anticipate tools that will address these questions and provide the missing kinetics of nuclear function. These tools are based on analyzing the fluctuations inherent in the weak signals of endogenous nuclear processes and determining values for them. In this way, it will be possible eventually to provide a computational model describing the functional relationships of essential components.

  15. Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki 2004, and a dash of horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Ell, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine represents the major scientific and professional event in the field of nuclear medicine in Europe. Specialists from all allied professions meet to discuss the latest findings and discoveries. A very large industrial exhibition demonstrates the latest technological innovations and developments. This Highlights Lecture summarises the scientific and medical advances discussed at this important gathering. The lecture covers a significant proportion of the data presented and/or discussed in up-to-date reviews, and places some of the trends encountered in the context of the evolution of the field as a whole. There is much food for thought in most areas of nuclear medicine: advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in known areas of clinical application such as neurology and psychiatry, cardiology, oncology, endocrine disorders, paediatrics, nephro-urology and musculoskeletal disorders. This Highlights Lecture is, however, only a brief resume of the vast amount of data discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the Congress Proceedings, published as volume 31, supplement 2 of Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in August 2004.

  16. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Gerald W.; Markert, Christina

    2016-09-01

    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or "decay" into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  17. Nuclear physics. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems.

    PubMed

    Hen, O; Sargsian, M; Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Hakobyan, H; Higinbotham, D W; Braverman, M; Brooks, W K; Gilad, S; Adhikari, K P; Arrington, J; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Beck, A; May-Tal Beck, S; Bedlinskiy, I; Bertozzi, W; Biselli, A; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Forest, T; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkanov, B I; Isupov, E L; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Korover, I; Kuhn, S E; Kubarovsky, V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Mustapha, B; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Roy, P; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Shneor, R; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Wood, S A; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhao, Z W; Zheng, X; Zonta, I

    2014-10-31

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using (12)C, (27)Al, (56)Fe, and (208)Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems.

  18. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  19. Foundations of strangeness nuclear physics derived from chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Ulf-G.; Haidenbauer, Johann

    Dense compact objects like neutron stars or black holes have always been one of Gerry Brown’s favorite research topics. This is closely related to the effects of strangeness in nuclear physics. Here, we review the chiral Effective Field Theory approach to interactions involving nucleons and hyperons, the possible existence of strange dibaryons, the fate of hyperons in nuclear matter and the present status of three-body forces involving hyperons and nucleons.

  20. Beyond detection: nuclear physics with a webcam in an educational setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallone, A.; Barnes, P.

    2016-09-01

    Basic understanding of nuclear science enhances our daily-life experience in many areas, such as the environment, medicine, electric power generation, and even politics. Yet typical school curricula do not provide for experiments that explore the topic. We present a means by which educators can use the ubiquitous webcam and inexpensive sources of radiation to lead their students in a quantitative exploration of radioactivity, radiation, and the applications of nuclear physics.

  1. Modernization of physical protection educational laboratories in the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskin, N. I.; Krasnoborodko, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-proliferation of nuclear materials includes, in addition to accounting and control, the Physical Protection (PP) of one. The paper considers the experience by MEPhI in application the practical educational in the area of PP technical systems. The following aspects are discussed in the paper: specific features graduate program in nuclear security area; overview of the practical course curricula in the special laboratory.

  2. Use of Second Life for interactive instruction and distance learning in nuclear physics and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amme, Robert C.

    2009-05-01

    The developing nuclear power renaissance, coupled with related environmental consequences, is forcing a re-examination of the manner in which nuclear science and technology is (or is not) being taught in the United States. The 20-year hiatus of the nuclear power industry has been a decided factor in the relatively stagnant growth of nuclear physics and nuclear technology instruction, from middle school to graduate education. Furthermore, the general public remains fairly ignorant of the various features of nuclear power, at best having been briefly exposed to the subject only in a middle-school course in Physical Science. Essential to this renaissance is the capacity to deal with the regulatory environment and safety standards that must be addressed prior to new plant certification. Regrettably, too few individuals who are trained in environmental science are adequately prepared in the basic concepts of nuclear physics to deal with such issues as radioactive waste storage and transportation, biological effects of ionizing radiation, geological repositories, nuclear fuel reprocessing, etc. which are of great concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We are developing a master's degree, to be taught online, in the area of environmental impact assessment as it relates to these and other issues. To accommodate the need for laboratory exercises, we have adopted the virtual world developed by Linden Laboratory entitled Second Life; it is here that the student, as an avatar, will gain knowledge of the nature of ionizing radiation, radioactive half-lives, gamma and beta ray spectroscopy, neutron activation, and radiation shielding, using virtual apparatus and virtual radiation sources. Additionally, a virtual Generation III+ power reactor has been constructed on an adjoining Second Life island (entitled Science School II) which provides the visitor with a realistic impression of its inner workings. This presentation will provide the details of this construct and how it

  3. Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  4. Reactor physics teaching and research in the Swiss nuclear engineering master

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, R.

    2012-07-01

    Since 2008, a Master of Science program in Nuclear Engineering (NE) has been running in Switzerland, thanks to the combined efforts of the country's key players in nuclear teaching and research, viz. the Swiss Federal Inst.s of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL) and at Zurich (ETHZ), the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) at Villigen and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (Swissnuclear). The present paper, while outlining the academic program as a whole, lays emphasis on the reactor physics teaching and research training accorded to the students in the framework of the developed curriculum. (authors)

  5. WTEC panel report on European nuclear instrumentation and controls. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.; Lanning, D.D.; Johnson, P.M.H.; Shelton, R.D.

    1991-12-01

    A study of instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology used in nuclear power plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of US specialists. This study plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of US specialists. This study included a review of the literature on the subject, followed by a visit to some of the leading organizations in Europe in the field nuclear I and C. Areas covered are: (1) role of the operator and control room design; (2) transition from analog to digital technology; (3) computerized operator support systems for fault management; (4) control strategies and techniques; (5) Nuclear power plant I and C architecture; (6) instrumentation and (7) computer standards and tools. The finding relate to poor reactions.

  6. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.D.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1994-07-01

    Under Hadrons in Nuclei and Nuclear Matter the authors research the ways in which the properties of nucleons and mesons are modified in the nuclear medium. Research progress is reported on a number of topics in this general area, including studies of the role of chiral symmetry for finite density or temperature nuclear matter, the use of QCD sum rules to describe baryons in nuclear matter, and color transparency. In the general field of Hadron Physics broad progress included studies of perturbative QCD, heavy quark physics, QCD sum rules, and QCD-based models. Notable progress was also achieved in Relativistic Dynamics in Quark, Hadron, and Nuclear Physics, where an explicit model of composite particles shows how the z-graph physics (which is an essential part of Dirac phenomenology) comes about. In addition, calculations of elastic electron-deuteron scattering based on two-body relativistic dynamics and meson exchange currents were completed, as were studies of quark-anti-quark bound states based on a relativistic quark model. Progress is also reported on the relativistic few-body problem. In the area of Heavy Ion Dynamics and Sharp Lepton Pairs, work continues on the Composite Particle Scenario for the `Sharp Lepton Problem`. In particular, the scenario can now encompass the anomalous sharp leptons reported from positron irradiation of heavy neutral atoms, establishing such irradiations as an alternative experimental window to the heavy ion experiments.

  7. Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP): Present status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), a new Research Center under construction, will use extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics research and will be operational in 2018. The status of the Project implementation will be presented. At ELI-NP, a high power laser system together with a very brilliant gamma beam are the two main research tools. Their targeted operational parameters will be described. The related experimental set-ups will be presented, together with the main directions of the research envisioned.

  8. Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993 under Contract Number DE-FG05-88ER40459. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focussed on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and the University of Pennsylvania.

  9. LOW-ENERGY NUCLEAR PHYSICS NATIONAL HPC INITIATIVE: BUILDING A UNIVERSAL NUCLEAR ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL (UNEDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Bulgac, A

    2013-03-27

    This document is a summary of the physics research carried out by the University of Washington centered group. Attached are reports for the previous years as well as the full exit report of the entire UNEDF collaboration.

  10. Colorado School of Mines low energy nuclear physics project

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, F.E.

    1991-01-02

    A major accomplishment of this project in the past year is the completion of a fairly comprehensive paper describing the survey of radiative capture reactions of protons on light nuclei at low energies. In addition we have completed a preliminary set of measurements of (d,p)/(d,{alpha}) cross section ratios on the charge symmetric nuclei {sup 6}Li and {sup 10}B as a test of the Oppenheimer-Phillips effect. While the {sup 6}Li data remain inconclusive, the {sup 10}B data show solid evidence for the Oppenheimer-Phillips enhancement of the (d,p) reaction relative to the (d,{alpha}) reaction for deuteron bombarding energies below about 100 keV. We have continued our investigation of fusion reaction products from deuterium-metal systems at room temperatures with the startling observation of intense burst of energetic charged particles from deuterium gas loaded thin titaium foils subject to non-equilibrium thermal and electrical conditions. We have completed two projects involving the application of the low energy particle accelerator to material science problems; firstly a study of the transformation of crystalline to amorphous Fe-Zr systems by proton irradiation and secondly the effects of ion bombardment on the critical temperature of YBCO high-temperature superconductors. Finally we have made progress in several instrumentation projects which will be used in some of the up-coming measurements of nuclear cross sections at very low energies.

  11. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Taiichi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-12-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3) was held at KGU Kannai Media Center, Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama, Japan, from May 26 to 30, 2014. Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan, about 25 km southeast of Tokyo. The first workshop of the series was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008 and the second one was in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. The purpose of SOTANCP3 was to discuss the present status and future perspectives of the nuclear cluster physics. The following nine topics were selected in order to cover most of the scientific programme and highlight an area where new ideas have emerged over recent years: (1) Cluster structures and many-body correlations in stable and unstable nuclei (2) Clustering aspects of nuclear reactions and resonances (3) Alpha condensates and analogy with condensed matter approaches (4) Role of tensor force in cluster physics and ab initio approaches (5) Clustering in hypernuclei (6) Nuclear fission, superheavy nuclei, and cluster decay (7) Cluster physics and nuclear astrophysics (8) Clustering in nuclear matter and neutron stars (9) Clustering in hadron and atomic physics There were 122 participants, including 53 from 17 foreign countries. In addition to invited talks, we had many talks selected from contributed papers. There were plenary, parallel, and poster sessions. Poster contributions were also presented as four-minute talks in parallel sessions. This proceedings contains the papers presented in invited and selected talks together with those presented in poster sessions. We would like to express our gratitude to the members of the International Advisory Committee and those of the Organizing Committee for their efforts which made this workshop successful. In particular we would like to present our great thanks to Drs. Y. Funaki, W. Horiuchi, N. Itagaki, M. Kimura, T. Myo, and T. Yoshida. We would like also to thank the following organizations for their sponsors: RCNP

  12. Associations between physical activity and self-rated wellbeing in European adults: A population-based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Peralta, Miguel; Martins, João; Catunda, Ricardo; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Saboga Nunes, Luís

    2016-10-01

    Although self-rated wellbeing is an indicator of health status, it has been receiving little attention; its relationship with physical activity among adults remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and several dimensions of self-rated wellbeing in European adults. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the European Social Survey round 6, 2012, comprising 40,600 European adults (18,418 men, 22,186 women) from 27 countries, with mean age 42.1±13.3. Meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Six dimensions of the self-rated wellbeing were assessed (evaluative wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, functioning, vitality, community wellbeing, supportive wellbeing). Men and women who attained physical activity recommended levels had better evaluative wellbeing (men, p=0.009; women, p<0.001), emotional wellbeing (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), functioning (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), vitality (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), supportive relationships (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), and wellbeing total score (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001). Physical activity frequency was linearly associated with self-rated wellbeing in the 6 dimensions as well as the wellbeing total score (p<0.001). Attaining recommended physical activity levels is related to better self-rated wellbeing, and more frequent physical activity is linearly associated with better self-rated wellbeing in its 6 dimensions.

  13. Nuclear physics in Heidelberg in the years 1950 to 1980. Personal recollections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidenmüller, Hans A.

    2015-09-01

    After World War II, nuclear physics was a central research theme in the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy at Heidelberg University. That tendency was amplified by the founding of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg in 1958. The author witnessed these developments as a student and, later, as a member of the Heidelberg Faculty and of the Max-Planck-Institut.

  14. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  15. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  16. Quantifying statistical uncertainties in ab initio nuclear physics using Lagrange multipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, B. D.

    2017-03-01

    Theoretical predictions need quantified uncertainties for a meaningful comparison to experimental results. This is an idea which presently permeates the field of theoretical nuclear physics. In light of the recent progress in estimating theoretical uncertainties in ab initio nuclear physics, I here present and compare methods for evaluating the statistical part of the uncertainties. A special focus is put on the (for the field) novel method of Lagrange multipliers (LM). Uncertainties from the fit of the nuclear interaction to experimental data are propagated to a few observables in light-mass nuclei to highlight any differences between the presented methods. The main conclusion is that the LM method is more robust, while covariance-based methods are less demanding in their evaluation.

  17. Neurocognitive and Physical Abilities Assessments Twelve Years After the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    Chernobyl , Ukraine was conducted. In this report are findings from 1995 to 1998. Participants were volunteers who resided in Ukraine during and since...the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. A translated subset of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics battery and the Gamache Physical

  18. Students' Assessment of Interactive Distance Experimentation in Nuclear Reactor Physics Laboratory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkawi, Salaheddin; Al-Araidah, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments develop students' skills in dealing with laboratory instruments and physical processes with the objective of reinforcing the understanding of the investigated subject. In nuclear engineering, where research reactors play a vital role in the practical education of students, the high cost and long construction time of research…

  19. Measuring Radon in Air, Soil and Water: An Introduction to Nuclear Physics for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Wachtmeister, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the radon measurement activities at Stockholm House of Science, nuclear and experimental physics is introduced in a way that attracts the attention and interest of the students. These projects give the students the opportunity to use mobile detectors, either in their school, in the House of Science or in their homes. During 2006, 34 radon…

  20. Nuclear science and engineering and health physics fellowships: 1984 description. Research areas for the practicum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This booklet describes available research areas at participating centers where a practicum may be held under the Nuclear Science and Engineering and Health Physics Fellowship program. After a year of graduate study each fellow is expected to arrange for a practicum period at one of the participating centers.

  1. On-line computer system for use with low- energy nuclear physics experiments is reported

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gemmell, D. S.

    1969-01-01

    Computer program handles data from low-energy nuclear physics experiments which utilize the ND-160 pulse-height analyzer and the PHYLIS computing system. The program allows experimenters to choose from about 50 different basic data-handling functions and to prescribe the order in which these functions will be performed.

