Science.gov

Sample records for european pharmacopoeia section

  1. [Electroanalytical methods in the European pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Kószeginé, S H; Török, I; Paál, T

    2001-10-01

    A brief survey on the electroanalytical test methods applied by the European Pharmacopoeia is presented by the authors. The frequency of the use of electrochemical tests and the main fields of their application in the monographs together with the trends of development are discussed. Paying a special attention to the measures taken by the pharmacopoeia to reduce the systematic and random error in each type of measurements, the authors are analysing the content and characteristics of texts describing the electrochemical methods. System suitability tests included in the different procedures and their efficacy in ensuring the criteria established in the validation studies carried out during elaboration of the test methods are also shown.

  2. [Microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia. Relevant for each medicinal product].

    PubMed

    Norwig, J

    2014-10-01

    According to the EU Directive 2001/83 the European Pharmacopoeia is the official Pharmacopoeia of the European Union. Therefore the European Pharmacopoeia is one of the legal pharmacopoeial compendia in Germany. Any licensed medicinal product on the German market complies with the requirements of the compendial monographs, if applicable. Because the general monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia on Dosage Forms, Substances for Pharmaceutical Use and Pharmaceutical Preparations refer to the microbiological and biological methods of the Pharmacopoeia, the methods are relevant for medicinal products, too. This article presents a rough summary of the microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia and is intended to be a stimulus for the reader to better understand the original compendia. The short description of the methods mentioned, here, is a summary from the Pharmacopoeia and the non-official collection of comments on the texts of the European Pharmacopoeia. PMID:25200487

  3. Calibration of replacement international standard and European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparation for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Sesardic, D; Winsnes, R; Rigsby, P; Gaines-Das, R

    2001-06-01

    We report here the characterisation of a preparation of diphtheria toxoid, adsorbed, and its calibration by twenty laboratories in fourteen countries in terms of the Second International Standard (I.S.) for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed, coded sample A (DIXA) using the established World Health Organisation (WHO)/European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur) challenge methods. The replacement standard preparation was found to have a unitage of 160 IU/ampoule on the basis of its calibration by in vivo bioassay. Stability was assessed within the collaborative study, and as part of candidate characterisation. Results suggest that the replacement standard will have satisfactory stability. This study also provided an opportunity to investigate serology as alternative to in vivo bioassay for potency testing of diphtheria vaccines. Six laboratories participated by performing serology according to in-house protocol. The calibration of the replacement standard in a mouse Vero cell assay gave a significantly higher results than in the established WHO/Ph Eur methods. Based on the results of this study and with the agreement of participants, the candidate standard was established as the Third International Standard for Diphtheria Toxoid, Adsorbed (coded 98/560) by the WHO Expert Committee of Biological Standardization in October 1999. The same preparation was also established as the second Ph Eur Biological Reference Preparation (Ph Eur BRP, batch no. 3) by the Steering Committee of the Biological Standardisation Programme of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and approved by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission.

  4. Compliance of scored tablet halves produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies with the new European Pharmacopoeia requirements.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghosh, Abeer Abu

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the weight uniformity of commonly divided tablets produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies and to evaluate the importance of both patient- and formulation-related variables on the splitting results. Eighty-four volunteers were enrolled in this study; their age, gender and occupation were documented in order, and the effect of these variables on the tablet splitting results was evaluated. Each volunteer was asked to divide six scored tablets of each product tested and was given clear instructions on how to conduct the splitting process. The split units were individually weighed and the RSD for each product was calculated as instructed in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur. 5.5). Only one scored tablet product passed the Ph. Eur. test of mass uniformity, while the remaining 13 products failed; this indicates that the splitting of these tablet products is not a reliable means for the provision of accurate doses to patients. Age, gender and occupation of volunteers were not found to be predictive of any variability noted in the splitting results. The only factors that were suspected to be linked to passing the splitting test, as per the European Pharmacopoeia, were the shape, friability and hardness of the tablets. As a result of this study, we believe that the practice of dividing tablets, which should provide therapeutic and economic benefits for the patient, may potentially cause significant problems, especially in drugs with low therapeutic indices. Tablets produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies should comply with the new Ph. Eur. splitting regulations to reduce this potential for complications.

  5. Collaborative study to establish the Low-molecular-mass heparin for assay--European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparation.

    PubMed

    Gray, E; Rigsby, P; Behr-Gross, M-E

    2004-12-01

    Thirty laboratories participated in a collaborative study to calibrate replacements for the 1st International Standard for Low Molecular Weight Heparin and the European Pharmacopoeia Low-molecular-mass heparin for assay Biological Reference Preparation. Two freeze-dried materials and one liquid preparation were included in the study. All three samples gave excellent intra- and inter-laboratory variations (majority of mean % geometric coefficient of variation < 10 %) when assayed against the 1st International Standard by both anti-Xa and anti-IIa assays. There were no major differences found between potency estimates using all methods and that obtained using European Pharmacopoeia method only. Overall, this study showed that the differences between the candidates are marginal. Based on the results of the study Sample B, 01/608 was established as the 2nd International Standard for Low Molecular Weight Heparin. Sample A, 01/592 and sample C, the liquid preparation, were established as replacements for the European Pharmacopoeia 'Low-molecular-mass heparin for assay' Biological Reference Preparation.

  6. Calibration of European pharmacopoeia biological reference preparation for diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed) batch 4.

    PubMed

    Stickings, P; Rigsby, P; Buchheit, K-H; Sesardic, D

    2009-10-01

    A collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) and the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) to establish replacement batches of the current World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for Diphtheria Vaccine (Adsorbed). Two candidates were assayed against the current 3rd IS/BRP batch 3 for Diphtheria Vaccine (Adsorbed) with an assigned potency of 160 IU/ampoule using established WHO/Ph. Eur. challenge methods in guinea pigs as described in the Ph. Eur. general chapter 2.7.6. Assay of diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed). Twenty-one laboratories (regulatory organisations and manufacturers) from 17 countries participated in the study. Two freeze-dried, stabilised diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed) preparations were included in the study: Preparation A (07/218) and Preparation B (07/216). As stocks of the 3rd IS were very low, the Diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed) BRP batch 3, which is identical to the 3rd IS but which was kept at the EDQM, was used for the calibration (coded Preparation C). The majority of participants performed 2 independent challenge tests. Five laboratories performed the intradermal challenge test, 16 laboratories performed the systemic challenge test. For Preparation A, the unweighted geometric mean potency estimate (with 95 % confidence limits) for all laboratories that provided valid results (n = 17) was 97.2 (89.5-105.6) IU/ampoule. For systemic challenge assays (n = 14) the unweighted geometric mean potency was 97.0 (88.1-106.7) IU/ampoule. The between-laboratory GCV was 17.4 % for all assays and 18.0 % for systemic challenge assays. There was no significant difference in estimates for intradermal or systemic challenge (p = 0.45). For Preparation B the unweighted geometric mean potency estimate (with 95 % confidence limits) for all laboratories that provided valid results (n

  7. Determination of somatropin charged variants by capillary zone electrophoresis - optimisation, verification and implementation of the European pharmacopoeia method.

    PubMed

    Storms, S M; Feltus, A; Barker, A R; Joly, M-A; Girard, M

    2009-03-01

    Measurement of somatropin charged variants by isoelectric focusing was replaced with capillary zone electrophoresis in the January 2006 European Pharmacopoeia Supplement 5.3, based on results from an interlaboratory collaborative study. Due to incompatibilities and method-robustness issues encountered prior to verification, a number of method parameters required optimisation. As the use of a diode array detector at 195 nm or 200 nm led to a loss of resolution, a variable wavelength detector using a 200 nm filter was employed. Improved injection repeatability was obtained by increasing the injection time and pressure, and changing the sample diluent from water to running buffer. Finally, definition of capillary pre-treatment and rinse procedures resulted in more consistent separations over time. Method verification data are presented demonstrating linearity, specificity, repeatability, intermediate precision, limit of quantitation, sample stability, solution stability, and robustness. Based on these experiments, several modifications to the current method have been recommended and incorporated into the European Pharmacopoeia to help improve method performance across laboratories globally.

  8. Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia monograph on derivative spectrophotometry method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Marković, Bojan; Ignjatović, Janko; Vujadinović, Mirjana; Savić, Vedrana; Vladimirov, Sote; Karljiković-Rajić, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia (EP) monograph on derivative spectrophotometry (DS) method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride was carried out on two generation of instruments (earlier GBC Cintra 20 and current technology TS Evolution 300). Instruments operate with different versions of Savitzky-Golay algorithm and modes of generating digital derivative spectra. For resolution power parameter, defined as the amplitude ratio A/B in DS method EP monograph, comparable results were obtained only with algorithm's parameters smoothing points (SP) 7 and the 2nd degree polynomial and those provided corresponding data with other two modes on TS Evolution 300 Medium digital indirect and Medium digital direct. Using quoted algorithm's parameters, the differences in percentages between the amplitude ratio A/B averages, were within accepted criteria (±3%) for assay of drug product for method transfer. The deviation of 1.76% for the degree of deacetylation assessment of chitosan hydrochloride, determined on two instruments, (amplitude (1)D202; the 2nd degree polynomial and SP 9 in Savitzky-Golay algorithm), was acceptable, since it was within allowed criteria (±2%) for assay deviation of drug substance, for method transfer in pharmaceutical analyses.

  9. A case study of preservation of semi-solid preparations using the European Pharmacopoeia test: comparative efficacy of antimicrobial agents in zinc gelatin.

    PubMed

    Favet, J; Chappuis, M L; Doelker, E

    2001-09-01

    The present study was undertaken with the aim of finding an alternative preservative system to methyl parahydroxybenzoate in zinc gelatin, which was described in the monographs of the Swiss Pharmacopoeia (until Ph. Helv. 8) and in previous editions of the German Pharmacopoeia (until DAB 7). This antimicrobial agent has now been withdrawn in the DAB, because of its potential allergy risks. As for the USP and DAB-DDR zinc gelatin preparations, they have always been devoid of any preservative agent, probably relying on the mild antimicrobial activity of zinc. A literature survey did not reveal if such an aqueous preparation containing the water-insoluble zinc oxide shows efficacious antimicrobial activity by itself. Thus, a comparative evaluation of differently preserved zinc gelatin preparations was performed using a test for the efficacy of antimicrobial preservation that has been modified with regard to the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) test to take into account the solid state of the preparations and the bactericidal effect of the zinc. Three zinc gelatin preparations were checked, either: (i), without any agent; or (ii), with 0.1% methyl parahydroxybenzoate; or (iii), with 0.5% phenoxyethanol, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent almost devoid of allergy risks. The three preparations behave quite differently, in particular with respect to fungi. All three preparations passed the modified EP test as far as bacteria are concerned. Even zinc gelatin without preservative is very effective, not only because of the mild antimicrobial activity of zinc (the soluble fraction of zinc oxide in the liquid phase of zinc gelatin was determined to be 13 microg/ml), but most probably because of the low water activity of the preparation (measured as around 0.81), as shown by the absence of growth of a zinc-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zinc gelatin preserved with methyl parahydroxybenzoate has a weak, although satisfactory, activity against Staphylococcus aureus

  10. Collaborative study for the establishment of two European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparations for serological potency testing of tetanus vaccines for veterinary use.

    PubMed

    Lensing, H H; Behr-Gross, M E; Daas, A; Spieser, J M

    2002-01-01

    The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) has organised an international collaborative study, divided into two phases, aimed at producing and establishing two suitable reference sera for serological potency testing of tetanus vaccines for veterinary use for batch consistency demonstration. In phase I pools of sera were produced by immunising guinea pigs and rabbits with tetanus toxoid using the immunisation schedule prescribed by the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) for potency testing of tenanus vaccines for veterinary use. Following aliquoting and freeze-drying, characterization of the materials by immunochemical and biological assays enabled us to conclude that the sera should be suitable reference materials in respect of in-vitro assay methods for Clostridium (C.) tetani. The candidate (c) Ph. Eur. Biological Reference Preparations (BRP) were calibrated by Toxin Binding Inhibition test (ToBI) in phase II of the study by a large group of laboratories, including both manufacturers and official medicines control laboratories (OMCL). The activity of the proposed reference sera was determined by comparison with the existing equine monovalent World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS). This study enabled us to provide a definitive value for the antitoxin activity of the reference preparations in respect of their anti-tetanus antibody content.

  11. [The pharmacopoeia of Father Morin in 1864].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    The "pharmacopoeia or collection of divine remedies found in the documents of an old rural priest after his death" is a publication of nearly 400 pages including a long list of diseases with their associated treatments, followed by several recipes for the day to day life (such as: how to preserve wine, how to produce Champagne's wine, recipes for filler paste, etc.). A last part, very unique, is dedicated to evil spells, i.e. to diseases that do not have natural explanations and for which Saint Benoit's medal works wonders, according to the author. This pharmacopoeia of 1864 is a typical example of "incoherent collection" mentioned by Tardieu in 1862 concerning clergy and pharmacy. It is, from that point of view, the archetype that pharmacists wanted to see disappearing after the law of germinal year XI (1803), but that persisted until the beginning of the XXth century: the illegal practice of pharmacy by priests and nuns. PMID:27281931

  12. [Alkalimetric titrations of salts of organic bases in the Pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Bezáková, Zelmíra; Stankovičová, Mária

    2013-12-01

    Modified methods - alkalimetry in ethanol 70% with a defined small volume of hydrochloric acid 0.01 mol/l added to the solution of the sample before the titration and alkalimetry in ethanol 70% or ethanol 96% alone with potentiometric end-point detection for the assay of halide salts of 11 organic N-bases has been investigated. The results were compared to those obtained by the method of the European Pharmacopoeia 7th Ed. (Ph. Eur. 7th Ed.). The Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. use for 8 investigated substances alkalimetry in alcohol 96 % with a defined small volume of hydrochloric acid 0.01 mol/l (5 ml) with potentiometric end-point detection: Cinchocaine hydrochloride, Codeine hydrochloride dihydrate, Ethylmorphine hydrochloride, Lidocaine hydrochloride, Papaverine hydrochloride, Pilocarpine hydrochloride, Quinine hydrochloride, Tetracaine hydrochloride. Our results revealed that the Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. method did not work for 5 drugs from this group: Cinchocaine hydrochloride, Ethylmorphine hydrochloride, Papaverine hydrochloride, Pilocarpine hydrochloride and Tetracaine hydrochloride. In the group of investigated substances we included also drugs with the character of weak organic bases for which Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. prescribed different methods for their assay: Thiamine hydrochloride and Pyridoxine hydrochloride - acidimetric titration in non-aqueous solvents with perchloric acid and Procaine hydrochloride - determination of primary aromatic amino-nitrogen (Ph. Eur. 7th Ed., chapter 2.5.8).

  13. Pliny’s pharmacopoeia or the Roman treat

    PubMed Central

    van Tellingen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Pliny’s pharmacopoeia is considered to be the cradle of pharmacotherapy. Its compilation, accessibility and distribution on a larger scale then ever before took care of the spread of knowledge, which contributed to its name and fame throughout the ages. References to a (nonspecified) cardiac diagnosis are discussed with special interest in glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and synergy in drug action. The importance of systems biology leading to a scientific-based herbal medicine is underlined as a major issue in future pharmacotherapy, bridging more than 21⁄2 thousand years of pharmacological intervention. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:118-20.) PMID:18604277

  14. Electronic pharmacopoeia: a missed opportunity for safe opioid prescribing information?

    PubMed

    Lapoint, Jeff; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Nelson, Lewis S

    2014-03-01

    Errors in prescribing of dangerous medications, such as extended release or long acting (ER/LA) opioid forlmulations, remain an important cause of patient harm. Prescribing errors often relate to the failure to note warnings regarding contraindications and drug interactions. Many prescribers utilize electronic pharmacopoeia (EP) to improve medication ordering. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of commonly used apps to provide accurate safety information about the boxed warning for ER/LA opioids. We evaluated a convenience sample of six popular EP apps available for the iPhone and an online reference for the presence of relevant safety warnings. We accessed the dosing information for each of six ER/LA medications and assessed for the presence of an easily identifiable indication that a boxed warning was present, even if the warning itself was not provided. The prominence of precautionary drug information presented to the user was assessed for each app. Provided information was classified based on the presence of the warning in the ordering pathway, located separately but within the prescribers view, or available in a separate screen of the drug information but non-highlighted. Each program provided a consistent level of warning information for each of the six ER/LA medications. Only 2/7 programs placed a warning in line with dosing information (level 1); 3/7 programs offered level 2 warning and 1/7 offered level 3 warning. One program made no mention of a boxed warning. Most EP apps isolate important safety warnings, and this represents a missed opportunity to improve prescribing practices. PMID:24081616

  15. Electronic pharmacopoeia: a missed opportunity for safe opioid prescribing information?

    PubMed

    Lapoint, Jeff; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Nelson, Lewis S

    2014-03-01

    Errors in prescribing of dangerous medications, such as extended release or long acting (ER/LA) opioid forlmulations, remain an important cause of patient harm. Prescribing errors often relate to the failure to note warnings regarding contraindications and drug interactions. Many prescribers utilize electronic pharmacopoeia (EP) to improve medication ordering. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of commonly used apps to provide accurate safety information about the boxed warning for ER/LA opioids. We evaluated a convenience sample of six popular EP apps available for the iPhone and an online reference for the presence of relevant safety warnings. We accessed the dosing information for each of six ER/LA medications and assessed for the presence of an easily identifiable indication that a boxed warning was present, even if the warning itself was not provided. The prominence of precautionary drug information presented to the user was assessed for each app. Provided information was classified based on the presence of the warning in the ordering pathway, located separately but within the prescribers view, or available in a separate screen of the drug information but non-highlighted. Each program provided a consistent level of warning information for each of the six ER/LA medications. Only 2/7 programs placed a warning in line with dosing information (level 1); 3/7 programs offered level 2 warning and 1/7 offered level 3 warning. One program made no mention of a boxed warning. Most EP apps isolate important safety warnings, and this represents a missed opportunity to improve prescribing practices.

  16. [The National Pharmacopoeia and the therapeutic status of flora in Mexican biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Hersch Martinez, P

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyses the transformation of the Mexican pharmacopoeia, focusing on the presence of medicinal plants. Reflecting diverse processes, editions of the pharmacopoeia show a progressive modification in its content and profile. A text written to shape a Mexican materia medica, recognising empirical knowledge by the inclusion of popularly used resources and involving clinicians as authors and recipients, was transformed into a mainly industrial publication with no clinical references. The origin and implications of this process are explored.

  17. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    PubMed

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM. PMID:19709941

  18. ILLICIT CIGARETTES AND HAND-ROLLED TOBACCO IN 18 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY

    PubMed Central

    JOOSSENS, Luk; LUGO, Alessandra; LA VECCHIA, Carlo; GILMORE, Anna B; CLANCY, Luke; GALLUS, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. Design Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. Setting 18 European countries. Participants For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. Main outcome measure A comprehensive measure called Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: 1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, 2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, 3) it had an inappropriate health warning, 4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. Results Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country, which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. Conclusion this study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe, and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. PMID:23233420

  19. Adiposity and immune-muscle crosstalk in South Asians &Europeans: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Samaan, M Constantine; Anand, Sonia S; Sharma, Arya M; Bonner, Ashley; Beyene, Joseph; Samjoo, Imtiaz; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    South Asians (SA) are at higher risk of cardiometabolic disorders than Europeans (EU), yet the potential determinants of this risk are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that 1) South Asians (SA) have greater muscle inflammation compared to Europeans (EU) at similar fat mass 2) differential regional adiposity in SA compared to EU is associated with enhanced muscle inflammation in SA. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary academic center in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study included 29 EU and 26 SA. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to measure muscle inflammation. Statistical analysis was done using a General Linear Model. Despite having similar macrophage content to EU, SA muscle had lower levels of chemokine CCL2 compared to EU at gene expression (β -1.099, SE β 0.521, p-value 0.04) and protein (0.84 ± 0.69 versus 1.10 ± 0.60, p-value 0.052) levels. SA had more pronounced abdominal and hepatic adiposity, with smaller Intramyocellular lipid particles compared to EU (0.26 ± 0.12 μm(2) versus 0.15 ± 0.06 μm(2), p-value 0.02). In conclusion, CCL2 downregulation in SA may be an attempt to protect muscle against macrophage infiltration, and defects in fatty acid partitioning to muscle may lead to the disproportionate adiposity and adverse cardiometabolic profile in SA. PMID:26455502

  20. Adiposity and immune-muscle crosstalk in South Asians & Europeans: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, M.Constantine; Anand, Sonia S.; Sharma, Arya M.; Bonner, Ashley; Beyene, Joseph; Samjoo, Imtiaz; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    South Asians (SA) are at higher risk of cardiometabolic disorders than Europeans (EU), yet the potential determinants of this risk are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that 1) South Asians (SA) have greater muscle inflammation compared to Europeans (EU) at similar fat mass 2) differential regional adiposity in SA compared to EU is associated with enhanced muscle inflammation in SA. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary academic center in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study included 29 EU and 26 SA. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to measure muscle inflammation. Statistical analysis was done using a General Linear Model. Despite having similar macrophage content to EU, SA muscle had lower levels of chemokine CCL2 compared to EU at gene expression (β -1.099, SE β 0.521, p-value 0.04) and protein (0.84 ± 0.69 versus 1.10 ± 0.60, p-value 0.052) levels. SA had more pronounced abdominal and hepatic adiposity, with smaller Intramyocellular lipid particles compared to EU (0.26 ± 0.12 μm2 versus 0.15 ± 0.06 μm2, p-value 0.02). In conclusion, CCL2 downregulation in SA may be an attempt to protect muscle against macrophage infiltration, and defects in fatty acid partitioning to muscle may lead to the disproportionate adiposity and adverse cardiometabolic profile in SA. PMID:26455502

  1. Rationale for the update of the European Pharmacopoeia general chapter 2.2.48. Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lynch, I R; Schuh, W; Kessler, W

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy technique is widely used for the identification and characterisation of materials in the laboratory environment and, increasingly, for off-line, at-line, in-line and online Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) applications. The wide range of currently available Raman technologies had led to the requirement to update the existing General Chapter 2.2.48. The purpose of this reflection paper is to explain the rationale behind the establishment of the new wavenumber scale standards and peak position tolerances resulting from a multi-site, multi-instrument, inter-laboratory study of standards and, in particular, to discuss the results obtained with microscopes (including multi-point calibration) by the PAT Working Party.

  2. European adults’ physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  3. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity.

  4. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  5. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  6. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look 'cool' were

  7. Charter on continuing medical education/continuing professional development approved by the UEMS Specialist Section and European Board of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Alahuhta, S; Mellin-Olsen, J; Blunnie, W P; Knape, J T A

    2007-06-01

    The mission of the Section and Board of Anaesthesiology of the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS/UEMS) is to harmonize training and medical practice in all European countries to continuously improve the quality of care. The need for continuous medical education in the field of anaesthesiology has long been recognized. However, specialty-based competencies are not the only requirements for successful medical practice. The need to acquire medical, managerial, ethical, social and personal communication skills on top of specialty-based competencies has developed into the principle of continuous professional development, which embraces both objectives. The Section and Board of Anaesthesiology of the EUMS/UEMS has approved a proposal of its Standing Committee on Continuous Medical Education/Continuous Professional Development to adopt the following charter on the subject.

  8. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian ethnomedical literature. PMID

  9. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers.

  10. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. PMID:25944551

  11. [Chemical tests with Marrubium species. Official data on Marubii herba in Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII].

    PubMed

    Telek, E; Tõth, L; Botz, L; Máthé, I

    1997-01-01

    About 40 species of the Marrubium genus (Lamiaceae) are known of which 2 species (M. vulgare L. and M. peregrinum L.) and one hybrid (M. x paniculatum Desr.) can be found as native plants in Hungary. The above-ground parts of M. vulgare L. are official in Hungarian Pharmacopoeia VII. Active substances in Marrubii herba are labdane-structured bitter materials. Although the presence of furanic labdane diterpenes in the plant is known, the pharmacopoeia gives only microscopic tests, qualitative tests (for other parts of the plant and foreign organic matter) for the bitter value of Marrubii herba. We have examined the main terpenoid substances isolated with column, gel and preparative layer chromatography. Structure elucidations were performed by means of UV, mass and NMR spectroscopy. We have compared the changes in terpenoid-type compounds (premarrubiin and marrubiin) in plants during the vegetation period; in different Marrubium species and in the different extractions of horehound by means of thin layer chromatography and densitometry. By reason of our results we propose qualitative and quantitative chemical tests for the paragraph of Marrubii herba in Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII.

  12. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

  13. General Practitioners Recognizing Alcohol Dependence: A Large Cross-Sectional Study in 6 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Vedova, Roberto Della; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Landsmane, Inga; Manthey, Jakob; Moreno-España, José; Pieper, Lars; Probst, Charlotte; Snikere, Sigita; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Voller, Fabio; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Although alcohol dependence causes marked mortality and disease burden in Europe, the treatment rate is low. Primary care could play a key role in reducing alcohol-attributable harm by screening, brief interventions, and initiating or referral to treatment. This study investigates identification of alcohol dependence in European primary care settings. METHODS Assessments from 13,003 general practitioners, and 9,098 interviews (8,476 joint number of interviewed patients with a physician’s assessment) were collected in 6 European countries. Alcohol dependence, comorbidities, and health service utilization were assessed by the general practitioner and independently using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and other structured interviews. Weighted regression analyses were used to compare the impact of influencing variables on both types of diagnoses. RESULTS The rate of patients being identified as alcohol dependent by the CIDI or a general practitioner was about equally high, but there was not a lot of overlap between cases identified. Alcohol-dependent patients identified by a physician were older, had higher rates of physicial comorbidity (liver disease, hypertension), and were socially more marginalized, whereas average consumption of alcohol and mental comorbidity were equally high in both groups. CONCLUSION General practitioners were able to identify alcohol dependence, but the cases they identified differed from cases identified using the CIDI. The role of the CIDI as the reference standard should be reexamined, as older alcohol-dependent patients with severe comorbidities seemed to be missed in this assessment. PMID:25583889

  14. [The gift of pharmacopoeias made by Mésaize to the Society of Pharmacists of Rouen].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier; Vettes, Jules

    2015-12-01

    Pierre-Grégoire Mésaize, a pharmacist of Rouen made an important gift to the Society of pharmacists of Rouen in 1831. 21 Books, mainly foreign pharmacopoeias, constituted this gift. Six were from Germany; five came from United Kingdom, three from Nederland, only two from France, and one from Belgium, one from Switzerland, one from Austria and one from Russia. This diversity of origins was quite informative about the quality of the content of pharmacists' libraries in Rouen at the beginning of the 19th century. Unfortunately these books could not be found nowadays in the Library of the Union of pharmacists of Seine-Maritime. PMID:26827548

  15. Psychological Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O.; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkinson, Kathryn; Colver, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. Design: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. Participants: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy, aged 8-12 years, identified from population-based…

  16. A cross-sectional study of biotechnology awareness and teaching in European high schools.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Heinzmann, Dominik; Faso, Carmen; Stupak, Martin; Arga, Kazim Yalçin; Hoerzer, Helen; Laizet, Yech'an; Leduchowska, Paulina; Silva, Nádia; Simková, Klára

    2010-12-31

    Undoubtedly, biotechnology has a tremendous impact on our daily lives. As a result of this and in parallel to the advancement of knowledge in this field of applied research, consumer awareness of the potential benefits and risks of this technology has steadily increased, leading to a thorough investigation of the public perception of biotechnology in the past years. Indeed, it has become clear that it is in the general interest of science and especially of applied research to inform the public of its advances. A promising next step is to strengthen biotechnology communication in scholastic institutions. In this paper, we investigate the perception of biotechnology in a specific target group, namely high-school students in the 16-20-year-old age range. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey on a total of 1410 students in six European countries to investigate students' perception, concern, scientific knowledge, and awareness. Our data revealed some unexpected patterns of acceptance and concern about biotechnology. Knowledge analysis indicated that pupils lack specific knowledge about biotechnological applications and their interest in biotechnology appeared to be linked to knowledge. Analysis of specific questions about teaching practices at schools suggests that a better targeted choice in media as vehicles for information together with selected speakers could be instrumental in increasing students' interest in science and more specifically in biotechnology. PMID:20178865

  17. A cross-sectional study of biotechnology awareness and teaching in European high schools.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Heinzmann, Dominik; Faso, Carmen; Stupak, Martin; Arga, Kazim Yalçin; Hoerzer, Helen; Laizet, Yech'an; Leduchowska, Paulina; Silva, Nádia; Simková, Klára

    2010-12-31

    Undoubtedly, biotechnology has a tremendous impact on our daily lives. As a result of this and in parallel to the advancement of knowledge in this field of applied research, consumer awareness of the potential benefits and risks of this technology has steadily increased, leading to a thorough investigation of the public perception of biotechnology in the past years. Indeed, it has become clear that it is in the general interest of science and especially of applied research to inform the public of its advances. A promising next step is to strengthen biotechnology communication in scholastic institutions. In this paper, we investigate the perception of biotechnology in a specific target group, namely high-school students in the 16-20-year-old age range. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey on a total of 1410 students in six European countries to investigate students' perception, concern, scientific knowledge, and awareness. Our data revealed some unexpected patterns of acceptance and concern about biotechnology. Knowledge analysis indicated that pupils lack specific knowledge about biotechnological applications and their interest in biotechnology appeared to be linked to knowledge. Analysis of specific questions about teaching practices at schools suggests that a better targeted choice in media as vehicles for information together with selected speakers could be instrumental in increasing students' interest in science and more specifically in biotechnology.

  18. Commercially available folic acid supplements and their compliance with the British Pharmacopoeia test for dissolution.

    PubMed

    Sculthorpe, N F; Davies, B; Ashton, T; Allison, S; McGuire, D N; Malhi, J S

    2001-09-01

    A recent report suggested that some folic acid preparations available in the United States failed to meet the specifications for dissolution specified by the US Pharmacopoeia (USP), of 70 per cent drug release in the first hour of testing. The Teratology Society recommends that women of childbearing age should take a daily supplement of 400 microg folic acid when they are trying to conceive, to reduce the risk of foetal neural tube defects. The consequence of this failure to meet the USP requirements may be that an inadequate dose of folate may be absorbed and thus the expected level of protection against neural tube defects not afforded. The purpose of the present study was to examine a number of brands of folic acid (400 microg), available commercially in the United Kingdom, for compliance with the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) test for dissolution. Ten tablets (or capsules) from each of 11 brands were tested using dissolution apparatus compliant with BP requirements, using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide as the dissolution medium. The results indicated that four of the brands failed to release 70 per cent of the nominal drug content in the first hour of test and thus did not comply with the test. Two of the seven brands that passed the test went on to release more than 150 per cent of the nominal 400 microg drug content. These results highlight the problems of dose uniformity and the potential health risks of slow dissolution and under-dosing in commercially available folic acid dosage forms.

  19. Mobility in Central European Late Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age: femoral cross-sectional geometry.

    PubMed

    Sládek, Vladimír; Berner, Margit; Sailer, Robert

    2006-07-01

    Some scholars explain the absence of settlements in the Bohemian and Moravian Late Eneolithic (Corded Ware archaeological culture) as a consequence of pastoral subsistence with a high degree of mobility. However, recent archaeological studies argued that the archaeological record of the Late Eneolithic in Central Europe exhibits evidence for sedentary subsistence with mixed agriculture, similar to the subsequent Early Bronze Age. Because the archaeological data do not allow us to address unambiguously the mobility pattern in these periods, we used cross-sectional analysis of the femoral midshaft to test mobility directly on the human skeletal record. The results of femoral midshaft geometry do not support a high degree of mobility in the Late Eneolithic in Central Europe. This conclusion is supported mainly by no significant differences in male groups between the Late Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age in mechanical robusticity and shape of the femoral midshaft, although Corded Ware males still exhibit the highest absolute mean values of the diaphyseal shape (I(A-P)/I(M-L)) ratio and antero-posterior second moment of area. However, Late Eneolithic females have significantly higher torsional and overall bending rigidity because of a significantly higher medio-lateral second moment of area. This finding cannot be directly linked with a higher degree of long-distance mobility for these females. A significant difference was also found in overall decrease of size parameters of the femoral midshaft cross section for one of the Early Bronze Age samples, the Wieselburger females. Since the decrease of size and mechanical robusticity for Wieselburger females does not correspond with the parameters of Early Bronze Age females, we can expect a mosaic pattern of changes during the Late Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age period, instead of a simple unidirectional (diachronic) change of the mechanical environment. PMID:16402366

  20. Participation in life situations of 8-12 year old children with cerebral palsy: cross sectional European study

    PubMed Central

    Fauconnier, Jérôme; Dickinson, Heather O; Beckung, Eva; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how involvement in life situations (participation) in children with cerebral palsy varies with type and severity of impairment and to investigate geographical variation in participation. Design Cross sectional study. Trained interviewers visited parents of children with cerebral palsy; multilevel multivariable regression related participation to impairments, pain, and sociodemographic characteristics. Setting Eight European regions with population registers of children with cerebral palsy; one further region recruited children from multiple sources. Participants 1174 children aged 8-12 with cerebral palsy randomly selected from the population registers, 743 (63%) joined in the study; the further region recruited 75 children. Main outcome measure Children’s participation assessed by the Life-H questionnaire covering 10 main areas of daily life. Scoring ignored adaptations or assistance required for participation. Results Children with pain and those with more severely impaired walking, fine motor skills, communication, and intellectual abilities had lower participation across most domains. Type of cerebral palsy and problems with feeding and vision were associated with lower participation for specific domains, but the sociodemographic factors examined were not. Impairment and pain accounted for up to a sixth of the variation in participation. Participation on all domains varied substantially between regions: children in east Denmark had consistently higher participation than children in other regions. For most participation domains, about a third of the unexplained variation could be ascribed to variation between regions and about two thirds to variation between individuals. Conclusions Participation in children with cerebral palsy should be assessed in clinical practice to guide intervention and assess its effect. Pain should be carefully assessed. Some European countries facilitate participation better than others, implying some countries

  1. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from the Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012) Special section: Selected papers from the Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezi, Emiliano; Leal, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012) was held from 15-18 May, 2012 in Seville, Spain. The event was organized by the Universidad de Sevilla with the support of the European Workgroup on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (EWG-MCTP). MCTP2012 followed two successful meetings, one held in Ghent (Belgium) in 2006 (Reynaert 2007) and one in Cardiff (UK) in 2009 (Spezi 2010). The recurrence of these workshops together with successful events held in parallel by McGill University in Montreal (Seuntjens et al 2012), show consolidated interest from the scientific community in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning. The workshop was attended by a total of 90 participants, mainly coming from a medical physics background. A total of 48 oral presentations and 15 posters were delivered in specific scientific sessions including dosimetry, code development, imaging, modelling of photon and electron radiation transport, external beam radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, brachitherapy and hadrontherapy. A copy of the programme is available on the workshop's website (www.mctp2012.com). In this special section of Physics in Medicine and Biology we report six papers that were selected following the journal's rigorous peer review procedure. These papers actually provide a good cross section of the areas of application of MC in treatment planning that were discussed at MCTP2012. Czarnecki and Zink (2013) and Wagner et al (2013) present the results of their work in small field dosimetry. Czarnecki and Zink (2013) studied field size and detector dependent correction factors for diodes and ion chambers within a clinical 6MV photon beam generated by a Siemens linear accelerator. Their modelling work based on the BEAMnrc/EGSnrc codes and experimental measurements revealed that unshielded diodes were the best choice for small field dosimetry because of their independence from the electron beam spot size and correction factor close to unity. Wagner et al (2013

  2. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from the Second European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2009) Special section: Selected papers from the Second European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezi, Emiliano

    2010-08-01

    Sixty years after the paper 'The Monte Carlo method' by N Metropolis and S Ulam in The Journal of the American Statistical Association (Metropolis and Ulam 1949), use of the most accurate algorithm for computer modelling of radiotherapy linear accelerators, radiation detectors and three dimensional patient dose was discussed in Wales (UK). The Second European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2009) was held at the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff. The event, organized by Velindre NHS Trust, Cardiff University and Cancer Research Wales, lasted two and a half days, during which leading experts and contributing authors presented and discussed the latest advances in the field of Monte Carlo treatment planning (MCTP). MCTP2009 was highly successful, judging from the number of participants which was in excess of 140. Of the attendees, 24% came from the UK, 46% from the rest of Europe, 12% from North America and 18% from the rest of the World. Fifty-three oral presentations and 24 posters were delivered in a total of 12 scientific sessions. MCTP2009 follows the success of previous similar initiatives (Verhaegen and Seuntjens 2005, Reynaert 2007, Verhaegen and Seuntjens 2008), and confirms the high level of interest in Monte Carlo technology for radiotherapy treatment planning. The 13 articles selected for this special section (following Physics in Medicine and Biology's usual rigorous peer-review procedure) give a good picture of the high quality of the work presented at MCTP2009. The book of abstracts can be downloaded from http://www.mctp2009.org. I wish to thank the IOP Medical Physics and Computational Physics Groups for their financial support, Elekta Ltd and Dosisoft for sponsoring MCTP2009, and leading manufacturers such as BrainLab, Nucletron and Varian for showcasing their latest MC-based radiotherapy solutions during a dedicated technical session. I am also very grateful to the eight invited speakers who kindly accepted to give keynote

