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Sample records for european pharmacopoeia section

  1. Validation of a PCR method for the detection of mycoplasmas according to European Pharmacopoeia section 2.6.7.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yan; Mayhew, Amy; Seng, Natalie; Takle, Garry B

    2010-03-01

    Recent publication of a revised section for mycoplasma testing in the European Pharmacopoeia has led to interest in validating a nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT) for use in detection of mycoplasma contaminants in biologics drugs. The replacement by or supplementation of the existing culture-based methods with a PCR-based method has several advantages for the biopharmaceutical industry, mainly with respect to reduced turnaround time for results, and potentially lowered cost. Replacement or substitution of existing methods by a PCR method requires the demonstration of equivalent assay limit of detection (LOD) and specificity. The experimental requirements for this comparability validation have been enumerated in detail in the EP section referenced above. In this publication, we describe the validation and comparability analysis of a PCR method performed exactly according to the EP guidance. Completion of this validation activity has resulted in the availability of an assay that meets or exceeds EP compliance requirements for a mycoplasma detection method. (c) 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In situ degradation: a new concept for system suitability tests in monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia.

    PubMed

    Rose, U

    1998-10-01

    Monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia describe in the LC-test for related substances usually a system suitability test in order to ensure the adequate separation of impurities. Since the reference substances required are often not available a recent approach to avoid this problem is the generation of the required impurity by 'in situ degradation' of the active principle. This paper describes some typical applications of this technique as well as recent examples, such as the controlled degradation of cefalotin sodium, imipenem and spiramycin.

  3. [The determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) according to European Pharmacopoeia 4.0].

    PubMed

    Kos, N; Surmann, J P

    2006-05-01

    Determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride according to the European Pharmacopoeia 4.0 In the Ph.Eur. 4.0 assay pyridoxine hydrochloride is titrated by sodium hydroxide 0.1 mol x 1(-1) in ethanolic solution. The impossibility of a correct evaluation of the titration curve is shown both in theory and practice. The new method in Ph.Eur. 4.04 is an acidimetric titration of the base chloride. In a mixture of formic acid/acetic anhydride the titration is made by perchloric acid. Because some critical points in this assay an alternative method is developed. This method is robust and should give results with high accuracy.

  4. Compliance of scored tablet halves produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies with the new European Pharmacopoeia requirements.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghosh, Abeer Abu

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the weight uniformity of commonly divided tablets produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies and to evaluate the importance of both patient- and formulation-related variables on the splitting results. Eighty-four volunteers were enrolled in this study; their age, gender and occupation were documented in order, and the effect of these variables on the tablet splitting results was evaluated. Each volunteer was asked to divide six scored tablets of each product tested and was given clear instructions on how to conduct the splitting process. The split units were individually weighed and the RSD for each product was calculated as instructed in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur. 5.5). Only one scored tablet product passed the Ph. Eur. test of mass uniformity, while the remaining 13 products failed; this indicates that the splitting of these tablet products is not a reliable means for the provision of accurate doses to patients. Age, gender and occupation of volunteers were not found to be predictive of any variability noted in the splitting results. The only factors that were suspected to be linked to passing the splitting test, as per the European Pharmacopoeia, were the shape, friability and hardness of the tablets. As a result of this study, we believe that the practice of dividing tablets, which should provide therapeutic and economic benefits for the patient, may potentially cause significant problems, especially in drugs with low therapeutic indices. Tablets produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies should comply with the new Ph. Eur. splitting regulations to reduce this potential for complications.

  5. Evaluation of the Discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia Test and an Adopted United States Pharmacopoeia Test Regarding the Weight Uniformity of Scored Tablet Halves: Is Harmonization Required?

    PubMed

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghoush, Abeer Abu; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Are'r, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there exists any discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and adopted United States Pharmacopeia (USP) tests concerning the weight uniformity measurements of tablet halves after splitting. The USP method does not contain provisions to evaluate split tablets, so here we adopt their whole tablet weight uniformity method. Twenty-nine different commercial scored tablets (local and imported) were divided. The split units were individually weighed and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for each product was calculated and then evaluated according to both the adopted USP and the Ph. Eur. tests of weight uniformity. Twenty out of the 29 products tested failed the USP test, while 14 of them failed the Ph. Eur. test. Nine products passed both the USP and Ph. Eur. tests. Six products passed the Ph. Eur. test but failed the USP test, with all of these products having an RSD greater than 6%. The correlation coefficient between the weight and content of split halves for three randomly selected products-corotenol 100 mg, corotenol 50 mg, and lorazepam 2.5 mg-was found to be 0.986, 0.998, and 0.72, respectively. A clear difference can be seen between outcomes obtained by the two compendial tablet splitting methods with regard to weight uniformity. Results from the USP test showed that tighter measures are needed to pass the test. Our results argue that the Ph. Eur. should revise the existing weight uniformity test on scored tablets to include the RSD parameter in it. The USP should include this adopted test as a specific test for scored tablet halves, not just whole tablets. Manufacturers in some cases will need to improve the quality of the produced scored tablets in order to pass the USP test, especially those with low therapeutic indices. Finally, harmonization between the pharmacopoeias regarding the weight uniformity testing of split tablets is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there

  6. Renewal of an old European Pharmacopoeia method for Terazosin using modeling with mass spectrometric peak tracking.

    PubMed

    Kormány, Róbert; Molnár, Imre; Fekete, Jenő

    2017-02-20

    An older method for terazosin was reworked in order to reduce the analysis time from 90min (2×45min) to below 5min. The method in European Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur.) investigates the specified impurities separately. The reason of the different methods is that the retention of two impurities is not adequate in reversed phase, not even with 100% water. Therefore ion-pair-chromatography has to be applied and since that two impurities absorb at low UV-wavelength they had to be analyzed by different method than the other specified impurities. In our new method we could improve the retention with pH elevation using a new type of stationary phases available for high pH applications. Also a detection wavelength could be selected that is appropriate for the detection and quantification of all impurities. The method development is the bottleneck of liquid chromatography even today, when more and more fast chromatographic systems are used. Expert knowledge with intelligent programs is available to reduce the time of method development and offer extra information about the robustness of the separation. Design of Experiments (DoE) for simultaneous optimization of gradient time (tG), temperature (T) and ternary eluent composition (tC) requires 12 experiments. A good alternative way to identify a certain peak in different chromatograms is the molecular mass of the compound, due to its high specificity. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) is now a routine technique and increasingly available in laboratories. In our experiment for the resolution- and retention modeling the DryLab4 method development software (Version 4.2) was used. In recent versions of the software the use of (m/z)-MS-data is possible along the UV-peak-area-tracking technology. The modelled and measured chromatograms showed excellent correlations. The average retention time deviations were ca. 0.5s and there was no difference between the predicted and measured Rs,crit -values.

  7. Electrochemical detection of tobramycin or gentamicin according to the European Pharmacopoeia analytical method.

    PubMed

    Ghinami, C; Giuliani, V; Menarini, A; Abballe, F; Travaini, S; Ladisa, T

    2007-01-12

    Tobramycin and gentamicin are two aminoglycosidic antibiotics used in lung infection, ophthalmic treatments as well as in skin infections. Pharmaceutical companies which produce remedies containing tobramycin and gentamicin need an analytical method for their internal quality control. For several years a simple chromatographic method based on anion exchange separation coupled with amperometric detection was proposed for aminoglycosides. This analytical approach was partially used in the last edition of the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) for tobramycin and gentamicin analysis. In fact they use integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IPAD) on a gold electrode while the separation is obtained on a polymeric wide pore reversed phase instead of anion exchange in alkaline conditions. Such coupling seems to be cumbersome and not so easy to realize and to reproduce from one laboratory to another. Besides, the described method lacks some of the details as important as the waveform steps duration. Unfortunately the quality control (QC) laboratories have to use exactly the method described in the EP, so they complained about the troubles. Therefore, the EP authors published recently a paper regarding the guidelines for good practice in the method application, but the suggestion was not yet resolutive. In our work we evaluated the eluent composition and the kind of amperometric cell, work electrode diameter and cell volume. Mainly we optimized the amperometric waveform. In addition, for tobramycin analysis another chromatographic phase was explored in order to achieve better efficiency and to separate all the impurities confirming the effectiveness of the detection. The conditions described in the paper seem to allow the analyst to operate in conformity with the EP method.

  8. Collaborative study for establishment of the European Pharmacopoeia BRP batch 1 for diphtheria toxin.

    PubMed

    Sesardic, D; Prior, C; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2003-07-01

    A stable liquid candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for diphtheria toxin was prepared in peptone buffer (nominal content of diphtheria toxin: 1 Lf/ml, 0.4 micro g/ml), filled in ampoules (filling volume: 1 ml) and characterised in a collaborative study. The toxin is to be used in the test "Absence of toxin and irreversibility of toxoid" as described in the current European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph Diphtheria Vaccine (Adsorbed) (2002:0443). Eleven laboratories assessed the specific activity of the preparation by in vivo and in vitro assays. The material is assumed to have satisfactory stability with a calculated predicted loss of activity of <1% per year at 4-8 degrees C. From the collaborative study, the specific activity was calculated as 77.6 (45-113) LD( 50)/ml (lethal challenge) and >75 000 Lr/Lf (intradermal challenge). The candidate BRP was successfully used in nine laboratories and confirmed suitable for use in the Vero cell test for "Absence of toxin and irreversibility of toxoid" as described in the Ph. Eur. monograph 2002:0443; i.e., concentrations of 5 x 10( -5) Lf/ml and below caused cytotoxic effects in the Vero cell test. Due to its liquid nature, the stability of the material will be monitored at regular intervals and preparation of a stable freeze-dried formulation will be considered for long-term use. Additional studies will be performed to confirm suitability of this BRP for other applications. The candidate BRP was adopted as the Ph. Eur. reference material for Diphtheria Toxin Batch 1 by the Ph. Eur. Commission at its session in March 2003.

  9. [Sources of error in the European Pharmacopoeia assay of halide salts of organic bases by titration with alkali].

    PubMed

    Kószeginé, S H; Ráfliné, R Z; Paál, T; Török, I

    2000-01-01

    A short overview has been given by the authors on the titrimetric assay methods of halide salts of organic bases in the pharmacopoeias of greatest importance. The alternative procedures introduced by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission some years ago to replace the non-aqueous titration with perchloric acid in the presence of mercuric acetate have also been presented and evaluated. The authors investigated the limits of applicability and the sources of systematic errors (bias) of the strongly preferred titration with sodium hydroxide in an alcoholic medium. To assess the bias due to the differences between the results calculated from the two inflexion points of the titration curves and the two real endpoints corresponding to the strong and weak acids, respectively, the mathematical analysis of the titration curve function was carried out. This bias, generally negligible when the pH change near the endpoint of the titration is more than 1 unit, is the function of the concentration, the apparent pK of the analyte and the ionic product of water (ethanol) in the alcohol-water mixtures. Using the validation data gained for the method with the titration of ephedrine hydrochloride the authors analysed the impact of carbon dioxide in the titration medium on the additive and proportional systematic errors of the method. The newly introduced standardisation procedure of the European Pharmacopoeia for the sodium hydroxide titrant to decrease the systematic errors caused by carbon dioxide has also been evaluated.

  10. Antimicrobial properties of natural coniferous rosin in the European Pharmacopoeia challenge test.

    PubMed

    Sipponen, Arno; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2011-10-01

    Rosins (resins) are natural products of the coniferous trees. Purified rosin from the trunk of Norway spruce (Picea abies) is antibacterial against the gram-positive bacteria, but not against the gram-negative bacteria in agar plate diffusion test. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of the coniferous rosin against bacteria and yeasts using the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) challenge test. The microbes tested were Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. To prepare challenge media, purified rosin was mixed with a biologically inert salve in varying concentrations. The microbes were inoculated (5 × 10(5) microbes (bacteria) or 5 × 10(4) microbes (yeast, C.albicans)) into 10 g of the rosin-containing challenge medium for 14 days at maximum. Samples were taken from the media for re-cultivation of the microbes at time intervals of 1 h, 24 h, 4, 7, and 14 days. The microbicidal efficacy of the challenge media was estimated by reduction of the number of the colony forming units (CFU) of microbes in the test samples. A reduction of more than 10(3) CFU for bacteria and 10(2) CFU for fungi in 7 days was considered to indicate a significant microbicidal action. Pure rosin was antimicrobial within 24 h against all microbes tested. The 0.5% rosin-salve medium (w/w) did not differ in microbicidal effects from the rosin-free salve medium (control). A raise of the rosin concentration resulted in increase of the microbicidal effect of the rosin-salve medium against all micro-organisms tested. Rosin concentration of 10% (w/w) in the medium significantly reduced the colonization of S. aureus (including MRSA) within 24 h and significantly reduced the colonization of all other micro-organisms within 4 days. Rosin is strongly microbicidal against a wide range of microbes, against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and against C. albicans

  11. Calibration of European pharmacopoeia biological reference preparation for diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed) batch 4.

    PubMed

    Stickings, P; Rigsby, P; Buchheit, K-H; Sesardic, D

    2009-10-01

    A collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) and the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) to establish replacement batches of the current World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for Diphtheria Vaccine (Adsorbed). Two candidates were assayed against the current 3rd IS/BRP batch 3 for Diphtheria Vaccine (Adsorbed) with an assigned potency of 160 IU/ampoule using established WHO/Ph. Eur. challenge methods in guinea pigs as described in the Ph. Eur. general chapter 2.7.6. Assay of diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed). Twenty-one laboratories (regulatory organisations and manufacturers) from 17 countries participated in the study. Two freeze-dried, stabilised diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed) preparations were included in the study: Preparation A (07/218) and Preparation B (07/216). As stocks of the 3rd IS were very low, the Diphtheria vaccine (adsorbed) BRP batch 3, which is identical to the 3rd IS but which was kept at the EDQM, was used for the calibration (coded Preparation C). The majority of participants performed 2 independent challenge tests. Five laboratories performed the intradermal challenge test, 16 laboratories performed the systemic challenge test. For Preparation A, the unweighted geometric mean potency estimate (with 95 % confidence limits) for all laboratories that provided valid results (n = 17) was 97.2 (89.5-105.6) IU/ampoule. For systemic challenge assays (n = 14) the unweighted geometric mean potency was 97.0 (88.1-106.7) IU/ampoule. The between-laboratory GCV was 17.4 % for all assays and 18.0 % for systemic challenge assays. There was no significant difference in estimates for intradermal or systemic challenge (p = 0.45). For Preparation B the unweighted geometric mean potency estimate (with 95 % confidence limits) for all laboratories that provided valid results (n

  12. Determination of somatropin charged variants by capillary zone electrophoresis - optimisation, verification and implementation of the European pharmacopoeia method.

    PubMed

    Storms, S M; Feltus, A; Barker, A R; Joly, M-A; Girard, M

    2009-03-01

    Measurement of somatropin charged variants by isoelectric focusing was replaced with capillary zone electrophoresis in the January 2006 European Pharmacopoeia Supplement 5.3, based on results from an interlaboratory collaborative study. Due to incompatibilities and method-robustness issues encountered prior to verification, a number of method parameters required optimisation. As the use of a diode array detector at 195 nm or 200 nm led to a loss of resolution, a variable wavelength detector using a 200 nm filter was employed. Improved injection repeatability was obtained by increasing the injection time and pressure, and changing the sample diluent from water to running buffer. Finally, definition of capillary pre-treatment and rinse procedures resulted in more consistent separations over time. Method verification data are presented demonstrating linearity, specificity, repeatability, intermediate precision, limit of quantitation, sample stability, solution stability, and robustness. Based on these experiments, several modifications to the current method have been recommended and incorporated into the European Pharmacopoeia to help improve method performance across laboratories globally.

  13. Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia monograph on derivative spectrophotometry method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Marković, Bojan; Ignjatović, Janko; Vujadinović, Mirjana; Savić, Vedrana; Vladimirov, Sote; Karljiković-Rajić, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia (EP) monograph on derivative spectrophotometry (DS) method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride was carried out on two generation of instruments (earlier GBC Cintra 20 and current technology TS Evolution 300). Instruments operate with different versions of Savitzky-Golay algorithm and modes of generating digital derivative spectra. For resolution power parameter, defined as the amplitude ratio A/B in DS method EP monograph, comparable results were obtained only with algorithm's parameters smoothing points (SP) 7 and the 2nd degree polynomial and those provided corresponding data with other two modes on TS Evolution 300 Medium digital indirect and Medium digital direct. Using quoted algorithm's parameters, the differences in percentages between the amplitude ratio A/B averages, were within accepted criteria (±3%) for assay of drug product for method transfer. The deviation of 1.76% for the degree of deacetylation assessment of chitosan hydrochloride, determined on two instruments, (amplitude (1)D202; the 2nd degree polynomial and SP 9 in Savitzky-Golay algorithm), was acceptable, since it was within allowed criteria (±2%) for assay deviation of drug substance, for method transfer in pharmaceutical analyses.

  14. [Avicenne's Pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Jazi, R; Asli, F O

    1998-01-01

    This title comes from the one given by Ibn Sina - Avicenna in the West - to volume V of his work Al-Qanun fil'tibb or The Canon of medicine. Ibn Sina's works constitute a very important legacy and this is confirmed by volumes II ans V of The canon in particular. Volume II deals with basic drugs: it details some 800 monographs covering the plant, the animal and the mineral kingdoms. Volume V, under the title of Aqrabadin (i.e. pharmacopoeia), deals with complex drugs; 434 formulae are recorded in its part 1 and 162 in part 2. In this volume Ibn Sina describes many galenics like theriacas, electuaries, hieras, syrups, suppositories and sublingual tablets, together with "diachylon" plasters. All these confections were tried by the author who also mentions the expiry date of drugs and recommends their sensible use.

  15. European Pharmacopoeia biological reference preparation for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated): collaborative study for the establishment of batch No. 3.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Daas, A; Milne, C

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines are an important part of the World Health Organization (WHO) control strategy to eradicate poliomyelitis. Requirements for the quality control of poliomyelitis vaccines (inactivated) include the use of an in vitro D antigen quantification assay for potency determination on the final lot as outlined in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph 0214. Performance of this assay requires a reference preparation calibrated in International Units (IU). A Ph. Eur. biological reference preparation (BRP) for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) calibrated in IU has been established for this purpose. Due to the dwindling stocks of batch 2 of the BRP a collaborative study was run as part of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) Biological Standardisation Programme to establish BRP batch 3 (BRP3). Twelve laboratories including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers participated. The candidate BRP3 (cBRP3) was from the same source and had the same characteristics as BRP batch 2 (BRP2). During the study the candidate was calibrated against the 3(rd) International Standard for inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine using in-house D antigen ELISA assays in line with the Ph. Eur. monograph 0214. The candidate was also compared to BRP2 to evaluate the continuity. Based on the results of the study, values of 320 DU/mL, 78 DU/mL and 288 DU/mL (D antigen units/mL) (IU) for poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 respectively were assigned to the candidate. In June 2016, the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted the material as Ph. Eur. BRP for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) batch 3.

  16. Possible alternative to European Pharmacopoeia's method of analysis Test for Fc Function of Immunoglobulin (2.7.9) by using tetanus toxoid as antigen.

    PubMed

    Perez-del-Pulgar, S; Lopez, M; Gensana, M; Jorquera, J I

    2006-08-01

    Preparations of intravenous immunoglobulins must keep functional integrity throughout the purification process. In order to assess Fc fragment functionality, the European Pharmacopoeia proposes the Test for Fc function of immunoglobulin (2.7.9), which is based on a rubella antigen of high titre. Sometimes, such antigen is difficult to obtain. In the present study, we develop the same assay using tetanus toxoid instead of rubella antigen, adapting the procedure for the use of tetanus toxoid. The comparison between rubella-based and tetanus-based assays showed that the slopes of the haemolysis curves were higher if red blood cells had been sensitised with the rubella antigen than with tetanus toxoid. Nonetheless, the tetanus-based assay gave satisfactory results and it could be a good alternative antigen target.

  17. Standardization of allergen products: 3. Validation of candidate European Pharmacopoeia standard methods for quantification of major birch allergen Bet v 1.

    PubMed

    Kaul, S; Zimmer, J; Dehus, O; Costanzo, A; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H; Asturias, J A; Barber, D; Carnés, J; Chapman, M; Dayan-Kenigsberg, J; Döring, S; Führer, F; Hanschmann, K M; Holzhauser, T; Ledesma, A; Moingeon, P; Nony, E; Pini, C; Plunkett, G; Reese, G; Sandberg, E; Sander, I; Strecker, D; Valerio, C; van Ree, R; Vieths, S

    2016-10-01

    The BSP090 project aims at establishing European Pharmacopoeia Reference Substances in combination with the corresponding ELISA methods for the quantification of major allergens in allergen products. Two sandwich ELISAs proved suitable for quantification of Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, in preceding phases of BSP090. Two Bet v 1-specific ELISA systems were compared with respect to accuracy and precision in a ring trial including 13 laboratories. Model samples containing recombinant rBet v 1.0101 as well as native birch pollen extracts were measured independently at least three times in each facility. The assessment was completed with a comparative quantification of Bet v 1 in 30 marketed birch allergen products in one laboratory, simulating the future use as reference method. In the collaborative study, both candidate ELISAs confirmed their suitability to quantify recombinant and native Bet v 1. ELISA-A showed higher precision and lower interlaboratory variability, yet ELISA-B exhibited slightly higher accuracy. Subsequent parallel measurement of Bet v 1 in a panel of 'real-life' birch allergen products indicated better repeatability of ELISA-B. Both systems detected substantial differences in Bet v 1 content between allergen products, but the effect was more pronounced using ELISA-B due to persistently higher values compared to ELISA-A. In the collaborative study, no deciding differences were observed between the two candidate ELISAs. Further comparison under conditions simulating the intended use combined with the criterion of long-term availability enabled the selection of one Bet v 1-specific ELISA for proposal as European Pharmacopoeia standard method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Establishment of European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparations (BRP) batch 2 for rDNA hepatitis B vaccine (method A and B).

    PubMed

    Dobbelaer, R; Daas, A; Milne, C

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study was initiated by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM), to assign a potency value for candidate batch 2 of European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for Hepatitis B (rDNA) antigen in vitro assays, for both method A and method B by calibrating them against the Ph. Eur. BRPs, batch 1 for methods A and B respectively. The study was prompted by the observation that the first batch of BRP for method B appeared to have lost potency over time. BRP 1 for method A showed no loss in potency, however stocks of the material were nearing depletion. Eleven laboratories participated in the study and all reported results. Participants performed 3 independent assays using both method A and method B. Method A was used to assess BRPs for method A and method B was used to assess BRPs for method B. Since BRP 1B was suspected to have lost potency, an additional sample was included in the method B test in an attempt to clarify the situation. BRP 1B was also assayed in method A against BRP 1A in the hope of also attaining further information by comparing the results from this study to those obtained in the original study to establish the first batch of BRP [1]. Although it was not the primary aim of this study to correlate in vitro potency with the immunogenicity assay in mice, a number of interested parties also performed the mouse in vivo assay to obtain data on the behaviour of the candidate BRPs in this assay. For method A, potency estimates were satisfactory in terms of repeatability and reproducibility. The candidate material was therefore assigned a value of 16.6 micrograms/ml. For method B, it appeared that the observation of reduced in vitro potency of BRP1 was confirmed. Despite the attempt to clarify the situation with additional studies, it was not possible to assign a potency value with the results obtained. A small-scale collaborative study will be organised to determine an appropriate value for the

  19. Standardization of allergen products: 2. Detailed characterization of GMP-produced recombinant Phl p 5.0109 as European Pharmacopoeia reference standard.

    PubMed

    Himly, M; Nandy, A; Kahlert, H; Thilker, M; Steiner, M; Briza, P; Neubauer, A; Klysner, S; van Ree, R; Buchheit, K-H; Vieths, S; Ferreira, F

    2016-04-01

    The Biological Standardization Programme of the European Directorate for Quality of Medicines and Healthcare (EDQM) aims at the establishment of well-characterized reference standards based on recombinant allergens and validated assays for the quantification of major allergen content. The objective of this study was to examine the detailed physicochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant Phl p 5.0109, the second available allergen reference standard. Recombinant Phl p 5.0109 PP5ar06007 was produced under GMP conditions and analyzed by an array of physicochemical and immunological methods for identity, quantity, homogeneity, and folding stability in bulk solution, as well as thermal denaturation, aggregation state, and biological activity when formulated for long-time storage. PP5ar06007 revealed as a highly homogeneous, monomeric, well-folded preparation of rPhl p 5.0109, as documented by mass spectrometry, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, size-exclusion chromatography with light scattering, circular dichroism, and infrared spectroscopy. Upon storage at +4°C, PP5ar06007 retained the monomeric state for at least 2 months. A protein quantity of 1.56 ± 0.03 mg/ml was determined by amino acid analysis in PP5ar06007, and its biological activity was shown to be comparable to natural Phl p 5 in terms of basophil activation and T-cell reactivity. Recombinant Phl p 5.0109 PP5ar06007 was characterized extensively at the physicochemical and immunological level. It revealed to be a highly stable, monomeric, and immunologically equivalent of its natural counterpart. PP5ar06007 is now available as European Pharmacopoeia allergen reference standard for grass pollen products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. European Pharmacopoeia (EP), USDA and MAFF standards--will they ever be harmonised under the VICH umbrella?

    PubMed

    Castle, P

    2005-01-01

    Harmonisation of standards can have benefits for both users and manufacturers of vaccines. It also helps regulatory authorities when products are assessed to have a uniform standard in different regions. The first priority for harmonisation has to be the elimination of duplicate testing for the same purpose, for example tests for safety, immunogenicity and batch potency. A further priority is to harmonise batch-testing requirements first, since duplication of testing affects production batches. Fish vaccines present particularities as far as harmonisation between regions is concerned because of geographical, climatic and other factors. A commitment from regulatory authorities and manufacturers is a precondition for harmonisation. The different parties should commit themselves to harmonisation within a reasonable time and to implementing their decisions promptly. When there is a commitment on the part of all participants to work together in developing common science-based regulatory standards, then the optimal conditions exist. Harmonisation is time-consuming and costly but in the end the benefits can no doubt exceed the investment. Harmonisation also needs a forum since the present terms of reference of regulatory and standardisation bodies do not cover this. The only forum at present is the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Products (VICH), which is a tripartite activity involving the European Union, Japan and the U.S.A. Before deciding to propose inclusion in the VICH programme, a preliminary study should be carried out to assess the benefits expected, the obstacles to harmonisation and the feasibility of achieving a satisfactory result. In the framework of VICH, there have been some successful harmonisation projects for veterinary vaccines: residual formaldehyde determination, and residual moisture determination. A harmonised proposal for mycoplasma testing is now available for public comment

  1. Development and validation of a multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Mollicutes impurities in human cells, cultured under good manufacturing practice conditions, and following European Pharmacopoeia requirements and the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Irene; Ugolotti, Elisabetta; Raso, Alessandro; Di Marco, Eddi; Melioli, Giovanni; Biassoni, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    The clinical applications of in vitro manipulated cultured cells and their precursors are often made use of in therapeutic trials. However, tissue cultures can be easily contaminated by the ubiquitous Mollicutes micro-organisms, which can cause various and severe alterations in cellular function. Thus methods able to detect and trace Mollicutes impurities contaminating cell cultures are required before starting any attempt to grow cells under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. We developed a multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay specific for the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions, for the Tuf and P1 cytoadhesin genes, able to detect contaminant Mollicutes species in a single tube reaction. The system was validated by analyzing different cell lines and the positive samples were confirmed by 16S and P1 cytoadhesin gene dideoxy sequencing. Our multiplex qPCR detection system was able to reach a sensitivity, specificity and robustness comparable with the culture and the indicator cell culture method, as required by the European Pharmacopoeia guidelines. We have developed a multiplex qPCR method, validated following International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, as a qualitative limit test for impurities, assessing the validation characteristics of limit of detection and specificity. It also follows the European Pharmacopoeia guidelines and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements.

  2. Medicinal plants of the Russian Pharmacopoeia; their history and applications.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Wagner, Hildebert; Verpoorte, Rob; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-07-03

    Due to the location of Russia between West and East, Russian phytotherapy has accumulated and adopted approaches that originated in European and Asian traditional medicine. Phytotherapy is an official and separate branch of medicine in Russia; thus, herbal medicinal preparations are considered official medicaments. The aim of the present review is to summarize and critically appraise data concerning plants used in Russian medicine. This review describes the history of herbal medicine in Russia, the current situation and the pharmacological effects of specific plants in the Russian Pharmacopoeia that are not included in the European Pharmacopoeia. Based on the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11(th) edition), we selected plant species that have not yet been adopted in Western and Central Europe (e.g., selected for inclusion in the European Pharmacopoeia) and systematically searched the scientific literature for data using library catalogs, the online service E-library.ru, and databases such as Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, and the Web of Science regarding species, effectiveness, pharmacological effects, and safety. The Russian Federation follows the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11(th) edition), which contains 83 individual plant monographs. Fifty-one of these plants are also found in the European Pharmacopoeia and have been well studied, but 32 plants are found only in the Pharmacopoeia of the USSR. Many articles about these medicinal plants were never translated in English, and much of the information collected by Russian scientists has never been made available to the international community. Such knowledge can be applied in future studies aimed at a safe, evidence-based use of traditional Russian medicinal plants in European and global phytopharmacotherapy as well as for the discovery of novel leads for drug development. The review highlights the therapeutic potential of these Russian phytopharmaceuticals but also highlights cases where concern has been raised

  3. Role and functions of the International Pharmacopoeia.

    PubMed

    Wieniawski, W

    1975-01-01

    The role of a modern pharmacopoeia is to furnish quality specifications for drug substances and general requirements for dosage forms. The existence of such specifications and requirements is necessary for the proper functioning or regulatory control of drugs. Parmacopoeial requirements form a base for establishing quality requirements for individual pharmaceutical preparations in their final form. One hundred and forty independent countries are at present employing some 30 national and 3 regional pharmacopoeias. The aim of the international Pharmacopoeia issued by the World Health Organization as a recommendation, is to achieve a possibly wide global uniformity of quality specifications. The actual second edition of the International Pharmacopoeia was published in 1967 followed by a supplement in 1971. The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations, which is the body established by the World Health Organization to advise on quality specifications for drugs, during its 25th meeting, held in November 1974, recommended that the new edition of the International Pharmacopoeia should primarily include: -specifications for raw material comprising active and inactive ingredients used in pharmaceutical products; -general methods and tests necessary to support such specifications. Work on the new edition of the International Pharmacopoeia will comprise the revision of existing specifications and requirements, establishing specifications for new pharmaceutical substances, as well as establishing chemical reference substances, necessary to support such specifications. The actual procedure foresees appropriate consultations among the members of the WHO Expert Advisory Panel on the International Pharmacopoeia and Pharmaceutical Preparations. Extensive consultations with pharmacopoeia commissions are taking place to achieve a possibly high degree of unanimity on a global scale towards the quality requirements for pharmaceutical substances.

  4. Pharmacopoeia as quality codex for the manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Soldi, A

    1975-01-01

    Three are the basic features of a medicine legally introduced on the market: efficacy, safety and quality. With regarding to drugs listed in a national or international pharmacopoeia, the ratio between efficacy and safety, within the range of dosage established by the codex, must be considered as official by the industry. As far as quality is concerned, the pharmacopoeia plays a fundamental role in establishing methods of analysis and technical control intended as official reference in case of controversy. The quality of drugs, pharmaceutical adjuvants or preparations listed in a modern pharmacopoeia must be considered by the industry as the minimum level of the acceptable standard for medical use, to ensure efficacy under proper storage conditions. In fact, the specifications are largely based upon suggestions made by manufacturers. Pharmaceutical specialties, being registered by Health Authorities following suitable documentation, do not have to be subjected to the standards established by the pharmacopoeia for new drugs or formulation adjuvants. The constant effort of the manufacturers to minimize risks leads to optimum quality levels, considering that samples used for control by the Health Authorities are usually picked from commercial packages containing a small number of units. To ensure statistical compliance of every sample with official pharmacopoeial standards, manufacturers are forced to exercise the highest care in every process of production and packaging. There cannot possibly be a guarantee that every single unit at the consumer's disposal will actually comply with the quality level established by a modern pharmacopoeia. Optimum quality level in every package of medical products can be achieved by following the "Good Manufacturing Practice" sponsored by the WHO; this goal requires skilled people and sophisticated equipment. The practice of quality control as an essential part of the manufacturing process in a wide range of pharmaceuticals, provides

  5. Aseptic peritonitis due to peptidoglycan contamination of pharmacopoeia standard dialysis solution.

    PubMed

    Martis, Leo; Patel, Mehul; Giertych, Joe; Mongoven, Jim; Taminne, Michel; Perrier, Michele A; Mendoza, Omar; Goud, Niranjan; Costigan, Aidan; Denjoy, Nicole; Verger, Christian; Owen, William F

    Manufacturers of parenteral solutions adhere to European and US Pharmacopoeia standards to define safety and sterility. In response to excess cases of aseptic peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients using icodextrin-containing dialysate that met all pharmacopoeia standards, a global recall was issued in May, 2002. We aimed to establish the cause of aseptic peritonitis. We analysed 186 reports of aseptic peritonitis between September, 2001, and January, 2003. Extensive physical, chemical, and microbiological investigations of recalled dialysate were done. We calculated dose-response curves for peptidoglycan-induced interleukin 6 elaboration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and for sterile peritonitis in rats. Although its chemical constituents and concentrations of endotoxin were within pharmacopoeia specifications, the dialysis solution elicited an interlukin 6 response in vivo and in vitro. We identified peptidoglycan from thermophilic acidophilic bacteria (Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius) as the contaminating proinflammatory substance. In the PBMC assay, strong dose-response relations were noted between peptidoglycan concentrations and interleukin 6. In rats injected with peptidoglycan, dose-dependent increases of intraperitoneal neutrophils and pyrogenic cytokines were recorded. We measured a positive relation between peptidoglycan concentrations in recalled dialysate and reports of aseptic peritonitis. After implementation of corrective actions, the rate of peritonitis returned to baseline. Excess cases of aseptic peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients were due to peptidoglycan contamination of dialysate by Alicyclobacillus. This outbreak serves as an example of how contemporary parenteral products with microbial contaminants can be considered safe under current pharmacopoeia tests, but provoke adverse clinical effects.

  6. [Alkalimetric titrations of salts of organic bases in the Pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Bezáková, Zelmíra; Stankovičová, Mária

    2013-12-01

    Modified methods - alkalimetry in ethanol 70% with a defined small volume of hydrochloric acid 0.01 mol/l added to the solution of the sample before the titration and alkalimetry in ethanol 70% or ethanol 96% alone with potentiometric end-point detection for the assay of halide salts of 11 organic N-bases has been investigated. The results were compared to those obtained by the method of the European Pharmacopoeia 7th Ed. (Ph. Eur. 7th Ed.). The Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. use for 8 investigated substances alkalimetry in alcohol 96 % with a defined small volume of hydrochloric acid 0.01 mol/l (5 ml) with potentiometric end-point detection: Cinchocaine hydrochloride, Codeine hydrochloride dihydrate, Ethylmorphine hydrochloride, Lidocaine hydrochloride, Papaverine hydrochloride, Pilocarpine hydrochloride, Quinine hydrochloride, Tetracaine hydrochloride. Our results revealed that the Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. method did not work for 5 drugs from this group: Cinchocaine hydrochloride, Ethylmorphine hydrochloride, Papaverine hydrochloride, Pilocarpine hydrochloride and Tetracaine hydrochloride. In the group of investigated substances we included also drugs with the character of weak organic bases for which Ph. Eur. 7th Ed. prescribed different methods for their assay: Thiamine hydrochloride and Pyridoxine hydrochloride - acidimetric titration in non-aqueous solvents with perchloric acid and Procaine hydrochloride - determination of primary aromatic amino-nitrogen (Ph. Eur. 7th Ed., chapter 2.5.8).

  7. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, development and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vinod Kumar; Joshi, Apurva; Dhiman, Kartar Singh

    2017-02-02

    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) is a unique book of standards describing the quality, purity and strength of selected drugs that are manufactured, distributed, and sold by the licensed manufacturers in pan India. It is developed in two parts; the part one comprises of mono-monographs of medicinal substances of natural origin and part two includes selected compound formulations sourced from the schedule - I books under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 comprising of popular Ayurvedic classics of different period of times. The first part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India was published in 1978 and thereafter, the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (mono-monograph) Part-I, Vol. I was published in the year 1989 and subsequently, the other volumes were published with their legalized status under Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. The study was aimed to bring out the existing knowledge on the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia with its chronological development reviewed from the ancient Vedic Compendia with its continuum in Ayurvedic classics of different period of time till recent past. A literary search based on the ancient origin of Ayurveda was carried out. The drug making from the natural resources and utility of the knowledge exist in classical Ayurvedic works of different period of time till composition of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India and its importance as official documents of Govt. of India for Standards of Ayurvedic Drugs and its perspectives have been discussed. The present paper reviews on the systemic development and different aspects of drug-making (Pharmacopoeia) with evidence lying in the 5000 years old work of India. During the systematic review of the various works of different period of times (ancient, medieval and modern), it was found that the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India has its development during 20th Century as an official document of Govt. of India comprising of single drugs monograph and compound formulations. In India, the development of

  8. Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-10-01

    The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium.

  9. [The current trend of the Pharmacopoeia of Japan].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, M

    1994-01-01

    The Pharmacopoeia of Japan (JP) has played an important leading role in establishing standards of quality and official test methods for drugs and drug preparations in Japan. The JP XII's second supplement and the JP XIII are scheduled to come out by the end of 1994 and on April of 1996, respectively. To provide a more open revision process for JP and to announce the revision and future conception of the JP committees, the outlines of the current progress of each JP sub-committee were introduced.

  10. Pliny’s pharmacopoeia or the Roman treat

    PubMed Central

    van Tellingen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Pliny’s pharmacopoeia is considered to be the cradle of pharmacotherapy. Its compilation, accessibility and distribution on a larger scale then ever before took care of the spread of knowledge, which contributed to its name and fame throughout the ages. References to a (nonspecified) cardiac diagnosis are discussed with special interest in glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and synergy in drug action. The importance of systems biology leading to a scientific-based herbal medicine is underlined as a major issue in future pharmacotherapy, bridging more than 21⁄2 thousand years of pharmacological intervention. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:118-20.) PMID:18604277

  11. Geochronological reconsideration of the eastern European key loess section at Stayky in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadereit, A.; Wagner, G. A.

    2014-04-01

    Event-stratigraphical correlations between regional terrestrial sedimentary archives and marine or ice-core records that provide climate history are highly desirable for a deeper understanding of the effects of global climate change. However, such correlations are not simple, as the terrestrial records tend to be floating and fragmentary, and usually show varying sedimentation rates. Therefore, a reliable chronometric framework is a prerequisite for any event stratigraphy involving terrestrial archives. We propose that the age model underlying the event-stratigraphical approach for the eastern European key loess section at Stayky in Ukraine needs revision. Here we explore why it is unlikely that the Middle Pleniglacial Vytachiv Soil developed during Greenland interstadial (GIS) 8, and why the embryonic soils in the upper part of the Upper Pleniglacial part of the loess section most likely post-date the Heinrich 2 event. As a consequence, the revised age-model challenges the earlier suggested correlation of the suite of incipient soils above the Vytachiv Soil with Greenland Interstadials, which was supposed to start with GIS7 but for which matching from after GIS5 seems more likely. The revised chronology suggests that the transition from Middle to Upper Pleniglacial environmental conditions at the eastern European key section occurred during the final phase of marine isotope stage (MIS) 3. Thus, the picture appears to be in accordance with that of the western European key section at Nussloch. This points to a common driver of palaeo-environmental change in both regions, such as early late glacial maximum (LGM) advances of the Arctic ice shield or changes of the North Atlantic circulation and sea-ice distribution associated with changes in the palaeowind field relevant to aeolian loess deposition and soil formation. To test and substantiate the alternative age model, more chronologies for well-stratified loess sections throughout the European loess belt are required.

  12. [Oligopeptides in plant medicines cited in Chinese Pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Su, Lei; Jiang, Yan-Yan; Liu, Bin

    2016-08-01

    In total, 23 plant plant medicined containing oligopeptides were cited in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1 part) of 2015 version including Rubia cordifolia, Linum usitatissimum, Aster tataricus, Psammosilene tunicoides, Pseudostellaria heterophylla, Stellaria dichotoma, Vaccaria segetalis, Dianthus superbus, Celosia argentea, Lycii Cortex, Citrus medica, C. aurantium, Panax ginseng, Parmx notoginseng, Schisandra chinensis, Sparganium stoloniferum, Euryale ferox, Ophiopogon japonicas, Pinellia ternate, Achyranthes bidentata, Physalis alkekengi, Polygonatum odoratum, and Leonuri Fructus. There were 187 oligopeptides in plant medicines above as reported. Oligopeptides consisted mainly of linear peptides and cyclic peptides. The linear peptides included dipeptides, tripeptides and pentapeptides, and cyclic peptides included cyclic, bicyclic and tricyclic peptides. The number of residues of single cyclic peptides ranged from two to twelve. Bicyclic peptides were isolated mainly from R. cordifolia and C. argentea. Modern pharmacological study showed that oligopeptides had many pharmacological effects, including antitumor, anticoagulant, antibacterial, immune suppression and so on. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Parallel operation of SASE1 and SASE3 undulator sections of European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, A. A.; Sahakyan, V. V.; Decking, W.

    2017-07-01

    In the current paper the numerical simulation results for parallel (decoupled) operation of SASE1 and SASE3 undulator sections of European XFEL are presented. The study was based on the idea of betatron switcher implementation. It was shown that it is possible to avoid energy spread growth in SASE1 and to reach the saturation in SASE3 in desirable range of radiation wavelengths by a trajectory kick before SASE1 and its correction before SASE3.

  14. Geochronological reconsiderations for the Eastern European key loess section at Stayky in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadereit, A.; Wagner, G. A.

    2013-05-01

    Event-stratigraphical correlations between local/regional terrestrial sedimentary archives and marine or ice-core records providing the global climate history and time-scale are highly desirable for a deeper understanding of the effects of global climate change on a local/regional (palaeo-)environment. However, such correlations are not trivial, as the terrestrial records tend to be floating and fragmentary and usually show varying sedimentation rates. Therefore, a reliable chronometric framework is a necessary prerequisite for any event-stratigraphy involving terrestrial archives. In this respect, the age-model underlying the event-stratigraphical approach for the Eastern European key loess section at Stayky in Ukraine appears to need revision. Here we explain, why it is highly unlikely that the Middle Pleniglacial Vytachiv Soil developed during Greenland interstadial (GIS) 8, and why the embryonic soils in the upper part of the Upper Pleniglacial part of the loess section most likely post-date Heinrich 2 event. As a consequence, the revised age-model challenges the earlier suggested correlation of the suite of incipient soils above the Vytachiv Soil with Greenland Interstadials, which was supposed to start with GIS7 but for which matching from after GIS5 seems more likely. The revised chronology suggests that the transition from Middle to Upper Pleniglacial environmental conditions at the Eastern European key section occurred during the final phase of marine isotope stage (MIS) 3. Thus, the picture appears to be in accordance with that of the Western European key section at Nussloch in Germany pointing to a common driver of palaeo-environmental change in both regions, such as early Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) advances of the Arctic ice-shield or changes of the North Atlantic circulation and sea-ice distribution leading also to relevant changes of the palaeowind field.

  15. Identification of crude drugs in the Japanese pharmacopoeia using a DNA barcoding system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaochen; Xiang, Li; Shi, Linchun; Li, Gang; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Lin, Yulin; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    Kampo is the general designation for traditional Japanese herbal medicines, which are recognized as official medicines and listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia (JP). In most cases, it is difficult to identify the crude drug materials to species level using only traditional identification methods. We report the first online DNA barcode identification system, which includes standard barcode sequences from approximately 95% of the species recorded in the JP (16th edition). This tool provides users with basic information on each crude drug recorded in the JP, DNA barcoding identification of herbal material, and the standard operating procedure (SOP) from sampling to data analysis. ITS2 sequences (psbA-trnH was an alternative when ITS2 could not be amplified) were generated from a total of 576 samples to establish the database. An additional 100 samples (from different medicinal parts, from both single origin and multiple origins and from both retailers and the planting base) were identified using the system. A total of 78% of the test samples were identified as the species listed on their label. This system establishes a model platform for other pharmacopeias from countries like China, Korea, the US and the European Union, for the safe and effective utilization of traditional herbal medicines. PMID:28186159

  16. [The National Pharmacopoeia and the therapeutic status of flora in Mexican biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Hersch Martinez, P

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyses the transformation of the Mexican pharmacopoeia, focusing on the presence of medicinal plants. Reflecting diverse processes, editions of the pharmacopoeia show a progressive modification in its content and profile. A text written to shape a Mexican materia medica, recognising empirical knowledge by the inclusion of popularly used resources and involving clinicians as authors and recipients, was transformed into a mainly industrial publication with no clinical references. The origin and implications of this process are explored.

  17. Electronic pharmacopoeia: a missed opportunity for safe opioid prescribing information?

    PubMed

    Lapoint, Jeff; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Nelson, Lewis S

    2014-03-01

    Errors in prescribing of dangerous medications, such as extended release or long acting (ER/LA) opioid forlmulations, remain an important cause of patient harm. Prescribing errors often relate to the failure to note warnings regarding contraindications and drug interactions. Many prescribers utilize electronic pharmacopoeia (EP) to improve medication ordering. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of commonly used apps to provide accurate safety information about the boxed warning for ER/LA opioids. We evaluated a convenience sample of six popular EP apps available for the iPhone and an online reference for the presence of relevant safety warnings. We accessed the dosing information for each of six ER/LA medications and assessed for the presence of an easily identifiable indication that a boxed warning was present, even if the warning itself was not provided. The prominence of precautionary drug information presented to the user was assessed for each app. Provided information was classified based on the presence of the warning in the ordering pathway, located separately but within the prescribers view, or available in a separate screen of the drug information but non-highlighted. Each program provided a consistent level of warning information for each of the six ER/LA medications. Only 2/7 programs placed a warning in line with dosing information (level 1); 3/7 programs offered level 2 warning and 1/7 offered level 3 warning. One program made no mention of a boxed warning. Most EP apps isolate important safety warnings, and this represents a missed opportunity to improve prescribing practices.