  2. Structural Isomer Identification via NMR: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment for Organic, Analytical, or Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Zvi

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment that examines the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to distinguish between structural isomers via resonance multiplicities and chemical shifts. Reasons for incorporating the experiment into organic, analytical, or physical chemistry…

  3. Seismic hazard assessments for European nuclear power plants: a review based on the results of the ENSREG Stress Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Kurt; Hintersberger, Esther

    2015-04-01

    In aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi accident ENSREG and the European Commission reviewed the seismic safety of all European nuclear plants on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk and safety assessment ('Stress Tests'). This process resulted in the publication of a large amount of data describing approaches, methods and results previously used to assess seismic hazards for European NPPs (http://www.ensreg.eu/eu-stress-tests). A review of the published documents reveals considerable differences between the approaches of seismic hazard assessment. Most of the EU countries use probabilistic or a combination of probabilistic and deterministic approaches to estimate hazard. A second group of countries relies on deterministic assessments. Reports from countries adopting probabilistic hazard assessment methodologies reveal a spread of exceedance frequencies defining the design base earthquake (DBE) between 10-3 and 10-5 per year with a majority of countries referring to a frequency of 10-4. Deterministic approaches use the maximum earthquake intensities to define the DBE, mostly adding 1° of intensity as a safety margin. In very few cases only 0.5° or even no safety margin was added to the strongest intensity. The hazard levels obtained from both types of analyses are not comparable to each other as no benchmark studies appear to exist to define the occurrence probabilities of DBE values established by deterministic methods. The Stress Tests documents do not allow for an in-depth check of the hazard assessments. Assessments for different countries/sites have been performed between the 1970s and 2011. Although it is conceded that all assessments were performed according to the state of the art of the time of their performance, only a part of the hazard assessments can be justified in terms of being compliant with current scientific standards. Due to the time elapsed since their implementation several decades ago some assessments do not take advantage of

  4. Physical description of nuclear materials identification system (NMIS) signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalczo, J. T.; Mullens, J. A.; Mattingly, J. K.; Valentine, T. E.

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes all time and frequency analysis parameters measured with a new correlation processor (capability up to 1 GHz sampling rates and up to five input data channels) for three input channels: (1) the 252Cf source ionization chamber; (2) a detection channel; and (3) a second detection channel. An intuitive and physical description of the various measured quantities is given as well as a brief mathematical description and a brief description of how the data are acquired. If the full five-channel capability is used, the number of measured quantities increases in number but not in type. The parameters provided by this new processor can be divided into two general classes: time analysis signatures and their related frequency analysis signatures. The time analysis signatures include the number of time m pulses occurs in a time interval, that is triggered randomly, upon a detection event, or upon a source fission event triggered. From the number of pulses in a time interval, the moments, factorial moments, and Feynmann variance can be obtained. Recent implementations of third- and fourth-order time and frequency analysis signatures in this processor are also briefly described. Thus, this processor used with a timed source of input neutrons contains all of the information from a pulsed neutron measurement, one and two detector Rossi- α measurements, multiplicity measurements, and third- and fourth-order correlation functions. This processor, although originally designed for active measurements with a 252Cf interrogating source, has been successfully used passively (without 252Cf source) for systems with inherent neutron sources such as fissile systems of plutonium. Data from active measurements with an 18.75 kg highly enriched uranium (93.2 wt%, 235U) metal casting for storage are presented to illustrate some of the various time and frequency analysis parameters. This processor, which is a five-channel time correlation analyzer with time channel widths as

  5. UCLA Intermediate Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics Research: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B M.K.; Goetz, J; Lapik, A; Korolija, M; Prakhov, S; Starostin, A

    2011-05-18

    skin" of {sup 208}Pb, which is of great interest to astroparticle physics for determining the properties of neutron stars. Processes of study are coherent and noncoherent 0 photoproduction. The Crystal Ball is uniquely suited for these studies because of the large acceptance, good direction and energy resolution and it is an inclusive detector for the {pi}{sup 0} final state and exclusive for background such as 2 {pi}{sup 0}.

  6. 10 CFR 73.25 - Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... strategic special nuclear material in transit. 73.25 Section 73.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transit § 73.25 Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit. (a) To meet the general performance objective and requirements of § 73.20 an in-transit...

  7. 10 CFR 73.25 - Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... strategic special nuclear material in transit. 73.25 Section 73.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transit § 73.25 Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit. (a) To meet the general performance objective and requirements of § 73.20 an in-transit...

  8. 10 CFR 73.25 - Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... strategic special nuclear material in transit. 73.25 Section 73.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transit § 73.25 Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit. (a) To meet the general performance objective and requirements of § 73.20 an in-transit...

  9. 10 CFR 73.25 - Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... strategic special nuclear material in transit. 73.25 Section 73.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transit § 73.25 Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit. (a) To meet the general performance objective and requirements of § 73.20 an in-transit...

  10. 10 CFR 73.25 - Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... strategic special nuclear material in transit. 73.25 Section 73.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transit § 73.25 Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit. (a) To meet the general performance objective and requirements of § 73.20 an in-transit...

  11. Current status and prospects of nuclear physics research based on tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Alexandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavskiy, M. M.; Goncharova, L. A.; Gorbunov, S. A.; Kalinina, G. V.; Konovalova, N. S.; Okatyeva, N. M.; Pavlova, T. A.; Polukhina, N. G.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymirov, M. S.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Results of nuclear physics research made using track detectors are briefly reviewed. Advantages and prospects of the track detection technique in particle physics, neutrino physics, astrophysics and other fields are discussed on the example of the results of the search for direct origination of tau neutrino in a muon neutrino beam within the framework of the international experiment OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus) and works on search for superheavy nuclei in nature on base of their tracks in meteoritic olivine crystals. The spectra of superheavy elements in galactic cosmic rays are presented. Prospects of using the track detection technique in fundamental and applied research are reported.

  12. Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S

    2001-09-14

    We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone.

  13. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications. PMID:27649477

  14. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    SciTech Connect

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; d’Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-20

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  15. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-20

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  16. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    DOE PAGES

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; ...

    2016-09-20

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information.more » More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.« less

  17. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; D'Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  18. WE-D-213-00: Preparing for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medicine Physics Exams

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging physics

  19. Hans A. Bethe Prize Talk: Nuclear Physics, Stellar Explosions and the Abundance Evolution in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielemann, Friedrich-K.

    2008-04-01

    The computational modeling of astrophysical objects requires the combined treatment of different subfields of physics for a complete description: 1. hydrodynamics/hydrostatics for the modeling of mass flows, 2. energy generation and nucleosynthesis for understanding the composition changes due to nuclear reactions and the related energy release, 3. energy transport via conduction, radiation or possibly convection, and finally 4. thermodynamic properties of the matter involved, especially the equation of state which creates a direct relation between energy release and hydrodynamic response via pressure and entropy. Nuclear physics obviously plays an essential role for energy generation and nucleosynthesis, but can also enter radiation transport (e.g. in supernovae) via neutrino-nucleon/ nucleus interaction and clearly determines the equation of state at nuclear densities (e.g. in neutron stars). In this review we want to highlight the role and impact of nuclear physics and its uncertainties on the explosion mechanism and/or the ejected abundances of type Ia and type II supernovae, novae and X-ray bursts, plus their imprint witnessed in the so-called chemical evolution of galaxies. Special emphasis is given to the properties of proton- as well as neutron-rich exotic nuclei far from stability.

  20. Impact of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness on total homocysteine concentrations in European adolescents: The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Benser, Jasmin; Valtueña, Jara; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Breidenassel, Christina; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Ferrari, Marika; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Molnar, Denes; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Kafatos, Antony; Palacios, Gonzalo; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Stehle, Peter; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association of physical activity (PA), cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness with total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in European adolescents. The present study comprised 713 European adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.2 y (females 55.3%) from the multicenter HELENA cross-sectional study. PA was assessed through accelerometry, CVF by the 20-m shuttle run test, and body fat by skinfold thicknesses with the Slaughter equation. Plasma folate, cobalamin, and tHcy concentrations were measured. To examine the association of tHcy with PA, CVF, and fatness after controlling for a set of confounders including age, maturity, folate, cobalamin, creatinine, smoking, supplement use, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 genotype (CC 47%, CT 43%, TT 10%), bivariate correlations followed by multiple regression models were performed. In the bivariate correlation analysis, tHcy concentrations were slightly negatively correlated (p<0.05) with CVF in females (measured both by stages: r=-0.118 and by VO2max: r=-0.102) and positively with body mass index (r=0.100). However, daily time spent with moderate and vigorous PA showed a weak positive association with tHcy in females (p<0.05). tHcy concentrations showed a tendency to decrease with increasing CVF and increase with increasing BMI in female European adolescents. However, tHcy concentrations were positively associated with moderate and vigorous PA in female European adolescents.

  1. Nuclear-spin-independent short-range three-body physics in ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Noam; Shotan, Zav; Kokkelmans, Servaas; Khaykovich, Lev

    2010-09-03

    We investigate three-body recombination loss across a Feshbach resonance in a gas of ultracold 7Li atoms prepared in the absolute ground state and perform a comparison with previously reported results of a different nuclear-spin state [N. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 163202 (2009)]. We extend the previously reported universality in three-body recombination loss across a Feshbach resonance to the absolute ground state. We show that the positions and widths of recombination minima and Efimov resonances are identical for both states which indicates that the short-range physics is nuclear-spin independent.

  2. Developing the intervention material to increase physical activity levels of European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    Duvinage, K; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Zych, K; Mouratidou, T; Mesana Graffe, M I; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B

    2014-08-01

    Early childhood is an important period for adopting positive health-related behaviours. More than 95% of European preschool children attend kindergartens, making these settings ideal for the implementation of health promotion interventions. The ToyBox-intervention addressed preschool children, their parents/caregivers and teachers. The aim of the intervention was to improve four energy balance-related behaviours (i.e. healthy snacking, water consumption, physical activity and sedentary behaviour) by implementing a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). The intervention material was developed following the intervention mapping protocol, taking into account local and cultural differences among the intervention countries. The present paper focuses on the development of the physical activity component of the intervention. Parental involvement was addressed by providing parents/caregivers with two newsletters, two tip cards and a poster. Teachers received a handbook with guidance on environmental changes in the classroom, 26 physical education sessions and suggestions for fun, interactive classroom activities aiming at total class participation to increase preschoolers' physical activity levels. The ToyBox-intervention material was distributed according to a standard time frame. Teachers received their material prior to the start of the intervention and parents/caregivers received their material during the intervention when each energy balance-related behaviour was implemented.

  3. Can nuclear physics explain the anomaly observed in the internal pair creation in Beryllium-8 nucleus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xilin; Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the experimentalists in [Phys.Rev.Lett.116.042501(2016)] claimed seeing unexpected enhancement of the internal electron-positron pair (e+-e-) production in the large e+-e- relative angle region in the EM transition from the Beryllium-8 nucleus's second lowest 1+ state to its ground state. According to the experimentalists, the signal can be explained by a new neutral boson weighted around 17 MeV. This has stipulated significant interests in the particle physics community [e.g. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 071803 (2016)]. In this talk, I will present our latest study of the underlying nuclear physics, and emphasize several pieces of physics that haven't been well studied theoretically and not been included in the current experimental analysis, including the interferences between the dominant E1 and M1 transitions, two extra angular dependences, possible impact of E2 transition and its interferences with E1 and M1, and nuclear form factor. I will also point out that the previously measured on-shell photon production constrains the ratio between E1 and M1 contributions in the pair production, which however haven't been checked in the current experimental analysis. In the end, I will discuss the possibility of nuclear physics being the origin of the observed anomaly. The work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-FG02-97ER-41014.

  4. Relativistic nuclear physics at JINR: from the synchrophasotron to the NICA collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapov, N. N.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Lednitsky, R.; Matveev, V. A.; Meshkov, I. N.; Nikitin, V. A.; Potrebennikov, Yu K.; Sorin, A. S.; Trubnikov, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    We describe the development of relativistic nuclear physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) from the first experiments to our time and review the current state of the problem. The Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR and its status are described. Two goals of the project — experimental studies of dense nuclear (baryonic) matter and particle spin physics — are combined in the project based on a common experimental method: the investigation of collisions of nuclei at relativistic energies. The first problem is discussed here, and the second will be addressed in a dedicated publication. Such experiments were started at JINR in the 1970s at the Synchrophasotron proton synchrotron, and they are the main focus of the NICA project. Fundamental and applied research in other areas of science and technology that can be implemented at the NICA facility is also discussed. The accelerator facility under construction at JINR will allow performing experimental studies in particle physics at parameters and under experimental conditions that were previously inaccessible. With NICA, particle physics research in a previously inaccessible range of experimental parameters and conditions becomes possible: heavy-ion beams will be collided at center-of-mass energies in the range 4-11 GeV at luminosities up to 1027 cm-2 s-1. These studies will be supplemented with experiments using a beam of exracted nuclei incident on a fixed target. A short description is given of the detectors under construction for these studies.

  5. Beyond detection: nuclear physics with a webcam in an educational setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallone, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear physics affects our daily lives in such diverse fields from medicine to art. I believe three obstacles - limited time, lack of subject familiarity and thus comfort on the part of educators, and equipment expense - must be overcome to produce a nuclear-educated populace. Educators regularly use webcams to actively engage students in scientific discovery as evidenced by a literature search for the term webcam paired with topics such as astronomy, biology, and physics. Inspired by YouTube videos that demonstrate alpha particle detection by modified webcams, I searched for examples that go beyond simple detection with only one education-oriented result - the determination of the in-air range of alphas using a modified CCD camera. Custom-built, radiation-hardened CMOS detectors exist in high energy physics and for soft x-ray detection. Commercial CMOS cameras are used for direct imaging in electron microscopy. I demonstrate charged-particle spectrometry with a slightly modified CMOS-based webcam. When used with inexpensive sources of radiation and free software, the webcam charged-particle spectrometer presents educators with a simple, low-cost technique to include nuclear physics in science education.

  6. Nuclear physics research at the University of Richmond. Progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focused on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and SUNY, Stony Brook. The physics interests driving these efforts at CEBAF are in the study of the structure, interactions, and nuclear-medium modifications of mesons and baryons. This year, an extension of the experiment to measure the magnetic form factor of the neutron was approved by the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee Nine (PAC9) for beam at 6 GeV. The authors also submitted updates to PAC9 on the experiments to measure inclusive {eta} photoproduction in nuclei and electroproduction of the {Lambda}, {Lambda}*(1520), and f{sub 0}(975). In addition to these experiments, the authors collaborated on a proposal to measure rare radiative decays of the {phi} meson which was also approved by PAC9. Their contributions to the construction of the CLAS include the development of the drift-chamber gas system, drift-chamber software, and controls software. Major has been leading the effort in the construction of the gas system. In the last year, the Hall B gas shed was constructed and the installation of the gas system components built at the University of Richmond has begun. Over the last six years, the efforts in low-energy heavy-ion physics have decreased due to the change in focus to electromagnetic nuclear physics at CEBAF. Most of the heavy-ion work is completed and there are now new experiments planned. Included in this report are two papers resulting from collaborations on heavy-ion experiments.

  7. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1992--June 30 , 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.J.; Cohen, T.D.