  3. "Estuaries and coasts" CLIL* lesson plans in English and geology fieldtrip to Cornwall for students in European section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempelli, Nathalie; Voyer, Karine; Lebourgeois, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    When the European section was created in our high school we had to choose an overarching theme. After considering that we live both in the River Seine estuary and near the English Channel it became obvious that our theme should be "estuaries and coasts". We began the 2012-2013 school year with a day-trip around the River Seine estuary to introduce the theme. First we made a general landscape study from a viewpoint, then we discussed the history of the navigation on the Seine, of local farming on marshland and finally we focused on farmhouse architecture. To conclude we visited the natural reserve near the "Normandy Bridge". As an introduction our poster aims at presenting this part of Normandy. And then we would like to show some examples of our CLIL lesson plans about this chosen topic. The aim of a CLIL lesson is to create interactive speaking between students working in pairs or in groups. There are three different stages: - Warm-up activities - In-depth study: listening, reading, echoing, looking for information on the internet, making a slide show and doing an oral presentation, participating to a role play… - Assessment : using what has been learnt to answer questions Finally we wish to present our field trip to Cornwall. We have already done it twice before (in 2002 and 2004) and this year it is scheduled in May 2013 with our European section students. The aim of this trip is to study geology and botany in English in order to extend what we teach in our CLIL lessons about estuaries and coasts. It also helps promoting exchanges with British families and building intercultural knowledge and understanding. Our program includes for example, fossil hunting and studying the Jurassic cliffs in Charmouth, observing an old ocean crust in Coverack, visiting Saint-Mickael's mount, discovering a tin mine in Geevor, walking through the "Lost Gardens of Heligan" and thus discovering an example of this world-renowned restored English garden, and last but not least having

  4. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from the Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012) Special section: Selected papers from the Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezi, Emiliano; Leal, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012) was held from 15-18 May, 2012 in Seville, Spain. The event was organized by the Universidad de Sevilla with the support of the European Workgroup on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (EWG-MCTP). MCTP2012 followed two successful meetings, one held in Ghent (Belgium) in 2006 (Reynaert 2007) and one in Cardiff (UK) in 2009 (Spezi 2010). The recurrence of these workshops together with successful events held in parallel by McGill University in Montreal (Seuntjens et al 2012), show consolidated interest from the scientific community in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning. The workshop was attended by a total of 90 participants, mainly coming from a medical physics background. A total of 48 oral presentations and 15 posters were delivered in specific scientific sessions including dosimetry, code development, imaging, modelling of photon and electron radiation transport, external beam radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, brachitherapy and hadrontherapy. A copy of the programme is available on the workshop's website (www.mctp2012.com). In this special section of Physics in Medicine and Biology we report six papers that were selected following the journal's rigorous peer review procedure. These papers actually provide a good cross section of the areas of application of MC in treatment planning that were discussed at MCTP2012. Czarnecki and Zink (2013) and Wagner et al (2013) present the results of their work in small field dosimetry. Czarnecki and Zink (2013) studied field size and detector dependent correction factors for diodes and ion chambers within a clinical 6MV photon beam generated by a Siemens linear accelerator. Their modelling work based on the BEAMnrc/EGSnrc codes and experimental measurements revealed that unshielded diodes were the best choice for small field dosimetry because of their independence from the electron beam spot size and correction factor close to unity. Wagner et al (2013

  5. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  6. Social Network Type and Long-Term Condition Management Support: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Network types and characteristics have been linked to the capacity of inter-personal environments to mobilise and share resources. The aim of this paper is to examine personal network types in relation to long-term condition management in order to identify the properties of network types most likely to provide support for those with a long-term condition. Method A cross-sectional observational survey of people with type 2 diabetes using interviews and questionnaires was conducted between April and October 2013 in six European countries: Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Norway, United Kingdom, and Netherlands. 1862 people with predominantly lower socio-economic status were recruited from each country. We used k-means clustering analysis to derive the network types, and one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between network type socio-economic characteristics, self-management monitoring and skills, well-being, and network member work. Results Five network types of people with long-term conditions were identified: restricted, minimal family, family, weak ties, and diverse. Restricted network types represented those with the poorest self-management skills and were associated with limited support from social network members. Restricted networks were associated with poor indicators across self-management capacity, network support, and well-being. Diverse networks were associated with more enhanced self-management skills amongst those with a long-term condition and high level of emotional support. It was the three network types which had a large number of network members (diverse, weak ties, and family) where healthcare utilisation was most likely to correspond to existing health needs. Discussion Our findings suggest that type of increased social involvement is linked to greater self-management capacity and potentially lower formal health care costs indicating that diverse networks constitute the optimal

  7. Identification of marker compounds for Japanese Pharmacopoeia non-conforming jujube seeds from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Naohiro; Zaima, Kazumasa; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Hamato, Akane; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kang, Dong Hyo; Yokokura, Tsuguo; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Maruyama, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    Jujube seed is a crude drug defined as the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Miller var. spinosa Hu ex H.F. Chou (Rhamnaceae) in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP). Most of the jujube seed in the Japanese markets is imported from China, with the rest obtained from other Asian countries. Here we confirmed the botanical origins of jujube seeds from both China and Myanmar by a DNA sequencing analysis. We found that the botanical origins of the crude drugs from China and Myanmar were Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana, respectively. Although the jujube seed from China conforms to the JP, that from Myanmar does not. A method for discriminating jujube seeds from China and Myanmar using a chemical approach is thus desirable, and here we sought to identify a compound specific to Z. jujuba. Jujuboside A (1) was identified as a compound specific to Z. jujuba. To establish a purity test of Jujube Seed in the JP against Z. mauritiana, we fractionated the extract of Z. mauritiana seeds and identified frangufoline (2) and oleanolic acid (4) as the marker compounds specific to Z. mauritiana. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the latter compound was useful for testing by TLC analysis. The established TLC conditions were as follows: chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:EtOAc:HCOOH = 10:5:1; developing length, 7 cm; visualization, diluted sulfuric acid; R f value, 0.43 (oleanolic acid).

  8. PREFACE: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases Preface: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The 19th Europhysics Sectional Conference on the Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG-2008) took place in Granada (Spain) from 15 to 19 July 2008. The conference was mainly organized by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), with the collaboration and support of the University of Córdoba (UCO) and the Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT). It is already 35 years since the first ESCAMPIG in 1973. The first editions of ESCAMPIG were in consecutive years (1973 and 1974) but later on it became a biennial conference of the European Physical Society (EPS) initially focusing on the collisional and radiative atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. The successive ESCAMPIGs took place in Bratislava in 1976 (3rd), Essen in 1978 (4th), Dubrovnik in 1980 (5th) and so on until the last one organized in Granada in 2008 (19th), the first ESCAMPIG in Spain. A number of changes have taken place in the Granada edition of ESCAMPIG. First, the previous six topics that have remained unchanged for almost two decades (since 1990) have now been updated to become twelve new topics which, in the opinion of the International Scientific Committee (ISC), will enhance the opportunity for discussions and communication of new findings and developments in the field of low temperature plasmas. The new list of topics for ESCAMPIG is: • Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas • Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function • Physical basis of plasma chemistry • Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) • Plasma diagnostics • Plasma and dicharges theory and simulation • Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas • Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas • Low pressure plasma sources • High pressure plasma sources • Plasmas and gas flows • Laser produced plasmas Secondly, a new prize has been created, the `William Crookes' prize in Plasma Physics to be

  9. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2011-03-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the

  10. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007. PMID:17328817

  11. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  12. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Magdalena; van Poppel, Mireille; van Kamp, Irene; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Ellis, Naomi; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Smith, Graham; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; de Wit, Puck; van Mechelen, Willem; Gidlow, Christopher; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Maas, Jolanda

    2016-03-01

    Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts.

  13. Prevalence and management of hypertensive patients in clinical practice: Cross-sectional registry in five countries outside the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ragot, Stéphanie; Beneteau, Mathieu; Guillou-Bonnici, Françoise; Herpin, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate blood pressure (BP) control may be linked with poor adherence to guidelines by the treating physician. This study aimed at assessing the rates of controlled hypertension as per the 2009 Reappraisal of the 2007 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension (ESC/ESH) guidelines in 2185 hypertensive adults across five countries (Algeria, Pakistan, Ukraine, Egypt and Venezuela). The rates of controlled hypertension according to physician perception, type of therapy and risk factors were evaluated. Overall, 40% of patients had controlled hypertension according to the guidelines. A marked divergence in the rates of controlled hypertension as assessed by physicians and guidelines was observed (72% vs 40%). The presence of high/very high risks was linked to poor BP control. High salt intake [29%; odds ratio (OR) 9.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.72;14.69], treatment non-adherence (27%; OR 7.32, 95% CI 4.82;11.13), lack of understanding of the treatment's importance (25%; OR 4.95, 95% CI 3.16;7.75), comorbidity (13%) and depression (9%; OR 10.50, 95% CI 5.37;20.54) were major reasons for not achieving hypertension control. Addition of another drug was the most frequent medication change prescribed. Poor rates of BP control warrant repeated promotion of guidelines while identifying potential contributing factors and implementing strategies that re-establish BP control. PMID:26873621

  14. A comparison of trends in caesarean section rates in former communist (transition) countries and other European countries.

    PubMed

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V; Gorman, Dermot R; Leyland, Alastair H

    2013-06-01

    Caesarean section rates are rising across Europe, and concerns exist that increases are not clinically indicated. Societal, cultural and health system factors have been identified as influential. Former communist (transition) countries have experienced radical changes in these potential determinants, and we, therefore, hypothesized they may exhibit differing trends to non-transition countries. By analysing data from the WHO Europe Health for All Database, we find transition countries had a relatively low caesarean section rate in 2000 but have since experienced more rapid increases than other countries (average annual percentage change 7.9 vs. 2.4). PMID:23204216

  15. Environmental mercury exposure, semen quality and reproductive hormones in Greenlandic Inuit and European men: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mocevic, Emina; Specht, Ina O; Marott, Jacob L; Giwercman, Aleksander; Jönsson, Bo AG; Toft, Gunnar; Lundh, Thomas; Peter Bonde, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Several animal studies indicate that mercury is a male reproductive toxicant, but human studies are few and contradictory. We examined semen characteristics and serum levels of reproductive hormones in relation to environmental exposure to mercury. Blood and semen samples were collected from 529 male partners of pregnant women living in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine between May 2002 and February 2004. The median concentration of the total content of mercury in whole blood was 9.2 ng ml−1 in Greenland (0.2–385.8 ng ml−1), 1.0 ng ml−1 in Poland (0.2–6.4 ng ml−1) and 1.0 ng ml−1 in Ukraine (0.2–4.9 ng ml−1). We found a significantly positive association between the blood levels of mercury and serum concentration of inhibin B in men from Greenland (β=0.074, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.021 to 0.126) and in an analysis including men from all three regions (β=0.067, 95% CI=0.024 to 0.110). The association may be due to beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are contained in seafood and fish. No significant association (P>0.05) was found between blood concentrations of mercury and any of the other measured semen characteristics (semen volume, total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology and motility) and reproductive hormones (free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and LH×testosterone) in any region. In conclusion, the findings do not provide evidence that environmental mercury exposure in Greenlandic and European men with median whole blood concentration up to 10 ng ml−1 has adverse effects on biomarkers of male reproductive health. PMID:23223027

  16. Comparison of three officinal Chinese pharmacopoeia species of Glycyrrhiza based on separation and quantification of triterpene saponins and chemometrics analysis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiwei; Duan, Jinao; Zhao, Runhuai; Li, Xueyu; Yan, Hui; Li, Jianping; Guo, Sheng; Yang, Nianyun; Tang, Yuping

    2013-12-01

    The dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species, named licorice, have been utilized as food as well as crude drugs in China for thousands of years. Glycyrrhiza species can be differentiated based on the morphologic features of their aerial part, i.e. leaf and fruit morphologies, but not on their root morphology, even though that is the medicinal part. In this paper, a fast and effective UPLC-TQ-MS/MS method was explored for better identification and quantitative investigation of triterpene saponins in licorice, which laid basis for chemical comparison of three officinal Chinese pharmacopoeia Glycyrrhiza species. The results showed that all of these licorice samples were rich in triterpene saponins but with significant difference corresponding to different Glycyrrhiza species. The proposed method could be useful in quality control and standardization of licorice raw materials and its products.

  17. Sensitisation to airborne moulds and severity of asthma: cross sectional study from European Community respiratory health survey

    PubMed Central

    Zureik, Mahmoud; Neukirch, Catherine; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Liard, Renata; Bousquet, Jean; Neukirch, Françoise

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the severity of asthma is associated with sensitisation to airborne moulds rather than to other seasonal or perennial allergens. Design Multicentre epidemiological survey in 30 centres. Setting European Community respiratory health survey. Participants 1132 adults aged 20-44 years with current asthma and with skin prick test results. Main outcome measure Severity of asthma according to score based on forced expiratory volume in one second, number of asthma attacks, hospital admissions for breathing problems, and use of corticosteroids in past 12 months. Results The frequency of sensitisation to moulds (Alternaria alternata or Cladosporium herbarum, or both) increased significantly with increasing asthma severity (odds ratio 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.56 to 3.52) for either for severe v mild asthma). This association existed in all of the study areas (gathered into regions), although there were differences in the frequency of sensitisation. There was no association between asthma severity and sensitisation to pollens or cats. Sensitisation to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was also positively associated with severity. In multivariable logistic regressions including sensitisation to moulds, pollens, D pteronyssinus, and cats simultaneously, the odds ratios for sensitisation to moulds were 1.48 (0.97 to 2.26) for moderate v mild asthma and 2.16 (1.37 to 3.35) for severe v mild asthma (P<0.001 for trend). Conclusions Sensitisation to moulds is a powerful risk factor for severe asthma in adults. This should be taken into account in primary prevention, management, and patients' education. What is already known on this topicSensitisation to moulds is a known risk factor for life threatening exacerbations of asthmaIt is unknown whether such sensitisation is generally associated with severity of asthmaWhat this study addsThe prevalence of sensitisation to moulds (Alternaria alternata or Cladosporium herbarum, or both) increased with

  18. Factors associated with poor pulmonary function: cross-sectional analysis of data from the ERCF. European Epidemiologic Registry of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, J; Rainisio, M; Harms, H K; Hodson, M E; Koch, C; Mastella, G; Strandvik, B; McKenzie, S G

    2001-08-01

    The European Epidemiologic Registry of Cystic Fibrosis began collecting longitudinal data on European cystic fibrosis patients in 1994. A cross-sectional analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with low values of % predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) upon patient enrollment. Data from 7,010 patients aged > or =6 yrs were included. Clinical conditions, microbiological isolates and medications reported at enrollment or within the following 180 days were analysed for age-specific associations. Factors associated with FEV1 that were lower by >10% of pred values were: lower weight for age percentiles, haemoptysis, pneumothorax, pulmonary symptoms at presentation, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, oral corticosteroids, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, dornase alfa, oxygen and assisted ventilation and, in patients >12 yrs old only, use of airway clearance techniques, inhaled bronchodilators, oral nutritional supplements, pancreatic enzymes and insulin or oral hypoglycaemics. Slightly impaired lung function (5-10%) was associated with: diabetes (> or = 18-yrs-old), gastro-oesophageal reflux, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, asthma-like symptoms, portal hypertension, Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp. Sex, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus were not associated with impaired pulmonary status. Regular exercise (especially in older patients) and nasal polyposis were associated with slightly better FEV1. The results confirm those of previous studies and suggest selective prescribing in sicker patients.

  19. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2) to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference), EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study

  20. European Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    A special six-article section of this journal is devoted to the theme of "European Education" (EU): (1) "Reform of EU Educational Policy" (Volker Thomas); (2) "Living in Europe, Working for Europe" (Volker Thomas); (3) "EURES Helps to Find Jobs" (Volker Thomas); (4) "Help for Higher Education Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe" (Siegbert…

  1. The taxonomy of the European species of Hebeloma section Denudata subsections Hiemalia, Echinospora subsect. nov. and Clepsydroida subsect. nov. and five new species.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Ursula; Beker, Henry J; Vesterholt, Jan; Schütz, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Hebeloma section Denudata includes the majority of the taxa commonly referred to as the Hebeloma crustuliniforme complex. In a recent paper we described in detail H. subsection Denudata and fifteen European species recognised within this subsection, using morphological and molecular methods. In this paper we continue this work and describe in detail three additional subsections and several new species. Within H. subsection Hiemalia we recognise just one species, Hebeloma hiemale. Here we propose an epitype in order to unambiguously define this taxon. Nine species occurring in Europe are assigned to H. subsect. Clepsydroida, namely Hebeloma ammophilum, H. cavipes, H. fragilipes, H. ingratum, H. laetitiae, H. limbatum sp. nov., H. matritense sp. nov., H. pseudofragilipes sp. nov., and H. vaccinum. Finally, we introduce H. subsection Echinospora with three species: Hebeloma echinosporum sp. nov., H. populinum, and H. rostratum sp. nov. We provide descriptions of all three of these species in order to clarify the taxonomy of this section. We provide a key to H. sect. Denudata and the discussed subsections. For the majority of the taxa there is good overall consistency between morphological and phylogenetic delimitation and, where the information exists, thanks to Aanen and Kuyper's work, biological delimitation.

  2. The association between psychosocial characteristics at work and problem drinking: a cross-sectional study of men in three Eastern European urban populations

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, M; Pikhart, H; Kubinova, R; Malyutina, S; Pajak, A; Sebakova, H; Topor-Madry, R; Nikitin, Y; Caan, W; Marmot, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factors at work are thought to influence health partly through health behaviours. Aims: To examine the association between effort-reward imbalance and job control and several alcohol related measures in three eastern European populations. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and Karvina (Czech Republic). The participants completed a questionnaire that included effort-reward at work, job control, and a number of sociodemographic variables. Annual alcohol intake, annual number of drinking sessions, the mean dose of alcohol per drinking session, and binge drinking (⩾80 g of ethanol in one session at least once a week) were based on graduated frequencies in the questionnaire. Data were also available on problem drinking (⩾2 positive answers on CAGE questionnaire) and negative social consequences of drinking. All male participants in full employment (n = 694) were included in the present analyses. Results: After controlling for age and centre, all indices of alcohol consumption and problem drinking were associated with the effort-reward ratio. Adjustment for material deprivation did not change the results but adjustment for depressive symptoms reduced the estimated effects. Job control was not associated with any of the alcohol related outcomes. Conclusions: The imbalance of effort-reward at work is associated with increased alcohol intake and problem drinking. The association appears to be partly mediated by depressive symptoms, which might be either an antecedent or a consequence of men's drinking behaviour. PMID:16046607

  3. Nightlife violence: a gender-specific view on risk factors for violence in nightlife settings: a cross-sectional study in nine European countries.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged 16 to 35 assessed a variety of risk-taking traits, including violence, sexual, alcohol, and drug-related current and historic behaviors. Results show that the likelihood of having been involved in a physical fight in nightlife increases with younger age, drunkenness, and increasing preference for tolerant venues for both genders. The odds of involvement in a fight for females who were drunk five or more times in the past 4 weeks were almost five times higher than those who were never drunk (odds ratio for males 1.99). Use of cocaine more than doubled the risk of involvement in violence among males. However, no association was found for females. For heterosexual men, the odds for violence almost doubled compared with bisexual or homosexual men, whereas for women heterosexuality was a protective factor. The effects of structural risk factors (e.g., bar and club characteristics) for nightlife violence differed by gender. To develop effective violence prevention measures in nightlife, considerations need to be made regarding the demographic composition of patrons in addition to wider structural elements within the nighttime environment.

  4. Repurposing of approved drugs from the human pharmacopoeia to target Wolbachia endosymbionts of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kelly L.; Ford, Louise; Umareddy, Indira; Townson, Simon; Specht, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth; Hoerauf, Achim; Altmeyer, Ralf; Taylor, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes infecting around 150 million people throughout the tropics with more than 1.5 billion at risk. As with other neglected tropical diseases, classical drug-discovery and development is lacking and a 50 year programme of macrofilaricidal discovery failed to deliver a drug which can be used as a public health tool. Recently, antibiotic targeting of filarial Wolbachia, an essential bacterial symbiont, has provided a novel drug treatment for filariasis with macrofilaricidal activity, although the current gold-standard, doxycycline, is unsuitable for use in mass drug administration (MDA). The anti-Wolbachia (A·WOL) Consortium aims to identify novel anti-Wolbachia drugs, compounds or combinations that are suitable for use in MDA. Development of a Wolbachia cell-based assay has enabled the screening of the approved human drug-pharmacopoeia (∼2600 drugs) for a potential repurposing. This screening strategy has revealed that approved drugs from various classes show significant bacterial load reduction equal to or superior to the gold-standard doxycycline, with 69 orally available hits from different drug categories being identified. Based on our defined hit criteria, 15 compounds were then selectively screened in a Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model, 4 of which were active. These came from the tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and rifamycin classes. This strategy of repurposing approved drugs is a promising development in the goal of finding a novel treatment against filariasis and could also be a strategy applicable for other neglected tropical diseases. PMID:25516838

  5. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Weber, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; Jansen, Eugène; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Fiegl, Simone; Toussaint, Olivier; Bernhardt, Juergen; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sikora, Ewa; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = −0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = −0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (−6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m2)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (−4.8% vs. −3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene. PMID:27706032

  6. Association of 12 h shifts and nurses’ job satisfaction, burnout and intention to leave: findings from a cross-sectional study of 12 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Ora, Chiara; Griffiths, Peter; Ball, Jane; Simon, Michael; Aiken, Linda H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives 12 h shifts are becoming increasingly common for hospital nurses but there is concern that long shifts adversely affect nurses’ well-being, job satisfaction and intention to leave their job. The aim of this study is to examine the association between working long shifts and burnout, job dissatisfaction, dissatisfaction with work schedule flexibility and intention to leave current job among hospital nurses. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 31 627 registered nurses in 2170 general medical/surgical units within 488 hospitals across 12 European countries. Results Nurses working shifts of ≥12 h were more likely than nurses working shorter hours (≤8) to experience burnout, in terms of emotional exhaustion (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.26; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.46), depersonalisation (aOR=1.21; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) and low personal accomplishment (aOR=1.39; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.62). Nurses working shifts of ≥12 h were more likely to experience job dissatisfaction (aOR=1.40; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.62), dissatisfaction with work schedule flexibility (aOR=1.15; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.35) and report intention to leave their job due to dissatisfaction (aOR=1.29; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.48). Conclusions Longer working hours for hospital nurses are associated with adverse outcomes for nurses. Some of these adverse outcomes, such as high burnout, may pose safety risks for patients as well as nurses. PMID:26359284

  7. Patient preference and ease of use for different coagulation factor VIII reconstitution device scenarios: a cross-sectional survey in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Ernesto; Linari, Silvia; Malerba, Mara; Halimeh, Susan; Biondo, Francesca; Westfeld, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A treatment involves replacing the deficient coagulation factor VIII. This process may involve multiple steps that might create a barrier to adherence. A new dual-chamber syringe (DCS; FuseNGo®) was recently introduced with the aim of simplifying reconstitution. Aim This study aimed to identify factors associated with adult patients’ preferences for different coagulation factor VIII reconstitution systems and to test ease of use and patient preference for the DCS. Methods A cross-sectional survey of adults with hemophilia A in five European countries was conducted; a subset of subjects also participated in a practical testing session of the DCS. Results Among the 299 survey participants, the device scenario requiring the least equipment and reconstitution steps (the DCS) received a median preference rating of 71 out of 100 (0 being “the least desirable” and 100 “the most desirable” rating). This was significantly higher than the other scenarios (the next highest achieved a median of 50 points; P<0.001). Participants would be more likely to use this device prophylactically (P<0.001). Among the 98 participants who tested the DCS, 57% preferred this device over their current device, 26% preferred their current device, and 17% had no preference. The DCS was rated as easier to use than current treatment devices (median score 9/10 versus 7/10 for current treatment, P=0.001). Conclusion The survey indicates that the prefilled DCS, FuseNGo®, requiring the least equipment and fewest reconstitution steps, was preferred by patients and was the device most likely to be used prophylactically; the practical device testing supports these results. PMID:25525348

  8. Osteoarthritis. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Ilieva, E M; Oral, A; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the PRM interventions. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder and the major cause of musculoskeletal pain and limited mobility in the elderly in the world. Therefore, proper management of persons with OA is of substantial importance. The goal of OA management is to reduce the impact of OA on the individual by reducing pain and improving function, activities and participation. The aim of this paper is to descibe the explicit role of PRM physicians in providing management for persons with OA. The optimal management of OA requires the combination of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches, an issue most of the main guidelines on the evidence-based management of OA share in common. There is good level of evidence about the effectiveness of PRM interventions in the management of OA: high level of evidence about the effect of education, weight reduction and exercise and growing evidence about the effectiveness of physical agent modalities. PRM specialists are involved not only in diagnosis and medical and physical treatments of OA, but, as a rehabilitation strategy, they also deal with the problems of the person focusing on the improvement of all components of human functioning as defined in the ICF including personal and environmental factors with a holistic approach. ICF core sets for OA serve as excellent models for directing proper assessments as well as targeting interventions. PRM specialists well meet the needs of people with OA from the early stages

  9. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    move forward separately. Thus, we wanted the meeting to encourage the cross-fertilization of ideas of all the people involved and active in the areas of optics, photonics, microelectronics and materials, by gathering together theoreticians, experimentalists and those interested in industrial applications. For these reasons the conference programme focused on fundamental as well as more applied topics. Photonic crystals, non-linear and quantum optics in micro-devices, nanophotonic-based devices, silicon-based optoelectronics and MOEMS, microsensors, biochips and the new characterization methods for materials and devices were among the hot topics of the conference. Special emphasis was also given to industrial applications and to technologies enabling the production of microsytems and their sub-components. In this special section of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, a series of interesting papers has been collected, reporting progress in the different aspects of microsystems design, production, characterization and testing. The papers embrace most of the various topics that were debated during the conference. We hope that these papers will not only report the most up-to-date research progress made in this field, but will also involve and stimulate everyone working in these areas to continue in the effort of developing more and better optical microsystems in the future. We would like to thank all the members of the Scientific and Industrial Committees for the high scientific content of the meeting and the European Optical Society for its support of the conference organization.

  10. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children’s energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children’s soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children’s sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Results Economic factors were found to be associated with children’s sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children’s soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents’ financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419) of children’s sports activities. Children’s pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the

  11. A cross-sectional survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding seasonal influenza vaccination among European travellers to resource-limited destinations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Influenza is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in travellers. By performing two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys during winter 2009 and winter 2010 among European travellers to resource-limited destinations, we aimed to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding seasonal influenza vaccination. Methods Questionnaires were distributed in the waiting room to the visitors of the University of Zurich Centre for Travel' Health (CTH) in January and February 2009 and January 2010 prior to travel health counselling (CTH09 and CTH10). Questions included demographic data, travel-related characteristics and KAP regarding influenza vaccination. Data were analysed by using SPSS® version 14.0 for Windows. Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-square test and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Predictors for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination were determined by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results With a response rate of 96.6%, 906 individuals were enrolled and 868 (92.5%) provided complete data. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage was 13.7% (n = 119). Only 43 (14.2%) participants were vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1, mostly having received both vaccines simultaneously, the seasonal and pandemic one. Job-related purposes (44, 37%), age > 64 yrs (25, 21%) and recommendations of the family physician (27, 22.7%) were the most often reported reasons for being vaccinated. In the multiple logistic regression analyses of the pooled data increasing age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.04), a business trip (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.17 - 0.92) and seasonal influenza vaccination in the previous winter seasons (OR = 12.91, 95% CI 8.09 - 20.58) were independent predictors for seasonal influenza vaccination in 2009 or 2010. Influenza vaccination recommended by the family doctor (327, 37.7%), travel to regions with known high risk of influenza (305, 35.1%), and influenza vaccination

  12. Development and validation of a serological potency test for the release of Leptospira vaccines--requirements in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Balks, Elisabeth; Gyra, Heike; Kobe, Babett; Cussler, Klaus; Werner, Esther

    2013-09-01

    Both European Pharmacopoeia Monograph 01/2008:0447 "Canine Leptospirosis vaccine (inactivated)" and the more recent Monograph 01/2008:1939 "Bovine Leptospirosis vaccine (inactivated)" explicitly allow for a sero-response test to assess batch potency. Test setup and requirements for in vivo and in vitro validation are described. Furthermore, the two main strategies to assess batch potency and their specific demands are addressed. PMID:23911253

  13. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week−1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week−1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent “factor” describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week−1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10–15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  14. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  15. Review of the therapeutic management of Parkinson's disease. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Movement Disorder Society-European Section. Part I: early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Horstink, M; Tolosa, E; Bonuccelli, U; Deuschl, G; Friedman, A; Kanovsky, P; Larsen, J P; Lees, A; Oertel, W; Poewe, W; Rascol, O; Sampaio, C

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease (PD), based on a review of the literature. Uncomplicated PD refers to patients suffering from the classical motor syndrome of PD only, without treatment-induced motor complications and without neuropsychiatric or autonomic problems. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) database literature searches were conducted. National guidelines were requested from all European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) societies. Non-European guidelines were searched for using MEDLINE. Part I of the guidelines deals with prevention of disease progression, symptomatic treatment of motor features (parkinsonism), and prevention of motor and neuropsychiatric complications of therapy. For each topic, a list of therapeutic interventions is provided, including classification of evidence. Following this, recommendations for management are given, alongside ratings of efficacy. Classifications of evidence and ratings of efficacy are made according to EFNS guidance. In cases where there is insufficient scientific evidence, a consensus statement (good practice point) is made.

  16. The relationship between maternal depression and smoking cessation during pregnancy--a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from 15 European countries.

    PubMed

    Smedberg, Janne; Lupattelli, Angela; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Øverland, Simon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy. However, differences in study design and methodology challenge study comparability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and continuing smoking among pregnant European women while adjusting for maternal characteristics. This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data on depression status, smoking habits, maternal socio-demographic characteristics, and life-style factors were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Associations were estimated with logistic regression. Of 4,295 women included, 1,481 (34.5 %) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 391 (26.4 %) continued smoking during pregnancy whereof 127 (32.5 %) were depressed. The association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy were uniform across the European countries (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.50-2.71), with about twice the prevalence of continuing smoking among the depressed. There was a strong relationship between continuing smoking in pregnancy and low education level (OR 4.46, 95 % CI 2.72-7.32), which coincided with risky pregnancy behavior such as failure to attend pregnancy/birth preparation courses (OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.19-2.72) and follow recommended use of folic acid (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.23-2.65). Women who perceived the risk for the fetus of continued smoking during pregnancy as higher were the least likely to continue smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.68-0.77). This underlines the clustering of risk in some pregnant women, and the results should guide antenatal care of depressed women struggling to quit smoking during pregnancy.

  17. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in physical fitness among children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Kerry, S R; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Brage, S; Westgate, K L; Ekelund, U; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied physical fitness in UK children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary schools in the UK. Participants 1625 children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin in the UK studied between 2006 and 2007. Outcome measures A step test assessed submaximal physical fitness from which estimated VO2 max was derived. Ethnic differences in estimated VO2 max were estimated using multilevel linear regression allowing for clustering at school level and adjusting for age, sex and month as fixed effects. Results The study response rate was 63%. In adjusted analyses, boys had higher levels of estimated VO2 max than girls (mean difference 3.06 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.47, p<0.0001). Levels of estimated VO2 max were lower in South Asians than those in white Europeans (mean difference −0.79 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI −1.41 to −0.18, p=0.01); levels of estimated VO2 max in black African–Caribbeans were higher than those in white Europeans (mean difference 0.60 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.17, p=0.04); these patterns were similar in boys and girls. The lower estimated VO2 max in South Asians, compared to white Europeans, was consistent among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi children and was attenuated by 78% after adjustment for objectively measured physical activity (average daily steps). Conclusions South Asian children have lower levels of physical fitness than white Europeans and black African–Caribbeans in the UK. This ethnic difference in physical fitness is at least partly explained by ethnic differences in physical activity. PMID:27324713

  18. Changes in government spending on healthcare and population mortality in the European union, 1995–2010: a cross-sectional ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Johnathan; Atun, Rifat; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Maruthappu, Mahiben

    2015-01-01

    Objective Economic measures such as unemployment and gross domestic product are correlated with changes in health outcomes. We aimed to examine the effects of changes in government healthcare spending, an increasingly important measure given constrained government budgets in several European Union countries. Design Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the effect of changes in healthcare spending as a proportion of total government expenditure, government healthcare spending as a proportion of gross domestic product and government healthcare spending measured in purchasing power parity per capita, on five mortality indicators. Additional variables were controlled for to ensure robustness of data. One to five year lag analyses were conducted. Setting and Participants European Union countries 1995–2010. Main outcome measures Neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, one to five years of age mortality, under five years of age mortality, adult male mortality, adult female mortality. Results A 1% decrease in government healthcare spending was associated with significant increase in all mortality metrics: neonatal mortality (coefficient −0.1217, p = 0.0001), postneonatal mortality (coefficient −0.0499, p = 0.0018), one to five years of age mortality (coefficient −0.0185, p = 0.0002), under five years of age mortality (coefficient −0.1897, p = 0.0003), adult male mortality (coefficient −2.5398, p = 0.0000) and adult female mortality (coefficient −1.4492, p = 0.0000). One per cent decrease in healthcare spending, measured as a proportion of gross domestic product and in purchasing power parity, was both associated with significant increases (p < 0.05) in all metrics. Five years after the 1% decrease in healthcare spending, significant increases (p < 0.05) continued to be observed in all mortality metrics. Conclusions Decreased government healthcare spending is associated with increased population mortality in

  19. Associations between Family-Related Factors, Breakfast Consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-Year-Old European Children: The Cross-Sectional ENERGY-Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Te Velde, Saskia J.; Verloigne, Maïté; Van Stralen, Maartje M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Jan, Nataša; Fernández Alvira, Juan M.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of family-related factors with children’s breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children’s breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children’s BMI-z-score. Subjects Ten- to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6±0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4±1.2) and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4±5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5±4.2 kg/m2) were recruited from schools in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland). The children self-reported their breakfast frequency per week. The body weight and height of the children were objectively measured. The parents responded to items on family factors related to breakfast (automaticity, availability, encouragement, paying attention, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, parental self-efficacy to address children’s nagging, praising, and family breakfast frequency). Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country). Results Three of the eleven family-related variables were significantly associated with children’s BMI-z-score. The family breakfast frequency was negatively associated with the BMI-z-score; permissiveness concerning skipping breakfast and negotiating about breakfast were positively associated with the BMI-z-score. Children’s breakfast consumption was found to be a mediator of the two associations. All family-related variables except for negotiating, praising and communicating health beliefs, were significantly associated with children’s breakfast consumption. Conclusions Future breakfast promotion and obesity prevention interventions should focus on family-related factors including the physical home environment and parenting practices. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and intervention studies to

  20. Ecological-level associations between highly processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations: results from a cross-sectional study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Byrnes, Graham; Deharveng, Geneviève; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Jenab, Mazda; Peeters, Petra H M; Ocké, Marga; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Jakszyn, Paula; González, Carlos A; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Martinez, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Suárez, Laudina Rodriguez; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Spencer, Elisabeth A; Crowe, Francesca L; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nöethlings, Ute; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Dimosthenis; Oustoglou, Erifili; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2011-11-01

    Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations.