  18. Cross-sectional and prospective relationship between physical activity and chronic diseases in European older adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Peralta, Miguel; Martins, João; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between physical activity (PA) and chronic diseases in European older adults, using a prospective analysis with data from 2011 and 2013. Participants were 37,524 older adults (16,204 men) who responded to the fourth (in 2011) and fifth (in 2013) wave of SHARE project, from 13 European countries. Participants' answers to interview questions about the presence of chronic conditions and PA. The cross-sectional and prospective association between PA and the number of chronic diseases was assessed using general linear models. Among men and women, moderate or vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 2011 was associated with fewer reported chronic diseases in 2011 and 2013. In prospective analysis, MVPA in 2011 was inversely associated with the number of chronic diseases in 2013 in the unadjusted model. In the adjusted model MVPA more than once a week remained as a significant predictor of fewer chronic diseases. PA should be prescribed to older adults in order to prevent and reduce the number of chronic diseases, and, when possible, vigorous intensity PA should be recommended.

  19. Guidance on posterior resin composites: Academy of Operative Dentistry - European Section.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Christopher D; Opdam, Niek J; Hickel, Reinhard; Brunton, Paul A; Gurgan, Sevil; Kakaboura, Afrodite; Shearer, Ann C; Vanherle, Guido; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2014-04-01

    There have been many developments in operative dentistry in recent years, including a progressive shift to the use of resin composites, rather than dental amalgam, in the restoration of posterior teeth. This shift allows the adoption of minimal intervention approaches, thereby helping to conserve and preserve remaining tooth tissues and structures. This paper presents the position of the Academy of Operative Dentistry European Section (AODES) in relation to posterior resin composites. The AODES considers adhesively bonded resin composites of suitable composition and properties to be the "material of choice" for use in direct minimal intervention approaches to the restoration of posterior teeth. In so doing, the AODES emphasises the importance of the practice of evidence-based minimal intervention dentistry, including the use of refurbishment and repair techniques to extend the longevity of restorations. Guidance, based on best available evidence, has been made in relation to certain aspects of resin composite placement techniques in posterior teeth.

  20. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    PubMed

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM.

  1. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Adiposity and immune-muscle crosstalk in South Asians & Europeans: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, M.Constantine; Anand, Sonia S.; Sharma, Arya M.; Bonner, Ashley; Beyene, Joseph; Samjoo, Imtiaz; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    South Asians (SA) are at higher risk of cardiometabolic disorders than Europeans (EU), yet the potential determinants of this risk are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that 1) South Asians (SA) have greater muscle inflammation compared to Europeans (EU) at similar fat mass 2) differential regional adiposity in SA compared to EU is associated with enhanced muscle inflammation in SA. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary academic center in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study included 29 EU and 26 SA. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to measure muscle inflammation. Statistical analysis was done using a General Linear Model. Despite having similar macrophage content to EU, SA muscle had lower levels of chemokine CCL2 compared to EU at gene expression (β -1.099, SE β 0.521, p-value 0.04) and protein (0.84 ± 0.69 versus 1.10 ± 0.60, p-value 0.052) levels. SA had more pronounced abdominal and hepatic adiposity, with smaller Intramyocellular lipid particles compared to EU (0.26 ± 0.12 μm2 versus 0.15 ± 0.06 μm2, p-value 0.02). In conclusion, CCL2 downregulation in SA may be an attempt to protect muscle against macrophage infiltration, and defects in fatty acid partitioning to muscle may lead to the disproportionate adiposity and adverse cardiometabolic profile in SA. PMID:26455502

  3. Origin and evolution of China Pharmacopoeia and its implication for traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yun-Fang; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a history that can be dated back to several thousand years ago. The extant earliest medical book is Huangdi Neijing (Canon of Internal Medicine, 770 BC~221 BC), and the earliest pharmacy monograph is Shengnong Bencao Jing (Shengnong Materia Medica, AD25~AD220). The most influential pharmacy monograph is the Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, AD1368~AD1644). There were also many other far-reaching influencial monographs, which become the main and the most important derived resources of modern China pharmacopoeia for TCM. In this paper, we try to introduce some representative medicine and pharmacy works of ancient China, and elaborate the origin, development and improvement process of modern China pharmacopoeia, which may have referential significance for traditional and natural drugs. China Pharmacopoeia and TCM still have to face many problems in authenticity discrimination, action mechanism, and adverse reaction, etc. The improvement of China Pharmacopoeia still has room for progress with the solutions of modern analytical methods to the problems. The start-up and development of Herbalomics project will be helpful to further improve the China Pharmacopoeia, especially Chinese patented medicine and compound prescription.

  4. Resistance to macrolides in Group A streptococci from the European section of Turkey: genetic and phenotypic characterization.

    PubMed

    Akata, Filiz; Oztürk, Devrim; Tansel, Ozlem; Tatman-Otkun, Müserref; Otkun, Metin; Fitoussi, Frederic; Bingen, Edouard; Tugrul, Murat

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibilities to macrolides of Group A streptococcal isolates from the European section of Turkey. In the case of resistant isolates, the patterns and genetic mechanisms of erythromycin resistance were studied. Seven (2.7%) of the 260 isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Four of them showed the M phenotype and harboured mefA genes whereas three isolates showed the inducible macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B resistance phenotype and harboured ermTR genes. In the European section of Turkey, the current resistance rate of Group A streptococci to macrolides remains low.

  5. [Discussion and analysis on determination term of medicinal materials and decotion pieces in Chinese pharmacopoeia (2010 edition, volume I )].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dejun

    2010-08-01

    Term of medicinal materials and decoction pieces in Chinese pharmacopoeia (2010 edition, Volume I) have been analyzed and d. 374 among 593 medicinal materials in Chinese pharmacopoeia has determination term including 461 determination indexes, 323 compositions and 9 s; 417 kinds of decoction pieces among 822 in Chinese pharmacopoeia has determination term. Eight kinds of decoction pieces with limit requirements were found with no determination term. Content and style of term of and cutting crude drugs were inconsistent. Suggestions related have also been given for pharmacopoeia revision.

  6. Essential competencies in prescribing: A first european cross‐sectional study among 895 final‐year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Tichelaar, J; Schutte, T; Benemei, S; Böttiger, Y; Chamontin, B; Christiaens, T; Likic, R; Maˇiulaitis, R; Marandi, T; Monteiro, EC; Papaioannidou, P; Pers, YM; Pontes, C; Raskovic, A; Regenthal, R; Sanz, EJ; Tamba, BI; Wilson, K; de Vries, TP; Richir, MC; van Agtmael, MA

    2016-01-01

    European medical students should have acquired adequate prescribing competencies before graduation, but it is not known whether this is the case. In this international multicenter study, we evaluated the essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) of final‐year medical students across Europe. In a cross‐sectional design, 26 medical schools from 17 European countries were asked to administer a standardized assessment and questionnaire to 50 final‐year students. Although there were differences between schools, our results show an overall lack of essential prescribing competencies among final‐year students in Europe. Students had a poor knowledge of drug interactions and contraindications, and chose inappropriate therapies for common diseases or made prescribing errors. Our results suggest that undergraduate teaching in CPT is inadequate in many European schools, leading to incompetent prescribers and potentially unsafe patient care. A European core curriculum with clear learning outcomes and assessments should be urgently developed. PMID:27648725

  7. European adults’ physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  8. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity.

  9. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  10. The European Board of Interventional Radiology Examination: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Tong, Emma; Spooner, Muirne; Van Delden, Otto; Uberoi, Raman; Sheehan, Mark; O'Neill, Damien C; Lee, Michael

    2017-08-15

    The Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology Society of Europe established the European Board of Interventional Radiology (EBIR) as an international examination in Interventional Radiology (IR), in 2010. The main objective of this study was to examine candidates' variables which could influence examination success. The secondary objective was to evaluate candidate feedback. This study was a cross-sectional web-based survey incorporating 30 questions which reviewed candidates' demographics; use of English language; education; and radiology training. Free-text responses provided perspective on the examination process and any potential career implications. This survey was distributed via Surveygizmo(TM) and emailed to 227 candidates, and the results were then anonymised and analysed. A total of 115 candidates responded to the survey. 4.4% (N = 5/115) of candidates were women, and 38.3% (N = 44/115) of candidates were fluent in English. Over 45.2% (N = 52/115) of the respondents achieved a distinction, or >70% equivalent in their medical degree, and 60.8% (N = 70/115) achieved some form of higher degree after medical school. 54.8% (N = 63/115) spent time in other medical specialties, of which the majority (33.8%, N = 39/115) was in surgery. 67.5% (N = 77/114) completed a dedicated fellowship in IR. 61.9% (70/113) felt the EBIR qualification helped their career, for example with academic promotion or increased clinical privileges. EBIR applicants were predominantly male (>95%). Clinical training, prior to radiology training, was very common in this cohort. Overall, most candidates expressed satisfaction with the examination process, and many felt this qualification helped their career. The recent recognition by national accreditation bodies should hopefully improve the profile of the examination greatly.

  11. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look 'cool' were

  12. Rationale for the update of the European Pharmacopoeia general chapter 2.2.48. Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lynch, I R; Schuh, W; Kessler, W

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy technique is widely used for the identification and characterisation of materials in the laboratory environment and, increasingly, for off-line, at-line, in-line and online Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) applications. The wide range of currently available Raman technologies had led to the requirement to update the existing General Chapter 2.2.48. The purpose of this reflection paper is to explain the rationale behind the establishment of the new wavenumber scale standards and peak position tolerances resulting from a multi-site, multi-instrument, inter-laboratory study of standards and, in particular, to discuss the results obtained with microscopes (including multi-point calibration) by the PAT Working Party.

  13. Charter on continuing medical education/continuing professional development approved by the UEMS Specialist Section and European Board of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Alahuhta, S; Mellin-Olsen, J; Blunnie, W P; Knape, J T A

    2007-06-01

    The mission of the Section and Board of Anaesthesiology of the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS/UEMS) is to harmonize training and medical practice in all European countries to continuously improve the quality of care. The need for continuous medical education in the field of anaesthesiology has long been recognized. However, specialty-based competencies are not the only requirements for successful medical practice. The need to acquire medical, managerial, ethical, social and personal communication skills on top of specialty-based competencies has developed into the principle of continuous professional development, which embraces both objectives. The Section and Board of Anaesthesiology of the EUMS/UEMS has approved a proposal of its Standing Committee on Continuous Medical Education/Continuous Professional Development to adopt the following charter on the subject.

  14. A review of documentation requirements for preclinical sections, for marketing submissions in the European Community, Japan and the USA.

    PubMed

    Marr, A P; Scales, M D

    1993-01-01

    Standardization of the documentation requirements for preclinical sections, for marketing submissions in the European Community (EC), Japan and the USA is proposed. It is unnecessary to standardize the leading summaries of submissions as their format is predicated by the way in which the regulatory authorities review applications. Harmonization of the technical sections will reduce the duplication of effort expended by pharmaceutical companies to produce documentation specific for each regulatory authority. Elimination of requirements specific to individual authorities will further reduce the resource requirements. The proposals made in this paper are aimed to increase the 'user-friendliness' of the preclinical documentation and therefore expedite the review process.

  15. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Essential competencies in prescribing: A first european cross-sectional study among 895 final-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, D J; Tichelaar, J; Schutte, T; Benemei, S; Böttiger, Y; Chamontin, B; Christiaens, T; Likic, R; Maˇiulaitis, R; Marandi, T; Monteiro, E C; Papaioannidou, P; Pers, Y M; Pontes, C; Raskovic, A; Regenthal, R; Sanz, E J; Tamba, B I; Wilson, K; Vries, Tp de; Richir, M C; Agtmael, Ma van

    2017-02-01

    European medical students should have acquired adequate prescribing competencies before graduation, but it is not known whether this is the case. In this international multicenter study, we evaluated the essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) of final-year medical students across Europe. In a cross-sectional design, 26 medical schools from 17 European countries were asked to administer a standardized assessment and questionnaire to 50 final-year students. Although there were differences between schools, our results show an overall lack of essential prescribing competencies among final-year students in Europe. Students had a poor knowledge of drug interactions and contraindications, and chose inappropriate therapies for common diseases or made prescribing errors. Our results suggest that undergraduate teaching in CPT is inadequate in many European schools, leading to incompetent prescribers and potentially unsafe patient care. A European core curriculum with clear learning outcomes and assessments should be urgently developed. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  17. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian ethnomedical literature. PMID

  18. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

  19. General practitioners recognizing alcohol dependence: a large cross-sectional study in 6 European countries.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Della Vedova, Roberto; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Landsmane, Inga; Manthey, Jakob; Moreno-España, José; Pieper, Lars; Probst, Charlotte; Snikere, Sigita; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Voller, Fabio; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Although alcohol dependence causes marked mortality and disease burden in Europe, the treatment rate is low. Primary care could play a key role in reducing alcohol-attributable harm by screening, brief interventions, and initiating or referral to treatment. This study investigates identification of alcohol dependence in European primary care settings. Assessments from 13,003 general practitioners, and 9,098 interviews (8,476 joint number of interviewed patients with a physician's assessment) were collected in 6 European countries. Alcohol dependence, comorbidities, and health service utilization were assessed by the general practitioner and independently using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and other structured interviews. Weighted regression analyses were used to compare the impact of influencing variables on both types of diagnoses. The rate of patients being identified as alcohol dependent by the CIDI or a general practitioner was about equally high, but there was not a lot of overlap between cases identified. Alcohol-dependent patients identified by a physician were older, had higher rates of physicial comorbidity (liver disease, hypertension), and were socially more marginalized, whereas average consumption of alcohol and mental comorbidity were equally high in both groups. General practitioners were able to identify alcohol dependence, but the cases they identified differed from cases identified using the CIDI. The role of the CIDI as the reference standard should be reexamined, as older alcohol-dependent patients with severe comorbidities seemed to be missed in this assessment. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  20. General Practitioners Recognizing Alcohol Dependence: A Large Cross-Sectional Study in 6 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Vedova, Roberto Della; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Landsmane, Inga; Manthey, Jakob; Moreno-España, José; Pieper, Lars; Probst, Charlotte; Snikere, Sigita; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Voller, Fabio; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Although alcohol dependence causes marked mortality and disease burden in Europe, the treatment rate is low. Primary care could play a key role in reducing alcohol-attributable harm by screening, brief interventions, and initiating or referral to treatment. This study investigates identification of alcohol dependence in European primary care settings. METHODS Assessments from 13,003 general practitioners, and 9,098 interviews (8,476 joint number of interviewed patients with a physician’s assessment) were collected in 6 European countries. Alcohol dependence, comorbidities, and health service utilization were assessed by the general practitioner and independently using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and other structured interviews. Weighted regression analyses were used to compare the impact of influencing variables on both types of diagnoses. RESULTS The rate of patients being identified as alcohol dependent by the CIDI or a general practitioner was about equally high, but there was not a lot of overlap between cases identified. Alcohol-dependent patients identified by a physician were older, had higher rates of physicial comorbidity (liver disease, hypertension), and were socially more marginalized, whereas average consumption of alcohol and mental comorbidity were equally high in both groups. CONCLUSION General practitioners were able to identify alcohol dependence, but the cases they identified differed from cases identified using the CIDI. The role of the CIDI as the reference standard should be reexamined, as older alcohol-dependent patients with severe comorbidities seemed to be missed in this assessment. PMID:25583889

  1. Exploring and explaining the "Santa Claus effect": cross-sectional study of jollity in 21 European countries.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2017-09-04

    Christmas "is the season to be jolly" but, despite many recent studies of happiness and wellbeing, the population distribution of jollity is unknown. To assess levels of jollity across Europe, hypothesising the existence of a "Santa Claus effect" whereby Mr. Claus, a long-established resident of Scandinavia, increases jollity through his social network. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 37 966 participants in the European Society Survey (Round 7, 2014/2015) across 21 European countries. Jollity has independent associations with satisfaction with health and income, male gender, younger age, and country of residence. Each one-point increase in satisfaction with health (on a 5-point scale) corresponds to a 0.79-point increase in jollity (23-point scale); each one-point increase in satisfaction with income (4-point scale) corresponds to a 0.76-point increase in jollity. Switzerland is the jolliest country in Europe. The jolliest European is likely to be a young Swiss male who is satisfied with his income and health. If there is a Santa Claus effect acting to increase jollity, it probably acts not just in Scandinavia but across Mr. Claus's broad network of contacts and admirers in many countries.

  2. Exposure to Online Alcohol Marketing and Adolescents' Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study in Four European Countries.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Bujalski, Michal; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Wohtge, Jördis; de Leeuw, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times; even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in four European countries. A total of 9038 students with a mean age of 14.05 (SD 0.82) participated in a school-based survey in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. Logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional cross-country survey data were undertaken. Exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising and ownership of alcohol-branded items was estimated to be controlled for relevant confounders. Onset of drinking and binge drinking in the past 30 days were included in the study as outcome variables. Adjusted for relevant confounders, higher exposure to (online) alcohol marketing exposure was found to be related to the odds of starting to drink (p < 0.001) and the odds of binge drinking in the past 30 days (p < 0.001). This effect was found to be consistent in all four countries. Active engagement with online alcohol marketing was found to interact more strongly with drinking outcomes than passive exposure to online alcohol marketing. Youngsters in the four European countries report frequent exposure to online alcohol marketing. The association between this exposure and adolescents' drinking was robust and seems consistent across national contexts. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution: a cross-sectional pooled study in Inuit, Africans and Europeans.

    PubMed

    Rønn, Pernille F; Andersen, Gregers S; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christensen, Dirk L; Aadahl, Mette; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2017-06-01

    Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in Inuit, Africans and Europeans. We combined cross-sectional data from 3 studies conducted in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark using similar methodology. A total of 5275 individuals (3083 Inuit, 1397 Africans and 795 Europeans) aged 17-95 years with measures of anthropometry and ultrasonography of abdominal fat were included in the study. Multiple regression models with fractional polynomials were used to analyse VAT and SAT as functions of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage. The associations between conventional anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution varied by ethnicity in almost all models. Europeans had the highest levels of VAT in adjusted analyses and Africans the lowest with ethnic differences most apparent at higher levels of the anthropometric measures. Similar ethnic differences were seen in the associations with SAT for a given anthropometric measure. Conventional anthropometric measures like BMI and waist circumference do not reflect the same amount of VAT and SAT across ethnic groups. Thus, the obesity level at which Inuit and Africans are at increased cardiometabolic risk is likely to differ from that of Europeans. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Infliximab paediatric Crohn's disease educational plan: a European, cross-sectional, multicentre evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arana, Alejandro; Allen, Sam; Burkowitz, Jörg; Fantoni, Valerio; Ghatnekar, Ola; Rico, María Teresa; Vanhaverbeke, Nathalie; Wentworth, Charles E; Brosa, Max; Arellano, Felix M

    2010-06-01

    The infliximab (Remicade; Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, NJ, USA) Risk Management Plan included the development, execution and tracking of an education programme directed towards prescribers of infliximab for patients with paediatric Crohn's disease (the Infliximab Paediatric Crohn's Disease Educational Plan). The programme content consisted of educational materials and communications aimed at educating prescribers on the risks associated with infliximab use. To evaluate the effectiveness of the risk minimization plan. Evaluation focused on two components: documentation of training of sponsors' personnel, and evaluation of awareness among prescribing physicians in European countries. Treating physicians, identified both independently of the sponsor (6 countries) and by the sponsor (24 countries), were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Training of internal staff on the educational programme was performed and completed by every person designated an appropriate candidate for the programme in all European countries. The independent survey conducted in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK indicated that around 90% of the physicians were either paediatric gastroenterologists (57%) or paediatricians (33%). The great majority (96%) of the interviewed physicians were currently treating paediatric Crohn's disease, and most were currently using infliximab in their treatment of the disease. More specifically, 82% of gastroentrologists treating paediatric Crohn's disease were using infliximab; among paediatricians, the proportion was lower (42%). Ninety-six percent of paediatric gastroenterologists or gastroenterologists declared themselves aware of the benefits and risks of using infliximab for the treatment of paediatric Crohn's disease; in comparison, fewer paediatricians (82%) declared themselves aware of these benefits and risks. The majority initially gained awareness through congresses and workshops, and at the time of the survey only 25% declared that

  5. Psychological Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O.; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkinson, Kathryn; Colver, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. Design: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. Participants: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy, aged 8-12 years, identified from population-based…

  6. Psychological Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O.; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkinson, Kathryn; Colver, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. Design: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. Participants: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy, aged 8-12 years, identified from population-based…

  7. A cross-sectional study of biotechnology awareness and teaching in European high schools.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Heinzmann, Dominik; Faso, Carmen; Stupak, Martin; Arga, Kazim Yalçin; Hoerzer, Helen; Laizet, Yech'an; Leduchowska, Paulina; Silva, Nádia; Simková, Klára

    2010-12-31

    Undoubtedly, biotechnology has a tremendous impact on our daily lives. As a result of this and in parallel to the advancement of knowledge in this field of applied research, consumer awareness of the potential benefits and risks of this technology has steadily increased, leading to a thorough investigation of the public perception of biotechnology in the past years. Indeed, it has become clear that it is in the general interest of science and especially of applied research to inform the public of its advances. A promising next step is to strengthen biotechnology communication in scholastic institutions. In this paper, we investigate the perception of biotechnology in a specific target group, namely high-school students in the 16-20-year-old age range. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey on a total of 1410 students in six European countries to investigate students' perception, concern, scientific knowledge, and awareness. Our data revealed some unexpected patterns of acceptance and concern about biotechnology. Knowledge analysis indicated that pupils lack specific knowledge about biotechnological applications and their interest in biotechnology appeared to be linked to knowledge. Analysis of specific questions about teaching practices at schools suggests that a better targeted choice in media as vehicles for information together with selected speakers could be instrumental in increasing students' interest in science and more specifically in biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [The gift of pharmacopoeias made by Mésaize to the Society of Pharmacists of Rouen].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier; Vettes, Jules

    2015-12-01

    Pierre-Grégoire Mésaize, a pharmacist of Rouen made an important gift to the Society of pharmacists of Rouen in 1831. 21 Books, mainly foreign pharmacopoeias, constituted this gift. Six were from Germany; five came from United Kingdom, three from Nederland, only two from France, and one from Belgium, one from Switzerland, one from Austria and one from Russia. This diversity of origins was quite informative about the quality of the content of pharmacists' libraries in Rouen at the beginning of the 19th century. Unfortunately these books could not be found nowadays in the Library of the Union of pharmacists of Seine-Maritime.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the "European Health and Behaviour Survey-section B".

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Carlos; Franco, Vitor; Castro, Florêncio; Oliveira, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    The European Health and Behaviour Survey is a questionaire used to assess a wide range of health-related behaviours, attitudes to health, beliefs concerning the importance of behaviours for health, and health knowledge, using a standardized protocol suitable for translation and administration in different countries of Europe. The objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the EHBS-Section B (section used to assess attitudes towards the importance of 25 activities for health) to the Portuguese language and to test its reliability and validity. This new version was obtained with forward/backward translations, consensus panels and a pre-test. The Portuguese versions of EHBS-Section B, Health and Risk-taking Behaviour Scale (HRBS), Health Belief Scale (HBS) and a form for the characteristics of the participants were applied to 849 Portuguese adolescents. Reliability was good with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.867, and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.96. Corrected item-total coefficients ranged from 0.301 to 0.620 and weighted kappa coefficients ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for the 17 items of the EHBS-Section B. Construct validity was supported by the confirmation of two predefined hypotheses involving expected significant correlations between EHBS-Section B, HRBS and HBS that represent similar constructs. The Portuguese EHBS-Section B exhibited suitable psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency, reproducibility and construct validity. It can be used in educational and research settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between physical activity and self-rated wellbeing in European adults: A population-based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Peralta, Miguel; Martins, João; Catunda, Ricardo; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Saboga Nunes, Luís

    2016-10-01

    Although self-rated wellbeing is an indicator of health status, it has been receiving little attention; its relationship with physical activity among adults remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and several dimensions of self-rated wellbeing in European adults. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the European Social Survey round 6, 2012, comprising 40,600 European adults (18,418 men, 22,186 women) from 27 countries, with mean age 42.1±13.3. Meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Six dimensions of the self-rated wellbeing were assessed (evaluative wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, functioning, vitality, community wellbeing, supportive wellbeing). Men and women who attained physical activity recommended levels had better evaluative wellbeing (men, p=0.009; women, p<0.001), emotional wellbeing (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), functioning (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), vitality (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), supportive relationships (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), and wellbeing total score (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001). Physical activity frequency was linearly associated with self-rated wellbeing in the 6 dimensions as well as the wellbeing total score (p<0.001). Attaining recommended physical activity levels is related to better self-rated wellbeing, and more frequent physical activity is linearly associated with better self-rated wellbeing in its 6 dimensions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Decrypting the Hebeloma crustuliniforme complex: European species of Hebeloma section Denudata subsection Denudata (Agaricales).

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, U; Beker, H J; Vesterholt, J

    2015-12-01

    Hebeloma subsection Denudata includes the type of H. section Denudata, Hebeloma crustuliniforme, as well as the majority of the taxa commonly included in the Hebeloma crustuliniforme complex. Complementing the work of D.K. Aanen and co-workers, and using refined morphological and molecular methods we were able to recognize further individual taxa within the section. Fifteen species occurring in Europe are assigned to H. subsect. Denudata. Of these, we describe eight species as new, namely H. aanenii, H. aurantioumbrinum, H. geminatum, H. louiseae, H. luteicystidiatum, H. pallidolabiatum, H. perexiguum and H. salicicola. Naucoria bellotiana, a species very similar to H. alpinum is recombined into Hebeloma. A key to Hebeloma subsect. Denudata is provided. We demonstrate that within this subsection there is good overall consistency between morphological, phylogenetic and biological species concepts. In contrast to current opinion, in this group there is little species overlap, particularly when also considering species frequencies, between arctic and alpine floras on one hand and temperate on the other.

  12. [Discussion on the quality marker of rehmanniae radix praeparata in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo-Dong; Liu, Huan; Wen, Xue-Sen; Guo, Yan-Xia

    2013-05-01

    In the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), the minimum limit of verbascoside (acteoside) in Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata (RRP) was set at 0.20%, the rationality of the standard was evaluated in this paper. 10 samples of Rehmanniae Radix (RR) and RRP were collected or prepared. According to the traditional method, different samples of RRP were prepared from the same batch of RR, and the content of verbascoside was determined by HPLC. The average content of verbascoside in RR and RRP was 0.0226% and 0.0097%, respectively, and their difference was up to the level of P < 0.01. The content of verbascoside was found decreased with processing time increasing. Long-time storage also results in substantial loss of verbascoside. Processing results in verbascoside decreasing significantly. It is unreasonable that RR and RRP have the same standard in the content of verbascoside. It is suggested that the maximum limit of verboscoside should be set in the new version of Chinese pharmacopoeia.

  13. Air pollution and atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional analysis of four European cohort studies in the ESCAPE study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Laura; Wolf, Kathrin; Hennig, Frauke; Penell, Johanna; Basagaña, Xavier; Foraster, Maria; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Agis, David; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Cyrys, Josef; Fuks, Kateryna B; Adam, Martin; Baldassarre, Damiano; Cirach, Marta; Elosua, Roberto; Dratva, Julia; Hampel, Regina; Koenig, Wolfgang; Marrugat, Jaume; de Faire, Ulf; Pershagen, Göran; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rivera, Marcela; Seissler, Jochen; Schindler, Christian; Thiery, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Künzli, Nino

    2015-06-01

    In four European cohorts, we investigated the cross-sectional association between long-term exposure to air pollution and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT), a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. Individually assigned levels of nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), absorbance of PM2.5 (PM2.5abs), PM10, PMcoarse, and two indicators of residential proximity to highly trafficked roads were obtained under a standard exposure protocol (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects-ESCAPE study) in the Stockholm area (Sweden), the Ausburg and Ruhr area (Germany), and the Girona area (Spain). We used linear regression and meta-analyses to examine the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and CIMT. The meta-analysis with 9,183 individuals resulted in an estimated increase in CIMT (geometric mean) of 0.72% (95% CI: -0.65%, 2.10%) per 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and 0.42% (95% CI: -0.46%, 1.30%) per 10-5/m increase in PM2.5abs. Living in proximity to high traffic was also positively but not significantly associated with CIMT. Meta-analytic estimates for other pollutants were inconsistent. Results were similar across different adjustment sets and sensitivity analyses. In an extended meta-analysis for PM2.5 with three other previously published studies, a 0.78% (95% CI: -0.18%, 1.75%) increase in CIMT was estimated for a 5-μg/m3 contrast in PM2.5. Using a standardized exposure and analytical protocol in four European cohorts, we found that cross-sectional associations between CIMT and the eight ESCAPE markers of long-term residential air pollution exposure did not reach statistical significance. The additional meta-analysis of CIMT and PM2.5 across all published studies also was positive but not significant.

  14. Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Four European Cohort Studies in the ESCAPE Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Kathrin; Hennig, Frauke; Penell, Johanna; Basagaña, Xavier; Foraster, Maria; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Agis, David; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Cyrys, Josef; Fuks, Kateryna B.; Adam, Martin; Baldassarre, Damiano; Cirach, Marta; Elosua, Roberto; Dratva, Julia; Hampel, Regina; Koenig, Wolfgang; Marrugat, Jaume; de Faire, Ulf; Pershagen, Göran; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rivera, Marcela; Seissler, Jochen; Schindler, Christian; Thiery, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Künzli, Nino

    2015-01-01

    Background: In four European cohorts, we investigated the cross-sectional association between long-term exposure to air pollution and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT), a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. Methods: Individually assigned levels of nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), absorbance of PM2.5 (PM2.5abs), PM10, PMcoarse, and two indicators of residential proximity to highly trafficked roads were obtained under a standard exposure protocol (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects—ESCAPE study) in the Stockholm area (Sweden), the Ausburg and Ruhr area (Germany), and the Girona area (Spain). We used linear regression and meta-analyses to examine the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and CIMT. Results: The meta-analysis with 9,183 individuals resulted in an estimated increase in CIMT (geometric mean) of 0.72% (95% CI: –0.65%, 2.10%) per 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and 0.42% (95% CI: –0.46%, 1.30%) per 10–5/m increase in PM2.5abs. Living in proximity to high traffic was also positively but not significantly associated with CIMT. Meta-analytic estimates for other pollutants were inconsistent. Results were similar across different adjustment sets and sensitivity analyses. In an extended meta-analysis for PM2.5 with three other previously published studies, a 0.78% (95% CI: –0.18%, 1.75%) increase in CIMT was estimated for a 5-μg/m3 contrast in PM2.5. Conclusions: Using a standardized exposure and analytical protocol in four European cohorts, we found that cross-sectional associations between CIMT and the eight ESCAPE markers of long-term residential air pollution exposure did not reach statistical significance. The additional meta-analysis of CIMT and PM2.5 across all published studies also was positive but not significant. Citation: Perez L, Wolf K, Hennig F, Penell J, Basagaña X, Foraster M, Aguilera I, Agis D, Beelen R, Brunekreef B, Cyrys J, Fuks KB

  15. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from the Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012) Special section: Selected papers from the Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezi, Emiliano; Leal, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Third European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2012) was held from 15-18 May, 2012 in Seville, Spain. The event was organized by the Universidad de Sevilla with the support of the European Workgroup on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (EWG-MCTP). MCTP2012 followed two successful meetings, one held in Ghent (Belgium) in 2006 (Reynaert 2007) and one in Cardiff (UK) in 2009 (Spezi 2010). The recurrence of these workshops together with successful events held in parallel by McGill University in Montreal (Seuntjens et al 2012), show consolidated interest from the scientific community in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning. The workshop was attended by a total of 90 participants, mainly coming from a medical physics background. A total of 48 oral presentations and 15 posters were delivered in specific scientific sessions including dosimetry, code development, imaging, modelling of photon and electron radiation transport, external beam radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, brachitherapy and hadrontherapy. A copy of the programme is available on the workshop's website (www.mctp2012.com). In this special section of Physics in Medicine and Biology we report six papers that were selected following the journal's rigorous peer review procedure. These papers actually provide a good cross section of the areas of application of MC in treatment planning that were discussed at MCTP2012. Czarnecki and Zink (2013) and Wagner et al (2013) present the results of their work in small field dosimetry. Czarnecki and Zink (2013) studied field size and detector dependent correction factors for diodes and ion chambers within a clinical 6MV photon beam generated by a Siemens linear accelerator. Their modelling work based on the BEAMnrc/EGSnrc codes and experimental measurements revealed that unshielded diodes were the best choice for small field dosimetry because of their independence from the electron beam spot size and correction factor close to unity. Wagner et al (2013

  16. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Ofenloch, R; Bruze, M; Cazzaniga, S; Coenraads, P J; Elsner, P; Goncalo, M; Svensson, Å; Naldi, L

    2015-12-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to assess the clinical relevance of positive patch test reactions to different fragrances. In five European countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden) a random sample from the general population aged 18-74 years was drawn. In total, 12 377 subjects were interviewed in this cross-sectional study and a random sample (n = 3119) was patch tested using the TRUE Test and Finn Chamber techniques. Patch test procedures were harmonized by mandatory training before the study and monitoring during the study. The highest prevalence for contact allergy of 2·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·1-3·2] was found for fragrance mix (FM) I in petrolatum, with a high content of atranol and chloratranol, followed by 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·4) for FM II in petrolatum. The conservatively estimated prevalence of fragrance contact allergy was 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·5). This is defined as the existence of a positive patch test to FM I or FM II; any of their individual materials; Myroxylon pereirae; sesquiterpene lactones or 3- and 4-hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde that show clinical relevance, defined conservatively as lifetime avoidance of scented products and an itchy skin rash lasting > 3 days in a lifetime. Using the reported lifetime prevalence of any contact dermatitis instead of the lifetime prevalence of any itchy skin rash, the prevalence is 0·8% (95% CI 0·5-1·2). The prevalence rates of contact allergy to fragrances in women are about twice those in men. This study helps to identify targets for prevention of fragrance allergy. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from the Second European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2009) Special section: Selected papers from the Second European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezi, Emiliano

    2010-08-01

    Sixty years after the paper 'The Monte Carlo method' by N Metropolis and S Ulam in The Journal of the American Statistical Association (Metropolis and Ulam 1949), use of the most accurate algorithm for computer modelling of radiotherapy linear accelerators, radiation detectors and three dimensional patient dose was discussed in Wales (UK). The Second European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP2009) was held at the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff. The event, organized by Velindre NHS Trust, Cardiff University and Cancer Research Wales, lasted two and a half days, during which leading experts and contributing authors presented and discussed the latest advances in the field of Monte Carlo treatment planning (MCTP). MCTP2009 was highly successful, judging from the number of participants which was in excess of 140. Of the attendees, 24% came from the UK, 46% from the rest of Europe, 12% from North America and 18% from the rest of the World. Fifty-three oral presentations and 24 posters were delivered in a total of 12 scientific sessions. MCTP2009 follows the success of previous similar initiatives (Verhaegen and Seuntjens 2005, Reynaert 2007, Verhaegen and Seuntjens 2008), and confirms the high level of interest in Monte Carlo technology for radiotherapy treatment planning. The 13 articles selected for this special section (following Physics in Medicine and Biology's usual rigorous peer-review procedure) give a good picture of the high quality of the work presented at MCTP2009. The book of abstracts can be downloaded from http://www.mctp2009.org. I wish to thank the IOP Medical Physics and Computational Physics Groups for their financial support, Elekta Ltd and Dosisoft for sponsoring MCTP2009, and leading manufacturers such as BrainLab, Nucletron and Varian for showcasing their latest MC-based radiotherapy solutions during a dedicated technical session. I am also very grateful to the eight invited speakers who kindly accepted to give keynote

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation in urban ethnobotany: the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia in London.

    PubMed

    Ceuterick, Melissa; Vandebroek, Ina; Torry, Bren; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-12-08

    To investigate traditional health care practices and changes in medicinal plant use among the growing Colombian community in London. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 Colombians living in London and botanical identification of 46 plant species actively used as herbal remedies. Subsequently, research data were compared with literature on ethnobotany and traditional herbal medicine in the home country, using a framework on cross-cultural adaptation, adjusted for the purpose of this study. Similarities and discrepancies between data and literature are interpreted as potential indicators of continuity and loss (or deculturation) of traditional remedies, respectively. Remedies used in London that are not corroborated by the literature suggest possible newly acquired uses. Cross-cultural adaptation related to health care practices is a multifaceted process. Persistence, loss and incorporation of remedies into the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia after migration are influenced by practical adaptation strategies as well as by symbolic-cultural motives of ethnic identity.

  19. [The veterinary pharmacopoeia of Peter Bodmer, blacksmith and cattle doctor in Därligen 1836].

    PubMed

    Kalbermatter, T

    2006-01-01

    The manuscript entitled "My pharmacopoeia Peter Bodmer in Därligen--1836" [Arzeneybuch mein Peter Bodmer in Därligen pro. 1836] contains a collection of a total of 227 remedies for the treatment of cattle, horses, pigs and human beings. The author Peter Bodmer was born on 15 November 1811 in Därligen on the shores of Lake Thun and worked as a smith and a cattle doctor. The manuscript cannot offer a full overview of the therapeutic possibilities in veterinary medicine at that time. The remedies mainly describe the peroral dispensing of herbal preparations. The use of medicinal plants, however, would only partially measure up to modern phytotherapy. Bodmer's manuscript provides a certain insight into the traditional herbal folk remedies used on animals and humans in the rural Bernese Oberland at that time.

  20. Traditional pharmacopoeias and medicines among Albanians and Italians in southern Italy: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Andrea; Quave, Cassandra L

    2005-10-03

    A cross-cultural comparison of traditional household remedies in primary health care and ritual healing practices in two economically and socio-demographically similar communities in Lucania (inland southern Italy) was considered: Ginestra/Zhurë, inhabited by ethnic Albanians, who migrated to the area during the 15th century, and Castelmezzano, inhabited by autochthonous South-Italians. In Ginestra/Zhurë, the number of traditional natural remedies (mainly derived from local medicinal plants) was only half of that in the local folk pharmacopoeia quoted in Castelmezzano. However, ritual magic-healing practices still play a central role among the Albanians in Ginestra/Zhurë, while they do not in Castelmezzano. Reasons for this shift, as well as components that have affected cultural adaptation phenomena and transitions among the Albanians are discussed.

  1. "Estuaries and coasts" CLIL* lesson plans in English and geology fieldtrip to Cornwall for students in European section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempelli, Nathalie; Voyer, Karine; Lebourgeois, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    When the European section was created in our high school we had to choose an overarching theme. After considering that we live both in the River Seine estuary and near the English Channel it became obvious that our theme should be "estuaries and coasts". We began the 2012-2013 school year with a day-trip around the River Seine estuary to introduce the theme. First we made a general landscape study from a viewpoint, then we discussed the history of the navigation on the Seine, of local farming on marshland and finally we focused on farmhouse architecture. To conclude we visited the natural reserve near the "Normandy Bridge". As an introduction our poster aims at presenting this part of Normandy. And then we would like to show some examples of our CLIL lesson plans about this chosen topic. The aim of a CLIL lesson is to create interactive speaking between students working in pairs or in groups. There are three different stages: - Warm-up activities - In-depth study: listening, reading, echoing, looking for information on the internet, making a slide show and doing an oral presentation, participating to a role play… - Assessment : using what has been learnt to answer questions Finally we wish to present our field trip to Cornwall. We have already done it twice before (in 2002 and 2004) and this year it is scheduled in May 2013 with our European section students. The aim of this trip is to study geology and botany in English in order to extend what we teach in our CLIL lessons about estuaries and coasts. It also helps promoting exchanges with British families and building intercultural knowledge and understanding. Our program includes for example, fossil hunting and studying the Jurassic cliffs in Charmouth, observing an old ocean crust in Coverack, visiting Saint-Mickael's mount, discovering a tin mine in Geevor, walking through the "Lost Gardens of Heligan" and thus discovering an example of this world-renowned restored English garden, and last but not least having

  2. Changing prevalence patterns in endoscopic and histological diagnosis of gastritis? Data from a cross-sectional Central European multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Geppert, Michael; Wigginghaus, Bernd; Höss, Gabriele M; Eherer, Andreas; Schneider, Nora I; Hauer, Almuthe; Rehak, Peter; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, Helicobacter infection is considered to be the most common cause of gastritis. In the cross-sectional Central European histoGERD trial, we assessed the prevalence of different types of gastritis, correlating histological and endoscopic diagnoses. A total of 1123 individuals participated in an observational multicentre study. Endoscopists classified individuals as positive or negative for gastritis and rendered the putative cause. Pathologists evaluated biopsy specimens based upon the Updated Sydney System. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made in 639 (56.9%) participants. In all, 210 (18.7%) individuals were diagnosed with Helicobacter gastritis, 215 (19.1%) with post Helicobacter gastritis, 234 (20.8%) with reactive gastropathy, 26 (2.3%) with autoimmune gastritis, and 6 (0.5%) with focally enhanced gastritis related to Crohn's disease. In 46 out of 639 (7.2%) individuals diagnosed with gastritis, combinations of different histological subtypes were noted the most common being reactive gastropathy and post Helicobacter gastritis. Endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis was made in 534 (47.6%) individuals. Reactive gastropathy was more common than active Helicobacter gastritis, and the majority of cases attributable to Helicobacter infection were no longer ongoing, i.e. post Helicobacter gastritis. Agreement between histological and endoscopic diagnoses was better in reactive gastropathy than in Helicobacter gastritis. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  4. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  5. Social Network Type and Long-Term Condition Management Support: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Koetsenruijter, Jan; Orlando, Rosanna; Portillo, Maria Carmen; Culliford, David

    2016-01-01

    Network types and characteristics have been linked to the capacity of inter-personal environments to mobilise and share resources. The aim of this paper is to examine personal network types in relation to long-term condition management in order to identify the properties of network types most likely to provide support for those with a long-term condition. A cross-sectional observational survey of people with type 2 diabetes using interviews and questionnaires was conducted between April and October 2013 in six European countries: Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Norway, United Kingdom, and Netherlands. 1862 people with predominantly lower socio-economic status were recruited from each country. We used k-means clustering analysis to derive the network types, and one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between network type socio-economic characteristics, self-management monitoring and skills, well-being, and network member work. Five network types of people with long-term conditions were identified: restricted, minimal family, family, weak ties, and diverse. Restricted network types represented those with the poorest self-management skills and were associated with limited support from social network members. Restricted networks were associated with poor indicators across self-management capacity, network support, and well-being. Diverse networks were associated with more enhanced self-management skills amongst those with a long-term condition and high level of emotional support. It was the three network types which had a large number of network members (diverse, weak ties, and family) where healthcare utilisation was most likely to correspond to existing health needs. Our findings suggest that type of increased social involvement is linked to greater self-management capacity and potentially lower formal health care costs indicating that diverse networks constitute the optimal network type as a policy in terms of

  6. Social Network Type and Long-Term Condition Management Support: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Network types and characteristics have been linked to the capacity of inter-personal environments to mobilise and share resources. The aim of this paper is to examine personal network types in relation to long-term condition management in order to identify the properties of network types most likely to provide support for those with a long-term condition. Method A cross-sectional observational survey of people with type 2 diabetes using interviews and questionnaires was conducted between April and October 2013 in six European countries: Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Norway, United Kingdom, and Netherlands. 1862 people with predominantly lower socio-economic status were recruited from each country. We used k-means clustering analysis to derive the network types, and one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between network type socio-economic characteristics, self-management monitoring and skills, well-being, and network member work. Results Five network types of people with long-term conditions were identified: restricted, minimal family, family, weak ties, and diverse. Restricted network types represented those with the poorest self-management skills and were associated with limited support from social network members. Restricted networks were associated with poor indicators across self-management capacity, network support, and well-being. Diverse networks were associated with more enhanced self-management skills amongst those with a long-term condition and high level of emotional support. It was the three network types which had a large number of network members (diverse, weak ties, and family) where healthcare utilisation was most likely to correspond to existing health needs. Discussion Our findings suggest that type of increased social involvement is linked to greater self-management capacity and potentially lower formal health care costs indicating that diverse networks constitute the optimal

  7. Air Pollution from Road Traffic and Systemic Inflammation in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the European ESCAPE Project.

    PubMed

    Lanki, Timo; Hampel, Regina; Tiittanen, Pekka; Andrich, Silke; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Dratva, Julia; De Faire, Ulf; Fuks, Kateryna B; Hoffmann, Barbara; Imboden, Medea; Jousilahti, Pekka; Koenig, Wolfgang; Mahabadi, Amir A; Künzli, Nino; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Schindler, Christian; Sugiri, Dorothea; Swart, Wim J R; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Turunen, Anu W; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Peters, Annette

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution (PM) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this study we evaluated whether annual exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with systemic inflammation, which is hypothesized to be an intermediate step to cardiovascular disease. Six cohorts of adults from Central and Northern Europe were used in this cross-sectional study as part of the larger ESCAPE project (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects). Data on levels of blood markers for systemic inflammation-high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen-were available for 22,561 and 17,428 persons, respectively. Land use regression models were used to estimate cohort participants' long-term exposure to various size fractions of PM, soot, and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, traffic intensity on the closest street and traffic load within 100 m from home were used as indicators of traffic air pollution exposure. Particulate air pollution was not associated with systemic inflammation. However, cohort participants living on a busy (> 10,000 vehicles/day) road had elevated CRP values (10.2%; 95% CI: 2.4, 18.8%, compared with persons living on a quiet residential street with < 1,000 vehicles/day). Annual NOx concentration was also positively associated with levels of CRP (3.2%; 95% CI: 0.3, 6.1 per 20 μg/m3), but the effect estimate was more sensitive to model adjustments. For fibrinogen, no consistent associations were observed. Living close to busy traffic was associated with increased CRP concentrations, a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, it remains unclear which specific air pollutants are responsible for the association.