    1993-07-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. The section on Hadrons in Nuclei reports research into the ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate decreases in nuclear matter, and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the Structure of Hadrons reports progress in understanding the structure of the nucleon. These results cover widely different approaches -- lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. Progress in Relativistic Nuclear Physics is reported on electromagnetic interactions in a relativistic bound state formalism, with applications to elastic electron scattering by deuterium, and on application of a two-body quasipotential equation to calculate the spectrum of mesons formed as bound states of a quark and antiquark. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium similar to that found from QCD sum rules. Calculations of three-body bound states with simple forms of relativistic dynamics are also discussed. The section on Heavy Ion Dynamics and Related Processes describes progress on the (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) problem and heavy-on dynamics. In particular, the sharp electrons observed in {beta}{sup +} irradiation of heavy atoms have recently been subsumed into the ``Composite Particle Scenario,`` generalizing the ``(e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}-Puzzle`` of the pairs from heavy ion collisions to the ``Sharp Lepton Problem.``

  8. Nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, U.; Reviol, W.; Kaczarowski, R.

    1995-08-01

    Several groups from the University of Notre Dame are playing an important role in developing the research program at ATLAS. One of their main interests is the study, in collaboration with ANL staff members, of the behavior of nuclei at high spin in the transitional region near A=180 (i.e. the Hg-Pt-Os nuclei), and A=100 (i.e. the Ru-Tc nuclei) with emphasis on shape coexistence and configuration mixing. This group has also participated in many other experiments performed with the BGO gamma-ray facility, especially in the investigation of superdeformation. The {gamma}-ray groups at ANL and Notre Dame have also had collaborative experiments at Gammasphere. The Notre Dame group has built, tested and extensively used a state-of-the-art plunger device for lifetime measurements in conjunction with the ATLAS {gamma}-ray facility. An adapted version of this device is now under construction at Notre Dame, under contract with ANL, for use at the Gammasphere facility.

  9. Phylogeny and species delimitations in European Dicranum (Dicranaceae, Bryophyta) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA.

    PubMed

    Lang, Annick S; Bocksberger, Gaëlle; Stech, Michael

    2015-11-01

    DNA sequences have been widely used for taxonomy, inferring phylogenetic relationships and identifying species boundaries. Several specific methods to define species delimitations based on molecular phylogenies have appeared recently, with the generalized mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) method being most popular. However, only few studies on land plants have been published so far and GMYC analyses of bryophytes are missing. Dicranum is a large genus of mosses whose (morpho-)species are partly ill-defined and frequently confused. To infer molecular species delimitations, we reconstructed phylogenetic trees based on five chloroplast markers and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences from 27 out of 30 species occurring in Europe. We applied the species delimitation methods GMYC and Poisson tree processes (PTP) in order to compare their discriminatory power with species boundaries inferred from the molecular phylogenetic reconstructions and with the morphological species concept. Phylogenetic circumscriptions were congruent with the morphological concept for 19 species, while eight species were molecularly not well delimited, mostly forming closely related species pairs. The automated species delimitation methods achieved similar results but tended to overestimate the number of potential species and exposed several incongruences between the morphological concept and inference from molecular phylogenetic reconstructions. It is concluded that GMYC and PTP methods potentially provide a useful and objective way of delimiting bryophyte species, but studies on further bryophyte data sets are necessary to infer whether incongruences might ensue from evolutionary processes and to test the suitability of these approaches.

  10. Manufacturing of calcium, lithium and molybdenum targets for use in nuclear physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheswa, N. Y.; Papka, P.; Buthelezi, E. Z.; Lieder, R. M.; Neveling, R.; Newman, R. T.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes methods used in the manufacturing of chemically reactive targets such as calcium ( natCa), lithium-6 ( 6Li) and molybdenum-97 ( 97Mo) for nuclear physics experiments at the iThemba LABS cyclotron facility (Faure, South Africa). Due to the chemical properties of these materials a suitable and controlled environment was established in order to minimize oxygen contamination of targets. Calcium was prepared by means of vacuum evaporation while lithium was cold rolled to a desired thickness. In the case of molybdenum, the metallic powder was melted under vacuum using an e-gun followed by cold rolling of the metal bead to a desired thickness. In addition, latest developments toward the establishment of a dedicated nuclear physics target laboratory are discussed.

  11. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  12. Tracking of airborne radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors by European networks.

    PubMed

    Masson, O; Baeza, A; Bieringer, J; Brudecki, K; Bucci, S; Cappai, M; Carvalho, F P; Connan, O; Cosma, C; Dalheimer, A; Didier, D; Depuydt, G; De Geer, L E; De Vismes, A; Gini, L; Groppi, F; Gudnason, K; Gurriaran, R; Hainz, D; Halldórsson, Ó; Hammond, D; Hanley, O; Holeý, K; Homoki, Zs; Ioannidou, A; Isajenko, K; Jankovic, M; Katzlberger, C; Kettunen, M; Kierepko, R; Kontro, R; Kwakman, P J M; Lecomte, M; Leon Vintro, L; Leppänen, A-P; Lind, B; Lujaniene, G; Mc Ginnity, P; Mc Mahon, C; Malá, H; Manenti, S; Manolopoulou, M; Mattila, A; Mauring, A; Mietelski, J W; Møller, B; Nielsen, S P; Nikolic, J; Overwater, R M W; Pálsson, S E; Papastefanou, C; Penev, I; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P; Ramebäck, H; Reis, M C; Ringer, W; Rodriguez, A; Rulík, P; Saey, P R J; Samsonov, V; Schlosser, C; Sgorbati, G; Silobritiene, B V; Söderström, C; Sogni, R; Solier, L; Sonck, M; Steinhauser, G; Steinkopff, T; Steinmann, P; Stoulos, S; Sýkora, I; Todorovic, D; Tooloutalaie, N; Tositti, L; Tschiersch, J; Ugron, A; Vagena, E; Vargas, A; Wershofen, H; Zhukova, O

    2011-09-15

    Radioactive emissions into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. Among the various radionuclides released, iodine-131 ((131)I) and cesium isotopes ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) were transported across the Pacific toward the North American continent and reached Europe despite dispersion and washout along the route of the contaminated air masses. In Europe, the first signs of the releases were detected 7 days later while the first peak of activity level was observed between March 28th and March 30th. Time variations over a 20-day period and spatial variations across more than 150 sampling locations in Europe made it possible to characterize the contaminated air masses. After the Chernobyl accident, only a few measurements of the gaseous (131)I fraction were conducted compared to the number of measurements for the particulate fraction. Several studies had already pointed out the importance of the gaseous (131)I and the large underestimation of the total (131)I airborne activity level, and subsequent calculations of inhalation dose, if neglected. The measurements made across Europe following the releases from the Fukushima NPP reactors have provided a significant amount of new data on the ratio of the gaseous (131)I fraction to total (131)I, both on a spatial scale and its temporal variation. It can be pointed out that during the Fukushima event, the (134)Cs to (137)Cs ratio proved to be different from that observed after the Chernobyl accident. The data set provided in this paper is the most comprehensive survey of the main relevant airborne radionuclides from the Fukushima reactors, measured across Europe. A rough estimate of the total (131)I inventory that has passed over Europe during this period was <1% of the released amount. According to the measurements, airborne activity levels remain of no concern for public health in Europe.

  13. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Vijay S; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-08-06

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework.

  14. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250

  15. Large-x connections of nuclear and high-energy physics

    DOE PAGES

    Accardi, Alberto

    2013-11-20

    I discuss how global QCD fits of parton distribution functions can make the somewhat separated fields of high-energy particle physics and lower energy hadronic and nuclear physics interact to the benefit of both. I review specific examples of this interplay from recent works of the CTEQ-Jefferson Lab collaboration, including hadron structure at large parton momentum and gauge boson production at colliders. Particular attention is devoted to quantifying theoretical uncertainties arising in the treatment of large partonic momentum contributions to deep inelastic scattering observables, and to discussing the experimental progress needed to reduce these.

  16. Status and prospects of the injection complex of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostenko, A. A.; Logatchev, P. V.; Meshkov, O. I.; Nikiforov, D. A.; Andrianov, A. V.; Levichev, A. E.; Emanov, F. A.; Astrelina, K. V.; Blinov, M. F.; Tsyganov, A. S.; Berkaev, D. E.; Koop, I. A.; Bolkhovityanov, D. Yu.; Dorokhov, V. L.

    2016-12-01

    This article presents the basic systems of the VEPP-5 injection complex of Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. The system of injection-extraction of electron and positron beams is described. The results of measurements of the bunch length made in the electron linear accelerator and the storage-cooler ring by a streak camera are provided. The development of assemblies of a prospective positron conversion system based on a liquid-lead target is also described.

  17. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1994-08-01

    This renewal proposal requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past three years we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons at CEBAF. We are part of the Hall-B Collaboration at CEBAF. We are co-spokespersons on two approved CEBAF experiments, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei, and we are preparing another, Nondiffractive Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson with Linearly Polarized Photons, for presentation to the next CEBAF PAC. We are part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger and a high-energy tagged polarized-photon beam for Hall B; some of the instrumentation for these projects is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Our recent measurements of pion scattering from {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He at LAMPF and of cluster knockout from few-body nuclei at NIKHEF have yielded very provocative results, showing the importance of the very light nuclei as a laboratory for quantifying important aspects of the nuclear many-body force. We look forward to expanding our studies of short-range forces in nuclei, particularly the very fight nuclei using electromagnetic probes and employing the extraordinary power of CEBAF and the CLAS.

  18. Degeneracies of particle and nuclear physics uncertainties in neutrinoless β β decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisi, E.; Rotunno, A. M.; Šimkovic, F.

    2015-11-01

    Theoretical estimates for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν β β ) in candidate nuclei are affected by both particle and nuclear physics uncertainties, which may complicate the interpretation of decay signals or limits. We study such uncertainties and their degeneracies in the following context: three 0 ν β β nuclei of great interest for large-scale experiments (Ge 76 , Te 130 , Xe 136 ), two representative particle physics mechanisms (light and heavy Majorana neutrino exchange), and a large set of nuclear matrix elements (NME), computed within the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). It turns out that the main theoretical uncertainties, associated with the effective axial coupling gA and with the nucleon-nucleon potential, can be parametrized in terms of NME rescaling factors, up to small residuals. From this parametrization, the following QRPA features emerge: (1) the NME dependence on gA is milder than quadratic, (2) in each of the two mechanisms, the relevant lepton number violating parameter is largely degenerate with the NME rescaling factors, and (3) the light and heavy neutrino exchange mechanisms are basically degenerate in the above three nuclei. We comment on the challenging theoretical and experimental improvements required to reduce such particle and nuclear physics uncertainties and their degeneracies.

  19. Divisible Atoms or None at All? Facing the European Contributions to Developments of Chemistry and Physics in China.

    PubMed

    Južnič, Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important Mid-European professor with more than six thousand academic descendants was the leading Slovenian erudite Jurij Vega. In broader sense, Vega's and other applied sciences of the south of Holy Roman Empire of German Nationality were connected with the mercury mine of Idrija during the last half of millennia. The Idrija Mine used to be one of the two top European producers of mercury, the basic substance of atomistic alchemists. Idrija Mine contributions to the history of techniques, their examinations and approbations is comparable to the other Mid-European achievements. The peculiarities of Idrija mining environment where people valued mostly the applicative knowhow is put into the limelight. The applicative abilities of Idrija employers affected the broader surroundings including Vega's Jesuit teachers in nearby Ljubljana and the phenomena of comparatively many China-Based Jesuits connected with the area of modern Slovenia. The Jesuits' Mid-European education and networks are put into the limelight, as well as their adopted Chinese networks used for their bridging between Eastern and Western Sciences. The Western origin of the scientific-technologic-industrial revolution(s) with causes for their apparent nonexistence in Chinese frames is discussed as another Eurocentric rhetorical racist question which presumes the scientific-technologic-industrial revolution(s) as something good, positive, and therefore predominantly European. The Chinese ways into progress without those troublemaking revolutions is focused for the first time in historiography from combined scientific, moral, religious, and economic viewpoints. The Chinese contributions to particular areas of research in chemistry and physics is focused to find out the preferences and most frequent stages of (European) paradigms involved in the Chinese networks. Some predictions of future interests of Chinese chemistry and physics are provided. The Chinese Holistic Confucian distrust in

  20. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Michael; Düllmann, Dirk; Rind, Ofer; Wong, Tony

    2012-12-01

    The International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) was held at New York University on 21- 25 May 2012. CHEP is a major series of international conferences for physicists and computing professionals from the High Energy and Nuclear Physics community and related scientific and technical fields. The CHEP conference provides a forum to exchange information on computing progress and needs for the community, and to review recent, ongoing and future activities. CHEP conferences are held at roughly 18-month intervals, alternating between Europe, Asia, the Americas and other parts of the world. Recent CHEP conferences have been held in Taipei, Taiwan (2010); Prague, Czech Republic (2009); Victoria, Canada (2007); Mumbai, India (2006); Interlaken, Switzerland (2004); San Diego, United States (2003); Beijing, China (2001); Padova, Italy (2000). CHEP 2012 was organized by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and co-sponsored by New York University. The organizational structure for CHEP consists of an International Advisory Committee (IAC) which sets the overall themes of the conference, a Program Organizing Committee (POC) that oversees the program content, and a Local Organizing Committee (LOC) that is responsible for local arrangements (lodging, transportation and social events) and conference logistics (registration, program scheduling, conference site selection and conference proceedings). There were over 500 attendees with a program that included plenary sessions of invited speakers, a number of parallel sessions comprising around 125 oral and 425 poster presentations and industrial exhibitions. We thank all the presenters for the excellent scientific content of their contributions to the conference. Conference tracks covered topics on Online Computing, Event Processing, Distributed Processing and Analysis on Grids and Clouds, Computer Facilities, Production Grids and Networking, Software Engineering, Data Stores and Databases and

  1. Applications of the Monte Carlo method in nuclear physics using the GEANT4 toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Moralles, Mauricio; Guimaraes, Carla C.; Menezes, Mario O.; Bonifacio, Daniel A. B.; Okuno, Emico; Guimaraes, Valdir; Murata, Helio M.; Bottaro, Marcio

    2009-06-03

    The capabilities of the personal computers allow the application of Monte Carlo methods to simulate very complex problems that involve the transport of particles through matter. Among the several codes commonly employed in nuclear physics problems, the GEANT4 has received great attention in the last years, mainly due to its flexibility and possibility to be improved by the users. Differently from other Monte Carlo codes, GEANT4 is a toolkit written in object oriented language (C++) that includes the mathematical engine of several physical processes, which are suitable to be employed in the transport of practically all types of particles and heavy ions. GEANT4 has also several tools to define materials, geometry, sources of radiation, beams of particles, electromagnetic fields, and graphical visualization of the experimental setup. After a brief description of the GEANT4 toolkit, this presentation reports investigations carried out by our group that involve simulations in the areas of dosimetry, nuclear instrumentation and medical physics. The physical processes available for photons, electrons, positrons and heavy ions were used in these simulations.