  1. New geochronology of the Stalać section at the southern limit of European loess occurrence through pIR50IR290 dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bösken, Janina; Obreht, Igor; Klasen, Nicole; Zeeden, Christian; Marković, Slobodan B.; Hambach, Ulrich; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A new geochronology was established for the Stalać loess-paleosol section in central Serbia. The section is located in the Central Balkan, at the transition zone between Atlantic, continental and Mediterranean climate regimes and is therefore potentially extraordinary sensitive to past and present climatic changes. Especially in the context of early human migration, this region is not intensively studied and has potential to contribute valuable information. This is the reason why it is investigated in the frame of the CRC 806 "Our Way to Europe" project. This project focuses on the climatic changes and their influence on the dispersal of anatomically modern human (AMH). For the loess-paleosol sequence exposed in a quarry in Stalać, a multi-proxy approach combining geochemical and sedimentological analysis and luminescence dating is applied. This contribution focusses on the luminescence investigations. The luminescence characteristics of six samples were analyzed using the optically stimulated luminescence signal of quartz by means of the single-aliquot-regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol and the infrared stimulated signal of feldspar (within polymineral samples) by means of the post-infrared-infrared (pIRIR) protocol. While the fine quartz grain (4-11μm) samples show a preheat dependency of equivalent doses that makes them unsuitable for dating, the polymineral fine grain samples measured by pIR50IR290 behave satisfactorily: plateaus within a first IR stimulation temperature test, good dose recovery ratios, low residual doses, high precision and low uncertainty support the established age chronology ranging from 35.2 ± 1.8 ka to 168 ± 9 ka. A tephra within the MIS 6/L2 loess layer was bracket dated, and combining these ages suggests an age between ca. 140 and 175 ka (2σ). Based on the presented results we introduce a new geochronology of the Stalać section, indicating that the previously suggested correlative stratigraphy (Kostić and Protić, 2000) requires

  2. Larix laricina, an Antidiabetic Alternative Treatment from the Cree of Northern Quebec Pharmacopoeia, Decreases Glycemia and Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Harbilas, Despina; Vallerand, Diane; Brault, Antoine; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T.; Musallam, Lina; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2012-01-01

    Larix laricina K. Koch is a medicinal plant belonging to traditional pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (Eastern James Bay area of Canada). In vitro screening studies revealed that, like metformin and rosiglitazone, it increases glucose uptake and adipogenesis, activates AMPK, and uncouples mitochondrial function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antiobesity potential of L. laricina in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice. Mice were subjected for eight or sixteen weeks to a high fat diet (HFD) or HFD to which L. laricina was incorporated at 125 and 250 mg/kg either at onset (prevention study) or in the last 8 of the 16 weeks of administration of the HFD (treatment study). L. laricina effectively decreased glycemia levels, improved insulin resistance, and slightly decreased abdominal fat pad and body weights. This occurred in conjunction with increased energy expenditure as demonstrated by elevated skin temperature in the prevention study and improved mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis in the treatment protocol. L. laricina is thus a promising alternative and complementary therapeutic approach for the treatment and care of obesity and diabetes among the Cree. PMID:22888363

  3. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European…

  4. Spinal pain management. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Valero, R; Varela, E; Küçükdeveci, A A; Oral, A; Ilieva, E; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the PRM interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the role of PRM physicians in the management of spinal pain focusing particularly on low back pain and neck pain. These disorders are associated with significant disability that results in activity limitations and participation restrictions. A wide variety of PRM interventions including patient education, behavioural therapies, exercise, a number of physical modalities, manual techniques, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation may help patients with low back pain and cervical pain in improving their functioning. PRM physicians may address many of the problems encountered by these patients in many life areas taking the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a reference guide and may have an important role in improving the quality of their lives. PMID:24145230

  5. Spinal pain management. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Valero, R; Varela, E; Küçükdeveci, A A; Oral, A; Ilieva, E; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the PRM interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the role of PRM physicians in the management of spinal pain focusing particularly on low back pain and neck pain. These disorders are associated with significant disability that results in activity limitations and participation restrictions. A wide variety of PRM interventions including patient education, behavioural therapies, exercise, a number of physical modalities, manual techniques, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation may help patients with low back pain and cervical pain in improving their functioning. PRM physicians may address many of the problems encountered by these patients in many life areas taking the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a reference guide and may have an important role in improving the quality of their lives.

  6. Internalised homonegativity predicts HIV-associated risk behavior in European men who have sex with men in a 38-country cross-sectional study: some public health implications of homophobia

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael W; Berg, Rigmor C; Schmidt, Axel J; Hospers, Harm J; Breveglieri, Michele; Furegato, Martina; Weatherburn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Internalised homonegativity (IH) is hypothesised to be associated with HIV risk behaviour and HIV testing in men who have sex with men (MSM). We sought to determine the social and individual variables associated with IH and the associations between IH and HIV-related behaviours. Design and setting We examined IH and its predictors as part of a larger Internet-delivered, cross-sectional study on HIV and health in MSM in 38 European countries. Participants 181 495 MSM, IH data analysis subsample 144 177. All participants were male, over the age of consent for homosexual activity in their country of domicile, and have had at least one homosexual contact in the past 6 months. Methodology An anonymous Internet-based questionnaire was disseminated in 25 languages through MSM social media, websites and organisations and responses saved to a UK-based server. IH was measured using a standardised, cross-culturally appropriate scale. Results Three clusters of European countries based on the level of experienced discrimination emerged. IH was predicted by country LGB (lesbian, gay and bisexual) legal climate, Gini coefficient and size of place of settlement. Lower IH was associated with degree the respondent was ‘out’ as gay to others and older age. ‘Outness’ was associated with ever having an HIV test and age, education and number of gay friends, while IH (controlling for the number of non-steady unprotected sex partners and perceived lack of control over safe sex) was associated with condom use for anal intercourse. Conclusions IH is associated with LGB legal climate, economic development indices and urbanisation. It is also associated with ‘outness’ and with HIV risk and preventive behaviours including HIV testing, perceived control over sexual risk and condom use. Homonegative climate is associated with IH and higher levels of HIV-associated risk in MSM. Reducing IH through attention to LGB human rights may be appropriate HIV reduction

  7. Shoulder pain management. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Varela, E; Valero, R; Küçükdeveci, A A; Oral, A; Ilieva, E; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the physical and rehabilitation medicine interventions. According to the PCC of the UEMS-PRM Section, the role of PRM physician in the management of shoulder pain (SP) has to be situated inside the general pain management field. SP is a common condition that can place limitations on the activity and restriction in social life participation of sufferers. A variety of shoulder problems, commonly including subacromial impingement, calcifying tendinitis, frozen shoulder, acromio-clavicular disturbances, gleno-humeral instability and gleno-humeral arthritis, can cause pain, and patients should be assessed and treated in order to relieve symptoms and reduce disability. This position paper describes the role of the PRM specialist in the management of such patients. Many assessment methods and treatment interventions are usually used in the management of patients with SP. Depending on the process, disability and patient characteristics, some intervention modalities have reported evidence in pain relief, movement and daily life activity (DLA) restoration, thus permiting a patient early recovery and social participation. Oral medications, local injections, physical therapy modalities and exercises are normally used for the management of SP. The PRM specialist should, always use this best medical evidence to decide how to efficiently and effectively reduce SP-related disability. An adequate therapeutic algorithm is also proposed in order to channelize the above mentioned evidence and reach

  8. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  9. Inflammatory arthritis. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Küçükdeveci, A A; Oral, A; Ilıeva, E M; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Chrıstodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the physical and rehabilitation medicine interventions. Inflammatory arthritis is a major cause of disability with an important economic burden in society. The goals in the management of inflammatory arthritis are to control pain and disease activity, prevent joint damage, protect and enhance function and improve quality of life. This paper aims to define the role of PRM physicians in people with inflammatory arthritis. PRM interventions imply non-pharmacological treatments which include patient education for joint protection, energy conservation and self-management techniques, exercise therapy, physical modalities, orthoses/assistive devices and balneotherapy. Therapeutic patient education and exercises are the cornerstones of therapy with strong evidence of their effectiveness to improve function. Physical modalities are primarily used to decrease pain and stiffness whereas orthoses/assistive devices are usually prescribed to enhance activities and participation. PRM physicians have distinct roles in the management of people with inflammatory arthritis such that they effectively organise and supervise the PRM program in the context of interdisciplinary team work. Their role starts with a comprehensive assessment of patient's functioning based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) as the framework. In the light of this assessment, appropriate PRM interventions individualised for the patient are administered. Future research and actions

  10. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the directives for…

  11. Product-specific validation of a serological potency test for release of Leptospira vaccines in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera

    2013-09-01

    Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach.

  12. Product-specific validation of a serological potency test for release of Leptospira vaccines in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera

    2013-09-01

    Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach. PMID:23849308

  13. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François; Heuschmann, Peter; Hoffmann, Uwe; Verschuren, Monique; Halcox, Julian; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Saner, Hugo; Wood, David; Piepoli, Massimo F; Corrà, Ugo; Benzer, Werner; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Dendale, Paul; Gaita, Dan; McGee, Hannah; Mendes, Miguel; Niebauer, Josef; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Schmid, Jean-Paul

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac patients after an acute event and/or with chronic heart disease deserve special attention to restore their quality of life and to maintain or improve functional capacity. They require counselling to avoid recurrence through a combination of adherence to a medication plan and adoption of a healthy lifestyle. These secondary prevention targets are included in the overall goal of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Cardiac rehabilitation can be viewed as the clinical application of preventive care by means of a professional multi-disciplinary integrated approach for comprehensive risk reduction and global long-term care of cardiac patients. The CR approach is delivered in tandem with a flexible follow-up strategy and easy access to a specialized team. To promote implementation of cardiac prevention and rehabilitation, the CR Section of the EACPR (European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation) has recently completed a Position Paper, entitled 'Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: A condition-oriented approach'. Components of multidisciplinary CR for seven clinical presentations have been addressed. Components include patient assessment, physical activity counselling, exercise training, diet/nutritional counselling, weight control management, lipid management, blood pressure monitoring, smoking cessation, and psychosocial management. Cardiac rehabilitation services are by definition multi-factorial and comprehensive, with physical activity counselling and exercise training as central components in all rehabilitation and preventive interventions. Many of the risk factor improvements occurring in CR can be mediated through exercise training programmes. This call-for-action paper presents the key components of a CR programme: physical activity counselling and exercise training. It summarizes current evidence-based best practice for the wide range of patient presentations of interest to the general cardiology community.

  14. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Oral, A; Ilieva, E M; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes constitute a major problem leading to loss of function and disability, resulting in enormous societal burden. The aim of this paper is to describe the unique role of PRM physicians in the management of these disabling conditions that require not only pharmacological interventions but also a holistic approach including the consideration of body functions, activities and participation as well as contextual factors as described in the ICF. Evidence-based effective PRM interventions include exercise and multicomponent treatment including a psychotherapeutic intervention such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in addition to exercise, the latter based on strong evidence for reducing pain and improving quality of life in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Balneotherapy, meditative movement therapies, and acupuncture have also been shown as efficacious in improving symptoms in FMS. Emerging evidence suggests the use of transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation (rTMS or tDCS) in FMS patients with intractable pain not alleviated by other interventions. Graded exercise therapy and CBT are evidence-based options for chronic fatigue syndrome. The use of some physical modalities and manipulation for myofascial pain syndrome is also supported by evidence. As for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), strong evidence exists for rTMS and graded motor imagery as well as moderate evidence for mirror therapy

  15. [The development of modern Japanese pharmaceutical industry (Part 4). From 1906 to 1920, coinciding with the era between the institution and issue of Japanese Pharmacopoeia Third Edition with Fourth Edition (JP III-JP IV)].

    PubMed

    Yamada, H

    1994-01-01

    The publishing of the Third Edition of Japanese Pharmacopoeia was performed after Russo-Japanese War, on July 2, 1906. In those times, the military and economical power of Japan advanced toward East Asia, and thus gradually, Japan had become one of the powerful force in the world, partly because due to the unexpected victory in the War. Thereafter, in the second decade of the twentieth century, Japan was involved in the World War I, from July, 1914 to November, 1918, which ceased the fire by the defeat of Germanic Allied Countries. In Japan, the next revise of the pharmacopoeia was performed and the Fourth Edition of it was published on December 15, 1920. The Japanese pharmaceutical industry developed remarkably in those times, during the big war and confusion in the market, by accompanying with the suitable and tentative pharmaceutical legislations by the government and the supportive aids to the civilian enterprises in the productions, supplies and distributions of the materials and medicinal products. PMID:11613500

  16. European regulatory framework and practices for veterinary Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Lukas

    2013-09-01

    In Europe, the legal basis for requirements for medicinal products is described in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) In the European Union, the Ph. Eur. is supplemented by several guidelines issued by the European Medicines Agency. Immunological veterinary products must comply with the Ph. Eur. monograph on veterinary vaccines and the accompanying texts, as well as specific monographs. The Ph. Eur. includes monographs on canine leptospirosis and bovine leptospirosis vaccines (inactivated). Both monographs require that an immunogenicity test be performed once in the target species during the life of a vaccine. The hamster challenge test is applied for batch potency testing of canine vaccines. Alternatively, serological tests or suitable validated in vitro tests to determine the content of one or more antigenic components indicative of protection may be performed. Vaccines for use in cattle are tested in a serological test in guinea pigs. The acceptance criteria in alternative tests are set with reference to a batch of vaccine that has given satisfactory results in the immunogenicity test. At a January 2012 European workshop, the suitability of the hamster potency test was questioned and unanimous agreement was reached that moving toward complete in vitro testing is possible and should be promoted. PMID:23886926

  17. [Transition of Psychotropic Drugs in Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) (Part 16). Transitions in the Standards and Test Methods of Bromovalerylurea in JP V (1932) and JP X VI (2011), and Comparison with Deutsches Arzneibuch].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Kiyohisa

    2015-01-01

    Soam discovered the drug Bromovalerylurea (or less BV) in 1907. After that, BV was imported in Japan in the latter part of the Meiji period as Western medicine. Under the influence of the First World War, in Japan, BV was domestic production. And BV are listed in JP V (1932), it is continued listing until the current JP X VI (2011). As a foreign pharmacopoeia which listed the BV, only in addition to the JP, there was a German Pharmacopoeia (DAB). During this time, the JP and DAB, the standards and test methods of BV, it was amended as shown in Table 1 and Table 2. The discrimination test and analysis test was defined based on the chemical properties of urea and isovaleric acid and bromine. Therefore, consistency was seen in the chemical criteria for test. From this it is understood that BV is Bromoisovalerateureido synthesized based on urea and isovaleric acid and bromine. This isovaleric acid is the active ingredient of Japanese Valerian and Valerian roots. BV is an organic synthetic urea derivative that was effectively improved organic synthesis isovaleric acid with respect to quality and efficacy surface. For this reason at the time that BV have been developed, it is an ideal new drug, it was described as a good medicine have no side effects. But to BV, there is a nature that it has tolerance, addictive, a dependency. In Japan after the Second World War, there was a lack of awareness about the nature of such BV. That it had become a system that masses can easily purchase the BV. Revision of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of 1960 against in this, selling regulation of BV is provided. However, for analgesic formulated with BV of dose observed in the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, as generic drugs, selling is permitted, it is continuing until today. For this reason in recent years, long-term use of BV by self-judgment of the masses is frequent. And chronic bromine poisoning BV by this it have been a problem. Therefore regard to BV, always for their safety, including

  18. Cesarean Section

    MedlinePlus

    A Cesarean section (C-section) is surgery to deliver a baby. The baby is taken out through the mother's abdomen. In the United ... three women has their babies this way. Some C-sections are planned, but many are done when ...

  19. European Organizations of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tederko, Piotr; Kujawa, Jolanta; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) is a basic medical specialty officially recognized in Europe since 1962. This article briefly presents the significance, attainments and tasks recently undertaken by the leading structures responsible for international harmonization and management of the specialty within healthcare systems in Europe and for scientific development: the Section and Board of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS-PRM), European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine (AEMR) and European Society of PRM (ESPRM). The concept of rehabilitation according to the biopsychosocial model of functioning recently promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) closely follows the assumptions of the Polish Model of Rehabilitation, formulated in the 1960's and approved by the WHO in 1970. Since its accession to the European Union in 2004, Poland has been gradually increasing active participation in the European structures of PRM.

  20. Models of risk assessments for biologicals or related products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Moos, M

    1995-12-01

    In the context of veterinary biologicals, environmental risk assessment means the evaluation of the risk to human health and the environment (which includes plants and animals) connected with the release of such products. The following categories or types of veterinary biologicals can be distinguished: non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMOs) (inactivated/live) GMOs (inactivated/live) carrier products related products (e.g. non-specific "inducers'). Suitable models used in risk assessment for these products should aim to identify all possible adverse effects. A good working model should lead, at least, to a qualitative judgement on the environmental risk of the biological product (e.g. negligible, low, medium, severe, unacceptable). Quantifiable outcomes are rare; therefore, the producer of a biological product and the European control authorities should accept only models which are based on testable points and which are relevant to the type of product and its instructions for use. In view of animal welfare aspects, models working without animals should be preferred. In recent years, some of these methods have been integrated into safety tests described in European Union Directives and in monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia. By reviewing vaccine/registration problems (e.g. Aujeszky's disease live vaccine for pigs, and vaccinia-vectored rabies vaccine), several models used in risk assessment are demonstrated and discussed.

  1. European Materia Medica in Historical Texts: Longevity of a Tradition and Implications for Future Use

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in the area of new drug discovery has shown the continued promise of looking to natural products for bioactive compounds. Researchers have thus turned to traditional medicine, which is still used widely throughout the world and increasingly in industrialized countries as well, to provide clues as to which products to investigate. The oral traditions on which much of this medical knowledge rests, however, are unstable, prompting researchers to turn to textual sources for potential drugs. This study uses Mediterranean/European medical texts from the 5th century BC to the 19th century A.D. to compile a list of the most commonly used “simples” – or single action drug substances – used in therapeutics in traditional European medicine. It finds that traditional European materia medica was based on a Dioscordean tradition that lasted through the 19th century with remarkably little variation, but is significantly different from the present-day herbal pharmacopoeia as represented by the National Institutes of Health. The most prominent simples of that tradition can thus provide clues to further bioactive compounds that have not as of yet been fully exploited for their potential, but were clearly of great use in the past. PMID:20561577

  2. Interdisciplinarity. Papers Presented at the SRHE European Symposium on Interdisciplinary Courses in European Education, 13 September 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Research into Higher Education, Ltd., London (England).

    Papers are presented from the 1975 Society for Research into Higher Education European Symposium on Interdisciplinary (ID) Courses in European Education. Section one of the symposium on "philosophy and background" consists of an introduction by Professor Berger and discussion. Section two on "some ID courses" consists of the following papers: "The…

  3. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,…

  4. Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-aged/ senior individuals engaged in leisure-time sport activities: position stand from the sections of exercise physiology and sports cardiology of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Borjesson, Mats; Urhausen, Alex; Kouidi, Evangelia; Dugmore, Dorian; Sharma, Sanjay; Halle, Martin; Heidbüchel, Hein; Björnstad, Hans Halvor; Gielen, Stephan; Mezzani, Alessandro; Corrado, Domenico; Pelliccia, Antonio; Vanhees, Luc

    2011-06-01

    Regular aerobic exercise at moderate intensities and an increased physical fitness are associated with a reduced risk of fatal and nonfatal coronary events in middle-aged individuals. In contrast, moderate and vigorous physical exertion is associated with an increased risk for cardiac events, including sudden cardiac death in individuals harbouring cardiovascular disease. The risk-benefit ratio may differ in relation to the individual’s age, fitness level, and presence of cardiovascular disease; sedentary individuals with underlying coronary artery disease are at greatest risk. The intention of the present position stand of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation is to encourage individuals to participate in regular physical activity and derive the benefits of physical exercise while minimizing the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Therefore, the aim is to establish the most practical method of cardiovascular evaluation in middle-age/senior individuals, who are contemplating exercise or who are already engaged in nonprofessional competitive or recreational leisure sporting activity. These recommendations rely on existing scientific evidence, and in the absence of such, on expert consensus. The methodology of how middle-aged and older individuals should be evaluated appropriately before engaging in regular physical activity is both complex and controversial. On practical grounds the consensus panel recommend that such evaluation should vary according to the individual’s cardiac risk profile and the intended level of physical activity. Self assessment of the habitual physical activity level and of the risk factors, are recommended for screening of large populations. Individuals deemed to be at risk require further evaluation by a qualified physician. In senior/adult individuals with an increased risk for coronary events, maximal exercise testing (and possibly further evaluations) is advocated. Hopefully, the recommendations

  5. The European Communications Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, T. A.

    1985-09-01

    Two European Communication Satellites (ECSs) are now in operation for Eutelsat, forming the orbital portion of a communications system that will operate until 1993, carrying telephony and TV for the European Broadcasting Union. A total of five ECSs are to be constructed in order to ensure continuity of service over the systems lifetime. ECSs will also serve as the bases for the European Regional Communication System, which furnishes small receiver dish specialized services and preemptive TV distribution channels within Europe.

  6. Harm reduction measures and injecting inside prison versus mandatory drugs testing: results of a cross sectional anonymous questionnaire survey. The European Commission Network on HIV Infection and Hepatitis in Prison.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, A. G.; Gore, S. M.; Hutchinson, S. J.; Lewis, S. C.; Cameron, S.; Burns, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (a) To determine both the frequency of injecting inside prison and use of sterilising tablets to clean needles in the previous four weeks; (b) to assess the efficiency of random mandatory drugs testing at detecting prisoners who inject heroin inside prison; (c) to determine the percentage of prisoners who had been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. DESIGN: Cross sectional willing anonymous salivary HIV surveillance linked to a self completion risk factor questionnaire. SETTING: Lowmoss prison, Glasgow, and Aberdeen prison on 11 and 30 October 1996. SUBJECTS: 293 (94%) of all 312 inmates at Lowmoss and 146 (93%) of all 157 at Aberdeen, resulting in 286 and 143 valid questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of injecting inside prison in the previous four weeks by injector inmates who had been in prison for at least four weeks. RESULTS: 116 (41%) Lowmoss and 53 (37%) Aberdeen prisoners had a history of injecting drug use but only 4% of inmates (17/395; 95% confidence interval 2% to 6%) had ever been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. 42 Lowmoss prisoners (estimated 207 injections and 258 uses of sterilising tablets) and 31 Aberdeen prisoners (229 injections, 221 uses) had injected inside prison in the previous four weeks. The prisons together held 112 injector inmates who had been in prison for more than four weeks, of whom 57 (51%; 42% to 60%) had injected in prison in the past four weeks; their estimated mean number of injections was 6.0 (SD 5.7). Prisoners injecting heroin six times in four weeks will test positive in random mandatory drugs testing on at most 18 days out of 28. CONCLUSIONS: Sterilising tablets and hepatitis B vaccination should be offered to all prisoners. Random mandatory drugs testing seriously underestimates injector inmates' harm reduction needs. PMID:9233321

  7. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  8. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the South-East of Spain, One of the European Regions Most Affected by the Economic Crisis: The Cross-Sectional PEGASUS-Murcia Project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, Mª José; Salmerón, Diego; Vilagut, Gemma; Navarro, Carmen; Ruíz-Merino, Guadalupe; Escámez, Teresa; Júdez, Javier; Martínez, Salvador; Kessler, Ron C.; Alonso, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background To describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and age of onset distribution of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) disorders and to explore the association between socio-demographic variables and economic stressors with mental disorders during the economic crisis in the general population of Murcia (Spain). Methods and Findings The PEGASUS-Murcia Project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia administered between June 2010 and May 2012. DSM-IV disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Main outcome measures were lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Anxiety, Mood, Impulse and Substance Disorders, Severity and Age of Onset. Sociodemographic variables and stressful economic life events during the preceding 12 months were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. A total of 2,621 participants (67.4% response rate) were interviewed, 54.5% female, mean age 48.6 years. Twelve-month prevalence (95%CI) of disorders: anxiety 9.7% (7.6–12.2), mood 6.6% (5.5–8.1), impulse 0.3% (0.1–1.2) and substance use 1.0% (0.4–2.4) disorders. Lifetime prevalence: anxiety 15.0% (12.3–18.1), mood 15.6% (13.5–18.1), impulse 2.4% (1.4–4.0) and substance use 8.3% (6.2–11.0) disorders. Severity among 12-month cases: serious 29.2% (20.8–39.4), moderate 35.6% (24.0–49.1) and mild severity 35.2% (29.5–41.5). Women were 3.7 and 2.5 times more likely than men to suffer 12-month anxiety and mood disorders, respectively. Substance use was more frequent among men. Younger age and lower income were associated with higher prevalence. Respondents exposed to multiple and recent economic stressors had the highest risk of anxiety disorders. Conclusions Mental disorders in the adult population of Murcia during the economic crisis were more prevalent and serious than those in previous

  9. Golden Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that architects, musicians and other thoughtful people have, since the time of Pythagoras, been fascinated by various harmonious proportions. One, is the visual harmony attributed to Euclid, called "the golden section". He explores this concept in geometries of one, two and three dimensions. He added, that in…

  10. Content and composition of the essential oil of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert from some European countries.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain; Arak, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert from different European countries were determined. A total of 39 components were identified, representing over 92% of the total oil yield. The principal biologically active compounds in chamomile oils were bisabolol oxide A (3.1-56.0%), alpha-bisabolol (0.1-44.2%), bisabolol oxide B (3.9-27.2%), cis-enyne-bicycloether (8.8-26.1%), bisabolon oxide A (0.5-24.8%), chamazulene (0.7-15.3%), spathulenol (1.7-4.8%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (2.3-6.6%). In 8 chamomile samples from 13, bisabolol oxide A (27.5-56.0%) was predominant (among them in three Estonian samples). alpha-Bisabolol (23.9-44.2%) was predominant in the samples from Moldova, Russia and the Czech Republic. The sample from Armenia was rich in bisabolol oxide B (27.2%) and chamazulene (15.3%). The oils were obtained in yields of 0.7-6.7 mL kg(-1) and the minimum limit of 4 mL kg(-1) stated by the European Pharmacopoeia was exceeded only in 13 samples from 13 analysed drugs. PMID:20013472

  11. Collaborative study for establishment of a European Pharmacopoei Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for B19 virus DNA testing of plasma pools by nucleic acid amplification technique.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C M; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the collaborative study was to calibrate the B19 DNA content of a candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) that is intended to be used for the validation of the analytical procedure, as threshold control and/or as quantitative reference material in the Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique (NAT) test of plasma pools for detection of B19 contamination. The candidate BRP was calibrated against the 1st International Standard for B19 DNA NAT assays. According to the European Pharmacopoeia monograph Human anti-D immunoglobulin, the threshold control needs to have a titre of 10( 4) IU/ml of B19 virus DNA. The lyophilised candidate BRP was prepared from 0.5 ml aliquots of a plasma pool spiked with B19 virus. The B19 virus originated from a "B19 virus window phase" blood donation (anti-B19 negative, B19-DNA high titre positive) and was diluted in a plasma pool tested negative by both serological and NAT assays for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 to obtain a B19-DNA concentration level in the range of 10( 6) copies/ml. The residual water content of the lyophilised candidate BRP was determined as 0.98 +/- 0.65% (mean +/- relative standard deviation). Sixteen laboratories (Official Medicine Control Laboratories, manufacturers of plasma derivatives, NAT test laboratories and NAT kit manufacturers) from nine countries participated. Participants were requested to test the candidate BRP and the International Standard (99/800) in four independent test runs on different days using their in-house qualitative and/or quantitative NAT methods. Sixteen laboratories reported results. Thirteen laboratories reported results from qualitative assays and 5 laboratories reported results from quantitative assays. Two laboratories reported results from both types of assay. For the qualitative assays a weighted combined potency of 5.64 log( 10) IU/ml with 95 per cent confidence limits of +/- 0.17 log( 10) which corresponds to 67 to 150

  12. Collaborative study for establishment of a European Pharmacopoei Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for B19 virus DNA testing of plasma pools by nucleic acid amplification technique.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C M; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the collaborative study was to calibrate the B19 DNA content of a candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) that is intended to be used for the validation of the analytical procedure, as threshold control and/or as quantitative reference material in the Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique (NAT) test of plasma pools for detection of B19 contamination. The candidate BRP was calibrated against the 1st International Standard for B19 DNA NAT assays. According to the European Pharmacopoeia monograph Human anti-D immunoglobulin, the threshold control needs to have a titre of 10( 4) IU/ml of B19 virus DNA. The lyophilised candidate BRP was prepared from 0.5 ml aliquots of a plasma pool spiked with B19 virus. The B19 virus originated from a "B19 virus window phase" blood donation (anti-B19 negative, B19-DNA high titre positive) and was diluted in a plasma pool tested negative by both serological and NAT assays for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 to obtain a B19-DNA concentration level in the range of 10( 6) copies/ml. The residual water content of the lyophilised candidate BRP was determined as 0.98 +/- 0.65% (mean +/- relative standard deviation). Sixteen laboratories (Official Medicine Control Laboratories, manufacturers of plasma derivatives, NAT test laboratories and NAT kit manufacturers) from nine countries participated. Participants were requested to test the candidate BRP and the International Standard (99/800) in four independent test runs on different days using their in-house qualitative and/or quantitative NAT methods. Sixteen laboratories reported results. Thirteen laboratories reported results from qualitative assays and 5 laboratories reported results from quantitative assays. Two laboratories reported results from both types of assay. For the qualitative assays a weighted combined potency of 5.64 log( 10) IU/ml with 95 per cent confidence limits of +/- 0.17 log( 10) which corresponds to 67 to 150

  13. Education and European Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, John

    1992-01-01

    Reviews implications for education and training of the movement toward integration among European Community nations and the end of Communist governments. Discusses common concerns for new Europe, including data sharing, teacher training, educational quality, disadvantaged learners, demographic and employment trends, European Studies curricula, and…

  14. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  15. The hookworm pharmacopoeia for inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Severine; Ferreira, Ivana; Loukas, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In the developed world, declining prevalence of parasitic infections correlates with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders. Current treatments for these chronic inflammatory conditions have little to no effect on their prevalence and are referred to as "controllers" rather than cures. There has been limited success in therapeutically targeting allergic and autoimmune pathways, leaving an unmet need for development of effective anti-inflammatories. We discuss the benefit of hookworm infections and the parasite's ability to condition the immune system to prevent allergic asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases. We then examine the immunomodulatory properties of selected hookworm-derived proteins in these two models of inflammation. While hookworm protein therapy has yet to be fully exploited, the identification of these proteins and the mechanisms by which they skew the immune system will provide new avenues for controlling and optimally reversing key pathological processes important in allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  16. Pharming Pharmacopoeia: Living Apothecaries from the Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baden, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    The quest for, and development of, new drugs to treat extant and emerging diseases is an interdisciplinary effort, often requiring isolation of pro-drugs from new organisms, environments, and species followed by activity measurement. Exploitation of cultivated microalgae from marine sources has produced some of the most potent natural biological agents known, with specific receptor-mediated activities in pulmonary medicine, toxicology, cancer chemotherapy, the cardiovascular system, central and peripheral nervous system, and in dermatology. Our recent discovery that one class of marine-derived molecule promotes trans-membrane transport, a second that enhances mucus secretion, and a third which is an inhibitor of inflammation--- all isolated from the same organism, highlights the increasingly broad potential for innovative exploitation of natural products that occur in marine microalgae. Approaches that include interdisciplinary teams, permanent innovation, and disruptive technologies all will be described in the context of discoveries made in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, in the improvement of drug efficacy, and in the development of multiple for translational sciences in the ocean and health arenas.

  17. Promoting European Dimensions in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John, Ed.

    This collection of 19 essays shares the lessons of a wealth of experience and challenges professionals to open up adult learning to a variety of international perspectives. The first essay, "Building a European Dimension: A Realistic Response to Globalization?" (John Field), is an introduction to the essays. The six essays in Section I, Learning…

  18. Section at Frame 195, Section at Frame 154, Section at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section at Frame 195, Section at Frame 154, Section at Midship, Section at Frame 45, Longitudinal Section at Reinforced Bow Structure - US Coast Guard Icebreaker Glacier, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  19. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  20. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  1. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  2. European Union Regulations.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has been a leader in the development of both guidance and regulations to ensure food safety throughout the member states. Because of the free movement of food commodities among the countries that belong to the European Union, there is a great need to assure high quality monitoring of both imported food and member state products. The procedures and methods required need to be practical, state-of-the art, and harmonised. The European Commission has developed a network of laboratories and scientific studies to meet this goal. This chapter describes the current Regulations, Directives and Decisions of the European Commission that protect the food supply throughout Europe. Because imported food needs to comply with the EU requirements, and the need to have common compliance throughout the member states, the developed system could be a worldwide template for monitoring the food supply. In addition, the integral role of chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry is described.

  3. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.; EST Team

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project to design, build and operate an European Solar 4-meter class telescope to be located in the Canary Islands, with the participation of institutions from fifteen European countries gathered around the consortium EAST (European Association for Solar Telescopes). The project main objective up to the present has been the development of the conceptual design study (DS) of a large aperture Solar Telescope. The study has demonstrated the scientific, technical and financial feasibility of EST. The DS has been possible thanks to the co-financing allocated specifically by the EU and the combined efforts of all the participant institutions. Different existing alternatives have been analysed for all telescope systems and subsystems, and decisions have been taken on the ones that are most compatible with the scientific goals and the technical strategies. The present status of some subsystems is reviewed in this paper.

  4. European Stroke Science Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  5. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  6. [Catalogue of learning goals for pregraduate education in geriatric medicine. A recommendation of the German Geriatric Society (DGG), the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (ÖGGG) and the Swiss Society of Geriatric Medicine (SFGG) on the basis of recommendations of the European Union of Medical Specialists Geriatric Medicine Section (UEMS-GMS) 2013].

    PubMed

    Singler, K; Stuck, A E; Masud, T; Goeldlin, A; Roller, R E

    2014-11-01

    Sound knowledge in the care and management of geriatric patients is essential for doctors in almost all medical subspecialties. Therefore, it is important that pregraduate medical education adequately covers the field of geriatric medicine. However, in most medical faculties in Europe today, learning objectives in geriatric medicine are often substandard or not even explicitly addressed. As a first step to encourage undergraduate teaching in geriatric medicine, the European Union of Medical Specialists -Geriatric Medicine Section (UEMS-GMS) recently developed a catalogue of learning goals using a modified Delphi technique in order to encourage education in this field. This catalogue of learning objectives for geriatric medicine focuses on the minimum requirements with specific learning goals in knowledge, skills and attitudes that medical students should have acquired by the end of their studies.In order to ease the implementation of this new, competence-based curriculum among the medical faculties in universities teaching in the German language, the authors translated the published English language curriculum into German and adapted it according to medical language and terms used at German-speaking medical faculties and universities of Austria, Germany and Switzerland. This article contains the final German translation of the curriculum. The Geriatric Medicine Societies of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland formally endorse the present curriculum and recommend that medical faculties adapt their curricula for undergraduate teaching based on this catalogue.

  7. European Education, European Citizenship? On the Role of Education in Constructing Europeanness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollikainen, Aaro

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) education programs in fostering a sense of European citizenship. Addresses the five meanings given to the concept of European citizenship: (1) recognition of European heritage; (2) EU loyalty; (3) right of free movement; (4) political participation; and (5) active citizenship. (CMK)

  8. The European nitrogen case.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Klaas; Bresser, Ton; Bouwman, Lex

    2002-03-01

    The N budget for Europe (excluding the former Soviet Union) indicates that the 3 principal driving forces of the acceleration of the European N cycle are fertilizer production (14 Mt (mill. tonnes) N yr-1), fossil fuel combustion and other industry (3.3 Mt N yr-1) and import of N in various products (7.6 Mt N yr-1). The various leaks of reactive N species from European food, energy and industrial production systems are estimated and their effects on human health and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are assessed. Future European environmental policy measures to close the N cycle and to reduce leaks of reactive N can best focus on the three major driving forces, taking into consideration the possible consequences in the N cascade. Critical loads may be useful tools in determining N-emission ceilings and developing integrated policies for regulating N flows such as fertilizer use and imports and N levels.

  9. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  10. INTERIOR FROM WESTERN SECTION, THROUGH CENTRAL SECTION, TO EASTERN SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FROM WESTERN SECTION, THROUGH CENTRAL SECTION, TO EASTERN SECTION, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Trends in European English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Robert

    It is proposed that a European variety of English without native speakers is emerging as a language of international communication in Europe. This is a consequence of many factors, including the strength of the American economy, the breadth and depth of American research in science and technology, the pervasive influence of American-style popular…

  12. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  13. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  14. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  15. The European Economic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchart, Kelvin

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that social studies students need to realize the relationship of the European Economic Community to the United States in order to understand the trade bonds that exist between us. Briefly reviews the history of the Community, outlines its Common Agricultural Policy, and provides situations for classroom role playing. (JDH)

  16. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  17. Floor Plans: Section "AA", Section "BB"; Floor Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B"; Floor Framing Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  18. Legal requirements for the quality of herbal substances and herbal preparations for the manufacturing of herbal medicinal products in the European union.

    PubMed

    Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed. PMID:19204891

  19. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  20. Telemedicine and European law.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues. PMID:15074761

  1. FMD vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in European disease control policy.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, K; Goris, N; Barnett, P V; MacKay, D K

    2008-01-01

    Most foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the OIE Manual and, for Europe, in the European Pharmacopoeia, and for the EU Member States in compliance with Directive 2001/82/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by Directive 2004/28/EC. Most of the requirements that apply to all immunological veterinary medicinal products apply equally to FMD vaccines. There are, however, some unique features of the disease and vaccines used against it that require a different approach to fulfil the requirements of the relevant legislation, if a vaccinate-to-live policy will be applied with 'authorized' vaccines. Several aspects of vaccine efficacy and safety are elaborated with emphasis on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). The purity of the vaccine in respect of the presence of non-structural protein antibodies could be checked indirectly by serology after vaccination. The viability of a vaccine bank approach was greatly aided by the principle of storing inactivated concentrated FMD viral antigen (Ag) over liquid nitrogen for subsequent formulation into vaccine. A worldwide Ag bank network might be an option for the far future and a solution to the problem of covering many different FMDV serotypes and strains. The producers should respect the strict FMD biosecurity rules worked out by the FAO EUFMD and described in Council Directive 2003/85/EC. Making the experience related to vaccine QA/QC available to all countries will reduce the risk of an FMD outbreak within these countries and consequently will reduce the FMD risk around the world.

  2. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. PMID:26819058

  3. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients.