  8. Bioprospecting: evolutionary implications from a post-olmec pharmacopoeia and the relevance of widespread taxa.

    PubMed

    Leonti, Marco; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Challenger, Antony; Gertsch, Jürg; Casu, Laura

    2013-05-02

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" The historical legacy and relevance of ethnopharmacology in drug discovery is undisputed. Here we connect the parameters influencing the selection of plant derived medicines by human culture with the concept of evolution. In the present contribution we compare global data with local data and try to answer the questions, to what extent are the taxonomic clades included in indigenous pharmacopoeias associated with certain ailment groups, and to what extent can ecology and phylogeny, which we consider a proxy for chemical relatedness and convergence, account for the observed bias? We use an approximated chi-square test (χ(2)) to check for associations between 12 ethnomedical use-categories and 15 taxonomical clades. With cluster analyses we test for correlations between phylogeny and use-categories. We compare the 67 drug-productive families identified by Zhu et al. with the medicinal flora of the Popoluca and the APG database and compare our results with the phylogenetic target classes evidenced by Zhu et al. Furthermore, we compare the medicinal flora of the Popoluca with the world's weeds (cf. Holm et al.) and discuss our results in relation to anthropological rationales for plant selection. The null-hypothesis "species from the 15 taxonomic clades are selected proportionally to their share in the treatment of the twelve organ- and symptom-defined use-categories" is rejected. The cluster dendrogram for the clades shows that the use patterns are to a certain extent associated with Angiosperm phylogeny. With the occurrence of 53 families the 67 drug-productive families are overrepresented in the regional flora of the Popoluca. The importance of these families in terms of their share is even more pronounced with the medicinal flora holding around 70% of all individual Popoluca informant responses. The overall phylogenetic use pattern is influenced by both the inherent pharmacological properties, which

  9. [Antitussive activity comparison of three kinds of Stemonae Radix in Chinese Pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Hu, Junping; Zhang, Nan; Mao, Yiqing; Yang, Donghui; Tan, Huanran; Ni, Siran; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Cai, Shaoqing

    2009-12-01

    To compare the antitussive activity of three kinds of Stemonae Radix specified in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, including roots of Stemona sessilifolia, S. japonica and S. tuberosa. The antitussive activity was determined in mouse after cough induction by ammonia aerosol stimulation and the number of cough in 2 min were detected with codeine as positive control. All the decoctions, the total alkaloid fractions and non-alkaloid fractions of S. sessilifolia, S. japonica and three chemical types of S. tuberosa showed significant antitussive effect and exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of coughing. The ED50 values showed that the antitussive activity strength for both total alkaloid fractions and the decoctions are: S. tuberosa (Type I) > S. sessilifolia > S. japonica. The total alkaloid fractions had more potent atitussive activity than the decoctions and non-alkaloid fractions. The antitussive activity strength for the three chemical types of S. tuberosa is: Type I > Type III > Type II. The samples from different producing areas for the same species of Stemonae Radix had no significant differences in antitussive activity. The result also showed that the honey-processed slice had much stronger antitussive activity than raw slice. The antitussive efficacies of Stemonae Radix were influenced by chemical diversity both in same species and among different species, different fractions and processed method.

  10. Identification of marker compounds for Japanese Pharmacopoeia non-conforming jujube seeds from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Naohiro; Zaima, Kazumasa; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Hamato, Akane; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kang, Dong Hyo; Yokokura, Tsuguo; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Maruyama, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    Jujube seed is a crude drug defined as the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Miller var. spinosa Hu ex H.F. Chou (Rhamnaceae) in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP). Most of the jujube seed in the Japanese markets is imported from China, with the rest obtained from other Asian countries. Here we confirmed the botanical origins of jujube seeds from both China and Myanmar by a DNA sequencing analysis. We found that the botanical origins of the crude drugs from China and Myanmar were Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana, respectively. Although the jujube seed from China conforms to the JP, that from Myanmar does not. A method for discriminating jujube seeds from China and Myanmar using a chemical approach is thus desirable, and here we sought to identify a compound specific to Z. jujuba. Jujuboside A (1) was identified as a compound specific to Z. jujuba. To establish a purity test of Jujube Seed in the JP against Z. mauritiana, we fractionated the extract of Z. mauritiana seeds and identified frangufoline (2) and oleanolic acid (4) as the marker compounds specific to Z. mauritiana. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the latter compound was useful for testing by TLC analysis. The established TLC conditions were as follows: chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:EtOAc:HCOOH = 10:5:1; developing length, 7 cm; visualization, diluted sulfuric acid; R f value, 0.43 (oleanolic acid).

  11. Mexican migrant ethnopharmacology: pharmacopoeia, classification of medicines and explanations of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Waldstein, Anna

    2006-11-24

    This paper describes the ethnopharmacological knowledge of women in an urban Mexican migrant community in Athens, GA, USA. Data were collected using free-list, pile-sort and semi-structured interviews. The pharmacopoeia of this community includes herbal remedies, over-the-counter medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and prescription medicines. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis of pile-sort data revealed that Mexican women living in Athens classify medicines into four categories: herbal remedies, salves, pastillas (pills-both prescription and non-prescription) and other commercial preparations. Herbal remedies are viewed as natural and safe while pastillas are thought to be dangerous and potentially addictive. Comparisons of Mexican explanations for the actions of five medicines (Matricaria recutita L. [Asteraceae], Mentha spp. L. [Lamiaceae], Ruta spp. L. [Rutaceae], Ocimum basilicum L. [Lamiaceae] and paracetemol) with the pharmacological literature show several similarities and confirm that migrant women use these medicines effectively. Mexican migrant women use medicinal plants in combination with commercially produced medicines, but most have a strong preference for the herbal remedies that they make themselves, over drugs prescribed by physicians. Some of their descriptions of the actions of medicines are supported by the pharmacological literature, but ethnopharmacologists have not fully investigated all of the attributes that migrant women ascribe to them.

  12. [Capillary electrophoresis analysis of contaminants in heparin sodium for the Japanese pharmacopoeia purity test].

    PubMed

    Kakoi, Naotaka; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Kawasaki, Nana; Yamaguchi, Teruhide; Hayakawa, Takao; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2009-10-01

    Heparin is widely used as an anticoagulant for the treatment and prevention of thrombotic disorders. Recently, hundreds of cases of anaphylactic reaction as adverse effects were reported by the presence of contaminating oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in some heparin preparations. In addition, these heparin preparations often contaminated dermatan sulfate (DS). Unfortunately, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) does not include appropriate purity tests. In the present paper, we show that capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful tool for the analysis of OSCS and DS in heparin preparations. CE method shows high resolution and good quantification of OSCS in heparin preparations. This method (OSCS method) was evaluated for accuracy (93.7 %), repeatability (R.S.D.=2.11), linearity (R(2)=0.9996), detection limit (0.1% OSCS) and specificity. In contrast, DS was not able to be detected in high sensitivity by OSCS method. However, a modified CE method (DS method) using the buffer at lower pHs showed good parameters for accuracy (88.1%), repeatability (R.S.D.=1.99), linearity (R(2)=0.9998), detection limit (0.25% DS) and specificity. In conclusion, CE will be an alternative to the NMR method which is being adopted for purification test of heparin sodium in the present version of JP.

  13. Reference intervals of bone turnover markers in healthy premenopausal women: results from a cross-sectional European study.

    PubMed

    Eastell, Richard; Garnero, Patrick; Audebert, Christine; Cahall, David L

    2012-05-01

    Robust validated reference intervals for bone turnover markers (BTMs) are required to assess fracture risk and effectiveness of therapy. However, there are currently limited reference intervals for BTMs in premenopausal women, especially comparing manual and automated assays. This study determined the BTM reference intervals using automated and manual assays, compared the results obtained from two different assays, and evaluated the factors that may affect BTM levels. This was a cross-sectional registry study in 194 healthy, premenopausal, European Caucasian women aged 35 to 39years from France (n=98) and Denmark (n=96). Two independent specialized laboratories, one in France (Synarc) and the other in Denmark (Nordic Bioscience), analyzed blood and urine samples from each woman for BTM levels. The type of assay used in this study significantly affected the reference intervals obtained for serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX/Cr; both P<0.001), but not for serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP; P=0.28). The Serum Crosslaps® ELISA; Microtitre-plate based ELISA; Metra BAP EIA; and UniQ® PINP RIA assays yielded higher BTM reference values. The reference intervals for the BTMs, as measured with Serum β-Crosslaps, Elecsys® 2010 Systems; VITROS® ECI System; Ostase®, Access® Immunoassay System; and Total PINP, Elecsys® 2010 Systems assays, were 0.111-0.791ng/mL for sCTX, 12.3-59.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 5.8-17.5ng/mL for bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 17.3-83.4ng/mL for PINP, respectively. When measured with Serum Crosslaps® ELISA, Microtitre-plate based ELISA, Metra BAP EIA, and UniQ® PINP RIA, the reference intervals were 0.177-0.862ng/mL for sCTX, 22.6-95.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 14.8-38.8U/L for bone ALP, and 19.5-75.2ng/mL for PINP, respectively. The clinical interpretation of the BTMs of a subject

  14. [Probe excavations about using gene chip to identify original plants in Chinese pharmacopoeia based on NCBI sequence database].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-jin; Zhang, Jian-yong; Nie, Xu-qiang; Yao, Xiao-dong; Kuang, Ju-xiang; Yang, Jian-wen

    2014-11-01

    Based on the DNA fragments of medicinal plants of NCBJ database, the DNA Probe,which can be used to identify original plants in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), was got. First of all, get the Latin name of the original plants by collating the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Next,download the medicinal plants' DNA fragments from the NCBI database, including ITS, matK, rbcL, psbK-psbI and trnH-psbA, then design probe by using Array Designer 4. 2. Finally, analyze each probe's versatility in the same kind of original plant and conservatism in different kinds of original plants by using Matlab, then determine the specificity of the probe. Regarding the Latin name of 586 original plants in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition) and the above five gene fragments as retrieval condition, 7 613 sequences were downloaded from NCBI, then 315 436 probes were got in total by analyzing. What's more, after analyzing versatility and conservatism of the probes,13 814 specific probes were got. Furthermore,in theory, 376 kinds of original plants could be detected. Because there existed the lack of related gene fragments in the NCBI database,or the sequences were short of specificity,210 species of original plants which were involved in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia didn't receive the corresponding probe. The results of the study can provide the further development of medicinal plants' identification chip with vital information support,and the excavation methods of probe can be widely used. Furthermore,the results of the study indicate the original plants which need sequencing importantly in the future.

  15. Pain and pain treatments in European palliative care units. A cross sectional survey from the European Association for Palliative Care Research Network.

    PubMed

    Klepstad, Pål; Kaasa, Stein; Cherny, Nathan; Hanks, Geoffrey; de Conno, Franco

    2005-09-01

    The Research Network of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) performed a survey of 3030 cancer patients from 143 palliative care centres in 21 European countries. The survey addressed pain intensity and the use of non-opioid analgesics, adjuvant analgesics and opioids. Patients were treated with analgesics corresponding to the WHO pain ladder step I (n = 855), step II (n = 509) and step III (n = 1589). The investigators assessed 32% of the patients as having moderate or severe pain. In general there were small differences between pain intensities across different countries. Cancer primary sites and the presence of metastasis had only minor influences on pain intensity. The most frequently used non-opioid analgesics were NSAIDs (26%) and paracetamol (23%). Adjuvant analgesics or co-analgesics used by >1% of the patients were corticosteroids (39%), tricylic antidepressants (11%), gabapentin (5%), bisphosphonates (4%), clonazepam (2%), carbamazepine (4%) and phenytoin (2%). The use of non-opioid analgesics and co-analgesics varied widely between countries. Opioids administered for mild to moderate pain were codeine (8%), tramadol (8%), dextropropoxyphene (5%) and dihydrocodeine (2%). Morphine was the most frequently used opioid for moderate to severe pain (oral normal release morphine: 21%; oral sustained-release morphine: 19%; i.v. or s.c. morphine: 10%). Other opioids for moderate to severe pain were transdermal fentanyl (14%), oxycodone (4%), methadone (2%), diamorphine (2%) and hydromorphone (1%). We observed large variations in the use of opioids across countries. Finally, we observed that only a minority of the patients who used morphine needed very high doses.

  16. PREFACE: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases Preface: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The 19th Europhysics Sectional Conference on the Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG-2008) took place in Granada (Spain) from 15 to 19 July 2008. The conference was mainly organized by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), with the collaboration and support of the University of Córdoba (UCO) and the Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT). It is already 35 years since the first ESCAMPIG in 1973. The first editions of ESCAMPIG were in consecutive years (1973 and 1974) but later on it became a biennial conference of the European Physical Society (EPS) initially focusing on the collisional and radiative atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. The successive ESCAMPIGs took place in Bratislava in 1976 (3rd), Essen in 1978 (4th), Dubrovnik in 1980 (5th) and so on until the last one organized in Granada in 2008 (19th), the first ESCAMPIG in Spain. A number of changes have taken place in the Granada edition of ESCAMPIG. First, the previous six topics that have remained unchanged for almost two decades (since 1990) have now been updated to become twelve new topics which, in the opinion of the International Scientific Committee (ISC), will enhance the opportunity for discussions and communication of new findings and developments in the field of low temperature plasmas. The new list of topics for ESCAMPIG is: • Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas • Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function • Physical basis of plasma chemistry • Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) • Plasma diagnostics • Plasma and dicharges theory and simulation • Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas • Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas • Low pressure plasma sources • High pressure plasma sources • Plasmas and gas flows • Laser produced plasmas Secondly, a new prize has been created, the `William Crookes' prize in Plasma Physics to be

  17. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2011-03-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the

  18. Is there nothing new under the sun? The influence of herbals and pharmacopoeias on ethnobotanical traditions in Albacete (Spain).

    PubMed

    Rivera, Diego; Verde, Alonso; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Moreno, Candelaria; Egea, Teresa; Fajardo, José; Palazón, José Antonio; Valdés, Arturo; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero

    2017-01-04

    This paper has two overarching aims: (1) presenting the results of studying the Albacete tariff of medicines of 1526 and (2) broadly analyzing the origin and influences of medicinal traditional knowledge in the region of Albacete, Spain. We use historical and modern literature that may have influenced this knowledge. Our primary goal was to determine the ingredients used in the pharmacy in the 16th century CE in Albacete through the analysis of the tariff, and our secondary goal was to investigate until when ingredients and uses present in pharmacy and herbals persisted in later periods. The identity of medicines and ingredients was determined by analyzing contemporary pharmacopoeias and classical pharmaceutical references. We analyzed further 21 sources (manuscripts, herbals, and books of medicines, pharmacopoeias, pharmacy inventories, and modern ethnobotanical records) for the presence/absence of ingredients and complex formulations of the tariff. Using factorial and cluster analysis and Bayesian inference applied to evolution models (reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo), we compared textual sources. Finally, we analyzed the medicinal uses of the top 10 species in terms of frequency of citation to assess the dependence of modern ethnobotanical records on Renaissance pharmacy and herbals, and, ultimately, on Dioscorides. In Albacete 1526, we determined 101 medicines (29 simple drugs and 72 compound medicines) comprising 187 ingredients (85% botanical, 7.5% mineral, and 7.5% zoological substances). All composed medicines appear standardized in the pharmacopoeias, notably in the pharmacopoeia of Florence from 1498. However, most were no longer in use by 1750 in the pharmacy, and were completely absent in popular herbal medicine in Albacete 1995 as well as in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy) in 2014. Among the ingredients present in different formulation are the flowers of Rosa gallica, honey (Apis mellifera), the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi, and Convolvulus

  19. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-02-28

    Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. The cross-sectional national sample included 25-84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994-2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007.

  20. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007. PMID:17328817

  1. Traditional medicine in Central Sahara: pharmacopoeia of Tassili N'ajjer.

    PubMed

    Hammiche, Victoria; Maiza, Khadra

    2006-05-24

    Further to the previously reported ethnobotanical surveys of North-Sahara and Ahaggar [Maiza, K., Brac de la Perrière, R.A., Bounaga, N., Hammiche, V., 1990. Usages traditionnels des plantes spontanées d'El Goléa. Actes du Colloque de l'Association. Française pour la Conservation des Espèces Végétales, Mulhouse; Maiza, K., Hammiche, V, Bounaga, N., Brac de la Perrière, R.A., 1992. Inventaire des plantes médicinales de trois régions d'Algérie. Actes du Colloque International hommage à Jean Pernès: Complexes d'espèces, flux de gènes, ressources génétiques des plantes. Paris, pp. 631-633; Maiza, K., Brac de la Perrière, R.A., Hammiche, V., 1993a. Traditional Saharian pharmacopoeia. Acta Horticulturae, I.S.H.S. 332, 37-42; Maiza, K., Brac de la Perrière, R.A., Hammiche, V., 1993b. Récents apports à l'ethnopharmacologie du Sahara algérien: Actes du 2ème Colloque Européen d'Ethnopharmacologie & 11ème Conférence Internationale d'Ethnomédecine. Heidelberg, pp. 169-171; Maiza, K., Brac de la Perrière, R.A., Hammiche, V., 1995. Pharmacopée traditionnelle saharienne. Revue de Médecines et Pharmacopées Africaines, 9 (No. 1), 71-75; Maiza, K., Smati, D., Brac de la Perrière, R.A., et Hammiche, V., 2005. Pharmacopée traditionnelle au Sahara Central: Pharmacopée de l'Ahaggar. Retenu pour publication. Revue de Médecines et Pharmacopées Africaines.], we have now moved our investigations on Tassili N'Ajjer, another distinct region of the Southern Algerian Sahara. Ethnobotanic research has been carried out through interviews with nomad populations and the traditional pratictionners of recognised competence. To date, 80 wild indigenous medicinal plants have been identified and are currently used by the local population for various illnesses. Information on their vernacular Tamahaq and Arabic names, their flowering distribution, the parts used, the modes of preparation and routes of administration are reported and discussed in this paper. This work

  2. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Magdalena; van Poppel, Mireille; van Kamp, Irene; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Ellis, Naomi; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Smith, Graham; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; de Wit, Puck; van Mechelen, Willem; Gidlow, Christopher; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Maas, Jolanda

    2016-03-01

    Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts.

  3. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  4. A multi-national European cross-sectional study of feline calicivirus epidemiology, diversity and vaccine cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Maria M; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Smith, Shirley L; Daly, Janet M; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Dawson, Susan; Radford, Alan D

    2017-05-09

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an important pathogen of cats for which vaccination is regularly practised. Long-term use of established vaccine antigens raises the theoretical possibility that field viruses could become resistant. This study aimed to assess the current ability of the FCV-F9 vaccine strain to neutralise a randomly collected contemporary panel of FCV field strains collected prospectively in six European countries. Veterinary practices (64) were randomly selected from six countries (UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, France and Italy). Oropharyngeal swabs were requested from 30 (UK) and 40 (other countries) cats attending each practice. Presence of FCV was determined by virus isolation, and risk factors for FCV shedding assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Phylogenetic analyses were used to describe the FCV population structure. In vitro virus neutralisation assays were performed to evaluate FCV-F9 cross-reactivity using plasma from four vaccinated cats. The overall prevalence of FCV was 9.2%. Risk factors positively associated with FCV shedding included multi-cat households, chronic gingivostomatitis, younger age, not being neutered, as well as residing in certain countries. Phylogenetic analysis showed extensive variability and no countrywide clusters. Despite being first isolated in the 1950s, FCV-F9 clustered with contemporary field isolates. Plasma raised to FCV-F9 neutralized 97% of tested isolates (titres 1:4 to 1:5792), with 26.5%, 35.7% and 50% of isolates being neutralized by 5, 10 and 20 antibody units respectively. This study represents the largest prospective analysis of FCV diversity and antigenic cross-reactivity at a European level. The scale and random nature of sampling used gives confidence that the FCV isolates used are broadly representative of FCVs that cats are exposed to in these countries. The in vitro neutralisation results suggest that antibodies raised to FCV-F9 remain broadly cross-reactive to contemporary FCV

  5. Socioeconomic inequality in clusters of health-related behaviours in Europe: latent class analysis of a cross-sectional European survey.

    PubMed

    Kino, Shiho; Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael

    2017-05-23

    Modifiable health-related behaviours tend to cluster among most vulnerable sectors of the population, particularly those at the bottom of the social hierarchy. This study aimed to identify the clusters of health-related behaviours in 27 European countries and to examine the socioeconomic inequalities in these clusters. Data were from Eurobarometer 72.3-2009, a cross-sectional survey of 27 European countries. The analyses were conducted in 2016. The main sections of the survey included questions pertaining to sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours, and use of services. In this study, those aged 18 years and older were included. We selected five health-related behaviours, namely smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, frequent fresh fruit consumption, physical activity and dental check-ups. Socioeconomic position was indicated by education, subjective social status and difficulty in paying bills. Latent class analysis was conducted to explore the clusters of these five behaviours. Multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine the relationships between the clusters and socioeconomic positions adjusting for age, gender, marital status and urbanisation. The eligible total population was 23,842. Latent class analysis identified three clusters; healthy, moderate and risky clusters in this European population. Individuals with the lowest socioeconomic position were more likely to have risky and moderate clusters than healthy cluster compared to those with the highest socioeconomic position. There were clear socioeconomic gradients in clusters of health-related behaviours. The findings highlight the importance of adopting interventions that address multiple health risk behaviours and policies that tackle the social determinants of health-related behaviours.

  6. A comparison of trends in caesarean section rates in former communist (transition) countries and other European countries

    PubMed Central

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.; Gorman, Dermot R.; Leyland, Alastair H.

    2013-01-01

    Caesarean section rates are rising across Europe, and concerns exist that increases are not clinically indicated. Societal, cultural and health system factors have been identified as influential. Former communist (transition) countries have experienced radical changes in these potential determinants, and we, therefore, hypothesized they may exhibit differing trends to non-transition countries. By analysing data from the WHO Europe Health for All Database, we find transition countries had a relatively low caesarean section rate in 2000 but have since experienced more rapid increases than other countries (average annual percentage change 7.9 vs. 2.4). PMID:23204216

  7. Relationships between food consumption and living arrangements among university students in four European countries - A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The transition of young people from school to university has many health implications. Food choice at the university can differ because of childhood food consumption patterns, sex and the living arrangements. Food consumption may change especially if students are living away from home. We aimed to assess food consumption patterns among university students from four European countries and how they differ by their living arrangements. Methods We analysed data from a cross-country survey assessing health and health behaviours of students. The sample comprised a total of 2402 first year undergraduate students from one university in each of the countries of Germany, Denmark, Poland and Bulgaria. Food consumption was assessed by means of a food frequency questionnaire with 9 food groups (indicators). Results Students’ food consumption patterns differed across the countries. Frequent consumption of unhealthy items was common. Bulgarian students reported most often frequent consumption of sweets and cakes and snacks (e.g. chips and fast food). Polish students reported the least frequent consumption of vegetables and a low consumption of fruits. Across all countries except Bulgaria, men reported substantially more often frequent consumption of snacks than women. Students living at parental home consumed more fruit, vegetables, and meat than those who resided outside of their family home in all studied countries. There was more variation with regard to cakes and salads with more frequent consumption of cakes among Bulgarian female students and Danish male students and more frequent consumption of salads among Danish female students not living at parental home, compared to students from other countries. Conclusions Nutrition habits of university students differed across countries and by sex. Students living at parental home displayed more healthy nutrition habits, with some exceptions. PMID:22531503

  8. Chiropractic care of children from birth to adolescence and classification of reported conditions: an internet cross-sectional survey of 956 European chiropractors.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Aurélie M

    2012-06-01

    Few studies have addressed the practice of chiropractic care of children in Europe. No systematic classification of conditions currently exists in chiropractic pediatrics. The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics of clinical chiropractic practice, including the age of pediatric patients, the number of reports of negative side effects (NSEs), the opinions of doctors of chiropractic on treatment options by patient age groups, the conditions seen and the number of treatment sessions delivered by conditions and by patient age. An Internet cross-sectional survey was conducted in 20 European countries with 4109 doctors of chiropractic invited to reply. The 19 national associations belonging to the European Chiropractic Union and the Danish Chiropractic Association were asked to participate. Respondents were asked to self-report characteristics of their practices. Of the 956 (23.3%) participating chiropractors, 921 reported 19821 pediatric patients per month. Children represented 8.1% of chiropractors' total patient load over the last year. A total of 557 (534 mild, 23 moderate, and 0 severe) negative (adverse) side effects were reported for an estimated incidence of 0.23%. On the given treatment statements, chiropractors reported varying agreement and disagreement rates based on patient age. The 8309 answers on conditions were grouped into skeletal (57.0%), neurologic (23.7%), gastrointestinal (12.4%), infection (3.5%), genitourinary (1.5%), immune (1.4%), and miscellaneous conditions (0.5%). The number of treatment sessions delivered varied according to the condition and the patient age. This study showed that European chiropractors are active in the care of pediatric patients. Reported conditions were mainly skeletal and neurologic complaints. In this survey, no severe NSEs were reported, and mild NSEs were infrequent. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acne prevalence and associations with lifestyle: a cross-sectional online survey of adolescents/young adults in 7 European countries.

    PubMed

    Wolkenstein, P; Machovcová, A; Szepietowski, J C; Tennstedt, D; Veraldi, S; Delarue, A

    2017-07-14

    Although acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder, limited epidemiological data exist specifically for European populations. To determine the prevalence of self-reported acne among young people in Europe and evaluate the effect of lifestyle on acne. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based online survey in representative samples of individuals aged 15-24 years in Belgium, Czech and Slovak Republics, France, Italy, Poland and Spain (n = 10 521), identified by a quota sampling method based on age, geographic location and socio-professional category. The overall adjusted prevalence of self-reported acne was 57.8% (95% confidence interval 56.9% to 58.7%). The rates per country ranged from 42.2% in Poland to 73.5% in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The prevalence of acne was highest at age 15-17 years and decreased with age. On multivariate analysis, a history of maternal or paternal acne was associated with an increased probability of having acne (odds ratio 3.077, 95% CI 2.743 to 3.451, and 2.700, 95% CI 2.391 to 3.049, respectively; both P < 0.0001), as was the consumption of chocolate (OR 1.276, 95% CI 1.094 to 1.488, for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1). Increasing age (OR 0.728, 95% CI 0.639 to 0.830 for age 21-24 years vs. 15-17 years) and smoking tobacco (OR 0.705, 95% CI 0.616 to 0.807) were associated with a reduced probability of acne. The overall prevalence of self-reported acne was high in adolescents/young adults in the European countries investigated. Heredity was the main risk factor for developing acne. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. European Cross-Sectional Survey of Current Care Practices for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Reveals Regional and Age-Dependent Differences

    PubMed Central

    Vry, Julia; Gramsch, Kathrin; Rodger, Sunil; Thompson, Rachel; Steffensen, Birgit F.; Rahbek, Jes; Doerken, Sam; Tassoni, Adrian; Beytía, María de los Angeles; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Chamova, Teodora; Tournev, Ivailo; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Kaminska, Anna; Lusakowska, Anna; Mrazova, Lenka; Pavlovska, Lenka; Strenkova, Jana; Vondráček, Petr; Garami, Marta; Karcagi, Veronika; Herczegfalvi, Ágnes; Bushby, Katherine; Lochmüller, Hanns; Kirschner, Janbernd

    2016-01-01

    Background: Publication of comprehensive clinical care guidelines for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in 2010 was a milestone for DMD patient management. Our CARE-NMD survey investigates the neuromuscular, medical, and psychosocial care of DMD patients in Europe, and compares it to the guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1677 patients contacted via the TREAT-NMD patient registries was conducted using self-report questionnaires in seven European countries. Results: Survey respondents were 861 children and 201 adults. Data describe a European DMD population with mean age of 13.0 years (range 0.8–46.2) of whom 53% had lost ambulation (at 10.3 years of age, median). Corticosteroid medication raised the median age for ambulatory loss from 10.1 years in patients never medicated to 11.4 years in patients who received steroids (p < 0.0001). The majority of patients reported receiving care in line with guidelines, although we identified significant differences between countries and important shortcomings in prevention and treatment. Summarised, 35% of patients aged≥ nine years received no corticosteroid medication, 24% of all patients received no regular physiotherapy, echocardiograms were not performed regularly in 22% of patients, pulmonary function was not regularly assessed in 71% of non-ambulatory patients. Patients with regular follow-up by neuromuscular specialists were more likely to receive care according to guidelines, were better satisfied, and experienced shorter unplanned hospitalization periods. PMID:27911335

  11. Television viewing and exposure to food-related commercials among European school children, associations with fruit and vegetable intake: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Klepp, Knut-Inge; Wind, Marianne; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Rodrigo, Carmen Perez; Due, Pernille; Bjelland, Mona; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable intake is low among European children and exposure to TV is negatively associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. The aim of the present study was to explore exposure to food commercials on TV in nine European countries. Associations between such exposure and intake of fruit and vegetables and possible mediating effects of attitudes toward and liking of fruit and vegetables were assessed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in nine European countries, i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden, from October-December 2003, as a part of the Pro Children study. Data on usual intake of fruit and vegetables, and related correlates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire among 11-year-old school children (mean age 11.4 (sd = 0.48), 50.2% boys). Complete data was available for 13,035 children. Differences in exposure to TV ads between countries, gender and social class were explored by analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to test associations between exposure to TV ads and intake and to assess mediating effects. Results The large majority of children in all nine countries report recent exposure to a number of TV ads for food, and they were more often exposed to ads for unhealthy food than for fruit and vegetables (mean of 2.2 (sd = 1.0) unhealthy ads vs. mean of 1.7 (sd = 1.0) healthy ads; p < 0.001). Boys reported somewhat higher TV viewing than girls did (2.5 (sd = 1.7) vs. 2.2 (sd = 1.6) hours per day; p < 0.001), and children from lower social classes reported higher TV viewing than higher social class children did (2.4 (sd = 1.7) vs. 2.0 (sd = 1.5); p < 0.001). Across all countries, exposure to TV ads for healthy foods was positively associated (r = 0.09–0.16) with reported fruit and vegetable intake. This association was in part mediated by attitudes toward and liking of fruit and vegetables. Conclusion Exposure to

  12. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2) to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference), EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study

  13. Comparison of three officinal Chinese pharmacopoeia species of Glycyrrhiza based on separation and quantification of triterpene saponins and chemometrics analysis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiwei; Duan, Jinao; Zhao, Runhuai; Li, Xueyu; Yan, Hui; Li, Jianping; Guo, Sheng; Yang, Nianyun; Tang, Yuping

    2013-12-01

    The dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species, named licorice, have been utilized as food as well as crude drugs in China for thousands of years. Glycyrrhiza species can be differentiated based on the morphologic features of their aerial part, i.e. leaf and fruit morphologies, but not on their root morphology, even though that is the medicinal part. In this paper, a fast and effective UPLC-TQ-MS/MS method was explored for better identification and quantitative investigation of triterpene saponins in licorice, which laid basis for chemical comparison of three officinal Chinese pharmacopoeia Glycyrrhiza species. The results showed that all of these licorice samples were rich in triterpene saponins but with significant difference corresponding to different Glycyrrhiza species. The proposed method could be useful in quality control and standardization of licorice raw materials and its products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The treatment of syphilis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century: the example of the Ferrarese pharmacopoeia.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Mares, Donatella; Contini, Carlo; Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice

    2010-03-01

    The authors have taken the Italian city of Ferrara as an example of the remedies against syphilis, commonly used worldwide in the 1800s. After having identified the terminologies used to diagnose syphilis, they evidence the legislative behaviours of the government authorities in 19th century in Italy and, in particular, the social and sanitary measures taken in Ferrara to limit the spread of the syphilis epidemic. Historical sources permitted description of the remedies employed in Ferrara from the beginning to the end of that century, not only to treat conditions linked directly to the malady itself, but also its complications and secondary pathologies. The pharmacopoeia written for the apothecaries of Ferrara by Antonio Campana, a famous Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany, won a great reputation and distribution in the international medical world not only of the first half of the 1800s. His authoritative work was much appreciated in Italy and abroad.

  15. Risk of psychological ill health and methods of organisational downsizing: a cross-sectional survey in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Elena; Brenner, M Harvey; Theorell, Töres; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-09-29

    The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can make a substantial difference as to whether the exposed workers will suffer from psychological ill health. Surprisingly, little research has directly investigated this issue. We examined the likelihood of psychological ill health associated with strategic and reactive downsizing. A cross-sectional survey included 1456 respondents from France, Sweden, Hungary and the United Kingdom: 681 employees in stable workplaces (reference group) and 775 workers from downsized companies. Reactive downsizing was exemplified by the exposures to compulsory redundancies of medium to large scale resulting in job loss or surviving a layoff while staying employed in downsized organizations. The workforce exposed to strategic downsizing was represented by surplus employees who were internally redeployed and supported through their career change process within a policy context of "no compulsory redundancy". Symptoms of anxiety, depression and emotional exhaustion were assessed in telephone interviews with brief subscales from Hospital Anxiety Scale (HADS-A), Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-CD6) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS). Data were analyzed using logistic regression. We observed no increased risk of psychological ill health in the case of strategic downsizing. The number of significant associations with psychological ill health was the largest for the large-scale reactive downsizing: surviving a layoff was consistently associated with all three outcome measures; returning to work after the job loss experience was related to anxiety and depression, while persons still unemployed at interview had elevated odds of anxiety. After reactive medium-scale downsizing, unemployment at interview was the only exposure associated with anxiety and depression. The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can be important for the psychological wellbeing of workers. If downsizing is unavoidable, it should be

  16. What to eat and drink in the festive season: a pan-European, observational, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Parker, Helen L; Curcic, Jelena; Heinrich, Henriette; Sauter, Matthias; Hollenstein, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Savarino, Edoardo; Fox, Mark

    2017-01-19

    Digestive discomfort after meals is common in the community, especially during the festive season. It is uncertain whether this is related to intake of either high-calorie or high-fat foods or, alternatively, intake of specific foods. This prospective, cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that the risk of reflux or dyspepsia is associated with the fat content of the meal independent of caloric load in a 'real-life' setting. Four festive meals were served to delegates attending a conference on four consecutive days. Test meals had the same volume, but varied in calorie and fat content. Study procedures and symptoms were monitored using a mobile application (SymTrack). The effect of alcoholic compared with nonalcoholic drinks was also assessed. Primary outcome was the occurrence of reflux or dyspeptic symptoms. Fullness was documented by a visual analogue scale. A total of 84/120 (70%) delegates aged 22-69 years consented to participate. At screening, 22 (31%) participants reported at least mild symptoms on the Leuven Dyspepsia Questionnaire. Specific ingredients did not appear to impact on postprandial symptoms. All high-calorie dinners [British, German, Italian (with alcohol)] induced more symptoms than the low-fat, low-calorie Czech dinner [odds ratio: 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-6.9 (P=0.058), 1.5 (0.3-3.8), and 2.8 (0.7-10.5), respectively]. Self-reported fullness after the high-fat, high-calorie British dinner was higher by 23/100 (95% CI: 4-42, P=0.016) with respect to low-fat, low-calorie Czech and German dinners. Study participants tolerated a range of food and drink well. Reflux or dyspeptic symptoms were least likely after the low-fat, low-calorie meal. Fullness was increased after the high-fat, high-calorie dinner, but not low-fat meals. These results will help the public to make evidence-based dietary choices during the carnival season!

  17. What to eat and drink in the festive season: a pan-European, observational, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Parker, Helen L; Curcic, Jelena; Heinrich, Henriette; Sauter, Matthias; Hollenstein, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Savarino, Edoardo; Fox, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Digestive discomfort after meals is common in the community, especially during the festive season. It is uncertain whether this is related to intake of either high-calorie or high-fat foods or, alternatively, intake of specific foods. This prospective, cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that the risk of reflux or dyspepsia is associated with the fat content of the meal independent of caloric load in a 'real-life' setting. Four festive meals were served to delegates attending a conference on four consecutive days. Test meals had the same volume, but varied in calorie and fat content. Study procedures and symptoms were monitored using a mobile application (SymTrack). The effect of alcoholic compared with nonalcoholic drinks was also assessed. Primary outcome was the occurrence of reflux or dyspeptic symptoms. Fullness was documented by a visual analogue scale. A total of 84/120 (70%) delegates aged 22-69 years consented to participate. At screening, 22 (31%) participants reported at least mild symptoms on the Leuven Dyspepsia Questionnaire. Specific ingredients did not appear to impact on postprandial symptoms. All high-calorie dinners [British, German, Italian (with alcohol)] induced more symptoms than the low-fat, low-calorie Czech dinner [odds ratio: 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-6.9 (P=0.058), 1.5 (0.3-3.8), and 2.8 (0.7-10.5), respectively]. Self-reported fullness after the high-fat, high-calorie British dinner was higher by 23/100 (95% CI: 4-42, P=0.016) with respect to low-fat, low-calorie Czech and German dinners. Study participants tolerated a range of food and drink well. Reflux or dyspeptic symptoms were least likely after the low-fat, low-calorie meal. Fullness was increased after the high-fat, high-calorie dinner, but not low-fat meals. These results will help the public to make evidence-based dietary choices during the carnival season!

  18. Is patient-centredness in European hospitals related to existing quality improvement strategies? Analysis of a cross-sectional survey (MARQuIS study).

    PubMed

    Groene, O; Lombarts, M J M H; Klazinga, N; Alonso, J; Thompson, A; Suñol, R

    2009-02-01

    There is growing recognition of patients' contributions to setting objectives for their own care, improving health outcomes and evaluating care. To quantify the extent to which European hospitals have implemented strategies to promote a patient-centred approach, and to assess whether these strategies are associated with hospital characteristics and the development of the hospital's quality improvement system. Cross-sectional survey of 351 European hospital managers and professionals. Patients' rights, patient information and empowerment, patient involvement in quality management, learning from patients, and patient hotel services at the hospital and ward level were assessed. The hypothesis that the implementation of strategies to improve patient-centredness is associated with hospital characteristics, including maturity of the hospital's quality management system, was tested using binary logistic regression. In general, hospitals reported high implementation of policies for patients' rights (85.5%) and informed consent (93%), whereas strategies to involve patients (71%) and learn from their experience (66%) were less frequently implemented. For 13 out of 18 hospital strategies, institutions with a more developed quality improvement system consistently reported better results (percentage differences within maturity classification ranged from 12.4% to 46.6%). The strength of association between implementation of patient-centredness strategies and the quality improvement system, however, seemed lower at the ward than at the hospital level. Some associations (OR 2.1 to 5.1) disappeared or were weaker after adjustment for potential confounding variables (OR 2.2 to 3.7). Although quality improvement systems seem to be effective with regard to the implementation of selected patient-centredness strategies, they seem to be insufficient to ensure widespread implementation of patient-centredness throughout the organisation.

  19. Who receives treatment for alcohol use disorders in the European Union? A cross-sectional representative study in primary and specialized health care.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Manthey, J; Struzzo, P; Gual, A; Wojnar, M

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent in Europe, but only a minority of those affected receive treatment. It is therefore important to identify factors that predict treatment in order to reframe strategies aimed at improving treatment rates. Representative cross-sectional study with patients aged 18-64 from primary health care (PC, six European countries, n=8476, data collection 01/13-01/14) and from specialized health care (SC, eight European countries, n=1762, data collection 01/13-03/14). For descriptive purposes, six groups were distinguished, based on type of DSM-IV AUD and treatment setting. Treatment status (yes/no) for any treatment (model 1), and for SC treatment (model 2) were main outcome measures in logistic regression models. AUDs were prevalent in PC (12-month prevalence: 11.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 11.2-12.5%), with 17.6% receiving current treatment (95%CI: 15.3-19.9%). There were clear differences between the six groups regarding key variables from all five predictor domains. Prediction of any treatment (model 1) or SC treatment (model 2) was successful with high overall accuracy (both models: 95%), sufficient sensitivity (model 1: 79%/model 2: 76%) and high specificity (both models: 98%). The most predictive single variables were daily drinking level, anxiety, severity of mental distress, and number of inpatient nights during the last 6 months. Variables from four domains were highly predictive in identifying treatment for AUD, with SC treatment groups showing very high levels of social disintegration, drinking, comorbidity and functional losses. Earlier intervention and formal treatment for AUD in PC should be implemented to reduce these high levels of adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Is patient-centredness in European hospitals related to existing quality improvement strategies? Analysis of a cross-sectional survey (MARQuIS study)

    PubMed Central

    Groene, O; Lombarts, M J M H; Klazinga, N; Alonso, J; Thompson, A; Suñol, R

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is growing recognition of patients’ contributions to setting objectives for their own care, improving health outcomes and evaluating care. Objective: To quantify the extent to which European hospitals have implemented strategies to promote a patient-centred approach, and to assess whether these strategies are associated with hospital characteristics and the development of the hospital’s quality improvement system. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 351 European hospital managers and professionals. Main outcome measures: Patients’ rights, patient information and empowerment, patient involvement in quality management, learning from patients, and patient hotel services at the hospital and ward level were assessed. The hypothesis that the implementation of strategies to improve patient-centredness is associated with hospital characteristics, including maturity of the hospital’s quality management system, was tested using binary logistic regression. Results: In general, hospitals reported high implementation of policies for patients’ rights (85.5%) and informed consent (93%), whereas strategies to involve patients (71%) and learn from their experience (66%) were less frequently implemented. For 13 out of 18 hospital strategies, institutions with a more developed quality improvement system consistently reported better results (percentage differences within maturity classification ranged from 12.4% to 46.6%). The strength of association between implementation of patient-centredness strategies and the quality improvement system, however, seemed lower at the ward than at the hospital level. Some associations (OR 2.1 to 5.1) disappeared or were weaker after adjustment for potential confounding variables (OR 2.2 to 3.7). Conclusions: Although quality improvement systems seem to be effective with regard to the implementation of selected patient-centredness strategies, they seem to be insufficient to ensure widespread implementation of patient

  1. Older persons with dementia at risk for institutionalization in eight European countries: a cross-sectional study on the perceptions of informal caregivers and healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Astrid; Afram, Basema; Koskenniemi, Jaana; Verbeek, Hilde; Soto, Maria E; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Lethin, Connie; Risco, Ester; Saks, Kai; Hamers, Jan P H; Meyer, Gabriele

    2015-06-01

    To explore the perceptions of informal caregivers and healthcare professionals regarding potential reasons for the institutionalization of older persons with dementia in eight European countries. Healthcare professionals may have an important role in facilitating informal caregivers' decision-making regarding institutionalization. Little is known about the perceptions of informal caregivers and healthcare professionals prior to institutionalization. Cross-sectional survey in eight European countries (November 2010-January 2012). Healthcare professionals reported why they clinically judged persons with dementia at risk for institutionalization. Informal caregivers reported potential reasons from their perspectives. Answers were openly coded and categorized. Variation between informal caregivers and healthcare professionals was investigated (agreement on at least one potential reason per case/proportion of maximum attainable kappa). Judgements of healthcare professionals and informal caregivers on 1160 persons with dementia were included. A total of 22 categories emerged. Approximately 90% of informal caregivers reported potential reasons. In 41% of the cases, informal caregivers and healthcare professionals agreed on at least one reason. Discrepancy was high for potential reasons related to caregiver burden. For the most frequent categories (caregiver burden, caregiver unable to provide care, neuropsychiatric symptoms, overall deterioration, care dependency), 24-41% of the attainable kappa was achieved. Differences between countries emerged indicating more favourable agreement in Finland, Sweden and Estonia and lowest agreement in England and Spain. Agreement between healthcare professionals and informal caregivers on potential reasons for institutionalization was low-to-moderate. Healthcare professionals are challenged to develop a detailed understanding of the perspectives and perceived burden of informal caregivers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Methodology of "Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine practice, Evidence Based Position Papers: the European position" produced by the UEMS-PRM Section.

    PubMed

    Negrini, Stefano; Kiekens, Carlotte; Zampolini, Mauro; Wever, Daniel; Varela Donoso, Enrique; Christodoulou, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Since 2009 the Professional Practice Committee of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the European Union (EU) of Medical Specialists (UEMS) is producing Position Papers (PPs) on the role of PRM physicians for patients with different health conditions or related topics of PRM Interest. These PPs represent the Official Position of the EU in the specific field. Until now, sixteen papers have been produced, recently collected in an e-book. To proceed with the future PPs, the UEMS PRM Section defines with this paper the methodological approach to a PP, so to have a common and validated scientific structure. The final aim is to increase the quality, representativeness and visibility of this production for the benefit of all PRM specialists in (and out) of Europe. The Position Papers must be Evidence Based (EBPP). Therefore it comprises a systematic review as well as a Consensus procedure among the EU Countries delegates. All the sections of an EBPP are presented in details (title, authors, abstract, introduction, material and methods, results, discussion, conclusion). The systematic review must focus on Cochrane reviews, randomised controlled trials and guidelines of PRM professional practice interest. The Consensus on the recommendations must be reached through a Delphi procedure, usually in four major rounds (each round can have repeated voting). The EBPP must produce Final Recommendations for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Professional Practice in Europe. The following overall structure for recommendations is suggested: one overall general recommendation on PRM professional practice; PRM physicians' role in Medical Diagnosis - ICD; PRM diagnosis and assessment according to ICF; PRM process (Project definition, Team, PRM interventions, Outcome criteria, Length and continuity of treatment); future research on PRM professional practice.

  3. Associations of commuting to school and work with demographic variables and with weight status in eight European countries: The ENERGY-cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Te Velde, Saskia J; Haraldsen, Eli; Vik, Frøydis N; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of different modes of commuting to school and work for 10-12year-olds and their parents; to assess the associations with demographic variables (country, sex, parental education and ethnicity) and with weight status in eight European countries. As part of the ENERGY project a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in which modes of commuting and socio-demographic variables for children (N=7903) and one of their parents (n=6455) were measured by questionnaires. Children's weight and height were objectively measured; parents self-reported their weight and height. Logistic multilevel regression analyses assessed the associations between mode of commuting and overweight. Differences between countries and differences in mode of commuting according to demographic variables were tested using χ(2)-test and Marascuilo's Post-hoc analysis. There were marked differences between countries, especially regarding cycling to school, which was common in The Netherlands and Norway and rare in Greece and Spain. Demographic variables were associated with mode of commuting in children and parents. Mode of commuting was not associated with being overweight in children, after adjustment for demographic variables. Bicycling to work, but not other modes of commuting, was significantly inversely associated with being overweight among parents (OR=0.74 (95%CI 0.57-0.97)). Interventions targeting active commuting may promote cycling, and should take into account the differences regarding demographic variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Psychological Burden of Skin Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study among Dermatological Out-Patients in 13 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Dalgard, Florence J; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Lien, Lars; Poot, Francoise; Jemec, Gregor B E; Misery, Laurent; Szabo, Csanad; Linder, Dennis; Sampogna, Francesca; Evers, Andrea W M; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Balieva, Flora; Szepietowski, Jacek; Romanov, Dmitry; Marron, Servando E; Altunay, Ilknur K; Finlay, Andrew Y; Salek, Sam S; Kupfer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of psychological disorders to the burden of skin disease has been poorly explored, and this is a large-scale study to ascertain the association between depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation with various dermatological diagnoses. This international multicenter observational cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 European countries. In each dermatology clinic, 250 consecutive adult out-patients were recruited to complete a questionnaire, reporting socio-demographic information, negative life events, and suicidal ideation; depression and anxiety were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A clinical examination was performed. A control group was recruited among hospital employees. There were 4,994 participants––3,635 patients and 1,359 controls. Clinical depression was present in 10.1% patients (controls 4.3%, odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (1.67–3.47)). Clinical anxiety was present in 17.2% (controls 11.1%, OR 2.18 (1.68–2.82)). Suicidal ideation was reported by 12.7% of all patients (controls 8.3%, OR 1.94 (1.33–2.82)). For individual diagnoses, only patients with psoriasis had significant association with suicidal ideation. The association with depression and anxiety was highest for patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema, and leg ulcers. These results identify a major additional burden of skin disease and have important clinical implications. PMID:25521458

  5. Weather, day length and physical activity in older adults: Cross-sectional results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Norfolk Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Griffin, Simon; Jones, Andy P

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of environmental factors have been related to active ageing, but few studies have explored the impact of weather and day length on physical activity in older adults. We investigate the cross-sectional association between weather conditions, day length and activity in older adults using a population-based cohort in England, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Norfolk study. Physical activity was measured objectively over 7 days using an accelerometer and this was used to calculate daily total physical activity (counts per minute), daily minutes of sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA). Day length and two types of weather conditions, precipitation and temperature, were obtained from a local weather station. The association between these variables and physical activity was examined by multilevel first-order autoregressive modelling. After adjusting for individual factors, short day length and poor weather conditions, including high precipitation and low temperatures, were associated with up to 10% lower average physical activity (p<0.01) and 8 minutes less time spent in LMVPA but 15 minutes more sedentary time, compared to the best conditions. Day length and weather conditions appear to be an important factor related to active ageing. Future work should focus on developing potential interventions to reduce their impact on physical activity behaviours in older adults.