  2. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Özçakar, L; Franchignoni, F; Frontera, W; Negrini, S

    2013-04-01

    Case reports (CR) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side-effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. Yet, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AJPMR) and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, we discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well-written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  3. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ozçakar, Levent; Franchignoni, Franco; Negrini, Stefano; Frontera, Walter

    2013-02-01

    Case reports (CRs) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. However, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, the authors discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  4. ADRIANA project: Identification of research infrastructures for the SFR, within the frame of European industrial initiative for sustainable nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C.; Gastaldi, O.; Vala, L.; Gerbeth, G.; Homann, C.; Benoit, P.; Papin, J.; Girault, N.; Roelofs, F.; Bucenieks, I.; Paffumi, E.; Ciampichetti, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast neutron reactors have a large potential as sustainable energy source. In particular, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) with a closed fuel cycle and potential for minor actinide burning may allow minimization of volume and heat load of high level waste and provide improved use of natural resources (as compared to only 1% energy recovery in the current once-through fuel cycle, with Thermal Reactors, such as EPR). The coordinating action ADRIANA (Advanced Reactor Initiative And Network Arrangement) has been initiated to set up a network dedicated to the construction and operation of research infrastructures in support of developments for the European Industrial Initiative for sustainable nuclear fission. The Project sets these objectives for the following reactor systems and related technologies: Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), Lead Fast Reactor (LFR), Gas Fast Reactor (GFR, including very high temperature technologies), Instrumentation, diagnostics and experimental devices, Irradiation facilities and hot laboratories, Zero power reactors. Among the fast reactor systems, the sodium cooled reactor has the most comprehensive technological basis as result of the experience gained from worldwide operation of several experimental, prototype and commercial size reactors, since the forties (see Appendix I). This concept is currently considered as the reference, within the European strategy. Innovations are needed to further enhance safety, reduce capital cost and improve efficiency reliability and operability, making the Generation IV SFR an attractive option for electricity production. Currently, in France, a moderate (500 to 600 MWe) power demonstrator named ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) has been proposed and endorsed by EU. Presently, the reference configuration is a pool concept. General R and D needs have been identified and experimental facilities required to satisfy these needs have been listed for the following domains: material and

  5. The transition from silicon to gas detection media in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollacco, Emanuel C.

    2016-06-01

    Emerging radioactive beams and multi petawatt laser facilities are sturdily transforming our base concepts in instruments in nuclear physics. The changes are fuelled by studies of nuclei close to the drip-line or exotic reactions. This physics demands high luminosity, wide phase space cover with good resolution in energy, time, position and sampled waveform. By judiciously modifying the micro-world of the particle or space physics instruments (Double Sided Strip Si Detectors, Micro-Pattern Gas Amplifiers, microelectronics), we are on the path to initiate dream experiments. In the following a brief status in the domain is reported for selected instruments that highlight the present trends with silicon and the growing shift towards gas media for charged particle detection.

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in occupational, leisure-time, and transport related physical activity among European adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to socioeconomic inequalities in different domains of physical activity (PA) by European region. Methods Studies conducted between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified by a systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Psychinfo, Sportdiscus, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Service Abstracts. English-language peer-reviewed studies undertaken in the general population of adults (18–65 years) were classified by domain of PA (total, leisure-time including sport, occupational, active transport), indicator of socioeconomic position (education, income, occupation), and European region. Distributions of reported positive, negative, and null associations were evaluated. Results A total of 131 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in Scandinavia (n = 47). Leisure-time PA was the most frequently studied PA outcome (n = 112). Considerable differences in the direction of inequalities were seen for the different domains of PA. Most studies reported that those with high socioeconomic position were more physically active during leisure-time compared to those with low socioeconomic position (68% positive associations for total leisure-time PA, 76% for vigorous leisure-time PA). Occupational PA was more prevalent among the lower socioeconomic groups (63% negative associations). Socioeconomic differences in total PA and active transport PA did not show a consistent pattern (40% and 38% positive associations respectively). Some inequalities differed by European region or socioeconomic indicator, however these differences were not very pronounced. Conclusions The direction of socioeconomic inequalities in PA in Europe differed considerably by domain of PA. The contradictory results for total PA may partly be explained by contrasting socioeconomic patterns for leisure-time PA and occupational PA. PMID:22992350

  7. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  8. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The nuclear shield in the 'thirty-year war' of physicists against ignorant criticism of modern physical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizgin, Vladimir P.

    1999-12-01

    This article deals with the almost 'thirty-year war' led by physicists against the authorities' incompetent philosophical and ideological interference with science. The 'war' is shown to have been related to the history of Soviet nuclear weapons. Theoretical milestones of 20th century physics, to wit, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, suffered endless 'attacks on philosophical grounds'. The theories were proclaimed idealistic as well as unduly abstract and out of touch with practice; their authors and followers were labelled 'physical idealists', and later, in the 1940s and 1950s, even 'cosmopolitans without kith or kin'. Meanwhile, quantum and relativistic theories, as is widely known, had become the basis of nuclear physics and of the means of studying the atomic nucleus (charged particle accelerators, for instance). The two theories thus served, to a great extent, as a basis for both peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy, made possible by the discovery of uranium nuclear fission under the action of neutrons. In the first part, the article recounts how prominent physicists led the way to resisting philosophical and ideological pressure and standing up for relativity, quantum theories and nuclear physics, thus enabling the launch of the atomic project. The second part contains extensive material proving the point that physicists effectively used the 'nuclear shield' in the 1940s and 1950s against the 'philosophical-cosmopolitan' pressure, indeed saving physics from a tragic fate as that of biology at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) session in 1948.

  9. Nuclear physics and astrophysics. Progress report for period June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1993-06-01

    The authors report on recent progress of research at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. During the past year, the authors continued to work on Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis, the solar neutrino problem, the equation of state for dense matter, the quark-hadron phase transition, and the origin of gamma-ray bursts; and began studying the consequences of nuclear reaction rates in the presence of strong magnetic fields. They have shown that the primordial production of B and Be cannot explain recent detections of these elements in halo stars and have looked at spallation as the likely source of these elements. By looking at nucleosynthesis with inhomogeneous initial conditions, they concluded that the Universe must have been very smooth before nucleosynthesis. They have also constrained neutrino oscillations and primordial magnetic fields by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. On the solar neutrino problem, they have analyzed the implications of the SAGE and GALLEX experiments. They also showed that the presence of dibaryons in neutron stars depends weakly on uncertainties of nuclear equations of state. They have started to investigate the consequences of strong magnetic fields on nuclear reactions and implications for neutron star cooling and supernova nucleosynthesis.

  10. Nuclear Incompressibility and the Asymmetry Term: Implications for Astrophysics and Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, M.

    2010-06-01

    The compressional-mode giant resonances, the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR) and the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR), in various isotopes have been investigated using inelastic scattering of 400-MeV alpha-particles at extremely forward angles, including 0 deg. Recently, the centroid energies of the giant monopole resonance (GMR) in the Sn isotope region are found to be significantly lower than the theoretical predictions. In addition, based on the GMR results, the asymmetry-term in the nuclear incompressibility has been determined as K{sub t}au = -550+-100 MeV. Constraints on interactions employed in nuclear structure calculations are discussed on the basis of the experimentally values for K{sub i}nfinity and K{sub t}au. The combination of these two values gives stringent constraints on the interactions used for nuclear structure calculations and for formations of equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter. A short review of the current status of the experimental studies on the compressional-mode giant resonances is given, and a possible new experiment for astrophysics and physics with exotic nuclei is suggested.

  11. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP'09)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntorad, Jan; Lokajicek, Milos

    2010-11-01

    The 17th International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) was held on 21-27 March 2009 in Prague, Czech Republic. CHEP is a major series of international conferences for physicists and computing professionals from the worldwide High Energy and Nuclear Physics community, Computer Science, and Information Technology. The CHEP conference provides an international forum to exchange information on computing experience and needs for the community, and to review recent, ongoing and future activities. Recent conferences were held in Victoria, Canada 2007, Mumbai, India in 2006, Interlaken, Switzerland in 2004, San Diego, USA in 2003, Beijing, China in 2001, Padua, Italy in 2000. The CHEP'09 conference had 600 attendees with a program that included plenary sessions of invited oral presentations, a number of parallel sessions comprising 200 oral and 300 poster presentations, and an industrial exhibition. We thanks all the presenters, for the excellent scientific content of their contributions to the conference. Conference tracks covered topics on Online Computing, Event Processing, Software Components, Tools and Databases, Hardware and Computing Fabrics, Grid Middleware and Networking Technologies, Distributed Processing and Analysis and Collaborative Tools. The conference included excursions to Prague and other Czech cities and castles and a banquet held at the Zofin palace in Prague. The next CHEP conference will be held in Taipei, Taiwan on 18-22 October 2010. We would like thank the Ministry of Education Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and the EU ACEOLE project for the conference support, further to commercial sponsors, the International Advisory Committee, the Local Organizing Committee members representing the five collaborating Czech institutions Jan Gruntorad (co-chair), CESNET, z.s.p.o., Prague Andrej Kugler, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR v.v.i., Rez Rupert Leitner, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and

  12. Thermal and neutron-physical features of the nuclear reactor for a power pulsation plant for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, É. G.; Kaminskii, A. S.; Konyukhov, G. V.; Pavshuk, V. A.; Turbina, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    We have explored the possibility of creating small-size reactors with a high power output with the provision of thermal stability and nuclear safety under standard operating conditions and in emergency situations. The neutron-physical features of such a reactor have been considered and variants of its designs preserving the main principles and approaches of nuclear rocket engine technology are presented.

  13. Phylogeny and species delineation in European species of the genus Steganacarus (Acari, Oribatida) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.

  14. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bucerius, Jan; Hyafil, Fabien; Verberne, Hein J; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lindner, Oliver; Sciagra, Roberto; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Gimelli, Alessia; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as "strict guidelines" but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards "official" guidelines on

  15. Measuring physical activity-related environmental factors: reliability and predictive validity of the European environmental questionnaire ALPHA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A questionnaire to assess physical activity related environmental factors in the European population (a 49-item and an 11-item version) was created as part of the framework of the EU-funded project "Instruments for Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity and fitness (ALPHA)". This paper reports on the development and assessment of the questionnaire's test-retest stability, predictive validity, and applicability to European adults. Methods The first pilot test was conducted in Belgium, France and the UK. In total 190 adults completed both forms of the ALPHA questionnaire twice with a one-week interval. Physical activity was concurrently measured (i) by administration of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) by interview and (ii) by accelerometry (Actigraph™ device). After adaptations, the second field test took place in Belgium, the UK and Austria; 166 adults completed the adapted questionnaire at two time points, with minimum one-week interval. In both field studies intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and proportion of agreement were computed to assess the stability of the two test scores. Predictive validity was examined in the first field test by correlating the results of the questionnaires with physical activity data from accelerometry and long IPAQ-last 7 days. Results The reliability scores of the ALPHA questionnaire were moderate-to good in the first field testing (ICC range 0.66 - 0.86) and good in the second field testing (ICC range 0.71 - 0.87). The proportion of agreement for the ALPHA short increased significantly from the first (range 50 - 83%) to the second field testing (range 85 - 95%). Environmental scales from both versions of the ALPHA questionnaire were significantly associated with self-reported minutes of transport-related walking, and objectively measured low intensity physical activity levels, particularly in women. Both versions were easily administered with an average completion time

  16. An assessment of coupling algorithms for nuclear reactor core physics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Steven; Berrill, Mark; Clarno, Kevin; Pawlowski, Roger; Toth, Alex; Kelley, C.T.; Evans, Thomas; Philip, Bobby

    2016-04-15

    This paper evaluates the performance of multiphysics coupling algorithms applied to a light water nuclear reactor core simulation. The simulation couples the k-eigenvalue form of the neutron transport equation with heat conduction and subchannel flow equations. We compare Picard iteration (block Gauss–Seidel) to Anderson acceleration and multiple variants of preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK). The performance of the methods are evaluated over a range of energy group structures and core power levels. A novel physics-based approximation to a Jacobian-vector product has been developed to mitigate the impact of expensive on-line cross section processing steps. Numerical simulations demonstrating the efficiency of JFNK and Anderson acceleration relative to standard Picard iteration are performed on a 3D model of a nuclear fuel assembly. Both criticality (k-eigenvalue) and critical boron search problems are considered.

  17. Propagation of Cosmic Rays: Nuclear Physics in Cosmic-ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclei fraction in cosmic rays (CR) far exceeds the fraction of other CR species, such as antiprotons, electrons, and positrons. Thus the majority of information obtained from CR studies is based on interpretation of isotopic abundances using CR propagation models where the nuclear data and isotopic production cross sections in p- and alpha-induced reactions are the key elements. This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of CR and diffuse gamma-rays and dimsses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models. Merging with cosmology and particle physics, astrophysics of CR has become a very dynamic field with a large potential of breakthrough and discoveries in the near fume. Exploiting the data collected by the CR experiments to the fullest requires accurate nuclear cross sections.

  18. An assessment of coupling algorithms for nuclear reactor core physics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Hamilton, Steven; Berrill, Mark; Clarno, Kevin; ...

    2016-02-06

    This paper evaluates the performance of multiphysics coupling algorithms applied to a light water nuclear reactor core simulation. The simulation couples the k-eigenvalue form of the neutron transport equation with heat conduction and subchannel flow equations. We compare Picard iteration (block Gauss–Seidel) to Anderson acceleration and multiple variants of preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK). The performance of the methods are evaluated over a range of energy group structures and core power levels. A novel physics-based approximation to a Jacobian-vector product has been developed to mitigate the impact of expensive on-line cross section processing steps. Furthermore, numerical simulations demonstrating the efficiency ofmore » JFNK and Anderson acceleration relative to standard Picard iteration are performed on a 3D model of a nuclear fuel assembly. Both criticality (k-eigenvalue) and critical boron search problems are considered.« less

  19. An assessment of coupling algorithms for nuclear reactor core physics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Steven; Berrill, Mark; Clarno, Kevin; Pawlowski, Roger; Toth, Alex; Kelley, C. T.; Evans, Thomas; Philip, Bobby

    2016-04-01

    Here we evaluate the performance of multiphysics coupling algorithms applied to a light water nuclear reactor core simulation. The simulation couples the k-eigenvalue form of the neutron transport equation with heat conduction and subchannel flow equations. We compare Picard iteration (block Gauss–Seidel) to Anderson acceleration and multiple variants of preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK). The performance of the methods are evaluated over a range of energy group structures and core power levels. A novel physics-based approximation to a Jacobian-vector product was developed to mitigate the impact of expensive on-line cross section processing steps. Numerical simulations demonstrating the efficiency of JFNK and Anderson acceleration relative to standard Picard iteration are performed on a 3D model of a nuclear fuel assembly. Finally, both criticality (k-eigenvalue) and critical boron search problems are considered.

  20. Estimates for production of radioisotopes of medical interest at Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Bobeica, Mariana; Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan M.; Niculae, Dana; Balabanski, Dimiter L.

    2016-01-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of the production of radioisotopes of medical interest through photoneutron reactions using the high-brilliance γ-beam of the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility. The specific activity for three benchmark radioisotopes, 99Mo/99Tc, 225Ra/225Ac and 186Re, was obtained as a function of target geometry, irradiation time and γ-beam energy. Optimized conditions for the generation of these radioisotopes of medical interest with the ELI-NP γ-beams were discussed. We estimated that a saturation specific activity of the order of 1-2 mCi/g can be achieved for thin targets with about one gram of mass considering a γ-beam flux of 10^{11} photons/s. Based on these results, we suggest that the ELI-NP facility can provide a unique possibility for the production of radioisotopes in sufficient quantities for nuclear medicine research.

  1. Propagation of Cosmic Rays: Nuclear Physics in Cosmic-Ray Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2005-05-24

    The nuclei fraction in cosmic rays (CR) far exceeds the fraction of other CR species, such as antiprotons, electrons, and positrons. Thus the majority of information obtained from CR studies is based on interpretation of isotopic abundances using CR propagation models where the nuclear data and isotopic production cross sections in p- and {alpha}-induced reactions are the key elements. This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of CR and diffuse {gamma}-rays and discusses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models. Merging with cosmology and particle physics, astrophysics of CR has become a very dynamic field with a large potential of breakthrough and discoveries in the near future. Exploiting the data collected by the CR experiments to the fullest requires accurate nuclear cross sections.