  4. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  5. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  6. EAC: The European Astronauts Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, Andres

    The newly established European Astronauts Centre (EAC) in Cologne represents the European Astronauts Home Base and will become a centre of expertise on European astronauts activities. The paper gives an overview of the European approach to man-in-space, describes the European Astronauts Policy and presents the major EAC roles and responsibilities including the management of selection, recruitment and flight assignment of astronauts; the astronauts support and medical surveillance; the supervision of the astronauts' non-flight assignments; crew safety; the definition of the overall astronauts training programme; the scheduling and supervision of the training facilities; the implementation of Basic Training; the recruitment, training and certification of instructors, and the interface to NASA in the framework of the Space Station Freedom programme. An overview is given on the organisation of EAC, and on the European candidate astronauts selection performed in 1991.

  7. The first modern Europeans.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that modern humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known.

  8. European drought trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    Recent climate projections suggest pronounced changes in European drought frequency. In the north, increased precipitation volumes are likely to reduce drought occurrence, whereas more frequent droughts are expected for southern Europe. To assess whether this pattern of changes in drought frequency can already be identified for the past decades, we analyse trends in a recently developed pan-European drought climatology that is based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The index is derived on multiple time scales, ranging from 1 to 36 months, which allows the assessment of trends in both short term and multi-year droughts. Trends are quantified using the Theil-Sen trend estimator combined with an extension of the Mann-Kendal test (p < 0.05) that accounts for serial correlation. Field significance is assessed on the basis of techniques that control the false discovery rate in a multiple testing setting. The trend analysis indicates that changes in drought frequency are more pronounced on time scales of one year and longer. The analysis also reveals that there has been a tendency for decreased drought frequency in northern Europe in the past decades, whereas droughts have likely become more frequent in selected southern regions.

  9. The harmonization of the regulation of blood products: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Seitz, R; Heiden, M; Nübling, C M; Unger, G; Löwer, J

    2008-05-01

    The development of blood products as medicines initially took place on the national level in various countries, which resulted in considerable diversity of mechanisms and stringency of regulatory oversight. The scenario changed dramatically with the catastrophic experience that severe virus infections had been transmitted by blood products world-wide. Blood products, which had been regulated differently in the member states, became subject to the European pharmaceutical legislation in 1989. A specialized directive regulating the blood transfusion sector and the collection of plasma for fractionation was enacted in 2002. The European Community, particularly the Commission and the European Medicines Agency, is continuously refining the requirements, providing detailed technical and scientific guidance. In addition, institutions of the Council of Europe play an important role in the transfusion sector, the elaboration of the European Pharmacopoeia prescriptions, and the co-ordination of Official Medicines Control Laboratory or Laboratories batch release. However, further and sustained efforts towards international harmonization are needed. There are already important mechanisms in place, such as the International Conference on Harmonization initiative, which is producing internationally recognized guidelines on central issues. Another important achievement is the common technical document format, which enables the use of uniform applications for marketing authorization. However, there is still room for progress, for example, questions regarding regulatory requirements for licensing of in vitro diagnostic devices, or mutual recognition of inspections. The World Health Organization continues to play an important role in harmonization, both substantially by the production of high-level guidance documents or the establishment of physical international standard preparations, and in a more general sense by providing a platform for international collaboration. A very

  10. Manpower and portfolio of European ENT.

    PubMed

    Luxenberger, W; Lahousen, T; Mollenhauer, H; Freidl, W

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate highly variable ENT manpower among European countries. A descriptive study design is used. Manpower in medicine is highly variable among European countries. EU and associated countries are keeping officially appointed representatives to the European Union of medical specialists--otorhinolaryngology section (UEMS--ORL section). UEMS--ORL section is running a working group for manpower in ENT collecting data regarding demographics and ENT manpower in European countries. These ENT manpower data are presented in this paper and compared to available data concerning manpower in European medicine in general. To further evaluate these huge differences, representatives of the particular countries were also asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning specifics of ENT healthcare in their country. Furthermore, typical tasks of ENT doctors based on the official UEMS logbook for ENT training were listed and could be rated regarding their frequency, performed in everyday routine of an average ENT doctor of the country. Divergences in doctors/inhabitants ratios were remarkable within European countries, but disparities in ENT manpower were even more so. The ratio of ENT doctors/inhabitants was the lowest in Ireland (1:80,000) and Great Britain (1:65,000). Greece (1:10,000), Italy, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia (1:12,000) were--at the time of the study--the countries with the highest density of ENT doctors. The EU average for 2009 was (1:21,000). The presence of non-surgical working ENT doctors was significantly associated with higher densities of ENT doctors, whereas the necessity of being referred to an ENT doctor (gatekeeping or similar measures) was not. Estimated average waiting times for an appointment in non-urgent, chronic conditions, respectively, diseases were highly variable and predominantly showed a significant correlation to the ENT doctors/inhabitants ratio in the investigated countries. But also for acute

  11. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document

    PubMed Central

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine ‘sections’ in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. PMID:26819058

  12. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation I will describe the current status of the European Solar Telescope (EST) project. The EST design has a 4-m aperture to achieve both a large photon collection and very high spatial resolution. It includes a multi-conjugate adaptive system integrated in the light path for diffraction-limited imaging. The optical train is optimized to minimize instrumental polarization and to keep it nearly constant as the telescope tracks the sky. A suite of visible and infrared instruments are planned with a light distribution system that accomodates full interoperability and simultaneous usage. The science drivers emphasize combined observations at multiple heights in the atmosphere to build a connected view of solar magnetism from the photosphere to the corona.

  13. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  14. European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

  15. Patterns of contraceptive use in 5 European countries. European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity.

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, A; Talamanca, I F; Lauria, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The use of contraception in Denmark, Germany, Poland, Italy, and Spain is described. METHODS: Data were drawn from a population-based cross-sectional study, the European Study of Infertility and Subfecundity. Interviews were conducted with 6630 women aged 25 to 44 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of factors associated with contraceptive use. RESULTS: Residents of Northern European countries tended to use more effective methods of contraception than residents of Southern European countries. The use of contraception was generally more common among single women, the more highly educated, those with children, and those with a previous induced abortion. These characteristics were also the main determinants of the use of more effective methods. Periodic abstinence and withdrawal were more common among older women. CONCLUSIONS: The European countries are in different phases of contraceptive practice: in Northern and Western Europe, use of more modern methods has been stable over the past 10 years, whereas these methods are less common in Southern and Eastern Europe. The results suggest the need for information, education, and provision of contraceptive services in Eastern and Southern Europe. PMID:10983197

  16. Vascular surgery: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1999-09-01

    Isaac Newton, among others, observed that 'we see so far because we are standing upon the shoulders of giants'. In vascular surgery most of the giants have been European, and this is a heritage which we as Europeans can take pride in and build upon if we chose to do so. As in other areas of life, commitment is essential in order to influence the future. For vascular surgeons in Europe this means active participation in the European scientific societies for vascular surgery and in the UEMS. The main value of the EBSQ.VASC assessments to date has been to expose the uneven standards of training in vascular surgery within the European Union. Only if action follows to address these inequalities will the tactics of the European Board of Vascular Surgery be vindicated.

  17. Resource Guide to Teaching Aids in Russian and East European Studies. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This document contains an annotated listing of instructional aids for Russian and East European studies that are available for loan or rent from Indiana University (Bloomington). The materials are divided into nine sections: (1) slide programs; (2) filmstrips available from the Indiana University (IU) Russian and East European Institute; (3) audio…

  18. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European...

  2. European MEMS foundries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  3. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  4. The European convention on bioethics.

    PubMed

    de Wachter, M A

    1997-01-01

    Nearly fifteen years after the Council of Europe first called for a pan-European convention on issues in bioethics to harmonize disparate national regulations, in November 1996 the council's Committee of Ministers approved the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine for formal adoption. The draft convention, released in July 1994, provoked strong public, professional, and governmental debate among European nations, particularly regarding provisions for biomedical research with subjects unable to give informed consent. If ratified, the "bioethics convention" will become the first such document to have binding force internationally.

  5. Interactions between European Citizenship and Language Learning among Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennebry, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) has created debate as to the suitability of current structures and policies for effectively engaging citizens and developing social cohesion. Education and specifically modern foreign language (MFL) teaching are argued by the literature to play a key role in equipping young people to interact and…

  6. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    PubMed

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice.

  7. European tests on materials outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwaal, A.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to international coordination of spacecraft materials, a number of European firms and institutes performed outgassing tests on identical materials at 125 C in high vacuum. The outgassing data obtained with the different types of equipment is presented and both the results and the critical parameters are discussed.

  8. The European NEO Coordination Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perozzi, E.; Borgia, B.; Micheli, M.

    An operational approach to NEO (Near-Earth Object) hazard monitoring has been developed at European level within the framework of the Space Situational Awareness Program (SSA) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through federating European assets and profiting of the expertise developed in European Universities and Research Centers, it has been possible to start the deployment of the so-called SSA NEO Segment. This initiative aims to provide a significant contribution to the worldwide effort to the discovery, follow-up and characterization of the near-Earth object population. A major achievement has been the inauguration in May 2013 of the ESA NEO Coordination Centre located at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy). The goal of the NEOCC Precursor Service operations is twofold: to make available updated information on the NEO population and the associated hazard and to contribute to optimize the NEO observational efforts. This is done by maintaining and improving a Web Portal publicly available at http://neo.ssa.esa.int and by performing follow-up observations through a network of collaborating telescopes and facilities. An overview of the SSA-NEO System and a summary of the first two years of NEOCC operations is presented.

  9. Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for…

  10. Phased Retirement: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Constance

    This report provides United States corporate and union policymakers with practical information on one alternative work pattern for older employees--phased retirement--from European colleagues who already have implemented or negotiated specific phasing programs. An introduction provides details on the collection of information from companies in…

  11. Attitudes of Europeans toward Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageing International, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two Commission of European Communities surveys of people over age 15 and of those over 60 demonstrated a widespread belief that older people deserve public support and services and face employment discrimination. Socioeconomic factors influenced older people's sense of security and life satisfaction. Positive intergenerational attitudes appeared.…

  12. European association of tissue banks.

    PubMed

    Cahane, Michael; van Baare, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Tissue banking is a specific field of medical practice. The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) is a scientific nonprofit organization that coordinates and supports aspects of tissue banking within Europe. The evolvement, structure and principal fields of interest and activities of the EATB are described.

  13. BSE : the European regulatory context.

    PubMed

    Chalus, T; Peutz, I

    2000-10-01

    The Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy crisis provoked a fundamental re-appraisal of the way in which the European Community approaches matters of food safety. Between 28 July 1989, when restrictions on the dispatch of certain live cattle from the UK starte PMID:12631966

  14. European astronaut training in Houston.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, O

    1993-11-01

    Three European astronauts are currently training as Space Shuttle Mission Specialists at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. Two of the astronauts, Maurizio Cheli and Jean-Francois Clervoy, recently became members of NASA's 'astronaut pool' and have entered the Advanced Training phase. The third one, Claude Nicollier, is now preparing for the mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope in December.

  15. OER: A European Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquézar Sabadie, Jesús Maria; Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Puni, Yves; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of OER have led many European governments to implement policies supporting their creation and use. This chapter aims to put these OER policies in context, discussing their focus and scope and highlighting challenges and bottlenecks. On the basis of the analysis of the current state of the art, it is argued that one of main…

  16. European Year of Languages, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This document is a folder full of brochures describing the activities of Council of Europe and the European Union to celebrate 2001 as a year of languages in order to celebrate the linguistic diversity of Europe and promote the many opportunities available for lifelong language learning. A number of facts and figures about the languages of Europe…

  17. Adolescent Leisure across European Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August; Schaffner, Brigitta

    2003-01-01

    Examined variations in adolescent time use within Europe and their relation to culture, focusing on organization of free time, most frequent leisure activities, and resulting emotional states. Found that European adolescents spent free time in a range of activities, including electronic media, computer games, playing musical instruments, reading,…

  18. Mathematical Modelling in European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Rita Borromeo

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning of mathematical modelling has become a key competence within school curricula and educational standards in many countries of the world. The term mathematical modelling, its meaning, and how it can be implemented in mathematics lessons have been intensively discussed during several Conferences of the European Society for…

  19. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  20. Sectional device handling tool

    DOEpatents

    Candee, Clark B.

    1988-07-12

    Apparatus for remotely handling a device in an irradiated underwater environment includes a plurality of tubular sections interconnected end-to-end to form a handling structure, the bottom section being adapted for connection to the device. A support section is connected to the top tubular section and is adapted to be suspended from an overhead crane. Each section is flanged at its opposite ends. Axially retractable bolts in each bottom flange are threadedly engageable with holes in the top flange of an adjacent section, each bolt being biased to its retracted position and retained in place on the bottom flange. Guide pins on each top flange cooperate with mating holes on adjacent bottom flanges to guide movement of the parts to the proper interconnection orientation. Each section carries two hydraulic line segments provided with quick-connect/disconnect fittings at their opposite ends for connection to the segments of adjacent tubular sections upon interconnection thereof to form control lines which are connectable to the device and to an associated control console.

  1. Bylaws for GP Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Individual sections of AGU are governed by collections of bylaws adopted by each membership. The GP Section, at the present time, has no bylaws. Such a document would include articles defining the name, objectives, and membership of the section. Also present would be a description of officers (president, president-elect, and secretary), their duties, nomination and election procedures, and information on committees, meetings, and publications. The GP Section now functions by following some standard, although unwritten, procedures. The usual bylaws used by AGU sections would not change any of the functions or procedures used by our section but would put in writing the structure that we follow. It is possible, in the membership clause, to allow members to be affiliated with more than one section and to no longer claim only a “primary” section. The GP Executive Committee intends to discuss the possibility of adopting our own bylaws at the spring business meeting. We would appreciate any input from GP membership on this topic prior to May. Please direct your comments to Laurie Brown or Subir Banerjee (addresses above).

  2. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine...

  3. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the different…

  4. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The European Space Agency's third Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-3) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from the European space port in Kourou, French Guiana, at 12:34 a.m. EDT Friday, beginning a si...

  5. New head picked for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The UK physicist John Womersley is to become the next director-general of the €1.8bn European Spallation Source (ESS), which is currently being built in Lund, Sweden, by a 17-member consortium of European countries.

  6. European physics impact - to a first approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starckx, Senne

    2013-05-01

    Physics-based industries contributed around 14%, or €3800bn, to the total value of the European economy in 2010 - exceeding that of the construction and retail sectors combined - according to a report by the European Physical Society (EPS).

  7. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  8. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education policy, as…

  9. Advanced Placement European History: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaber, Lawrence

    A new approach to the teaching of European history is being implemented in Advanced Placement secondary classes. In the latter 1950's a Committee of Examiners composed of European history professors and secondary teachers formulated a course description comprised of a brief outline of an introductory survey in European history. It was organized…

  10. European Community Databases: Online to Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Colin

    1989-01-01

    Describes three groups of databases sponsored by the European Communities Commission: Eurobases, a textual database of the contents of the "Official Journal" of the European Community; the European Community Host Organization (ECHO) databases, which offer multilingual information about Europe; and statistical databases. Information on access and…

  11. How Is European Governance Configuring the EHEA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhães, António; Veiga, Amélia; Sousa, Sofia; Ribeiro, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the European dimension driven by the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the development of national reforms to fulfil that objective. On the basis of data gathered in eight countries involved in EuroHESC project TRUE (Transforming European Universities), the curricular and the…

  12. Developing a European Identity: A Case Study of the European School at Culham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savvides, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Encouraging pupils to develop a sense of European identity is one of the implicit aims of the "European Schools". This paper reports on a small case study that was carried out in 2004 that investigated how the European School at Culham attempts to develop in its pupils a sense of European identity. In particular, the study looked at the secondary…

  13. Making Citizens, Being European? European Symbolism in Slovenian Citizenship Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banjac, Marinko; Pušnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Citizenship education has been an important part of the European Union's (EU) agenda to integrate a European dimension into schools' curricula. The usage of European symbolism in citizenship education curriculum material has been an especially important (yet understudied) means not only to promote a distinct European identity and increase…

  14. Utility straight sections

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, B.; Peggs, S.; Peterson, J.

    1985-10-01

    Utility straight sections are insertions in the SSC lattice to provide relatively free space to facilitate various beam manipulations. These uses include beam-abort, injection (and conceivably ejection), space for the rf system, and collimation. A typical utility straight section is 1500 meters in overall length (ranging from 500 to 1200 meters). It has zero dispersion and high values of the beta functions. The betatron phase shift across the insertion is about 90{degrees} in each plane.

  15. European standardisation of hearing protectors.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, E

    2005-01-01

    European legislation based on the New Approach requires that technical requirements for products are given in harmonised European standards. The Directive 89/686/EEC on Personal Protective Equipment came into force in 1995. The existence of product and testing standards is a prerequisite for the effective implementation of the directive. There was a need to develop several standards in a very short time period and the basic standards for hearing protectors have already been revised once. It is important to continue the validation of the standardised testing methods and requirement levels. This requires good co-operation and research between test laboratories and research institutes, especially as it is necessary to ensure new products comply with these technical requirements.

  16. Traceability from a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Schwägele, F

    2005-09-01

    At pan-European level there is a need for traceability systems giving information on origin, processing, retailing and final destination of foodstuffs. Such systems shall enhance consumer confidence in food; enable the regulatory authorities to identify and to withdraw health hazardous and non-consumable foodstuffs from the market. Animal feeds are an element in this "food-to-farm" approach to public health. Such feedstuffs are preliminary elements of some foods for human consumption, and hence are an inherent element of the food chain. A harmonised pan-European food traceability protocol would greatly assist authorities in detecting fraud as well as dangerous substances. The food chain comprises a range of sequential and parallel stages bridging the full spectrum from agricultural production to the consumable foodstuffs by consumers. EU legislation on traceability and the technologies needed to implement this system for meat and meat products are the focus of this paper. PMID:22064062

  17. Security Economics and European Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  18. Biosimilar insulins: a European perspective

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, J H; Gough, S C L; Kiljanski, J; Heinemann, L

    2015-01-01

    Biosimilar insulins are likely to enter clinical practice in Europe in the near future. It is important that clinicians are familiar with and understand the concept of biosimilarity and how a biosimilar drug may differ from its reference product. The present article provides an overview of biosimilars, the European regulatory requirements for biosimilars and safety issues. It also summarizes the current biosimilars approved in Europe and the key clinical issues associated with the use of biosimilar insulins. PMID:25376600

  19. Progress in European CELSS activities.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I

    1987-01-01

    The European CELSS activities started in the late 1970's with system analysis and feasibility studies of Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). Since then the European efforts have continued in two major directions: as a series of individual development tasks like the Environmental Life Support System and the Solar Plant Growth Facility, and in parallel hereto as overall coordination and planning activities for life support system long term needs definition and payload definition for COLUMBUS utilization. The early initiations for CELSS came from the industry side in Europe, but since then planning and hardware feasibility analyses have been initiated also from customer/agency side. Despite this, it is still to early to state that a "CELSS-programme" as a "concerted" effort has been agreed upon in Europe. However, the general CELSS objectives have been accepted as planning and possible development goals for the European effort for manned space activities, and as experimental planning topics in the life sciences community for the next decades.

  20. Progress in European CELSS activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The European Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) activities started in the late 1970's with system analysis and feasibility studies of Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). The initiation for CELSS came from the industry side in Europe, but since then planning and hardware feasibility analyses have been initiated also from customer/agency side. Despite this, it is still too early to state that a CELSS program as a concerted effort has been agreed upon in Europe. However, the general CELSS objectives were accepted as planning and possible development goals for the European effort for manned space activities, and as experimental planning topics in the life sciences community for the next decades. It is expected that ecological life support systems can be tested and implemented on a space station towards the end of this century or early in the next. For the European activities a possible scenario can be projected based on ongoing life support system development activities and the present life sciences goals.

  1. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  2. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-08

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  3. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  4. The legacy of the European Geotraverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, D. J.

    1999-12-01

    The European Geotraverse (EGT) created a 4600-km profile across Europe from North Cape Norway to Tunisia. Not only did this produce the first comprehensive cross-section to a depth of 450 km of continental lithosphere covering an eighth of the Earth's circumference, it covered the geological history of Europe from the Archaean to the present. EGT built up a detailed knowledge of the crust and upper mantle of Europe by integrating geological and geophysical information in a coherent way, continuously along a single profile. It illuminated the dramatic contrast between the thickness and complexity of the lithosphere of western Europe and that of Fennoscandia, which remain in isostatic equilibrium, and elucidated the multilayered elements of thickened Alpine crust and lithosphere and the dynamics of the western Mediterranean. Nine years on, the legacy of EGT is the platform it provided for major scientific advances that have stemmed from it, the greatest being through EUROPROBE projects. The PANCARDI project has discovered the subducted slab beneath the Carpathian Arc in the process of tearing apart from the lithosphere. URALIDES has discovered the Urals orogen is almost perfectly preserved since the Palaeozoic, and the TESZ project has elucidated the complex evolution of the transitional region between the Baltic Shield and the Caledonian and Variscan crustal terranes of western Europe. The scientific advances of EGT were matched by its achievement in mobilising an international workforce from every discipline of the Earth sciences. Friendships made in that endeavour are another legacy of EGT and many of those who started their research careers in EGT are now leading EUROPROBE projects and other collaborative ventures. We all owe a great debt to Professor Stephan Mueller who founded and led the European Geotraverse and was its enduring inspiration.

  5. European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology.

    PubMed

    van Rijsselt, René J T; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in the field of gerontology in the European Nordic countries is elaborated. Third, two postgraduate Gerontology and Geriatrics programs offered by the European Centre of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Malta are presented. In 1995, the Centre was designated a WHO Collaborating Centre for healthy aging. To provide a context for these initiatives, a short overview is presented of developments in the European Higher Education Area, and the current state and recent developments in gerontology training in Europe is elaborated. The article concludes with discussion of the feasibility and sustainability of European internationalization efforts in education and training in gerontology.

  6. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    PubMed

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  7. On abelian birational sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esnault, Helene; Wittenberg, Olivier

    2010-07-01

    For a smooth and geometrically irreducible variety X over a field k , the quotient of the absolute Galois group G_{k(X)} by the commutator subgroup of G_{bar k(X)} projects onto G_k . We investigate the sections of this projection. We show that such sections correspond to ``infinite divisions'' of the elementary obstruction of Colliot-Thelene and Sansuc. If k is a number field and the Tate-Shafarevich group of the Picard variety of X is finite, then such sections exist if and only if the elementary obstruction vanishes. For curves this condition also amounts to the existence of divisors of degree 1 . Finally we show that the vanishing of the elementary obstruction is not preserved by extensions of scalars.

  8. Roof Plans: Section "CC", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof Plans: Section "C-C", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section "C-C", Section "D-D"; Roof Framing Sections: Cross Section "G-G", Cross Section "H-H" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  9. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  10. Section workshop, field trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Diane

    The formation of a new Membership Committee to strengthen recruitment of members to the Biogeosciences Section was one of the outcomes of the “Biogeosciences on the Threshold” workshop held March 23-25, 2001. Eighteen biogeoscientists gathered near Baltimore, Maryland, to discuss future research themes, as well as the direction and structure of the new section.The Membership Committee is chaired by Max Holmes and will coordinate with AGU staff in recruiting scientists from the biogeosciences to join AGU. If you are interested in being involved in recruitment or have suggestions for groups to contact, please get in touch with Max Holmes (rholmes@mbl.edu).

  11. The Golden Section Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjafield, J.; Adams-Webber, J.

    1976-01-01

    The golden section is a proportion the aesthetic properties of which have been extolled since antiquity. The data from five experiments in which subjects made dichotomous judgements of acquaintances on bipolar dimensions (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant) were reported. (Editor)

  12. The Golden Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runion, Garth E.

    The Golden Section, also known as the "Golden Mean" and the "Divine Proportion," is a ratio found in art and nature that has mathematical properties. This book explores these geometric and algebraic properties in a variety of activities. Construction problems, designs using the pentagon and pentagram, and opportunities to work through proofs are…

  13. Women's Section Liquidated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented of the business conducted during the American Vocational Association's (AVA) Trade and Industrial Education Division Policy Committee meeting at the AVA's 1975 Convention. A revision of operating policies dissolved the Women's Section; other issues were postponed. (AJ)

  14. [Cesarean section through history].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Ashwal, Eran; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat

    2014-11-01

    According to historic documents, delivery by abdominal and uterine incision was already known to mankind at the beginning of the second millennium BC. This delivery method was eventually referred to as "Cesarean Section" because it was wrongfully attributed to the way by which Julius Caesar was born. The indications for cesarean sections performed in ancient cultures and to the end of the medieval period were mainly kings law, that mandated burial of the fetus separately from his mother, legal rights regarding inheritance of the father or religious motives mandating baptism of the newborn in order to ensure him eternal life in heaven. As from the second half of the 19th century AD, and with improvement in surgical techniques, as well as in the perioperative environment (asepsis, antibiotics, anaesthesia, blood transfusion, etc.), the obstetric outcome of cesarean sections was dramaticay improved, both in terms of maternal, as well as fetal, outcome. Hence, it became very prevalent throughout the world. The emergence of medico-legal medicine and medical ethics issues, have further contributed to the use of cesarean sections as the ultimate solution of every unusual delivery. PMID:25563029

  15. The European solar physics community: outcome from a questionnaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenti, Susanna

    2002-12-01

    At the SPM10 meeting held in Prague, for the first time was organized a "young section" which was dedicated to "the career in Solar Physics" (Aulanier, this issue). Prior to the meeting a questionnaire was distributed to the community with the aim to build statistic on the career. The informations collected in this way relate to personal and professional aspects of the career, how much the countries' policy and the working environment can affect it. Moreover, particular attention was given to the PhD and post-doctorate (post-doc) conditions. From the statistics it comes clear that the European Solar Physics is having a difficult period. Besides the main problems, we found the lack of an integrated European community, the lack of permanent positions, the low salary and the lost of popularity among students. Several ideas were proposed to improve the situation.

  16. Paedogenesis in european newts (Triturus: salamandridae): cranial morphology during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Djorović, A; Kalezić, M L

    2000-02-01

    A cross-sectional analysis using different ontogenetic stages (larvae, juveniles, paedotypic, and metamorphic adults) of the smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris, and the alpine newt, T.alpestris, revealed a broad spectrum of perennibranchiation influences on cranial ontogeny in European newts, more pronounced than previously thought. These influences included marked variation in ossification levels, pronounced morphometric variability of many cranial elements, and considerable skull shape changes in the transition from larvae to the adult stage. In comparison with metamorphosed individuals, paedotypic newts had a higher level of variability in both individual cranial traits and cranial shape changes. Sexual size difference of the skull traits was mostly negligible, especially in comparison to the influence of paedogenesis. The main changes in cranial shape of the European newts occurred during metamorphosis. Cranial morphological organization in the majority of examined paedotypes corresponds to cranial organization at late larval stages prior to metamorphosis or at the onset of metamorphosis.

  17. European perspectives of food safety.

    PubMed

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. PMID:24515443

  18. European Ariane 5 launcher readied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covault, Craig

    1994-04-01

    Key propulsion and system tests for the Ariane 5 are beginning. Its first launch is expected in late 1995 from Kourou, French Guiana. This $6.37-billion European Space Agency program involves 100 major contractors. With a storable propellant upper stage, the Ariane 5 will place up to 15,224 pounds (6,920 kg) into geosynchronous transfer orbit, or 39,600 pounds (18,000 kg) into low Earth orbit. Applicaions for the Ariane 5, along with its design and construction are discussed in this article. Programmatic issues are also addressed.

  19. European alchemy: some traditional beliefs.

    PubMed

    Karpenko, V

    1999-01-01

    Three important doctrines of European alchemy are discussed: the Emerald Table of Hermes, the idea of transmutation, and the Elixir of Life. The analysis of these problems is focused on the 16th century, the epoch of the high flourish of alchemy in Renaissance Europe. As typical examples two works are chosen: the treatises of Jean-Pierre Fabre (1588-1658) and Alexander von Suchten (? 1520 - ? 1590). The arguments of these authors illustrate the ways how alchemists tried to defend their position in face of repeated failures. Just the 16th century stood in the sign of dramatic development of crafts, but, simultaneously, of growing interest in alchemy.

  20. Ocean Sciences Section objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Arnold L.

    Earlier this year, I set up an ad hoc Objectives Committee for the AGU Ocean Sciences Section (OSS). This committee met and discussed two topics of growing concern to U.S. oceanographers: the schedule of AGU/OSS national meetings, and the future of The Oceanography Report (TOR) in Eos.The committee members present for the discussion were the current OSS section officers, President Arnold Gordon, President-Elect Barbara Hickey, and Secretary Rana Fine; past OSS presidents Chris Mooers and Worth Nowlin, Jr.; TOR Editor David Brooks; American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) President Richard Barber; and invited members Melbourne Briscoe and Constance Sancetta. Past OSS presidents Joe Reid and James O'Brien were unable to attend the meeting. AGU headquarters (Washington, D.C.) was represented at the meeting by William Sackett, who was the 1986-1987 Richard Montgomery Field Fellow.

  1. Sprawl in European urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prastacos, Poulicos; Lagarias, Apostolos

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the 2006 edition of the Urban Atlas database is used to tabulate areas of low development density, usually referred to as "sprawl", for many European cities. The Urban Atlas database contains information on the land use distribution in the 305 largest European cities. Twenty different land use types are recognized, with six of them representing urban fabric. Urban fabric classes are residential areas differentiated by the density of development, which is measured by the sealing degree parameter that ranges from 0% to 100% (non-developed, fully developed). Analysis is performed on the distribution of the middle to low density areas defined as those with sealing degree less than 50%. Seven different country groups in which urban areas have similar sprawl characteristics are identified and some key characteristics of sprawl are discussed. Population of an urban area is another parameter considered in the analysis. Two spatial metrics, average patch size and mean distance to the nearest neighboring patch of the same class, are used to describe proximity/separation characteristics of sprawl in the urban areas of the seven groups.

  2. The new European Hubble archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Arevalo, Maria; Merin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The European Hubble Archive (hereafter eHST), hosted at ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre, has been released for public use in October 2015. The eHST is now fully integrated with the other ESA science archives to ensure long-term preservation of the Hubble data, consisting of more than 1 million observations from 10 different scientific instruments. The public HST data, the Hubble Legacy Archive, and the high-level science data products are now all available to scientists through a single, carefully designed and user friendly web interface. In this talk, I will show how the the eHST can help boost archival research, including how to search on sources in the field of view thanks to precise footprints projected onto the sky, how to obtain enhanced previews of imaging data and interactive spectral plots, and how to directly link observations with already published papers. To maximise the scientific exploitation of Hubble's data, the eHST offers connectivity to virtual observatory tools, easily integrates with the recently released Hubble Source Catalog, and is fully accessible through ESA's archives multi-mission interface.

  3. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. PMID:26069314

  4. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development.

  5. European Hands-on Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa; Ferlet, Roger; Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Hill, Robert; Horellou, Cathy; Mankiewicz, Lech; Melchior, Anne-Laure; Metaxa, Margarita; Zanazzi, Alessandra

    2007-08-01

    Hands-on Universe is a project born at UC@Berkeley. A project devoted to enrich the teaching of Astronomy within the classroom environment with a different approach, more connected to the new technologies. Its main goals are not only to promote the use of such technologies but also to reawaken on students the taste for STEM (Science, technologies, engineering and math) related issues and also to increase their scientific culture. Eight countries in Europe decided to adopt the method and, funded by MINERVA, formed the European Hands-on Universe. Several resources were produced and a data reduction software developed http://www.euhou.net/.Other European countries are interested and should join this coordinated effort in the near future. At an international level there are 20 countries using this approach. There are plans to develop scientific cooperation among these countries. Pilot scientific research projects in schools are being tested in EU-HOU schools, Russia and USA. There is also a game being developed to be used as a new tool for teaching scientific content in the classroom environment. An effort to develop an international network of scientific / educational collaboration is the next step.

  6. Participation in European water policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ast, J. A.; Boot, S. P.

    This paper considers the possibilities for interactive policy-making in European water management. In the new European Water Framework Directive, public information and consultation are major elements in the procedure (process) that leads to River Basin Management Plans. In general, decision making in integrated water management should not be limited to the application of models and desk studies. Important decisions need a high level of participation. In this interactive approach, visions, ideas, patterns of behaviour and solutions to perceived problems of different societal actors can be identified and incorporated into the decision-making process. For example, farmer organisations, environmental groups and associations of house owners, but also individual citizens often have various and differing ideas about measures that change the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of a river basin. Well-organised interaction has two main potential advantages: The quality of the decision will be higher because specific knowledge of people involved and their different views are taken into consideration. The interaction enables exchange of information which can lead to a better understanding of the ins and outs of the specific situation and in this way contribute to public support. By means of two examples of water related policy issues in Europe, i.e. economic approaches in the water framework directive and Integrated Product Policy, various opportunities for pluralistic as well as corporatist types of participation in modern water management are presented and discussed.

  7. Neutron bomb and European defense

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  8. Biotechnology products and European consumers.

    PubMed

    Moses, V

    1999-12-30

    More than 100 interviews conducted during 1997 with European food manufacturers and retailers, trade associations, government departments, consumer groups, environmental organizations and some individual academic scientists revealed how differences in the perceived attitudes of consumers gave rise to varying approaches by suppliers to the possible introduction of transgenic foods. European consumers generally are not against the pharmaceutical products of biotechnology but are much less willing to accept food and food ingredients, especially when derived from genetically modified plants. Objections are mainly based on fears for the health and safety of the consumer, worries about the possibility of deleterious effects on the environment, and a range of moral and ethical concerns often deriving from a distaste, however expressed, at the concept of interfering with nature. Consumer understanding of the science underlying biotechnology is patchy; in no country does more than a small proportion of the population claim a good grasp. Partly no doubt as a consequence of these attitudes, the introduction of genetically modified foods into Europe has occurred slowly and, during the period of this study, perhaps only in the Netherlands and the UK.

  9. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included. PMID:16320895

  10. The New European Wind Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The New European Wind Atlas 1. European wind resource assessment through a ERA-NET Plus project 1.1 The new EU Atlas The Commission decided earlier this year to issue an ERA-NET Plus call for the creation and publication of a new EU wind atlas. The atlas will cover Member states as well as Member states' exclusive economic zones, both onshore and offshore. It involved the launch of a single joint call for proposals by promoters of national and/or regional programmes, thereby allowing a more efficient use of existing financial resources. Therefore the funding scheme is that of ERA-NET Plus which implies that at least 5 MS shall commit at least 1 million Euros each and the Commission tops up with on third of the MS contribution. Basically it is the MS research programmes that will execute the project but an important part of the project is to create "open project development platforms" with associated protocols allowing a wider range of scientists worldwide to contribute. The project has a duration of 5 years. The decision on the new wind atlas was taken after several years of work by the European Wind Energy Technology Platform and the European Energy Research Alliances' Joint programme for Wind Energy. 2. Structure of the project The project will be structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel: 2.1 Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form, which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database. The database will at a minimum include: Wind resources and their associated uncertainty; Extreme wind; Turbulence characteristics; Adverse weather conditions; Predictability for short term prediction; Guidelines. 2.2 Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made public available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and relevant data at several heights and a horizontal

  11. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  12. Seams issues in European transmission investments

    SciTech Connect

    Buijs, Patrik; Bekaert, David; Belmans, Ronnie

    2010-12-15

    European policy goals are challenging for transmission networks, requiring investments in cross-border capacity. Despite those goals, an increased awareness of the need for investments and the voluntary cooperation among countries sharing the challenges, a regulatory gap between national and European interests persists. Further development of a European cross-border planning and financing framework is required. U.S. experiences may serve as food for thought. (author)

  13. [Echocardiopgraphy in European tortoises (Testudo spp.)].