  6. Confidentiality and physicians' health. A cross-sectional study of University Hospital Physicians in four European cities (the HOUPE-study).

    PubMed

    Løvseth, Lise Tevik; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw; Fridner, Ann; Jónsdottir, Lilja Sigrun; Marini, Massimo; Linaker, Olav Morten

    2010-01-01

    To investigate how the subjective burden of confidentiality can act as a stressor that affects physicians' psychological health and wellbeing. Cross-sectional survey data from a sample of university hospital physicians (N=1,956) in four European countries (Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Italy) who participated in the HOUPE (Health and Organization among University hospital Physicians in Europe) study was analysed. About 25% of the participants reported that confidentiality impedes emotional support to a considerable degree. An index of confidentiality as a barrier to seeking support (ICBS) had a negative effect on physicians' health and wellbeing. The effect of ICBS was confirmed and slightly increased when controlled for variables known to buffer the adverse mental and physical effects of stress. Though the physicians in Iceland and in Norway found confidentiality the most challenging, it was the physicians in Italy and Sweden who showed a significant effect of ICBS on their health and wellbeing. Whether confidentiality is a stressor in its own right or an amplifier of stressful situations in medical practice should be further investigated to gain a better understanding of the effect of confidentiality on physicians' coping, stress and health. In addition, there is a need to investigate how physicians can balance coping with the inevitable emotional demands of medical practice and maintaining the ethics of confidentiality in a way that protects both patients' privacy rights and physicians' health and wellbeing.

  7. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Correlates in 25 Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European Countries: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed; Lee, John Tayu; Millett, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among young people in some settings. There is an absence of nationally representative prevalence studies of waterpipe tobacco use and dual use with other tobacco products in young people. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional study of students aged 13-15 years. Of 180 participating countries, 25 included optional waterpipe tobacco smoking questions: 15 Eastern Mediterranean and 10 Eastern European countries. We calculated the prevalence of current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco use, including dual waterpipe and other tobacco use, and used logistic regression models to identify sociodemographic correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence was highest in Lebanon (36.9%), the West Bank (32.7%) and parts of Eastern Europe (Latvia 22.7%, the Czech Republic 22.1%, Estonia 21.9%). These countries also recorded greater than 10% prevalence of dual waterpipe and cigarette use. In a meta-analysis, higher odds of waterpipe tobacco smoking were found among males (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18% to 1.59%), cigarette users (AOR = 6.95, 95% CI = 5.74% to 8.42%), those whose parents (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.31% to 1.82%) or peers smoked (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI = 2.97% to 4.20%) and those whose parents had higher educational attainment (Father, AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.14% to 1.89%; Mother, AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07% to 2.46%). We report on regional- and country income-level differences. Waterpipe tobacco smoking, including dual waterpipe and cigarette use, is alarmingly high in several Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Ongoing waterpipe tobacco smoking surveillance is warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All

  8. Experimentation with e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid: a cross-sectional study in 28 European Union member states

    PubMed Central

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe patterns of experimentation with electronic cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid, their self-reported impact on smoking cessation and to identify factors associated with self-reported successful quit attempts within the European Union (EU). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 28 European Union member states. Methods We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Special Eurobarometer survey, collected in December 2014 from all 28 EU member states. The total sample size was n=27 801 individuals aged ≥15 years; however, our analyses were conducted in different subgroups with sample sizes ranging from n=470 to n=9363. Data on e-cigarette experimentation and its self-reported impact on smoking cessation were collected. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with experimentation of e-cigarettes as cessation aids and with successful quitting. Logistic regression was also used to assess changes in the use of e-cigarettes as cessation aids between 2012 (using data from wave 77.1 of the Eurobarometer) and 2014 in each member state. Results E-cigarettes were often experimented with as a cessation aid, especially among younger smokers (OR=5.29) and those who reported financial difficulties (OR=1.33). In total, 10.6% of those who had ever attempted to quit smoking and 27.4% of those who did so using a cessation aid had experimented with e-cigarettes as a cessation aid. Among those who had used e-cigarettes as a cessation aid, those with higher education were more likely to have been successful in quitting (OR=2.23). There was great variation in trends of use of e-cigarette as a cessation aid between member states. Conclusions Experimentation with e-cigarettes as a potential cessation aid at a population level has increased throughout the EU in recent years, and certain population groups are more likely to experiment with them as cessation aids. Research on the potential population impact of these trends is imperatively

  9. [On the content of the national part of the Czech pharmacopoeia from the aspect of the formulation of medicinal preparations in pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Subert, J

    2008-06-01

    The national part of the Czech Pharmacopoeia 2005 and its Supplements 2006 and 2007 do not sufficiently solve the issues of standardization of the present formulation of medicinal preparations in pharmacies. The paper discusses some of the possible causes of this state and lists the examples of ophthalmic drops monographs which are no longer topical for formulation in pharmacies, and also some monographs with obsolete active ingredient concentrations or not fully solved formulation technology.

  10. Determination of organically bound iodine by reductive mineralization with aluminium powder. Analytical methods of pharmacopoeias with DBH in respect to environmental and economical concern. Part 16.

    PubMed

    Hilp, M

    2002-07-01

    PH. EUR. 2002, JAP 1996 and USP 2000 mineralize organically bound iodine in x-ray contrast media by boiling under reflux with zinc powder in alkaline solution. The reductive mineralization can be performed at room temperature without filtration, when aluminium powder is used. Resulting iodide is titrated by argentometry and potentiometric indication according to the pharmacopoeia or after oxidation with 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin by iodometry.

  11. Cross Sectional Associations between Socio-Demographic Factors and Cognitive Performance in an Older British Population: The European Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) Study

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shabina A.; Luben, Robert; Dalzell, Nichola; Moore, Stephanie; Anuj, Serena; Matthews, Fiona E.; Wareham, Nick; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognition covers a range of abilities, such as memory, response time and language, with tests assessing either specific or generic aspects. However differences between measures may be observed within the same individuals. Objective To investigate the cross-sectional association of cognitive performance and socio-demographic factors using different assessment tools across a range of abilities in a British cohort study. Methods Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) in Norfolk Study, aged 48–92 years, underwent a cognitive assessment between 2006 and 2011 (piloted between 2004 and 2006) and were investigated over a different domains using a range of cognitive tests. Results Cognitive measures were available on 8584 men and women. Though age, sex, education and social class were all independently associated with cognitive performance in multivariable analysis, different associations were observed for different cognitive tests. Increasing age was associated with increased risk of a poor performance score in all of the tests, except for the National Adult Reading Test (NART), an assessment of crystallized intelligence. Compared to women, men were more likely to have had poor performance for verbal episodic memory, Odds Ratio, OR = 1.99 (95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI 1.72, 2.31), attention OR = 1.62, (95% CI 1.39, 1.88) and prospective memory OR = 1.46, (95% CI 1.29, 1.64); however, no sex difference was observed for global cognition, OR = 1.07 (95%CI 0.93, 1.24). The association with education was strongest for NART, and weakest for processing speed. Conclusion Age, sex, education and social class were all independently associated with performance on cognitive tests assessing a range of different domains. However, the magnitude of associations of these factors with different cognitive tests differed. The varying relationships seen across different tests may help explain discrepancies in results reported in the current

  12. Association of 12 h shifts and nurses’ job satisfaction, burnout and intention to leave: findings from a cross-sectional study of 12 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Ora, Chiara; Griffiths, Peter; Ball, Jane; Simon, Michael; Aiken, Linda H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives 12 h shifts are becoming increasingly common for hospital nurses but there is concern that long shifts adversely affect nurses’ well-being, job satisfaction and intention to leave their job. The aim of this study is to examine the association between working long shifts and burnout, job dissatisfaction, dissatisfaction with work schedule flexibility and intention to leave current job among hospital nurses. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 31 627 registered nurses in 2170 general medical/surgical units within 488 hospitals across 12 European countries. Results Nurses working shifts of ≥12 h were more likely than nurses working shorter hours (≤8) to experience burnout, in terms of emotional exhaustion (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.26; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.46), depersonalisation (aOR=1.21; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) and low personal accomplishment (aOR=1.39; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.62). Nurses working shifts of ≥12 h were more likely to experience job dissatisfaction (aOR=1.40; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.62), dissatisfaction with work schedule flexibility (aOR=1.15; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.35) and report intention to leave their job due to dissatisfaction (aOR=1.29; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.48). Conclusions Longer working hours for hospital nurses are associated with adverse outcomes for nurses. Some of these adverse outcomes, such as high burnout, may pose safety risks for patients as well as nurses. PMID:26359284

  13. Patient preference and ease of use for different coagulation factor VIII reconstitution device scenarios: a cross-sectional survey in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Ernesto; Linari, Silvia; Malerba, Mara; Halimeh, Susan; Biondo, Francesca; Westfeld, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A treatment involves replacing the deficient coagulation factor VIII. This process may involve multiple steps that might create a barrier to adherence. A new dual-chamber syringe (DCS; FuseNGo®) was recently introduced with the aim of simplifying reconstitution. Aim This study aimed to identify factors associated with adult patients’ preferences for different coagulation factor VIII reconstitution systems and to test ease of use and patient preference for the DCS. Methods A cross-sectional survey of adults with hemophilia A in five European countries was conducted; a subset of subjects also participated in a practical testing session of the DCS. Results Among the 299 survey participants, the device scenario requiring the least equipment and reconstitution steps (the DCS) received a median preference rating of 71 out of 100 (0 being “the least desirable” and 100 “the most desirable” rating). This was significantly higher than the other scenarios (the next highest achieved a median of 50 points; P<0.001). Participants would be more likely to use this device prophylactically (P<0.001). Among the 98 participants who tested the DCS, 57% preferred this device over their current device, 26% preferred their current device, and 17% had no preference. The DCS was rated as easier to use than current treatment devices (median score 9/10 versus 7/10 for current treatment, P=0.001). Conclusion The survey indicates that the prefilled DCS, FuseNGo®, requiring the least equipment and fewest reconstitution steps, was preferred by patients and was the device most likely to be used prophylactically; the practical device testing supports these results. PMID:25525348

  14. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35-74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Weber, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn E T; Jansen, Eugène; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Fiegl, Simone; Toussaint, Olivier; Bernhardt, Juergen; Gonos, Efstathios S; Franceschi, Claudio; Sikora, Ewa; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-09-30

    Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = -0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = -0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (-6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m²)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (-4.8% vs. -3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene.

  15. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Weber, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; Jansen, Eugène; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Fiegl, Simone; Toussaint, Olivier; Bernhardt, Juergen; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sikora, Ewa; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = −0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = −0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (−6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m2)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (−4.8% vs. −3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene. PMID:27706032

  16. Exposure to aircraft and road traffic noise and associations with heart disease and stroke in six European countries: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a number of studies have found an association between aircraft noise and hypertension, there is a lack of evidence on associations with other cardiovascular disease. For road traffic noise, more studies are available but the extent of possible confounding by air pollution has not been established. Methods This study used data from the Hypertension and Environmental Noise near Airports (HYENA) study. Cross-sectional associations between self-reported ‘heart disease and stroke’ and aircraft noise and road traffic noise were examined using data collected between 2004 and 2006 on 4712 participants (276 cases), who lived near airports in six European countries (UK, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Greece, Italy). Data were available to assess potential confounding by NO2 air pollution in a subsample of three countries (UK, Netherlands, Sweden). Results An association between night-time average aircraft noise and ‘heart disease and stroke’ was found after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders for participants who had lived in the same place for ≥ 20 years (odds ratio (OR): 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.51) per 10 dB (A)); this association was robust to adjustment for exposure to air pollution in the subsample. 24 hour average road traffic noise exposure was associated with ‘heart disease and stroke’ (OR: 1.19 (95% CI 1.00, 1.41), but adjustment for air pollution in the subsample suggested this may have been due to confounding by air pollution. Statistical assessment (correlations and variance inflation factor) suggested only modest collinearity between noise and NO2 exposures. Conclusions Exposure to aircraft noise over many years may increase risks of heart disease and stroke, although more studies are needed to establish how much the risks associated with road traffic noise may be explained by air pollution. PMID:24131577

  17. Exposure to aircraft and road traffic noise and associations with heart disease and stroke in six European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Floud, Sarah; Blangiardo, Marta; Clark, Charlotte; de Hoogh, Kees; Babisch, Wolfgang; Houthuijs, Danny; Swart, Wim; Pershagen, Göran; Katsouyanni, Klea; Velonakis, Manolis; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Cadum, Ennio; Hansell, Anna L

    2013-10-16

    Although a number of studies have found an association between aircraft noise and hypertension, there is a lack of evidence on associations with other cardiovascular disease. For road traffic noise, more studies are available but the extent of possible confounding by air pollution has not been established. This study used data from the Hypertension and Environmental Noise near Airports (HYENA) study. Cross-sectional associations between self-reported 'heart disease and stroke' and aircraft noise and road traffic noise were examined using data collected between 2004 and 2006 on 4712 participants (276 cases), who lived near airports in six European countries (UK, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Greece, Italy). Data were available to assess potential confounding by NO2 air pollution in a subsample of three countries (UK, Netherlands, Sweden). An association between night-time average aircraft noise and 'heart disease and stroke' was found after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders for participants who had lived in the same place for ≥ 20 years (odds ratio (OR): 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.51) per 10 dB (A)); this association was robust to adjustment for exposure to air pollution in the subsample. 24 hour average road traffic noise exposure was associated with 'heart disease and stroke' (OR: 1.19 (95% CI 1.00, 1.41), but adjustment for air pollution in the subsample suggested this may have been due to confounding by air pollution. Statistical assessment (correlations and variance inflation factor) suggested only modest collinearity between noise and NO2 exposures. Exposure to aircraft noise over many years may increase risks of heart disease and stroke, although more studies are needed to establish how much the risks associated with road traffic noise may be explained by air pollution.

  18. Estimating the prevalence and impact of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in 2 European countries: a cross-sectional patient survey.

    PubMed

    Williams, Valerie S L; Baldwin, David S; Hogue, Susan L; Fehnel, Sheri E; Hollis, Kelly A; Edin, Heather M

    2006-02-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of antidepressant treatment, but recognition of the problem is variable. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and impact of sexual dysfunction during antidepressant treatment in 2 European countries. A cross-sectional survey of 502 adults in France and the United Kingdom. All participants were diagnosed with depression and taking a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), starting within the previous 3 months. Information was gathered about other medications and conditions known to impair sexual functioning, recent changes in sexual functioning, and the impact of any changes. The Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale were administered to measure health status and sexual functioning. Data were collected from June to July of 2002. Applying a prevalence estimate algorithm, 26.6% of the French sample and 39.2% of the U.K. sample were classified as having antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction; 34.2% of men and 32.5% of women were classified with antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. There was no clear pattern of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction related to specific antidepressants. Patients with antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction reported that changes in sexual functioning negatively affected their self-esteem, mood, and relationships with sexual partners. 23.8% of the French sample and 25.2% of the U.K. sample reported that they perceived that their partner was dissatisfied with their sex life. The prevalence of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in this study is similar to previous estimates reported in the literature. The impact of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction is substantial and negatively affects quality of life, self-esteem, mood, and relationships with sexual partners.

  19. Osteoarthritis. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Ilieva, E M; Oral, A; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the PRM interventions. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder and the major cause of musculoskeletal pain and limited mobility in the elderly in the world. Therefore, proper management of persons with OA is of substantial importance. The goal of OA management is to reduce the impact of OA on the individual by reducing pain and improving function, activities and participation. The aim of this paper is to descibe the explicit role of PRM physicians in providing management for persons with OA. The optimal management of OA requires the combination of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches, an issue most of the main guidelines on the evidence-based management of OA share in common. There is good level of evidence about the effectiveness of PRM interventions in the management of OA: high level of evidence about the effect of education, weight reduction and exercise and growing evidence about the effectiveness of physical agent modalities. PRM specialists are involved not only in diagnosis and medical and physical treatments of OA, but, as a rehabilitation strategy, they also deal with the problems of the person focusing on the improvement of all components of human functioning as defined in the ICF including personal and environmental factors with a holistic approach. ICF core sets for OA serve as excellent models for directing proper assessments as well as targeting interventions. PRM specialists well meet the needs of people with OA from the early stages

  20. Osteoporosis. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Oral, A; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Ilieva, E M; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. A wide range of health conditions treated by PRM specialists carries the risk of osteoporosis (OP). The consequences of OP may be associated with significant disability. The aim of this paper is: to define the role of PRM physicians in the prevention and management of OP, to describe the needs of people with OP in relation to rehabilitation strategy, and to highlight why and how PRM physicians should be involved in the diagnosis and management of OP. PRM physicians may intervene in the prevention of and risk factor assessment for OP, falls and fractures along with other assessments of functioning and of quality of life. In addition, they are involved in diagnosis and in both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment of OP. From a specific PRM perspective based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), there is an important role in optimizing functioning and promoting "activities and participation", including interventions associated with environmental factors for people with OP or osteoporotic fractures. Evidence suggests that a large number of interventions within the scope of PRM that range from preventive strategies (including education and self management and most importantly exercise) to pain management strategies and spinal orthoses or hip protectors may be effective in the prevention and/or management of OP and its sequelae. Competencies and aptitudes of PRM specialists, focusing especially on functioning while

  1. Medicinal plants of the Achuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador: ethnobotanical survey and comparison with other Amazonian pharmacopoeias.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Peter

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents the first ethnobotanical survey conducted among the Achuar (Jivaro), indigenous people living in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The aims of this study are: (a) to present and discuss Achuar medicinal plant knowledge in the context of the epidemiology of this population (b) to compare the use of Achuar medicinal plants with the uses reported among the Shuar Jivaro and other Amazonian peoples. The author conducted field research in 9 indigenous villages in the region of Morona Santiago and Pastaza in Ecuador. Semi-structured interviews on local illnesses and herbal remedies were carried out with 82 informants and plant specimens were collected and later identified in Quito. A literature research was conducted on the medicinal species reported by Achuar people during this study. The most reported medicinal plants are species used by the Achuar to treat diarrhoea, parasites infection, fractures, wounds, and snakebites. Informants reported the use of 134 medicinal species for a total of 733 recorded use-reports. Of these 134 species, 44 are reported at least 3 times for one or more specific disease condition for a total of 56 uses. These species are considered a core kit of medicinal plants of the Achuar of Ecuador. Most of these medicinal species are widely used in the Amazon rainforest and in many other parts of Latin America. The author documented a core kit of 44 medicinal plants used among the Achuar of Ecuador and found that this core set of medicinal plants reflects local epidemiological concerns and the pharmacopoeias of the Shuar and other Amazonian groups. These findings suggest that inter-group diffusion of medicinal plant knowledge had a prominent role in the acquisition of current Achuar knowledge of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    move forward separately. Thus, we wanted the meeting to encourage the cross-fertilization of ideas of all the people involved and active in the areas of optics, photonics, microelectronics and materials, by gathering together theoreticians, experimentalists and those interested in industrial applications. For these reasons the conference programme focused on fundamental as well as more applied topics. Photonic crystals, non-linear and quantum optics in micro-devices, nanophotonic-based devices, silicon-based optoelectronics and MOEMS, microsensors, biochips and the new characterization methods for materials and devices were among the hot topics of the conference. Special emphasis was also given to industrial applications and to technologies enabling the production of microsytems and their sub-components. In this special section of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, a series of interesting papers has been collected, reporting progress in the different aspects of microsystems design, production, characterization and testing. The papers embrace most of the various topics that were debated during the conference. We hope that these papers will not only report the most up-to-date research progress made in this field, but will also involve and stimulate everyone working in these areas to continue in the effort of developing more and better optical microsystems in the future. We would like to thank all the members of the Scientific and Industrial Committees for the high scientific content of the meeting and the European Optical Society for its support of the conference organization.

  3. Country-level and individual correlates of overweight and obesity among primary school children: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Olaya, Beatriz; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Eke, Ceyda; Goelitz, Dietmar; Keyes, Katherine M; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Haro, Josep Maria; Kovess, Viviane

    2015-05-08

    The present study aims to estimate childhood overweight and obesity prevalence and their association with individual and population-level correlates in Eastern and Western European countries. Data were obtained from the School Children Mental Health in Europe, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010 in Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania and Turkey. The sample consists of 5,206 school children aged 6 to 11 years old. Information on socio-demographics, children's height and weight, life-style and parental attitude were reported by the mothers. Country-level indicators were obtained through several data banks. Overweight and obesity in children were calculated according to the international age and gender-specific child Body Mass Index cut-off points. Multivariable logistic regression models included socio-demographic, lifestyle, mothers' attitude, and country-level indicators to examine the correlates of overweight. Overall prevalence was 15.6% (95% CI = 19.3-21.7%) for overweight and 4.9% (95% CI = 4.3-5.6%) for obesity. In overweight (including obesity), Romanian children had the highest prevalence (31.4%, 95% CI = 28.1-34.6%) and Italian the lowest (10.4%, 95% CI = 8.1-12.6%). Models in the pooled sample showed that being younger (aOR = 0.93, 95% = CI 0.87-0.97), male (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07-1.43), an only child (aOR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.07-1.84), spending more hours per week watching TV (aOR = 1.01, 95% CI =1.002-1.03), and living in an Eastern Country were associated with greater risk of childhood overweight (including obesity). The same predictors were significantly associated with childhood overweight in the model conducted in the Eastern region, but not in the West. Higher Gross Domestic Product and Real Domestic Product, greater number of motor and passenger vehicles, higher percentage of energy available from fat, and more public sector expenditure on health were also associated with lower risk for childhood overweight after

  4. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children’s energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children’s soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children’s sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Results Economic factors were found to be associated with children’s sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children’s soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents’ financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419) of children’s sports activities. Children’s pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the

  5. A cross-sectional survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding seasonal influenza vaccination among European travellers to resource-limited destinations.

    PubMed

    Pfeil, Alena; Mütsch, Margot; Hatz, Christoph; Szucs, Thomas D

    2010-07-07

    Influenza is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in travellers. By performing two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys during winter 2009 and winter 2010 among European travellers to resource-limited destinations, we aimed to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding seasonal influenza vaccination. Questionnaires were distributed in the waiting room to the visitors of the University of Zurich Centre for Travel' Health (CTH) in January and February 2009 and January 2010 prior to travel health counselling (CTH09 and CTH10). Questions included demographic data, travel-related characteristics and KAP regarding influenza vaccination. Data were analysed by using SPSS version 14.0 for Windows. Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-square test and the significance level was set at p 64 yrs (25, 21%) and recommendations of the family physician (27, 22.7%) were the most often reported reasons for being vaccinated. In the multiple logistic regression analyses of the pooled data increasing age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.04), a business trip (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.17 - 0.92) and seasonal influenza vaccination in the previous winter seasons (OR = 12.91, 95% CI 8.09 - 20.58) were independent predictors for seasonal influenza vaccination in 2009 or 2010.Influenza vaccination recommended by the family doctor (327, 37.7%), travel to regions with known high risk of influenza (305, 35.1%), and influenza vaccination required for job purposes (233

  6. A cross-sectional survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding seasonal influenza vaccination among European travellers to resource-limited destinations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Influenza is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in travellers. By performing two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys during winter 2009 and winter 2010 among European travellers to resource-limited destinations, we aimed to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding seasonal influenza vaccination. Methods Questionnaires were distributed in the waiting room to the visitors of the University of Zurich Centre for Travel' Health (CTH) in January and February 2009 and January 2010 prior to travel health counselling (CTH09 and CTH10). Questions included demographic data, travel-related characteristics and KAP regarding influenza vaccination. Data were analysed by using SPSS® version 14.0 for Windows. Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-square test and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Predictors for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination were determined by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results With a response rate of 96.6%, 906 individuals were enrolled and 868 (92.5%) provided complete data. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage was 13.7% (n = 119). Only 43 (14.2%) participants were vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1, mostly having received both vaccines simultaneously, the seasonal and pandemic one. Job-related purposes (44, 37%), age > 64 yrs (25, 21%) and recommendations of the family physician (27, 22.7%) were the most often reported reasons for being vaccinated. In the multiple logistic regression analyses of the pooled data increasing age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.04), a business trip (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.17 - 0.92) and seasonal influenza vaccination in the previous winter seasons (OR = 12.91, 95% CI 8.09 - 20.58) were independent predictors for seasonal influenza vaccination in 2009 or 2010. Influenza vaccination recommended by the family doctor (327, 37.7%), travel to regions with known high risk of influenza (305, 35.1%), and influenza vaccination

  7. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children's energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Bere, Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Maes, Lea; Manios, Yannis; Martens, Marloes K; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Singh, Amika S; te Velde, Saskia; Brug, Johannes

    2012-11-21

    To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children's soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children's sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Economic factors were found to be associated with children's sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children's soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents' financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419) of children's sports activities. Children's pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the responding children reported to expect that

  8. Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vereecken, Carine; Kersting, Mathilde; Bolca, Selin; de Moraes, Augusto César F; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Moreno, Luis A; González-Gross, Marcela; Valtueña, Jara; Labayen, Idoia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Hallstrom, Lena; Leclercq, Catherine; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Beghin, Laurent; Manios, Yannis; Ottevaere, Charlene; Van Oyen, Herman; Molnar, Denes; Kafatos, Anthony; Widhalm, Kurt; Gómez-Martinez, Sonia; Prieto, Ligia Esperanza Díaz; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-01-21

    Previous studies suggest that dietary protein might play a beneficial role in combating obesity and its related chronic diseases. Total, animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with anthropometry and serum biomarkers in European adolescents using one standardised methodology across European countries are not well documented. To evaluate total, animal and plant protein intakes in European adolescents stratified by gender and age, and to investigate their associations with cardio-metabolic indicators (anthropometry and biomarkers). The current analysis included 1804 randomly selected adolescents participating in the HELENA study (conducted in 2006-2007) aged 12.5-17.5 y (47% males) who completed two non-consecutive computerised 24-h dietary recalls. Associations between animal and plant protein intakes, and anthropometry and serum biomarkers were examined with General linear Model multivariate analysis. Average total protein intake exceeded the recommendations of World Health Organization and European Food Safety Authority. Mean total protein intake was 96 g/d (59% derived from animal protein). Total, animal and plant protein intakes (g/d) were significantly lower in females than in males and total and plant protein intakes were lower in younger participants (12.5-14.9 y). Protein intake was significantly lower in underweight subjects and higher in obese ones; the direction of the relationship was reversed after adjustments for body weight (g/(kg.d)). The inverse association of plant protein intakes was stronger with BMI z-score and body fat percentage (BF%) compared to animal protein intakes. Additionally, BMI and BF% were positively associated with energy percentage of animal protein. This sample of European adolescents appeared to have adequate total protein intake. Our findings suggest that plant protein intakes may play a role in preventing obesity among European adolescents. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the potential

  9. Relationship of body fat and body mass index in young Pacific Islanders: a cross-sectional study in European, Melanesian and Polynesian groups.

    PubMed

    Frayon, S; Cherrier, S; Cavaloc, Y; Wattelez, G; Lerrant, Y; Galy, O

    2017-07-28

    Body mass index is the most often used indicator of obesity but does not distinguish between lean and fat mass. Adiposity at the same body mass index differs across ethnic groups. The twofold aim of this study was to determine whether body mass index (BMI)-based references are correlated with body fat percentage (%BF) in a pluri-ethnic population of Pacific Islanders and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these references by using the percentage of body fat as the gold standard. Height and weight were obtained, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were measured in a sample of 796 adolescents (11-16 years) from the three main ethnic groups in New Caledonia: Melanesian, European and Polynesian. %BF was derived from the Slaughter equations, and BMI z score was calculated by using various international and national references. Melanesian teens had lower %BF compared with their European counterparts for the same BMI z score. Whatever the BMI-based reference used to detect overfatness (%BF >25% for boys and >30% for girls), sensitivity was higher in Melanesian adolescents, while specificity was higher in their European counterparts. Diagnostic accuracy was better in Melanesian compared with European adolescents. This study shows that Melanesian adolescents have lower %BF than their European counterparts for the same BMI z score. Therefore, the diagnostic accuracy of BMI to detect overfatness is related to ethnicity. Whatever the BMI-based reference, sensitivity was higher in the Melanesian group, while specificity was higher in the European group. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Do ferns and lycophytes function as medicinal plants? A study of their low representation in traditional pharmacopoeias.

    PubMed

    Reinaldo, Rafael Corrêa Prota dos Santos; Santiago, Augusto César Pessôa; Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2015-12-04

    Ethnobotany is becoming an important tool for understanding how traditional medical systems are organized and which variables affect their structure and dynamics. However, some phenomena observed in ethnobotanical studies led us to question whether such phenomena are real or methodological artifacts. The small proportion of ferns and lycophytes in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants is one such phenomenon, and its causes should be identified using different approach levels. The present study aimed to clarify the reasons for a low representation of these two groups in studies of medicinal plants. The present study considered the following hypotheses: 1) ferns and lycophytes are little represented in different ethnobotanical studies because of inadequate data collection methods to record these species; 2) ferns and lycophytes are little represented because of the local perception of their low therapeutic efficacy; and 3) species of ferns and lycophytes are represented in local pharmacopoeias in proportion to the size of their families. We chose rural communities from Chapada do Araripe, Northeast Brazil to test our hypotheses. Data on the medicinal plant repertoires of the communities and on the perceived therapeutic efficacy of ferns were obtained using two different methods, semi-structured interviews associated with free lists and a checklist interview, both applied to local specialists. The resulting data were analyzed differently for each test. In addition, data regarding the total flora x medicinal flora ratio were obtained with a floristic survey and accessing data banks from previous studies performed by our research team. All hypotheses were confirmed, showing that all three factors contributed to the low representation of these plant groups as medicinal resources. The present study showed that free-list interviews are not a good method to access traditional knowledge of medicinal ferns and lycophytes and that the use of visual stimuli can help the

  11. Comparison of temperature rise interpretations in the rabbit pyrogen test among Chinese, Japanese, European, and United States pharmacopeias and 2-2-2 theoretical models proposed by S. Hoffmann.

    PubMed

    Du, Ying; Li, Xiu-Ji; Tan, De-Jiang

    2011-10-01

    Although the rabbit pyrogen test is one of the crucial methods included in each pharmacopeia to evaluate the safety of parenteral medicine, the experimental procedures and pyrogen result judgment algorithms (PRJAs) are still greatly different from one another. In the first stage of testing, original data of 879 batches from a total of 2637 rabbits in our laboratory were judged by PRJAs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 III, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XIV, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XV, the European Pharmacopeia 6.0, the United States Pharmacopoeia 32 NF27 and two theoretical models proposed by S. Hoffmann, respectively. The results were analyzed to evaluate the effects of various PRJAs. It was shown that: (i) the significant differences in the results judged by various pharmacopeias and Hoffmann's theoretical models were mainly due to the PRJAs and the great differences in PRJAs should be harmonized throughout the world based on balance of reducing animal use and guaranteeing the safety of medicines; (ii) it is better to use PRJAs that depend on the threshold of the sum of temperature rise of all tested rabbits than those that depend on the number of rabbits that are over the threshold of temperature rise of individual rabbit according to clinical proof and the experimental data; and (iii) the PRJA of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XV has obvious advantages when the total suspicious rate of samples was less than 10%. Additionally, a new PRJA designed for reducing the additional experiment stages and animal consumption is promoted for evaluation.

  12. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  13. Ebola response missions: to go or not to go? Cross-sectional study on the motivation of European public health experts, December 2014.

    PubMed

    Rexroth, U; Diercke, M; Peron, E; Winter, C; an der Heiden, M; Gilsdorf, A

    2015-03-26

    We surveyed European infectious disease epidemiologists and microbiologists about their decisions to apply for Ebola response missions. Of 368 respondents, 49 (15%) had applied. Applicants did not differ from non-applicants in terms of age, sex or profession but had more training in field epidemiology and more international experience. Common concerns included lack of support from families and employers. Clearer terms of reference and support from employers could motivate application and support outbreak response in West Africa.

  14. Review of the therapeutic management of Parkinson's disease. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Movement Disorder Society-European Section. Part I: early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Horstink, M; Tolosa, E; Bonuccelli, U; Deuschl, G; Friedman, A; Kanovsky, P; Larsen, J P; Lees, A; Oertel, W; Poewe, W; Rascol, O; Sampaio, C

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease (PD), based on a review of the literature. Uncomplicated PD refers to patients suffering from the classical motor syndrome of PD only, without treatment-induced motor complications and without neuropsychiatric or autonomic problems. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) database literature searches were conducted. National guidelines were requested from all European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) societies. Non-European guidelines were searched for using MEDLINE. Part I of the guidelines deals with prevention of disease progression, symptomatic treatment of motor features (parkinsonism), and prevention of motor and neuropsychiatric complications of therapy. For each topic, a list of therapeutic interventions is provided, including classification of evidence. Following this, recommendations for management are given, alongside ratings of efficacy. Classifications of evidence and ratings of efficacy are made according to EFNS guidance. In cases where there is insufficient scientific evidence, a consensus statement (good practice point) is made.

  15. The relationship between maternal depression and smoking cessation during pregnancy--a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from 15 European countries.

    PubMed

    Smedberg, Janne; Lupattelli, Angela; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Øverland, Simon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy. However, differences in study design and methodology challenge study comparability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and continuing smoking among pregnant European women while adjusting for maternal characteristics. This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data on depression status, smoking habits, maternal socio-demographic characteristics, and life-style factors were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Associations were estimated with logistic regression. Of 4,295 women included, 1,481 (34.5 %) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 391 (26.4 %) continued smoking during pregnancy whereof 127 (32.5 %) were depressed. The association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy were uniform across the European countries (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.50-2.71), with about twice the prevalence of continuing smoking among the depressed. There was a strong relationship between continuing smoking in pregnancy and low education level (OR 4.46, 95 % CI 2.72-7.32), which coincided with risky pregnancy behavior such as failure to attend pregnancy/birth preparation courses (OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.19-2.72) and follow recommended use of folic acid (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.23-2.65). Women who perceived the risk for the fetus of continued smoking during pregnancy as higher were the least likely to continue smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.68-0.77). This underlines the clustering of risk in some pregnant women, and the results should guide antenatal care of depressed women struggling to quit smoking during pregnancy.

  16. Harassment among university hospital physicians in four European cities. Results from a cross-sectional study in Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Italy (the HOUPE study).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Aasland, Olaf Gjerlöw; Fridner, Ann; Lövseth, Lise Tevik

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cross-national study was to identify work-related factors related to the prevalence of harassment, and identify potential similarities and differences in harassment levels and appointed perpetrators within the same professional group across four European cities. 2078 physicians working in university hospitals in Trondheim, Stockholm, Reykjavik, and Padova participated in the study. Questionnaire comprised items on direct and indirect experience of workplace harassment, appointed perpetrators, psychosocial work environment and basic socio-demographics. Harassment was found to be a relatively frequent work environment problem among physicians in all four European cities, with particular high levels in Padova. Role conflict, human resource primacy, empowerment leadership, and control over work pace were all found to be significantly related to workplace harassment. Differences in harassment prevalence and perpetrators indicated a cultural difference between the Italian and the Nordic hospitals. Harassment followed the line of command in Padova in contrast to being a horizontal phenomenon in the Scandinavian hospitals. This may be explained by national differences in organizational systems and traditions. In order to decrease harassment level and create a positive and productive work environment, each organization must employ different strategies in accordance with their harassment patterns.

  17. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in physical fitness among children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Kerry, S R; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Brage, S; Westgate, K L; Ekelund, U; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied physical fitness in UK children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary schools in the UK. Participants 1625 children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin in the UK studied between 2006 and 2007. Outcome measures A step test assessed submaximal physical fitness from which estimated VO2 max was derived. Ethnic differences in estimated VO2 max were estimated using multilevel linear regression allowing for clustering at school level and adjusting for age, sex and month as fixed effects. Results The study response rate was 63%. In adjusted analyses, boys had higher levels of estimated VO2 max than girls (mean difference 3.06 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.47, p<0.0001). Levels of estimated VO2 max were lower in South Asians than those in white Europeans (mean difference −0.79 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI −1.41 to −0.18, p=0.01); levels of estimated VO2 max in black African–Caribbeans were higher than those in white Europeans (mean difference 0.60 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.17, p=0.04); these patterns were similar in boys and girls. The lower estimated VO2 max in South Asians, compared to white Europeans, was consistent among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi children and was attenuated by 78% after adjustment for objectively measured physical activity (average daily steps). Conclusions South Asian children have lower levels of physical fitness than white Europeans and black African–Caribbeans in the UK. This ethnic difference in physical fitness is at least partly explained by ethnic differences in physical activity. PMID:27324713

  18. Characteristics of women who continue smoking during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some women continue smoking during pregnancy despite the extensive information available on the dangers smoking poses to their fetus. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and determinants of smoking before and during pregnancy and the extent of smoking during pregnancy from a European perspective in relation to maternal sociodemographic characteristics, health literacy, morbidity, and pregnancy-related factors. Methods This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Results Of 8344 women included, 2944 (35.3%) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 771 (26.2%) continued smoking during pregnancy, 88 (11.4%) of whom smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day. There was a wide variation among the 15 European countries in smoking rates before and during pregnancy, ranging from 25.0% (Sweden) to 50.0% (Croatia) before and 4.2% (Iceland) to 18.9% (Croatia) during pregnancy. Women who lived in Eastern Europe, without a spouse/partner, with a low education level and unplanned pregnancy, who did not take folic acid, and consumed alcohol during pregnancy were the most likely to smoke before pregnancy. Women who lived in Eastern or Western Europe, without a spouse/partner, with a low education level and health literacy, being a housewife, having previous children and unplanned pregnancy, and who did not take folic acid were the most likely to continue smoking during pregnancy. Women who smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy were the most likely to be living in Eastern Europe and to have a low education level. Conclusion Women with fewer resources living in Western or Eastern Europe are more likely not only to smoke before pregnancy but also to continue smoking during pregnancy. These high-risk women are characterized as living alone, having high school or less as highest education level

  19. Changes in government spending on healthcare and population mortality in the European union, 1995-2010: a cross-sectional ecological study.

    PubMed

    Budhdeo, Sanjay; Watkins, Johnathan; Atun, Rifat; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Maruthappu, Mahiben

    2015-12-01

    Economic measures such as unemployment and gross domestic product are correlated with changes in health outcomes. We aimed to examine the effects of changes in government healthcare spending, an increasingly important measure given constrained government budgets in several European Union countries. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the effect of changes in healthcare spending as a proportion of total government expenditure, government healthcare spending as a proportion of gross domestic product and government healthcare spending measured in purchasing power parity per capita, on five mortality indicators. Additional variables were controlled for to ensure robustness of data. One to five year lag analyses were conducted. European Union countries 1995-2010. Neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, one to five years of age mortality, under five years of age mortality, adult male mortality, adult female mortality. A 1% decrease in government healthcare spending was associated with significant increase in all mortality metrics: neonatal mortality (coefficient -0.1217, p = 0.0001), postneonatal mortality (coefficient -0.0499, p = 0.0018), one to five years of age mortality (coefficient -0.0185, p = 0.0002), under five years of age mortality (coefficient -0.1897, p = 0.0003), adult male mortality (coefficient -2.5398, p = 0.0000) and adult female mortality (coefficient -1.4492, p = 0.0000). One per cent decrease in healthcare spending, measured as a proportion of gross domestic product and in purchasing power parity, was both associated with significant increases (p < 0.05) in all metrics. Five years after the 1% decrease in healthcare spending, significant increases (p < 0.05) continued to be observed in all mortality metrics. Decreased government healthcare spending is associated with increased population mortality in the short and long term. Policy interventions implemented in response to the financial crisis may be associated with worsening

  20. Occupational health legislation and practices related to seafarers on passenger ships focused on communicable diseases: results from a European cross-sectional study (EU SHIPSAN PROJECT)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Seafarers play an important role in the transmission of communicable diseases. The aim of the present study is to draw information and identify possible gaps on occupational health practices related to seafarers sailing on ships within the European Union Member States (EU MS) with focus on communicable diseases. Methods A structured questionnaire was sent to competent authorities from 21 EU MS. The questionnaire included questions about occupational health policies, medical certification of seafarers, communicable diseases reporting and relevant legislation. Descriptive analysis of the data was conducted by the use of Epi Info software: EU MS were categorized in four priority groups (A, B, C, D) based on: number of passenger ships visits, volume of passengers, and number of ports in each country. Moreover, EU MS were categorized to old and new, based on the date of entry in the EU. Results All 21 countries with relevant competent authorities responded to the questionnaire. The existence of specific national legislation/regulation/guidelines related to vaccination of seafarers was reported by three out of the 21 (14%) responding authorities. Surveillance data of communicable diseases related to seafarers are collected and analyzed by 4 (19%) authorities. Five out of 21 of the responding countries (24%) reported that tuberculin test result is required for the issuance of seafarer's medical certificate while a great variety of medical examination is required for the issuance of this certificate among countries. Gaps on occupational health services focused on communicable diseases related to maritime occupation have been reported by 33% of the responding countries. Responding authorities from Group A and B had the highest percentage of reported gaps followed by groups C and D. Old MS reported a higher frequency regarding gaps on occupational health services in comparison to new MS. Conclusion Our results revealed heterogeneity regarding occupational health

  1. Changes in government spending on healthcare and population mortality in the European union, 1995–2010: a cross-sectional ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Johnathan; Atun, Rifat; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Maruthappu, Mahiben

    2015-01-01

    Objective Economic measures such as unemployment and gross domestic product are correlated with changes in health outcomes. We aimed to examine the effects of changes in government healthcare spending, an increasingly important measure given constrained government budgets in several European Union countries. Design Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the effect of changes in healthcare spending as a proportion of total government expenditure, government healthcare spending as a proportion of gross domestic product and government healthcare spending measured in purchasing power parity per capita, on five mortality indicators. Additional variables were controlled for to ensure robustness of data. One to five year lag analyses were conducted. Setting and Participants European Union countries 1995–2010. Main outcome measures Neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, one to five years of age mortality, under five years of age mortality, adult male mortality, adult female mortality. Results A 1% decrease in government healthcare spending was associated with significant increase in all mortality metrics: neonatal mortality (coefficient −0.1217, p = 0.0001), postneonatal mortality (coefficient −0.0499, p = 0.0018), one to five years of age mortality (coefficient −0.0185, p = 0.0002), under five years of age mortality (coefficient −0.1897, p = 0.0003), adult male mortality (coefficient −2.5398, p = 0.0000) and adult female mortality (coefficient −1.4492, p = 0.0000). One per cent decrease in healthcare spending, measured as a proportion of gross domestic product and in purchasing power parity, was both associated with significant increases (p < 0.05) in all metrics. Five years after the 1% decrease in healthcare spending, significant increases (p < 0.05) continued to be observed in all mortality metrics. Conclusions Decreased government healthcare spending is associated with increased population mortality in

  2. Eating out is different from eating at home among individuals who occasionally eat out. A cross-sectional study among middle-aged adults from eleven European countries.

    PubMed

    Naska, Androniki; Katsoulis, Michail; Orfanos, Philippos; Lachat, Carl; Gedrich, Kurt; Rodrigues, Sara S P; Freisling, Heinz; Kolsteren, Patrick; Engeset, Dagrun; Lopes, Carla; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Wendt, Andrea; Knüppel, Sven; Turrini, Aida; Tumino, Rosario; Ocké, Marga C; Sekula, Wlodzimierz; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Key, Tim; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2015-06-28

    Eating out has been linked to the current obesity epidemic, but the evaluation of the extent to which out of home (OH) dietary intakes are different from those at home (AH) is limited. Data collected among 8849 men and 14,277 women aged 35-64 years from the general population of eleven European countries through 24-h dietary recalls or food diaries were analysed to: (1) compare food consumption OH to those AH; (2) describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, defined as those who consumed 25 % or more of their total daily energy intake at OH locations. Logistic regression models were fit to identify personal characteristics associated with eating out. In both sexes, beverages, sugar, desserts, sweet and savoury bakery products were consumed more OH than AH. In some countries, men reported higher intakes of fish OH than AH. Overall, substantial OH eating was more common among men, the younger and the more educated participants, but was weakly associated with total energy intake. The substantial OH eaters reported similar dietary intakes OH and AH. Individuals who were not identified as substantial OH eaters reported consuming proportionally higher quantities of sweet and savoury bakery products, soft drinks, juices and other non-alcoholic beverages OH than AH. The OH intakes were different from the AH ones, only among individuals who reported a relatively small contribution of OH eating to their daily intakes and this may partly explain the inconsistent findings relating eating out to the current obesity epidemic.

  3. The morbidity of laparoscopic radical cystectomy: analysis of postoperative complications in a multicenter cohort by the European Association of Urology (EAU)-Section of Uro-Technology.

    PubMed

    Albisinni, Simone; Oderda, Marco; Fossion, Laurent; Varca, Virginia; Rassweiler, Jens; Cathelineau, Xavier; Chlosta, Piotr; De la Taille, Alexandre; Gaboardi, Franco; Piechaud, Thierry; Rimington, Peter; Salomon, Laurent; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Teber, Dogu; Van Velthoven, Roland

    2016-02-01

    To analyze postoperative complications after laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) and evaluate its risk factors in a large prospective cohort built by the ESUT across European centers involved in minimally invasive urology in the last decade. Patients were prospectively enrolled, and data were retrospectively analyzed. Only oncologic cases were included. There were no formal contraindications for LRC: Also patients with locally advanced tumors (pT4a), serious comorbidities, and previous major abdominal surgery were enrolled. All procedures were performed via a standard laparoscopic approach, with no robotic assistance. Early and late postoperative complications were graded according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to explore possible risk factors for developing complications. A total of 548 patients were available for final analysis, of which 258 (47%) experienced early complications during the first 90 days after LRC. Infectious, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary were, respectively, the most frequent systems involved. Postoperative ileus occurred in 51/548 (9.3%) patients. A total of 65/548 (12%) patients underwent surgical re-operation, and 10/548 (2%) patients died in the early postoperative period. Increased BMI (p = 0.024), blood loss (p = 0.021), and neoadjuvant treatment (p = 0.016) were significantly associated with a greater overall risk of experiencing complications on multivariate logistic regression. Long-term complications were documented in 64/548 (12%), and involved mainly stenosis of the uretero-ileal anastomosis or incisional hernias. In this multicenter, prospective, large database, LRC appears to be a safe but morbid procedure. Standardized complication reporting should be encouraged to evaluate objectively a surgical procedure and permit comparison across studies.