  2. Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator In The Department Of Physics And Nuclear Engineering At West Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Don; Shannon, Mike; Kovanen, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; Bright, Kevin; Edwards, Ronald; Danon, Yaron; Moretti, Brian; Musk, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. The NSERC has created an experimental pyroelectric crystal accelerator program to enhance undergraduate education at USMA in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering. This program provides cadets with hands-on experience in designing their own experiments using an inexpensive tabletop accelerator. This device uses pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate gas ions to energies of ˜100 keV. Within the next year, cadets and faculty at USMA will use this device to create neutrons through the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion process, effectively creating a compact, portable neutron generator. The double crystal pyroelectric accelerator will also be used by students to investigate neutron, x-ray, and ion spectroscopy.

  3. An assessment of coupling algorithms for nuclear reactor core physics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Hamilton, Steven; Berrill, Mark; Clarno, Kevin; ...

    2016-04-01

    Here we evaluate the performance of multiphysics coupling algorithms applied to a light water nuclear reactor core simulation. The simulation couples the k-eigenvalue form of the neutron transport equation with heat conduction and subchannel flow equations. We compare Picard iteration (block Gauss–Seidel) to Anderson acceleration and multiple variants of preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK). The performance of the methods are evaluated over a range of energy group structures and core power levels. A novel physics-based approximation to a Jacobian-vector product was developed to mitigate the impact of expensive on-line cross section processing steps. Numerical simulations demonstrating the efficiency of JFNK andmore » Anderson acceleration relative to standard Picard iteration are performed on a 3D model of a nuclear fuel assembly. Finally, both criticality (k-eigenvalue) and critical boron search problems are considered.« less

  4. Construction of the Solenoid Spectrometer for Nuclear AstroPhysics (SSNAP) at Notre Dame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jacob; Bardayan, Dan; Blankstein, Drew; Hall, Matthew; Hall, Oscar; Kolata, James; O'Malley, Patrick; Becchetti, Frederick; Blackmon, Jeffery; Pain, Steven

    2016-09-01

    The study of nucleon transfer reactions gives information about many nuclei involved in astrophysical processes. The design and use of new detector systems improves our ability to accurately characterize these nuclei. The Solenoid Spectrometer for Nuclear AstroPhysics (SSNAP) is a new helical orbit spectrometer being designed at the University of Notre Dame to study transfer reactions with high-energy light ion beams from the FN tandem accelerator. SSNAP incorporates a series of position-sensitive silicon detectors to be set on-axis inside the second TwinSol solenoid. SSNAP will be sensitive to light ions produced in different reactions and the charged-particle decay products from the exotic nuclei produced. Results of initial testing and future plans with this detector system will be shown in this presentation. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.

  5. An assessment of coupling algorithms for nuclear reactor core physics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Steven; Berrill, Mark; Clarno, Kevin; Pawlowski, Roger; Toth, Alex; Kelley, C. T.; Evans, Thomas; Philip, Bobby

    2016-04-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of multiphysics coupling algorithms applied to a light water nuclear reactor core simulation. The simulation couples the k-eigenvalue form of the neutron transport equation with heat conduction and subchannel flow equations. We compare Picard iteration (block Gauss-Seidel) to Anderson acceleration and multiple variants of preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK). The performance of the methods are evaluated over a range of energy group structures and core power levels. A novel physics-based approximation to a Jacobian-vector product has been developed to mitigate the impact of expensive on-line cross section processing steps. Numerical simulations demonstrating the efficiency of JFNK and Anderson acceleration relative to standard Picard iteration are performed on a 3D model of a nuclear fuel assembly. Both criticality (k-eigenvalue) and critical boron search problems are considered.

  6. An assessment of coupling algorithms for nuclear reactor core physics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Steven; Berrill, Mark; Clarno, Kevin; Pawlowski, Roger; Toth, Alex; Kelley, C. T.; Evans, Thomas; Philip, Bobby

    2016-02-06

    This paper evaluates the performance of multiphysics coupling algorithms applied to a light water nuclear reactor core simulation. The simulation couples the k-eigenvalue form of the neutron transport equation with heat conduction and subchannel flow equations. We compare Picard iteration (block Gauss–Seidel) to Anderson acceleration and multiple variants of preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK). The performance of the methods are evaluated over a range of energy group structures and core power levels. A novel physics-based approximation to a Jacobian-vector product has been developed to mitigate the impact of expensive on-line cross section processing steps. Furthermore, numerical simulations demonstrating the efficiency of JFNK and Anderson acceleration relative to standard Picard iteration are performed on a 3D model of a nuclear fuel assembly. Both criticality (k-eigenvalue) and critical boron search problems are considered.

  7. BFS, a Legacy to the International Reactor Physics, Criticality Safety, and Nuclear Data Communities

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Anatoly Tsibulya; Yevgeniy Rozhikhin

    2012-03-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. Data provided by these two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades The Russian Federation has been a major contributor to both projects with the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) as the major contributor from the Russian Federation. Included in the benchmark specifications from the BFS facilities are 34 critical configurations from BFS-49, 61, 62, 73, 79, 81, 97, 99, and 101; spectral characteristics measurements from BFS-31, 42, 57, 59, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101; reactivity effects measurements from BFS-62-3A; reactivity coefficients and kinetics measurements from BFS-73; and reaction rate measurements from BFS-42, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101.

  8. Presented at the International Nuclear Physics Conference, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 20-26 August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-12-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of two critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments are reviewed. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He-C and He-N and He-O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as D-2 plus He-3 are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N(nu), is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of tau(n) = 890 + or - 4s (tau(1/2) = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N(nu) = 2.6 + or - 0.3 (1 sigma), providing a reasonable fit (1.3 sigma) to three families but making a fourth light (m(nu) less than or equal to 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedly unlikely (approx. greater than 4.7 sigma). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-baryon phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions.

  9. Physical and chemical characteristics of lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, B.C.; Boatner, L.A.

    1985-05-01

    Experimental determinations of the properties of lead-iron phosphate glasses pertinent to their application to the problem of permanently disposing of high-level nuclear wastes have been carried out. These investigations included studies of the composition and physical properties of nuclear waste glasses (NWG), as well as the effect of preparation conditions. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glasses were prepared by dissolving simulated US defense wastes or simulated commercial power reactor wastes in molten lead-iron phosphate melts at temperatures between 900 and 1050/sup 0/C. The measured physical and chemical properties of the nuclear waste glasses formed by cooling these melts and annealing included the following: (1) aqueous corrosion resistance as a function of the solution pH, solution temperature, and glass composition, (2) glass density, (3) thermal expansion coefficient, (4) glass transition temperature and softening point, (5) heat capacity, (6) critical cooling rate, (7) temperature for the maximum crystallization rate, (8) relative solubility of waste oxides in the glass melt, (9) reactions between the molten glass and the melting crucible (Pt, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/), and (10 studies of possible metal cannister materials. Experimental results for the lead-iron phosphate NWG are compared to available data for borosilicate NWG. Relative to borosilicate NWG, the lead-iron phosphate glasses have several distinct advantages which include a much lower aqueous corrosion rate, a lower preparation temperature, and the ability to immobilize many types of commercial and defense-related high-level radioactive wastes. 34 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. A program in medium energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1995-10-01

    This progress report and continuation proposal summarizes our achievements for the period from July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1995 and requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past year we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons, and we have successfully defended two new experimental proposals: Photofission of Actinide and Preactinide Nuclei at SAL and Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson from the Proton with Linearly Polarized Photons at CEBAF. (We are co-spokespersons on two previously approved Hall-B experiments at CEBAF, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei.) As part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger for Hall B; we report excellent progress on the focal-plane detector array that is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, as well as progress on our plans for instrumentation of a tagged polarized-photon beam using coherent bremsstrahlung. Also, we shall soon receive a large computer system (from the SSC) which will form the basis for our new Data Analysis Center, which, like the Nuclear Detector Laboratory, will be operated under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Finally, during the past year we have published six more papers on the results of our measurements of pion scattering at LAMPF and of electron scattering at NIKHEF and Bates, and we can report that nearly all of the remaining papers documenting this long series of measurements are in the pipeline.

  11. Public dialogue on physics and related technology after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, Mamiko

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the importance of bottom-up and two-way dialogue between scientists and the public has been recognized. In such dialogue, information provided must accurately match the public’s interest and ability regarding science and technology. We have started to investigate what people want to know about physics. Some were interested in energy security (a particular concern in Japan), but others were concerned about radioactivity in food and natural radiation background. The conversations revealed that physicists often give insufficient explanations of the biological effects of radiation and highlighted key points for physicists to make when talking with the public.

  12. Public dialogue on physics and related technology after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasao, Mamiko

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the importance of bottom-up and two-way dialogue between scientists and the public has been recognized. In such dialogue, information provided must accurately match the public's interest and ability regarding science and technology. We have started to investigate what people want to know about physics. Some were interested in energy security (a particular concern in Japan), but others were concerned about radioactivity in food and natural radiation background. The conversations revealed that physicists often give insufficient explanations of the biological effects of radiation and highlighted key points for physicists to make when talking with the public.

  13. Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear Fuel - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Anderson; James Tulenko; Bradley Rearden; Gary Harms

    2008-09-11

    The nuclear industry interest in advanced fuel and reactor design often drives towards fuel with uranium enrichments greater than 5 wt% 235U. Unfortunately, little data exists, in the form of reactor physics and criticality benchmarks, for uranium enrichments ranging between 5 and 10 wt% 235U. The primary purpose of this project is to provide benchmarks for fuel similar to what may be required for advanced light water reactors (LWRs). These experiments will ultimately provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial fuel facilities handling greater than 5 wt% 235U fuel.

  14. A health physics program for operation with failed nuclear fuel; Dealing with fleas

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, R.V.; Cooper, T.L.; Bray, L.G.; Goldin, E.M.; Knapp, P.J.; Lewis, M.N.; Rigby, W.F. )

    1987-07-01

    The San Onofre Unit 3 nuclear plant suffered fuel cladding failures during its first fuel cycle. As a result, primary systems and parts of the station were contaminated with fleas--tiny highly radioactive, and highly mobile fuel fragments. This article describes the special health physics practices needed to control flea contamination and to evaluate skin doses when personnel contaminations occur. Included are descriptions of a modified Eberline RO-2 ion chamber survey instrument with enhance flea detection capabilities and a laundry monitor that is used to check protective clothing for fleas.

  15. High Performance Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics: Target 2017

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2014-04-30

    In April 2014, NERSC, ASCR, and the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a review to characterize high performance computing (HPC) and storage requirements for NP research through 2017. This review is the 12th in a series of reviews held by NERSC and Office of Science program offices that began in 2009. It is the second for NP, and the final in the second round of reviews that covered the six Office of Science program offices. This report is the result of that review

  16. Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy nuclear physics. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1994-12-05

    Significant progress has been made in the current project year in the development of chiral soliton model and its applications to the electroweak structure of the nucleon and the Delta (1232) resonance. Further progress also has been made in the application of the perturbative QCD (pQCD) and the study of physics beyond the standard model. The postdoctoral associate and the graduate student working towards his Ph.D. degree have both made good progress. The review panel of the DOE has rated this program as a ``strong, high priority`` one. A total of fifteen research communications -- eight journal papers and, conference reports and seven other communications -- have been made during the project year so far. The principal investigator is a member of the Physics Advisory Committee of two nuclear accelerator facilities.

  17. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 6.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Bumbure, Lada; Cremers, Florian; Schmidt, Werner F O

    2016-01-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an update of Policy Statement No. 6 first published in 1994. The present version takes into account the European Union Parliament and Council Directive 2013/55/EU that amends Directive 2005/36/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications and the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. The European Commission Radiation Protection Report No. 174, Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert and the EFOMP Policy Statement No. 12.1, Recommendations on Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe 2014, are also taken into consideration. The EFOMP National Member Organisations are encouraged to update their Medical Physics registration schemes where these exist or to develop registration schemes taking into account the present version of this EFOMP Policy Statement (Policy Statement No. 6.1"Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists").

  18. REACTOR PHYSICS MODELING OF SPENT RESEARCH REACTOR FUEL FOR TECHNICAL NUCLEAR FORENSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.; Beals, D.; Sternat, M.

    2011-07-18

    Technical nuclear forensics (TNF) refers to the collection, analysis and evaluation of pre- and post-detonation radiological or nuclear materials, devices, and/or debris. TNF is an integral component, complementing traditional forensics and investigative work, to help enable the attribution of discovered radiological or nuclear material. Research is needed to improve the capabilities of TNF. One research area of interest is determining the isotopic signatures of research reactors. Research reactors are a potential source of both radiological and nuclear material. Research reactors are often the least safeguarded type of reactor; they vary greatly in size, fuel type, enrichment, power, and burn-up. Many research reactors are fueled with highly-enriched uranium (HEU), up to {approx}93% {sup 235}U, which could potentially be used as weapons material. All of them have significant amounts of radiological material with which a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) could be built. Therefore, the ability to attribute if material originated from or was produced in a specific research reactor is an important tool in providing for the security of the United States. Currently there are approximately 237 operating research reactors worldwide, another 12 are in temporary shutdown and 224 research reactors are reported as shut down. Little is currently known about the isotopic signatures of spent research reactor fuel. An effort is underway at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to analyze spent research reactor fuel to determine these signatures. Computer models, using reactor physics codes, are being compared to the measured analytes in the spent fuel. This allows for improving the reactor physics codes in modeling research reactors for the purpose of nuclear forensics. Currently the Oak Ridge Research reactor (ORR) is being modeled and fuel samples are being analyzed for comparison. Samples of an ORR spent fuel assembly were taken by SRNL for analytical and radiochemical

  19. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe

  20. Nuclear Physics and Radiobiology - Issues for Humans in Space and on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physics is playing a vital role in human biological applications, specifically in planned space missions, in hadron radiotherapy, and in low dose radiobiology. While seemingly disparate, these and other areas share a common need for the understanding of nuclear interactions in biological systems. Radiobiology continues to provide valuable information that will help develop better methods for using radiation in the treatment of disease as well as provide a scientific basis for radiation protection standards. NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. Protection from hazards of space radiation has been identified as one of the five NASA critical areas for human space flight. The cost effective design of spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposures from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions are very different from that of low earth orbit, and much needs to be done about their effects. However, it is clear that revolutionary technologies will need to be developed. Here on earth, particulate radiation treatment for cancer, such as proton radiotherapy, is playing an increasing important role, while the biological effectiveness remains less well understood than for x-rays and other forms of medical radiation treatments. Advanced imaging, dosimetric, Monte Carlo, and other techniques from nuclear physics are utilized to study the molecular basis of fractionation dependency and other tumor and normal tissue radiation responses, such as radiosensitivity. Moreover, advances developed by biological research efforts, such as the sequencing of the human genome, have opened new horizons for radiobiology. New techniques have made it possible to determine at the cellular / molecular level how living

  1. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP'07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, Randall; Tafirout, Reda; Thomson, Jana