    PubMed

    Prütz, Maike; Fehr, Michael; Mathes, Karina; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    An echocardiographic examination was carried out in 71 European tortoises (Testudo spp.) via the cervical-brachial acoustic windows. Simultaneously an electrocardiographic examination was performed. The inflow- and outflow tract of the heart were presented in frontal and sagittal longitudinal sections in B-mode. Within B-mode the size (diameter and area) of the atria and the ventricle (Cavum dorsale), the ventricular wall thickness and the diameter of the origin of the right aorta and of the right Arteria pulmonalis were measured. Also, the fractional shortening (FS%) and a fractional area shortening (FAS%) were calculated for the Cavum dorsale. Standard values for these cardiac parameters were determined for four different tortoise groups (depending on their carapace lengths). The direction of blood flow within the heart could be assessed via colour flow Doppler. By using pulsed-wave Doppler examinations of the inflow- and outflow tract the velocities, pressure gradients, velocity-time-integrals and acceleration- and deceleration times could be determined from the recorded inflow and outflow patterns and standard values were established for these parameters as well. PMID:27169156

  14. [Relations of German anesthesiology to east European societies of anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Benad, G

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the "German Society of Anaesthesiology" (DGA)--later called "German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine" (DGAI)--which was founded on 10 April 1953, and in memory of the foundation of the "Section of Anaesthesiology", which was founded in East-Berlin ten years later on 25 October 1963 and later called "Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of the GDR" (GAIT), the development of relations between German anaesthetists and anaesthesiological societies in East Europe are described. The limited economic base of the medical-technical and pharmaceutical industries, a chronic lack of hard currencies and economic and political restrictions on travel activities by East German and East European anaesthetists to West European countries resulted in improved contacts between East German and East European anaesthesiological societies. This, in turn, led to the holding of "International Anaesthesiological Congresses" of the so-called socialist countries and "Bilateral Symposia of the Anaesthesiological Societies of Czechoslovakia and the GDR" and also bilateral meetings of nurses of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy from both countries. These congresses and in particular the "3rd European Congress of Anaesthesiology", which was hosted by the "Czechoslovak Society of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation" in Prague in 1970, were of high value for the further development of anaesthesiology in these countries. Furthermore, congresses held in East Europe but outside the GDR, were especially important for meetings between East German anaesthetists and their West German colleagues, who regularly took part in these congresses as invited speakers, because West German anaesthetists were not allowed to participate in East German anaesthesia congresses, on the one hand, and East Germans were not allowed to attend West German anaesthesia congresses, on the other. There were also regular meetings of the

  15. [Relations of German anesthesiology to east European societies of anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Benad, G

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the "German Society of Anaesthesiology" (DGA)--later called "German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine" (DGAI)--which was founded on 10 April 1953, and in memory of the foundation of the "Section of Anaesthesiology", which was founded in East-Berlin ten years later on 25 October 1963 and later called "Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of the GDR" (GAIT), the development of relations between German anaesthetists and anaesthesiological societies in East Europe are described. The limited economic base of the medical-technical and pharmaceutical industries, a chronic lack of hard currencies and economic and political restrictions on travel activities by East German and East European anaesthetists to West European countries resulted in improved contacts between East German and East European anaesthesiological societies. This, in turn, led to the holding of "International Anaesthesiological Congresses" of the so-called socialist countries and "Bilateral Symposia of the Anaesthesiological Societies of Czechoslovakia and the GDR" and also bilateral meetings of nurses of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy from both countries. These congresses and in particular the "3rd European Congress of Anaesthesiology", which was hosted by the "Czechoslovak Society of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation" in Prague in 1970, were of high value for the further development of anaesthesiology in these countries. Furthermore, congresses held in East Europe but outside the GDR, were especially important for meetings between East German anaesthetists and their West German colleagues, who regularly took part in these congresses as invited speakers, because West German anaesthetists were not allowed to participate in East German anaesthesia congresses, on the one hand, and East Germans were not allowed to attend West German anaesthesia congresses, on the other. There were also regular meetings of the

  16. European security, nuclear weapons and public confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gutteridge, W.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control in Europe. Topics considered include political aspects, the balance of power, nuclear disarmament in Europe, the implications of new conventional technologies, the neutron bomb, theater nuclear weapons, arms control in Northern Europe, naval confidence-building measures in the Baltic, the strategic balance in the Arctic Ocean, Arctic resources, threats to European stability, developments in South Africa, economic cooperation in Europe, European collaboration in science and technology after Helsinki, European cooperation in the area of electric power, and economic cooperation as a factor for the development of European security and cooperation.

  17. Developments in international/European health law.

    PubMed

    Abbing, Henriette D C Roscam

    2009-03-01

    International (European) organizations have impact on health law. The most recent developments are: a revision of the world Medical's Association Declaration of Helsinki, a proposal for a Directive (European Commission) on standards of quality and safety of human organs intended for transplantation, accompanied by a ten point action plan; a proposal (European Commission) for a Directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border health care; a proposal (European commission) for a Directive on information to the general public on medicinal products subject to medical prescription. PMID:19353913

  18. Social welfare support and homicide: longitudinal analyses of European countries from 1994 to 2010.

    PubMed

    McCall, Patricia L; Brauer, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the extent to which retrenchment in welfare support is related to homicide trends across European countries between 1994 and 2010. Using a longitudinal decomposition design that allows for stronger causal inferences compared to typical cross-sectional designs, we examine these potential linkages between social support spending and homicide with data collected from a heterogeneous sample of European nations, including twenty Western nations and nine less frequently analyzed East-Central nations, during recent years in which European nations generally witnessed substantial changes in homicide rates as well as both economic prosperity and fiscal crisis. Results suggest that even incremental, short-term changes in welfare support spending are associated with short-term reductions in homicide-specifically, impacting homicide rates within two to three years for this sample of European nations.

  19. Social welfare support and homicide: longitudinal analyses of European countries from 1994 to 2010.

    PubMed

    McCall, Patricia L; Brauer, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the extent to which retrenchment in welfare support is related to homicide trends across European countries between 1994 and 2010. Using a longitudinal decomposition design that allows for stronger causal inferences compared to typical cross-sectional designs, we examine these potential linkages between social support spending and homicide with data collected from a heterogeneous sample of European nations, including twenty Western nations and nine less frequently analyzed East-Central nations, during recent years in which European nations generally witnessed substantial changes in homicide rates as well as both economic prosperity and fiscal crisis. Results suggest that even incremental, short-term changes in welfare support spending are associated with short-term reductions in homicide-specifically, impacting homicide rates within two to three years for this sample of European nations. PMID:25131277

  20. The Revised European Social Fund and Action to Combat Unemployment in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandamme, Francois

    1984-01-01

    The tasks of the European Social Fund, the European Economic Community's social policy instrument, were reviewed in l983 in the light of the worsening unemployment situation and the priority placed on employment and vocational training policies. (Author/SSH)

  1. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  2. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  3. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  4. Neutron-Induced Cross Sections Measurements of Calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, Klaus H; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Siegler, P.

    2013-01-01

    To support the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program neutron induced cross section experiments were performed at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator of the Institute for Reference Material and Measurements of the Joint Research Centers, European Union. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were carried out using a metallic calcium sample. The obtained data will be used for a new calcium evaluation, which will be submitted with its covariances to the ENDBF/B nuclear data base.

  5. Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brát, L.; Zejda, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present activities of Czech variable star observers organized in the Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society. We work in four observing projects: B.R.N.O. - eclipsing binaries, MEDUZA - intrinsic variable stars, TRESCA - transiting exoplanets and candidates, HERO - objects of high energy astrophysics. Detailed information together with O-C gate (database of eclipsing binaries minima timings) and OEJV (Open European Journal on Variable stars) are available on our internet portal http://var.astro.cz.

  6. AGU Hydrology Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    The Executive Committee of the AGU Hydrology Section met in regular session at 4:00 P.M. on Thursday, December 8, 1983, in Room 378 of the Cathedral Hill Hotel, San Francisco, Calif. Seven board members were present with section president, Peter Eagleson, presiding.A total of 18 sessions were presented in San Francisco, and all were well attended, as was reported by program chairman Dennis Lettenmaier. Added to the regular sessions of General Hydrology, General Ground-water Hydrology, and Sediment Transport were the following special sessions: Glacier Ocean Interaction, presider Edward Josberger; Orinoco and the Amazon, presider Edward Andrews; Transport and Geochemical Interactions in Stream Water, presider F. E. Bencola; Instream Flow Requirements for Fish, presider Brian W. Mar; Multivariate Modeling of Hydrologic and Other Geophysical Time Series, presiders Jose D. Salas and David R. Dawdy; Optimization Techniques for Managing Ground Water and Stream Aquifer Systems, presider Steve Gorelick; Treatment of Evapotranspiration Soil Moisture Evolution and Aquifer Recharge in Watershed Models, presiders Arlen D. Feldman and Hubert J. Morel-Seytoux; Statistical Procedures for Estimating of Flood Risk at Gauged Sites, presider J. R. Stedinger; and Searching for More Physically Based Extreme Value Distributions in Hydrology, presider Juan B. Valdes. The session on Glacier Ocean Interaction received the most publicity, with numerous accounts of some of the presentations appearing in the newspaper. One of the pleasant surprises of the meetings was the high attendance at the special sessions on Optimization Techniques for Managing Ground Water and Stream Aquifer Systems and Multivariate Modeling of Hydrologic and Other Geophysical Time Series. Both sessions were highly interdisciplinary, attracting numerous scientists from other sections of AGU.

  7. EERA and Its European Conferences on Educational Research: A Patchwork of Research on European Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiner, Edwin; Hofbauer, Susann

    2014-01-01

    The process of Europeanisation is closely linked to the process of an emerging European Educational Research Area and an education research identity. The European Conferences on Educational Research (ECER), European Educational Research Association (EERA) and its networks are involved in new directions and strands of educational research in…

  8. Postfledging survival of European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that mass at fledging and fledge date within the breeding season affect postfledging survival in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Nestlings were weighed on day 18 after hatch and tagged with individually identifiable patagial tags. Fledge date was recorded. Marked fledglings were resighted during weekly two-day intensive observation periods for 9 weeks postfledging. Post-fledging survival and sighting probabilities were estimated for each of four groups (early or late fledging by heavy or light fledging mass). Body mass was related to post-fledging survival for birds that fledged early. Results were not clear-cut for relative fledge date, although there was weak evidence that this also influenced survival. Highest survival probability estimates occurred in the EARLY-HEAVY group, while the lowest survival estimate occurred in the LATE-LIGHT group. Sighting probabilities differed significantly among groups, emphasizing the need to estimate and compare survival using models which explicitly incorporate sighting probabilities.

  9. Carbon sequestration in European croplands.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Falloon, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The Marrakech Accords allow biospheric carbon sinks and sources to be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest management, cropland management, grazing land management, and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. Croplands are estimated to be the largest biospheric source of carbon lost to the atmosphere in Europe each year, but the cropland estimate is the most uncertain among all land-use types. It is estimated that European croplands (for Europe as far east as the Urals) lose 300 Tg (C) per year, with the mean figure for the European Union estimated to be 78 Tg (C) per year (with one SD=37). National estimates for EU countries are of a similar order of magnitude on a per-area basis. There is significant potential within Europe to decrease the flux of carbon to the atmosphere from cropland, and for cropland management to sequester soil carbon, relative to the amount of carbon stored in cropland soils at present. The biological potential for carbon storage in European (EU 15) cropland is of the order of 90-120 Tg (C) per year, with a range of options available that include reduced and zero tillage, set-aside, perennial crops, deep rooting crops, more efficient use of organic amendments (animal manure, sewage sludge, cereal straw, compost), improved rotations, irrigation, bioenergy crops, extensification, organic farming, and conversion of arable land to grassland or woodland. The sequestration potential, considering only constraints on land use, amounts of raw materials and available land, is up to 45 Tg (C) per year. The realistic potential and the conservative achievable potentials may be considerably lower than the biological potential because of socioeconomic and other constraints, with a realistically achievable potential estimated to be about 20% of the

  10. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  11. Robin sequence: A European survey on current practice patterns.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Manouk J S; Joosten, Koen F M; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Koudstaal, Maarten J; Hoeve, Hans L J; van der Schroeff, Marc P; Wolvius, Eppo B

    2015-10-01

    To provide an overview of current practice patterns with regard to Robin sequence (RS) patients in Europe, a survey was conducted among European clinicians. This online survey consisted of different sections assessing characteristics of the respondent and clinic, definition, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. In total, surveys from 101 different European clinics were included in the analysis, and 56 different RS definitions were returned. The majority (72%) of the respondents used a sleep study system to determine the severity of the airway obstruction. A total of 63% used flexible endoscopy and 16% used rigid endoscopy in the diagnostic process. Treatment of the airway obstruction differed considerably between the different countries. Prone positioning for mild airway obstruction was the treatment modality used most often (63%). When prone positioning was not successful, a nasopharyngeal airway was used (62%). Surgical therapies varied considerably among countries. For severe obstruction, mandibular distraction was performed most frequently. Three-quarters of the respondents noted the presence of catch-up growth in their patient population. This first European survey study on definition and management of RS shows that there are considerable differences within Europe. Therefore, we would encourage the establishment of national (and international) guidelines to optimize RS patient care. PMID:26315273

  12. Factors that Influence Weekday Sleep Duration in European Children

    PubMed Central

    Hense, Sabrina; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; De Henauw, Stefaan; Marild, Staffan; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare nocturnal sleep duration in children from 8 European countries and identify its determinants. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Primary schools and preschools participating in the IDEFICS study. Participants: 8,542 children aged 2 to 9 years from 8 European countries with complete information on nocturnal sleep duration. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements: Nocturnal sleep duration was assessed by means of a computer based parental 24-h recall. Data on personal, social, environmental, and behavioral factors were collected by means of standardized parental questionnaire. Physical activity was surveyed with accelerometers. Results: Nocturnal sleep duration in the participating countries ranged from 9.5 h (SD 0.8) in Estonia to 11.2 h (SD 0.7) in Belgium and differed significantly between countries (P < 0.001) in univariate as well as in multivariate analyses, with children from northern countries sleeping the longest. Sleep duration decreased by about 6 min with each year of age over all countries. No effect of season, daylight duration, overweight, parental education level, or lifestyle factors could be seen. Conclusion: Sleep duration differs significantly between countries. Our findings allow for the conclusion that regional affiliation, including culture and environmental characteristics, seems to overlay individual determinants of sleep duration. Citation: Hense S; Barba G; Pohlabeln H; De Henauw S; Marild S; Molnar D; Moreno LA; Hadjigeorgiou C; Veidebaum T; Ahrens W. Factors that influence weekday sleep duration in European children. SLEEP 2011;34(5):633-639. PMID:21532957

  13. Population access to new vaccines in European countries.

    PubMed

    Blank, Patricia R; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Sardos, Christelle Saint; Patris, Julien; Szucs, Thomas D

    2013-06-12

    Time from registration to population access to new vaccines can take considerable time in European countries. Reasons might be found in the regulatory framework, decision-making processes or the assessment of vaccines by evaluating bodies. The aim of this study was to determine whether some decision-making processes can explain between-country differences in the time to population access to new vaccination programs. Information gathered from a survey among European National Vaccine Industry Groups was combined with information from official health authorities, vaccine manufacturers and literature published. Firstly, a retrospective survey was conducted to measure access time to new vaccines against three diseases in 17 European countries. Secondly, qualitative information on the country-specific decision-making frameworks for the introduction of new "vaccination programs" was identified in a cross-sectional survey. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (ρ) were used for data analysis. The median access time to new vaccines was 6.4 years (95% confidence interval: 5.7-7.1 years) post marketing authorization. National assessments underlying immunization policy decisions (recommendation phase) absorbed most of the access time. Correlation analysis suggested that processes with established timelines and clarity in regard to vaccine evaluation criteria used could ameliorate the effectiveness of the decision-making process. In order to reduce the time to access for new, beneficial vaccines, the underlying vaccination recommendation, implementation and funding process needs to be understood and optimized, where necessary. PMID:23632307

  14. Mathematics Teaching in Four European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a comparative study, funded by the European Union, of the teaching of mathematics in five European countries, (Flanders, England, Finland, Hungary and Spain) to students in the upper primary (ages 10-12) and lower secondary (12-14) years. These ages were chosen as they represent a time when many students' experiences of…

  15. Cultural Diversity among American and European Businesspersons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Judy F.; Nixon, Judy C.

    An astute American, knowledgeable of and sensitive to cultural diversities among Europeans can communicate effectively for business success. The results of research into the communication customs of 27 European countries are presented: the Big Three (France, Germany, United Kingdom--England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales); Western…

  16. European and Intercultural Dimension in Greek Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Negotiations concerning Greece's accession into the European Union began as early as 1961, when a cooperation agreement was signed between Greece and the European Economic Community. These negotiations were concluded 20 years later, on 1 January 1981, when Greece became the tenth full member of the EU. The next major step in Greece's progress…

  17. A European Vision for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Sue; Tuckett, Alan; Boucher, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) is the UK national coordinator for the European Agenda for Adult Learning, with the challenge of creating a coherent message across the four countries to inform European cooperation on adult learning. To start the debate, the journal staff asked Sue Waddington, Alan Tuckett, and Fiona…

  18. European Perspectives on the Learning Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Barry; Cressey, Peter; Tomassini, Massimo; Kelleher, Michael; Poell, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This paper, based on a publication entitled "Facing up to the Learning Organisation Challenge," published in April 2003, provides an overview of the main questions emerging from recent European research projects related to the topic of the learning organisation. The rationale for focusing on this topic is the belief that the European Union goals…

  19. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii.

  20. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii. PMID:25988670

  1. European Industrial Doctorates: Marie Curie Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    European industrial doctorates are joint doctoral training projects funded by the European Union (EU) and open to all research fields. The project brings together an academic participant (university, research institution, etc.) and a company. They have to be established in two different EU Member States or associated countries. Associated partners…

  2. Internationalisms--Identical Vocabularies in European Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Peter

    Linguistic history has described borrowing in the European languages as a process exclusive to one language at any given time. However, it is more likely that there is a core of common loan words, or internationalisms, in many European languages. These internationalisms have come from a variety of sources: the historic interrelatedness of…

  3. The Words That Buoy the European Impulse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogenraad, Robert; Tousignant, Nathalie; Castano, Emanuele; Bestgen, Yves; Dumoulin, Michel

    With a view on analyzing the deeper trends in the European discourse that will shape the European Union's (EU's) future, a study examined 121 speeches made by EU political leaders over the period 1985-1997 and concorded and statisticized which words were used, how often, where, and when with the help of a computer-aided content analysis engine.…

  4. Transnational Lives in European Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Transnational collaboration by educational researchers in Europe has grown fast since the mid-1990s and the means to support it have become more easily accessible. A study of the growth of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) since its foundation in the mid-1990s shows how transnational research in European education began, and how…

  5. Implications of 1992 for European Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Jurgen

    This paper analyzes the effect of the unified single market of 1992 on European telecommunications. The major policy aspects of the European Economic Commission's Green Paper on "The Development of the Common Market for Telecommunications Services and Equipment" are highlighted, and the effects of these policies in the equipment market are…

  6. Pheochromocytoma after Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Naghshineh, Elham; Shahraki, Azar Danesh; Sheikhalian, Somaye; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor. There are a very few reported cases of clinical pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a 27-year-old woman para 1 live 1 with chief complaint of headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after cesarean section. She was anxious and had palpitation. On physical examination, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, high blood pressure, and right thyroid nodule were found. She was managed as pregnancy-induced hypertension at first. In laboratory data, epinephrine, norepinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were increased in 24 h urine collection. An adrenal mass was detected in abdominal computed tomography. Regarding clinical and paraclinical findings, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient received medical treatment, but it was not effective; hence, she underwent adrenalectomy. PMID:27076898

  7. Radiation and photochemistry section

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The highlights of this past year in the Radiation and Photochemistry Section at Argonne include: (1) picosecond optical studies of radical cations and excited states produced in hydrocarbon radiolysis provided the first kinetic measurements of ion transformation and production of triplet and singlet excited states by ion recombination. (2) studies of radical cations of alkyl-substituted amines and sulfides provided insights into ion-molecule reactions of radical cations in the condensed phase. (3) studies of the behavior of strained alkane radical cations, such as cubane {sup +}{center dot}, revealed new rearrangements and remarkable, medium-dependent differences in their structures. (4) H{center dot}atom reactions yielding e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} provided the first reliable measurements of hydrated-electron enthalpy and entropy and forced the revision of some previous thinking about the driving force in {sub aq}{sup {minus}} reactions.

  8. European evidence based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: current management

    PubMed Central

    Travis, S P L; Stange, E F; Lémann, M; Öresland, T; Chowers, Y; Forbes, A; D'Haens, G; Kitis, G; Cortot, A; Prantera, C; Marteau, P; Colombel, J‐F; Gionchetti, P; Bouhnik, Y; Tiret, E; Kroesen, J; Starlinger, M; Mortensen, N J McM

    2006-01-01

    This second section of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) Consensus on the management of Crohn's disease concerns treatment of active disease, maintenance of medically induced remission, and surgery. The first section on definitions and diagnosis includes the aims and methods of the consensus, as well as sections on diagnosis, pathology, and classification of Crohn's disease. The third section on special situations in Crohn's disease includes postoperative recurrence, fistulating disease, paediatrics, pregnancy, psychosomatics, extraintestinal manifestations, and alternative therapy for Crohn's disease. PMID:16481629

  9. Section AA Pre2004 Fire, Section AA 2009, Section AA, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A-A Pre-2004 Fire, Section A-A 2009, Section A-A, South Elevation - Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Formerly spanning Moose Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad, Gorham, Coos County, NH

  10. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Infections and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Villain, Patricia; Gonzalez, Paula; Almonte, Maribel; Franceschi, Silvia; Dillner, Joakim; Anttila, Ahti; Park, Jin Young; De Vuyst, Hugo; Herrero, Rolando

    2015-12-01

    Of the 2,635,000 new cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) occurring in the European Union (EU) in 2012, it is estimated that approximately 185,000 are related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Chronic infection with these agents can lead to cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, and stomach, respectively. Chronic infection with HCV can also lead to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be of major public health importance in several EU countries and increases cancer risk via HIV-induced immunosuppression. The fourth edition of the European Code Against Cancer presents recommendations on effective and safe preventive interventions in order to reduce the risk of infection-related cancers in EU citizens. Based on current available evidence, the fourth edition recommends that parents ensure the participation of their children in vaccination programs against HBV (for newborns) and HPV (for girls). In the 'Questions and Answers' (Q&As) section about vaccination and infections in the website for the European Code Against Cancer, individuals who are at risk of chronic HBV or HCV are advised to seek medical advice about testing and obtaining treatment when appropriate. Individuals most at risk of HIV are advised to consult their doctor or healthcare provider to access counselling and, if needed, testing and treatment without delay. Information about H. pylori testing and treatment is also provided as testing might currently be offered in some high-risk areas in Europe. The rationale and supporting evidence for the recommendations on vaccination in the European Code Against Cancer, and for the main recommendations on vaccination and infection in the Q&As, are explained in the present review. PMID:26589774

  11. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Infections and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Villain, Patricia; Gonzalez, Paula; Almonte, Maribel; Franceschi, Silvia; Dillner, Joakim; Anttila, Ahti; Park, Jin Young; De Vuyst, Hugo; Herrero, Rolando

    2015-12-01

    Of the 2,635,000 new cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) occurring in the European Union (EU) in 2012, it is estimated that approximately 185,000 are related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Chronic infection with these agents can lead to cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, and stomach, respectively. Chronic infection with HCV can also lead to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be of major public health importance in several EU countries and increases cancer risk via HIV-induced immunosuppression. The fourth edition of the European Code Against Cancer presents recommendations on effective and safe preventive interventions in order to reduce the risk of infection-related cancers in EU citizens. Based on current available evidence, the fourth edition recommends that parents ensure the participation of their children in vaccination programs against HBV (for newborns) and HPV (for girls). In the 'Questions and Answers' (Q&As) section about vaccination and infections in the website for the European Code Against Cancer, individuals who are at risk of chronic HBV or HCV are advised to seek medical advice about testing and obtaining treatment when appropriate. Individuals most at risk of HIV are advised to consult their doctor or healthcare provider to access counselling and, if needed, testing and treatment without delay. Information about H. pylori testing and treatment is also provided as testing might currently be offered in some high-risk areas in Europe. The rationale and supporting evidence for the recommendations on vaccination in the European Code Against Cancer, and for the main recommendations on vaccination and infection in the Q&As, are explained in the present review.

  12. International Aspects of Mental Health Work with Refugees and Future Directions: A European Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauff, Edvard

    This paper describes past and present European efforts to address the mental health needs of refugees. It begins with a brief historical survey of mental health services for refugees after the Second World War and delineates the policy recommendations from the 1948 International Congress on Mental Health. The next section describes current…

  13. Older Students in Europe. A Survey of Older Students in Four European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clennell, Stephanie, Ed.

    A survey of older students received responses from 4,461 people aged 60 or over in four European countries: United Kingdom, West Germany, France, and Belgium. The questionnaire had three sections: students' background; information on study methods, time spent, organization of work, and use of study aids; and Approaches to Study Inventory (ASI).…

  14. The Benefit of Educational Inclusiveness for Early School Leavers in the European Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Alphen, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the ongoing educational expansion is a negative development for early school leavers (ESLrs) in the European labour market, since it increases the level and educational attainment of their competition, and in the worst case creates credential inflation. Findings from the 2005 cross-sectional EU-SILC data show,…

  15. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or...

  16. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  17. [Reflections on residency training under the current recommendations of the European Union of Medical specialists and the European Board of Anaesthesia (UEMS/EBA guidelines)].

    PubMed

    Sáez Fernández, A; Sistac Ballarín, J M; Martínez Torrente, F; Calvo Vecino, J M; Olmos Rodríguez, M

    2011-01-01

    The recent publication of guidelines for postgraduate training in anesthesiology, pain, and intensive care issued by the European Board of Anaesthesia (EBA) and the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) (http://www.sedar.es/revistasedar/uems.pdf) specifies directions we must take with our residents. The training section of the Sociedad Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (SEDAR) has decided to make the guidelines available on the association's website so that the UEMS/EBA proposals can be compared to the training program drafted by the Spanish national board for our specialty. Our aim is to identify points of convergence between the two proposals and to target gaps where improvements can be made so that Spanish residency training in this specialty is in harmony with the European framework.

  18. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  19. A review of European applications of artificial intelligence to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark (Editor); Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to the European Space program that are being developed or have been developed. The results of a study sponsored by the Artificial Intelligence Research and Development program of NASA's Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) are described. The report is divided into two sections. The first consists of site reports, which are descriptions of the AI applications seen at each place visited. The second section consists of two summaries which synthesize the information in the site reports by organizing this information in two different ways. The first organizes the material in terms of the type of application, e.g., data analysis, planning and scheduling, and procedure management. The second organizes the material in terms of the component technologies of Artificial Intelligence which the applications used, e.g., knowledge based systems, model based reasoning, procedural reasoning, etc.

  20. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M. . Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center); Hazeltine, R.D. . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Gentle, K.W. ); Hogan, J.T. ); Porkolab, M. . Dept. of Physics); Sigmar

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995.

  1. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future. PMID:15802158

  2. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future.

  3. Hermes - A manned European system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretenet, J.-C.

    Features of a European hypersonic winged reentry vehicle, Hermes, are presented, together with the technology requirements for its development and the missions it would serve. LEO is beginning to hold promise for the manufacture of materials in microgravity and/or vacuum conditions in orbiting facilities which need to be serviced. A manned, reusable, winged reentry vehicle would permit the delivery and return of payloads from space, recovery of the first stage of the Ariane V rocket for reuse, and return of the Hermes to a landing at the Kourou launch site. The avionics would be similar to those of modern aircraft, as would the landing system. In-orbit operational techniques would be needed, as would an internal environment similar to Spacelab, a rigid turnaround time, high utilization rate, and a 10 yr lifetime. The length of the Hermes is projected as 12.5 m, wingtip to wingtip breadth of 7.4 m, and a total mass of 11,400 kg for a heliosynchronous orbit mission, while 15,400 kg are available for a circular, 490 m/sec orbit.

  4. Northern European Satellite Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster-Bruce, Alan; Lawson, James; Quinlan, Michael; McGregor, Andrew

    Satellite Based Augmentation Systems are being developed in Europe (EGNOS), the USA (WAAS), and in Japan (MSAS). As part of their support to EGNOS, NATS and Racal have developed and deployed a prototype SBAS system called the Northern European Satellite Test Bed (NEST Bed). NEST Bed uses GPS L1/L2 reference stations at: Aberdeen, Rotterdam, Ankara, Cadiz, Keflavik, and Bronnoysund. Data is sent to the Master Control Centre at NATS Gatwick Services Management Centre for processing. The resulting 250 bits-per-second message is sent to Goonhilly for up-linking by BT to the Navigation Payload of either the Inmarsat AOR-E or F5 spare satellite. NEST Bed was deployed and commissioned during summer 1998, and flight tests were successfully demonstrated at the September 1998 Farnborough Air Show where approaches were flown to Boscombe Down on the DERA BAC1-11 aircraft. In October 1998, a NATS/FAA flight trial was held in Iceland involving NEST Bed and the FAA NSTB. NEST Bed is also being used for SARPS validation.

  5. Infective endocarditis: the European viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tornos, Pilar; Gonzalez-Alujas, Teresa; Thuny, Frank; Habib, Gilbert

    2011-05-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a difficult and complex disease. In recent years epidemiology and microbiology have changed. In developed countries IE is now affecting older patients and patients with no previously known valve disease. Prosthetic IE (prosthetic valve endocarditis [PVE]) and endocarditis in patients with pacemakers and other devices (cardiac device related infective endocarditis [CDRIE]) are becoming more frequent. The number of Staphylococcus aureus IE is increasing related to the number of endocarditis that occurs because of health care associated procedures, especially in diabetics or patients on chronic hemodialysis. The change in the underlying population and the increase in the number of cases caused by very virulent organism explain why the disease still carries a poor prognosis and a high mortality. The variety of clinical manifestations and complications, as well as the serious prognosis, makes it mandatory that IE patients need to be treated in experienced hospitals with a collaborative approach between different specialists, involving cardiologists, infectious disease specialists, microbiologists, surgeons, and frequently others, including neurologists and radiologists. Only an early diagnosis followed by risk stratification and a prompt institution of the correct antibiotic treatment as well as an appropriate and timed surgical indication may improve mortality figures. The recent European Guidelines try to provide clear and simple recommendations, obtained by expert consensus after thorough review of the available literature to all specialists involved in clinical decision-making of this difficult and changing disease.

  6. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Harald G; Weise, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions. PMID:21736748

  7. Lung cancer screening: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    European studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of lung cancer screening. Smoking within screening, quality of life, nodule management, minimally invasive treatments, cancer prevention programs, and risk models have been extensively investigated by European groups. Mortality data from European screening studies have not been encouraging so far, but long-term results of the NELSON study are eagerly awaited. Investigations on molecular markers of lung cancer are ongoing in Europe; preliminary results suggest they may become an important screening tool in the future.

  8. The development of nursing: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Salvage, J

    1997-01-01

    What do we mean by "Europe" and what is a European perspective? Those of us living in the European Union (EU) often equate Europe with our own "Western" countries, although as the EU itself expands even the term "Western" is increasingly inaccurate. The 50 Member States of the WHO European Region cover a huge area stretching from the western coast of Greenland to the Mediterranean, the Arctic and the Pacific coasts of the Russian Federation. "WHO Europe" is a loose geographical definition, since it incorporates all the republics of the former Soviet Union, including those in Central Asia.

  9. An overview on European SPS activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhartz, K. K.

    1980-01-01

    The organization of space and energy research in Europe is discussed. The European situation is highlighted with emphasis on the dependency of energy imports and on the energy requirements of Europe. The status of SPS research in the countries that form the European Space Agency was reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the unfavorable geographical and climatic situation of large parts of Europe, terrestrial solar energy conversion is unlikely to make a significant contribution to Europe's future energy supply. Thus, SPS development is of special interest to the European community.

  10. Intervention for Postpartum Infections Following Caesarean Section

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Surgical Wound Infection; Infection; Cesarean Section; Cesarean Section; Dehiscence; Complications; Cesarean Section; Complications; Cesarean Section, Wound, Dehiscence; Wound; Rupture, Surgery, Cesarean Section

  11. SECTION O, SHOWING FLAT MARKERS, WITH SECTIONS K AND L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION O, SHOWING FLAT MARKERS, WITH SECTIONS K AND L IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 13. VIEW WEST, STREET LEVEL, OF EAST MAIN SECTION SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW WEST, STREET LEVEL, OF EAST MAIN SECTION SECTION, SHOWING HISTORICAL MARKER THAT READS 'Y-BRIDGE - 1902 - WORLD FAMOUS PART OF THE OLD NATIONAL ROAD' - Y-Bridge, Spanning confluence of Muskingham & Licking Rivers, Zanesville, Muskingum County, OH

  13. 30. Part of South Elevation / Section CC / Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Part of South Elevation / Section CC / Section BB / Elevation of Skylight (drawing 7) - Whittier State School, Hospital & Receiving Building, 11850 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Section BB, Section DD, Plan AA, Plan CC, Typical Framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B, Section D-D, Plan A-A, Plan C-C, Typical Framing Detail of Upper Stringers, Typical Framing Detail of Lower Stringers - Covered Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River, Orford, Grafton County, NH

  15. Industrial Section Convenor's Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, M.; Riboni, P.

    2002-11-01

    recently into the areas of interest of our community (Hourdakis and Intrasoft) and the examples of an Industry historically committed to a strong R&D effort (SAES-Getters). Finally a case of involvement of industry in a "Big Science" project (CMS) completed the palette of the contributions to this Industry Section. The full set of transparencies of the lectures, are filed and made available at the conference site: .

  16. Controlling Works, Section AA at Bear Trap Dam, Section BB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Controlling Works, Section A-A at Bear Trap Dam, Section B-B at Bear-Trap Dam, Section C-C at Sluice Gate - Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Lockport Controlling Works, Illinois Waterway River Mile 293.2, Lockport, Will County, IL

  17. 4. Interior detail original 1906 section and middle 1911 section. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Interior detail original 1906 section and middle 1911 section. Middle section beyond arched doorway. View to east. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Oil House, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  18. Developing indicators for European birds.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Richard D; van Strien, Arco; Vorisek, Petr; Gmelig Meyling, Adriaan W; Noble, David G; Foppen, Ruud P B; Gibbons, David W

    2005-02-28

    The global pledge to deliver 'a significant reduction in the current rate of biodiversity loss by 2010' is echoed in a number of regional and national level targets. There is broad consensus, however, that in the absence of conservation action, biodiversity will continue to be lost at a rate unprecedented in the recent era. Remarkably, we lack a basic system to measure progress towards these targets and, in particular, we lack standard measures of biodiversity and procedures to construct and assess summary statistics. Here, we develop a simple classification of biodiversity indicators to assist their development and clarify purpose. We use European birds, as example taxa, to show how robust indicators can be constructed and how they can be interpreted. We have developed statistical methods to calculate supranational, multi-species indices using population data from national annual breeding bird surveys in Europe. Skilled volunteers using standardized field methods undertake data collection where methods and survey designs differ slightly across countries. Survey plots tend to be widely distributed at a national level, covering many bird species and habitats with reasonable representation. National species' indices are calculated using log-linear regression, which allows for plot turnover. Supranational species' indices are constructed by combining the national species' indices weighted by national population sizes of each species. Supranational, multi-species indicators are calculated by averaging the resulting indices. We show that common farmland birds in Europe have declined steeply over the last two decades, whereas woodland birds have not. Evidence elsewhere shows that the main driver of farmland bird declines is increased agricultural intensification. We argue that the farmland bird indicator is a useful surrogate for trends in other elements of biodiversity in this habitat.

  19. European small geostationary communications satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei, , Dr.; Ellmers, Frank; Winkler, Andreas; Schuff, Herbert; Sansegundo Chamarro, Manuel Julián

    2011-04-01

    Hispasat Advanced Generation 1 (HAG1) is the first satellite using the SGEO platform, which is under the development in the ESA Artes-11 program. Since the last presentation in the IAC 2007, a European industrial consortium led by OHB has completed the mission and spacecraft design. The platform Preliminary Design Review has been carried out in May 2008. The customer for the first mission is a commercial operator—Hispasat. The contract was signed in December 2008 and the satellite will be launched in 2012. To give confidence to the customer, SGEO platform will use up to date flight proven technologies. HAG1 carries 20/24 Ku-band and 3/5 Ka-band transponders to provide commercial services. Some innovative payload technologies will also be flown on board of HAG1 to gain in-orbit heritage. SGEO has also been selected as the baseline platform for the ESA Data Relay Satellite (EDRS). Phase-A study has just kicked off in January 2009. The targeted launch date is 2013. Heinrich Hertz will also use the SGEO platform. Heinrich Hertz is funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and provides flight opportunities for technologies and components developed by the German Space Industry. With the HAG1 contract in hand, and EDRS and Heinrich Hertz in the line, OHB with its partners has the confidence that it will be able to speed up the product development of the SGEO platform for potential customers in the commercial market. This paper will first present the updated platform design and the status of the product development will be followed with the introduction of innovative payload technologies on board the first mission—HAG1 and ended with the mission concepts of EDRS and Heinrich Hertz missions.

  20. European attitudes to gene therapy and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Hudson, John; Orviska, Marta

    2011-10-01

    Views on pharmacogenetics and gene therapy systematically differ across European countries. But despite a complex regulatory regime there is a balance of support, albeit laced with considerable uncertainty. PMID:21745587

  1. Realising the European Network of Biodosimetry (RENEB).

    PubMed

    Kulka, U; Ainsbury, L; Atkinson, M; Barquinero, J F; Barrios, L; Beinke, C; Bognar, G; Cucu, A; Darroudi, F; Fattibene, P; Gil, O; Gregoire, E; Hadjidekova, V; Haghdoost, S; Herranz, R; Jaworska, A; Lindholm, C; Mkacher, R; Mörtl, S; Montoro, A; Moquet, J; Moreno, M; Ogbazghi, A; Oestreicher, U; Palitti, F; Pantelias, G; Popescu, I; Prieto, M J; Romm, H; Rothkamm, K; Sabatier, L; Sommer, S; Terzoudi, G; Testa, A; Thierens, H; Trompier, F; Turai, I; Vandersickel, V; Vaz, P; Voisin, P; Vral, A; Ugletveit, F; Woda, C; Wojcik, A

    2012-10-01

    In Europe, a network for biological dosimetry has been created to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response capabilities in case of a large-scale nuclear accident or radiological emergency. Through the RENEB (Realising the European Network of Biodosimetry) project, 23 experienced laboratories from 16 European countries will establish a sustainable network for rapid, comprehensive and standardised biodosimetry provision that would be urgently required in an emergency situation on European ground. The foundation of the network is formed by five main pillars: (1) the ad hoc operational basis, (2) a basis of future developments, (3) an effective quality-management system, (4) arrangements to guarantee long-term sustainability and (5) awareness of the existence of RENEB. RENEB will thus provide a mechanism for quick, efficient and reliable support within the European radiation emergency management. The scientific basis of RENEB will concurrently contribute to increased safety in the field of radiation protection. PMID:22923244

  2. European packaging laws: Can it happen here?

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.