  4. Relationship between perceived body weight and body mass index based on self- reported height and weight among university students: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite low rates of obesity, many university students perceive themselves as overweight, especially women. This is of concern, because inappropriate weight perceptions can lead to unhealthy behaviours including eating disorders. Methods We used the database from the Cross National Student Health Survey (CNSHS), consisting of 5,900 records of university students from Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Spain and Turkey to analyse differences in perceived weight status based on the question: "Do you consider yourself much too thin, a little too thin, just right, a little too fat or much too fat?". The association between perceived weight and body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported weight and height was assessed with generalized non-parametric regression in R library gam. Results Although the majority of students reported a normal BMI (72-84% of males, 65-83% of females), only 32% to 68% of students considered their weight "just right". Around 20% of females with BMI of 20 kg/m2 considered themselves "a little too fat" or "too fat", and the percentages increased to 60% for a BMI of 22.5 kg/m2. Male students rarely felt "a little too fat" or "too fat" below BMI of 22.5 kg/m2, but most felt too thin with a BMI of 20 kg/m2. Conclusions Weight ideals are rather uniform across the European countries, with female students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too fat" at a normal BMI, while male students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too thin". Programs to prevent unhealthy behaviours to achieve ill-advised weight ideals may benefit students. PMID:20105333

  5. Dysarthria in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a protocol for a binational, cross-sectional, case-controlled study in French and European Portuguese (FraLusoPark)

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Rita; Mercier, Céline; Santos, Helena; Atkinson-Clement, Cyril; Carvalho, Joana; Welby, Pauline; Oliveira, Pedro; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Frota, Sónia; Letanneux, Alban; Vigario, Marina; Cruz, Marisa; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Viallet, François

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have to deal with several aspects of voice and speech decline and thus alteration of communication ability during the course of the disease. Among these communication impairments, 3 major challenges include: (1) dysarthria, consisting of orofacial motor dysfunction and dysprosody, which is linked to the neurodegenerative processes; (2) effects of the pharmacological treatment, which vary according to the disease stage; and (3) particular speech modifications that may be language-specific, that is, dependent on the language spoken by the patients. The main objective of the FraLusoPark project is to provide a thorough evaluation of changes in PD speech as a result of pharmacological treatment and disease duration in 2 different languages (French vs European Portuguese). Methods and analysis Individuals with PD are enrolled in the study in France (N=60) and Portugal (N=60). Their global motor disability and orofacial motor functions is assessed with specific clinical rating scales, without (OFF) and with (ON) pharmacological treatment. 2 groups of 60 healthy age-matched volunteers provide the reference for between-group comparisons. Along with the clinical examinations, several speech tasks are recorded to obtain acoustic and perceptual measures. Patient-reported outcome measures are used to assess the psychosocial impact of dysarthria on quality of life. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the local responsible committees on human experimentation and is conducted in accordance with the ethical standards. A valuable large-scale database of speech recordings and metadata from patients with PD in France and Portugal will be constructed. Results will be disseminated in several articles in peer-reviewed journals and in conference presentations. Recommendations on how to assess speech and voice disorders in individuals with PD to monitor the progression and management of symptoms will be provided

  6. Association between grip strength and diabetes prevalence in black, South-Asian, and white European ethnic groups: a cross-sectional analysis of 418 656 participants in the UK Biobank study.

    PubMed

    Ntuk, U E; Celis-Morales, C A; Mackay, D F; Sattar, N; Pell, J P; Gill, J M R

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the extent to which ethnic differences in muscular strength might account for the substantially higher prevalence of diabetes in black and South-Asian compared with white European adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data from the UK Biobank study on 418 656 white European, black and South-Asian participants, aged 40-69 years, who had complete data on diabetes status and hand-grip strength. Associations between hand-grip strength and diabetes were assessed using logistic regression and were adjusted for potential confounding factors. Lower grip strength was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, independent of confounding factors, across all ethnicities in both men and women. Diabetes prevalence was approximately three- to fourfold higher in South-Asian and two- to threefold higher in black participants compared with white European participants across all levels of grip strength, but grip strength in South-Asian men and women was ~ 5-6 kg lower than in the other ethnic groups. Thus, the attributable risk for diabetes associated with low grip strength was substantially higher in South-Asian participants (3.9 and 4.2 cases per 100 men and women, respectively) than in white participants (2.0 and 0.6 cases per 100 men and women, respectively). Attributable risk associated with low grip strength was also high in black men (4.3 cases) but not in black women (0.4 cases). Low strength is associated with a disproportionately large number of diabetes cases in South-Asian men and women and in black men. Trials are needed to determine whether interventions to improve strength in these groups could help reduce ethnic inequalities in diabetes prevalence. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  7. Long-term analysis of oncological outcomes after laparoscopic radical cystectomy in Europe: results from a multicentre study by the European Association of Urology (EAU) section of Uro-technology.

    PubMed

    Albisinni, Simone; Rassweiler, Jens; Abbou, Clement-Claude; Cathelineau, Xavier; Chlosta, Piotr; Fossion, Laurent; Gaboardi, Franco; Rimington, Peter; Salomon, Laurent; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Teber, Dogu; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-06-01

    To report long-term outcomes of laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) in a multicentre European cohort, and explore feasibility and safety of LRC. This study was coordinated by European Association of Urology (EAU)-section of Uro-technology (ESUT) with nine centres enrolling 503 patients undergoing LRC for bladder cancer prospectively between 2000 and 2013. Data were retrospectively analysed. Descriptive statistics were used to explore peri- and postoperative characteristics of th ecohort. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to evaluate recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). Outcomes were also stratified according to tumour stage, lymph node (LN) involvement and surgical margin status. Minor complications (Clavien I-II) occurred in 39% and major (IIIa-IVb) in 17%. In all, 10 (2%) postoperative deaths were recorded. The median (interquartile, IQR) LN retrieval was 14 (9-17) and positive surgical margins were detected in 29 (5.8%) patients. The median (mean, IQR) follow-up was 50 (60, 19-90), during which 134 (27%) recurrences were detected. Actuarial RFS, CSS and OS rates were 66%, 75% and 62% at 5 years and 62%, 55%, 38% at 10 years. Significant differences in RFS, CSS and OS were found according to tumour stage, LN involvement and margin status (log-rank P < 0.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, T stage and LN involvement (both P < 0.001) were significant predictors of RFS, CSS and OS. Positive margins were significant predictors of RFS (P = 0.016) and CSS (P = 0.043). In this European LRC multicentre study, the largest to date, long-term RFS, CSS and OS rates after LRC appear comparable to those reported in current open RC series. Further randomised controlled trials are necessary to assess the global impact of LRC. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  8. Associations between Family-Related Factors, Breakfast Consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-Year-Old European Children: The Cross-Sectional ENERGY-Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Te Velde, Saskia J.; Verloigne, Maïté; Van Stralen, Maartje M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Jan, Nataša; Fernández Alvira, Juan M.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of family-related factors with children’s breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children’s breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children’s BMI-z-score. Subjects Ten- to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6±0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4±1.2) and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4±5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5±4.2 kg/m2) were recruited from schools in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland). The children self-reported their breakfast frequency per week. The body weight and height of the children were objectively measured. The parents responded to items on family factors related to breakfast (automaticity, availability, encouragement, paying attention, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, parental self-efficacy to address children’s nagging, praising, and family breakfast frequency). Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country). Results Three of the eleven family-related variables were significantly associated with children’s BMI-z-score. The family breakfast frequency was negatively associated with the BMI-z-score; permissiveness concerning skipping breakfast and negotiating about breakfast were positively associated with the BMI-z-score. Children’s breakfast consumption was found to be a mediator of the two associations. All family-related variables except for negotiating, praising and communicating health beliefs, were significantly associated with children’s breakfast consumption. Conclusions Future breakfast promotion and obesity prevention interventions should focus on family-related factors including the physical home environment and parenting practices. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and intervention studies to

  9. Ageing under unequal circumstances: a cross-sectional analysis of the gender and socioeconomic patterning of functional limitations among the Southern European elderly.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Alarcón, Manuel; Perelman, Julian

    2017-10-03

    In a context of population ageing, it is a priority for planning and prevention to understand the socioeconomic (SE) patterning of functional limitations and its consequences on healthcare needs. This paper aims at measuring the gender and SE inequalities in functional limitations and their age of onset among the Southern European elderly; then, we evaluate how functional status is linked to formal and informal care use. We used Portuguese, Italian and Spanish data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) of 2011 (n = 9233). We constructed a summary functional limitation score as the sum of two variables: i) Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and ii) Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). We modelled the functional limitation as a function of age, gender, education, subjective poverty, employment and marital status using multinomial logit models. We then estimated how functional limitation affected informal and formal care demand using negative binomial and logistic models. Women were 2.3 percentage points (pp) more likely to experience severe functional limitation than men, and overcame a 10% probability threshold of suffering from severe limitation around 5 years earlier. Subjective poverty was associated with a 3.1 pp. higher probability of severe functional limitation. Having a university degree reduced the probability of severe functional limitation by 3.5 pp. as compared to none educational level. Discrepancies were wider for the oldest old: women aged 65-79 years old were 3.3 pp. more likely to suffer severe limitations, the excess risk increasing to 15.5 pp. among those older than 80. Similarly, educational inequalities in functional limitation were wider at older ages. Being severely limited was related with a 32.1 pp. higher probability of receiving any informal care, as compared to those moderately limited. Finally, those severely limited had on average 3.2 hospitalization days and 4.6 doctor consultations more

  10. Ecological-level associations between highly processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations: results from a cross-sectional study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Byrnes, Graham; Deharveng, Geneviève; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Jenab, Mazda; Peeters, Petra H M; Ocké, Marga; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Jakszyn, Paula; González, Carlos A; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Martinez, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Suárez, Laudina Rodriguez; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Spencer, Elisabeth A; Crowe, Francesca L; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nöethlings, Ute; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Dimosthenis; Oustoglou, Erifili; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2011-11-01

    Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations.

  11. New geochronology of the Stalać section at the southern limit of European loess occurrence through pIR50IR290 dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bösken, Janina; Obreht, Igor; Klasen, Nicole; Zeeden, Christian; Marković, Slobodan B.; Hambach, Ulrich; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A new geochronology was established for the Stalać loess-paleosol section in central Serbia. The section is located in the Central Balkan, at the transition zone between Atlantic, continental and Mediterranean climate regimes and is therefore potentially extraordinary sensitive to past and present climatic changes. Especially in the context of early human migration, this region is not intensively studied and has potential to contribute valuable information. This is the reason why it is investigated in the frame of the CRC 806 "Our Way to Europe" project. This project focuses on the climatic changes and their influence on the dispersal of anatomically modern human (AMH). For the loess-paleosol sequence exposed in a quarry in Stalać, a multi-proxy approach combining geochemical and sedimentological analysis and luminescence dating is applied. This contribution focusses on the luminescence investigations. The luminescence characteristics of six samples were analyzed using the optically stimulated luminescence signal of quartz by means of the single-aliquot-regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol and the infrared stimulated signal of feldspar (within polymineral samples) by means of the post-infrared-infrared (pIRIR) protocol. While the fine quartz grain (4-11μm) samples show a preheat dependency of equivalent doses that makes them unsuitable for dating, the polymineral fine grain samples measured by pIR50IR290 behave satisfactorily: plateaus within a first IR stimulation temperature test, good dose recovery ratios, low residual doses, high precision and low uncertainty support the established age chronology ranging from 35.2 ± 1.8 ka to 168 ± 9 ka. A tephra within the MIS 6/L2 loess layer was bracket dated, and combining these ages suggests an age between ca. 140 and 175 ka (2σ). Based on the presented results we introduce a new geochronology of the Stalać section, indicating that the previously suggested correlative stratigraphy (Kostić and Protić, 2000) requires

  12. Musculoskeletal perioperative problems. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Varela, E; Oral, A; Ilieva, E; Küçükdeveci, A A; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the physical and rehabilitation medicine interventions. According to the UEMS-PRM section, the role of PRM physician in musculoskeletal perioperative settings has to be situated inside general pain management. Musculoskeletal surgery (MSS) represents a frequent medical situation among patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), in which PRM physicians need to be involved. A wide number of MSDs have to be operated in order to diminish disability and relieve symptoms, thus improving the patient´s functioning and social participation: Joint replacements, spine decompressions, vertebroplasties, internal fixation of unstable fractures, arthroscopies for tendon and joint repairs, and others. This paper describes the role of the PRM physician during the perioperative period. A well-coordinated rehabilitation programme followed by a good home rehabilitation programme results in pain reduction, faster recovery with better patient participation and increased cost effectiveness. PRM physicians have to identify patients at risk of continuing activity limitation and participation restriction who will benefit from an early rehabilitation process and formulate a PRM programme of care taking into account each patient's environmental factors.

  13. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population.

    PubMed

    Mone, I; Kraja, B; Bregu, A; Duraj, V; Sadiku, E; Hyska, J; Burazeri, G

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which included a population-based sample of 817 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana, the Albanian capital (333 men; overall mean age: 50.2 ± 18.7 years; overall response rate: 82%). Assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was based on Montreal definition. Participants were interviewed about their dietary patterns, which in the analysis was dichotomized into: predominantly Mediterranean (frequent consumption of composite/traditional dishes, fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and fish) versus largely non-Mediterranean (frequent consumption of red meat, fried food, sweets, and junk/fast food). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with the dietary patterns. Irrespective of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors including eating habits (meal regularity, eating rate, and meal-to-sleep interval), employment of a non-Mediterranean diet was positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease risk (fully adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.5). Our findings point to a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in transitional Albania. Findings from this study should be confirmed and expanded further in prospective studies in Albania and in other Mediterranean countries. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  14. Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours - the ENERGY cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    te Velde, Saskia J; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bere, Elling; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes

    2014-07-08

    The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10-12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place. Parental and friends norm and

  15. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the…

  16. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the…

  17. Prevalence and possible causes of anemia in the elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of a large European university hospital cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Veronika; Schruckmayer, Guenter; Sam, Ines; Kemmler, Georg; Stauder, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Background Anemia in later life is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and possible causes of anemia in the elderly in a well defined hospital cohort. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional, retrospective analysis included all inpatients and outpatients aged ≥64 years with complete blood counts treated at Innsbruck Medical University Hospital between October 1, 2004 and September 29, 2005 (n=19,758, median age 73 years). Results According to World Health Organization criteria, 21.1% of these patients were anemic, ie, 30.7% and 37.0% at 80+ years and 90+ years, respectively. The prevalence of anemia was significantly correlated with advanced age (r=0.21; P<0.001) and male sex (P<0.001). In anemic patients, renal insufficiency with a glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (11.3% versus 2.1%), hyperinflammation (62.1% versus 31.4%), absolute (14.4% versus 6.9%) or functional (28.2% versus 11.8%) iron deficiency, and folate deficiency (6.7% versus 3.0%) were observed significantly more often than in nonanemic subjects (P<0.001). The pathogenesis of anemia was multifactorial, with decreased renal function (glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2), signs of inflammation, and functional iron deficiency detected in 11.4% of anemic patients. Hemoglobin was significantly correlated with elevated C-reactive protein (r= −0.296; P<0.001) and low transferrin saturation (r=0.313; P<0.001). Mean corpuscular volume correlated only weakly with the various anemia subtypes. Cytopenias and morphologic alterations suggestive of underlying myelodysplastic syndromes were found in a substantial proportion of anemic patients, including thrombocytopenia (5.4%), leukopenia (8.26%), and macrocytic alterations (18.4%). Conclusion Anemia was frequently diagnosed in this series of elderly patients. Partly treatable nutritional deficiencies, such as iron or folate deficiency, were identified as possible

  18. Nursing skill mix in European hospitals: cross-sectional study of the association with mortality, patient ratings, and quality of care

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Linda H; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Bruyneel, Luk; McHugh, Matthew; Maier, Claudia B; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa; Ball, Jane E; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Sermeus, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of hospital nursing skill mix with patient mortality, patient ratings of their care and indicators of quality of care. Design Cross-sectional patient discharge data, hospital characteristics and nurse and patient survey data were merged and analysed using generalised estimating equations (GEE) and logistic regression models. Setting Adult acute care hospitals in Belgium, England, Finland, Ireland, Spain and Switzerland. Participants Survey data were collected from 13 077 nurses in 243 hospitals, and 18 828 patients in 182 of the same hospitals in the six countries. Discharge data were obtained for 275 519 surgical patients in 188 of these hospitals. Main outcome measures Patient mortality, patient ratings of care, care quality, patient safety, adverse events and nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Results Richer nurse skill mix (eg, every 10-point increase in the percentage of professional nurses among all nursing personnel) was associated with lower odds of mortality (OR=0.89), lower odds of low hospital ratings from patients (OR=0.90) and lower odds of reports of poor quality (OR=0.89), poor safety grades (OR=0.85) and other poor outcomes (0.80

  19. Nursing skill mix in European hospitals: cross-sectional study of the association with mortality, patient ratings, and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Linda H; Sloane, Douglas; Griffiths, Peter; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Bruyneel, Luk; McHugh, Matthew; Maier, Claudia B; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa; Ball, Jane E; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Sermeus, Walter

    2017-07-01

    To determine the association of hospital nursing skill mix with patient mortality, patient ratings of their care and indicators of quality of care. Cross-sectional patient discharge data, hospital characteristics and nurse and patient survey data were merged and analysed using generalised estimating equations (GEE) and logistic regression models. Adult acute care hospitals in Belgium, England, Finland, Ireland, Spain and Switzerland. Survey data were collected from 13 077 nurses in 243 hospitals, and 18 828 patients in 182 of the same hospitals in the six countries. Discharge data were obtained for 275 519 surgical patients in 188 of these hospitals. Patient mortality, patient ratings of care, care quality, patient safety, adverse events and nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Richer nurse skill mix (eg, every 10-point increase in the percentage of professional nurses among all nursing personnel) was associated with lower odds of mortality (OR=0.89), lower odds of low hospital ratings from patients (OR=0.90) and lower odds of reports of poor quality (OR=0.89), poor safety grades (OR=0.85) and other poor outcomes (0.80

  20. Spinal pain management. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Valero, R; Varela, E; Küçükdeveci, A A; Oral, A; Ilieva, E; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the PRM interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the role of PRM physicians in the management of spinal pain focusing particularly on low back pain and neck pain. These disorders are associated with significant disability that results in activity limitations and participation restrictions. A wide variety of PRM interventions including patient education, behavioural therapies, exercise, a number of physical modalities, manual techniques, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation may help patients with low back pain and cervical pain in improving their functioning. PRM physicians may address many of the problems encountered by these patients in many life areas taking the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a reference guide and may have an important role in improving the quality of their lives.

  1. Larix laricina, an Antidiabetic Alternative Treatment from the Cree of Northern Quebec Pharmacopoeia, Decreases Glycemia and Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Harbilas, Despina; Vallerand, Diane; Brault, Antoine; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T.; Musallam, Lina; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2012-01-01

    Larix laricina K. Koch is a medicinal plant belonging to traditional pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (Eastern James Bay area of Canada). In vitro screening studies revealed that, like metformin and rosiglitazone, it increases glucose uptake and adipogenesis, activates AMPK, and uncouples mitochondrial function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antiobesity potential of L. laricina in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice. Mice were subjected for eight or sixteen weeks to a high fat diet (HFD) or HFD to which L. laricina was incorporated at 125 and 250 mg/kg either at onset (prevention study) or in the last 8 of the 16 weeks of administration of the HFD (treatment study). L. laricina effectively decreased glycemia levels, improved insulin resistance, and slightly decreased abdominal fat pad and body weights. This occurred in conjunction with increased energy expenditure as demonstrated by elevated skin temperature in the prevention study and improved mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis in the treatment protocol. L. laricina is thus a promising alternative and complementary therapeutic approach for the treatment and care of obesity and diabetes among the Cree. PMID:22888363

  2. Larix laricina, an Antidiabetic Alternative Treatment from the Cree of Northern Quebec Pharmacopoeia, Decreases Glycemia and Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Harbilas, Despina; Vallerand, Diane; Brault, Antoine; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Musallam, Lina; Haddad, Pierre S

    2012-01-01

    Larix laricina K. Koch is a medicinal plant belonging to traditional pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (Eastern James Bay area of Canada). In vitro screening studies revealed that, like metformin and rosiglitazone, it increases glucose uptake and adipogenesis, activates AMPK, and uncouples mitochondrial function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antiobesity potential of L. laricina in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice. Mice were subjected for eight or sixteen weeks to a high fat diet (HFD) or HFD to which L. laricina was incorporated at 125 and 250 mg/kg either at onset (prevention study) or in the last 8 of the 16 weeks of administration of the HFD (treatment study). L. laricina effectively decreased glycemia levels, improved insulin resistance, and slightly decreased abdominal fat pad and body weights. This occurred in conjunction with increased energy expenditure as demonstrated by elevated skin temperature in the prevention study and improved mitochondrial function and ATP synthesis in the treatment protocol. L. laricina is thus a promising alternative and complementary therapeutic approach for the treatment and care of obesity and diabetes among the Cree.

  3. Shoulder pain management. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Varela, E; Valero, R; Küçükdeveci, A A; Oral, A; Ilieva, E; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the physical and rehabilitation medicine interventions. According to the PCC of the UEMS-PRM Section, the role of PRM physician in the management of shoulder pain (SP) has to be situated inside the general pain management field. SP is a common condition that can place limitations on the activity and restriction in social life participation of sufferers. A variety of shoulder problems, commonly including subacromial impingement, calcifying tendinitis, frozen shoulder, acromio-clavicular disturbances, gleno-humeral instability and gleno-humeral arthritis, can cause pain, and patients should be assessed and treated in order to relieve symptoms and reduce disability. This position paper describes the role of the PRM specialist in the management of such patients. Many assessment methods and treatment interventions are usually used in the management of patients with SP. Depending on the process, disability and patient characteristics, some intervention modalities have reported evidence in pain relief, movement and daily life activity (DLA) restoration, thus permiting a patient early recovery and social participation. Oral medications, local injections, physical therapy modalities and exercises are normally used for the management of SP. The PRM specialist should, always use this best medical evidence to decide how to efficiently and effectively reduce SP-related disability. An adequate therapeutic algorithm is also proposed in order to channelize the above mentioned evidence and reach

  4. Respiratory health effects from exposure to carbon black: results of the phase 2 and 3 cross sectional studies in the European carbon black manufacturing industry

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, K; van Tongeren, M; Harrington, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess respiratory morbidity over several cross sectional phases in the European carbon black manufacturing industry.
METHODS—Participants completed an amended (and translated) MRC respiratory morbidity questionnaire with additional questions on previous exposures, job history, etc, and spirometry traces in each phase. Concurrent with the health outcome measures, personal exposure to inhalable dust was measured.
RESULTS—Percentage participation rose from 90% in phase 2 (19 factories) to 95% in phase 3 (16 factories). Exposure dropped slightly between the 2 and 3 phases; as did the prevalence of reporting symptoms. Percentage of predicted lung function volumes exceeded 100% for forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), whereas forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25%-75%) and FEV1/FVC ratio were below 100% in both phases. The multiple linear and logistic regressions showed that carbon black had a significant effect on lung function and on most respiratory symptoms, respectively.
CONCLUSION—Both current and cumulative exposure to carbon black have a deleterious effect on respiratory morbidity. Due to the drop in exposure between phases 2 and 3, recent exposures seem to have less of an impact on the respiratory morbidity in the workers in phase 3 than those in phase 2.


Keywords: carbon black; respiratory morbidity; spirometry PMID:11452043

  5. Local soft tissue musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Oral, A; Ilieva, E M; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. Soft tissue musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and injuries are associated with significant pain and loss of function that may lead to significant disability. The aim of this paper is to define the role of PRM physician in the management of local soft tissue MSDs and injuries with their specific focus on assessing and improving function as well as participation in the community. The training of PRM specialists make them well equipped to successfully treat MSDs including soft tissue MSDs and injuries. PRM specialists may well meet the needs of patients with soft tissue MSDs and injuries using PRM approaches including 1) assessment based on the comprehensive model of functioning, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), that enable them to identify the areas of impaired functioning in order to apply necessary measures; 2) accurate diagnosis using instrumental diagnostic procedures in addition to clinical examination; 3) outcome measurements available to them; 4) evidence-based pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments; and finally 5) maintenance of social involvement including "return to work" based on restoration of function, all of which will eventually result in improved quality of life for patients with soft tissue MSDs and injuries.

  6. Inflammatory arthritis. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Küçükdeveci, A A; Oral, A; Ilıeva, E M; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Chrıstodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of the physical and rehabilitation medicine interventions. Inflammatory arthritis is a major cause of disability with an important economic burden in society. The goals in the management of inflammatory arthritis are to control pain and disease activity, prevent joint damage, protect and enhance function and improve quality of life. This paper aims to define the role of PRM physicians in people with inflammatory arthritis. PRM interventions imply non-pharmacological treatments which include patient education for joint protection, energy conservation and self-management techniques, exercise therapy, physical modalities, orthoses/assistive devices and balneotherapy. Therapeutic patient education and exercises are the cornerstones of therapy with strong evidence of their effectiveness to improve function. Physical modalities are primarily used to decrease pain and stiffness whereas orthoses/assistive devices are usually prescribed to enhance activities and participation. PRM physicians have distinct roles in the management of people with inflammatory arthritis such that they effectively organise and supervise the PRM program in the context of interdisciplinary team work. Their role starts with a comprehensive assessment of patient's functioning based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) as the framework. In the light of this assessment, appropriate PRM interventions individualised for the patient are administered. Future research and actions

  7. Ruggedness/robustness evaluation and system suitability test on United States Pharmacopoeia XXVI assay ginsenosides in Asian and American ginseng by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Guo; Chen, Ming; Chou, Gui-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Hu, Zhi-Bi

    2004-09-03

    The work of the ruggedness/robustness evaluation and system suitability tests was oriented to profound understand the practicability of using assay methods issued by United States Pharmacopoeia (USP XXVI and XXVII) for ginsenosides in Asian ginseng and American ginseng. The items chosen for the method validation included quantitative related items such as recovery of Rg(1) and Rb(1), respectively, and qualitative related items such as resolution, theoretical plate number, relative retention time of two critical-band-pairs, Rg(1)/Re and Rb(1) with its neighboring peak, respectively. Totally, 16 column types were used for comparison of different vendors, different packing materials, different size, etc. and five sets of LC systems and two laboratories were involved in comparing the data of both quantitative and qualitative items. The results showed that different packing materials of columns used might significantly alters separation. The column packing material Hypersil afforded the preferable separating for the ginsenosides. No significant difference was observed from the different instrumentations and inter-laboratories. Our results suggest a modification of the system suitability test as given in USP26-NF21 and the latest version of USP27-NF22, which was not suitable for most systems. Using resolutions of Rg(1)/Re and Rb(1) with its neighboring peak as critical parameters for the ginsenosides assay and omitting the relative retention time of both Rg(1)/Re and Rb(1) with its neighboring peak is our suggestion for a more reasonable, yet practicable system suitability. Six typical chromatograms gain from different columns were figured out as well.

  8. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the…

  9. Lead and traditional Moroccan pharmacopoeia.

    PubMed

    Lekouch, N; Sedki, A; Nejmeddine, A; Gamon, S

    2001-12-03

    The use of traditional cosmetics and remedies such as kohl and henna is very common in Morocco, especially among women, children and babies. Kohl is a dangerous eye cosmetic. It is usually mixed with other harmful substances, then applied on women's eyebrows and used in skin treatments for infants. Henna is another traditional product, with religious associations, which has been widely used over the centuries for cosmetic and medical purposes. Many people add various herbs or other substances to the henna in order to strengthen it or to give it a stronger colour. Our results were reassuring in that the concentrations of lead found in non-elaborate (henna only) samples of henna were low. However, when henna was mixed with other products (elaborate henna), these concentrations increased. Lead concentrations in kohl were very high however, unlike henna, were lower in mixed kohl as mixing with other products diluted the concentration of lead. Nevertheless, in both types of kohl, lead concentrations were very high and consequently constitute a risk for public health, particularly for children.

  10. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François; Heuschmann, Peter; Hoffmann, Uwe; Verschuren, Monique; Halcox, Julian; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Saner, Hugo; Wood, David; Piepoli, Massimo F; Corrà, Ugo; Benzer, Werner; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Dendale, Paul; Gaita, Dan; McGee, Hannah; Mendes, Miguel; Niebauer, Josef; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Schmid, Jean-Paul

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac patients after an acute event and/or with chronic heart disease deserve special attention to restore their quality of life and to maintain or improve functional capacity. They require counselling to avoid recurrence through a combination of adherence to a medication plan and adoption of a healthy lifestyle. These secondary prevention targets are included in the overall goal of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Cardiac rehabilitation can be viewed as the clinical application of preventive care by means of a professional multi-disciplinary integrated approach for comprehensive risk reduction and global long-term care of cardiac patients. The CR approach is delivered in tandem with a flexible follow-up strategy and easy access to a specialized team. To promote implementation of cardiac prevention and rehabilitation, the CR Section of the EACPR (European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation) has recently completed a Position Paper, entitled 'Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: A condition-oriented approach'. Components of multidisciplinary CR for seven clinical presentations have been addressed. Components include patient assessment, physical activity counselling, exercise training, diet/nutritional counselling, weight control management, lipid management, blood pressure monitoring, smoking cessation, and psychosocial management. Cardiac rehabilitation services are by definition multi-factorial and comprehensive, with physical activity counselling and exercise training as central components in all rehabilitation and preventive interventions. Many of the risk factor improvements occurring in CR can be mediated through exercise training programmes. This call-for-action paper presents the key components of a CR programme: physical activity counselling and exercise training. It summarizes current evidence-based best practice for the wide range of patient presentations of interest to the general cardiology community.

  11. Effect of age on the relationship of occupational social class with prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. A population-based cross-sectional study from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer - Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Myint, Phyo K; Luben, Robert N; Welch, Ailsa A; Bingham, Sheila A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on cardiovascular risk profile in different socioeconomic status were focused on younger populations and many of them have not been able to take into account age and sex differences. To investigate the relationship of occupational social class with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in younger (<65 years) and older (>or=65 years) men and women. A population-based-cross sectional study was conducted in a general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom. Participants were 23,085 men and women aged 40-79 years, recruited from general practice age-sex registers as part of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk). The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases were examined. The prevalence of smoking was significantly higher in those in manual social classes particularly in the younger (<65) age group. Younger women in manual social classes were more likely to be smokers compared to older women in the same social class. Being in manual social classes was associated with higher cholesterol levels in women but lower cholesterol levels in men. Manual social class was associated with higher physical activity in those younger than 65 years but this association was reversed in those 65 years or older. Occupational social class is differently related to cardiovascular risk factors in individuals depending on their age and sex. This may reflect differences in behavior at work and leisure, which vary by sex and pre- and postretirement. Interventions to promote health and reduce social inequalities need to take age and gender into account. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A cross-sectional survey among patients and prescribers on insulin dosing irregularities and impact of mild (self-treated) hypoglycemia episodes in Spanish patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to other European patients.

    PubMed

    Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco J; Galán, Manuel; Brod, Meryl

    2014-10-01

    In Spain, data suggest that 13.8% of adults have diabetes. Two important aspects in diabetes management are mild hypoglycemic episodes and poor treatment adherence. This study assesses the impact of missed insulin doses and prevalence of mistimed and reduced insulin doses and mild hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin analogues in Spain, and compares the data collected to pooled data from 8 other European countries (OECs). GAPP2 was an international, online, cross-sectional study of diabetic patients aged ≥40 years treated with long-acting insulin analogues and their healthcare professionals. Patients and healthcare professionals were recruited from online research panels. Data reported in Spain are compared to pooled data from 8 OECs. In Spain, 1-3% of patients reported they had reduced, missed, or mistimed at least one insulin does in the previous month. Significantly more OEC patients reported dosing irregularities (15-23%; all P<0.01). In Spain, 77% of patients were worried and 59% felt guilty for missing a dose of basal insulin, while 24% reported that they were very worried about nocturnal hypoglycemia. Significantly fewer OEC patients reported worrying (47%; P<0.01) and feeling guilty (37%; P<0.01) about missing an insulin dose, or worry about nocturnal hypoglycemia (12%; P<0.01). In Spain, patients with type 2 diabetes report fewer dosing irregularities and hypoglycemic episodes as compared to patients from OECs. However, Spanish patients appear to have a reduced quality of life related to hypoglycemia as well as worry and guilt related to insulin dosing irregularities. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Product-specific validation of a serological potency test for release of Leptospira vaccines in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera

    2013-09-01

    Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach.

  14. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Oral, A; Ilieva, E M; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes constitute a major problem leading to loss of function and disability, resulting in enormous societal burden. The aim of this paper is to describe the unique role of PRM physicians in the management of these disabling conditions that require not only pharmacological interventions but also a holistic approach including the consideration of body functions, activities and participation as well as contextual factors as described in the ICF. Evidence-based effective PRM interventions include exercise and multicomponent treatment including a psychotherapeutic intervention such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in addition to exercise, the latter based on strong evidence for reducing pain and improving quality of life in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Balneotherapy, meditative movement therapies, and acupuncture have also been shown as efficacious in improving symptoms in FMS. Emerging evidence suggests the use of transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation (rTMS or tDCS) in FMS patients with intractable pain not alleviated by other interventions. Graded exercise therapy and CBT are evidence-based options for chronic fatigue syndrome. The use of some physical modalities and manipulation for myofascial pain syndrome is also supported by evidence. As for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), strong evidence exists for rTMS and graded motor imagery as well as moderate evidence for mirror therapy

  15. Additional benefit of using a risk-based selection for prostate biopsy: an analysis of biopsy complications in the Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Peter K; Alberts, Arnout R; Venderbos, Lionne D F; Bangma, Chris H; Roobol, Monique J

    2017-09-01

    To investigate biopsy complications and hospital admissions that could be reduced by the use of European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculators. All biopsies performed in the Rotterdam section of the ERSPC between 1993 and 2015 were included. Biopsy complications and hospital admission data were prospectively recorded in questionnaires that were completed 2 weeks after biopsy. The ERSPC risk calculators 3 (RC3) and 4 (RC4) were applied to men attending the first and subsequent rounds of screening, respectively. Applying the predefined RC3/4 probability thresholds for prostate cancer (PCa) risk of ≥12.5% and high-grade PCa risk ≥3%, we assessed the number of complications, admissions and costs that could be reduced by avoiding biopsies in men below these thresholds. A total of 10 747 biopsies with complete questionnaires were included. For these biopsies a complication rate of 67.9% (7294/10 747), a post-biopsy fever rate of 3.9% (424/10747) and a hospital admission rate of 0.9% (92/10747) were recorded. The fever rate was found to be static over the years, but the hospital admission rate tripled from 0.6% (1993-1996) to 2.1% (2009-2015). Among 7704 biopsies which fit the criteria for RC3 or RC4, 35.8% of biopsies (2757/7704), 37.4% of complications (1972/5268), 39.4% of fever events (128/325) and 42.3% of admissions (30/71) could have been avoided by using one of the risk calculators. More complications could have been avoided if RC4 had been used and for more recent biopsies (2009-2015). Our findings show that 35.9% of the total cost of biopsies and complication treatment could have been avoided. A significant proportion of biopsy complications, hospital admissions and costs could be reduced if biopsy decisions were based on ERSPC risk calculators instead of PSA only. This effect was most prominent in more recent biopsies and in men with repeated biopsies or screening. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU

  16. Cross-sectional and prospective associations between dietary and plasma vitamin C, heel bone ultrasound, and fracture risk in men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Finck, Henriette; Hart, Andrew R; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Jennings, Amy; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Welch, Ailsa A

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin C sufficiency may help prevent osteoporosis and fractures by mediating osteoclastogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and bone collagen synthesis. We determined whether dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of vitamin C were associated with a heel ultrasound and hip and spine fracture risks in older men and women. Participants were recruited from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk study with 7-d diet diary estimates of vitamin C intake and plasma concentrations. A random subset (4000 of 25,639 subjects) was available for the cross-sectional (ultrasound) study of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and velocity of sound (VOS), which were determined during the second health examination. The prospective (fracture) study was a case-cohort sample of all participants with a fracture up to March 2009 and the random subset (n = 5319). ANCOVA-determined associations between quintiles of vitamin C intake and plasma status with adjusted BUA and VOS and adjusted Prentice-weighted Cox proportional HRs were calculated for fracture risk. Women were 58% of the population (39-79 y old), and the median follow-up was 12.6 y (range: 0-16 y). Positive associations across all quintiles of vitamin C intake but not plasma status were significant for VOS in men (β = 2.47 m/s, P = 0.008) and BUA in women (β = 0.82 dB/MHz, P = 0.004). Vitamin C intake was not associated with fracture risk, but there was an inverse association with plasma concentrations in men, with quintile 4 having significantly lower risks of hip fractures (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.80) and spine fractures (HR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.69) than quintile 1. Higher vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher heel ultrasound measures in men and women, and higher plasma vitamin C concentrations were significantly associated with reduced fracture risk in men only. Our findings that vitamin C intake and status were inconsistently associated with bone health variables suggest that

  17. Large variations in the ovalbumin content in six European influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mark, C

    2006-08-01

    Since influenza vaccines are propagated in embryonated chicken eggs, they contain residual egg proteins (mostly ovalbumin). This could lead to the induction of allergic reactions in vaccinated individuals that are allergic to egg. The ovalbumin content in six influenza vaccines, available on the Swedish market in the autumn of 2004, was studied using a commercial ELISA kit. The results show a high degree of variation in ovalbumin content between the different influenza vaccines, ranging between 28 ng/ml and 1.1 microg/ml. No vaccine, however, had an ovalbumin concentration above the limit of 1.0 microg per dose (i.e. 2.0 microg/ml) set by the European Pharmacopoeia for the actual types of influenza vaccines. Thus results presented here clearly show that a tightening of the limit is fully possible.

  18. European regulatory framework and practices for veterinary Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Lukas

    2013-09-01

    In Europe, the legal basis for requirements for medicinal products is described in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) In the European Union, the Ph. Eur. is supplemented by several guidelines issued by the European Medicines Agency. Immunological veterinary products must comply with the Ph. Eur. monograph on veterinary vaccines and the accompanying texts, as well as specific monographs. The Ph. Eur. includes monographs on canine leptospirosis and bovine leptospirosis vaccines (inactivated). Both monographs require that an immunogenicity test be performed once in the target species during the life of a vaccine. The hamster challenge test is applied for batch potency testing of canine vaccines. Alternatively, serological tests or suitable validated in vitro tests to determine the content of one or more antigenic components indicative of protection may be performed. Vaccines for use in cattle are tested in a serological test in guinea pigs. The acceptance criteria in alternative tests are set with reference to a batch of vaccine that has given satisfactory results in the immunogenicity test. At a January 2012 European workshop, the suitability of the hamster potency test was questioned and unanimous agreement was reached that moving toward complete in vitro testing is possible and should be promoted.

  19. Quality evaluation of medicinal products and health foods containing chaste berry (Vitex agnus-castus) in Japanese, European and American markets.

    PubMed

    Fukahori, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shojiro; Naraki, Yoko; Sasaki, Takahiro; Oka, Hideki; Seki, Masaharu; Masada-Atsumi, Sayaka; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the qualities of chaste berry (fruit of Vitex agnus-castus L.) preparations using HPLC fingerprint analysis. Seven medicinal products 1 from Japan and 6 from Europe, and 17 health foods, 6 from Japan and 11 from the United States were analyzed. HPLC profile and 26 authentic peaks were compared medicinal products and health foods. Whereas medicinal products had similar HPLC profiles, health foods had various profiles and each peak was also greatly different. The measured amounts of two markers in 5 traditional medicinal products, agnuside and casticin specified in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP), the U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP) or the WHO monographs of chaste berry, were much lower than those in 2 medicinal products defined as "well-established use" by the European Medicines Agency. The amounts of two markers for 17 health foods differed in a great deal from 14-5054% and 3-1272%, respectively. Furthermore the amount ratios of two markers, agnuside/casticin, in about half of the health foods were remarkably larger than the standard crude drug and the ratios were closer to one of the related Chinese herbs, Vitex negundo L. It is concluded that a combination of HPLC fingerprints and the amount ratios of the marker compounds of chaste berry preparations serves as a useful tool to evaluate the qualities of these preparations.

  20. European Organizations of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tederko, Piotr; Kujawa, Jolanta; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) is a basic medical specialty officially recognized in Europe since 1962. This article briefly presents the significance, attainments and tasks recently undertaken by the leading structures responsible for international harmonization and management of the specialty within healthcare systems in Europe and for scientific development: the Section and Board of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS-PRM), European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine (AEMR) and European Society of PRM (ESPRM). The concept of rehabilitation according to the biopsychosocial model of functioning recently promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) closely follows the assumptions of the Polish Model of Rehabilitation, formulated in the 1960's and approved by the WHO in 1970. Since its accession to the European Union in 2004, Poland has been gradually increasing active participation in the European structures of PRM.

  1. Section candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eos has carried biographies and photographs of candidates for President-Elect of the Union and for President-Elect and Secretary of each section. In addition, statements by the candidates for Union and Section President-Elect have appeared. T h e material for the petition candidate for President-Elect of the Solar-Planetary Relationships Section and a correction to the biography of one candidate for President-Elect of t h e Geodesy Section appear below. The material for the original slate for Solar-Planetary Relationships appeared in the August 6 issue, that for the Seismology Section in the August 13 issue, that for the Geodesy Section in the August 20 issue, that for the Atmospheric Sciences Section in the August 27 issue, that for the Hydrology Section in the September 3 issue, that for the Tectonophysics Section in the September 10 issue, that for the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section in the September 17 issue, that for the Planetology Section in the September 24 issue, that for the Ocean Sciences Section in the October 1 issue, that for the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section in the October 8 issue, and that for Union President-Elect in the October 15 issue. T h e slate of candidates for all offices was carried in the July 2 issue.

  2. Interdisciplinarity. Papers Presented at the SRHE European Symposium on Interdisciplinary Courses in European Education, 13 September 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Research into Higher Education, Ltd., London (England).

    Papers are presented from the 1975 Society for Research into Higher Education European Symposium on Interdisciplinary (ID) Courses in European Education. Section one of the symposium on "philosophy and background" consists of an introduction by Professor Berger and discussion. Section two on "some ID courses" consists of the…

  3. Interdisciplinarity. Papers Presented at the SRHE European Symposium on Interdisciplinary Courses in European Education, 13 September 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Research into Higher Education, Ltd., London (England).

    Papers are presented from the 1975 Society for Research into Higher Education European Symposium on Interdisciplinary (ID) Courses in European Education. Section one of the symposium on "philosophy and background" consists of an introduction by Professor Berger and discussion. Section two on "some ID courses" consists of the…

  4. Cesarean Section

    MedlinePlus

    A Cesarean section (C-section) is surgery to deliver a baby. The baby is taken out through the mother's abdomen. In the United ... three women has their babies this way. Some C-sections are planned, but many are done when ...

  5. [Content detemination of total tannin in Smilax glabra with reddish brown and off-white colored cross section].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Dong, Li-Sha; Chen, Hu-Biao; He, Xi-Cheng; Ge, Xiang-Qian; Zhang, Xi-Gui; Zhou, Ying-Ying

    2013-03-01

    There are two types of decoction of Smilax glabra due to its reddish brown or off-white colored cross section. These two kinds of decoction were found that they have large difference in anti-inflammatory effects and chemical constituents in the preliminary experiments. Comparing and analyzing the content of total tannin in these two kinds of decoction of S. glabra from 28 areas by UV-Vis spectrophotometry were first used to provide some experimental and theoretical development and utilization of this medicinal resource and quality control. Also, the sample recovery test required in Chinese Pharmacopoeia was improved by adding tannic acid instead of gallic acid to samples.

  6. European Science Notes Information Bulletin, October 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    European/Middle Eastern Science Embassy Perspectives - a feature section by US Embassy personnel ............. 1 Behavioral Sciences .................... 13...36 Space Science ........................ 38 Superconductivity ................ ....... 43 D T!M ON ,, A -,, 0f A News, Notes, and...Bulletin (ESNIB) is a compilation of reports on recent developments in European science of specific interest to the US R&D community, and is issued in

  7. European Materia Medica in Historical Texts: Longevity of a Tradition and Implications for Future Use

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in the area of new drug discovery has shown the continued promise of looking to natural products for bioactive compounds. Researchers have thus turned to traditional medicine, which is still used widely throughout the world and increasingly in industrialized countries as well, to provide clues as to which products to investigate. The oral traditions on which much of this medical knowledge rests, however, are unstable, prompting researchers to turn to textual sources for potential drugs. This study uses Mediterranean/European medical texts from the 5th century BC to the 19th century A.D. to compile a list of the most commonly used “simples” – or single action drug substances – used in therapeutics in traditional European medicine. It finds that traditional European materia medica was based on a Dioscordean tradition that lasted through the 19th century with remarkably little variation, but is significantly different from the present-day herbal pharmacopoeia as represented by the National Institutes of Health. The most prominent simples of that tradition can thus provide clues to further bioactive compounds that have not as of yet been fully exploited for their potential, but were clearly of great use in the past. PMID:20561577

  8. European regulations for the introduction of novel radiopharmaceuticals in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Decristoforo, Clemens; Penuelas, Ivan; Patt, Marianne; Todde, Sergio

    2017-06-01

    The development of novel radiopharmaceuticals is very rapid and highly innovative both for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The translation into the clinic, however, is hampered by the high regulatory demands in Europe. This article describes the main rules, guidelines and guidance documents in the European Union in relation to the pharmaceutical regulatory framework. Until today a great number of radiopharmaceuticals are introduced clinically using specific national pathways outside the clinical trial regulation and examples are provided. In this context, the European Pharmacopoeia with a legal status plays an important role in defining quality standards. For clinical trials the application system and regulatory framework in Europe is currently considerably changing. Whereas the current clinical trial directive requires a lengthy and complicated national application process, the new regulation 536/2014 will introduce a streamlined and unified European application process. This new regulation also takes into account the specific properties of radioactive investigational medicinal products and has introduced exceptions for good manufacturing practices (GMP) and labelling for radiopharmaceuticals. Besides the main regulatory texts, several guidelines have been published, e.g. related to toxicity testing or first in man studies. In relation to radiopharmaceuticals professional organization, in particular the EANM, have published a number of documents in relation to GMP, documentation and toxicity studies, that support professionals in the application process. All these documents are summarized and discussed.