    2007-07-01

    The 2007 International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) was held on 2-7 September 2007 in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. CHEP is a major series of international conferences for physicists and computing professionals from the High Energy and Nuclear Physics community, Computer Science and Information Technology. The CHEP conference provides an international forum to exchange information on computing experience and needs for the community, and to review recent, ongoing, and future activities. The CHEP'07 conference had close to 500 attendees with a program that included plenary sessions of invited oral presentations, a number of parallel sessions comprising oral and poster presentations, and an industrial exhibition. Conference tracks covered topics in Online Computing, Event Processing, Software Components, Tools and Databases, Software Tools and Information Systems, Computing Facilities, Production Grids and Networking, Grid Middleware and Tools, Distributed Data Analysis and Information Management and Collaborative Tools. The conference included a successful whale-watching excursion involving over 200 participants and a banquet at the Royal British Columbia Museum. The next CHEP conference will be held in Prague in March 2009. We would like thank the sponsors of the conference and the staff at the TRIUMF Laboratory and the University of Victoria who made the CHEP'07 a success. Randall Sobie and Reda Tafirout CHEP'07 Conference Chairs

  2. EDITORIAL: The European Summer School 'Low Temperature Plasma Physics: Basics and Applications' and 'Master Class: Biotechnical and Medical Applications'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böke, Marc; Winter, Jörg

    2006-06-01

    Low temperature plasma physics is the driving force of plasma technology which is considered to be one of the key technologies of the 21st century. Due to its central importance to many technologies there is a great demand for highly educated plasma scientists worldwide. Compared to its significance, education in low temperature plasma physics in Germany and other European countries is limited to a relatively small number of universities and institutions. In the last decade research groups located in France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland and the United Kingdom have enjoyed fruitful co-operation in founding a series of annual European summer schools with extraordinary success. These schools were organized by Daniel C Schram (Center for Plasma Physics and Radiation Technology (CPS), Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands), Jörg Winter and Marc Böke (both CoE for Plasma Science and Technology (CPST), Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany). The purpose of the schools is to give new graduate students in Europe a solid introduction in and concise overview of low temperature plasma physics and to serve as a forum for providing coherent education in plasma science. The schools have become a part of the curriculum in participating universities. Our experiences have shown that contact between students and teachers forms the basis of enduring interaction. The emphasis has been on fundamental education and the in-depth treatment of subjects such as plasma sources and production, thermal and low pressure plasmas, atomic processes, plasma kinetics, diagnostics, modelling and plasma-surface interactions. After the publication of eight lecture notes as a special section in Plasma Sources Science and Technology volume 9 issue 4 in 2000 we are now able to present four additional notes. Publishing the notes in 2000 was an experiment in itself and we found that the readers of Plasma Sources Science and Technology appreciated this type of

  3. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last ten months, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1992 Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including those at our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix. The highlight of the year has been the approval by the NIKHEF and CEBAF PACs of all three of the proposals we have submitted. These are {open_quotes}Recoil Polarization of the Neutron in the Reactions {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}) and {sup 4}He(e,e{prime}n),{close_quotes} NIKHEF Proposal 93-09 {open_quotes}Photoreactions on {sup 3}He,{close_quotes} CEBAF Proposal 93-044, and {open_quotes}Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei,{close_quotes} CEBAF Proposal 93-019. The NIKHEF experiment involves the use of the High-Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP) for detection and measurement of the polarization of the emitted neutron. We, together with our colleagues at Grenoble, are responsible for the design and construction of the wire chambers for this device; we have largely completed the design phase this part year. The CEBAF experiments involve the use of the Hall-B Photon Tagger for production of the monochromatic photon beam. We are responsible for the 432-scintillator focal-plane detector array for this device; again, most of the design work and some prototype testing have been completed this past year.

  4. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last ten months, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1992 Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including those at our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix. The highlight of the year has been the approval by the NIKHEF and CEBAF PACs of all three of the proposals we have submitted. These are ``Recoil Polarization of the Neutron in the Reactions {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}n) and {sup 4}He(e,e{prime}n),`` NIKHEF Proposal 93-09, ``Photoreactions on {sup 3}He,`` CEBAF Proposal 93-044, and ``Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei,`` CEBAF Proposal 93-019. The NIKHEF experiment involves the use of the High-Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter for detection and measurement of the polarization of the emitted neutron. We, together with our colleagues at Grenoble, are responsible for the design and construction of the wire chambers for this device; we have largely completed the design phase this past year. The CEBAF experiments involve the use of the Hall-B Photon Tagger for production of the monochromatic photon beam. We are responsible for the 432-scintillator focal-plane detector array for this device; again, most of the design work and some prototype testing have been completed this past year. In addition, we have continued to make progress on data analysis and publication of results of previous measurements at Bates, LAMPF, and NIKHEF.

  5. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 73 - Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... International Transport of Nuclear Material 1 E Appendix E to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1 1 See appendix C to part... II is special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance or irradiated fuel; and...

  6. The Source Physics Experiments (SPE): A Physics-Based Approach to Discriminate Low-Yield Nuclear Events (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Townsend, M.

    2013-12-01

    Discriminating low-yield nuclear explosions is one of the current challenges in the field of monitoring and verification. Work is currently underway in Nevada to address this challenge by conducting a series of experiments using a physics-based approach. This has been accomplished by using a multifaceted, multi-disciplinary approach that includes a range of activities, from characterizing the shallow subsurface to acquiring new explosion data both in the near field (< 100 m from the source) to the far field (> 100 m to 10 s km from the source). The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies, LLC, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and the Air Force Technical Applications Center. The goal of the SPE is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and to understand how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. To fully explore these problems, the SPE test series includes tests in both simple and complex geology cases. The current series is being conducted in a highly fractured granite body. This location was chosen, in part, because it was the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body and because generally the geology has been well characterized. In addition to historic data, high-resolution seismic reflection, cross-hole tomography, core samples, LIDAR, hyperspectral, and fracture mapping data have been acquired to further characterize and detect changes after each of the shot across the test bed. The complex geology series includes 7 planned shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival, Velocity of Detonation, down-hole accelerometers, surface accelerometers

  7. Final Report: 06-LW-013, Nuclear Physics the Monte Carlo Way

    SciTech Connect

    Ormand, W E

    2009-03-01

    This is document reports the progress and accomplishments achieved in 2006-2007 with LDRD funding under the proposal 06-LW-013, 'Nuclear Physics the Monte Carlo Way'. The project was a theoretical study to explore a novel approach to dealing with a persistent problem in Monte Carlo approaches to quantum many-body systems. The goal was to implement a solution to the notorious 'sign-problem', which if successful, would permit, for the first time, exact solutions to quantum many-body systems that cannot be addressed with other methods. In this document, we outline the progress and accomplishments achieved during FY2006-2007 with LDRD funding in the proposal 06-LW-013, 'Nuclear Physics the Monte Carlo Way'. This project was funded under the Lab Wide LDRD competition at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary objective of this project was to test the feasibility of implementing a novel approach to solving the generic quantum many-body problem, which is one of the most important problems being addressed in theoretical physics today. Instead of traditional methods based matrix diagonalization, this proposal focused a Monte Carlo method. The principal difficulty with Monte Carlo methods, is the so-called 'sign problem'. The sign problem, which will discussed in some detail later, is endemic to Monte Carlo approaches to the quantum many-body problem, and is the principal reason that they have not been completely successful in the past. Here, we outline our research in the 'shifted-contour method' applied the Auxiliary Field Monte Carlo (AFMC) method.

  8. Inverse Compton gamma-ray source for nuclear physics and related applications at the Duke FEL

    SciTech Connect

    O`Shea, P.G.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years the development of intense, short-wavelength FEL light sources has opened opportunities for the development new applications of high-energy Compton-backscattered photons. These applications range from medical imaging with X-ray photons to high-energy physics with {gamma}{gamma} colliders. In this paper we discuss the possibilities for nuclear physics studies using polarized Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays from the Duke storage-ring-driven UV-FEL. There are currently a number of projects that produce polarized {gamma}-rays for nuclear physics studies. All of these facilities operate by scattering conventional laser-light against electrons circulating in a storage ring. In our scheme, intra-cavity scattering of the UV-FEL light will produce a {gamma}-flux enhancement of approximately 10{sup 3} over existing sources. The Duke ring can operate at energies up to 1.2 GeV and can produce FEL photons up to 12.5 eV. We plan to generate {gamma}-rays up to 200 MeV in energy with an average flux in excess of 10{sup 7} /s/MeV, using a modest scattering beam of 10-mA average stored current. The {gamma}-ray energy may be tuned by varying the FEL wavelength or by adjusting the stored electron beam energy. Because of the intense flux, we can eliminate the need for photon energy tagging by collimating of the {gamma}-ray beam. We will discuss the characteristics of the device and its research opportunities.

  9. Nuclear DNA PCR-RFLPs that distinguish African and European honey bee groups of subspecies. II: Conversion of long PCR markers to standard PCR.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Alonso; Hall, H Glenn

    2002-08-01

    Nuclear DNA PCR-RFLPs previously found in amplifications of three long (> 5 kbp) anonymous regions of DNA were made analyzable using standard PCR procedures. RFLP analyses were simplified by restricting the amplifications to sections, within each locus, that contained most of the informative polymorphic sites. AluI digests of locus L-1 section 2 (L-1S2) revealed three suballeles of which one was African-specific (Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier) and one was east European-predominant (A. m. ligustica Spinola, A. m. carnica Pollman, and A. m. caucasica Gorbachev). Alleles found originally at locus L-2 with AvaI were determined in RFLP analysis of two sections, L-2S1int and L-2S2, resulting in two African-specific and two east European-predominant suballeles. Suballele identity was determined by the combination of banding patterns from both fragments. Polymorphisms revealed by HaeIII in locus L-2 were analyzed in amplifications and digests of L-2SM1int. an 830 bpfragment within L-2S1. Seven suballeles were found of which two were African-specific and three were east European-specific or predominant, including one suballele specific to the east European subspecies A. m. caucasica. In locus L-5, RFLPs were detected with HaeIII, DdeI, and SpeI. HaeIII polymorphisms were analyzed by amplification and digestion offragments L-5S1xt and L-5S1ter: Five suballeles were found of which three were African-specific and one east European-predominant. For DdeI, all five alleles originally found with long PCR could be identified in RFLP analyses of three sections. Two African-specific, one east European-specific, and one west European-predominant (A. m. mellifera L. and A. m. iberica Goetze) suballeles were found. A west European-predominant suballele was also found in RFLP analysis of L-5S3 with SpeI. Allele frequency data from Old World and US. populations are presented.

  10. Physical fitness levels of adolescents in the Ile de France region: comparisons with European standards and relevance for future cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Chapelot, Didier; Czaplicki, Grégory; Ulmer, Zekya

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to assess physical fitness in French schoolchildren in the region of Ile de France and to compare the results with European countries. The relationship between physical fitness and future health profile was of particular interest. Participants were 1851 French youth in the Ile de France region. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, speed, flexibility and speed agility were tested. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences between different variables. Spearman's rho correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between body mass index, socio-economic status and physical fitness. Boys were physically fitter than girls with the most significant difference being in agility. Subjects of normal weight have significantly better results than overweight or obese adolescents (+10·9% to 56·1%) (P<0·05). Subjects with high socio-economic status had better physical fitness than those with low socio-economic status (+0·5% to 9·4%) (P<0·05). Results also showed that the percentage of adolescents at increased future cardiovascular risk was 15·3% and 10·2% for boys and girls, respectively. Physical fitness in French schoolchildren living in the region of Ile de France is relatively low and unfavourable, especially in girls, when compared with existing European test results. In contrast, the adolescent boys are generally fitter and also above the average of the European data. Introducing a health promotion curriculum in the schools of Ile de France is suggested to improve health and physical fitness.

  11. The Dresden Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics - Status and first physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgner, Ch.

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, protected from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise using the same High-Purity Ge detector at several sites has shown that, with a combination of 45 m rock overburden, as can be found in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, and an active veto against the remaining muon flux, in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup a background level can be achieved that is similar to the deep underground scenario as in the Gran- Sasso underground laboratory, for instance. Recently, a muon background study and geodetic measurements were carried out by the REGARD group. It was estimated that the rock overburden at the place of the future ion accelerator is equivalent to 130 m of water. The maximum muon flux measured was 2.5 m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} s{sup -1}, in the direction of the tunnel entrance. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem accelerator with 250 μA up-charge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is in progress and far advanced. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the

  12. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  13. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  14. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

  15. Expert systems for the analysis of transients on nuclear reactors: SEXTANT, a general-purpose physical analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Barbet, N.; Dumas, M.; Mihelich, G.; Souchet, Y.; Thomas, J.B.

    1988-12-01

    Two expert systems for on-line analysis of nuclear reactor transients are reported. During a hypothetical crisis in a nuclear facility, a team of the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety must assess the risk to the local population. Expert systems are intended to assist in this analysis. The first deals with the availability of the safety systems of the plant (e.g., emergency core cooling system), depending on the functional state of the support systems. A second expert system will be built to study the physical transient of the reactor (mass and energy balance, pressure, flows). To do this, as in the development of the other expert systems, a physical analyzer is required. This is the aim of SEXTANT, which combines several knowledge bases concerning measurements, models, and qualitative behavior of the plant with a conjecture-refutation mechanism and a set of simplified models of the current physical state. A prototype is being assessed with integral test facility transients.

  16. Nuclear physics and astrophysics. Progress report, July 15, 1991--June 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated a variety of research topics on the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics during the past year. We have continued our study of dihyperon states in dense matter and have started to make a connection between their properties in the core of neutron stars with the ongoing experimental searches at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We started to build a scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts using the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars close to an active galactic nucleous. We have been reconsidering the constraints due to neutron star cooling rates on the equation of state for high density matter in the light, of recent findings which show that the faster direct Urca cooling process is possible for a range of nuclear compositions. We have developed a model for the formation of primordial magnetic fields due to the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition. Encouraged by the most recent observational developments, we have investigated the possible origin of the boron and beryllium abundances. We have greatly improved the calculations of the primordial abundances of these elements I>y augmenting the reaction networks and by updating the most recent experimental nuclear reaction rates. Our calculations have shown that the primordial abundances are much higher than previously thought but that the observed abundances cannot be explained by primordial sources alone. We have also studied the origin of the boron and beryllium abundances due to cosmic ray spallation. Finally, we have continued to address the solar neutrino problem by investigating the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the MSW solution for a full three-family treatment of MSW mixing.

  17. Development of a High- Brightness, Quasi- Monoenergetic Neutron Source at LLNL for Nuclear Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Anderson, S. G.; Bleuel, D.; Fitsos, P. J.; Gibson, D.; Hall, J. M.; Marsh, R.; Rusnak, B.