    1996-06-01

    European packaging recycling and reduction efforts helped reshape recycling efforts and thinking. This article provides an update on what is happening with packaging recycling in Europe and how it affects the rest of the world, especially the US. World recycling markets were shaken by the enactment of the German Packaging Recycling ordinance of 1991. While the initial market shock waves may have subsided, the effects are still being felt. The ordinance has changed the way European countries think about packaging waste, and that way of thinking has spread, in various forms, around the world, affecting US manufacturers and causing US lawmakers to at least consider similar legislation here. The German Packaging Ordinance, its counterparts in other countries, and the European Union (EU) Directive have, themselves, been evolutionary as well as revolutionary--reacting and changing over the past five years. US reaction to the European laws has also evolved, moving from horror and annoyance to a reasoned analysis and evaluation.

  3. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) fourth Automated Transfer Vehicle cargo craft (ATV-4) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana at 5:52 p.m. EDT on Wednesday to begin a 10-day t...

  4. European Flood Awareness System - now operational

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

    2013-04-01

    The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: • EFAS Hydrological data collection centre —REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS • EFAS Meteorological data collection centre —outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS

  5. Demographics of the European Apicultural Industry

    PubMed Central

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620 000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220 000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  6. Medical ethics in the European Community.

    PubMed Central

    Riis, P

    1993-01-01

    Increasing European co-operation must take place in many areas, including medical ethics. Against the background of common cultural norms and pluralistic variation within political traditions, religion and lifestyles, Europe will have to converge towards unity within the field of medical ethics. This article examines how such convergence might develop with respect to four major areas: European research ethics committees, democratic health systems, the human genome project and rules for stopping futile treatments. PMID:8459444

  7. The Western European Union Satellite Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasani, Bhupendra; Mara, Simon

    1993-06-01

    In January 1993, the FALCON consortium of 13 European companies, led by Cray Systems, won the contract to supply a turnkey satellite image processing facility to the Western European Union. The project started immediately and will be installed at WEU's Data Centre in Torrejon near Madrid in December 1993. This paper discusses the development of an idea for a Regional Satellite Monitoring Agency (RSMA) which will be realized in December 1993 when the Centre becomes fully operational.

  8. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    PubMed

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  9. Utrecht and the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, F. C. M.; EST Team

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, in the quest towards large solar facilities, a pan-European project was started to study a 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST). As one of the major partners, Utrecht played a significant role in the design, in particular in relation to the intended open design, its enclosure, telescope mechanics as well its polarimetric properties. Mid-2011 the work did result in an innovative conceptual design for EST.

  10. Activities: Sectioning a Regular Tetrahedron.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maletsky, Evan M., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Worksheets are provided for use by students in grades 8 and above when sectioning a tetrahedron. Lesson objectives include the discovery of generalizations regarding the cross-sections of a tetrahedron. (MK)

  11. Work of the European Haemovigilance Network (EHN).

    PubMed

    Faber, Jean-Claude

    2004-02-01

    Haemovigilance has become a crucial part of the blood safety concept. In the Member States of the European Union, national haemovigilance systems are already in place or are developing. With the coming into force of the European Blood Directive 2002/98/EC, Community haemovigilance has become a priority: cooperation between the national haemovigilance systems will be of vital interest. The process of collaboration has already been initiated some years ago by the European Haemovigilance Network (EHN) with the following objectives: to favour the exchange of valid information between its members, to increase rapid alert/early warning between the members, to encourage joint activities between the members and to undertake educational activities relating to haemovigilance. This has been achieved by the EHN by developing and maintaining a website [http://www.ehn-org.net], by establishing a system for rapid alert and early warning (RAS), by discussing on all kinds of definitions relevant to haemovigilance, initiating standardisation of processes and forms (developing a common "mother matrix"), by starting with the compilation and analysis of European data (generated by the national haemovigilance systems in Europe) and by organising annual European Haemovigilance Seminars, where all these items are discussed. As in the past, the EHN will continue in the future to play a major role in promoting European haemovigilance.

  12. Genetics and the origin of European languages.

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, A; Rendine, S; Minch, E; Menozzi, P; Mountain, J; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1995-01-01

    A new set of European genetic data has been analyzed to dissect independent patterns of geographic variation. The most important cause of European genetic variation has been confirmed to correspond to the migration of Neolithic farmers from the area of origin of agriculture in the Middle East. The next most important component of genetic variation is apparently associated with a north-south gradient possibly due to adaptation to cold climates but also to the differentiation of the Uralic and the Indo-European language-speaking people; however, the relevant correlations are not significantly different from zero after elimination of the spatial autocorrelation. The third component is highly correlated with the infiltration of the Yamna ("Kurgan") people, nomadic pastoralists who domesticated the horse and who have been claimed to have spread Indo-European languages to Europe; this association, which is statistically significant even when taking spatial autocorrelations into account, does not completely exclude the hypothesis of Indo-European as the language of Neolithic farmers. It is possible that both expansions were responsible for the spread of different subfamilies of Indo-European languages, but our genetic data cannot resolve their relative importance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7597038

  13. Assessing nitrogen pressures on European surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizzetti, B.; Bouraoui, F.; de Marsily, G.

    2008-12-01

    The European environmental legislation on water, in particular the 2000 Water Framework Directive, requires the evaluation of nutrient pressures and the assessment of mitigation measures at the river basin scale. Models have been identified as tools that can contribute to fulfill these requirements. The objective of this research was the implementation of a modeling approach (Geospatial Regression Equation for European Nutrient losses (GREEN)) to assess the actual nitrogen pressures on surface water quality at medium and large basin scale (European scale) using readily available data. In particular the aim was to estimate diffuse nitrogen emissions into surface waters, contributions by different sources (point and diffuse) to the nitrate load in rivers, and nitrogen retention in river systems. A comprehensive database including nutrient sources and physical watershed characteristics was built at the European scale. The modeling partially or entirely covered some of the larger and more populated European river basins, including the Danube, Rhine, Elbe, Weser, and Ems in Germany, the Seine and Rhone in France, and the Meuse basin shared by France and Belgium. The model calibration was satisfactory for all basins. The source contribution to the in-stream nitrogen load, together with the diffuse nitrogen emissions and river nitrogen retention were estimated and were found to be in the range of values reported in the literature. Finally, the model results were extrapolated to estimate the diffuse nitrogen emission and source apportionment at the European scale.

  14. European utilities requirements for future reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Roch, M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect for future nuclear power plants has led the utilities of seven European countries to launch an effort to define the requirements that should be common to all utilities for the next reactors to be built in Europe. These requirements will ultimately be part of a four-volume document and will cover all aspects of a plant: performance, grid connection, codes and standards, materials, quality assurance, cost, and, of course, safety. The seven European countries - France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, and Belgium - issued revision A of Vols 1 and 2 in Nov. 1994, which deal with all the general requirements, not specific to any design, originally issued in March 1994. Comments were requested from most of the nuclear utilities as well as from reactor vendors worldwide. This gave rise to an enormous number of comments, which were duly considered by the European Union. The relevant ones were incorporated into revision B of Vols. 1 and 2, which was issued in Nov 1995, the objective of this revision B being essentially to gain approval from the safety authorities. A particular aspect of the European approach resides in the fact that these European requirements will have to be discussed and agreed on by at least nine safety authorities, i.e., the authorities of the seven counties that launched revision B, plus the authorities of two newcomers, Finland and Sweden, which have just applied for European Union membership.

  15. The European Marine Strategy: Noise Monitoring in European Marine Waters from 2014.

    PubMed

    Dekeling, René; Tasker, Mark; Ainslie, Michael; Andersson, Mathias; André, Michel; Borsani, Fabrizio; Brensing, Karsten; Castellote, Manuel; Dalen, John; Folegot, Thomas; van der Graaf, Sandra; Leaper, Russell; Liebschner, Alexander; Pajala, Jukka; Robinson, Stephen; Sigray, Peter; Sutton, Gerry; Thomsen, Frank; Werner, Stefanie; Wittekind, Dietrich; Young, John V

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires European member states to develop strategies for their marine waters leading to programs of measures that achieve or maintain good environmental status (GES) in all European seas by 2020. An essential step toward reaching GES is the establishment of monitoring programs, enabling the state of marine waters to be assessed on a regular basis. A register for impulsive noise-generating activities would enable assessment of their cumulative impacts on wide temporal and spatial scales; monitoring of ambient noise would provide essential insight into current levels and any trend in European waters. PMID:26610961

  16. The European Marine Strategy: Noise Monitoring in European Marine Waters from 2014.

    PubMed

    Dekeling, René; Tasker, Mark; Ainslie, Michael; Andersson, Mathias; André, Michel; Borsani, Fabrizio; Brensing, Karsten; Castellote, Manuel; Dalen, John; Folegot, Thomas; van der Graaf, Sandra; Leaper, Russell; Liebschner, Alexander; Pajala, Jukka; Robinson, Stephen; Sigray, Peter; Sutton, Gerry; Thomsen, Frank; Werner, Stefanie; Wittekind, Dietrich; Young, John V

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires European member states to develop strategies for their marine waters leading to programs of measures that achieve or maintain good environmental status (GES) in all European seas by 2020. An essential step toward reaching GES is the establishment of monitoring programs, enabling the state of marine waters to be assessed on a regular basis. A register for impulsive noise-generating activities would enable assessment of their cumulative impacts on wide temporal and spatial scales; monitoring of ambient noise would provide essential insight into current levels and any trend in European waters.

  17. 14 CFR Section 4 - General

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 4 Section 4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS... Section 4 General (a) The balance sheet accounts are designed to show the financial condition of the...

  18. Compressive crippling of structural sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Melvin S

    1956-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating crippling stresses of structural sections as a function of material properties and the proportions of the section. The presence of formed or anisotropic material is accounted for by the use of an effective stress-strain curve. The method of analysis applies to many sections for which a procedure for calculating crippling was not previously available.

  19. Scheduling a C-Section

    MedlinePlus

    ... Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill ... develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a problem? ...

  20. European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Novellino, Antonio; D'Angelo, Paolo; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Loubrieu, Thomas; Rickards, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    The EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu) makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS associates and its regional operational systems (ROOSs), and it is bringing together two very different marine communities: the "real time" ocean observing institute/centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge of ocean data validation, quality check and update for marine environmental monitoring. The EMODnet-Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data (www.emodnet-physics.eu/map) it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unless complexity, it provides data access to users, it is aimed at attracting new data holders, better and more data. With a long-term vision for a pan European Ocean Observation System sustainability, the EMODnet-Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS Regional components and the empowerment and improvement of their data management infrastructure. In turn, EMODnet-Physics already implemented high-level interoperability features (WMS, Web catalogue, web services, etc…) to facilitate connection and data exchange with the ROOS and the Institutes within the ROOSs (www.emodnet-physics.eu/services). The on-going EMODnet-Physics structure delivers environmental marine physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) as monitored by fixed stations, ARGO floats, drifting buoys, gliders, and ferry-boxes. It does provide discovering of data sets (both NRT - near real time - and Historical data sets), visualization and free

  1. European Sail Tower SPS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seboldt, W.; Klimke, M.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N.

    2001-03-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called "System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE&U)" a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called "European Sail Tower SPS" and consists mainly of deployable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such a SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to Earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150m × 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal light-weight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW e. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology development. The paper presents the technical concept

  2. Using European Systems from a North American Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Marshall; Grenville, Sally

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates the special considerations of using European search systems from North America: steps in establishing a telephone link with the European Space Agency's system, lack of availability to North Americans of some European databases through this system, user reaction, and costs. Brief descriptions of some European databases and a connect…

  3. 23. VIEW OF SECTION DRAWINGS. THE SECTION LINES CUT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF SECTION DRAWINGS. THE SECTION LINES CUT THE BUILDING EAST-WEST. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Realizing the European Higher Education Area: Berlin Conference of European Higher Education Ministers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration of June 1999 has put in motion a series of reforms needed to make European higher education more compatible and comparable, more competitive and attractive for European citizens and for citizens and scholars from other continents. In Prague, in May 2001, the ministers took note of the progress so far and added three new…

  5. The Emergent European Educational Policies under Scrutiny: The Bologna Process from a Central European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the Bologna Process and the European Research Area are viewed as the two sides of the same coin: that of the redefinition of the missions of the institution of the university. The Bologna Process is viewed as relatively closed to global developments: as largely inward-looking, focused on European regional problems (and European…

  6. Governing by Inspection? European Inspectorates and the Creation of a European Education Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grek, Sotiria; Lawn, Martin; Ozga, Jenny; Segerholm, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on the first, completed phase of a research project on inspection as governing in three European inspection systems. The data presented here draw attention to the rather under-researched associational activities of European inspectorates and their developing practices of policy learning and exchange, and highlight their…

  7. European Higher Education Policy and the Formation of Entrepreneurial Students as Future European Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that European education policies and rhetoric are imbued with orthodoxy of agency and models of empowered, entrepreneurial actors, striving to surpass the limits of national boundaries. Free circulation of citizens has progressively underpinned a new construction of "the European", who is entrepreneurial,…

  8. The European Round Table of Industrialists and the Restructuring of European Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The restructuring of European higher education (EHE) since the 1980s is a widely studied subject. However, this paper argues that previous studies have paid insufficient attention to the role of transnational policy-making groups in this complex and multilevel process. This argument is supported by focusing on how the European Round Table of…

  9. How Green Are European Curricula? A Comparative Analysis of Primary School Syllabi in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanish, Anna; Rank, Astrid; Seeber, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-national curriculum analysis as part of a European Union Comenius project regarding the implementation of an online tool to foster environmental education (EE) in primary schools. The overall goal was to determine the extent and intensity that EE is embedded in the syllabi of five European countries. To this end, the…

  10. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed

  11. European activities in radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Georgi

    2015-07-01

    The recently published Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom ('new European Basic Safety Standards', EU BSS) modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation by taking into account the latest scientific knowledge, technological progress and experience with implementing the current legislation and by merging five existing Directives into a single piece of legislation. The new European BSS repeal previous European legislation on which the national systems for radiation protection in medicine of the 28 European Union (EU) Member States are based, including the 96/29/Euratom 'BSS' and the 97/43/Euratom 'Medical Exposure' Directives. While most of the elements of the previous legislation have been kept, there are several legal changes that will have important influence over the regulation and practice in the field all over Europe-these include, among others: (i) strengthening the implementation of the justification principle and expanding it to medically exposed asymptomatic individuals, (ii) more attention to interventional radiology, (iii) new requirements for dose recording and reporting, (iv) increased role of the medical physics expert in imaging, (v) new set of requirements for preventing and following up on accidents and (vi) new set of requirements for procedures where radiological equipment is used on people for non-medical purposes (non-medical imaging exposure). The EU Member States have to enforce the new EU BSS before January 2018 and bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with it. The European Commission has certain legal obligations and powers to verify the compliance of the national measures with the EU laws and, wherever necessary, issue recommendations to, or open infringement cases against, national governments. In order to ensure timely and coordinated implementation of the new European legal requirements for radiation protection, the Commission is launching several actions

  12. In Brief: European cooperation in polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    A new European Polar Framework agreement aims to increase research cooperation, streamline links between many European national research programs in the Arctic and Antarctic, and possibly create international research teams similar to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The new framework includes commitments to collaborate on new multinational research initiatives and to have national polar programs converge where appropriate. “Recent environmental shifts in the poles have been large and rapid. By linking together Europe's polar research more closely we can get a better grasp on the wide-ranging series of changes taking place,” said Paul Egerton, executive director of the European Science Foundation's European Polar Board, which aims to facilitate cooperation among various organizations. The agreement was signed on 24 June by 26 European scientific institutions, including the British Antarctic Survey; the Agency of Culture, Education, Research and the Church Affairs, Greenland; the Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Germany; Italy's Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide; Norway's Norsk Polarinstitutt; and the Romanian Antarctic Foundation.

  13. West European public and the Atlantic Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, A.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Using original and previously published survey data, this study explores West European public attitudes about Atlantic cooperation in general and NATO in particular. Alternative viewpoints are categorized into a typology that is used to describe the conceptual nature of European beliefs and to measure the level of public support for the different viewpoints. Long-term trends in these attitudes and causal determinants are also examined. A distinguishing feature of this study is that it is truly comparative. The analysis relies on identical survey items administered in four European countries: Great Britain, France, West German, and Italy. The longitudinal data examined indicate that some fundamental changes have occurred in European security beliefs. Anti-Americanism has increased dramatically at the same time that attitudes toward the Soviet Union have become more favorable, and the fear of nuclear weapons and nuclear war has increased substantially. Explanations for these shifts in opinion are not found in sociological factors, such as changes in generational experiences, educational levels, or social classes; but instead, European attitudes appear to reflect broad changes in international politics, such as the Vietnam War, nuclear parity, and detente. Favorable opinion for NATO tends to be high, yet specific defense-related measures receive much less support.

  14. Introduction: European bioethics on a rocky road.

    PubMed

    Sass, H M

    2001-06-01

    There are quite a number of rocky roads on which the 'old continent' has embarked. There is, first, a harmonization of cultures and attitudes in the creation of a common European market of values and valuables, a harmonization undertaken in order to survive in an increasingly competitive global market. Second, there is a reactivation of specific European traditions in discourse, peaceable hermeneutics, solidarity, subsidiarity, tolerance in both conflict reduction and solution, and respect for self-determination and self-responsibility. Third, there is an integration of theory and practice, of visions and reality, of national identity or pride and common European rights, and of obligations and cultural heritages. Last but not least, there is a question about the definition of 'European' in a world which, at least in part, has been developed by successful European missionary work in the distribution of Age-of-Reason principles such as personal autonomy and social and ideational tolerance, the promotion of science-based technologies, and the creation of global markets for goods and services. PMID:11445878

  15. Procedural aspects of the organization of the comprehensive European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma examination

    PubMed Central

    Sunaric-Mégevand, Gordana; Aclimandos, Wagih

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma (EBOD) examination is one of 38 European medical specialty examinations. This review aims at disclosing the specific procedures and content of the EBOD examination. It is a descriptive study summarizing the present organization of the EBOD examination. It is the 3rd largest European postgraduate medical assessment after anaesthesiology and cardiology. The master language is English for the Part 1 written test (knowledge test with 52 modified type X multiple-choice questions) (in the past the written test was also available in French and German). Ophthalmology training of minimum 4 years in a full or associated European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) member state is a prerequisite. Problem-solving skills are tested in the Part 2 oral assessment, which is a viva of 4 subjects conducted in English with support for native language whenever feasible. The comprehensive EBOD examination is one of the leading examinations organized by UEMS European Boards or Specialist Sections from the point of number of examinees, item banking, and item contents. PMID:27464640

  16. 38. SECTIONS OF ACCESS CORRIDOR, INCLUDES SECTION SHOWING ARRANGEMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECTIONS OF ACCESS CORRIDOR, INCLUDES SECTION SHOWING ARRANGEMENT OF NAVY GUN BARRELS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106454. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-P-59. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Smoking and occupation from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, S; Sunyer, J; Zock, J; Anto, J; Kogevinas, M; European, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: Smoking is among the most important personal and modifiable risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The workplace offers a potentially effective venue for tobacco prevention programmes; identifying occupational groups with high smoking prevalence may assist in targeting such programmes. Aims: To examine smoking prevalence among occupational groups in the European Union. Methods: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS), a cross sectional health survey conducted in 1992–93, was used to examine smoking prevalence by occupation among 14 565 subjects from 30 centres in 14 participating countries. Results: There was an approximately twofold range in smoking prevalence by occupation. For occupational groups with at least 50 subjects, the highest smoking prevalence was seen in metal making and treating for men (54.3%) and cleaners for women (50.7%). Increased smoking prevalence by occupation persisted after adjustment for age, country, and age at completion of education. Smoking was also increased among occupations with high exposure to mineral dust and gas or fumes. Conclusions: Smoking rates vary significantly by occupation. Prevention efforts in the workplace should focus on occupations with high smoking prevalence and large employment bases. PMID:12937184

  18. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  19. Director Circles of Conic Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Given a conic section, the locus of a moving point in the plane of the conic section such that the two tangent lines drawn to the conic section from the moving point are all mutually perpendicular is a curve. In the case of an ellipse and hyperbola this curve is a circle referred to as the director circle. In the case of the parabola this curve…

  20. Hydrology Section Executive Committee Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    The Hydrology Section Executive Committee (EC) convened at 8:20 A.M. on May 28, 1985, in Room 311 of the Convention Center in Baltimore, Md. The meeting was chaired by Hydrology Section President R. Allan Freeze. Section President-Elect Marshall Moss kept the minutes in the absence of the Section Secretary Thomas Maddock III. Also in attendance were William Back, Rafael Bras, Stephen Burges, Jerry Cohon, Ron Cummings, David Dawdy, Jacques Delleur, Leonard Konikow, Jurate Landwehr, Fred Molz, Don Nielsen, Joyce Peters, Karen Prestegaard, Tom Schmugge, Waldo Smith, Jery Stedinger, and Eric Wood.

  1. Environmental sustainability in European public healthcare.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Andrea; Vagnoni, Emidia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the debate concerning the influence of leadership on environmental sustainability implementation in European public healthcare organisations. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is a viewpoint. It is based on preliminary analysis of European standards dedicated to environmental sustainability and their spread across Europe in public healthcare organisations. Viewpoints concerning leadership are then discussed and asserted. Findings - This paper found a limited implementation of standards such as Green Public Procurement criteria, Eco-Management and Audit Scheme and ISO 14001 in public healthcare. Some clues indicate that the lack of implementation is related to leadership and management commitment. Originality/value - For the first time, this paper investigates relationships between leadership and environmental sustainability in European public healthcare opening further avenues of research on the subject. PMID:26764957

  2. European Fuel Cells R&D Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, P. D.; Maguire, J.

    1994-09-01

    A review is presented on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells, and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission's activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.

  3. Environmental sustainability in European public healthcare.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Andrea; Vagnoni, Emidia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the debate concerning the influence of leadership on environmental sustainability implementation in European public healthcare organisations. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is a viewpoint. It is based on preliminary analysis of European standards dedicated to environmental sustainability and their spread across Europe in public healthcare organisations. Viewpoints concerning leadership are then discussed and asserted. Findings - This paper found a limited implementation of standards such as Green Public Procurement criteria, Eco-Management and Audit Scheme and ISO 14001 in public healthcare. Some clues indicate that the lack of implementation is related to leadership and management commitment. Originality/value - For the first time, this paper investigates relationships between leadership and environmental sustainability in European public healthcare opening further avenues of research on the subject.

  4. European neolithization and ancient DNA: an assessment.

    PubMed

    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Leahy, Rachael; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Rottier, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Neolithic processes underlying the distribution of genetic diversity among European populations have been the subject of intense debate since the first genetic data became available. However, patterns observed in the current European gene pool are the outcome of Paleolithic and Neolithic processes, overlaid with four millennia of further developments. This observation encouraged paleogeneticists to contribute to the debate by directly comparing genetic variation from the ancient inhabitants of Europe to their contemporary counterparts. Pre-Neolithic and Neolithic paleogenetic data are becoming increasingly available for north and northwest European populations. Despite the numerous problems inherent in the paleogenetic approach, the accumulation of ancient DNA datasets offers new perspectives from which to interpret the interactions between hunter-gatherer and farming communities. In light of information emerging from diverse disciplines, including recent paleogenetic studies, the most plausible model explaining the movement of Neolithic pioneer groups in central Europe is that of leapfrog migration.

  5. European industry attacks proposed carbon tax

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.

    1995-08-09

    The European chemical industry, facing growing political support for the European Commission`s latest version of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-energy tax, has renewed its attacks on the proposed law. Simon de Bree, chairman of DSM and president of the European Chemical Industry Council (Cefic; Brussels), last week wrote to Jacques Santer, president of the commission, and Solana Madariaga, current president of Europe Union`s (EU) Council of Ministers, saying the tax was {open_quotes}totally unacceptable and irresponsible in terms of EU competitiveness.{close_quotes} He says it {open_quotes}has nothing to do anymore with the protection of the environment and has instead become a normal additional taxation, disguised, for opportunistic reasons, as an environmental protection measurement.{close_quotes}

  6. European whole body counter measurement intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Thieme, M; Hunt, E L; König, K; Schmitt-Hannig, A; Gödde, R

    1998-04-01

    In order to test the common quality standards for the performance of measurements of internal radioactivity, the European Commission funded a European intercomparison of whole body counters, which was organized and carried out by the Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene (part of the German Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz). Forty-four whole body counting facilities from forty-two institutions in nineteen countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union plus Hungary, the Czech Republic, Switzerland and Norway) took part in this intercomparison, which made it the most comprehensive ever carried out in Europe. For the study, the 70 kg tissue equivalent St Petersburg phantom was used with rods containing 40K, 57Co, 60Co, and 137Cs. The overall results of the whole body counter study were rather good.

  7. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    PubMed

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access.

  8. Educational Innovations in Finnish and European Contexts: An Analysis of the Aims and Outcomes of "The European Observatory" of the European Commission (1994-1998). Research Report 200.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Seppo; Tirri, Kirsi

    The purpose of this document is to analyze some of the major developments and research findings of the European Observatory of Innovations in Education and Training (1994-1998). The Observatory was a consortium of 13 member countries of the European Union serving as a European network of researchers and educators in the field of comparative…

  9. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  10. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  11. Evidence-based cariology in clinical and public health practice as part of the European Core Curriculum in Cariology.

    PubMed

    Splieth, Ch H; Innes, N; Söhnel, A

    2011-11-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers contributing towards a European Core Curriculum in Cariology for undergraduate dental students. The European Core Curriculum in Cariology is the outcome of a process starting in 2006 and culminating in a joint workshop of the European Organization for Caries Research together with the Association for Dental Education in Europe, which was held in Berlin from 27 to 30 June 2010. The scope of this paper is to present the evidence-based cariology in clinical and public health section of the European Core Curriculum in Cariology. This section was developed on the basis of international consensus on the current and future educational needs in the fields of cariology and disorders of dental hard tissues. The paper will deal with the core skills of evidence-based dental practice within the undergraduate curriculum underpinning the dual facets of clinical cariology (relating particularly to individuals) and public health cariology (relating particularly to groups/societies). Core competencies in evidence-based dentistry, which are generic to the undergraduate curriculum as a whole and not only cariology, are integral to lifelong learning skills within dentistry. As the clinical cariology competencies in assessment and management of caries for the individual patient are dealt with within other sections of the European Core Curriculum in Cariology, only a few relevant examples will be presented here, but for Public Health Cariology, the competencies will be explored within this document and their relationship to the principles of evidence-based dentistry discussed.

  12. European XFEL: Soft X-Ray instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Molodtsov, S. L.

    2011-12-15

    The currently constructed European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) will generate new knowledge in almost all the technical and scientific disciplines that are shaping our daily life-including nanotechnology, medicine, pharmaceutics, chemistry, materials science, power engineering and electronics. On 8 January 2009, civil engineering work (tunnels, shafts, halls) has been started at all three construction sites. In this presentation status and parameters of the European XFEL facility and instrumentation as well as planned research applications particularly in the range of soft X-rays are reviewed.

  13. Awareness System Implemented in the European Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jańıček, František; Jedinák, Martin; Šulc, Igor

    2014-09-01

    Transmission system in Slovakia is part of a synchronously interconnected system of continental Europe. Besides indisputable technical and economical benefits of cooperation many hazardous factors exist of fault condition spreading with impact on our system. Even today a system break-up escalated into a vast blackout is a real danger. European transmission system operators continually work on preventive measures and develop systems with a goal to handle critical situations. The ambition of the European Awareness System is to signalize the rise of these situations and also assist with system restoration

  14. [European Union fight against smoking related activitiy].

    PubMed

    Calvete Oliva, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed at providing information concerning the provisions adopted by the European Union on both a compulsory and non-compulsory basis for its member States related in one way or another to the fight against smoking. To this end, a review is made of all of the provisions published in the Official Journal of the European Union as of the first published in 1986 up to March 2005, commenting upon the aspects of each provision having to do with the subject stated above.

  15. The molecular genetics of European ancestry.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, B

    1999-01-01

    In an earlier paper we proposed, on the basis of mitochondrial control region variation, that the bulk of modern European mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) diversity had its roots in the European Upper Palaeolithic. Refining the mtDNA phylogeny and enlarging the sample size both within Europe and the Middle East still support this interpretation and indicate three separate phases of colonization: (i) the Early Upper Palaeolithic about 50,000 BP; (ii) the Late Upper Palaeolithic 11,000-14,000 BP; and (iii) the Neolithic from 8500 BP. PMID:10091253

  16. European scientific notes. Volume 34, Number 9

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, W.V.; Peters, D.J.

    1980-09-30

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by calling attention to current development and to institutions and individuals engaged in these scientific efforts. The articles are written primarily by members of the staff of ORNL and occasionally articles are prepared by, or in cooperation with, members of the scientific staffs of the United States Air Force's European Office of Aerospace Research and Development and the United States ARmy Research and Standardization Group. Articles are also contributed by visiting Stateside scientists.

  17. Pharmaceutical regulation in the single European market.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D; Wilson, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of new EU-wide drug authorisation procedures. The paper examines various attempts to introduce harmonised market authorisation routes for pharmaceuticals including the establishment of the multi-state, concentration, decentralised and centralised procedures. The paper considers the current role of the European Medicines Evaluation Agency and the likelihood that its powers will be increased in the future. Finally, the paper assesses whether EU regulation has created beneficial market conditions for pharmaceutical companies operating in the single European market. PMID:9922630

  18. Pharmaceutical regulation in the single European market.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D; Wilson, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of new EU-wide drug authorisation procedures. The paper examines various attempts to introduce harmonised market authorisation routes for pharmaceuticals including the establishment of the multi-state, concentration, decentralised and centralised procedures. The paper considers the current role of the European Medicines Evaluation Agency and the likelihood that its powers will be increased in the future. Finally, the paper assesses whether EU regulation has created beneficial market conditions for pharmaceutical companies operating in the single European market.

  19. Beverage consumption among European adolescents in the HELENA Study

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, K.J.; Huybrechts, I.; Mouratidou, T.; Libuda, L.; Kersting, M.; DeVriendt, T.; Gottrand, F.; Widhalm, K.; Dallongeville, J.; Hallström, L.; González-Gross, M.; DeHenauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Popkin, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Our objective was to describe the fluid and energy consumption of beverages in a large sample of European adolescents Methods We used data from 2,741 European adolescents residing in 8 countries participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). We averaged two 24-hour recalls, collected using the HELENA-dietary assessment tool. By gender and age subgroup (12.5–14.9 y and 15–17.5 y), we examined per capita and per consumer fluid (milliliters [mL]) and energy (kilojoules [kJ]) intake from beverages and percent consuming ten different beverage groups. Results Mean beverage consumption was 1611 ml/d in boys and 1316 ml/d in girls. Energy intake from beverages was about 1966 kJ/d and 1289 kJ/d in European boys and girls respectively, with sugar-sweetened beverages (carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, including soft drinks, fruit drinks and powders/concentrates) contributing to daily energy intake more than other groups of beverages. Boys and older adolescents consumed the most amount of per capita total energy from beverages. Among all age and gender subgroups sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk (including chocolate milk and flavored yogurt drinks all with added sugar), low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of per capita energy. Water was consumed by the largest percent of adolescents followed by sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice, and sweetened milk. Among consumers, water provided the greatest fluid intake and sweetened milk accounted for the largest amount of energy intake followed by sugar-sweetened beverages. Patterns of energy intake from each beverage varied between countries. Conclusions European adolescents consume an average of 1455 ml/d of beverages, with the largest proportion of consumers and the largest fluid amount coming from water. Beverages provide 1609 kJ/d, of which 30.4%, 20.7%, and 18.1% comes from sugar-sweetened beverages

  20. The European LeukemiaNet: achievements and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Grimwade, David; Simonsson, Bengt; Apperley, Jane; Baccarani, Michele; Barbui, Tiziano; Barosi, Giovanni; Bassan, Renato; Béné, Marie C.; Berger, Ute; Büchner, Thomas; Burnett, Alan; Cross, Nicolas C.P.; de Witte, Theo J.M.; Döhner, Hartmut; Dombret, Hervé; Einsele, Hermann; Engelich, Georg; Foà, Robin; Fonatsch, Christa; Gökbuget, Nicola; Gluckman, Elaine; Gratwohl, Alois; Guilhot, Francois; Haferlach, Claudia; Haferlach, Thorsten; Hallek, Michael; Hasford, Jörg; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hoelzer, Dieter; Kiladjian, Jean-Jaques; Labar, Boris; Ljungman, Per; Mansmann, Ulrich; Niederwieser, Dietger; Ossenkoppele, Gert; Ribera, José M.; Rieder, Harald; Serve, Hubert; Schrotz-King, Petra; Sanz, Miguel A.; Saußele, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The only way to cure leukemia is by cooperative research. To optimize research, the European LeukemiaNet integrates 105 national leukemia trial groups and networks, 105 interdisciplinary partner groups and about 1,000 leukemia specialists from 175 institutions. They care for tens of thousands of leukemia patients in 33 countries across Europe. Their ultimate goal is to cure leukemia. Since its inception in 2002, the European LeukemiaNet has steadily expanded and has unified leukemia research across Europe. The European LeukemiaNet grew from two major roots: 1) the German Competence Network on Acute and Chronic Leukemias; and 2) the collaboration of European Investigators on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. The European LeukemiaNet has improved leukemia research and management across Europe. Its concept has led to funding by the European Commission as a network of excellence. Other sources (European Science Foundation; European LeukemiaNet-Foundation) will take over when the support of the European Commission ends. PMID:21048032

  1. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  2. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  3. 23. VIEW OF SECTION DRAWINGS. THE SECTION LINES FOR AA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF SECTION DRAWINGS. THE SECTION LINES FOR A-A AND C-C CUT THE BUILDING EAST-WEST; SECTION LINE B-B CUTS THE BUILDING NORTH-SOUTH. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  5. [Transitions of psychotropic drugs in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) (Part 14). Transitions in the standards and test methods of Valerian root in the Deutsches Arzneibuch (DAB) and comparison between the USP, BP, EP and JP, and Oleum Valerianae (Japan Kesso oil) listed in DAB6 (1926)].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Kiyohisa

    2014-01-01

    Valerian has been used as a name for Japanese Valerian and European Valerian root. Valerian in the German market today was originally called Baldrian. Transitions in the standards and the test methods of Valerian root listed in the DAB were studied this time. Moreover, we compared these standards and test methods with those in the USP, BP, EP and JP. We also considered the pharmacology evaluation in Germany. At the time, the standards and test methods had content in accordance with the EP from DAB9 (1986) of the West Germany publication. It also agreed with the EP and BP of the same period. To date in the DAB, botanical features have been mainly derived from the discriminating characteristics of the Valerian root. In DAB9 (1986), standards and test methods were added to the content, enhancing it and making it more stringent. This is thought to have happened as a result of a new, academic finding showing an improvement in the pharmacology level. Valerian root has been listed continuously in the DAB. These listings suggest that Valerian root has continally been evaluated as a sedative. We think that the listing was connected with a relisting in the BP as a result of scientific communications between Britain and Germany, EC member nations, such as through EP publications. On the other hand, the oil made with Japanese Valerian was listed in a radical field in DAB6 (1926) in the past. This is a valuable result, proving that it was used and evaluated as an important herbal medicine from Japan and foreign countries at that time. The Japanese Valerian referred to is not grown in Japan today. Moreover, it is not possible that cultivation will be restarted through good quality revaluation. However, this fact introduces a valuable piece of history supporting the survival of Japanese Valerian and European Valerian root as a sedative in the future. PMID:25799839

  6. Inspection of Home Education in European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blok, Henk; Karsten, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    In many European countries and in North America, home education is a viable alternative for education at school. Parents who want to home school their child are legally allowed to do so, although some countries impose rather strict conditions. This article concentrates on the way authorities supervise or inspect the quality of home education. A…

  7. Issues of Discrimination in European Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundara, Jagdish S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines difficulties and complexities in researching issues of discrimination in education across European countries as a first step in devising intercultural curricula. Discusses cross-national differences in terminology, in the ways in which research issues related to racism and interculturalism are formulated, and in the educational experience…

  8. Mobility Attitudes and Behaviours among Young Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Noeleen; Dickmann, Michael; Mills, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the career attitudes, motivations and behaviours of young people in initial vocational education and training (IVET) in Europe. Design/methodology/approach: This exploratory web-based survey was conducted during the European year for mobility. Drawing on existing research on the motivators of international…

  9. Europe's Universities in the European Research Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Universities are placed strategically at the interplay of research and technological development, educational and regional development policies at both national and European level. Universities are also unique environments in which interdisciplinary skills are being developed to tackle the complex challenges facing human, social and economic…

  10. Is There a European Language History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheier, Klaus J.

    2010-01-01

    The thoughts on a language history within a European context sketched out here represent an attempt to extend the concepts of regional and particularly national language history by adding a third dimension: transnational language history in Europe. After a few general thoughts on the extended area of research, in which so-called external language…

  11. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system.