  9. Models of risk assessments for biologicals or related products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Moos, M

    1995-12-01

    In the context of veterinary biologicals, environmental risk assessment means the evaluation of the risk to human health and the environment (which includes plants and animals) connected with the release of such products. The following categories or types of veterinary biologicals can be distinguished: non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMOs) (inactivated/live) GMOs (inactivated/live) carrier products related products (e.g. non-specific "inducers'). Suitable models used in risk assessment for these products should aim to identify all possible adverse effects. A good working model should lead, at least, to a qualitative judgement on the environmental risk of the biological product (e.g. negligible, low, medium, severe, unacceptable). Quantifiable outcomes are rare; therefore, the producer of a biological product and the European control authorities should accept only models which are based on testable points and which are relevant to the type of product and its instructions for use. In view of animal welfare aspects, models working without animals should be preferred. In recent years, some of these methods have been integrated into safety tests described in European Union Directives and in monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia. By reviewing vaccine/registration problems (e.g. Aujeszky's disease live vaccine for pigs, and vaccinia-vectored rabies vaccine), several models used in risk assessment are demonstrated and discussed.

  10. European biofuel plan snagged

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-12-16

    European Commission proposals for a directive aimed at boosting production of biofuels have been set back by the European Parliament and will not be implemented on the January 1, 1993 deadline. Furthermore, the commission has agreed to carry out an environmental impact study on biofuels. European industrial ethanol, fatty acid, and glycerin producers oppose the directive proposals fearing distortions in their markets.

  11. European Elder (Elderberry)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common Names: European elder, black elder, elderberry, elder flower, sambucus Latin Name: Sambucus nigra Background European elder ... Saxon word “aeld,” meaning fire. The terms “elder flower” and “elderberry” may refer to either European elder ...

  12. Properties of colour reference solutions of the European Pharmacopoea in CIE L*a*b* colour space.

    PubMed

    Subert, J; Farsa, O; Gajdosová, Z

    2006-12-01

    The coordinates of CIE L*a*b* uniform colour space have been acquired from the transmitance spectra of colour reference solutions of European Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur.). Calculation of colour differences of these solutions from purified water deltaE* gave their values in the range between 0.7 (B9 solution) to 36 (Y1 solution) CIE units. Excluding red colour reference soulutions, deltaE* values did not depend on concentrations of colour compounds linearly. Small deltaE* values founded by the brown and brownish-yellow colour reference solutions of the lowest concentrations can possibly cause some problems of visual examination of the degree of coloration of liquids according to Ph.Eur.

  13. Rhododendron groenlandicum (Labrador tea), an antidiabetic plant from the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Canadian Eastern James Bay Cree, improves renal integrity in the diet-induced obese mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Shilin; Brault, Antoine; Sanchez Villavicencio, Mayra; Haddad, Pierre S

    2016-10-01

    Content Our team has identified Labrador tea [Rhododendron groenlandicum L. (Ericaceae)] as a potential antidiabetic plant from the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Eastern James Bay Cree. In a previous in vivo study, the plant extract was tested in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese model using C57BL/6 mice and it improved glycaemia, insulinaemia and glucose tolerance. Objective In the present study, we assessed the plant's potential renoprotective effects. Materials and methods Rhododendron groenlandicum was administered at 250 mg/kg/d to mice fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity and mild diabetes. Histological (periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Masson and Oil Red O staining), immunohistochemical (IHC) and biochemical parameters were assessed to evaluate the renoprotective potential of R. groenlandicum treatment for an additional 8 weeks. Results Microalbuminuria and renal fibrosis were developed in HFD-fed mice. Meanwhile, there was a tendency for R. groenlandicum to improve microalbuminuria, with the values of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) reducing from 0.69 to 0.53. Renal fibrosis value was originally 4.85 arbitrary units (AU) in HFD-fed mice, dropped to 3.27 AU after receiving R. groenlandicum treatment. Rhododendron groenlandicum reduced renal steatosis by nearly one-half, whereas the expression of Bcl-2-modifying factor (BMF) diminished from 13.96 AU to 9.43 AU. Discussion and conclusions Taken altogether, the results suggest that R. groenlandicum treatment can improve renal function impaired by HFD.

  14. Comparison of Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines for the interpretation of antibiotic susceptibility at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Ali; Omuse, Geoffrey; Premji, Zul; Revathi, Gunturu

    2016-04-11

    The Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines are the most popular breakpoint guidelines used in antimicrobial susceptibility testing worldwide. The EUCAST guidelines are freely available to users while CLSI is available for non-members as a package of three documents for US $500 annually. This is prohibitive for clinical microbiology laboratories in resource poor settings. We set out to compare antibiotic susceptibility determined by the two guidelines to determine whether adoption of EUCAST guidelines would significantly affect our susceptibility patterns. We reviewed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of various antibiotics routinely reported for Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates from an automated microbiology identification system (VITEK-2) at the Aga Khan University Hospital Nairobi's Pathology department. These MICs were then analyzed using both CLSI 2015 and EUCAST 2015 guidelines and classified as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. We compared the susceptibility and agreement between the CLSI and EUCAST categorizations. Susceptibility data from a total of 5165 E. coli, 1103 S. aureus and 532 P. aeruginosa isolates were included. The concordance rates of the two guidelines for E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa ranged from 78.2 to 100 %, 94.6 to 100 % and 89.1 to 95.5 % respectively. The kappa statistics for E. coli MICs revealed perfect agreement between CLSI and EUCAST for cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, almost perfect agreement for ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, gentamicin and ceftazidime, substantial agreement for meropenem, moderate agreement for cefepime and amoxicillin-clavulanate, fair agreement for nitrofurantoin and poor agreement for amikacin. For S. aureus the kappa statistics revealed perfect agreement for penicillin

  15. Associations between eating meals, watching TV while eating meals and weight status among children, ages 10–12 years in eight European countries: the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the association of eating meals, and never watching TV while eating meals, with weight status among children, ages 10–12 years across Europe. Methods 7915 children (mean age: 11.5 years) in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland) completed a questionnaire at school. Data on meals eaten the day before questionnaire administration and the frequency of eating meals while watching TV were collected. Height and weight of the children were objectively assessed. Multinomial and binary regression analyses were conducted to test associations of eating meals (adjusted for gender and ethnicity) and never watching TV while eating meals (adjusted for gender, ethnicity and total TV time) with overweight/obesity, and to test for country- and socio-demographic differences. Results The proportions of children reporting eating breakfast, lunch and dinner were 85%, 96%, and 93% respectively, and 55%, 46% and 32% reported to never watch TV at breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively. The children who ate breakfast (OR = 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7)) and dinner (OR = 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.5)), had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who did not. The children who never watched TV at lunch (OR = 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.8)) and dinner (OR = 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9)) had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who watched TV at the respective meals. Conclusions The odds of being overweight was lower for children who ate breakfast and dinner compared to those who did not eat the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who reported to never watch TV at lunch and dinner compared to those who did. A focus towards meal frequency and watching TV during meals in longitudinal and interventions studies in prevention of overweight and obesity, may contribute to a better understanding of causality. PMID:23675988

  16. Associations between eating meals, watching TV while eating meals and weight status among children, ages 10-12 years in eight European countries: the ENERGY cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vik, Frøydis N; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Overby, Nina C; Lien, Nanna; Androutsos, Odysseas; Maes, Lea; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2013-05-15

    To assess the association of eating meals, and never watching TV while eating meals, with weight status among children, ages 10-12 years across Europe. 7915 children (mean age: 11.5 years) in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland) completed a questionnaire at school. Data on meals eaten the day before questionnaire administration and the frequency of eating meals while watching TV were collected. Height and weight of the children were objectively assessed. Multinomial and binary regression analyses were conducted to test associations of eating meals (adjusted for gender and ethnicity) and never watching TV while eating meals (adjusted for gender, ethnicity and total TV time) with overweight/obesity, and to test for country- and socio-demographic differences. The proportions of children reporting eating breakfast, lunch and dinner were 85%, 96%, and 93% respectively, and 55%, 46% and 32% reported to never watch TV at breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively. The children who ate breakfast (OR = 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7)) and dinner (OR = 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.5)), had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who did not. The children who never watched TV at lunch (OR = 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.8)) and dinner (OR = 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9)) had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who watched TV at the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who ate breakfast and dinner compared to those who did not eat the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who reported to never watch TV at lunch and dinner compared to those who did. A focus towards meal frequency and watching TV during meals in longitudinal and interventions studies in prevention of overweight and obesity, may contribute to a better understanding of causality.

  17. Thin Sections

    PubMed Central

    Peachey, Lee D.

    1958-01-01

    Knowledge of the thickness of sections is important for proper interpretation of electron micrographs. Therefore, the thicknesses of sections of n-butyl methacrylate polymer were determined by ellipsometry, and correlated with the color shown in reflected light. The results are: gray, thinner than 60 mµ; silver, 60 to 90 mµ; gold, 90 to 150 mµ; purple, 150 to 190 mµ; blue, 190 to 240 mµ; green, 240 to 280 mµ; and yellow, 280 to 320 mµ. These results agree well with optical theory and with previous published data for thin films. Sections, after cutting, are 30 to 40 per cent shorter than the face of the block from which they were cut. Only a small improvement results from allowing the sections to remain in the collecting trough at room temperature. Heating above room temperature, however, reduces this shortening, with a corresponding improvement in dimensions and spatial relationships in the sections. When the thickness of the section is considered in interpreting electron micrographs instead of considering the section to be two-dimensional, a more accurate interpretation is possible. The consideration of electron micrographs as arising from projections of many profiles from throughout the whole thickness of the section explains the apparent lack of continuity often observed in serial sections. It is believed that serial sections are actually continuous, but that the change in size of structure through the thickness of one section and the consideration of only the largest profile shown in the micrograph can account for the lack of continuity previously observed. PMID:13549493

  18. Occupational social class, educational level and area deprivation independently predict plasma ascorbic acid concentration: a cross-sectional population based study in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Shohaimi, S; Bingham, S; Welch, A; Luben, R; Day, N; Wareham, N; Khaw, K-T

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the independent association between three different measures of socioeconomic status and plasma ascorbic acid level. Cross-sectional population based study. 20 292 men and women aged 39-79 y who participated in the EPIC-Norfolk study. Individuals in manual social classes, who had no educational qualifications or those who lived in the most deprived areas had significantly lower levels of plasma ascorbic acid compared to those in nonmanual social classes, with at least O-level qualifications or who lived in less deprived areas. The magnitude of effect for each measure of socioeconomic status was greater in current smokers compared to current nonsmokers. Education and social class were stronger predictors of differences in ascorbic acid levels, an indicator of dietary health behaviour, than a deprivation index based on the Townsend score. This suggests that education could be particularly important in influencing large socioeconomic differentials in health related behaviours and potentially, health outcomes in the UK.

  19. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  20. [European curriculum for further education in radiology].

    PubMed

    Ertl-Wagner, B

    2014-11-01

    The European training curriculum for radiology of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) aims to harmonize training in radiology in Europe. Levels I and II constitute the centerpiece of the curriculum. The ESR recommends a 5-year training period in radiology with 3 years of level I and 2 years of level II training. The undergraduate (U) level curriculum is conceived as a basis for teaching radiology in medical schools and consists of a modality-oriented U1 level and an organ-based U2 level. Level III curricula provide contents for subspecialty and fellowship training after board certification in radiology. The curricular contents of all parts of the European Training Curriculum are divided into the sections knowledge, skills as well as competences and attitudes. The European training curriculum is meant to be a recommendation and a basis for the development of national curricula, but is not meant to replace existing national regulations.

  1. Cesarean Sections

    MedlinePlus

    ... the uterus itself. This incision can also be vertical or horizontal. Doctors usually use a horizontal incision ... especially if the incision on the uterus was vertical rather than horizontal. A C-section can also ...

  2. Differences in metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk between American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization definition of impaired fasting glucose in European Caucasian subjects: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Filippatos, Theodosios D.; Rizos, Evangelos C.; Gazi, Irene F.; Lagos, Konstantinos; Agouridis, Dimitrios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines impaired fasting glucose (IFG) as fasting plasma glucose concentration of 100–125 mg/dl, whereas the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) define IFG as fasting plasma glucose levels of 110–125 mg/dl. We identified differences in metabolic parameters and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to the ADA or WHO/IDF definition of IFG. Material and methods Healthy drug-naive Caucasian (Greek) subjects (n = 396; age 55 ±12 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Results Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and uric acid levels were higher in the subjects with glucose 100–109 mg/dl compared with those with glucose < 100 mg/dl (87 ±9 mm Hg vs. 84 ±11 mm Hg, p = 0.004 for DBP, 5.6 ±1.5 mg/dl vs. 5.0 ±1.0 mg/dl, p = 0.002 for uric acid), whereas triglyceride levels were lower in subjects with glucose 100–109 mg/dl compared with those with glucose ≥ 110 mg/dl (169 mg/dl (interquartile range (IQR) = 102–186) vs. 186 mg/dl (IQR = 115–242), p = 0.002). Only the ADA definition recognized subjects with significantly increased 10-year CVD risk estimation (SCORE risk calculation) compared with their respective controls (5.4% (IQR = 0.9–7.3) vs. 4.1% (IQR = 0.7–5.8), p = 0.002). Conclusions The ADA IFG definition recognized more subjects with significantly increased CVD risk (SCORE model) compared with the WHO/IDF definition. PMID:24273558

  3. Harm reduction measures and injecting inside prison versus mandatory drugs testing: results of a cross sectional anonymous questionnaire survey. The European Commission Network on HIV Infection and Hepatitis in Prison.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, A. G.; Gore, S. M.; Hutchinson, S. J.; Lewis, S. C.; Cameron, S.; Burns, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (a) To determine both the frequency of injecting inside prison and use of sterilising tablets to clean needles in the previous four weeks; (b) to assess the efficiency of random mandatory drugs testing at detecting prisoners who inject heroin inside prison; (c) to determine the percentage of prisoners who had been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. DESIGN: Cross sectional willing anonymous salivary HIV surveillance linked to a self completion risk factor questionnaire. SETTING: Lowmoss prison, Glasgow, and Aberdeen prison on 11 and 30 October 1996. SUBJECTS: 293 (94%) of all 312 inmates at Lowmoss and 146 (93%) of all 157 at Aberdeen, resulting in 286 and 143 valid questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of injecting inside prison in the previous four weeks by injector inmates who had been in prison for at least four weeks. RESULTS: 116 (41%) Lowmoss and 53 (37%) Aberdeen prisoners had a history of injecting drug use but only 4% of inmates (17/395; 95% confidence interval 2% to 6%) had ever been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. 42 Lowmoss prisoners (estimated 207 injections and 258 uses of sterilising tablets) and 31 Aberdeen prisoners (229 injections, 221 uses) had injected inside prison in the previous four weeks. The prisons together held 112 injector inmates who had been in prison for more than four weeks, of whom 57 (51%; 42% to 60%) had injected in prison in the past four weeks; their estimated mean number of injections was 6.0 (SD 5.7). Prisoners injecting heroin six times in four weeks will test positive in random mandatory drugs testing on at most 18 days out of 28. CONCLUSIONS: Sterilising tablets and hepatitis B vaccination should be offered to all prisoners. Random mandatory drugs testing seriously underestimates injector inmates' harm reduction needs. PMID:9233321

  4. Residential area deprivation predicts smoking habit independently of individual educational level and occupational social class. A cross sectional study in the Norfolk cohort of the European Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Shohaimi, S; Luben, R; Wareham, N; Day, N; Bingham, S; Welch, A; Oakes, S; Khaw, K-T

    2003-04-01

    To investigate the independent association between individual and area based measures of socioeconomic status and cigarette smoking habit. Cross sectional, population based study. 12 579 men and 15 132 women aged 39-79 years living in the general community participating in the EPIC-Norfolk Study in 1993-1997. The association between social class, educational status, Townsend residential deprivation level, and cigarette smoking status was examined. Cigarette smoking status at baseline survey. Social class, educational level, and residential deprivation level independently related to cigarette smoking habit in both men and women. Multivariate age adjusted odds ratios for current smoking in men were 1.62 (95% CI 1.45 to 1.81) for manual compared with non-manual social class, 1.32 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.48) for those with educational level less than O level compared with those with O level qualifications or higher and 1.84 (95% CI 1.62 to 2.08) for high versus low area deprivation level. For women, the odds ratios for current smoking for manual social class were 1.14 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.27); 1.31 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.46) for low educational level and 1.68 (95% CI 1.49 to 1.90) for high residential deprivation respectively. Residential deprivation level using the Townsend score, individual social class, and educational level all independently predict smoking habit in both men and women. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking need to tackle not just individual but also area based factors. Understanding the specific factors in deprived areas that influence smoking habit may help inform preventive efforts.

  5. Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren’s energy balance-related behaviours – the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children’s energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10–12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. Results Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place

  6. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the South-East of Spain, One of the European Regions Most Affected by the Economic Crisis: The Cross-Sectional PEGASUS-Murcia Project.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, M José; Salmerón, Diego; Vilagut, Gemma; Navarro, Carmen; Ruíz-Merino, Guadalupe; Escámez, Teresa; Júdez, Javier; Martínez, Salvador; Kessler, Ron C; Alonso, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    To describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and age of onset distribution of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) disorders and to explore the association between socio-demographic variables and economic stressors with mental disorders during the economic crisis in the general population of Murcia (Spain). The PEGASUS-Murcia Project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia administered between June 2010 and May 2012. DSM-IV disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Main outcome measures were lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Anxiety, Mood, Impulse and Substance Disorders, Severity and Age of Onset. Sociodemographic variables and stressful economic life events during the preceding 12 months were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. A total of 2,621 participants (67.4% response rate) were interviewed, 54.5% female, mean age 48.6 years. Twelve-month prevalence (95%CI) of disorders: anxiety 9.7% (7.6-12.2), mood 6.6% (5.5-8.1), impulse 0.3% (0.1-1.2) and substance use 1.0% (0.4-2.4) disorders. Lifetime prevalence: anxiety 15.0% (12.3-18.1), mood 15.6% (13.5-18.1), impulse 2.4% (1.4-4.0) and substance use 8.3% (6.2-11.0) disorders. Severity among 12-month cases: serious 29.2% (20.8-39.4), moderate 35.6% (24.0-49.1) and mild severity 35.2% (29.5-41.5). Women were 3.7 and 2.5 times more likely than men to suffer 12-month anxiety and mood disorders, respectively. Substance use was more frequent among men. Younger age and lower income were associated with higher prevalence. Respondents exposed to multiple and recent economic stressors had the highest risk of anxiety disorders. Mental disorders in the adult population of Murcia during the economic crisis were more prevalent and serious than those in previous estimates for Spain. Prevalence was strongly associated with exposure to

  7. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the South-East of Spain, One of the European Regions Most Affected by the Economic Crisis: The Cross-Sectional PEGASUS-Murcia Project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, Mª José; Salmerón, Diego; Vilagut, Gemma; Navarro, Carmen; Ruíz-Merino, Guadalupe; Escámez, Teresa; Júdez, Javier; Martínez, Salvador; Kessler, Ron C.; Alonso, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background To describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and age of onset distribution of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) disorders and to explore the association between socio-demographic variables and economic stressors with mental disorders during the economic crisis in the general population of Murcia (Spain). Methods and Findings The PEGASUS-Murcia Project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia administered between June 2010 and May 2012. DSM-IV disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Main outcome measures were lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Anxiety, Mood, Impulse and Substance Disorders, Severity and Age of Onset. Sociodemographic variables and stressful economic life events during the preceding 12 months were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. A total of 2,621 participants (67.4% response rate) were interviewed, 54.5% female, mean age 48.6 years. Twelve-month prevalence (95%CI) of disorders: anxiety 9.7% (7.6–12.2), mood 6.6% (5.5–8.1), impulse 0.3% (0.1–1.2) and substance use 1.0% (0.4–2.4) disorders. Lifetime prevalence: anxiety 15.0% (12.3–18.1), mood 15.6% (13.5–18.1), impulse 2.4% (1.4–4.0) and substance use 8.3% (6.2–11.0) disorders. Severity among 12-month cases: serious 29.2% (20.8–39.4), moderate 35.6% (24.0–49.1) and mild severity 35.2% (29.5–41.5). Women were 3.7 and 2.5 times more likely than men to suffer 12-month anxiety and mood disorders, respectively. Substance use was more frequent among men. Younger age and lower income were associated with higher prevalence. Respondents exposed to multiple and recent economic stressors had the highest risk of anxiety disorders. Conclusions Mental disorders in the adult population of Murcia during the economic crisis were more prevalent and serious than those in previous

  8. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  9. Collaborative study for establishment of a European Pharmacopoei Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for B19 virus DNA testing of plasma pools by nucleic acid amplification technique.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C M; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the collaborative study was to calibrate the B19 DNA content of a candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) that is intended to be used for the validation of the analytical procedure, as threshold control and/or as quantitative reference material in the Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique (NAT) test of plasma pools for detection of B19 contamination. The candidate BRP was calibrated against the 1st International Standard for B19 DNA NAT assays. According to the European Pharmacopoeia monograph Human anti-D immunoglobulin, the threshold control needs to have a titre of 10( 4) IU/ml of B19 virus DNA. The lyophilised candidate BRP was prepared from 0.5 ml aliquots of a plasma pool spiked with B19 virus. The B19 virus originated from a "B19 virus window phase" blood donation (anti-B19 negative, B19-DNA high titre positive) and was diluted in a plasma pool tested negative by both serological and NAT assays for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 to obtain a B19-DNA concentration level in the range of 10( 6) copies/ml. The residual water content of the lyophilised candidate BRP was determined as 0.98 +/- 0.65% (mean +/- relative standard deviation). Sixteen laboratories (Official Medicine Control Laboratories, manufacturers of plasma derivatives, NAT test laboratories and NAT kit manufacturers) from nine countries participated. Participants were requested to test the candidate BRP and the International Standard (99/800) in four independent test runs on different days using their in-house qualitative and/or quantitative NAT methods. Sixteen laboratories reported results. Thirteen laboratories reported results from qualitative assays and 5 laboratories reported results from quantitative assays. Two laboratories reported results from both types of assay. For the qualitative assays a weighted combined potency of 5.64 log( 10) IU/ml with 95 per cent confidence limits of +/- 0.17 log( 10) which corresponds to 67 to 150

  10. Promoting European Dimensions in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John, Ed.

    This collection of 19 essays shares the lessons of a wealth of experience and challenges professionals to open up adult learning to a variety of international perspectives. The first essay, "Building a European Dimension: A Realistic Response to Globalization?" (John Field), is an introduction to the essays. The six essays in Section I,…

  11. Promoting European Dimensions in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John, Ed.

    This collection of 19 essays shares the lessons of a wealth of experience and challenges professionals to open up adult learning to a variety of international perspectives. The first essay, "Building a European Dimension: A Realistic Response to Globalization?" (John Field), is an introduction to the essays. The six essays in Section I,…

  12. Golden Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that architects, musicians and other thoughtful people have, since the time of Pythagoras, been fascinated by various harmonious proportions. One, is the visual harmony attributed to Euclid, called "the golden section". He explores this concept in geometries of one, two and three dimensions. He added, that in…

  13. Pharming Pharmacopoeia: Living Apothecaries from the Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baden, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    The quest for, and development of, new drugs to treat extant and emerging diseases is an interdisciplinary effort, often requiring isolation of pro-drugs from new organisms, environments, and species followed by activity measurement. Exploitation of cultivated microalgae from marine sources has produced some of the most potent natural biological agents known, with specific receptor-mediated activities in pulmonary medicine, toxicology, cancer chemotherapy, the cardiovascular system, central and peripheral nervous system, and in dermatology. Our recent discovery that one class of marine-derived molecule promotes trans-membrane transport, a second that enhances mucus secretion, and a third which is an inhibitor of inflammation--- all isolated from the same organism, highlights the increasingly broad potential for innovative exploitation of natural products that occur in marine microalgae. Approaches that include interdisciplinary teams, permanent innovation, and disruptive technologies all will be described in the context of discoveries made in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, in the improvement of drug efficacy, and in the development of multiple for translational sciences in the ocean and health arenas.

  14. The hookworm pharmacopoeia for inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Severine; Ferreira, Ivana; Loukas, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In the developed world, declining prevalence of parasitic infections correlates with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders. Current treatments for these chronic inflammatory conditions have little to no effect on their prevalence and are referred to as "controllers" rather than cures. There has been limited success in therapeutically targeting allergic and autoimmune pathways, leaving an unmet need for development of effective anti-inflammatories. We discuss the benefit of hookworm infections and the parasite's ability to condition the immune system to prevent allergic asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases. We then examine the immunomodulatory properties of selected hookworm-derived proteins in these two models of inflammation. While hookworm protein therapy has yet to be fully exploited, the identification of these proteins and the mechanisms by which they skew the immune system will provide new avenues for controlling and optimally reversing key pathological processes important in allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  15. Relations between sales authorisation and pharmacopoeia.

    PubMed

    Cook, D

    1975-01-01

    At a time when the production and distribution of drugs and drug products is no longer confined within the national boundaries of particular countries, many thoughtful people are concerning themselves with the idea of standardisation of quality control procedures and specifications. For medicines currently marketed in different countries, a multitude of standards and specifications for both the raw materials and finished products exists. Plans for the regionalisation of drug standards have been put into operation but realistic estimates of progress agree that it will be measured and dignified. In one area there is the possibility for earlier action in reaching agreement on adequate specifications. The process of registration of a new drug substance for the first time presents an opportunity to make known to drug regulation authorities, academic and industrial pharmaceutical specialists, and other interested parties, the qualities and characteristics of the newly proposed agent and its dosage forms. A wide range of information will be needed on the chemical, physical, biological and physicochemical properties of the dosage forms as well as the raw materials of the active and inactive ingredients. Many of these requirements have already been described (3). There may be apprehension that the disclosure of some of this information could imperil the confidentiality of certain manufacturing processes or trade secrets, and adequate steps would be demanded to prevent this happening. The promulgation of a standard, at or shortly after the time of registration, should have been preceded by experimental tests, in the laboratories of the Authority, to verify the robustness of the analytical methodology. In some cases more extensive confirmation by collaborative study may be warranted. The elaboration of these concepts will be presented and examples brought forward of problems that have occurred in the past, and means to prevent them in the future.

  16. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  17. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  18. The European experience.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Rahmel, Axel

    2011-04-01

    This mini-review on European experiences with tackling the problem of organ shortage for transplantation was based on a literature review of predominantly European publications dealing with the issue of organ donation from deceased donors. The authors tried to identify the most significant factors that have demonstrated to impact on donation rates from deceased donors and subsequent transplant successes. These factors include legislative measures (national laws and European Directives), optimization of the donation process, use of expanded criteria donors, innovative preservation and surgical techniques, organizational efforts, and improved allocation algorithms.

  19. European Stroke Science Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  20. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  1. [Catalogue of learning goals for pregraduate education in geriatric medicine. A recommendation of the German Geriatric Society (DGG), the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (ÖGGG) and the Swiss Society of Geriatric Medicine (SFGG) on the basis of recommendations of the European Union of Medical Specialists Geriatric Medicine Section (UEMS-GMS) 2013].

    PubMed

    Singler, K; Stuck, A E; Masud, T; Goeldlin, A; Roller, R E

    2014-11-01

    Sound knowledge in the care and management of geriatric patients is essential for doctors in almost all medical subspecialties. Therefore, it is important that pregraduate medical education adequately covers the field of geriatric medicine. However, in most medical faculties in Europe today, learning objectives in geriatric medicine are often substandard or not even explicitly addressed. As a first step to encourage undergraduate teaching in geriatric medicine, the European Union of Medical Specialists -Geriatric Medicine Section (UEMS-GMS) recently developed a catalogue of learning goals using a modified Delphi technique in order to encourage education in this field. This catalogue of learning objectives for geriatric medicine focuses on the minimum requirements with specific learning goals in knowledge, skills and attitudes that medical students should have acquired by the end of their studies.In order to ease the implementation of this new, competence-based curriculum among the medical faculties in universities teaching in the German language, the authors translated the published English language curriculum into German and adapted it according to medical language and terms used at German-speaking medical faculties and universities of Austria, Germany and Switzerland. This article contains the final German translation of the curriculum. The Geriatric Medicine Societies of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland formally endorse the present curriculum and recommend that medical faculties adapt their curricula for undergraduate teaching based on this catalogue.

  2. European Education, European Citizenship? On the Role of Education in Constructing Europeanness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollikainen, Aaro

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) education programs in fostering a sense of European citizenship. Addresses the five meanings given to the concept of European citizenship: (1) recognition of European heritage; (2) EU loyalty; (3) right of free movement; (4) political participation; and (5) active citizenship. (CMK)

  3. European Vocational Education Systems. A Guide to Vocational Education and Training in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Helen

    This book describes the 12 vocational education systems conducted by the members of the European Community. The 12 country chapters (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom) follow the same model and are organized into the following six sections: key facts,…

  4. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  5. European Composite Honeycomb Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschepe, Christoph; Sauerbrey, Martin; Klebor, Maximillian; Henriksen, Torben

    2014-06-01

    A European CFRP honeycomb material for high demanding structure applications like antenna reflectors and optical benches was developed in the frame of an ESA GSTP project.The composite honeycomb was designed according to requirements defined by the European space industry. A developed manufacturing technique based on prepreg moulding enables the production of homogeneous CFRP honeycomb blocks. All characteristic material properties, including compression, tension and shear strength and CTE, were determined in a comprehensive verification test campaign. Competitiveness to comparable products was further verified by a representative breadboard.

  6. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  7. Essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. fruits from various European countries.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain; Arak, Elmar

    2008-02-15

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. fruits obtained from different geographical areas of Europe were determined using capillary GC and GC-MS techniques. The essential oil content of the samples was 10.0-53.6 mL kg(-1) and did not confirm to the European Pharmacopoeia standard in 5 samples out of 14. A total of 21 compounds were identified and significant quantitative differences were observed among the samples. The major component was trans-anethole (76.9-93.7%); the other principal compounds in oils were gamma-himachalene (0.4-8.2%), trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (0.4-6.4%), p-anisaldehyde (tr-5.4%) and methylchavicol (0.5-2.3%). The highest content of trans-anethole (>90%) was found in the samples from Greece, Hungary, Scotland, Lithuania, Italy, and Germany (2 samples). Essential oil of aniseed from Estonia was rich in gamma-himachalene (8.2%) and trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (6.4%). The sample from France contained the highest amount of anisaldehyde (5.4%) comparing with other samples (0-3.1%). beta-Bourbonene and alpha-farnesene are determined in anise oil for the first time.

  8. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  9. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  10. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  11. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  12. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  13. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  14. Trends in European English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Robert

    It is proposed that a European variety of English without native speakers is emerging as a language of international communication in Europe. This is a consequence of many factors, including the strength of the American economy, the breadth and depth of American research in science and technology, the pervasive influence of American-style popular…

  15. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  16. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  17. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  18. European Study Tour Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Vicki L.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.

    Guidelines are presented for planning and financing European study tours at the community college level. First, a rationale for incorporating study tours of Europe within the community college curriculum is presented and the benefits of such tours in providing students with experiences they could not normally have are outlined. Next, the paper…

  19. INTERIOR FROM WESTERN SECTION, THROUGH CENTRAL SECTION, TO EASTERN SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FROM WESTERN SECTION, THROUGH CENTRAL SECTION, TO EASTERN SECTION, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  1. High precision neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olacel, A.; Belloni, F.; Borcea, C.; Boromiza, M.; Dessagne, Ph.; Henning, G.; Kerveno, M.; Negret, A.; Nyman, M.; Pirovano, E.; Plompen, A.

    2017-06-01

    High precision neutron inelastic scattering cross section data are very important for the development of the new generation of nuclear reactors (Gen IV). Our experiments, performed using the GELINA neutron source and the GAINS spectrometer of the European Commission Joint Research Center, Geel, produce highly reliable and precise cross section data. We will present the details of the setup and the data analysis technique allowing production of such unique results, and we will show examples of two experimental results.

  2. Floor Plans: Section "AA", Section "BB"; Floor Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B"; Floor Framing Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  3. Education and European integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, John

    1992-11-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss the implications for education and training of the movement towards integration in Europe in the historic context of the creation of a single market within the European Community (EC) and the end of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. The experience of the EC is used to illustrate trends and problems in the development of international cooperation in education and training. Common concerns and priorities throughout the new Europe are then identified and discussed. These include the pursuit of quality in schooling, efforts to serve the interests of disadvantaged learners, and the treatment of European Studies in the curriculum, including the improvement of the teaching of foreign languages.

  4. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  5. Telemedicine and European law.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  6. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.; Satogata, T

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  7. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients.

  8. FMD vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in European disease control policy.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, K; Goris, N; Barnett, P V; MacKay, D K

    2008-01-01

    Most foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the OIE Manual and, for Europe, in the European Pharmacopoeia, and for the EU Member States in compliance with Directive 2001/82/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by Directive 2004/28/EC. Most of the requirements that apply to all immunological veterinary medicinal products apply equally to FMD vaccines. There are, however, some unique features of the disease and vaccines used against it that require a different approach to fulfil the requirements of the relevant legislation, if a vaccinate-to-live policy will be applied with 'authorized' vaccines. Several aspects of vaccine efficacy and safety are elaborated with emphasis on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). The purity of the vaccine in respect of the presence of non-structural protein antibodies could be checked indirectly by serology after vaccination. The viability of a vaccine bank approach was greatly aided by the principle of storing inactivated concentrated FMD viral antigen (Ag) over liquid nitrogen for subsequent formulation into vaccine. A worldwide Ag bank network might be an option for the far future and a solution to the problem of covering many different FMDV serotypes and strains. The producers should respect the strict FMD biosecurity rules worked out by the FAO EUFMD and described in Council Directive 2003/85/EC. Making the experience related to vaccine QA/QC available to all countries will reduce the risk of an FMD outbreak within these countries and consequently will reduce the FMD risk around the world.

  9. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  10. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  11. The European Infrasound Bulletin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Ceranna, Lars; Ross, J. Ole; Vergoz, Julien; Le Pichon, Alexis; Mialle, Pierrick

    2017-04-01

    The European Infrasound Bulletin highlights infrasound activity produced by mostly anthropogenic sources, recorded all over Europe and collected in the course of the ARISE project (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe). Data includes high frequency (>0.7 Hz) infrasound detections of 24 European infrasound arrays from 9 different national institutions (BGR, CEA, IRF, NORSAR, KNMI, UNIFI, IAP-Prague, NIEP, SOREQ) complemented with CTBT IMS infrasound stations. Data was acquired during 16 years of operation (from 2000 to 2015), and processed to identify and localize about 48.000 infrasound events within Europe (20°W-40°E, 30°N-72°N). The source location of these events was derived by combining at least two corresponding station detections per event. Comparisons to ground-truth sources, as e.g. Scandinavian mining activity, are provided. Relocation is performed using ray-tracing methods to estimate celerity and back-azimuth corrections based on either HWM-07/MSISE-00 climatologies or actual ECMWF wind and temperature values for each event. This study focuses on repeating infrasound events (e.g. mining blasts and supersonic flights) and on the seasonal, weekly and diurnal variation of the infrasonic activity of sources in Europe. Estimations of the detection and location capability and accuracy will be given in the course of this study to achieve a comprehensive picture of the activity of infrasound sources and capability of infrasound station in Europe.

  12. Manpower and portfolio of European ENT.

    PubMed

    Luxenberger, W; Lahousen, T; Mollenhauer, H; Freidl, W

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate highly variable ENT manpower among European countries. A descriptive study design is used. Manpower in medicine is highly variable among European countries. EU and associated countries are keeping officially appointed representatives to the European Union of medical specialists--otorhinolaryngology section (UEMS--ORL section). UEMS--ORL section is running a working group for manpower in ENT collecting data regarding demographics and ENT manpower in European countries. These ENT manpower data are presented in this paper and compared to available data concerning manpower in European medicine in general. To further evaluate these huge differences, representatives of the particular countries were also asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning specifics of ENT healthcare in their country. Furthermore, typical tasks of ENT doctors based on the official UEMS logbook for ENT training were listed and could be rated regarding their frequency, performed in everyday routine of an average ENT doctor of the country. Divergences in doctors/inhabitants ratios were remarkable within European countries, but disparities in ENT manpower were even more so. The ratio of ENT doctors/inhabitants was the lowest in Ireland (1:80,000) and Great Britain (1:65,000). Greece (1:10,000), Italy, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia (1:12,000) were--at the time of the study--the countries with the highest density of ENT doctors. The EU average for 2009 was (1:21,000). The presence of non-surgical working ENT doctors was significantly associated with higher densities of ENT doctors, whereas the necessity of being referred to an ENT doctor (gatekeeping or similar measures) was not. Estimated average waiting times for an appointment in non-urgent, chronic conditions, respectively, diseases were highly variable and predominantly showed a significant correlation to the ENT doctors/inhabitants ratio in the investigated countries. But also for acute

  13. Collaborative study for the establishment of a European Phamacopoeia Biological reference preparation for Bordetella pertussis mouse antiserum for serological potency testing of acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Bertrand; Bornstein, Nicole; Andre, Murielle; Marmonier, Denis; Pares, Monique; Vanhooren, Gerard; Rautmann, Guy; Behr-Gross, Marie-Emmanuelle; Dobbelaer, Roland; Fuchs, Florence

    2003-03-01

    A collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate For the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) to assess the suitability of a candidate mouse antiserum as a European Pharmacopoeia Biological reference preparation (BRP) for acellular pertussis vaccine potency testing. The candidate antiserum was obtained by immunising mice with a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine: pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN) and Fimbrial 2/Fimbrial 3 (Fim 2&3). The study has been divided into two separate phases. Phase I was a pre-qualification study including three laboratories. This phase was aimed at pre-qualifying the candidate BRP (cBRP) and at documenting the impact of differences in the antibody detection methodology enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures on results of pertussis antisera calibration versus the currently used standard US standard pertussis antiserum (mouse) Lot 1 (SPAM-1) (United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) reference serum) and the cBRP. As no significant difference between the antibody titres determined by using the different ELISA methodologies was found, a large-scale study enrolling 13 laboratories (Phase II) was carried out, each participant performing its in-house methodology. Its aim was to calibrate the cBRP (in terms of the SPAM-1 reference) and to demonstrate its equivalence or superiority to internal references. The study showed that there was no difference in positive sera titres expressed relative to their corresponding internal reference (homologous situation) or the proposed standard (heterologous situation) reference. The cBRP can, therefore, reliably act as replacement for the in-house reference preparations. Further analysis of the outcome of this study enabled to assign to the cBRP a potency of 39, 138, 34 and 56 ELISA unit per millilitre, respectively, to its anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN and anti-Fim 2&3 antibody contents. The cBRP has been adopted by the European

  14. European Conference on Health Economics.

    PubMed

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2010-12-01

    The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own.

  15. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document

    PubMed Central

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine ‘sections’ in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. PMID:26819058

  16. European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshraqi, Mohammad; McGinnis, David; Lindroos, Mats

    The following sections are included: * Neutron usage and historical background * Spallation * History of spallation sources * The ESS facility * The ESS linac * Beam physics * The front-end and the normal conducting linac * Superconducting linac * RF sources * Summary * References

  17. A New Impetus for European Youth. European Commission White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    Despite their highly divergent situations, young people largely share the same values, ambitions, and difficulties. Despite the more complex social and economic context in which young Europeans are currently living, they are well equipped to adapt. National and European policymakers must facilitate this process of change by making young people…

  18. Eurotra: A European perspective on MT

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, D.

    1986-07-01

    This paper describes the perspective on Machine Translation taken in the Eurotra project: an R and D project of the European Communities at a relatively early stage. It describes: i) the project's rather challenging aims; ii) the framework of design principles and linguistic and software methodology which are of particular importance given its size, scope, and organization; iii) the proposed representational theories and expressive (programming) languages with which actual instances of MT systems can be constructed. The final section sketches some recent proposals and directions for future research.

  19. European Cenozoic rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Peter A.

    1992-07-01

    The European Cenozoic rift system extends from the coast of the North Sea to the Mediterranean over a distance of some 1100 km; it finds its southern prolongation in the Valencia Trough and a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic chain crossing the Atlas ranges. Development of this mega-rift was paralleled by orogenic activity in the Alps and Pyrenees. Major rift domes, accompanied by subsidence reversal of their axial grabens, developed 20-40 Ma after beginning of rifting. Uplift of the Rhenish Shield is related to progressive thermal lithospheric thinning; the Vosges-Black Forest and the Massif Central domes are probably underlain by asthenoliths emplaced at the crust/mantle boundary. Evolution of this rift system, is thought to be governed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and by early phases of a plate-boundary reorganization that may lead to the break-up of the present continent assembly.

  20. Optranet: a European project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanjean, Marie

    2003-10-01

    In a situation where curricula did not adjust at the required pace and many students are getting attracted out of science and technology, the shortage of skilled workers at the technician and engineer level is known to be a threat to development. In spite of a serious crisis in 2001, the trend of an increased presence of optical technologies remains unchanged and is bound to remain part of the landscape for decades. The level of investment required and the markets make Europe the best scale to plan for unified curricula and a global analysis of the human resources needs. There is no agreement on the definition of a trained optician, and European countries differ in the way they educate opticians, source of a lack of clarity and visibility which is detrimental to attracting good students and to the job market. Through its closely work with companies, OPTRANET will propose measures to enhance the adequacy and the visibility of the training offer.

  1. European urology: quality, impact, online.

    PubMed

    Catto, James W F; Montorsi, Francesco; Schulman, Claude

    2013-10-01

    European Urology provides contemporary, cutting-edge urologic research, guidance, and discussion. The journal continues to invite collaborative reviews, to invest in rapid but fair peer review, to seek the best research, and to serve the needs of readers and patients. Copyright © 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. What Audience for European Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendelbo, Harald Arni

    This discussion of the audience for European television argues that satellite television has taken an upside-down approach, i.e., it has begun by focusing on the hardware, and then the software, before checking to see if there would be a user at the end of the line willing to pay for the whole operation. "European television" is then…

  3. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  4. Patterns of contraceptive use in 5 European countries. European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity.

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, A; Talamanca, I F; Lauria, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The use of contraception in Denmark, Germany, Poland, Italy, and Spain is described. METHODS: Data were drawn from a population-based cross-sectional study, the European Study of Infertility and Subfecundity. Interviews were conducted with 6630 women aged 25 to 44 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of factors associated with contraceptive use. RESULTS: Residents of Northern European countries tended to use more effective methods of contraception than residents of Southern European countries. The use of contraception was generally more common among single women, the more highly educated, those with children, and those with a previous induced abortion. These characteristics were also the main determinants of the use of more effective methods. Periodic abstinence and withdrawal were more common among older women. CONCLUSIONS: The European countries are in different phases of contraceptive practice: in Northern and Western Europe, use of more modern methods has been stable over the past 10 years, whereas these methods are less common in Southern and Eastern Europe. The results suggest the need for information, education, and provision of contraceptive services in Eastern and Southern Europe. PMID:10983197

  5. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  6. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  7. Vascular surgery: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1999-09-01

    Isaac Newton, among others, observed that 'we see so far because we are standing upon the shoulders of giants'. In vascular surgery most of the giants have been European, and this is a heritage which we as Europeans can take pride in and build upon if we chose to do so. As in other areas of life, commitment is essential in order to influence the future. For vascular surgeons in Europe this means active participation in the European scientific societies for vascular surgery and in the UEMS. The main value of the EBSQ.VASC assessments to date has been to expose the uneven standards of training in vascular surgery within the European Union. Only if action follows to address these inequalities will the tactics of the European Board of Vascular Surgery be vindicated.

  8. Requirements for Entry to Higher Education in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report provides information about student mobility within the European Community, and how it is linked to the requirements for entry to higher education. The report is divided into two sections. The first is a brief discussion of the six specific factors studied: (1) entry requirement qualifications and examinations; (2) entry requirement…

  9. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies...

  10. Resource Guide to Teaching Aids in Russian and East European Studies. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This document contains an annotated listing of instructional aids for Russian and East European studies that are available for loan or rent from Indiana University (Bloomington). The materials are divided into nine sections: (1) slide programs; (2) filmstrips available from the Indiana University (IU) Russian and East European Institute; (3) audio…

  11. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  14. European Citizenship and European Union Expansion: Perspectives on Europeanness and Citizenship Education from Britain and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Chris; Busher, Hugh; Lawson, Tony; Acun, Ismail; Goz, Nur Leman

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some perspectives on citizenship education in Turkey and Britain in the context of current contested discourses on the nature of European identity and of the European Union (EU). It is based on data collected during an EU-funded student teacher exchange programme between three universities in Turkey and Leicester University…

  15. The European mesothelioma epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Peto, J; Decarli, A; Vecchia, C La; Levi, F; Negri, E

    1999-01-01

    Projections for the period 1995–2029 suggest that the number of men dying from mesothelioma in Western Europe each year will almost double over the next 20 years, from 5000 in 1998 to about 9000 around 2018, and then decline, with a total of about a quarter of a million deaths over the next 35 years. The highest risk will be suffered by men born around 1945–50, of whom about 1 in 150 will die of mesothelioma. Asbestos use in Western Europe remained high until 1980, and substantial quantities are still used in several European countries. These projections are based on the fit of a simple age and birth cohort model to male pleural cancer mortality from 1970 to 1989 for six countries (Britain, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and Switzerland) which together account for three-quarters of the population of Western Europe. The model was tested by comparing observed and predicted numbers of deaths for the period 1990–94. The ratio of mesothelioma to recorded pleural cancer mortality has been 1.6:1 in Britain but was assumed to be 1:1 in other countries. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027347

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in 16 European cities.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Marí-Dell'olmo, Marc; Palència, Laia; Gotsens, Mercè; Burström, B O; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Dzúrová, Dagmar; Gandarillas, Ana; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kovacs, Katalin; Marinacci, Chiara; Martikainen, Pekka; Pikhart, Hynek; Corman, Diana; Rosicova, Katarina; Saez, Marc; Santana, Paula; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Puigpinós, Rosa; Morrison, Joana; Pasarín, M Isabel; Díez, Èlia

    2014-05-01

    To explore inequalities in total mortality between small areas of 16 European cities for men and women, as well as to analyse the relationship between these geographical inequalities and their socioeconomic indicators. A cross-sectional ecological design was used to analyse small areas in 16 European cities (26,229,104 inhabitants). Most cities had mortality data for a period between 2000 and 2008 and population size data for the same period. Socioeconomic indicators included an index of socioeconomic deprivation, unemployment, and educational level. We estimated standardised mortality ratios and controlled for their variability using Bayesian models. We estimated relative risk of mortality and excess number of deaths according to socioeconomic indicators. We observed a consistent pattern of inequality in mortality in almost all cities, with mortality increasing in parallel with socioeconomic deprivation. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were more pronounced for men than women, and relative inequalities were greater in Eastern and Northern European cities, and lower in some Western (men) and Southern (women) European cities. The pattern of excess number of deaths was slightly different, with greater inequality in some Western and Northern European cities and also in Budapest, and lower among women in Madrid and Barcelona. In this study, we report a consistent pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in 16 European cities. Future studies should further explore specific causes of death, in order to determine whether the general pattern observed is consistent for each cause of death.