    2016-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing a high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic neutron source. The intensity of the neutron source is expected to be 1011 n/s/sr with energies between 7 MeV and 10 MeV at 5% bandwidth at 0-degrees. This energy region is important for the study of neutron-induced reactions, nuclear astrophysics, and nuclear structure. For example, for neutrons between 1 and 10 MeV, the capturing states are below the GDR in many nuclei and the dominant reactions are compound and direct capture. The intensity and energy selection of the source makes it appealing for measurements of sparse targets at specific energies. We will present an array of nuclear physics measurements that will benefit from this source. The source is also of interest to generating activated targets for decay-out studies or for target production for other reaction-based measurements, e.g. fusion-evaporation reactions. Other usage examples include practical applications for imaging of very dense objects such as machine parts. For this presentation, we will discuss our method to use (d,n) production reaction on deuterium in a windowless gas target system. This approach is required because of the large power of the 7 MeV, 300 μA deuteron beams. We will discuss our facility and its capabilities. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) is not reflected in decreased levels of nuclear diversity

    PubMed Central

    Provan, J.; Powell, W; Dewar, H.; Bryan, G.; Machray, G. C.; Waugh, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used the polymorphic chloroplast (cp) and nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) to analyse levels of cytoplasmic and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum). Primers designed from the complete chloroplast sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were used to amplify polymorphic products in a range of potato cultivars. Combining the data from seven polymorphic cpSSR loci gave 26 haplotypes, one of which (haplotype A) accounted for 151 out of the 178 individuals studied and corresponded to the T-type cytoplasm previously identified in cultivated potatoes using chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Phylogenetic and diversity analyses of the relationships between cpSSR haplotypes confirmed much higher levels of cytoplasmic diversity outwith the T-type group. Diversity levels at eight nuclear SSR loci, however, were not significantly different between cytoplasmic groups, suggesting a severe maternal bottleneck in the evolution of the modern cultivated potato. These results highlight the importance in quantifying levels of cytoplasmic as well as nuclear diversity and confirm the need for a change in breeding practices to increase levels of non-T-type cytoplasm in the cultivated gene pool, thus helping reduce problems associated with pollen sterility. This may be facilitated by germplasm analysis using cpSSRs, which will allow efficient selection of diverse cytoplasm donors.

  19. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Charles E.

    2016-12-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF) technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. We review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  20. AMS at the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering in Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Ivascu, M.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Marinescu, L.; Radulescu, M.; Nolte, E.

    2000-10-01

    A new beam line and injector deck for AMS measurements have been built at the 8 MV tandem accelerator of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Bucharest, Romania. The main components on the low-energy side are a high-current cesium sputter source, a 90° injection magnet and a pre-acceleration stage. At the high-energy side the beam line is achromatic, consisting of two 90° analysing magnets with mass energy product 120 MeV amu and a gas-filled ionization chamber. The system will be complete with a Wien filter and a multi-anode gas detector with time-of-flight discrimination. Presently, the AMS facility is undergoing tests and routine measurements are expected to start soon.

  1. The design, creation, and performance of the parallel multiprocessor nuclear physics data acquisition system, DAPHNE

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, L.C.; Moog, T.H.; Daly, R.T.; Videbaek, F.

    1986-01-01

    The ever increasing complexity of nuclear physics experiments places severe demands on computerized data acquisition systems. A natural evolution of these system, taking advantage of the independent nature of ''events'', is to use identical parallel microcomputers in a front end to simultaneously analyze separate events. Such a system has been developed at Argonne to serve the needs of the experimental program of ATLAS, a new superconducting heavy-ion accelerator and other on-going research. Using microcomputers based on the National Semiconductor 32016 microprocessor housed in a Multibus I cage, multi-VAX cpu power is obtained at a fraction of the cost of one VAX. The front end interfaces to a VAX 750 on which an extensive user friendly command language based on DCL resides. The whole system, known as DAPHNE, also provides the means to replay data using the same command language. Design concepts, data structures, performance, and experience to data are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Nuclear and Neutron Physics Tests of CKM Unitarity - Overview and Motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baessler, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix describes quark mixing and CP violation in the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics (SM). One of the most precise tests of the SM is the verification of the unitarity of the CKM matrix in the first row: the verification that the sum of the squared elements in that row adds to unity. In my talk, I will introduce the theoretical motivation for that test, and I will introduce the most recent studies in nuclear and neutron beta decay, and I will show how their results can be used, in several independent ways, to perform the unitarity test. Finally, I will discuss the status of this test, which is less satisfactory than in previous years.

  3. Physical and Mathematical Description of Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, J.K.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Valentine, T.E.

    1997-09-26

    This report describes all time and frequency analysis parameters measured with the new Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) processor with three input channels: (1) the 252Cf source ionization chamber (2) a detection channel; and (3) a second detection channel for active measurements. An intuitive and physical description of the various functions is given as well as a brief mathematical description and a brief description of how the data are acquired. If the fill five channel capability is used, the number of functions increases in number but not in type. The parameters provided by this new NWIS processor can be divided into two general classes: time analysis signatures including multiplicities and frequency analysis signatures. Data from measurements with an 18.75 kg highly enriched uranium (93.2 wt 0/0, 235U) metai casting for storage are presented to illustrate the various time and frequency analysis parameters.

  4. RADIATION HARDNESS / TOLERANCE OF SI SENSORS / DETECTORS FOR NUCLEAR AND HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    LI,Z.

    2002-09-09

    Silicon sensors, widely used in high energy and nuclear physics experiments, suffer severe radiation damage that leads to degradations in sensor performance. These degradations include significant increases in leakage current, bulk resistivity, and space charge concentration. The increase in space charge concentration is particularly damaging since it can significantly increase the sensor full depletion voltage, causing either breakdown if operated at high biases or charge collection loss if operated at lower biases than full depletion. Several strategies can be used to make Si detectors more radiation had tolerant to particle radiations. In this paper, the main radiation induced degradations in Si detectors will be reviewed. The details and specifics of the new engineering strategies: material/impurity/defect engineering (MIDE); device structure engineering (DSE); and device operational mode engineering (DOME) will be given.

  5. Setup for potential bias experiments on the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, J.; Pal, R.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.

    1999-12-01

    An experimental setup for studying the influence of the radial electric field on very low qa plasma on the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics tokamak is presented. A high current, high voltage pulsed power supply, using a semiconductor controlled rectifier (SCR) as a dc switch is developed and used to bias a tungsten electrode inserted inside the plasma. The electrode's exposed length and its position inside the plasma are controlled by a double bellows assembly to optimize the electrode-exposed length. We show that using the force commutation method to turn the SCR off to get the power pulse desired has good potential for carrying out similar kinds of studies, especially in a low budget small tokamak.

  6. In Appreciation Julian Schwinger: From Nuclear Physics and Quantum Electrodynamics to Source Theory and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Kimball A.

    2007-01-01

    Julian Schwinger’s influence on twentieth-century science is profound and pervasive. He is most famous for his renormalization theory of quantum electrodynamics, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1965 with Richard Feynman and Sin-itiro Tomonaga. This triumph undoubtedly was his most heroic work, but his legacy lives on chiefly through subtle and elegant work in classical electrodynamics, quantum variational principles, proper-time methods, quantum anomalies, dynamical mass generation, partial symmetry, and much more. Starting as just a boy, he rapidly became one of the preeminent nuclear physicists in the world in the late 1930s, led the theoretical development of radar technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during World War II, and soon after the war conquered quantum electrodynamics, becoming the leading quantum-field theorist for two decades, before taking a more iconoclastic route during the last quarter century of his life.

  7. Designing a Modern Low Cost Muon Detector to Teach Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Carly; Kotler, Julia

    2016-09-01

    In an effort to make it possible for small institutions to train students in nuclear physics, an attempt is made to design a low cost cosmic ray muon detector (perhaps under 600 dollars) capable of measuring flux vs. solid angle and muon lifetime. In order to expose students to current particle detection technologies, silicon photomultipliers will be coupled with plastic scintillator to provide the signals, and an Arduino, Raspberry Pi, or National Instruments device will interface with the detector. Once designed and built, prototypes of the detector will be used in outreach to K-12 students in the Allentown, PA area. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1507841.

  8. Physical and mathematical description of Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; Mullens, J.A.; Mattingly, J.K.

    1997-09-26

    This report describes all time and frequency analysis parameters measured with the new Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) processor with three input channels: (1) the {sup 252}Cf source ionization chamber; (2) a detection channel; and (3) a second detection channel for active measurements. An intuitive and physical description of the various functions is given as well as a brief mathematical description and a brief description of how the data are acquired. If the full five channel capability is used, the number of functions increases in number but not in type. The parameters provided by this new NWIS processor can be divided into two general classes: time analysis signatures including multiplicities and frequency analysis signatures. Data from measurements with an 18.75 kg highly enriched uranium (93.2 wt%, {sup 235}U) metal casting for storage are presented to illustrate the various time and frequency analysis parameters.

  9. Spectrum of shear modes in the neutron-star crust: Estimating the nuclear-physics uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tews, I.

    2017-01-01

    I construct a model of the inner crust of neutron stars using interactions from chiral effective field theory (EFT) in order to calculate its equation of state (EOS), shear properties, and the spectrum of crustal shear modes. I systematically study uncertainties associated with the nuclear physics input, the crust composition, and neutron entrainment, and estimate their impact on crustal shear properties and the shear-mode spectrum. I find that the uncertainties originate mainly in two sources: The neutron-matter EOS and neutron entrainment. I compare the spectrum of crustal shear modes to observed frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations in the afterglow of giant γ -ray bursts and find that all of these frequencies could be described within uncertainties, which are, however, at present too sizable to infer neutron-star properties from observations.

  10. A physical model describing the interaction of nuclear transport receptors with FG nucleoporin domain assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Raphael; Osmanović, Dino; Ehret, Severin; Araya Callis, Carolina; Frey, Steffen; Stewart, Murray; You, Changjiang; Görlich, Dirk; Hoogenboom, Bart W; Richter, Ralf P

    2016-01-01

    The permeability barrier of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) controls bulk nucleocytoplasmic exchange. It consists of nucleoporin domains rich in phenylalanine-glycine motifs (FG domains). As a bottom-up nanoscale model for the permeability barrier, we have used planar films produced with three different end-grafted FG domains, and quantitatively analyzed the binding of two different nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), NTF2 and Importin β, together with the concomitant film thickness changes. NTR binding caused only moderate changes in film thickness; the binding isotherms showed negative cooperativity and could all be mapped onto a single master curve. This universal NTR binding behavior – a key element for the transport selectivity of the NPC – was quantitatively reproduced by a physical model that treats FG domains as regular, flexible polymers, and NTRs as spherical colloids with a homogeneous surface, ignoring the detailed arrangement of interaction sites along FG domains and on the NTR surface. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14119.001 PMID:27058170

  11. TAMU-TRAP: an ion trap facility for Weak Interaction and Nuclear Physics Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shidling, Praveen

    2014-09-01

    In the low-energy regime, precision measurements of nuclear β-decay continue to be an efficient tool to search for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model and is the most abundant weak interaction phenomenon. The β-decay experiments carried out until now can be explained by a time reversal-invariant pure V-A interaction with maximal violation of parity. Nevertheless, experimental error bars still leave sufficient room for the possible existence of other types of weak interaction in beta decay. The primary goal of the TAMU-TRAP facility is to test the standard model for a possible admixture of a scalar type of interaction by measuring the β- ν correlation parameter, aβν, in T =2 super-allowed β-delayed proton emitters. The aβν correlation parameter can be inferred by measuring the proton energy spectrum. Low energy radioactive ion beam (RIB) will be delivered to the facility through the Heavy Ion guide, which is part of the T-REX(TAMU-Reaccelerated EXotics) upgrade project. The main components of the facility are an RFQ (cooler/buncher) and a Penning trap system. The measurement trap will be a large-bore cylindrical Penning trap with 90 mm radius, larger than any existing Penning trap. This geometry will allow for full radial containment of decay products of interest. The trap geometry is also suitable for a wide range of nuclear physics experiments. Additional goals for this system are mass and lifetime measurements. Presently, the TAMUTRAP setup is under construction and is being coupled to the T-REX upgrade project. Several parts of the beamline have been tested using an offline ion source. A brief overview of the TAMU-TRAP set-up, its current status, and the status of the T-REX upgrade project will be presented.

  12. Colorado School of Mines Low Energy Nuclear Physics Project technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, F.E.

    1990-01-05

    This report summarizes the activity and accomplishments of the Colorado School of Mines Low Energy Nuclear Physics project during the calendar year 1989. Many of the projects which were anticipated in the original grant proposal have been completed. Among these completed projects we include of study of the radiative capture of low energy protons on {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, and {sup 11}B. Preliminary measurements of the branching ratios and yields of these reactions were reported in last year's Technical Progress Report. These measurements are now complete and have been used to extract the respective astrophysical S-factors and the corresponding thermonuclear reactivities. While not complete, progress has been made in some of the other originally proposed studies. Among these include a fairly extensive study of the interaction of low energy deuterons with {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. In the course of this study we have made a solid observation of the Oppenheimer-Phillips effect in the D-{sup 6}Li system. Progress has been made in our study of the radiative capture of alpha particles by deuterons, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 7}Li but considerable work remains in these studies. In our earlier reports we noted the observation of d-d reactions during the bombardment of deuterated targets with energetic beams of protons, alpha particles, and other light-to-medium ions. We believe we now understand this phenomenon and feel it has some fairly significant consequences both for our studies and for those of other researchers. Our susceptibility to mob hysteria led us to invest a significant effort in cold nuclear fusion, both employing a fairly unique accelerator based approach at CSM and as one of the gamma ray diagnosticians on the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Cold Fusion Task Force.

  13. European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up

  14. UCTM2: An updated User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrion, O.; Boyer, B.; Derome, L.; Pignol, G.

    2016-06-01

    We developed a highly integrated and versatile electronic module to equip small nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes: the User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics (UCTM). It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. This new version significantly enhances the previous capabilities by providing two additional features: signal digitization and time measurements. The design, performances and a typical application are presented.

  15. Soil Water Retention as Indicator for Soil Physical Quality - Examples from Two SoilTrEC European Critical Zone Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseva, Svetla; Kercheva, Milena; Shishkov, Toma; Dimitrov, Emil; Nenov, Martin; Lair, Georg J.; Moraetis, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Soil water retention is of primary importance for majority of soil functions. The characteristics derived from Soil Water Retention Curve (SWRC) are directly related to soil structure and soil water regime and can be used as indicators for soil physical quality. The aim of this study is to present some parameters and relationships based on the SWRC data from the soil profiles characterising the European SoilTrEC Critical Zone Observatories Fuchsenbigl and Koiliaris. The studied soils are representative for highly productive soils managed as arable land in the frame of soil formation chronosequence at "Marchfeld" (Fuchsenbigl CZO), Austria and heavily impacted soils during centuries through intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification in context of climatic and lithological gradient at Koiliaris, Crete, Greece. Soil water retention at pF ≤ 2.52 was determined using the undisturbed soil cores (100 cm3 and 50 cm3) by a suction plate method. Water retention at pF = 4.2 was determined by a membrane press method and at pF ≥ 5.6 - by adsorption of water vapour at controlled relative humidity, both using ground soil samples. The soil physical quality parameter (S-parameter) was defined as the slope of the water retention curve at its inflection point (Dexter, 2006), determined with the obtained parameters of van Genuhten (1980) water retention equation. The S-parameter values were categorised to assess soil physical quality as follows: S < 0.020 very poor, 0.020 ≤ S < 0.035 poor, 0.035 ≤ S < 0.050 good, S ≥ 0.050 very good (Dexter, 2004). The results showed that most of the studied topsoil horizons have good physical quality according to both the S-parameter and the Plant-Available Water content (PAW), with the exception of the soils from croplands at CZO Fuxenbigl (F4, F5) which are with poor soil structure. The link between the S-parameter and the indicator of soil structure stability (water stable soil aggregates with size 1-3 mm) is not

  16. Physical Environmental Correlates of Domain-Specific Sedentary Behaviours across Five European Regions (the SPOTLIGHT Project)

    PubMed Central

    De Cocker, Katrien; Roda, Célina; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background The relation between neighbourhood environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviours among adults remains unclear. This study firstly aims to examine the association of perceived and objectively measured neighbourhood safety, aesthetics, destinations and functionality with transport-related, work-related and leisure-time sedentary behaviour. Secondly, the study aims to assess whether these associations are moderated by age, gender or educational level. Methods In 60 randomly sampled neighbourhoods from 5 urban regions in Europe (Ghent and suburbs, Paris and inner suburbs, Budapest and suburbs, the Randstad, and Greater London), a virtual audit with Google Street View was performed to assess environmental characteristics. A total of 5,205 adult inhabitants of these neighbourhoods reported socio-demographic characteristics, sedentary behaviours, and neighbourhood perceptions in an online survey. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted to examine associations between physical environmental neighbourhood factors and sedentary behaviours. Interaction terms were added to test the moderating role of individual-level socio-demographic variables. Results Lower levels of leisure-time sedentary behaviour (i.e. all leisure activities except television viewing and computer use) were observed among adults who perceived greater numbers of destinations such as supermarkets, recreational facilities, or restaurants in their neighbourhood, and among adults who lived in a neighbourhood with more objectively measured aesthetic features, such as trees, water areas or public parks. Lower levels of work-related sedentary behaviour were observed among adults who perceived less aesthetic features in their neighbourhood, and among adults who lived in a neighbourhood with less objectively measured destinations. Both age, gender and educational level moderated the associations between neighbourhood environmental factors and sedentary behaviours. Conclusion

  17. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-03-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation.