  12. Dynamics of Volunteering in Older Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hank, Karsten; Erlinghagen, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dynamics of volunteering in the population aged 50 years or older across 11 Continental European countries. Design and Methods: Using longitudinal data from the first 2 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, we run multivariate regressions on a set of binary-dependent variables indicating…

  13. The European Perspective on Women's Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macha, Hildegard; Bauer, Quirin J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors show the perspective on women's leadership in Europe. The authors present the European data on the educational status of girls and women at schools and universities and in academic careers. Data from Germany is presented as an example to provide evidence of some details. First, the authors point out four contradictions…

  14. Comparative "Glocal" Perspectives on European Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caena, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a PhD study, which offers comparative perspectives on teacher education in a period of reforms, inquiring into stakeholders' perceptions in English, French, Italian and Spanish contexts as case studies. The interaction of needs and constraints in European initial teacher education within higher education…

  15. European distributed seismological data archives infrastructure: EIDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, John; Hanka, Winfried; Mazza, Salvatore; Pederson, Helle; Sleeman, Reinoud; Stammler, Klaus; Strollo, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    The European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) is a distributed Data Center system within ORFEUS that (a) securely archives seismic waveform data and related metadata gathered by European research infrastructures, and (b) provides transparent access to the archives for the geosciences research communities. EIDA was founded in 2013 by ORFEUS Data Center, GFZ, RESIF, ETH, INGV and BGR to ensure sustainability of a distributed archive system and the implementation of standards (e.g. FDSN StationXML, FDSN webservices) and coordinate new developments. Under the mandate of the ORFEUS Board of Directors and Executive Committee the founding group is responsible for steering and maintaining the technical developments and organization of the European distributed seismic waveform data archive and the integration within broader multidisciplanry frameworks like EPOS. EIDA currently offers uniform data access to unrestricted data from 8 European archives (www.orfeus-eu.org/eida), linked by the Arclink protocol, hosting data from 75 permanent networks (1800+ stations) and 33 temporary networks (1200+) stations). Moreover, each archive may also provide unique, restricted datasets. A webinterface, developed at GFZ, offers interactive access to different catalogues (EMSC, GFZ, USGS) and EIDA waveform data. Clients and toolboxes like arclink_fetch and ObsPy can connect directly to any EIDA node to collect data. Current developments are directed to the implementation of quality parameters and strong motion parameters.

  16. European Year of Lifelong Learning 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    This publication provides glimpses of how different individuals and organizations have responded to the spirit of lifelong learning during the European Year. Each case study consists of the project's location, name, and objective and brief description. They include the following: Chapito Project, Lisbon, Portugal; Ligerius Project, a…

  17. The European artificial organ scene: present status.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, Raymond; del Cañizo, Juan F; Sauer, Igor M; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2005-06-01

    This article summarizes the current evolutions regarding artificial organs in Europe. The review emanates from the activities by four of the work groups of the European Society for Artificial Organs (ESAO) and is essentially based on the reports by these work groups at the latest ESAO meeting in Warsaw, Poland (2004). The topics are: apheresis, heart support, liver support, uremic toxins.

  18. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy. PMID:21487236

  19. The Lisbon Process: A European Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, David-Pascal

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the process in the field of education and training that the European Union has put forward to tackle the main challenges it is facing: globalisation, ageing and the ICT revolution. In order to take advantage of the opportunities brought by these three forces and to counteract their potential negative impact, the European…

  20. Satisfaction with Social Contacts of Older Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonsang, Eric; van Soest, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the determinants of an important component of well-being among individuals aged 50 years or older in eleven European countries: satisfaction with social contacts. We use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and anchoring vignettes to correct for potential differences in responses scales across…

  1. Willingness for Mobility amongst European Fishermen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pita, Cristina; Dickey, Heather; Pierce, Graham J.; Mente, Elena; Theodossiou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The global trend of fisheries overexploitation and collapse has resulted in the need to reduce fishing effort, and providing alternative employment for fishermen is a frequently mentioned policy option in order to achieve this goal. Reducing fishing effort is central to the European Commission Common Fisheries Policy and over the years, the…

  2. European Universities and Their International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation was prepared in response to a request from the European University Association for a brief comparative analysis of higher education internationalization in Europe and North America from a North American perspective. After adapting de Wit's four-category definition of internationalization (academic programs, technical assistance,…

  3. Standardizing the European Education Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Countries in Europe, through the European Union, are creating, as part of the market and its governance, a new policy space in education. It is being formed through law, regulation, networking and harmonization. The development of standards across the different fields of policy, statistical calculation and commerce underpins and extends the…

  4. Report from the European Prison Education Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Cormac

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several news stories from the European Prison Education Association (EPEA). These include: (1) The 7th International Conference for Directors of Prison Education held in Malmo, Sweden from September 11-14, 2008; (2) The visit of EPEA representatives to the Modern University of the Humanities (MUH) in Russia to examine how the…

  5. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. PMID:27003862

  6. Special Education in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    The monograph contains a report on developments and trends in special education within the European community and a selection of the principal papers of a conference on special education in Europe. Chapter 1 contains results of a comparative study presented tabularly and narratively covering all handicaps in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France,…

  7. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F.; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R.; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems• Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space• Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life• Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability• Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. Key Words: Astrobiology roadmap—Europe—Origin and evolution of life—Habitability—Life detection—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 16, 201–243. PMID:27003862

  8. Report from the European Prison Education Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Cormac

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author briefly outlines the aims and objectives of the European Prison Education Association (EPEA)--an organization for prison educators, administrators, governors, researchers and other professionals whose interests lie in promoting and developing education and related activities in correctional institutions throughout…

  9. European Perspectives on Global Climate Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempton, Willett; Craig, Paul P.

    1993-01-01

    Explores why some European countries are much more eager than the United States to endorse international environmental treaties and the roles history, culture, economics, and geography play. Influential policymakers throughout Austria, Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom are interviewed. (12 references) (Author/MCO)

  10. Asian Perspectives on European Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongkhonvanit, Pornchai; Emery, Silvio Laszlo

    2003-01-01

    Asserts the importance of educational mobility among countries, especially between Asia and Europe. Suggests that this requires bilingualism (English as the common medium for learning and instruction) and internationally recognized diplomas, such as ERASMUS ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) and UCTS (UMAP Credit Transfer System). (EV)

  11. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  12. The European Centre for Leisure and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Convergence, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Supported by UNESCO, the European Centre for Leisure and Education is an establishment of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. The task of the Centre lies in the search for common trends of leisure and education in Europe, involving four types of activity: research, editorial, bibliographic, and documentary. It has sponsored conferences, and has…

  13. Changing Tertiary Education in Modern European Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    Reports on recent developments and problems in the diversification of tertiary education in seven Western European countries are presented by members of the Working Party on the Diversification of Tertiary Education. Policy analysis and evaluation and recommendations for future policy are also provided. As a policy, diversification refers to the…

  14. The European Qualifications Framework: A Technical Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Stan

    2015-01-01

    The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) was introduced in 2008 as a "meta-framework" or common reference point for national qualifications frameworks in Europe, a function for which, with some caveats, it has been pragmatically successful. It has also been used with variable success to support the development or referencing of…

  15. Overview on Biofuels from a European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2009-01-01

    In light of the recently developed European Union (EU) Biofuels Strategy, the literature is reviewed to examine (a) the coherency of biofuel production with the EU nonindustrial vision of agriculture, and (b) given its insufficient land base, the implications of a proposed bioenergy pact to grow biofuel crops in the developing world to meet EU…

  16. Ethnocentricity, Post Modernity and European Curricular Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses educational curricula and the European knowledge systems which they reflect based on social and cultural theories of modernity and postmodernity. Noting the Eurocentric nature of traditional and modernistic knowledge and school knowledge, an alternative postmodern and internationalist perspective on knowledge systems and…

  17. Post-modernity, Education and European Identities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David; Jones, Crispin

    1996-01-01

    Describes the "Enlightenment program" (often equated with modernity) and postmodernist criticisms of Enlightenment thought. Discusses the notions of Europe and Europeans as reflecting social inclusion/exclusion as much as geography. Examines the relevance of postmodernist theories to school and university knowledge systems, highlighting conflicts…

  18. Poverty in Ireland in Comparative European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we seek to put Irish poverty rates in a comparative European context. We do so in a context whereby the Irish economic boom and EU enlargement have led to increasing reservations being expressed regarding rates deriving from the EU "at risk of poverty" indicator. Our comparative analysis reports findings for both overall levels of…

  19. European students explore possible mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The Russian Yuri Gagarin was the first man in orbit, the American Neil Armstrong the first man on the Moon, on 21 July, 1969. Is there a chance that the first human being to set foot on Mars will be a European? Attendants at the 1999 Alpbach Summer School will be putting their minds to this challenging question. Seventy-four students from member states of the European Space Agency will be attending the Summer School from 3 to 12 August in the small mountain village of Alpbach in the Austrian Tyrol. They will be set the task of defining a future Mars Exploration Mission. 25 European experts will provide them with an overview of all aspects of the Red Planet. Basic questions such as the chemical and mineralogical composition of its surface, its geophysics and geochemistry or the search for life on Mars will be addressed. A review of past, present and future exploration of Mars will be presented. The annual Summer School is co-organised by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Transport, the European Space Agency and the Austrian Space Agency. ESA's Director of Science, Prof. Roger Bonnet, will open this year's at 9 a.m. on 3 August, in Alpbach Secondary School with a lecture on "Mars Exploration: For What Purpose? How?" Media representatives are most welcome.

  20. Western European Art Foundations and Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lindsay M.; Clement, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    Western European art foundations create invaluable opportunities for research and exhibition by artists, curators, and scholars. These activities are often documented and disseminated via high-quality publications. This article highlights an important but under-recognized collecting resource for academic and museum libraries by profiling several…

  1. Why We Need a European Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2012-01-01

    All the countries of the United Kingdom have something to learn from nations facing comparable challenges elsewhere in Europe. Seeing these challenges through a European lens can help these countries understand them and their selves better. The author thinks they need to join in solidarity with adult educators across Europe and, indeed, further…

  2. Professionalization in Universities and European Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivas, Amparo Jimenez; Hevia, David Menendez Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    The constant assessment of the quality of higher education within the framework of European convergence is a challenge for all those universities that wish their degrees and diplomas to reflect a unified Europe. As is the case in any assessment, change and review process, the quest to improve quality implies measuring achievement of the objectives…

  3. Contribution of European research to risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Boenke, A

    2001-12-01

    The European Commission's, Quality of Life Research Programme, Key Action 1-Health, Food & Nutrition is mission-oriented and aims, amongst other things, at providing a healthy, safe and high-quality food supply leading to reinforced consumer confidence in the safety, of European food. Its objectives also include the enhancing of the competitiveness of the European food supply. Key Action 1 is currently supporting a number of different types of European collaborative projects in the area of risk analysis. The objectives of these projects range from the development and validation of prevention strategies including the reduction of consumers risks; development and validation of new modelling approaches, harmonization of risk assessment principles methodologies and terminology; standardization of methods and systems used for the safety evaluation of transgenic food; providing of tools for the evaluation of human viral contamination of shellfish and quality control; new methodologies for assessing the potential of unintended effects of genetically modified (genetically modified) foods; development of a risk assessment model for Cryptosporidium parvum related to the food and water industries, to the development of a communication platform for genetically modified organism, producers, retailers, regulatory authorities and consumer groups to improve safety assessment procedures, risk management strategies and risk communication; development and validation of new methods for safety testing of transgenic food; evaluation of the safety and efficacy of iron supplementation in pregnant women, evaluation of the potential cancer-preventing activity of pro- and pre-biotic ('synbiotic') combinations in human volunteers. An overview of these projects is presented here.

  4. European summer temperatures since Roman times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luterbacher, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    The spatial context is critical when assessing present-day climate anomalies, attributing them to potential forcings and making statements regarding their frequency and severity in a long-term perspective. Recent international initiatives have expanded the number of high-quality proxy-records and developed new statistical reconstruction methods. These advances allow more rigorous regional past temperature reconstructions and, in turn, the possibility of evaluating climate models on policy-relevant, spatio-temporal scales. Here we provide a new proxy-based, annually-resolved, spatial reconstruction of the European summer (June-August) temperature fields back to 755 CE based on Bayesian hierarchical modelling (BHM), together with estimates of the European mean temperature variation since 138 BCE based on BHM and composite-plus-scaling (CPS). Our reconstructions compare well with independent instrumental and proxy-based temperature estimates, but suggest a larger amplitude in summer temperature variability than previously reported. Both CPS and BHM reconstructions indicate that the mean 20th century European summer temperature was not significantly different from some earlier centuries, including the 1st, 2nd, 8th and 10th centuries CE. The 1st century (in BHM also the 10th century) may even have been slightly warmer than the 20th century, but the difference is not statistically significant. Comparing each 50 yr period with the 1951-2000 period reveals a similar pattern. Recent summers, however, have been unusually warm in the context of the last two millennia and there are no 30-yr periods in either reconstruction that exceed the mean average European summer temperature of the last 3 decades (1986-2015 CE). A comparison with an ensemble of climate model simulations suggests that the reconstructed European summer temperature variability over the period 850-2000 CE reflects changes in both internal variability and external forcing on multi-decadal time-scales. For pan-European

  5. Small area detectors at the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcato, M.; Gessler, P.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Meyer, M.; Nordgren, J.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Youngman, C.

    2014-05-01

    The detectors to be used at the European XFEL have to deal with the unique time structure of the machine, delivering up to 2700 pulses, with a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, ten times per second, the very high photon flux and the need to combine single-photon sensitivity and a large dynamic range. This represents a challenge not only for the large-area 2D imaging detectors but also for the smaller-area detectors and makes the use of standard commercial devices impossible. Dedicated solutions are therefore envisaged for small imaging- or strip-detectors. In this contribution the focus is put on two particular small-area detector solutions which are planned to be used at the European XFEL, a strip detector for hard X-rays (with energy 3 < E < 25 keV) and an imaging detector for soft X-rays (0.25 < E < 3 keV). Hard X-rays photon-beam diagnostics as well as hard X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy at the European XFEL make use of strip detectors as detectors for beam spectrometers or as energy-dispersive detectors in combination with an energy-dispersive element. The European XFEL is establishing cooperation with the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen to develop a new version of the Gotthard detector best suited to the European XFEL needs. The use case and the required detector specifications are illustrated. Starting from the present detector version, the modifications planned to adapt it to the European XFEL running conditions are described. These include the capability of running at an increased rate and to provide a veto signal to the large 2D imaging detectors, in order to be able to remove non-interesting images already at early stages of the DAQ system. In another particular application, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, a Micro-Channel Plate detector matched to a delay-line readout is foreseen to be used. In this case the European XFEL is aiming for a highly customized solution provided by the German company Surface Concept. The use case is described

  6. Caesarean section: an historical riddle.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S K

    2001-01-01

    Etymologically, the word 'Caesar' originates from the Latin word 'Caedaere' meaning - 'to cut'. So cutting remains the core point, but little is known about the real origin of the history of Caesarean Section. There is evidence that, the ancient Hindus excelled in surgery and many operations were performed, including caesarean section. This operation was mentioned several times in the Mishnah of Rabbi Judah, the first large commentary on the Hebrew Bible. There are also several mythological anecdotes in Hindu, Buddhist and Greek mythologies. The myth of caesarean section did not even escape the keen eyes of William Skakespeare. The landmarks, treatises and the advancement in this operative procedure are presented in this article.

  7. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, E.; Adler, S.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2010-09-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies as one has to address many network operators to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2009 the COST-action 725 established a European wide data set of phenological observations. But the deliverables of this COST action was not only the common phenological database and common observation guidelines - COST725 helped to trigger a revival of some old networks and to establish new ones as for instance in Sweden. At the end of 2009 the COST action the database comprised about 8 million data in total from 15 European countries plus the data from the International Phenological Gardens IPG. In January 2010 PEP725 began its work as follow up project with funding from EUMETNET the network of European meteorological services and of ZAMG the Austrian national meteorological service. PEP725 not only will take over the part of maintaining, updating the COST725 database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

  8. European Commission activities in eHealth.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Silas; Lymberis, Andreas; Whitehouse, Diane

    2004-12-01

    Health-care is an information-intensive and knowledge-demanding sector, which is why eHealth solutions are so important in this field. The European Commission (EC) has been initiating and funding research and development activities regarding Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for health, or "eHealth", since 1988. These programmes covered priority topics like electronic health-care records, regional and national health networks, telemedicine in homecare and care-at-the-point-of-need to support continuity of care concepts, systems to support people to stay healthy, and systems and tools to support health professionals to work more efficiently and safely on patients. During the 15-year span of the programmes, the European Union (EU) has contributed about 500 million Euro to approximately 400 R&D projects, support activities, best practice and studies covering technical, clinical, ethical, legal, organisational and market issues. eHealth has shown proven benefits in application fields like improved access to care, care at the point-of-need, citizen-centred care, improved quality and cost containment. Such applications were on show at the EU High Level eHealth Conferences in Brussels, Belgium, in 2003, and in Cork, Ireland, in 2004. eHealth is now on the governmental agenda of EU Member States to be implemented on a broader scale. In line with this development, the Commission has taken a number of policy initiatives. A European Union Action Plan for a European eHealth Area was published by the Commission in April 2004 and endorsed by the EU health ministers in June 2004. This means that, for the first time, Europe has a coherent agenda for the implementation of eHealth. This report will concentrate on eHealth activities initiated by the Information Society Directorate-General of the European Commission. PMID:15709306

  9. Icing Research Tunnel Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Icing Research Tunnel Test Section NASA technician measuring ice deposits on an airfoil after completing a test at the Lewis Research Center. NASA Lewis is now known as John H. Glean Research Center at Lewis Field.

  10. Cutting thin sections of bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Medical equipment for obtaining repetitive planoparallel sections of bone to study healing of bone structure under high gravity stress is described. Device consists of modified saw with diamond cutting edges. Construction of device and manner of use are explained.

  11. Interim Report 1985. Working Document. European Community Action Programme. Transition of Young People from Education to Adult and Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IFAPLAN, Brussels (Belgium). Programme Information Office.

    This document provides an interim report on 30 pilot projects that make up the European Community's second Programme on the Transition from Education to Adult and Working Life. The main part of the report consists of 10 sections reviewing activities in the 10 thematic or policy areas adopted, in consultation with national authorities, to…

  12. Scientometric Approaches to Better Visibility of European Educational Research Publications: A State-of-the-Art-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botte, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on methodological approaches to evaluate the relevance and quality of educational research publications. In the first section it focuses on the ISI Social Science Citation Index and shows that this standard instrument for bibliometric measurement is insufficient for the representation of European educational research. In the…

  13. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  14. Tableau de Bord, 1996. Follow-up to the Conclusions of the Essen European Council on Employment Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    This document presents an overview of the principal labor market measures taken by the 15 member states of the European Union since the publication of the 1995 overview. In each section, individual countries' actions are discussed separately, with code letters indicating the country name. The following topics are among those discussed in the…

  15. Hydrology Section Executive Committee Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, James W.

    The AGU Hydrology Section Executive Committee Meeting was called to order at approximately 4 P.M. on Monday, May 18, 1987, by Hydrology Section President Marshall Moss. In attendance were President-Elect George Pinder, Secretary Jim Mercer, Ron Cummings, Helen Joyce Peters, Peter Eagleson, Stephen Burges, Jim Wallis, Jurate Landwehr, Don Nielson, Ken Bencala, Pete Loucks, Jery Stedinger, Dennis Lettenmaier, Lenny Konikow, Ken Potter, John Wilson, Ivan Johnson, and Judy Holoviak.

  16. The National Cardiac Societies of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Atar, Dan

    2015-06-01

    The National Cardiac Societies are one of the Constituent Bodies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). They are the backbone of the ESC and together form the "Cardiology of Europe" in 56 European and Mediterranean countries.

  17. Art of Disaster Preparedness in European Union: a Survey on the Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M.; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. Method: A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Results: Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). Conclusion: This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal

  18. Europa Uomo: the European Prostate Cancer Coalition.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Tom; Denis, Louis J

    2007-01-01

    Europa Uomo is a patient-led, non-governmental association (NGO), launched formally in Milan in 2004 with a legal base in Antwerp. As a coalition of prostate cancer patient groups with representation in 18 European countries, the NGO focusses on awareness, early detection, optimal treatment, multi-professional care and, above all, quality of life and patient advocacy. In the majority of European countries prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer affecting men beyond middle age. The incidence and substantial mortality rises with age, peaking in the seventh decade. Standards of diagnosis and treatment vary across Europe and attitudes differ. Information about the early detection and awareness of prostate cancer available to the public leaves much to be desired. Since 2002, involved individuals, patient support groups, patients, family members, physicians, urologists, oncologists and nurses joined in the formation of an independent, international, non-profit association of patient-led prostate cancer support groups from European countries known as Europa Uomo, the European Prostate Cancer Coalition. This Coalition was legally established as an NGO in June 2004 in Milan with the headquarters and secretariat in Antwerp, Belgium. Its membership represents 18 countries by the national or regional groups listed in Table 16.1 with their respective contact persons. The coalition is led by a steering committee under the control of the annual general assembly. The steering committee members and their co-ordinates are listed in Table 16.2. Scientific advice is given by a scientific committee chaired by Prof. H. Van Poppel as the liaison officer with the European Association of Urology (EAU). The support for EAU guidelines appears on the Web site and will be linked to all members in their own language (www.cancerworld.org/europauomo). The goals and activities of Europa Uomo have been condensed in a series of slides at the request of the Eurocan+Plus collaboration to

  19. A European Humus Forms Reference Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanella, A.; Englisch, M.; Ponge, J.-F.; Jabiol, B.; Sartori, G.; Gardi, C.

    2012-04-01

    From 2003 on, a panel of experts in humus and humus dynamics (Humus group) has been working about a standardisation and improvement of existing national humus classifications. Some important goals have been reached, in order to share data and experiences: a) definition of specific terms; b) description of 15 types of diagnostic horizons; c) of 10 basic humus forms references; d) subdivision of each main reference in 2-4 sub-unities; e) elaboration of a general European Humus Form Reference Base (http://hal-agroparistech.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/56/17/95/PDF/Humus_Forms_ERB_31_01_2011.pdf); f) publication of the scientific significance of this base of classification as an article [A European morpho-functional classification of humus forms. Geoderma, 164 (3-4), 138-145]. The classification will be updated every 2 years and presently the Humus group is assessing biological (general: soil, vegetation, biome; specific: fungi, bacteria, pedofauna), physical (air temperature, rainfall) and chemical (pH, mineral elements, organic matter, quality and quantity of humic components…) factors which characterize basic humus forms and their varieties. The content of the new version of the classification is planned to be more "practical", like an ecological manual which lists associated humus forms and environmental data in the aim to contribute to a more precise environmental diagnosis of every analysed terrestrial and semiterrestrial European ecosystem. The Humus group is also involved in an endeavour to include humus forms in the World Reference Base for Soils (WRB-FAO) according to nomenclatural principles erected for soil profiles. Thirty basic references have been defined, complemented by a set of qualifiers (prefixes and suffixes), allowing to classify European humus forms and probably a large majority of humus forms known worldwide. The principles of the classification, the diagnostic horizons and humus forms main references are presented at the General Assembly of

  20. Project Report ECLIPSE: European Citizenship Learning Program for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombardelli, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a European project, the Comenius ECLIPSE project (European Citizenship Learning in a Programme for Secondary Education) developed by six European partners coordinated by the University of Trento in the years 2011-2014. ECLIPSE (co-financed by the EACEA--Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency) aims at developing,…

  1. Report from the European Prison Education Association: December 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Cormac

    2007-01-01

    This article presents three organizations: (1) The Executive Board of European Association for the Education of Adults (EAEA); (2) The Albanian General Directorate of Prisons; and (3) The Freemuse. The Executive Board of European Association for the Education of Adults (EAEA) will recommend the European Prison Education Association as Associate…

  2. A European Perspective on the Promotion of Women's Career Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Lahja Johanna

    Although commitment to equal opportunities in employment has been a major component of European Community legislation and although increasing numbers of European women are entering professions, women throughout Europe still face many barriers to advancing in their professions. Since the early 1970s, European governments including Finland have…

  3. A European Approach to Lifelong Learning: Goals and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thery, Michel; Roussel, Patrick; Zygmunt, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Comparison of company practices regarding continuing training of employees shows great diversity among the 15 European Union member states. In 11 countries, over 70 percent of companies are "training involved" (TICs). South European countries have a low percentage of TICs; the proportion of TICs in north European countries is over 80 percent. The…

  4. How to strengthen the legacy of European Space Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberreiter, Margit; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Tourpali, Klairie; Del Zanna, Giulio; Delouille, Veronique; Ermolli, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    European Projects in the Space Domain are crucial for the advancement in the field of solar and heliospheric physics. Certainly, the European projects are important for the important transition from fundamental research to prototypes, or quasi-operational services. To improve the legacy of European Projects we would like to trigger some discussions and share lessons learnt from the perspective of the SOLID project.

  5. Reconciling Energy Use with Environmental Protection in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Regina S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the energy and environmental policymaking strategies of the European Community to regulate the consumption of energy. Strategies include the stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, the creation of the European Environmental Agency, the implementation of the European Energy Charter, the SAVE Program, and economic and fiscal instruments…

  6. The Organisation and Management of a European Educational Satellite System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, A. W.

    This paper looks at the possible roles that the European Economic Community (EEC), as a pan-European quasi-governmental institution, might play in the management and organization of a European educational satellite system. The argument is made that there is a need for the EEC Commission to play an ongoing, regulatory role in this area. An…

  7. A European Space for Education Looking for Its Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ninni

    2010-01-01

    The open method of coordination (OMC) within the Lisbon strategy is discussed in terms of a European Space for Education and "programme ontology". The focus is on indicators and the European dimension, and how they "work" in the forming of contents and identities in this European Space for Education. The OMC is analyzed in relation to Nancy…

  8. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  9. Possible Orientations of the European Dimension in Romanian Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enache, Roxana

    2011-01-01

    Curricular reform in any educational system should be to balance national, European or international elements and should integrate diversity. European education calls for a democratic citizenship education that includes a political, cultural, social and economic education--an overall European dimension, which implies an awareness of the drive and…

  10. European Law: Ending Discrimination against Girls in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    1992-01-01

    Examines how the European Convention on Human Rights and its case law could combat sexist education and develop concepts of philosophical convictions, the European Community's duty, and children's rights. Considers feminist strategies for improving girls' education, English and European procedural laws, and difficulties of using English law. (RLC)

  11. Languages and Institutions in the European Union. Mercator Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz, Manuel

    This paper situates languages in the framework of European construction, analyzing problems resulting from the definition of languages' official status in the European Union (EU) juridical system. It explains that the process of European construction is historically defined by means of two distinct features (it is an open process, and at the same…

  12. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  13. The European Qualification Framework: Skills, Competences or Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehaut, Philippe; Winch, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The European Qualification Framework (EQF) is intended to transform European national qualification frameworks (NQFs) by moulding them into a learning outcomes framework. Currently adopted as an enabling law by the European Union, the EQF has now operated for several years. In order to secure widespread adoption, however, it will be necessary for…

  14. Expert Groups in the Building of European Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to building European public action, expertise is ubiquitous and polymorphic. This article intends to study the ways expertise is being used in the European Commission and the logics underlying its use. The massive use of expertise also has consequences for the practices and identities of actors with whom European institutions…

  15. Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy of European basins

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, P.R. ); Jacquin, T. )

    1993-09-01

    The preliminary results of the project, [open quotes]Mesozoic-Cenozoic Sequence Stratigraphy of European Basins[close quotes] (introduced at a seminar in Dijon, France, on May 18-20, 1992), show that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic stratigraphic succession of western Europe can be subdivided into a series of transgressive-regressive facies cycles (second order, 3-50 m.y.) and related to tectonic events by subsidence analysis and regional geology. The distribution of the second-order cycles are shown on a series of transects that extend from the Mediterranean to the North Sea. Where possible, each transgressive-regressive phase has been subdivided into a series of higher frequency sequence cycles (third order, 0.5-3 m.y.). These sequence cycles are identified in regions with good outcrops and biostratigraphic control. The sequence stratigraphy interpretation of these outcrop sections provides documentation for the age and distribution of the second- and third-order stratigraphic cycles of western Europe. Subsurface seismic and well data from the North Sea Basin, Paris basin, and the Mediterranean area are interpreted in terms of sequence stratigraphy and correlated to the outcrop reference sections. Chronobiostratigraphy and numerical ages are based on a series of new charts made especially for this project that show the latest correlation of the biostratigraphic zones for both microfossils and macrofossils across Europe. The charts also include a numerical time scale that reconciles the differences between existing time scales.

  16. Are aliens threatening European aquatic coastal ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, Karsten; Olenin, Sergej; Thieltges, David W.

    2006-05-01

    Inshore waters of European coasts have accumulated a high share of non-indigenous species, where a changeable palaeoenvironment has caused low diversity in indigenous biota. Also strongly transformed modern coastal ecosystems seem to assimilate whatever species have been introduced and tolerate the physical regime. Adding non-native species does not have any directional predetermined effects on recipient coastal ecosystems. The status of being a non-native rather refers to a position in evolutionary history than qualify as an ecological category with distinct and consistent properties. Effects of invaders vary between habitats and with the phase of invasion and also with shifting ambient conditions. Although aliens accelerate change in European coastal biota, we found no evidence that they generally impair biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. More often, invaders expand ecosystem functioning by adding new ecological traits, intensifying existing ones and increasing functional redundancy.

  17. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    PubMed

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST.

  18. A European approach to clinical investigator training.

    PubMed

    Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Canivet, Cindy; Chan, Anthony; Clarke, Mary J; Cornu, Catherine; Daemen, Esther; Demotes, Jacques; Nys, Katelijne De; Hirst, Barry; Hundt, Ferdinand; Kassai, Behrouz; Kerpel-Fronius, Sandor; Kiessig, Lucy; Klech, Heinrich; Kraehenbuhl, Jean-Pierre; Lafolie, Pierre; Lucht, Martin; Niese, Detlef; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane; Peters, Barbara; Schaltenbrand, Ralf; Stockis, Armel; Stykova, Martina; Verheus, Nicolette; Klingmann, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    A better education and training of clinical investigators and their teams is one of the factors that could foster the development of clinical research in Europe, a key objective of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). PharmaTrain (an IMI programme on training in medicines development), and European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) have joined forces to address this issue. An advisory group composed of representatives of universities, pharmaceutical companies and other organisations met four times between June 2011 and July 2012. This resulted in a position paper proposing a strategy to improve and harmonize clinical investigator training in Europe, and including a detailed syllabus and list of learning outcomes. Major recommendations are the establishment of minimal and mutually recognized certification requirement for investigators throughout the EU and the creation of a European platform to provide a suitable course and examination infrastructure. PMID:24058345

  19. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  20. European user trial of paging by satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fudge, R. E.; Fenton, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    British Telecom conceived the idea of adapting their existing paging service, together with the use of existing terrestrial pagers, to yield a one way data (i.e., paging) satellite service to mobiles. The user trial of paging by satellites was successful. It demonstrated that services could be provided over a wide geographical area to low priced terminals. Many lessons were learned in unexpected areas. These include the need for extensive liaison with all users involved, especially the drivers, to ensure they understood the potential benefits. There was a significant desire for a return acknowledgement channel or even a return data channel. Above all there is a need to ensure that the equipment can be taken across European borders and legitimately used in all European countries. The next step in a marketing assessment would be to consider the impact of two way data messaging such as INMARSAT-C.

  1. [Sexual risk factors among European young people].

    PubMed

    Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin

    2012-05-01

    The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth.

  2. Generation of a Catalogue of European Windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varino, Filipa; Baptiste Granier, Jean; Bordoy, Roger; Arbogast, Philippe; Joly, Bruno; Riviere, Gwendal; Fandeur, Marie-Laure; Bovy, Henry; Mitchell-Wallace, Kirsten; Souch, Claire

    2016-04-01

    The probability of multiple wind-storm events within a year is crucial to any (re)insurance company writing European wind business. Indeed, the volatility of losses is enhanced by the clustering of storms (cyclone families), as occurred in early 1990 (Daria, Vivian, Wiebke), December 1999 (Lothar, Martin) or December 2015 (Desmond, Eva, Frank), among others. In order to track winter extratropical cyclones, we use the maximum relative vorticity at 850 hPa of the new-released long-term ERA-20C reanalysis from the ECMWF since the beginning of the 20th Century until 2010. We develop an automatic procedure to define events. We then quantify the severity of each storm using loss and meteorological indices at country and Europe-wide level. Validation against market losses for the period 1970-2010 is undertaken before considering the severity and frequency of European windstorms for the 110 years period.

  3. The Science Case for the European ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Isobel

    The European ELT (E-ELT) project has developed dramatically over the last year and has moved into the detailed design phase. The science case has been developed over many years with much of the community involvement and meetings being sponsored by the EC-funded OPTICON network [I. Hook (ed.), The Science Case for the European Extremely Large Telescope: The Next Step in Mankind's Quest for the Universe (OPTICON & ESO, 2005)]. The activity involves over 100 astronomers from around Europe. In December 2005 ESO created 5 working groups whose primary role was to re-assess various aspects of the E-ELT following the review of the OWL project. The Science Working Group (SWG) produced a report in April 2006 [Report of the ELT Science Working Group (April 2006), available at http://www.eso.org/sci/facilities/eelt/publications.html] describing over 30 science cases and their feasibility with telescopes in the range 30 m to 60 m diameter.

  4. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    PubMed

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

  5. [European Union funds and clinical toxicology].

    PubMed

    Wiszniewiecka, Monika; Cejrowski, Daniel; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Since 2014 we are heading the third programming period of help from European Union (EU). The new budget will run until 2020. From common resources of EU, 106 billion euro will reach Poland, of which about 82.3 billion to cohesion policy, levelling differences of regional development. Clinical toxicology centres will be able to apply for funding under the allocation for the health service. Polish health service very actively benefited from EU funds in previous programming periods, between 2004-2006, and 2007-2013. Thanks to grants from the EU, a large number of health centres were built or renovated. Unfortunately the needs of hospitals, which were underinvested for many years, exceeded available funds according to UE programmes. Except investment projects, also projects training of health professionals were executed. In the current programming period European Union will still support projects aimed at health service. Clinical toxicology centres should have a try of using this period to fulfil their plans.

  6. A European approach to clinical investigator training.

    PubMed

    Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Canivet, Cindy; Chan, Anthony; Clarke, Mary J; Cornu, Catherine; Daemen, Esther; Demotes, Jacques; Nys, Katelijne De; Hirst, Barry; Hundt, Ferdinand; Kassai, Behrouz; Kerpel-Fronius, Sandor; Kiessig, Lucy; Klech, Heinrich; Kraehenbuhl, Jean-Pierre; Lafolie, Pierre; Lucht, Martin; Niese, Detlef; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane; Peters, Barbara; Schaltenbrand, Ralf; Stockis, Armel; Stykova, Martina; Verheus, Nicolette; Klingmann, Ingrid

    2013-09-09

    A better education and training of clinical investigators and their teams is one of the factors that could foster the development of clinical research in Europe, a key objective of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). PharmaTrain (an IMI programme on training in medicines development), and European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) have joined forces to address this issue. An advisory group composed of representatives of universities, pharmaceutical companies and other organisations met four times between June 2011 and July 2012. This resulted in a position paper proposing a strategy to improve and harmonize clinical investigator training in Europe, and including a detailed syllabus and list of learning outcomes. Major recommendations are the establishment of minimal and mutually recognized certification requirement for investigators throughout the EU and the creation of a European platform to provide a suitable course and examination infrastructure.