  17. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the European debate.

    PubMed

    Brody, Baruch

    2007-06-01

    The European patent system allows for the introduction of moral issues into decisions about the granting of patents. This feature has greatly impacted European debates about the patenting of biotechnology. This essay explores the European experience, in both the European Union and the European Patent Organization. It argues that there has been great confusion surrounding these issues primarily because the Europeans have not developed a general theory about when exclusion from patentability is the best social mechanism for dealing with morally offensive technologies.

  18. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  19. North European Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland

  20. European MEMS foundries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  1. European eye bank association.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gary L A; Ponzin, Diego; Pels, Elisabeth; Maas, Hanneke; Tullo, Andrew B; Claerhout, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    The European Eye Bank Association (EEBA) is a technical-scientific organization for eye banks. Founded in 1989 with the simple objective of sharing information on eye banking, the Association is today the leading pan-national association in Europe dedicated to the advancement of eye banking and an authoritative reference point for eye banks which work according to quality standards. The Association establishes and maintains an agreed set of medical and technical standards, promotes the collection of data on eye bank activities and processes, provides opportunities for the discussion of all aspects of eye banking practice, including eye donor selection and procurement, relevant research and development, education and training in eye banking, and maintains linkage with national and international corneal transplant communities and relevant bodies. The recent introduction of a more structured and focused committee, a permanent secretariat, the development of a website has enabled the Association to establish closer links and collaborative activities with key regulatory bodies and to provide a more constant exchange of clinical, scientific and technical ideas and best practice with fellow professionals by means of its annual meetings, the EEBA directory and website, and a regular newsletter. The EEBA is a scientific organization committed to defining minimum standards and to encouraging eye banks to maintain the highest possible standards for quality and safety. Through its annual meetings, and the collection and exchange of detailed information from member eye banks, the Association can rightly claim to speak with a confident and representative voice on eye banking in Europe. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Special Issue: European Conference on Surface Science 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opila, Robert L.; Ertas, Gulay

    2015-11-01

    The present Special Issue of Applied Surface Science is intended to provide a collection of peer-reviewed contributions presented at the Symposium "European Conference on Surface Science" held in Antalya (Turkey), August 31-September 5, 2014. This conference is organized annually through the joint efforts of the Surface Science Division of IUVSTA and the Surface and Interface Section of the European Physical Society (EPS). The ECOSS conference series started in 1978 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, and has been held in various cities throughout Europe during the past years. This is the first time that an ECOSS conference was held in Turkey, with the chairmanship of Prof. Sefik Suzer of Bilkent University, Ankara.

  3. European strategies for mental health.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The most recent developments of strategies and policies in the mental health field in Europe are related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health signed by all the Ministers of Health of all Member States in the European Region (2005). The Action Plan proposes ways and means of developing comprehensive mental health policies, listing 12 areas in which challenges are indicated and detailed actions are required. Afterwards the Green Paper on Mental Health has been launched by the European Commission for the definition of an European strategy. The more precise European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being has been presented in 2008. Many other international bodies (OECD, Council of Europe, etc.) have actively worked to stress the mental health issue. All are clearly referring to the Italian model, started 30 years ago.

  4. Testing of a palatable bait and compatible vaccine carrier for the oral vaccination of European badgers (Meles meles) against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gowtage, Sonya; Williams, Gareth A; Henderson, Ray; Aylett, Paul; MacMorran, Duncan; Palmer, Si; Robertson, Andy; Lesellier, Sandrine; Carter, Stephen P; Chambers, Mark A

    2017-02-07

    The oral vaccination of wild badgers (Meles meles) with live Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is one of the tools being considered for the control of bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in the UK. The design of a product for oral vaccination requires that numerous, and often competing, conditions are met. These include the need for a highly palatable, but physically stable bait that will meet regulatory requirements, and one which is also compatible with the vaccine formulation; in this case live BCG. In collaboration with two commercial bait companies we have developed a highly attractive and palatable bait recipe designed specifically for European badgers (Meles meles) that meets these requirements. The palatability of different batches of bait was evaluated against a standardised palatable control bait using captive badgers. The physical properties of the bait are described e.g. firmness and colour. The microbial load in the bait was assessed against European and US Pharmacopoeias. The bait was combined with an edible vaccine carrier made of hydrogenated peanut oil in which BCG vaccine was stable during bait manufacture and cold storage, demonstrating <0.5 log10 reduction in titre after 117weeks' storage at -20°C. BCG stability in bait was also evaluated at +4°C and under simulated environmental conditions (20°C, 98% Relative Humidity; RH). Finally, iophenoxic acid biomarkers were utilised as a surrogate for the BCG vaccine, to test variants of the vaccine-bait design for their ability to deliver biomarker to the gastrointestinal tract of individual animals. These data provide the first detailed description of a bait-vaccine delivery system developed specifically for the oral vaccination of badgers against Mycobacterium bovis using live BCG.

  5. [European general practice research agenda].

    PubMed

    Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koskela, Tuomas

    2014-01-01

    The EGPRN (European General Practice Research Network) research agenda is a review compiling the strengths and areas of development of European general practice, based on a systematic literature survey and its versatile analysis. The research agenda is a framework paper sharpening the definition and functions of general practice as well as its significance for researchers and decisionmakers. The agenda is useful in structuring the research, evaluation of research needs, strengthening of infrastructure and strategic planning of new research.

  6. European guidance: a project of the European Psychiatric Association.

    PubMed

    Gaebel, W; Möller, H-J

    2012-02-01

    Evidence based medicine is a cornerstone of modern medicine including psychiatry. Treatment practice guidelines are nowadays available for guiding mental health care mainly with a focus on specific disorders. Many important clinical situations or problems beyond treatment, however, are lacking proper guidance. It is in this scope that a European Psychiatry Association (EPA) has developed its own program, the European Guidance Project. The present special issue presents six topics out of these series of guidance documents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cesarean Section URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cesareansection.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. European evidence based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: special situations

    PubMed Central

    Caprilli, R; Gassull, M A; Escher, J C; Moser, G; Munkholm, P; Forbes, A; Hommes, D W; Lochs, H; Angelucci, E; Cocco, A; Vucelic, B; Hildebrand, H; Kolacek, S; Riis, L; Lukas, M; de Franchis, R; Hamilton, M; Jantschek, G; Michetti, P; O'Morain, C; Anwar, M M; Freitas, J L; Mouzas, I A; Baert, F; Mitchell, R; Hawkey, C J

    2006-01-01

    This third section of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) Consensus on the management of Crohn's disease concerns postoperative recurrence, fistulating disease, paediatrics, pregnancy, psychosomatics, extraintestinal manifestations, and alternative therapy. The first section on definitions and diagnosis reports on the aims and methods of the consensus, as well as sections on diagnosis, pathology, and classification of Crohn's disease. The second section on current management addresses treatment of active disease, maintenance of medically induced remission, and surgery of Crohn's disease. PMID:16481630

  9. European courts and old people.

    PubMed

    Mulley, Graham P

    2013-09-01

    There are two major European Courts, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The ECJ deals with legal matters, mainly involving the interpretation of EU law and ensuring that the law is applied evenly across all 27 EU member states. The ECHR aims to make certain that civil and political rights of citizens in the 46 member states of the Council of Europe are observed. Most cases involving older citizens are about social policy (such as pension arrangements, equality, age discrimination and mandatory retirement). There have been few cases dealing with patients' rights, long-term care or housing. Referrals of selected cases involving old people should be considered if their rights are not being protected. In this Commentary, there is an account of how these Courts have evolved, together with guidance on whom to refer, to which Court, and when and how referrals should be made.

  10. European core curriculum in neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sandrini, Giorgio; Binder, Heinrich; Hömberg, Volker; Saltuari, Leopold; Tarkka, Ina; Smania, Nicola; Corradini, Claudio; Giustini, Alessandro; Kätterer, Christian; Picari, Ledina; Diserens, Karin; Koenig, Eberhard; Geurts, Alexander; Anghelescu, Aurelian; Opara, Józef; Tonin, Paolo; Kwakkel, Gert; Golyk, Volodymyr; Onose, Gelu; Pérennou, Dominique; Picelli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Summary To date, medical education lacks Europe-wide standards on neurorehabilitation. To address this, the European Federation of NeuroRehabilitation Societies (EFNR) here proposes a postgraduate neurorehabilitation training scheme. In particular, the European medical core curriculum in neurorehabilitation should include a two-year residency in a neurorehabilitation setting where trainees can gain practical experience. Furthermore, it should comprise six modules of classroom training organized as weekend seminars or summer/winter schools. In conclusion, after defining the European medical core curriculum in neurorehabilitation, the next activities of the EFNR will be to try and reach the largest possible consensus on its content among all national societies across Europe in order to further validate it and try to extend it to the other, non-medical, professionals on the neurorehabilitation team in line with their core curricula defined by each professional association. PMID:28676138

  11. European Environmental Test Facility Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovitch, A.

    2004-08-01

    For providing the European industry with a tool enabling to identify and locate suitable test facilities, the ESA will establish and maintain a Web-based European inventory of environmental test facilities. The European Space Agency is operating a Test Centre at ESTEC Noordwijk. It is the unique place in Europe, which is geared to verify very large spacecraft. Environmental testing of systems, subsystems and components can be performed at many places all over Europe. Therefore, the inventory aims at identifying all companies/organizations active in environmental testing and inventorying their facilities as well as their main technical features and capabilities. A questionnaire will be submitted to all companies and organizations active in environmental testing in Europe and willing to appear in this inventory.

  12. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  13. Interactions between European Citizenship and Language Learning among Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennebry, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) has created debate as to the suitability of current structures and policies for effectively engaging citizens and developing social cohesion. Education and specifically modern foreign language (MFL) teaching are argued by the literature to play a key role in equipping young people to interact and…

  14. Diagrams of Europeanization: European Education Governance in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuypere, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    European education governance is increasingly affected by and effectuated through digital means. This article presents an analysis of the way in which Europe is increasingly deploying digital technologies, and more specifically websites, in order to shape and communicate its education policies. Drawing on the notion of the diagram as the…

  15. Interactions between European Citizenship and Language Learning among Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennebry, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) has created debate as to the suitability of current structures and policies for effectively engaging citizens and developing social cohesion. Education and specifically modern foreign language (MFL) teaching are argued by the literature to play a key role in equipping young people to interact and…

  16. Diagrams of Europeanization: European Education Governance in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuypere, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    European education governance is increasingly affected by and effectuated through digital means. This article presents an analysis of the way in which Europe is increasingly deploying digital technologies, and more specifically websites, in order to shape and communicate its education policies. Drawing on the notion of the diagram as the…

  17. Ureilite Thin Section Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, R.; Righter, K.

    2014-01-01

    Preparing thin and thick sections of ureilite type meteorites is a challenge that can confound even the most experienced section preparer. A common characteristic of these samples is the presence of carbon phases, particularly nanodiamonds, in the matrix along silicate grain boundaries, fractures, and cleavage plains [1]. The extreme hardness of the nanodiamonds presents a challenge to the section preparer in the form of high surface relief on the section. This hard material also causes considerable wear and tear on equipment and materials that are used for making the sections. These issues will be discussed and potentially helpful measures will be presented.

  18. Quantitative serial sectioning analysis.

    PubMed

    Alkemper, J; Voorhees, P W

    2001-03-01

    A method for serial sectioning is presented that allows one to take about 20 sections per hour with spacings in the range 1-20 microm between sections. The alignment of the cross-sections is done with a linear variable differential transformer; it is thus independent of the microstructure of the sample and does not rely upon markers implanted in the sample. The alignment errors as well as tilts and rotation errors between sections associated with the new method are found to be negligible. Once all the sections are captured in a computer a three-dimensional image can be constructed. This image can be viewed interactively and rotated, thus allowing the direct observation of three-dimensional shapes. It can further be used to determine a vast array of microstructural parameters including those that cannot be determined from planar sections. The technique is illustrated through the reconstruction of the microstructure of a cast standard aluminium alloy specimen.

  19. Integration through Europeanization: Ukraine’s Policy Towards the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Europeanization . The Orange Revolution of late 2004, and the implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy , significantly improved Ukraine’s European ...of the European Neighbourhood Policy , significantly improved Ukraine’s European prospects. This thesis examines Ukraine’s efforts to undertake the... Neighbourhood Policy and Ukraine is one of six post-Soviet states invited to cooperate with the European Union within the multilateral

  20. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    PubMed

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice. 2015 FRAME.

  1. European tests on materials outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwaal, A.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to international coordination of spacecraft materials, a number of European firms and institutes performed outgassing tests on identical materials at 125 C in high vacuum. The outgassing data obtained with the different types of equipment is presented and both the results and the critical parameters are discussed.

  2. New Superpower, The European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    196 from Japan and 210 from the EC; in the Super Fifty non-American 27 are from the common market. It is clear that the European Union will be one of...C687e). (page 31, bottom)4 Mastrivh treaty, articulo 6Mastrich treaty, articulo 6Janes 1994, pag 31. 8ii JRATOM and Nuclear Safeguards. Darryl A

  3. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  4. Scholarships for European vet students.

    PubMed

    Egan, Jordon; Takacs, Daniella

    2017-02-25

    Every year, students from European vet schools can apply for $5000 scholarships, which aim to 'enhance the academic experience of students'. Among last year's recipients were Jordon Egan, from the Royal Veterinary College, and Daniella Takács, from the University of Veterinary Medicine in Budapest. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Mathematical Modelling in European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Rita Borromeo

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning of mathematical modelling has become a key competence within school curricula and educational standards in many countries of the world. The term mathematical modelling, its meaning, and how it can be implemented in mathematics lessons have been intensively discussed during several Conferences of the European Society for…

  6. Reconstructing Indo-European Syllabification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Andrew Miles

    2010-01-01

    The chief concern of this dissertation is to investigate a fundamental, yet unsolved problem within the phonology of Proto-Indo-European (PIE): the process of syllabification. I show that by analyzing the much more easily reconstructable word-edge clusters we may predict which types of consonant clusters can occur word-medially, provided that we…

  7. Mathematical Modelling in European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Rita Borromeo

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning of mathematical modelling has become a key competence within school curricula and educational standards in many countries of the world. The term mathematical modelling, its meaning, and how it can be implemented in mathematics lessons have been intensively discussed during several Conferences of the European Society for…

  8. European perspectives in thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Europe, the old Continent, has been the cradle of thoracic surgery from the beginning of the last century. The structure and the activities of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) activities are directed to enlighten the path, provide the tools and set the standards for a quality inspired practice in thoracic surgery. PMID:24868436

  9. Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for…

  10. The European NEO Coordination Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perozzi, E.; Borgia, B.; Micheli, M.

    An operational approach to NEO (Near-Earth Object) hazard monitoring has been developed at European level within the framework of the Space Situational Awareness Program (SSA) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through federating European assets and profiting of the expertise developed in European Universities and Research Centers, it has been possible to start the deployment of the so-called SSA NEO Segment. This initiative aims to provide a significant contribution to the worldwide effort to the discovery, follow-up and characterization of the near-Earth object population. A major achievement has been the inauguration in May 2013 of the ESA NEO Coordination Centre located at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy). The goal of the NEOCC Precursor Service operations is twofold: to make available updated information on the NEO population and the associated hazard and to contribute to optimize the NEO observational efforts. This is done by maintaining and improving a Web Portal publicly available at http://neo.ssa.esa.int and by performing follow-up observations through a network of collaborating telescopes and facilities. An overview of the SSA-NEO System and a summary of the first two years of NEOCC operations is presented.

  11. Attitudes of Europeans toward Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageing International, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two Commission of European Communities surveys of people over age 15 and of those over 60 demonstrated a widespread belief that older people deserve public support and services and face employment discrimination. Socioeconomic factors influenced older people's sense of security and life satisfaction. Positive intergenerational attitudes appeared.…

  12. European Year of Languages, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This document is a folder full of brochures describing the activities of Council of Europe and the European Union to celebrate 2001 as a year of languages in order to celebrate the linguistic diversity of Europe and promote the many opportunities available for lifelong language learning. A number of facts and figures about the languages of Europe…

  13. OER: A European Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquézar Sabadie, Jesús Maria; Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Puni, Yves; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of OER have led many European governments to implement policies supporting their creation and use. This chapter aims to put these OER policies in context, discussing their focus and scope and highlighting challenges and bottlenecks. On the basis of the analysis of the current state of the art, it is argued that one of main…

  14. Reconstructing Indo-European Syllabification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Andrew Miles

    2010-01-01

    The chief concern of this dissertation is to investigate a fundamental, yet unsolved problem within the phonology of Proto-Indo-European (PIE): the process of syllabification. I show that by analyzing the much more easily reconstructable word-edge clusters we may predict which types of consonant clusters can occur word-medially, provided that we…

  15. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  16. Stem cell transplantation and ethics: a European overview.

    PubMed

    Holm, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation requires a source of stem cells. The potential use of human embryonic stem cells for research and therapy has created major ethical and political debates in Europe. The first section of this paper gives an overview of the official regulatory responses to the possibility of stem cell transplantation in a range of European jurisdictions. It focuses on the regulation of: (1) the use and production of embryonic stem cells, (2) the use of adult stem cells, and (3) the patenting of stem cell lines and products. The second section tries to unravel why regulatory responses have differed between different European countries, especially with regard to embryonic stem cells and focuses on two possible explanations for the differences: (1) ethical disagreement and (2) maintenance of regulatory consistency. It is argued that an exclusive focus on ethical disagreement cannot fully explain the differences in regulatory response, and that an understanding of the specific way in which regulations develop over time in each jurisdiction is crucial. Certain types of ethical consistency arguments can, for instance, only be mounted successfully if the jurisdiction in question already allows other forms of experiments involving human embryos. In the final section it is argued that the European regulatory developments in the future may be crucially dependent on whether actual stem cell products are developed that can potentially be traded across borders. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine semen...

  18. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine semen...

  19. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine semen...

  20. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  1. Consultation Process on the European Commission's "Memorandum on Lifelong Learning": Analysis of National Reports. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Cheallaigh, Martina, Ed.

    This document presents outcomes of a review of the Memorandum on Lifelong Learning (LL) consultation reports from member states of the European Commission and EEA (European Economic Area) countries that collected all views on how best to make progress in implementing LL at local, regional, and national levels. Section 1 provides an overview of…

  2. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Evans, Roger

    2014-11-04

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control was set up in 2005 to strengthen Europe's defences against infectious diseases. The centre is an independent agency of the European Union and is based in Stockholm, Sweden.

  3. New head picked for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The UK physicist John Womersley is to become the next director-general of the €1.8bn European Spallation Source (ESS), which is currently being built in Lund, Sweden, by a 17-member consortium of European countries.

  4. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The European Space Agency's third Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-3) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from the European space port in Kourou, French Guiana, at 12:34 a.m. EDT Friday, beginning a si...

  5. Meeting US and European supplier control requirements.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Medical device manufacturers operating under European quality system requirements are sometimes surprised to learn that their supplier control procedures do not fully meet United States (US) requirements. This article discusses important differences between US and European requirements for controlling suppliers.

  6. European physics impact - to a first approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starckx, Senne

    2013-05-01

    Physics-based industries contributed around 14%, or €3800bn, to the total value of the European economy in 2010 - exceeding that of the construction and retail sectors combined - according to a report by the European Physical Society (EPS).

  7. The Imprimatur of Europe: Turkey, Europeanization, and the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    barriers to Turkey’s admission to the ED, the EU’s position on Turkey’s accession, bilateral views of key EU members, and assessment of the likelihood of...circumstances found in the international system. Our purpose is to look carefully at each view with an eye towards assessing its relative ability to contribute...intergovernmental organizations like OPEC, the United Nations, and the European Union, as well as multinational corporations like IBM, Shell or Ford, and

  8. European Security: Chances for a European Defense Entity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-12

    terms of a (military) balance between Russia , Germany, Great Britain, France and Austria-Hungary. The balance was not stable as diplomacy...defensie tegen een nieuwe achtergrond," Nederlands instituut voor internationale betrekkingen ’Clingendael,’ November 1990, p. 6, ("The image of threat...implications for Europe as a consequence of the Gulf crisis; o How to cooperate with the East European Nations. See Jan Gerritsen, " Nederland

  9. European psychotraumatology – alongside the recent European history

    PubMed Central

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a personal reflection of experiences within the field of traumatic stress, especially in relation to specific events, which affected the author's professional life. Conclusions for further challenges for European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) are delineated. ESTSS's role in the global network of traumatic stress societies is discussed. This is a personal view of Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, president of ESTSS on behalf of the 20th birthday of ESTSS. PMID:23755321

  10. The Independent European Force: Costs of Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Western European Union (WEU). Advocates of this approach see the European effort as complementary to NATO and oriented toward coalitional activities...Board Spot) Seaport ofdebarkation USAF United States Air Force WEU Western European Union 1.Introduction Background Th amunceoMentAS I in May 1991...Europe-has sparked criticism within Europe. Speaking at a miseting of the Western European Union (WEU), French Foreign Minister Roland Dumnas argued that

  11. Proposed SPR Section Bylaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.

    Each of the sections of AGU has been requested by Council to adopt a set of bylaws. The Union has provided a set of model bylaws that each section can adapt to its own particular needs. At t h e request of Bob Helliwell, I have taken the model bylaws and attempted to alter them to better reflect the needs of the SPR Section. I n doing so, I have made several proposed changes in t h e operation of the SPR Section. The first one to note is that the draft bylaws call for only three sections and not four. This is to create three more equal subdivisions in SPR. Even with the SC and SS section programs combined, as SS and SC have been at recent meetings, they have not sustained a full program during the meeting. The other important change is a limitation on the term of the secretaries. This is not any reflection on the past or present performance of our secretaries but rather an acknowledgment of the strong influence that they wield on t h e intellectual directions of the section and the feeling that this influence should be shared among many individuals over the course of time. The section does not lack talented individuals who would be good secretaries.

  12. Sectional device handling tool

    DOEpatents

    Candee, Clark B.

    1988-07-12

    Apparatus for remotely handling a device in an irradiated underwater environment includes a plurality of tubular sections interconnected end-to-end to form a handling structure, the bottom section being adapted for connection to the device. A support section is connected to the top tubular section and is adapted to be suspended from an overhead crane. Each section is flanged at its opposite ends. Axially retractable bolts in each bottom flange are threadedly engageable with holes in the top flange of an adjacent section, each bolt being biased to its retracted position and retained in place on the bottom flange. Guide pins on each top flange cooperate with mating holes on adjacent bottom flanges to guide movement of the parts to the proper interconnection orientation. Each section carries two hydraulic line segments provided with quick-connect/disconnect fittings at their opposite ends for connection to the segments of adjacent tubular sections upon interconnection thereof to form control lines which are connectable to the device and to an associated control console.

  13. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  14. Post caesarean section delivery.

    PubMed

    Bolaji, I I; Meehan, F P

    1993-10-29

    Recent clinical attention has focused upon the rising rate of caesarean sections being performed and whether patients with a previous caesarean section should be allowed a vaginal delivery. In this paper, the worldwide trend of caesarean section and the role of trial of scar following single and multiple caesarean surgery is reviewed. The role of oxytocin and regional epidural analgesia is evaluated as well as perinatal and maternal mortality. On the basis of the available data, there is no justification for the current clinical practice of almost 99% prevalence of elective repeat caesarean section in some hospitals in the North America. Oxytocin and epidural analgesia, when carefully monitored, are safe and reasonable in these patients. Watchful waiting has always been an essential virtue in obstetric management and should not be replaced by hopeful expectancy. This aspect of the art of obstetrics would appear to require rejuvenation if we are to stem the rising tide of caesarean sections.

  15. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  16. Our European Neighbours. Vocational Training No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This document addresses vocational training in European countries. The document contains the following articles: (1) "Dear Readers" (Ernst Piehl and Georges Dupont); (2) "Interview with Lord Plumb, President of the European Parliament" (Georges Dupont); "The European Community's 'Ostpolitik'" (Horst G. Krenzler);…

  17. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education…

  18. How Is European Governance Configuring the EHEA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhães, António; Veiga, Amélia; Sousa, Sofia; Ribeiro, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the European dimension driven by the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the development of national reforms to fulfil that objective. On the basis of data gathered in eight countries involved in EuroHESC project TRUE (Transforming European Universities), the curricular and the…

  19. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education…

  20. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  1. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  2. How Is European Governance Configuring the EHEA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhães, António; Veiga, Amélia; Sousa, Sofia; Ribeiro, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the European dimension driven by the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the development of national reforms to fulfil that objective. On the basis of data gathered in eight countries involved in EuroHESC project TRUE (Transforming European Universities), the curricular and the…

  3. First-Ever European Space Weather Week

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Sarah

    2004-07-01

    Europe's first Space Weather Week is scheduled to take place at the European Space Agency's European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands, for five days beginning 29 November. Modeled after the U.S. Space Weather Week, the European agenda will highlight not only services and applications but also the crucial activity of transitioning scientific discoveries into forecasting capabilities.

  4. Making Citizens, Being European? European Symbolism in Slovenian Citizenship Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banjac, Marinko; Pušnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Citizenship education has been an important part of the European Union's (EU) agenda to integrate a European dimension into schools' curricula. The usage of European symbolism in citizenship education curriculum material has been an especially important (yet understudied) means not only to promote a distinct European identity and increase…

  5. Making Citizens, Being European? European Symbolism in Slovenian Citizenship Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banjac, Marinko; Pušnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Citizenship education has been an important part of the European Union's (EU) agenda to integrate a European dimension into schools' curricula. The usage of European symbolism in citizenship education curriculum material has been an especially important (yet understudied) means not only to promote a distinct European identity and increase…

  6. Traceability from a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Schwägele, F

    2005-09-01

    At pan-European level there is a need for traceability systems giving information on origin, processing, retailing and final destination of foodstuffs. Such systems shall enhance consumer confidence in food; enable the regulatory authorities to identify and to withdraw health hazardous and non-consumable foodstuffs from the market. Animal feeds are an element in this "food-to-farm" approach to public health. Such feedstuffs are preliminary elements of some foods for human consumption, and hence are an inherent element of the food chain. A harmonised pan-European food traceability protocol would greatly assist authorities in detecting fraud as well as dangerous substances. The food chain comprises a range of sequential and parallel stages bridging the full spectrum from agricultural production to the consumable foodstuffs by consumers. EU legislation on traceability and the technologies needed to implement this system for meat and meat products are the focus of this paper.

  7. Integrating the European Securities Settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaper, Torsten

    The cross-border securities settlement in Europe is still said to be highly inefficient. One main reason can be seen in technical barriers between the different domestic settlement systems. Beside efforts to implement industry-specific communication standards an integration of the different settlement systems is necessary. The CSD-link model, the hub and spokes model, and the European CSD model aim to integrate European securities settlement. They have in common that they address the problem of interlinkage of national Central Securities Depositories and differ essentially in the way of achieving integration. These models are evaluated from a macro-economic perspective considering transaction costs, risks, and the integration of the cross-border securities settlement process.

  8. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M. J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S. L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.-D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G. J.

    2008-07-01

    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000 from the EU-15 countries excluding Luxembourg, plus Norway and Switzerland, reveals that there is a tight relationship between increases in forest biomass and forest ecosystem productivity but timber harvests grew more slowly. Encouragingly, the environmental conditions in combination with the type of silviculture that has been developed over the past 50 years can efficiently sequester carbon on timescales of decades, while maintaining forests that meet the demand for wood. However, a return to using wood as biofuel and hence shorter rotations in forestry could cancel out the benefits of carbon storage over the past five decades.

  9. European Science Notes Information Bulletin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Third European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like, and Related Coatings .................. 427 M. N. Yoder, L. Kabacoff, J. E. Butler, K Doverspike, J...tions on the functionf will yield results on the the correlation E(dj[n], dk[m]) depends on H, j, k , analysis and synthesis operators. m, n and the number...structure of fully developed turbulence in the ho- goes like this: Define the functions ,•j..(x) = j , k (x) mogeneous and inhomogeneous, incompressible

  10. Evaluating the European Defense Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-31

    Union and the European Security and Defense Identity. From its inception following World War II, the WEU has shared a common birthright of sorts...for a merging of monetary, citizenship , and security affairs. The monetary policy is already in effect with the new Euro dollar entering...circulation in 2002. The most dramatic impact of citizenship policies is the idea of dual- citizenship of Europe and its respective states members. Finally

  11. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    and the United Arab Emirates , Iraq (1997), and Iran (1997). 413 Haass, p. 236. 124 efforts at fighting domestic leftist uprisings.”414 Although...farreaching consequences for Arab willingness to work with the United States against Iraq and Libya, as well as its affects on European views towards...Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Kellar, Ronald Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s

  12. European Seminar on Neural Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-31

    weights) There are three distinct approaches currently being of the connections between PE’s, analogous to synaptic taken for supporting neural ...for creation of dedicated re- * Connectionist models for artificial intelligence (Al) search centers, analogous to the Computer and Neural System...IONDOIL ONRL Report 8 Oo Ln 0In t m S D TIC European Seminar on Neural Computing 1 IELECTE is MAY 161990 L D % Claire Zomzely-Neurath 31 August 1988

  13. The European Board of Orthodontists.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, Mauro; Weiland, Frank

    2016-06-01

    The multiplicity of nations, languages and differing ways and levels of specialized orthodontic education in Europe lead to the need for an objective review of the quality of orthodontic care. To this purpose, The European Board of Orthodontists (EBO) was introduced. This article gives an overview of the objectives of the EBO, its development and the requirements for membership. Copyright © 2016 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. EST: The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.

    2008-09-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project for a 4 meter-class ground-based telescope, to be located in the Canary Islands. The project is promoted by the European Association for Solar Telescopes (EAST), a consortium formed by research organizations from 15 European countries. EST will be optimized for studies of magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. The project has been approved for funds by the European Union, within the FP-7 framework, to produce the design of all systems and subsystems of the telescope during the next three years. This includes the optical and optomechanical design of the telescope itself and of the instruments and their control. MCAO will be included in the optical path in a natural way to compensate for atmospheric disturbances in an optimum way. The design of EST will strongly emphasize the use of a large number of visible and near-infrared instruments simultaneously which will influence the telescope design from the very beginning. This communication will center mainly on the scientific objectives that EST will address. Generally speaking, they involve understanding how the magnetic field emerges through the solar surface, interacts with the plasma dynamics to transfer energy between different regions, and finally releases it in the form of heat or as violent events in the solar chromosphere and corona. Among the many topics of interest, one may cite, as described in the EST Science Requirements Document: small-scale flux emergence in quiet sun regions, large-scale magnetic structures, magnetic flux cancellation processes, polar magnetic fields, magnetic topology of the photosphere and chromosphere, conversion of mechanical to magnetic energy in the photosphere, wave propagation from photosphere to chromosphere, energy dissipation in the chromosphere at small and large scales, etc. The present status and future perspectives of the project will also be outlined.

  15. European Space Software Repository ESSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livschitz, Jakob; Blommestijn, Robert

    2016-08-01

    The paper and presentation will present the status of the ESSR (European Space Software Repository), see [1]. It will describe the development phases, outline the web portal functionality and explain the process steps behind. Not only the front-end but also the back-end will be discussed.The ESSR web portal went live ESA internal on May 15th, 2015 and live world-wide September 19th, 2015. Currently the ESSR is in operations.

  16. [Geriatric teaching at undergraduate level: are Spanish Medical Schools following European recommendations?].

    PubMed

    Mateos-Nozal, Jesús; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso Jose; Ribera Casado, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To compare the learning objectives proposed by the European Union of Medical Specialists Geriatric section (UEMS-GS) with those approved in Spain for undergraduate teaching. Learning objectives included in the European Undergraduate Curriculum in Geriatric Medicine developed by the UEMS-GS in 2013 were compared with those listed in different Spanish official documents: Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE, Spanish State Gazette), white book on Medicine of the Spanish Accreditation Agency (ANECA), and list of learning objectives of Spanish Medical Schools. the European curriculum recommends to teach 42 competencies divided in 10 sections, while the BOE mentions 37 general competencies and some other specific competencies, and the ANECA mentions 23 generic and 34 specific competencies (similar to the 37 of the BOE), and a list of common contents in which Geriatrics is included. The BOE includes 38% of the European competencies (range 17-100% of competencies in different sections), while the ANECA includes 52% of them (range 17-100%). Spanish regulations include from one third to half of the European recommendations for Geriatrics teaching at undergraduate level. In the future, it seems advisable that official requirements in Spain should converge with European recommendations. This task should also be performed by Spanish Medical Schools. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-08

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  18. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  19. Brain death: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Murphy, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    Some of the seminal steps toward the recognition and definition of brain death were European. There is a general consensus on both the medical concept of brain death in Europe as well as the minimum fundamental clinical standards that are required for its diagnosis-the absence of consciousness, brainstem reflexes, and the ability to breathe in the absence of reversible or confounding conditions. Two aspects of brain death determination are addressed in this article. The authors analyze how brain death is diagnosed across Europe, identifying both the similarities and differences that exist between countries (the latter mainly concerning ancillary tests, timing, and the number of physicians involved in the brain death determination). In addition, they describe the very considerable variations in when brain death determinations are made between and within individual European countries, and propose that they are due to differences in the end-of-life care practices in patients with irreversible brain injuries, medical attitudes, and organ donation practices. Although legislation is available to standardize the brain death diagnosis process in most individual European countries, there are still disparities across Europe as a whole. The current variation in practice makes a continental consensus for the definition of brain death imperative.

  20. International Heliophysical Year: European Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.

    2007-08-01

    The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

  1. [European perspectives of health telematics].

    PubMed

    Rienhoff, O; Verhey, J

    2005-06-01

    The European perspectives of the present German developments in the field of health telematics are discussed critically. It is pointed out that technical projects have been financed with considerable means in the EU, however with out having any lasting effect on the value of health telematics in the health systems of Europe. A decisive cause is that the "health" topic was not codified in the Roman contracts. The international, global market is a crucial factor for international development and thus also for the orientation of the German projects and their economical and political success. The USA plays a dominant role on the global market. Caused by different reasons a corresponding market potential in the EU cannot be expected in the foreseeable future. With regard to the new options provided by telematics, it is therefore recommended that the national health services be reorganized, thus increasing quality and efficiency. With regard to progressively individualized medical care, the subject of "health" should afterwards be included in the European contracts. In the long run, an adjustment of the systems and uniform use of telematics could be achieved. Till then the coordination between the national governments in the area of health politics is seen as the most effective means for European integration.

  2. Third European Stroke Science Workshop.

    PubMed

    Dichgans, Martin; Planas, Anna M; Biessels, Geert Jan; van der Worp, Bart; Sudlow, Cathie; Norrving, Bo; Lees, Kennedy; Mattle, Heinrich P

    2016-07-01

    Lake Eibsee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, November 19 to 21, 2015: The European Stroke Organization convened >120 stroke experts from 27 countries to discuss latest results and hot topics in clinical, translational, and basic stroke research. Since its inception in 2011, the European Stroke Science Workshop has become a cornerstone of European Stroke Organization's academic activities and major highlight for researchers in the field. Participants include stroke researchers at all career stages who convene for plenary lectures and discussions, thus facilitating crosstalk among researchers from different fields. As in previous years, the workshop was organized into 7 scientific sessions each focusing on a major research topic. All sessions started with a keynote lecture that provided an overview on current developments and set the scene for the following presentations. The latter were short focused talks on a timely topic and included the most recent findings, including unpublished data. A new element at this year's meeting was a hot topic session in which speakers had to present a provocative concept or update sharply within 5 minutes. In the following, we summarize the key contents of the meeting. The program is provided in the online-only Data Supplement. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Progress in European CELSS activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The European Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) activities started in the late 1970's with system analysis and feasibility studies of Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). The initiation for CELSS came from the industry side in Europe, but since then planning and hardware feasibility analyses have been initiated also from customer/agency side. Despite this, it is still too early to state that a CELSS program as a concerted effort has been agreed upon in Europe. However, the general CELSS objectives were accepted as planning and possible development goals for the European effort for manned space activities, and as experimental planning topics in the life sciences community for the next decades. It is expected that ecological life support systems can be tested and implemented on a space station towards the end of this century or early in the next. For the European activities a possible scenario can be projected based on ongoing life support system development activities and the present life sciences goals.

  4. Fractionator feed section

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, V.R.; Bachmann, D.E.

    1993-07-27

    A fractionator feed section in a fractionator to which is fed a feed mixture comprising a vapor component and a liquid component and which fractionator comprises a tray above said feed section which passes liquid reflux to said feed section, said feed section comprising: (a) a downwardly extending, elongated first baffle; (b) a downwardly extending, elongated second baffle; (c) a seal pan below said first baffle and said second baffle, said seal pan comprising a seal pan mixture of liquids into which a portion of said first baffle and a portion of said second baffle extend to form a mixing zone; (d) a feed nozzle which introduces said liquid component and said vapor component downward into said mixing zone; and, (e) a trough which introduces said liquid reflux to said mixing zone, wherein said liquid component and said liquid reflux mix to form said seal pan mixture of liquids.

  5. Marcel Besson wing sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delanghe, C

    1923-01-01

    Three different Marcel Besson airfoils are investigated in terms of maximum lift, maximum fineness, minimum required power, and wing section drag. Comparisons are then made between the three airfoils.

  6. Section 508 Standards Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn which software applications, operating systems, web-based applications, and other electronic and information technology (EIT) products are covered by Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act; and resources for making sure your EIT products are compliant

  7. What is Section 508?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This section of the Rehabilitation Act required federal agencies to develop, procure, maintain, and use electronic and information technology (EIT) that is accessible to people with disabilities, whether or not they work for the government.

  8. Section 508 Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find details about pertinent laws, regulations, and policies, including acquisition regulations; best practices guidance; and training at Section508.gov. Learn about the U.S. Access Board, which reviews and updates 508 standards.

  9. Learn About Section 508

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find out about EPA's commitment to making its websites and other electronic and information technology (EIT) products accessible, learn what Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act covers and why, and how to make your EIT 508 compliant.

  10. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    PubMed

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  11. [Anesthesia for cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Eldor, J; Guedj, P; Lavie, A

    1992-11-15

    Of 684 parturients who underwent cesarean section between July 1985-August 1990, 371 (54.2%) were given epidural anesthesia; 50 (7.3%) required general anesthesia after a failed attempt at epidural anesthesia; and 5 (0.7%) underwent inadvertent spinal anesthesia because of dural penetration by the epidural needle. In 258 (37.7%) general anesthesia was decided on before operation. The intentional avoidance of spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in this university hospital is criticized.

  12. Neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook displays curves of neutron cross sections in the energy range of 0.01 eV to 200 MeV (and associated information) as a function of incident neutron energy. Tables include reference to all data. Information on isomeric state production is also included. This book represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, the third edition of which was published in 1976.

  13. Utility straight sections

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, B.; Peggs, S.; Peterson, J.

    1985-10-01

    Utility straight sections are insertions in the SSC lattice to provide relatively free space to facilitate various beam manipulations. These uses include beam-abort, injection (and conceivably ejection), space for the rf system, and collimation. A typical utility straight section is 1500 meters in overall length (ranging from 500 to 1200 meters). It has zero dispersion and high values of the beta functions. The betatron phase shift across the insertion is about 90{degrees} in each plane.

  14. European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology.

    PubMed

    van Rijsselt, René J T; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in the field of gerontology in the European Nordic countries is elaborated. Third, two postgraduate Gerontology and Geriatrics programs offered by the European Centre of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Malta are presented. In 1995, the Centre was designated a WHO Collaborating Centre for healthy aging. To provide a context for these initiatives, a short overview is presented of developments in the European Higher Education Area, and the current state and recent developments in gerontology training in Europe is elaborated. The article concludes with discussion of the feasibility and sustainability of European internationalization efforts in education and training in gerontology.

  15. [Reflections on traditional Chinese medicine and its pharmacopoeia].

    PubMed

    Gibert-Tisseuil, F

    1998-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine considers man at the center of the universe as an antenna between celestial and earthly elements. The world is a single unit resulting from one Fundamental Unit. Its movement gives rise to yin and yang which ar two antitheric aspects. When these two energies fall out of harmony, disease develops. The physician should thus take into account this concept when caring for patients and establish an energy diagnosis. Several possibilities are given at treatment which should reestablish the balance between the yin and the yang.

  16. Elucidation of the variability in consistency of pharmacopoeia quality petrolatum.

    PubMed

    van Heugten, Anton Joris Pancras; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Vromans, Herman

    2017-04-01

    The Pharmacopeia monograph for petrolatum poorly defines the material's physical properties. Indeed, differences between petrolatum grades can be substantial; yield stress varies between 65 and 280 Pa which can be compared with the consistency of respectively thin cream or thick ointment. This variation is not only due to differences in composition or refining process but also as a result of different processing; for example, thermal history influences petrolatum structure considerably. Slow cooling of petrolatum resulted in a yield stress of 26 Pa and fast cooling in 79 Pa. X-ray showed that crystallinity was 0.7% for the first cooling case and 1.5% for the second one. Crystallite size was estimated to be 20-50 nm. To investigate if this relatively small difference in crystallinity may induce the difference in consistency, 15 nm SiO2 particles were added to petrolatum. Indeed, a small increase in SiO2 concentration led to a major increase in yield stress. This was argued to be due to the small size of the particles, resulting in a large increase in absolute number of particles. The Pharmacopeia does not unambiguously define the pharmaceutical excipient petrolatum. As a consequence, the formulator has to take care of selecting the appropriate grade as well as to carefully control the processing of the material in order to achieve a consistent pharmaceutical product.

  17. [The engraving of pharmacopoeia between XVIth-XVIIIth Century].

    PubMed

    Bernier, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacopea is mainly known like a book containing descriptions of drugs and preparations of medicines. During the XVIth-XVIIIth centuries, some of these books were illustrated with engraving frontispieces. This study shows the meaning of these pictures, the composition and the artists and the messages which are incorporated.

  18. Section at Frame 19 Looking Forward, Section at Frame 25 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section at Frame 19 Looking Forward, Section at Frame 25 Looking Forward, Section at Frame 31 Looking Forward, Section at Frame 45 Looking Forward, Section Through Corrugated Cargo Tank Mid-Ship, Section at Frame 73 Looking Forward - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  19. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  20. Roof Plans: Section "CC", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof Plans: Section "C-C", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section "C-C", Section "D-D"; Roof Framing Sections: Cross Section "G-G", Cross Section "H-H" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  1. Paedogenesis in european newts (Triturus: salamandridae): cranial morphology during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Djorović, A; Kalezić, M L

    2000-02-01

    A cross-sectional analysis using different ontogenetic stages (larvae, juveniles, paedotypic, and metamorphic adults) of the smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris, and the alpine newt, T.alpestris, revealed a broad spectrum of perennibranchiation influences on cranial ontogeny in European newts, more pronounced than previously thought. These influences included marked variation in ossification levels, pronounced morphometric variability of many cranial elements, and considerable skull shape changes in the transition from larvae to the adult stage. In comparison with metamorphosed individuals, paedotypic newts had a higher level of variability in both individual cranial traits and cranial shape changes. Sexual size difference of the skull traits was mostly negligible, especially in comparison to the influence of paedogenesis. The main changes in cranial shape of the European newts occurred during metamorphosis. Cranial morphological organization in the majority of examined paedotypes corresponds to cranial organization at late larval stages prior to metamorphosis or at the onset of metamorphosis.

  2. The European solar physics community: outcome from a questionnaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenti, Susanna

    2002-12-01

    At the SPM10 meeting held in Prague, for the first time was organized a "young section" which was dedicated to "the career in Solar Physics" (Aulanier, this issue). Prior to the meeting a questionnaire was distributed to the community with the aim to build statistic on the career. The informations collected in this way relate to personal and professional aspects of the career, how much the countries' policy and the working environment can affect it. Moreover, particular attention was given to the PhD and post-doctorate (post-doc) conditions. From the statistics it comes clear that the European Solar Physics is having a difficult period. Besides the main problems, we found the lack of an integrated European community, the lack of permanent positions, the low salary and the lost of popularity among students. Several ideas were proposed to improve the situation.

  3. Sunglasses, the European directive and the European standard.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen John; Ngo, Thi Phuong Thao; Cheng, Brian Barry; Hu, Angel; Teh, Adrian Ghim Boon; Tseng, Jane; Vu, Nam

    2010-05-01

    The Optics and Radiometry Laboratory (ORLAB) provides a testing service for the Australian sunglass industry to assist its compliance with the mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard. In doing so, a number of sunglasses carrying the CE mark (in effect a claim of compliance with the European Union Personal Protective Equipment Directive) have been tested. Since there is no mandatory testing in Europe (the sunglass industry is deemed self regulating), evaluating their performance will give an insight into compliance with the Directive. Consecutive submissions to ORLAB over a period of 18 months were examined for CE marked sunglasses. The results for 646 CE marked pairs of sunglasses tested during 2003 and first half 2004 were examined and evaluated for compliance with EN 1836 (the European sunglass standard) on the basis of refractive power, prismatic power, transmittance (visible, UV and coloration) and polarization. A total of 17.3% failed EN 1836 and 3.3% were borderline (i.e. within our uncertainties of measurement of the requirement). The failures comprised: 0.9% lens defect; 12.5% polarization alignment error; 2.7% excessive vertical prism; 22.3% excessive horizontal prism; 27.7% excessive spherical power; 14.3% excessive cylindrical power; 1.8% excessive UV transmittance; and 23.2% transmittance difference between lenses (always gradient tints). With up to 20% non-compliance, self regulation is not working particularly well in providing the public with complying sunglasses.