  18. Trends and Progress in Nuclear and Hadron Physics: A Straight or Winding Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vary, James P.; Adhikari, Lekha; Chen, Guangyao; Li, Meijian; Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Qian, Wenyang; Spence, John R.; Tang, Shuo; Tuchin, Kirill; Zhao, Xingbo

    2017-03-01

    Quantitative calculations of the properties of hadrons and nuclei, with assessed uncertainties, have emerged as competitive with experimental measurements in a number of major cases. We may well be entering an era where theoretical predictions are critical for experimental progress. Cross-fertilization between the fields of relativistic hadronic structure and non-relativistic nuclear structure is readily apparent. Non-perturbative renormalization methods such as similarity renormalization group and Okubo-Lee-Suzuki schemes as well as many-body methods such as coupled cluster, configuration interaction and lattice simulation methods are now employed and advancing in both major areas of physics. New algorithms to apply these approaches on supercomputers are shared among these areas of physics. The roads to success have intertwined with each community taking the lead at various times in the recent past. We briefly sketch these fascinating paths and comment on some symbiotic relationships. We also overview some recent results from the Hamiltonian basis light-front quantization approach.

  19. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-04-01

    Emissions of particulate matter (PM) from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of PM. The environmental effects of PM from shipping include negative impact on human health through increased concentrations of particles in many coastal areas and harbour cities and the climate impact. The PM emitted by ship engines consists of organic carbon (OC), elemental or black carbon (EC/BC), sulphate, inorganic compounds containing V, Ni, Ca, Zn and other metals and associated water. The chemical composition and physical properties of PM vary with type of fuel burned, type of engine and engine operation mode. While primary PM emissions of species like V, Ni and Ca are supposed to be determined by composition of fuel and lubricant oil, emissions of particulate OC, EC and sulphate are affected both by fuel quality and by operation mode of the engine. In this paper a number of parameters describing emission factors (EFs) of gases and of particulate matter from ship engines were investigated during 2 on-board measurement campaigns for 3 different engines and 3 different types of fuels. The measured EFs for PM mass were in the range 0.3 to 2.7 g/kg-fuel with lowest values for emissions from combustion of marine gas oil (MGO) and the highest for heavy fuel oil (HFO). Emission factors for particle numbers EF(PN) in the range 5 × 1015-1 × 1017 #/kg-fuel were found, the number concentration was dominated by particles in the ultrafine mode and ca. 2/3 of particles were non-volatile. The PM mass was dominated by particles in accumulation mode. Main metal elements in case of HFO exhaust PM were V, Ni, Fe, Ca and Zn, in case of MGO Ca, Zn and P. V and Ni were typical tracers of HFO while Ca, Zn and P are tracers of the lubricant oil. EC makes up 10-38% of the PM mass, there were not found large differences between HFO and MGO fuels. EC and ash elements make up 23-40% of the PM mass. Organic matter makes up 25-60% of the PM. The measured EF(OC) were 0.59 ± 0.15 g

  20. Workshop materials from the 2nd international training course on physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials, Module 13

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F. P.

    1980-04-01

    This course is intended for representatives of countries where nuclear power is being developed and whose responsibilities include the preparation of regulation and the design and evaluation of physical protection systems. This is the second of two volumes; the first volume is SAND-79-1090. (DLC)

  1. Management of different data types encountered in the analysis of nuclear physics experiments in the DALI development package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, D.

    1993-01-01

    Various modules are described for constructing, storing, and referencing different data types encountered in the analysis of voluminous data collected in nuclear physics experiments. These modules are available under the VMS operating system on VAX computers and have been designed to be easily installed in any application. The algorithms are fast, and the data structures are compact.

  2. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the... fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear material of... superseded material must be retained for three years after each change. (e) In-transit requirements...

  3. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the... fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear material of... superseded material must be retained for three years after each change. (e) In-transit requirements...

  4. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the... fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear material of... superseded material must be retained for three years after each change. (e) In-transit requirements...

  5. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the... fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear material of... superseded material must be retained for three years after each change. (e) In-transit requirements...

  6. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the... fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear material of... superseded material must be retained for three years after each change. (e) In-transit requirements...

  7. The cosmological {sup 7}Li problem from a nuclear physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Broggini, C.; Canton, L.; Fiorentini, G.; Villante, F.L. E-mail: luciano.canton@pd.infn.it E-mail: francesco.villante@lngs.infn.it

    2012-06-01

    The primordial abundance of {sup 7}Li as predicted by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is more than a factor 2 larger than what has been observed in metal-poor halo stars. Herein, we analyze the possibility that this discrepancy originates from incorrect assumptions about the nuclear reaction cross sections relevant for BBN. To do this, we introduce an efficient method to calculate the changes in the {sup 7}Li abundance produced by arbitrary (temperature dependent) modifications of the nuclear reaction rates. Then, considering that {sup 7}Li is mainly produced from {sup 7}Be via the electron capture process {sup 7}Be+e{sup −} → {sup 7}Li+ν{sub e}, we assess the impact of the various channels of {sup 7}Be destruction. Differently from previous analysis, we consider the role of unknown resonances by using a complete formalism which takes into account the effect of Coulomb and centrifugal barrier penetration and that does not rely on the use of the narrow-resonance approximation. As a result of this, the possibility of a nuclear physics solution to the {sup 7}Li problem is significantly suppressed. Given the present experimental and theoretical constraints, it is unlikely that the {sup 7}Be+n destruction rate is underestimated by the 2.5 factor required to solve the problem. We exclude, moreover, that resonant destruction in the channels {sup 7}Be+t and {sup 7}Be+{sup 3}He can explain the {sup 7}Li puzzle. New unknown resonances in {sup 7}Be+d and {sup 7}Be+α could potentially produce significant effects. Recent experimental results have ruled out such a possibility for {sup 7}Be+d. On the other hand, for the {sup 7}Be+α channel very favorable conditions are required. The possible existence of a partially suitable resonant level in {sup 11}C is studied in the framework of a coupled-channel model and the possibility of a direct measurement is considered.

  8. Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle Power Conversion Design, Physical Performance Estimation and Economic Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreades, Charalampos

    The combination of an increased demand for electricity for economic development in parallel with the widespread push for adoption of renewable energy sources and the trend toward liberalized markets has placed a tremendous amount of stress on generators, system operators, and consumers. Non-guaranteed cost recovery, intermittent capacity, and highly volatile market prices are all part of new electricity grids. In order to try and remediate some of these effects, this dissertation proposes and studies the design and performance, both physical and economic, of a novel power conversion system, the Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC). The NACC is a power conversion system that takes a conventional industrial frame type gas turbine, modifies it to accept external nuclear heat at 670°C, while also maintaining its ability to co-fire with natural gas to increase temperature and power output at a very quick ramp rate. The NACC addresses the above issues by allowing the generator to gain extra revenue through the provision of ancillary services in addition to energy payments, the grid operator to have a highly flexible source of capacity to back up intermittent renewable energy sources, and the consumer to possibly see less volatile electricity prices and a reduced probability of black/brown outs. This dissertation is split into six sections that delve into specific design and economic issues related to the NACC. The first section describes the basic design and modifications necessary to create a functional externally heated gas turbine, sets a baseline design based upon the GE 7FB, and estimates its physical performance under nominal conditions. The second section explores the off-nominal performance of the NACC and characterizes its startup and shutdown sequences, along with some of its safety measures. The third section deals with the power ramp rate estimation of the NACC, a key performance parameter in a renewable-heavy grid that needs flexible capacity. The

  9. PREFACE: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases Preface: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The 19th Europhysics Sectional Conference on the Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG-2008) took place in Granada (Spain) from 15 to 19 July 2008. The conference was mainly organized by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), with the collaboration and support of the University of Córdoba (UCO) and the Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT). It is already 35 years since the first ESCAMPIG in 1973. The first editions of ESCAMPIG were in consecutive years (1973 and 1974) but later on it became a biennial conference of the European Physical Society (EPS) initially focusing on the collisional and radiative atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. The successive ESCAMPIGs took place in Bratislava in 1976 (3rd), Essen in 1978 (4th), Dubrovnik in 1980 (5th) and so on until the last one organized in Granada in 2008 (19th), the first ESCAMPIG in Spain. A number of changes have taken place in the Granada edition of ESCAMPIG. First, the previous six topics that have remained unchanged for almost two decades (since 1990) have now been updated to become twelve new topics which, in the opinion of the International Scientific Committee (ISC), will enhance the opportunity for discussions and communication of new findings and developments in the field of low temperature plasmas. The new list of topics for ESCAMPIG is: • Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas • Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function • Physical basis of plasma chemistry • Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) • Plasma diagnostics • Plasma and dicharges theory and simulation • Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas • Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas • Low pressure plasma sources • High pressure plasma sources • Plasmas and gas flows • Laser produced plasmas Secondly, a new prize has been created, the `William Crookes' prize in Plasma Physics to be

  10. News Music: Here comes science that rocks Student trip: Two views of the future of CERN Classroom: Researchers can motivate pupils Appointment: AstraZeneca trust appoints new director Multimedia: Physics Education comes to YouTube Competition: Students compete in European Union Science Olympiad 2010 Physics roadshow: Pupils see wonders of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    Music: Here comes science that rocks Student trip: Two views of the future of CERN Classroom: Researchers can motivate pupils Appointment: AstraZeneca trust appoints new director Multimedia: Physics Education comes to YouTube Competition: Students compete in European Union Science Olympiad 2010 Physics roadshow: Pupils see wonders of physics

  11. News Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

  12. Theoretical nuclear physics: Final report for period February 1, 1984 to January 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Rost, E.; Kunz, P.D.

    1987-01-23

    Nuclear theory at the University of Colorado emphasizes the study of nuclear structure through the use of nuclear reactions. Recent efforts have been focussed on the role of relativistic models in nucleon-nucleus scattering and reactions. Further work delves into the underlying bases of the reaction theory itself.

  13. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density ˜3-5×1010 cm-3 and temperature ˜7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  14. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: construction and its plasma aspects.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis; Chowdhuri, Manis

    2010-07-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density approximately 3-5x10(10) cm(-3) and temperature approximately 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  15. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx}3-5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} and temperature {approx}7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  16. Particle physics models for the 17 MeV anomaly in beryllium nuclear decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Fornal, Bartosz; Galon, Iftah; Gardner, Susan; Smolinsky, Jordan; Tait, Tim M. P.; Tanedo, Philip

    2017-02-01

    The 6.8 σ anomaly in excited Be 8 nuclear decays via internal pair creation is fit well by a new particle interpretation. In a previous analysis, we showed that a 17 MeV protophobic gauge boson provides a particle physics explanation of the anomaly consistent with all existing constraints. Here we begin with a review of the physics of internal pair creation in Be 8 decays and the characteristics of the observed anomaly. To develop its particle interpretation, we provide an effective operator analysis for excited Be 8 decays to particles with a variety of spins and parities and show that these considerations exclude simple models with scalar particles. We discuss the required couplings for a gauge boson to give the observed signal, highlighting the significant dependence on the precise mass of the boson and isospin mixing and breaking effects. We present anomaly-free extensions of the Standard Model that contain protophobic gauge bosons with the desired couplings to explain the Be 8 anomaly. In the first model, the new force carrier is a U(1 ) B gauge boson that kinetically mixes with the photon; in the second model, it is a U (1 )B -L gauge boson with a similar kinetic mixing. In both cases, the models predict relatively large charged lepton couplings ˜0.001 that can resolve the discrepancy in the muon anomalous magnetic moment and are amenable to many experimental probes. The models also contain vectorlike leptons at the weak scale that may be accessible to near future LHC searches.

  17. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 73 - Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1 E Appendix E to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. E Appendix E to Part 73—Levels...

  18. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, H.; Bonacorsi, D.; Ueda, I.; Lyon, A.

    2015-12-01

    The International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) is a major series of international conferences intended to attract physicists and computing professionals to discuss on recent developments and trends in software and computing for their research communities. Experts from the high energy and nuclear physics, computer science, and information technology communities attend CHEP events. This conference series provides an international forum to exchange experiences and the needs of a wide community, and to present and discuss recent, ongoing, and future activities. At the beginning of the successful series of CHEP conferences in 1985, the latest developments in embedded systems, networking, vector and parallel processing were presented in Amsterdam. The software and computing ecosystem massively evolved since then, and along this path each CHEP event has marked a step further. A vibrant community of experts on a wide range of different high-energy and nuclear physics experiments, as well as technology explorer and industry contacts, attend and discuss the present and future challenges, and shape the future of an entire community. In such a rapidly evolving area, aiming to capture the state-of-the-art on software and computing through a collection of proceedings papers on a journal is a big challenge. Due to the large attendance, the final papers appear on the journal a few months after the conference is over. Additionally, the contributions often report about studies at very heterogeneous statuses, namely studies that are completed, or are just started, or yet to be done. It is not uncommon that by the time a specific paper appears on the journal some of the work is over a year old, or the investigation actually happened in different directions and with different methodologies than originally presented at the conference just a few months before. And by the time the proceedings appear in journal form, new ideas and explorations have

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    R.L. Carovillano 218 The Seventh European Regional Astronomy meeting dealt with almost every area of astronomy; coverage included solar ...in the 25- to found in areas as diverse as electro- 35-m range at the Comitato Nazionale optics and pharmacology. Energia Nucleare laboratory in...physics research has led to knowledge gained in one area (or param- many discoveries in the solar system and eter domain) to another area that lacks to

  20. WE-D-213-04: Preparing for Parts 2 & 3 of the ABR Nuclear Medicine Physics Exam

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, R.

    2015-06-15

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging physics