  7. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  8. Youssef's Syndrome following Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Arslan, Deniz; Kayar, Ilkan

    2015-01-01

    Youssef's syndrome is characterized by cyclic hematuria (menouria), absence of vaginal bleeding (amenorrhea), and urinary incontinence due to vesicouterine fistula (VUF), the least common of the urogynecological fistulas. Youssef's syndrome has a variable clinical presentation. A vesicouterine fistula is an abnormal pathway between the bladder and the uterus. The most common cause is lower segment Cesarean section. Conservative treatment may be appropriate in some cases, but surgery is the definitive treatment. Vesicouterine fistula should be suspected in cases presenting with urinary incontinence even years after Cesarean section. Diagnostic tests as well as necessary appropriate surgery should be performed on cases with suspected vesicouterine fistula. We present a 40-year-old multiparous woman with vesicouterine fistula after primary Cesarean section; she presented with urinary incontinence, hematuria, and amenorrhea 1 year after the birth. Here, we discuss our case with the help of previously published studies found in the literature. PMID:26457214

  9. Adaptive wall testing sections (AWTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The lecture starts with conventional techniques of minimizing wall interference and explains the principle of wall streamlining. The history of AWTS development is highlighted, along with the benefits of wall streamlining, including minimized boundary interference, increased model size, reduced tunnel drive power, noise, and volume, as well as multiple flow field simulations to be performed using one test section. AWTS-associated problems coming from the need to adjust the test-section boundaries for each test condition are assessed, along with the requirements of a boundary-adjustment strategy. Examples of two- and three-dimensional test sections are presented, and attention is focused on residual interference and the effects of compressibility and model lift on flexible-wall contours.

  10. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas

    PubMed Central

    Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narščius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  11. The Physical Tourist. A European Study Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We organized and led a European study course for American undergraduate university students to explore the early history of relativity and quantum theory. We were inspired by The Physical Tourist articles published in this journal on Munich, Bern, Berlin, Copenhagen, and Göttingen. We describe this adventure both for others wishing to teach such a course and for anyone wishing to walk in the footsteps of the physicists who revolutionized physics in the early decades of the twentieth century.

  12. Survey of studies in European languages.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S. N.

    The beginnings of the study in European languages of ancient Indian astronomy can hardly be fixed with any degree of certainty. Indian astronomy appears to have reached Europe through Arabic astronomical literature during the eleventh-thirteenth century. In this transmission Spain played a crucial part. With the revival of learning in Latin Europe, particularly during the active period of translation from Arabic into Latin, certain Hindu astronomical elements and tradition inevitably passed into Western Europe.

  13. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, E.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2012-04-01

    PEP725 is a 5 years project with the main object to promote and facilitate phenological research by delivering a pan European phenological database with an open, unrestricted data access for science, research and education. PEP725 is funded by EUMETNET (the network of European meteorological services), ZAMG and the Austrian ministry for science & research bm:w_f. So far 16 European national meteorological services and 7 partners from different nati-onal phenological network operators have joined PEP725. The data access is very easy via web-access from the homepage www.pep725.eu. Ha-ving accepted the PEP725 data policy and registry the data download can be done by different criteria as for instance the selection of a specific plant or all data from one country. At present more than 300 000 new records are available in the PEP725 data-base coming from 31 European countries and from 8150 stations. For some more sta-tions (154) META data (location and data holder) are provided. Links to the network operators and data owners are also on the webpage in case you have more sophisticated questions about the data. Another objective of PEP725 is to bring together network-operators and scientists by organizing workshops. In April 2012 the second of these workshops will take place on the premises of ZAMG. Invited speakers will give presentations spanning the whole study area of phenology starting from observations to modelling. Quality checking is also a big issue. At the moment we study the literature to find ap-propriate methods.

  14. New Testing Standard For European Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, P.

    2004-08-01

    Standardization is a key aspect of the production business committed to the optimization of the product development and cost. In the Space field, American industries and Government organizations have developed since several decades Space standards like the MIL series, deriving them from the aircraft and military fields, or the NASA standards. The same happened later in other countries like Russia, Japan and China. In the last years most of those standards were revised to cope with the emerging needs of the market. In Europe, the Space activities were generally managed by a set of ESA standards, the PSS, which covered some aspects of these activities and reflected the up-to-date approaches and common practices. But, in the last years an initiative was also promoted by ESA, National Agencies and Space Organizations, named ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardization), with the aim to develop a coherent, single set of user-friendly standards for use in all European space activities. European industries supported this initiative, including a deep involvement of Alenia Spazio and, sometime through a suitable revision of the old PSS documents, new standards were defined, as for the "Testing" (ECSS-E-10-03A, now published). The ECSS-E-10-03A provides standard environmental and performance test requirements for space products (systems and their constituents) which are generally applicable to all projects. Scope of this paper is to present the status of the worldwide initiatives in the testing standardization, the major contents of the European ECSS Testing standard and the possibilities for tailoring. Differences in requirement definition with other international testing standards and proposals for further ECSS optimization are presented on the basis of Alenia Spazio experience in supporting the above initiatives.

  15. European stem cell research in legal shackles.

    PubMed

    Nielen, Myrthe G; de Vries, Sybe A; Geijsen, Niels

    2013-12-11

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brüstle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent was challenged and put before the European Court of Justice, which ruled that inventions involving the prior destruction of human embryos cannot be patented. The legal maneuvering around this case demonstrates that the future of stem cell-based patents in Europe remains unsettled. Furthermore, owing to the European Court's broad definition of hESC as 'any cell that is capable of commencing development into a human being,' novel technologies that could eliminate the need for hESCs, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are at risk of being included under the same ruling. Advances in the in vitro development of germ cells from pluripotent stem cells may one day provide a direct developmental path from iPSC to oocyte and sperm, and, according to the European Court's reasoning, legally equate iPSCs with human embryos. In this review, we will briefly discuss the Brüstle v Greenpeace case and the implications of the European Court of Justice's ruling. We will identify potential risks for stem cell research and future therapeutics resulting from the broad legal definition of the human embryo. Finally, we will broach the current legal landscape, as this broad definition has also created great uncertainty about the status of human iPSCs.

  16. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Elisabeth; Adler, Silke; Ungersböck, Markus; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". The Societas Meteorologicae Palatinae at Mannheim well known for its first European wide meteorological network also established a phenological network which was active from 1781 to 1792. Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies, as one has to address many National Observations Programs (NOP) to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2005 the COST-action 725 was running with the main objective to establish a European reference data set of phenological observations that can be used for climatological purposes, especially climate monitoring, and detection of changes. So far the common database/reference data set of COST725 comprises 7687248 data from 7285 observation sites in 15 countries and International Phenological Gardens (IPG) spanning the timeframe from 1951 to 2000. ZAMG is hosting the database. In January 2010 PEP725 has started and will take over not only the part of maintaining, updating the database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of

  17. The cure of cancer: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Francisci, Silvia; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Grande, Enrico; Santaquilani, Mariano; Simonetti, Arianna; Allemani, Claudia; Gatta, Gemma; Sant, Milena; Zigon, Giulia; Bray, Freddie; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska

    2009-04-01

    Cancer survival analyses based on cancer registry data do not provide direct information on the main aim of cancer treatment, the cure of the patient. In fact, classic survival indicators do not distinguish between patients who are cured, and patients who will die of their disease and in whom prolongation of survival is the main objective of treatment. In this study, we applied parametric cure models to the cancer incidence and follow-up data provided by 49 EUROCARE-4 (European Cancer Registry-based study, fourth edition) cancer registries, with the aims of providing additional insights into the survival of European cancer patients diagnosed from 1988 to 1999, and of investigating between-population differences. Between-country estimates the proportion of cured patients varied from about 4-13% for lung cancer, from 9% to 30% for stomach cancer, from 25% to 49% for colon and rectum cancer, and from 55% to 73% for breast cancer. For all cancers combined, estimates varied between 21% and 47% in men, and 38% and 59% in women and were influenced by the distribution of cases by cancer site. Countries with high proportions of cured and long fatal case survival times for all cancers combined were characterised by generally favourable case mix. For the European pool of cases both the proportion of cured and the survival time of fatal cases were associated with age, and increased from the early to the latest diagnosis period. The increases over time in the proportions of Europeans estimated cured of lung, stomach and colon and rectum cancers are noteworthy and suggest genuine progress in cancer control. The proportion of cured of all cancers combined is a useful general indicator of cancer control as it reflects progress in diagnosis and treatment, as well as success in the prevention of rapidly fatal cancers.

  18. Comparison with European observations of meteor impact

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    A model for the inference of object size and speed from observations is used to discuss European observations of impact. It compares the observed and predicted breakup altitudes for the objects larger than one meter and observes useful correlations. Trends in magnitude correlate well with measured velocities, altitudes, and trajectories and inferred size and strength parameters, but each parameter is subject to dispute, which can only be addressed when the sensitivity of predictions to uncertainties in these parameters is assessed.

  19. Opportunities to Learn about Europe at School. A Comparative Analysis among European Adolescents in 21 European Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhaegen, Soetkin; Hooghe, Marc; Meeusen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the relationship between different learning methods and the formation of European identity among adolescents. The analysis is based on the European module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009), with 70,502 respondents in 21 European member states. The results show that offering…

  20. 24 CFR 882.123 - Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Housing Annual Adjustment Factor (24 CFR part 888) most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register... Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring. 882.123 Section 882.123 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 882.123 Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section...

  1. 24 CFR 882.123 - Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Housing Annual Adjustment Factor (24 CFR part 888) most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register... Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring. 882.123 Section 882.123 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 882.123 Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section...

  2. Transition section for acoustic waveguides

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.

    1975-10-28

    A means of facilitating the transmission of acoustic waves with minimal reflection between two regions having different specific acoustic impedances is described comprising a region exhibiting a constant product of cross-sectional area and specific acoustic impedance at each cross-sectional plane along the axis of the transition region. A variety of structures that exhibit this feature is disclosed, the preferred embodiment comprising a nested structure of doubly reentrant cones. This structure is useful for monitoring the operation of nuclear reactors in which random acoustic signals are generated in the course of operation.

  3. The magnetic susceptibility of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, K.; Reimann, C.

    2012-04-01

    The GEMAS (Geochemical mapping of agricultural soils) project, a cooperation project between EuroGeoSurveys and Eurometaux, aims at providing soil quality data for Europe. Samples of arable soil were taken during 2008 at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 covering the member states of the European Union (except Malta and Romania) and several neighbouring countries (e.g., Norway, Serbia, Ukraine). While the primary aim of the GEMAS project is to produce REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of CHemicals - EC, 2006) consistent soil geochemistry data at the continental scale, the data set is also optimally apt to provide the first continental scale overview of magnetic properties in European soils. Soil samples from the upper 20 cm were taken as composites from 5 sites spread over a ca. 100 m2 area in a large agricultural field (Ap-sample). The samples were air dried and sieved to pass a 2 mm nylon screen. Weight normalized magnetic susceptibility of these dried samples was measured using a Sapphire Instruments SI2B susceptibility meter with dynamic background removal. The here presented maps of magnetic susceptibility in relation to geochemical composition and geological structures for the first time allow to outline the large scale influence of tectonics and climate on magnetic mineral concentration in European soils. The data set also provides the background variability for regional studies aiming to relate magnetic susceptibility of soils to local contamination sources.

  4. An overview of European space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    With the completion of the launch rocket series Ariane 1 to 4, Europe will have reached the same capacity to transport commercial payloads as the USA has with the Space Shuttle and the kick stages which are presently operative. The near term development of these capacities would require Europe to develop a larger launch rocket, Araine 5. Further motivations for this rocket are access to manned spaceflight, the development of an European space station, and the demand for shuttle technology. Shuttle technology is the subject of research being done in France on the winged re-entry vehicle Hermes. Operation of the European space station Columbus will require development of an interorbital transport system to facilitate traffic between the various segments of the space station. All European space transportation systems will have to match their quality to that of the other countries involve in space flight. All areas of development are marked not only by possible cooperation but also by increased competition because of increasing commercialization of space flight.

  5. European plans for new clocks in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschiutta, Sigfrido M.; Tavella, Patrizia

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the future European space research program where precise clocks are necessary is presented, pointing out how space applications are posing impressive requirements as regards clock mass, power, ruggedness, long life, accuracy and, in some cases, spectral purity. The material presented was gathered in some laboratories; useful information was obtained from the Space Agencies of France (CNES), Germany (DARA) and Italy (ASI), but the bulk is coming from a recent exercise promoted inside ESA (the European Space Agency) and aimed to prefigure space research activities at the beginning of the next millennium. This exercise was called Horizon 2000 plus; the outcomings were summarized in two reports, presented by ESA in may 1994. Precise clocks and time measurements are needed not only for deep-space or out-ward space missions, but are essential tools also for Earth oriented activities. In this latter field, the European views and needs were discussed in October 1994, in a meeting organized by ESA and devoted to Earth Observation problems. By a scrutiny of these reports, an analysis was performed on the missions requiring a precise clock on board and the driving requirements were pointed out, leading to a survey of the necessary PTTI developments that, to some extent, are in the realm of possibility but that pose serious challenges. In this report the use of frequency standards in the satellite navigation systems is not considered.

  6. A European Mars Simulation Wind Tunnel Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrison, J. P.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Knak-Jensen, S.; Per, N.

    2010-12-01

    We present details of a recently completed European simulation wind tunnel facility which is capable of re-creating the environmental conditions at the surface of Mars, this new addition complements several other large scale simulation facilities at Aarhus University in Denmark. It will be used for the multi-disciplinary scientific study of aerosol formation and transport (on Mars and earth), granular electrification, magnetic properties, erosion, cohesion/adhesion, water transport, UV induced mineralogy, bacterial survival and many others. It will be accessible to international collaborators and space agencies for instrument testing, calibration and qualification. It has been financed by the European space agency (ESA) as well as the Aarhus University Science Faculty and the Villum Kahn Rasmussen fund. The facility consists of a 50m3 environmental chamber capable of low pressure operation (0.02-1000mbar) and cryogenic temperatures (-130°C up to +60°C). This chamber houses a re-circulating wind tunnel able to generate wind speeds up to 25m/s and an automated dust injection system has been developed to produce suspended particulates (aerosols). It employs a unique LED based optical illumination system (solar simulator) and an advanced network based control system. Laser based optoelectronic instrumentation is used to quantify and monitor dust suspension and deposition. This involves a commercial Laser Doppler Anemometer and specially developed instrument prototypes constructed at Aarhus University. Photograph of the new (European) Environmental Wind Tunnel Facility.

  7. Recommendations for European health data protection legislation.

    PubMed

    Callens, S; Nys, H

    1996-01-01

    In year 1 of the SEISMED project, the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven coordinated the inventory and analysis of medical personal data protection legislation in Europe. A report on legal issues of medical data protection legislation in Europe was written by the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique (Paris) and the University College Dublin. This report served as a basis for a second important legal deliverable, i.e. the Health Informatics Deontology Code. In this third and final report, we take into account the results of the other two legal reports and we formulate recommendations for the national and European legislator. This report analyses critically the upcoming privacy directive. We propose several recommendations which should be taken into account by the European and national legislator. We focused quite extensively on the use of medical data for research purposes. We had several reasons to do this. One of them is the fact that the use of medical data for research purposes is very popular, in particular now the health care sector is becoming more and more 'standardized' by using computers, networksystems and telematics. Legislation is therefore needed. Moreover, the use of medical data for research purposes involves the transfer of data from one Member State to another. Therefore, a harmonized legislation is really needed. We hope that the recommendations we propose, will be taken into consideration by the European legislator.

  8. The European experience with vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, Abe; Leppäniemi, Ari K; Androulakis, George A; Archodovassilis, F; Bouillon, Bertil; Cavina, Enrico; Chaloner, Eddie; Chiarugi, Massimo; Davidovic, Lazar; Delgado-Millan, Miguel Angel; Goris, Jan; Gunnlaugsson, Gunnar H; Jover, Jose Maria; Konstandoulakis, Manoussos M; Kurtoglu, Mehmet; Lepäntalo, Mauri; Llort-Pont, Carme; Meneu-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Moreno-Gonzales, Enrique; Navarro-Soto, Salvador; Panoussis, P; Ryan, James M; Salenius, Juha P; Seccia, Massimo; Takolander, Rabbe; Taviloglu, Korhan; Tiesenhausen, Kurt; Torfason, Bjarni; Uranüs, Selman

    2002-02-01

    The rich and diverse heritage of the management of vascular injuries in the 45 independent European countries prevents the authors from revealing a uniform picture of the European experience, but some trends are clearly emerging. In countries with a low incidence of penetrating trauma and increasing use of interventional vascular procedures, the proportion of iatrogenic vascular trauma exceeds 40% of all vascular injuries, whereas on other parts of the continent, armed conflicts are still a major cause of vascular trauma. National vascular registries, mostly in the Scandinavian countries, produce useful, nationwide data about vascular trauma and its management but suffer still from inadequate data collection. Despite a relatively low incidence of vascular trauma in most European countries, the results are satisfactory, probably in most cases because of active and early management by surgeons on call, whether with vascular training or not, treating all kinds of vascular surgical emergencies. In some countries, attempts at developing a trauma and emergency surgical specialty, including expertise in the management of vascular injuries, are on their way. PMID:11905944

  9. Prenflo for the European IGCC at Puertollano

    SciTech Connect

    Schellberg, W.

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes the European IGCC plant at Puertollano, Spain, based on the Prenflo coal gasification process. The 300 MWe (net) power plant is partly funded under the Thermie program by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy. Prenflo is an entrained-flow gasification system with dry fuel dust feeding. The development of this process was partly funded under the German Ministry of Research and Technology and the Commission of the European Union. The principal feed fuel for the Puertollano plant will consist of a mixture of high-ash Puertollano coal (more than 47 wt.% ash) and high-sulfur petroleum coke (more than 5 wt.% sulfur) from the Repsol refinery at Puertollano. Results from gasification tests with Spanish fuel in the Prenflo demonstration plant at Fuerstenhausen will be presented. Stringent environmental regulations can be fulfilled by the new IGCC technology which at the same time achieves high efficiencies. The start-up of the IGCC plant at Puertollano is planned for the second half of 1995 with natural gas followed by coal gas one year later. Development trends in IGCC power plants will be discussed.

  10. The European experience with vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, Abe; Leppäniemi, Ari K; Androulakis, George A; Archodovassilis, F; Bouillon, Bertil; Cavina, Enrico; Chaloner, Eddie; Chiarugi, Massimo; Davidovic, Lazar; Delgado-Millan, Miguel Angel; Goris, Jan; Gunnlaugsson, Gunnar H; Jover, Jose Maria; Konstandoulakis, Manoussos M; Kurtoglu, Mehmet; Lepäntalo, Mauri; Llort-Pont, Carme; Meneu-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Moreno-Gonzales, Enrique; Navarro-Soto, Salvador; Panoussis, P; Ryan, James M; Salenius, Juha P; Seccia, Massimo; Takolander, Rabbe; Taviloglu, Korhan; Tiesenhausen, Kurt; Torfason, Bjarni; Uranüs, Selman

    2002-02-01

    The rich and diverse heritage of the management of vascular injuries in the 45 independent European countries prevents the authors from revealing a uniform picture of the European experience, but some trends are clearly emerging. In countries with a low incidence of penetrating trauma and increasing use of interventional vascular procedures, the proportion of iatrogenic vascular trauma exceeds 40% of all vascular injuries, whereas on other parts of the continent, armed conflicts are still a major cause of vascular trauma. National vascular registries, mostly in the Scandinavian countries, produce useful, nationwide data about vascular trauma and its management but suffer still from inadequate data collection. Despite a relatively low incidence of vascular trauma in most European countries, the results are satisfactory, probably in most cases because of active and early management by surgeons on call, whether with vascular training or not, treating all kinds of vascular surgical emergencies. In some countries, attempts at developing a trauma and emergency surgical specialty, including expertise in the management of vascular injuries, are on their way.

  11. ASTRONET: Towards a Strategic Plan for European Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J.; Torra, J.; Barcons, X.; Mas-Hesse, M.

    ASTRONET is an ERA-Net financed by the European Commission FP6 under the initiative Integrating and Strengthening the European Research Area (ERA). ASTRONET was created by a group of European funding agencies in order to establish a comprehensive long-term planning for the development of European astronomy. The objective of this effort is to consolidate and reinforce the world-leading position that European astronomy has attained at the beginning of this twenty-first century. The Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación is the Spanish representative.

  12. 46 CFR 154.1130 - Sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sections. (a) If a water spray system is divided into sections, each section must at least include the... spray system is divided into sections, the control valves must be at a single manifold that is aft...

  13. 14 CFR Section 8 - General

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Profit and Loss Classification Section 8 General (a) The profit and loss accounts are designed to reflect, through natural groupings, the... accounting period. (b) The prescribed system of accounts provides for the co-ordinate grouping of...

  14. Neonatology and the caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Zanini, R; Minghetti, D

    2012-10-01

    The origins of the use of the Caesarean section date far back in human history. Traces of this procedure can be found in Greek mythology and in the history of Ancient Rome. Many documents about the history of religion make reference to a delivery from the abdomen. PMID:22958012

  15. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  16. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA’ commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Methods: We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. Results: In 2010, of the 73 996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants’ vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. PMID:25500265

  17. European Society for Swallowing Disorders – European Union Geriatric Medicine Society white paper: oropharyngeal dysphagia as a geriatric syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baijens, Laura WJ; Clavé, Pere; Cras, Patrick; Ekberg, Olle; Forster, Alexandre; Kolb, Gerald F; Leners, Jean-Claude; Masiero, Stefano; Mateos-Nozal, Jesús; Ortega, Omar; Smithard, David G; Speyer, Renée; Walshe, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and it is included in the World Health Organization’s classification of diseases. It can cause severe complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia, and increased readmissions, institutionalization, and morbimortality. OD is a prevalent and serious problem among all phenotypes of older patients as oropharyngeal swallow response is impaired in older people and can cause aspiration. Despite its prevalence and severity, OD is still underdiagnosed and untreated in many medical centers. There are several validated clinical and instrumental methods (videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing) to diagnose OD, and treatment is mainly based on compensatory measures, although new treatments to stimulate the oropharyngeal swallow response are under research. OD matches the definition of a geriatric syndrome as it is highly prevalent among older people, is caused by multiple factors, is associated with several comorbidities and poor prognosis, and needs a multidimensional approach to be treated. OD should be given more importance and attention and thus be included in all standard screening protocols, treated, and regularly monitored to prevent its main complications. More research is needed to develop and standardize new treatments and management protocols for older patients with OD, which is a challenging mission for our societies

  18. Healthcare services for those with musculoskeletal conditions: a rheumatology service. Recommendations of the European Union of Medical Specialists Section of Rheumatology/European Board of Rheumatology 2006

    PubMed Central

    Rheumatology, Anthony D Woolf and The European Union of Medical Specialists Section of

    2007-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are very common across Europe. They affect all age groups, and the associated physical disability is an enormous burden on individuals and society. They can be effectively prevented and controlled in many situations, but this is not at present fully achieved. This report outlines what is required to achieve this and the role of rheumatology in providing these healthcare services. Strategies are given for the prevention and management of musculoskeletal conditions. The needs of people with these conditions are expressed in the PARE Manifesto and the clinical needs have been identified. The healthcare services required to implement these strategies and meet these needs are considered focusing on what services a rheumatology centre should provide. A key principle is that management of musculoskeletal conditions requires a coordinated, integrated, multidisciplinary and multiprofessional approach providing access to a combination of expertise and competencies. Guidance is given of what a rheumatology service should be expected to offer. For a rheumatology centre to provide these services, the need for appropriate facilities and resources is identified, which considers physical resources as well as personnel, training and management needs. Maintaining high standards of care and achieving the best outcomes at all times needs the monitoring of quality indicators as well as ongoing education and research. In conclusion, improving musculoskeletal health is dependent on access to effective treatments and this document shows how the services provided by a rheumatology centre is central to this. PMID:17158137

  19. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Martínez-Gómez, David; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno, Luis A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Mauro, Beatrice; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Marcos, Ascensión; Beghin, Laurent; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-07-15

    The authors' aim in this cross-sectional study was to characterize levels of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents from 9 European countries. The study comprised 2,200 European adolescents (1,184 girls) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as average intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was also objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of the 20-m shuttle run test. Level of maternal education was reported by the adolescents. A higher proportion of boys (56.8% of boys vs. 27.5% of girls) met the physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA. Adolescents spent most of the registered time in sedentary behaviors (9 hours/day, or 71% of the registered time). Both average intensity and MVPA were higher in adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time was lower in the high-fitness group. There were no physical activity or sedentary time differences between maternal education categories. These data provide an objective measure of physical activity and amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in a relatively large number of European adolescents.

  20. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Today, and for the first time, astronomers share their global Science Vision for European Astronomy in the next two decades. This two-year long effort by the ASTRONET network of funding agencies, sponsored by the European Commission and coordinated by INSU-CNRS, underscores Europe's ascension to world leadership in astronomy and its will to maintain that position. It will be followed in just over a year by a prioritised roadmap for the observational facilities needed to implement the Vision. Implementation of these plans will ensure that Europe fully contributes to Mankind's ever deeper understanding of the wonders of our Universe. astronet logo "This is a great opportunity to help create a vibrant long-term future for astronomy and science" says Tim de Zeeuw (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) who led this community-wide effort. The ASTRONET Science Vision provides a comprehensive overview of the most important scientific questions that European astronomy should address in the next twenty years. The four key questions are the extremes of the Universe, from the nature of the dark matter and dark energy that comprise over 95% of the Universe to the physics of extreme objects such as black holes, neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts; the formation of galaxies from the first seeds to our Milky Way; the formation of stars and planets and the origin of life; and the crucial question of how do we (and our Solar System) fit in the global picture. These themes reach well beyond the realm of traditional astronomy into the frontiers of physics and biology. The Vision identifies the major new facilities that will be needed to achieve these goals, but also stresses the need for parallel developments in theory and numerical simulations, high-performance computing resources, efficient astronomical data archiving and the European Virtual Observatory, as well as in laboratory astrophysics. "This report is a key input for the even more challenging task of developing a prioritised

  1. Industry liaison section implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakowske, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    The Industry Liaison Section is a new function of the Army/NASA Aircrew-Aircraft Integration (AAAI) Program that is intended to bridge an existing gap between Government developers (including contractors) and outside organizations who are potential users of products and services developed by the AAAI Program. Currently in its sixth year, the Program is experiencing considerable pull from industry and other government organizations to disseminate products. Since the AAAI Program's charter is exploratory and research in nature, and satisfying proper dissemination requirements is in conflict with the rapid prototyping approach utilized by the design team, the AAAI Program has elected to create an Industry Liaison Section (ILS) to serve as the Program's technology transfer focal point. The process by which the ILS may be established, organized and managed is described, including the baseline organizational structure, duties, functions, authority, responsibilities, relations and policies and procedures relevant to the conduct of the ILS.

  2. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  3. Reactor-vessel-sectioning demonstration.

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    A successful technical demonstration of simulated reactor vessel sectioning was completed using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel: an air arc gouger was chosen to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. After the simulated vessel was successfully cut from the SS side, another cut was made, starting from the carbon steel side. This cut was also successful. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction since the air arc gouging step is eliminated and contamination controlled because the molten metal is blown inward.

  4. Hydrology Section Executive Committee minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, James W.

    The AGU Hydrology Section Executive Committee Meeting was called to order at approximately 4 P.M. on Monday, December 8, 1986 by Marshall Moss. In attendance were George Pinder, Allan Freeze, Jim Mercer, Ron Cummings, Ken Bencala, Jim Wallis, Simon Ince, Jack Stone, Jeff Dozier, Don Nielson, Ivan Johnson, John Wilson, Helen Peters, Jurate Landwehr, Karen Prestegaard, Soroosh Sorooshian, Jery Stedinger, Peter Kitanidis, Rafael Bras, and Waldo Smith.

  5. Cesarean section by maternal request.

    PubMed

    Câmara, Raphael; Burlá, Marcelo; Ferrari, José; Lima, Lana; Amim, Joffre; Braga, Antonio; Rezende, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks. RESUMO A cesariana a pedido materno é aquela realizada em uma gestante sem indicações médicas e sem contraindicação para tentativa do parto vaginal. Existe grande controvérsia sobre a realização da cesariana a pedido. Riscos potenciais da cesariana a pedido incluem complicações em gravidezes subsequentes, tais como: rotura uterina, placenta prévia e acretismo. Potenciais benefícios da cesariana a pedido englobam um menor risco de hemorragia pós-parto na primeira cesariana e menos complicações cirúrgicas quando comparada ao parto vaginal. A cesariana a pedido jamais deve ser realizada antes de 39 semanas.

  6. Cesarean section by maternal request.

    PubMed

    Câmara, Raphael; Burlá, Marcelo; Ferrari, José; Lima, Lana; Amim, Joffre; Braga, Antonio; Rezende, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks. RESUMO A cesariana a pedido materno é aquela realizada em uma gestante sem indicações médicas e sem contraindicação para tentativa do parto vaginal. Existe grande controvérsia sobre a realização da cesariana a pedido. Riscos potenciais da cesariana a pedido incluem complicações em gravidezes subsequentes, tais como: rotura uterina, placenta prévia e acretismo. Potenciais benefícios da cesariana a pedido englobam um menor risco de hemorragia pós-parto na primeira cesariana e menos complicações cirúrgicas quando comparada ao parto vaginal. A cesariana a pedido jamais deve ser realizada antes de 39 semanas. PMID:27679953

  7. The Timing of Pigmentation Lightening in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Beleza, Sandra; Santos, António M.; McEvoy, Brian; Alves, Isabel; Martinho, Cláudia; Cameron, Emily; Shriver, Mark D.; Parra, Esteban J.; Rocha, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The inverse correlation between skin pigmentation and latitude observed in human populations is thought to have been shaped by selective pressures favoring lighter skin to facilitate vitamin D synthesis in regions far from the equator. Several candidate genes for skin pigmentation have been shown to exhibit patterns of polymorphism that overlap the geospatial variation in skin color. However, little work has focused on estimating the time frame over which skin pigmentation has changed and on the intensity of selection acting on different pigmentation genes. To provide a temporal framework for the evolution of lighter pigmentation, we used forward Monte Carlo simulations coupled with a rejection sampling algorithm to estimate the time of onset of selective sweeps and selection coefficients at four genes associated with this trait in Europeans: KITLG, TYRP1, SLC24A5, and SLC45A2. Using compound haplotype systems consisting of rapidly evolving microsatellites linked to one single-nucleotide polymorphism in each gene, we estimate that the onset of the sweep shared by Europeans and East Asians at KITLG occurred approximately 30,000 years ago, after the out-of-Africa migration, whereas the selective sweeps for the European-specific alleles at TYRP1, SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 started much later, within the last 11,000–19,000 years, well after the first migrations of modern humans into Europe. We suggest that these patterns were influenced by recent increases in size of human populations, which favored the accumulation of advantageous variants at different loci. PMID:22923467

  8. Global integration of European tuna markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Toribio, Ramòn; Guillotreau, Patrice; Mongruel, Rémi

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of integration between the world market and the major European marketplaces of frozen and canned tuna through both vertical and horizontal price relationships. Spatial linkages are investigated horizontally in order to estimate the connection between the European market and the world-wide market on the primary stage of the value chain. One of the key results is the high level of market integration at the ex-vessel stage, and the price leadership of yellowfin tuna over skipjack tuna. The same approach is applied at the ex-factory level. Basically, the European market for final goods appears to be segmented between the Northern countries consuming low-priced canned skipjack tuna imported from Asia (mainly Thailand) and the Southern countries (Italy, Spain) processing and importing yellowfin-based products sold at higher prices. France appears to be an intermediate market where both products are consumed. The former market is found to be well integrated to the world market and can be considered to be competitive, but there is a suspicion of market power being exercised on the latter. Price relationships are therefore tested vertically between the price of frozen tuna paid by the canneries and the price of canned fish in both Italy and France. The two species show an opposite pattern in prices transmission along the value chain: price changes along the chain are far better transmitted for the “global” skipjack tuna than for the more “European” yellowfin tuna. The results are discussed, along with their implications for the fishing industry.

  9. The European SL-9/JUPITER Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    During the past six months, many astronomers - observational as well theoretical - have been busy interpreting the many data taken during the impacts and thereafter. This is a very labour-intensive task and although the first conclusions have begun to emerge, it has also become obvious that extensive consultations between the various groups are necessary before it will be possible to understand the very complex processes during the impacts and thereafter. In order to further the interaction among the involved scientists, it has been decided to hold a three-day "European SL-9/Jupiter Workshop" at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. More than 100 astronomers will meet on February 13-15, 1995, and close to 100 reports will be delivered on this occasion. Although most come from European countries, the major groups on other continents are also well represented. This meeting will give the participants the opportunity to exchange information about their individual programmes and will serve to establish future collaborative efforts. SL-9/JUPITER PRESS CONFERENCE In this connection, ESO is pleased to invite the media to a Press Conference: Wednesday, February 15, 1995, 17:30 CET ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany This conference will be held at the end of the Workshop and will provide a thorough overview of the latest results, as presented during the meeting. Media representatives who are interested in participating in this Press Conference are requested to register with the ESO Information Service (Mrs. E. Völk, Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax: +49-89-3202362), at the latest on Friday, February 10, 1995. ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.hq.eso.org/) and on CompuServe (space science and astronomy area, GO SPACE).

  10. [Women and tobacco in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Sasco, A; Salvador, T; Villalbí, J R

    1999-01-01

    Over the last decades, the prevalence of smoking in the European Union has followed different trends by sex. While the prevalence has declined for men, it has increased or is stable for women. In some countries where these changes took place earlier, the prevalence of smoking is now higher among women than among men. This document provides quantitative data for these trends in the European Union, with special reference to the situation in Spain. In 1995 there were 60 million men and 42 million women smokers in the European Union. Up to 48% of female smokers used light cigarettes, that is 20 million women. There are documents from the tobacco industry showing that the goal of the promotion of light cigarettes is to reassure their clients and to keep as smokers those concerned about their health who are considering the possibility of quitting. There is evidence confirming that this policy is successful, and that the misconceptions of smokers about light cigarettes deter them from quitting. There is evidence on the role of smoking in weight control. Women are more concerned than men about their weight, and for young women body image is very relevant. Young girls often have the perception that they are overweight. Although fear of being overweight is more common than actual overweight, the evidence suggests that being afraid of gaining weight plays a role in keeping women as smokers, and that young girls begin smoking taking into consideration weight issues. The advice on how to maintain weight should be included in any smoking cessation program for women. Any preventive action for teen age smokers should include weight control issues.

  11. Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS) and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 μm long) and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 μm diam). Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, β-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C) than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C). Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and β-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus. Taxonomic novelties: Penicillium argentinense Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. atrofulvum Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. aurantiacobrunneum Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. cairnsense Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. christenseniae Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson

  12. The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) and the European Lifelong Learning Perspective: How European Countries are Preparing to Cope with the New Philosophy of VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deissinger, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The paper picks up "matching problems" related to current European education policy moves by referring to the German, the French and the Austrian VET system respectively. As we here refer to "dual systems" or "school-based systems" respectively, the pre-conditions for transforming European policy into national policies are very different. One…

  13. Report on ''European Radio Interferometry School 2015''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, R.; Richards, A.

    2016-03-01

    The sixth European Interferometry School (ERIS2015) was held at ESO for the first time. As usual the school was aimed at graduate students and early-career postdocs, but this year the emphasis was on enhanced wide-bandwidth interferometers covering metre to submillimetre wavebands. More than 100 participants attended ERIS2015. The topics of the school are briefly described here. They covered a wide range, from an introduction to radio interferometric techniques through packages for data reduction and analysis to hands-on workshop sessions and proposal writing.

  14. Building up a European astronomical community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courvoisier, T.

    2013-09-01

    Astronomy is arguably the science that brought most economical benefits throughout mankind history. Keeping time allowed for agriculture, navigation and most human activities. Intellectual pursuit came along the way. In the last century our activity has turned almost exclusively towards the physical study of our far environment. From local our pursuit turned global. Our research context has, however, not yet followed that route, most of the efforts are nationally funded. Looking at a world political map, one sees that Europe is in a rather poor position, being fractionated in very small national entities. The EAS works towards overcoming this by building a European astronomical community extending from the Azores to Russia.

  15. The emergence of a European immigration policy.

    PubMed

    O'keeffe, D

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses the emergence of an immigration policy for the European Union as a whole, the need for which is demonstrated by the high number of individuals desiring to migrate to its constituent countries. He notes that the Union has been slow to develop such a policy, and suggests that the price of abolishing internal controls might be the establishment of external controls. He suggests that the Schengen Convention may serve as a model for the development of a suitable policy, which will have to take into account human rights issues. It will also need to be coordinated with other international bodies concerned with migration issues in Europe.

  16. Prague, NATO, and European security. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, S.J.

    1996-04-17

    One of the fundamental issues in European security is NATO expansion. This study examines the Czech Republic`s reasons for wanting to join NATO as well as its overall security policy in Europe. Because the Czech Republic is one of the premier candidates for NATO entry, understanding its motives and aspirations is important as a guide to promoting a better grasp of security issues in Central and Eastern Europe and to facilitating an improved understanding of the context in which NATO expansion will take place.

  17. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  18. The dietary adaptations of European Miocene catarrhines.

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, P S; Kay, R F

    1995-01-01

    European Miocene "apes" have been known for nearly a century and a half but their phylogenetic significance is only now becoming apparent with the recent discovery of many relatively complete remains. Some appear to be close in time and morphology to the last common ancestor of modern great apes and humans. The current study is an attempt to reconstruct the diets of these fossils on the basis of quantitative data. Results suggest that these primates varied more greatly in their diets than modern apes, with adaptations ranging from hard-object feeding to soft-object frugivory to folivory. PMID:7777533

  19. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  20. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by