  4. The Danube--a European Cultural Route. Report of the European Teachers' Seminar (66th, Donaueschingen, Germany, November 21-26, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheichl, Andrea

    The 66th Council of Europe Teacher's Seminar focused on the Danube as actual and symbolic thoroughfare of European culture and ways to use it for teaching purposes. Presentations included: "Introductory Talk on 'The Danube'" (Andrea Scheichl); "The Danube, with Particular Reference to the Austrian Section" (Hans Trsek);…

  5. ULTRATHIN FROZEN SECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, W.; Leduc, Elizabeth H.

    1967-01-01

    A relatively simple method for obtaining ultrathin, frozen sections for electron microscopy has been developed. Tissues, cultured cells, and bacteria may be employed. They are fixed in 1.25–4% glutaraldehyde for 1–4 hr, are washed overnight in buffer at 3°C, and are embedded in 20% thiolated gelatin or pure gelatin. Before sectioning they are partially dehydrated in 50% glycerol, frozen in liquid nitrogen on a modified tissue holder, and subsequently maintained at -70°C with dry ice. Finally, they are sectioned very rapidly with glass knives on a slightly modified Porter-Blum MT-1 microtome in a commercial deep-freeze maintained at -35°C and are floated in the trough of the knife on a 40% solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The sections are picked up in plastic loops and transferred to distilled water at room temperature for thawing and removal of the DMSO, placed on grids coated with Formvar and carbon, air-dried, and stained with phosphotungstic acid, sodium silicotungstate, or a triple stain of osmium tetroxide, uranyl acetate, and lead. Large flat sections are obtained in which ultrastructural preservation is good. They are particularly useful for cytochemical studies. PMID:4167504

  6. European alchemy: some traditional beliefs.

    PubMed

    Karpenko, V

    1999-01-01

    Three important doctrines of European alchemy are discussed: the Emerald Table of Hermes, the idea of transmutation, and the Elixir of Life. The analysis of these problems is focused on the 16th century, the epoch of the high flourish of alchemy in Renaissance Europe. As typical examples two works are chosen: the treatises of Jean-Pierre Fabre (1588-1658) and Alexander von Suchten (? 1520 - ? 1590). The arguments of these authors illustrate the ways how alchemists tried to defend their position in face of repeated failures. Just the 16th century stood in the sign of dramatic development of crafts, but, simultaneously, of growing interest in alchemy.

  7. European Nucleotide Archive in 2016

    PubMed Central

    Toribio, Ana Luisa; Alako, Blaise; Amid, Clara; Cerdeño-Tarrága, Ana; Clarke, Laura; Cleland, Iain; Fairley, Susan; Gibson, Richard; Goodgame, Neil; ten Hoopen, Petra; Jayathilaka, Suran; Kay, Simon; Leinonen, Rasko; Liu, Xin; Martínez-Villacorta, Josué; Pakseresht, Nima; Rajan, Jeena; Reddy, Kethi; Rosello, Marc; Silvester, Nicole; Smirnov, Dmitriy; Vaughan, Daniel; Zalunin, Vadim; Cochrane, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) offers a rich platform for data sharing, publishing and archiving and a globally comprehensive data set for onward use by the scientific community. With a broad scope spanning raw sequencing reads, genome assemblies and functional annotation, the resource provides extensive data submission, search and download facilities across web and programmatic interfaces. Here, we outline ENA content and major access modalities, highlight major developments in 2016 and outline a number of examples of data reuse from ENA. PMID:27899630

  8. European perspectives of food safety.

    PubMed

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU.

  9. Summary of basic science activities at the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Barcelona 2014.

    PubMed

    Thum, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    With >35 000 participants, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) congress was one of the biggest ESC events ever and basic science activities were well implemented. I here summarize the basic science activities during the congress. This includes a section 'Basic science activities in a nutshell' summarizing the most important sessions as well as 'Emerging science activities in the ESC' section with special focus on novel research fields such as the characterization of long non-coding RNAs in cardiovascular research. © 2015 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  10. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

  11. European EVA decompression sickness risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Lorenz; Wenzel, Jürgen; Skoog, A. I.; Luck, S.; Svensson, Bengt

    For the first manned flight of Hermes there will be a capability of performing EVA. The European EVA Space Suit will be an anthropomorphic system with an internal pressure of 500 hPa of pure oxygen. The pressure reduction from the Hermes cabin pressure of 1013 hPa will induce a risk for Decompression Sickness (DCS) for the EVA crewmember if no adequate protective procedures are implemented. Specific decompression procedures have to be developed. From a critical review of the literature and by using knowledge gained from research conducted in the past in the fields of diving and aerospace medicine safe protective procedures are proposed for the European EVA scenario. An R factor of 1.2 and a tissue half-time ( t1/2) of 360 minutes in a single-tissue model have been identified as appropriate operational values. On the basis of an acceptable risk level of approximately 1%, oxygen prebreathing times are proposed for (a) direct pressure reduction from 1013 hPa to a suit pressure of 500 hPa, and (b) staged decompression using a 700 hPa intermediate stage in the spacecraft cabin. In addition, factors which influence individual susceptibility to DCS are identified. Recommendations are also given in the areas of crew selection and medical monitoring requirements together with therapeutic measures that can be implemented in the Hermes scenario. A method for demonstration of the validity of proposed risks and procedures is proposed.

  12. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sprawl in European urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prastacos, Poulicos; Lagarias, Apostolos

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the 2006 edition of the Urban Atlas database is used to tabulate areas of low development density, usually referred to as "sprawl", for many European cities. The Urban Atlas database contains information on the land use distribution in the 305 largest European cities. Twenty different land use types are recognized, with six of them representing urban fabric. Urban fabric classes are residential areas differentiated by the density of development, which is measured by the sealing degree parameter that ranges from 0% to 100% (non-developed, fully developed). Analysis is performed on the distribution of the middle to low density areas defined as those with sealing degree less than 50%. Seven different country groups in which urban areas have similar sprawl characteristics are identified and some key characteristics of sprawl are discussed. Population of an urban area is another parameter considered in the analysis. Two spatial metrics, average patch size and mean distance to the nearest neighboring patch of the same class, are used to describe proximity/separation characteristics of sprawl in the urban areas of the seven groups.

  14. The European-American exchange.

    PubMed

    Guerra, F

    1993-01-01

    The European-American exchange of infectious diseases was responsible for the demographic havoc of the native population in the New World after 1492. Prior to this date medical writers describe the presence in Spain of viral diseases like influenza, parotitis, smallpox, measles, poliomyelitis, and rabies; there were also rickettsiasis, diphtheria, salmonellosis, plague, tubercolosis, leprosy, malaria, scabies and tinea. In America, before European arrivals, there were no records of human viral diseases, though there were records of rickettsiasis, treponematosis--pinta, yaws and syphilis--leihsmaniasis, amibiasis and perhaps leprosy. With the discovery of America in 1492, Columbus's sailors were contaminated by yaws and spread this disease into Europe. In 1493 influenza, as a zoonosis, was introduced into Santo Domingo and was responsible for the annihilation of the natives of the Antilles in less than a quarter of a century; in 1518 smallpox was also introduced in Santo Domingo and then to the American continent by negro slaves: by the same means measles were introduced in 1531. The previous existence or introduction of other infectious diseases in America is also discussed.

  15. Changes in European spring phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahas, R.; Aasa, A.; Menzel, A.; Fedotova, V. G.; Scheifinger, H.

    2002-11-01

    The European phyto-phenological database of the EU 5th Framework project POSITIVE facilitated an examination of the rate and spatial pattern of changes in spring phenology across Europe. This database was collected, evaluated and composed from different national databases of Eastern and Western Europe covering the time period 1951-1998. Results show that spring phases have advanced four weeks in Western and Central Europe, and have been delayed up to two weeks in Eastern Europe. Western European spring starts earlier because of the intensive flow of warmer Atlantic air masses; the Eastern part of Europe has a different phenological rhythm and trends, that can be explained by the influence of the Siberian high. The highest rate of significant (p < 0.05) phenological change (-0.3 to -0.4 days per year) occurs in the Western Europe and Baltic Sea regions for early spring phases of hazel and colts-foot. Spring phases of birch, apple and lilac, and summer phases, such as the flowering of linden, tend to occur earlier with an average rate of -0.1 to 0.3 days per year.

  16. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    SciTech Connect

    Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.; Pfeffer, W.; Zeevaert, T.

    1995-03-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe.

  17. The new European Hubble archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Arevalo, Maria; Merin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The European Hubble Archive (hereafter eHST), hosted at ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre, has been released for public use in October 2015. The eHST is now fully integrated with the other ESA science archives to ensure long-term preservation of the Hubble data, consisting of more than 1 million observations from 10 different scientific instruments. The public HST data, the Hubble Legacy Archive, and the high-level science data products are now all available to scientists through a single, carefully designed and user friendly web interface. In this talk, I will show how the the eHST can help boost archival research, including how to search on sources in the field of view thanks to precise footprints projected onto the sky, how to obtain enhanced previews of imaging data and interactive spectral plots, and how to directly link observations with already published papers. To maximise the scientific exploitation of Hubble's data, the eHST offers connectivity to virtual observatory tools, easily integrates with the recently released Hubble Source Catalog, and is fully accessible through ESA's archives multi-mission interface.

  18. The European LGS test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R. M.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Devaney, N.; Esposito, S.; Goodsell, S. J.; Goncharov, A.; Guerra, J. C.; Guillet de Chatellus, H.; Harrison, M. A.; Holzloehner, R.; Marchetti, E.; Morris, T. J.; Pinna, E.; Pique, J.-P.; Rabien, S.; Reyes, M.; Ribak, E.; Rutten, R. G. M.; Schnetler, H.; Strachan, M.; Stuik, R.; Talbot, R. G.; Tulloch, S. M.

    2007-09-01

    A European Laser Guide Star (LGS) test facility is proposed for the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on La Palma. It will test the next-generation Adaptive Optics (AO) LGS technologies to aid risk mitigation of Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) LGS AO systems. In particular, critical scaling of current LGS AO technologies to ELT dimensions will be tested. For example, experiments addressing increased spot elongation, cone effect and the order of correction required. A pan-European consortium proposes to construct test facility infrastructure on the WHT for a number of risk mitigating experiments. The infrastructure includes the construction of a Nasmyth platform based controlled environment 'Ground-based Adaptive optics Innovative Laboratory' (GRAIL), an experimental test environment 'Testbed integration facility' (TIF) and some common-experiment equipment such as the Common Re-Imaging AO System. Experiments that are proposed for this facility cover the areas of laser technologies, spot elongation, LGS wavefront sensing, parallel launch concepts, Multi-Object AO, atmospheric characterisation, co-phasing and real-time control system risk mitigation.

  19. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included.

  20. ULTRATHIN FROZEN SECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Elizabeth H.; Bernhard, W.; Holt, S. J.; Tranzer, J. P.

    1967-01-01

    Endogenous enzyme activity can be readily and routinely demonstrated in ultrathin, frozen sections for electron microscopy. The procedure employed to obtain the best structural preservation as well as enzyme activity in thin sections involved fixation in glutaraldehyde, embedding in thiolated gelatin or pure gelatin, partial dehydration in glycerol, and sectioning in a cryostat at -35°C with a slightly modified Porter-Blum microtome on which the tissue is maintained at -70°C and the knife at -23°C. Kidney cortex was used as test tissue, but a few other organs were occasionally used. Thin sections were floated on the surface of several incubation media routinely employed for enzyme cytochemistry. Positive, specific reactions were obtained for alkaline phosphatase in kidney brush border, for adenosine triphosphatase in brush border and in basal membranes of distal tubules, for acid phosphatase and esterase in lysosomes, and for NADH diaphorase in mitochondria. Mitochondrial ATPase was sporadically evident only in the distal tubule of the kidney. Localizations of enzyme activity reported by other technical approaches were confirmed and in some cases somewhat improved. PMID:4293006

  1. Solanum section Petota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum section Petota includes the cultivated potato and its approximately 110 wild species relatives. This monographic treatment covers the 18 wild potato species that occur in Argentina. It includes keys to these 18 species, full synonymies with lectotypifications when necessary, descriptions, st...

  2. The Golden Section Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjafield, J.; Adams-Webber, J.

    1976-01-01

    The golden section is a proportion the aesthetic properties of which have been extolled since antiquity. The data from five experiments in which subjects made dichotomous judgements of acquaintances on bipolar dimensions (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant) were reported. (Editor)

  3. The Golden Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runion, Garth E.

    The Golden Section, also known as the "Golden Mean" and the "Divine Proportion," is a ratio found in art and nature that has mathematical properties. This book explores these geometric and algebraic properties in a variety of activities. Construction problems, designs using the pentagon and pentagram, and opportunities to work…

  4. The Golden Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runion, Garth E.

    The Golden Section, also known as the "Golden Mean" and the "Divine Proportion," is a ratio found in art and nature that has mathematical properties. This book explores these geometric and algebraic properties in a variety of activities. Construction problems, designs using the pentagon and pentagram, and opportunities to work…

  5. The New European Wind Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The New European Wind Atlas 1. European wind resource assessment through a ERA-NET Plus project 1.1 The new EU Atlas The Commission decided earlier this year to issue an ERA-NET Plus call for the creation and publication of a new EU wind atlas. The atlas will cover Member states as well as Member states' exclusive economic zones, both onshore and offshore. It involved the launch of a single joint call for proposals by promoters of national and/or regional programmes, thereby allowing a more efficient use of existing financial resources. Therefore the funding scheme is that of ERA-NET Plus which implies that at least 5 MS shall commit at least 1 million Euros each and the Commission tops up with on third of the MS contribution. Basically it is the MS research programmes that will execute the project but an important part of the project is to create "open project development platforms" with associated protocols allowing a wider range of scientists worldwide to contribute. The project has a duration of 5 years. The decision on the new wind atlas was taken after several years of work by the European Wind Energy Technology Platform and the European Energy Research Alliances' Joint programme for Wind Energy. 2. Structure of the project The project will be structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel: 2.1 Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form, which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database. The database will at a minimum include: Wind resources and their associated uncertainty; Extreme wind; Turbulence characteristics; Adverse weather conditions; Predictability for short term prediction; Guidelines. 2.2 Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made public available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and relevant data at several heights and a horizontal

  6. Sectional dentures revisited.

    PubMed

    Karir, Naveen; Hindocha, Vishali; Walmsley, A Damien

    2012-04-01

    Sectional dentures are constructed in separate parts which join together intra-orally to create a single prosthesis. They are used to exploit undercuts around teeth, hard and soft tissues which require more than one path of insertion, and are usually of split pin or locking bolts design. By using two case studies, we aim to illustrate the provision of sectional dentures and to which situations their uses are best suited. A 30-year-old male was referred to the Department of Prosthetics at the Birmingham Dental Hospital for a replacement upper partial cobalt chrome denture of a Kennedy Class IV bounded saddle. The patient had a history of failed upper cobalt chrome removable partial dentures owing to loss of retention and poor stability over the previous 12 months. A 40-year-old female patient was referred by her GDP for restoration of a bounded saddle in the lower right quadrant with a history of intolerance to previous dentures. These two cases demonstrate the successful use of sectional dentures in the aesthetic zone. Although more technically demanding, they lie well within the scope of general practice and offer patients alternative solutions from dental implants and bridgework. These cases highlight the importance of the use of alternative prosthetic techniques which can be simple and achievable for all practitioners. Sectional dentures are a treatment modality for the edentulous space where the presence of one or more undercuts prevents restoration by more conventional techniques. This paper highlights some of the situations in which sectional dentures can be employed and emphasizes their use in general practice.

  7. European psychiatry: needs, challenges and structures.

    PubMed

    Höschl, Cyril

    2009-11-01

    European psychiatry stays now on the crossroad due to conceptual challenges, drifts of political power from the national to the European level, the current economical situation, arising ethical concerns and an emphasis on patients rights. The latter challenge mainly the structure of mental health care demanding a more important role of patients and families. The needs of harmonisation of research, educational, legislative, and political activities in the field of mental health on the European level are briefly discussed.

  8. European Space Weather Portal Open for Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staedter, Tracy

    2006-10-01

    This past spring, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the final release of a centralized Web site designed to showcase a variety of applications, services, and data products revolving around space weather. Called SWENET (Space Weather European Network), the endeavor is expected to create more communication between European scientists and those who use space weather data products and more enthusiasm for space weather among laypeople.

  9. European origin of patients with Paget's disease of bone in the Buenos Aires area.

    PubMed

    Gómez Acotto, C; Mautalen, C A

    2001-01-01

    Paget's bone disease is heterogeneously distributed and several foci of high prevalence have been reported in Europe, United States, Argentina and Australia. The aim of the present work was to determine the ethnic origin of the disease in Buenos Aires using a cross sectional epidemiological study. Sample choice was based on a sampling according to grandparents' nationality. Ninety five percent of Paget patients were of European descent and 5% were non-European, while in the control group the proportion of European descendants is lower: 83% (OR: 3.7; p < 0.007; IC 95%: 1.4-9.7). Within the group of patients with Paget's disease the proportion of Italian and Russian descendants was higher than expected according to the 1914 Argentinean census. The prevalence of Paget's disease among European migrants was higher than in the control group of citizens. Regardless of environmental factors, it is likely that the migrants carried a higher risk of developing the disease.

  10. Social welfare support and homicide: longitudinal analyses of European countries from 1994 to 2010.

    PubMed

    McCall, Patricia L; Brauer, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the extent to which retrenchment in welfare support is related to homicide trends across European countries between 1994 and 2010. Using a longitudinal decomposition design that allows for stronger causal inferences compared to typical cross-sectional designs, we examine these potential linkages between social support spending and homicide with data collected from a heterogeneous sample of European nations, including twenty Western nations and nine less frequently analyzed East-Central nations, during recent years in which European nations generally witnessed substantial changes in homicide rates as well as both economic prosperity and fiscal crisis. Results suggest that even incremental, short-term changes in welfare support spending are associated with short-term reductions in homicide-specifically, impacting homicide rates within two to three years for this sample of European nations.

  11. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  12. The Revised European Social Fund and Action to Combat Unemployment in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandamme, Francois

    1984-01-01

    The tasks of the European Social Fund, the European Economic Community's social policy instrument, were reviewed in l983 in the light of the worsening unemployment situation and the priority placed on employment and vocational training policies. (Author/SSH)

  13. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  14. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  15. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  16. Status of European appliance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Lebot, B.

    1992-05-01

    The European Community (EC) recently commissioned a study of the impact of potential appliance standards on electricity consumption in the twelve EC nations. This study looks at refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The impact of minimum efficiency standards on electricity use over the time period from 1995--2010 is estimated. The results of this study were presented to the EC in September of 1991. Revisions were made to the draft report and final copies sent to all interested parties. The member nations of the EC will soon consider whether they wish to implement uniform energy efficiency standards that would take effect in 1995. The results of the study described above will be presented and the political considerations will be discussed. In addition, data describing the appliance market in Europe will be presented.

  17. Carbon sequestration in European croplands.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Falloon, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The Marrakech Accords allow biospheric carbon sinks and sources to be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest management, cropland management, grazing land management, and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. Croplands are estimated to be the largest biospheric source of carbon lost to the atmosphere in Europe each year, but the cropland estimate is the most uncertain among all land-use types. It is estimated that European croplands (for Europe as far east as the Urals) lose 300 Tg (C) per year, with the mean figure for the European Union estimated to be 78 Tg (C) per year (with one SD=37). National estimates for EU countries are of a similar order of magnitude on a per-area basis. There is significant potential within Europe to decrease the flux of carbon to the atmosphere from cropland, and for cropland management to sequester soil carbon, relative to the amount of carbon stored in cropland soils at present. The biological potential for carbon storage in European (EU 15) cropland is of the order of 90-120 Tg (C) per year, with a range of options available that include reduced and zero tillage, set-aside, perennial crops, deep rooting crops, more efficient use of organic amendments (animal manure, sewage sludge, cereal straw, compost), improved rotations, irrigation, bioenergy crops, extensification, organic farming, and conversion of arable land to grassland or woodland. The sequestration potential, considering only constraints on land use, amounts of raw materials and available land, is up to 45 Tg (C) per year. The realistic potential and the conservative achievable potentials may be considerably lower than the biological potential because of socioeconomic and other constraints, with a realistically achievable potential estimated to be about 20% of the

  18. Postfledging survival of European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that mass at fledging and fledge date within the breeding season affect postfledging survival in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Nestlings were weighed on day 18 after hatch and tagged with individually identifiable patagial tags. Fledge date was recorded. Marked fledglings were resighted during weekly two-day intensive observation periods for 9 weeks postfledging. Post-fledging survival and sighting probabilities were estimated for each of four groups (early or late fledging by heavy or light fledging mass). Body mass was related to post-fledging survival for birds that fledged early. Results were not clear-cut for relative fledge date, although there was weak evidence that this also influenced survival. Highest survival probability estimates occurred in the EARLY-HEAVY group, while the lowest survival estimate occurred in the LATE-LIGHT group. Sighting probabilities differed significantly among groups, emphasizing the need to estimate and compare survival using models which explicitly incorporate sighting probabilities.

  19. The European perspective for LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangler, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    LSST is a next generation telescope that will produce an unprecedented data flow. The project goal is to deliver data products such as images and catalogs thus enabling scientific analysis for a wide community of users. As a large scale survey, LSST data will be complementary with other facilities in a wide range of scientific domains, including data from ESA or ESO. European countries have invested in LSST since 2007, in the construction of the camera as well as in the computing effort. This latter will be instrumental in designing the next step: how to distribute LSST data to Europe. Astroinformatics challenges for LSST indeed includes not only the analysis of LSST big data, but also the practical efficiency of the data access.

  20. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  1. Nutritional risk of European elderly.

    PubMed

    de Morais, C; Oliveira, B; Afonso, C; Lumbers, M; Raats, M; de Almeida, M D V

    2013-11-01

    The elderly constitute a population group with a high prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases and high risk of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated to nutritional risk in free-living European elderly. The sample included 644 European citizens, free living in the community, aged 65 years or more. The sample was quota controlled for age groups (65-74, ≥75 years), gender (male/female) and living circumstances (living alone/with others). Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with nutritional risk. Several variables regarding socio-demographic characteristics, food choice, health status and the satisfaction with food-related life were included in the analysis. According to the recoded score of the 'Determine your nutritional health' (NSI checklist), 53% of the elderly were at nutritional risk. Nutritional risk was more likely to occur in elderly who considered that it was more important to choose foods 'easy to chew'; with lower average number of fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake episodes and lower score for general health. It was also found in non-married participants; those that did not identify changes in their appetite; and those that felt changes in health status. In this sample, the lowest nutritional risk was found for body mass index (BMI) around 18.5 kg/m(2). Country of residence, gender and age were not found to have a significant effect on nutritional risk. Attention should be drawn to the living circumstances, changes in appetite or health, the general heath perception, F&V intake, choice of foods easy to chew and having a low or high BMI.

  2. Equal Opportunities and European Educational/Vocational Policy [and] Equal Opportunities and the European Social Fund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacky

    This document contains a symposium paper and a conference paper. "Equal Opportunities and European Educational and Vocational Policy" explores the symposium theme of concepts of difference as it relates directly to the European discourse of equal opportunities and its influence on European educational and vocational policy. It outlines…

  3. EERA and Its European Conferences on Educational Research: A Patchwork of Research on European Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiner, Edwin; Hofbauer, Susann

    2014-01-01

    The process of Europeanisation is closely linked to the process of an emerging European Educational Research Area and an education research identity. The European Conferences on Educational Research (ECER), European Educational Research Association (EERA) and its networks are involved in new directions and strands of educational research in…

  4. Subspecialist training program in pediatric otorhinolaryngology of UEMS ORL-HNS section.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    The ORL Section and Board of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) developed pediatric ORL subspecialty program. The program was created with support and consultation of the European Society of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. It is divided into four sections: Pediatric Otology, Pediatric Rhinology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Pediatric Laryngology and Phoniatrics and Pediatric Head and Neck Surgery. After completion of the program, the trainee is supposed to achieve an advanced level of competency. The aim of the program is to serve as a guideline for training centers, enabling them to meet the European Standard as set out by the European Board of UEMS through competency based assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brát, L.; Zejda, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present activities of Czech variable star observers organized in the Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society. We work in four observing projects: B.R.N.O. - eclipsing binaries, MEDUZA - intrinsic variable stars, TRESCA - transiting exoplanets and candidates, HERO - objects of high energy astrophysics. Detailed information together with O-C gate (database of eclipsing binaries minima timings) and OEJV (Open European Journal on Variable stars) are available on our internet portal http://var.astro.cz.

  6. Neutron-Induced Cross Sections Measurements of Calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, Klaus H; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Siegler, P.

    2013-01-01

    To support the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program neutron induced cross section experiments were performed at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator of the Institute for Reference Material and Measurements of the Joint Research Centers, European Union. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were carried out using a metallic calcium sample. The obtained data will be used for a new calcium evaluation, which will be submitted with its covariances to the ENDBF/B nuclear data base.

  7. Neutron-induced Cross Section Measurements of Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, K.; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Siegler, P.

    2014-05-01

    To support the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, neutron-induced cross section experiments were performed at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator of the Institute for Reference Material and Measurements of the Joint Research Centers, European Union. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were carried out using a metallic calcium sample. The measured data will be used for a new calcium evaluation, which will be submitted with covariances to the ENDF/B nuclear data library.

  8. Pathological Internet Use Is on the Rise Among European Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Koenig, Julian; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Bobes, Julio; Cosman, Doina; Värnik, Airi; Resch, Franz; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-08-01

    Increased Internet accessibility has been accompanied by an increased awareness of pathological Internet use (PIU). The aim of the study was to investigate a potential increase of PIU among European adolescents. Comparable data from two large cross-sectional multicentre, school-based studies conducted in 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 in five European countries (Estonia, Germany, Italy, Romania, and Spain) were used. The Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of PIU. The comparison of the two samples provides evidence that the prevalence of PIU is on the rise (4.01%-6.87%, odds ratio = 1.69, p < .001) except in Germany. Comparison with data on Internet accessibility suggests that the rise in prevalence of adolescent PIU may be a consequence of increased Internet accessibility. Our findings are the first data to confirm the rise of PIU among European adolescents. They definitively warrant further efforts in the implementation and evaluation of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañes, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Hormazabal, Edison; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E S; Gill, Jason M R

    2011-01-01

    Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR) (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction)) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR) was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004) with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMA(IR,) with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  10. Insulin Resistance in Chileans of European and Indigenous Descent: Evidence for an Ethnicity x Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañes, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Hormazabal, Edison; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. Methodology/Principal Findings 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant “ethnicity x environment” interaction for HOMAIR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p(interaction) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMAIR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004) with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMAIR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions/Significance Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance. PMID:21931814

  11. Cultural Diversity among American and European Businesspersons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Judy F.; Nixon, Judy C.

    An astute American, knowledgeable of and sensitive to cultural diversities among Europeans can communicate effectively for business success. The results of research into the communication customs of 27 European countries are presented: the Big Three (France, Germany, United Kingdom--England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales); Western…

  12. Implications of 1992 for European Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Jurgen

    This paper analyzes the effect of the unified single market of 1992 on European telecommunications. The major policy aspects of the European Economic Commission's Green Paper on "The Development of the Common Market for Telecommunications Services and Equipment" are highlighted, and the effects of these policies in the equipment market…

  13. The Words That Buoy the European Impulse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogenraad, Robert; Tousignant, Nathalie; Castano, Emanuele; Bestgen, Yves; Dumoulin, Michel

    With a view on analyzing the deeper trends in the European discourse that will shape the European Union's (EU's) future, a study examined 121 speeches made by EU political leaders over the period 1985-1997 and concorded and statisticized which words were used, how often, where, and when with the help of a computer-aided content analysis engine.…

  14. European Scientific Notes, Volume 24, Number 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to both American and European scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  15. European and Intercultural Dimension in Greek Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Negotiations concerning Greece's accession into the European Union began as early as 1961, when a cooperation agreement was signed between Greece and the European Economic Community. These negotiations were concluded 20 years later, on 1 January 1981, when Greece became the tenth full member of the EU. The next major step in Greece's progress…

  16. Universal Services in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Johannes M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses universal service policies in the European Union. Topics include information access; the demise of the public service model; the effects of competition on universal service; financing; national implementation of member states; programs for schools and libraries; and pertinent Web sites on European universal service policy. (LRW)

  17. European Industrial Doctorates: Marie Curie Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    European industrial doctorates are joint doctoral training projects funded by the European Union (EU) and open to all research fields. The project brings together an academic participant (university, research institution, etc.) and a company. They have to be established in two different EU Member States or associated countries. Associated partners…

  18. Internationalisms--Identical Vocabularies in European Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Peter

    Linguistic history has described borrowing in the European languages as a process exclusive to one language at any given time. However, it is more likely that there is a core of common loan words, or internationalisms, in many European languages. These internationalisms have come from a variety of sources: the historic interrelatedness of…

  19. Towards European Citizenship through Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernndez, Scar

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study, the first part of a recently concluded project, is to describe and analyse the perceptions that European university students have of European citizenship and to offer some insight into the term. Before describing our findings, we offer a brief review of the concept of citizenship, attempting to define it in the European…

  20. The European standards of Haemophilia Centres

    PubMed Central

    Giangrande, Paul; Calizzani, Gabriele; Menichini, Ivana; Candura, Fabio; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Makris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The European haemophilia community of professionals and patients has agreed on the principles of haemophilia care to address comprehensive optimal delivery of care which is nowadays scattered throughout Europe. Many of the health facilities call themselves Haemophilia Centres despite their variation in size, expertise and services provided. Only a small number of countries have Haemophilia Centre accreditation systems in place. Methods In the framework of the European Haemophilia Network project, following an inclusive process of stakeholder involvement, the European Guidelines for the certification of haemophilia centres have been developed in order to set quality standards for European Haemophilia Centres and criteria for their certification. Results The Guidelines define the standards and criteria for the designation of two levels of care delivery: European Haemophilia Treatment Centres, providing local routine care, and European Haemophilia Comprehensive Care Centres, providing specialised and multi-disciplinary care and functioning as tertiary referral centres. Additionally, they define standards about general requirements, patient care, provision of an advisory service and establishment of network of clinical and specialised services. Conclusions The implementation of the European Guidelines for the certification of Haemophilia Centres will contribute to the reduction of health inequalities through the standardisation of quality of care in European Union Member States and could represent a model to be taken into consideration for other rare disease groups. PMID:24922293

  1. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-01-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii. PMID:25988670

  2. Report from the European Prison Education Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Cormac

    2008-01-01

    Since the last edition of the Journal, the European Prison Education Association (EPEA) has been officially elected a member of the European Association for the Education of Adults (EAEA) at EAEA's General Assembly held at the University of Latvia in Riga. The EAEA is the largest umbrella organization in Europe advocating lifelong learning. It is…

  3. Towards European Citizenship through Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernndez, Scar

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study, the first part of a recently concluded project, is to describe and analyse the perceptions that European university students have of European citizenship and to offer some insight into the term. Before describing our findings, we offer a brief review of the concept of citizenship, attempting to define it in the European…

  4. Mathematics Teaching in Four European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a comparative study, funded by the European Union, of the teaching of mathematics in five European countries, (Flanders, England, Finland, Hungary and Spain) to students in the upper primary (ages 10-12) and lower secondary (12-14) years. These ages were chosen as they represent a time when many students' experiences of…

  5. Implications of 1992 for European Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Jurgen

    This paper analyzes the effect of the unified single market of 1992 on European telecommunications. The major policy aspects of the European Economic Commission's Green Paper on "The Development of the Common Market for Telecommunications Services and Equipment" are highlighted, and the effects of these policies in the equipment market…

  6. A European Vision for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Sue; Tuckett, Alan; Boucher, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) is the UK national coordinator for the European Agenda for Adult Learning, with the challenge of creating a coherent message across the four countries to inform European cooperation on adult learning. To start the debate, the journal staff asked Sue Waddington, Alan Tuckett, and Fiona…

  7. Internationalisms--Identical Vocabularies in European Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Peter

    Linguistic history has described borrowing in the European languages as a process exclusive to one language at any given time. However, it is more likely that there is a core of common loan words, or internationalisms, in many European languages. These internationalisms have come from a variety of sources: the historic interrelatedness of…

  8. A European Vision for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Sue; Tuckett, Alan; Boucher, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) is the UK national coordinator for the European Agenda for Adult Learning, with the challenge of creating a coherent message across the four countries to inform European cooperation on adult learning. To start the debate, the journal staff asked Sue Waddington, Alan Tuckett, and Fiona…

  9. European and Intercultural Dimension in Greek Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Negotiations concerning Greece's accession into the European Union began as early as 1961, when a cooperation agreement was signed between Greece and the European Economic Community. These negotiations were concluded 20 years later, on 1 January 1981, when Greece became the tenth full member of the EU. The next major step in Greece's progress…

  10. European Industrial Doctorates: Marie Curie Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    European industrial doctorates are joint doctoral training projects funded by the European Union (EU) and open to all research fields. The project brings together an academic participant (university, research institution, etc.) and a company. They have to be established in two different EU Member States or associated countries. Associated partners…

  11. Transnational Lives in European Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Transnational collaboration by educational researchers in Europe has grown fast since the mid-1990s and the means to support it have become more easily accessible. A study of the growth of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) since its foundation in the mid-1990s shows how transnational research in European education began, and how…

  12. Transnational Lives in European Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Transnational collaboration by educational researchers in Europe has grown fast since the mid-1990s and the means to support it have become more easily accessible. A study of the growth of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) since its foundation in the mid-1990s shows how transnational research in European education began, and how…

  13. How Young Is Standard Average European?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haspelmath, Martin

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of Standard Average European, a European linguistic area, looks at 11 of its features (definite, indefinite articles, have-perfect, participial passive, antiaccusative prominence, nominative experiencers, dative external possessors, negation/negative pronouns, particle comparatives, A-and-B conjunction, relative clauses, verb fronting…

  14. AGU Hydrology Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    The Executive Committee of the AGU Hydrology Section met in regular session at 4:00 P.M. on Thursday, December 8, 1983, in Room 378 of the Cathedral Hill Hotel, San Francisco, Calif. Seven board members were present with section president, Peter Eagleson, presiding.A total of 18 sessions were presented in San Francisco, and all were well attended, as was reported by program chairman Dennis Lettenmaier. Added to the regular sessions of General Hydrology, General Ground-water Hydrology, and Sediment Transport were the following special sessions: Glacier Ocean Interaction, presider Edward Josberger; Orinoco and the Amazon, presider Edward Andrews; Transport and Geochemical Interactions in Stream Water, presider F. E. Bencola; Instream Flow Requirements for Fish, presider Brian W. Mar; Multivariate Modeling of Hydrologic and Other Geophysical Time Series, presiders Jose D. Salas and David R. Dawdy; Optimization Techniques for Managing Ground Water and Stream Aquifer Systems, presider Steve Gorelick; Treatment of Evapotranspiration Soil Moisture Evolution and Aquifer Recharge in Watershed Models, presiders Arlen D. Feldman and Hubert J. Morel-Seytoux; Statistical Procedures for Estimating of Flood Risk at Gauged Sites, presider J. R. Stedinger; and Searching for More Physically Based Extreme Value Distributions in Hydrology, presider Juan B. Valdes. The session on Glacier Ocean Interaction received the most publicity, with numerous accounts of some of the presentations appearing in the newspaper. One of the pleasant surprises of the meetings was the high attendance at the special sessions on Optimization Techniques for Managing Ground Water and Stream Aquifer Systems and Multivariate Modeling of Hydrologic and Other Geophysical Time Series. Both sessions were highly interdisciplinary, attracting numerous scientists from other sections of AGU.

  15. A new Lunar Section publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherbarrow, W.

    2011-10-01

    In 2011 July the Lunar Section published the first issue of a new annual bulletin, 'The Moon: Notes and Records of the BAA Lunar Section'as a replacement for the previous Section bulletin 'The New Moon'

  16. Mapping pre-European settlement vegetation at fine resolutions using a hierarchical Bayesian model and GIS

    Treesearch

    Hong S. He; Daniel C. Dey; Xiuli Fan; Mevin B. Hooten; John M. Kabrick; Christopher K. Wikle; Zhaofei. Fan

    2007-01-01

    In the Midwestern United States, the GeneralLandOffice (GLO) survey records provide the only reasonably accurate data source of forest composition and tree species distribution at the time of pre-European settlement (circa late 1800 to early 1850). However, GLO data have two fundamental limitations: coarse spatial resolutions (the square mile section and half mile...

  17. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  18. Child Depressive Symptoms, Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences between African American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Pryor, Erin M.; Grossman, Elizabeth R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child samples, we explored the relationships among child and adolescent depressive symptoms, spanking, and emotional support offered to youth. We present cross-sectional and change models for both African Americans and European Americans. Findings showed that regardless of race,…

  19. International Aspects of Mental Health Work with Refugees and Future Directions: A European Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauff, Edvard

    This paper describes past and present European efforts to address the mental health needs of refugees. It begins with a brief historical survey of mental health services for refugees after the Second World War and delineates the policy recommendations from the 1948 International Congress on Mental Health. The next section describes current…

  20. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or...

  1. Child Depressive Symptoms, Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences between African American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Pryor, Erin M.; Grossman, Elizabeth R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child samples, we explored the relationships among child and adolescent depressive symptoms, spanking, and emotional support offered to youth. We present cross-sectional and change models for both African Americans and European Americans. Findings showed that regardless of race,…

  2. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  3. Promoting Student Autonomy through the Use of the European Language Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jesus Angel

    2009-01-01

    The European Language Portfolio (ELP) is a document launched by the Council of Europe in 2001 which consists of three sections: the Passport, the Language Biography, and the Dossier. It has two complementary functions: a pedagogic function (helping students to reflect on their learning and objectives) and a reporting function (providing a record…

  4. Older Students in Europe. A Survey of Older Students in Four European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clennell, Stephanie, Ed.

    A survey of older students received responses from 4,461 people aged 60 or over in four European countries: United Kingdom, West Germany, France, and Belgium. The questionnaire had three sections: students' background; information on study methods, time spent, organization of work, and use of study aids; and Approaches to Study Inventory (ASI).…

  5. Continental Responsibility: European and International Support for Higher Education and Research in East Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Mary E., Ed.; Rhodes, Aaron A., Ed.

    This publication provides a comprehensive inventory of initiatives undertaken by European institutions and international organizations to assist the transformation of higher education and research in East Central Europe. Section 1 contains five papers, each highlighting one of five institutions that have developed innovative approaches to address…

  6. The Benefit of Educational Inclusiveness for Early School Leavers in the European Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Alphen, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the ongoing educational expansion is a negative development for early school leavers (ESLrs) in the European labour market, since it increases the level and educational attainment of their competition, and in the worst case creates credential inflation. Findings from the 2005 cross-sectional EU-SILC data show,…

  7. The Benefit of Educational Inclusiveness for Early School Leavers in the European Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Alphen, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the ongoing educational expansion is a negative development for early school leavers (ESLrs) in the European labour market, since it increases the level and educational attainment of their competition, and in the worst case creates credential inflation. Findings from the 2005 cross-sectional EU-SILC data show,…

  8. Promoting Student Autonomy through the Use of the European Language Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jesus Angel

    2009-01-01

    The European Language Portfolio (ELP) is a document launched by the Council of Europe in 2001 which consists of three sections: the Passport, the Language Biography, and the Dossier. It has two complementary functions: a pedagogic function (helping students to reflect on their learning and objectives) and a reporting function (providing a record…

  9. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals..., EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products...

  10. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals..., EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products...

  11. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals..., NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE... Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region...

  12. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Infections and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Villain, Patricia; Gonzalez, Paula; Almonte, Maribel; Franceschi, Silvia; Dillner, Joakim; Anttila, Ahti; Park, Jin Young; De Vuyst, Hugo; Herrero, Rolando

    2015-12-01

    Of the 2,635,000 new cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) occurring in the European Union (EU) in 2012, it is estimated that approximately 185,000 are related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Chronic infection with these agents can lead to cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, and stomach, respectively. Chronic infection with HCV can also lead to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be of major public health importance in several EU countries and increases cancer risk via HIV-induced immunosuppression. The fourth edition of the European Code Against Cancer presents recommendations on effective and safe preventive interventions in order to reduce the risk of infection-related cancers in EU citizens. Based on current available evidence, the fourth edition recommends that parents ensure the participation of their children in vaccination programs against HBV (for newborns) and HPV (for girls). In the 'Questions and Answers' (Q&As) section about vaccination and infections in the website for the European Code Against Cancer, individuals who are at risk of chronic HBV or HCV are advised to seek medical advice about testing and obtaining treatment when appropriate. Individuals most at risk of HIV are advised to consult their doctor or healthcare provider to access counselling and, if needed, testing and treatment without delay. Information about H. pylori testing and treatment is also provided as testing might currently be offered in some high-risk areas in Europe. The rationale and supporting evidence for the recommendations on vaccination in the European Code Against Cancer, and for the main recommendations on vaccination and infection in the Q&As, are explained in the present review.

  13. Healthy eating in European elderly: concepts, barriers and benefits.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, M D; Graça, P; Afonso, C; Kearney, J M; Gibney, M J

    2001-01-01

    The promotion of healthy eating is more likely to be effective if based on the understanding of how the elderly perceive their own diets and healthy eating. The objectives of this study were to identify in the elderly European population, the attitudes to food, nutrition and health, in order to define adequate strategies of health promotion. Cross-sectional survey using a face-to-face interview-assisted questionnaire. This project belongs to the multicentric Pan-EU Survey on Consumer Attitudes to Food, Nutrition and Health under the leadership of the Institute of European Food Studies - Dublin with the cooperation of members from all EU countries. 1843 European citizens, aged > or = 65, were interviewed. The data's descriptive analysis, was followed by univariate analysis to characterise the study's sample according to the defined objectives. The most important factors influencing elderly's food choice were quality and freshness (54%), trying to eat healthy and price (8%). Healthy eating was defined as "less fat" (37%) "more fresh vegetables and fruit" (34%), and "natural foods" (11%). To stay healthy (36%), to prevent disease (26%) and to promote quality of life (10%) were the major benefits associated to healthy eating. However several barriers to the adoption of healthy eating were identified, namely self-control (27%), the resistance to change (23%) and price (15%). 86% of the elderly people believe they don't need to change their eating habits as they already eat healthily. Results of this study will help to improve eating habits in the elderly, as health professionals will be able to choose the most appropriate strategies for the different groups and settings, and provide a base for future interventions in European countries for this growing age group.

  14. Quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The radar cross section σC is an objective measure of the "radar visibility" of an object. As such, σC is an important concept for the correct characterization of the operational performance of radar systems. Furthermore, σC is equally essential for the design and development of stealth weapon systems and platforms. Recent years have seen the theoretical development of quantum radars, that is, radars that operate with a small number of photons. In this regime, the radar-target interaction is described through photon-atom scattering processes governed by the laws of quantum electrodynamics. As such, it is theoretically inconsistent to use the same σC to characterize the performance of a quantum radar. In this paper we define a quantum radar cross section σQ based on quantum electrodynamics and interferometric considerations. We discuss the theoretical challenges of defining σQ, as well as computer simulations of σC and σQ for simple targets.

  15. [Reflections on residency training under the current recommendations of the European Union of Medical specialists and the European Board of Anaesthesia (UEMS/EBA guidelines)].

    PubMed

    Sáez Fernández, A; Sistac Ballarín, J M; Martínez Torrente, F; Calvo Vecino, J M; Olmos Rodríguez, M

    2011-01-01

    The recent publication of guidelines for postgraduate training in anesthesiology, pain, and intensive care issued by the European Board of Anaesthesia (EBA) and the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) (http://www.sedar.es/revistasedar/uems.pdf) specifies directions we must take with our residents. The training section of the Sociedad Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (SEDAR) has decided to make the guidelines available on the association's website so that the UEMS/EBA proposals can be compared to the training program drafted by the Spanish national board for our specialty. Our aim is to identify points of convergence between the two proposals and to target gaps where improvements can be made so that Spanish residency training in this specialty is in harmony with the European framework.

  16. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  17. Gender perspectives in European research.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Ineke

    2008-01-01

    Attention to sex and gender aspects in biomedical and health-related research has been a major initiative of the EU gender equality policy for research. The EU funded GenderBasic project (2005-2008), conceived to stimulate this attention to sex and gender and to provide practical tools to researchers, resulted in the publication of 10 reviews by high-level scientists in a Supplement to Gender Medicine in December 2007: "Bringing Gender Expertise to Biomedical and Health-Related Research". Four commissioned reviews covered methodological aspects of addressing sex and gender in biomedical research--ranging from basic, molecular to public health research--next to six reviews that addressed sex and gender aspects relevant to selected health areas: anxiety disorders, asthma, metabolic syndrome, nutrigenomics, osteoporosis and work-related health. The review articles, that were discussed at an expert meeting, attended - upon invitation - by a mixed audience of basic and clinical researchers, epidemiologists, social scientists and gender researchers, came up with excellent state of the art data, solutions to methodological and conceptual problems, practical tools and interesting questions for further research. The expert meeting created great enthusiasm among the participants and a real exchange took place among researchers from various backgrounds. Most life sciences researchers were familiar with the concept of sex differences but confessed that the effects of socially constructed gender until now, had received too little attention. The GenderBasic project yielded three major achievements for European research: (1) it stimulated and promoted research into sex differences; (2) it stimulated research into the workings of gender, illustrated by useful examples in particular in understanding masculinity and its effects on the health of individual men; (3) it highlighted sex-gender interaction and granted gender a prominent place on the research agenda that resulted from

  18. A review of European applications of artificial intelligence to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark (Editor); Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to the European Space program that are being developed or have been developed. The results of a study sponsored by the Artificial Intelligence Research and Development program of NASA's Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) are described. The report is divided into two sections. The first consists of site reports, which are descriptions of the AI applications seen at each place visited. The second section consists of two summaries which synthesize the information in the site reports by organizing this information in two different ways. The first organizes the material in terms of the type of application, e.g., data analysis, planning and scheduling, and procedure management. The second organizes the material in terms of the component technologies of Artificial Intelligence which the applications used, e.g., knowledge based systems, model based reasoning, procedural reasoning, etc.

  19. Section AA Pre2004 Fire, Section AA 2009, Section AA, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A-A Pre-2004 Fire, Section A-A 2009, Section A-A, South Elevation - Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Formerly spanning Moose Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad, Gorham, Coos County, NH

  20. Radiation and photochemistry section

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The highlights of this past year in the Radiation and Photochemistry Section at Argonne include: (1) picosecond optical studies of radical cations and excited states produced in hydrocarbon radiolysis provided the first kinetic measurements of ion transformation and production of triplet and singlet excited states by ion recombination. (2) studies of radical cations of alkyl-substituted amines and sulfides provided insights into ion-molecule reactions of radical cations in the condensed phase. (3) studies of the behavior of strained alkane radical cations, such as cubane {sup +}{center dot}, revealed new rearrangements and remarkable, medium-dependent differences in their structures. (4) H{center dot}atom reactions yielding e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} provided the first reliable measurements of hydrated-electron enthalpy and entropy and forced the revision of some previous thinking about the driving force in {sub aq}{sup {minus}} reactions.