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Sample records for european reference laboratories

  1. Evaluation of molecular typing of foodborne pathogens in European reference laboratories from 2012 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schjørring, Susanne; Niskanen, Taina; Torpdahl, Mia; Björkman, Jonas T; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated external quality assessment (EQA) schemes for molecular typing including the National Public Health Reference Laboratories in Europe. The overall aim for these EQA schemes was to enhance the European surveillance of food-borne pathogens by evaluating and improving the quality and comparability of molecular typing. The EQAs were organised by Statens Serum Institut (SSI) and included Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Listeria monocytogenes. Inter-laboratory comparable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) images were obtained from 10 of 17 of the participating laboratories for Listeria, 15 of 25 for Salmonella, but only nine of 20 for VTEC. Most problems were related to PFGE running conditions and/or incorrect use of image acquisition. Analysis of the gels was done in good accordance with the provided guidelines. Furthermore, we assessed the multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme for S. Typhimurium. Of 15 laboratories, nine submitted correct results for all analysed strains, and four had difficulties with one strain only. In conclusion, both PFGE and MLVA are prone to variation in quality, and there is therefore a continuous need for standardisation and validation of laboratory performance for molecular typing methods of food-borne pathogens in the human public health sector. PMID:28006653

  2. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  3. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, J; Botero-Kleiven, S; Castelli, F; Chiodini, P L; Edwards, H; Köhler, N; Gulletta, M; Lebbad, M; Manser, M; Matthys, B; N'Goran, E K; Tannich, E; Vounatsou, P; Marti, H

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of different European reference laboratories in diagnosing helminths and intestinal protozoa, using an ether-concentration method applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-preserved faecal samples. In total, 102 stool specimens were analysed during a cross-sectional parasitological survey in urban farming communities in Côte d'Ivoire. Five SAF-preserved faecal samples were prepared from each specimen and forwarded to the participating reference laboratories, processed and examined under a microscope adhering to a standard operating procedure (SOP). Schistosoma mansoni (cumulative prevalence: 51.0%) and hookworm (cumulative prevalence: 39.2%) were the predominant helminths. There was excellent agreement (kappa > 0.8; p < 0.001) among the reference laboratories for the diagnosis of S. mansoni, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides. Moderate agreement (kappa = 0.54) was found for Hymenolepis nana, and lesser agreement was observed for other, less prevalent helminths. The predominant intestinal protozoa were Entamoeba coli (median prevalence: 67.6%), Blastocystis hominis (median prevalence: 55.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (median prevalence: 47.1%). Substantial agreement among reference laboratories was found for E. coli (kappa = 0.69), but only fair or moderate agreement was found for other Entamoeba species, Giardia intestinalis and Chilomastix mesnili. There was only poor agreement for B. hominis, Isospora belli and Trichomonas intestinalis. In conclusion, although common helminths were reliably diagnosed by European reference laboratories, there was only moderate agreement between centres for pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis.

  4. Health-based reference intervals for ALAT, ASAT and GT in serum, measured according to the recommendations of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS).

    PubMed

    Leino, A; Impivaara, O; Irjala, K; Mäki, J; Peltola, O; Järvisalo, J

    1995-05-01

    The reference intervals for the activities of L-alanine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.2, ALAT), L-aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1, ASAT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.2, GT) in serum were determined according to the recommendations of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS). Serum specimens from 954 subjects were analysed for ALAT and ASAT and from 794 subjects for GT. The subjects, aged 27-67 years, were participants in general health surveys. The reference population was formed by excluding subjects with any disease, or on any medication, affecting the liver, and also those consuming excessive amounts of alcohol. The 95% inner reference intervals for ALAT and ASAT were 9-50 (n = 189) and 15-36 U l-1 (n = 192) in men and 8-38 (n = 270) and 13-33 U l-1 (n = 270) in women. For GT the reference interval was 11-58 in men (n = 165) and 8-42 U l-1 in women (n = 220). Serum GT levels correlated clearly with alcohol consumption. Serum ALAT and ASAT were only slightly associated with alcohol consumption at levels less than 280 g per week in men and 190 g per week in women. There were modest positive associations between the three enzyme levels and body mass index. None of the enzymes correlated significantly with age.

  5. European Vertical Reference System Influence in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celms, A.; Reķe, I.; Ratkevičs, A.

    2015-11-01

    Till 1 December, 2014, in Latvia the heights were determined in Baltic Normal Height System 1977. The national height system is determined by the Cabinet of Ministers and internal laws. Now for the change of the national height system to reconcile it with the European Vertical Reference System, amendments to the laws and regulations have been developed, but so far only the amendment to the Geospatial Information Law is in force, the amendment to the regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers is still not approved. This amendment declares the Latvia Height System based on the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia as the national height system. For height transformation, there is a transformation formula for each European country. After calculations it is seen that height difference between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and European Vertical Reference System depends on point location in the territory (coordinates). This unequal height difference between both height systems will cause unequal height values on border connection points between Baltic countries. The aim of the research is to evaluate the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: 1) to evaluate the components of transformation formulas; 2) using the transformation formulas to calculate height differences between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the European Vertical Reference System realization EVRF2007 for the territory of Latvia and also between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the Latvia Normal Height System; 3) to get height differences in the European Vertical Reference System on the borderlines of Latvia - Estonia and Latvia - Lithuania.

  6. Requirements for Reference (Calibration) Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Siekmann, Lothar

    2007-01-01

    In addition to reference measurement procedures and reference materials, reference or calibration laboratories play an integral role in the implementation of measurement traceability in routine laboratories. They provide results of measurements using higher-order methods, e.g. isotope dilution mass spectrometry and may assign values to materials to be used for external quality assessment programs and to secondary reference materials. The requirements for listing of laboratories that provide reference measurement services include a statement of the metrological level or principle of measurement, accreditation as a calibration laboratory according to ISO 15195 and the participation in a proficiency testing system (regular inter-laboratory comparisons) for reference laboratories. Ring trials are currently conducted for thirty well-defined measurands and the results are made available to all laboratories. Through the use of reference laboratory services that are listed by the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine there is the opportunity to further promote traceability and standardisation of laboratory measurements. PMID:18392129

  7. A European Humus Forms Reference Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanella, A.; Englisch, M.; Ponge, J.-F.; Jabiol, B.; Sartori, G.; Gardi, C.

    2012-04-01

    From 2003 on, a panel of experts in humus and humus dynamics (Humus group) has been working about a standardisation and improvement of existing national humus classifications. Some important goals have been reached, in order to share data and experiences: a) definition of specific terms; b) description of 15 types of diagnostic horizons; c) of 10 basic humus forms references; d) subdivision of each main reference in 2-4 sub-unities; e) elaboration of a general European Humus Form Reference Base (http://hal-agroparistech.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/56/17/95/PDF/Humus_Forms_ERB_31_01_2011.pdf); f) publication of the scientific significance of this base of classification as an article [A European morpho-functional classification of humus forms. Geoderma, 164 (3-4), 138-145]. The classification will be updated every 2 years and presently the Humus group is assessing biological (general: soil, vegetation, biome; specific: fungi, bacteria, pedofauna), physical (air temperature, rainfall) and chemical (pH, mineral elements, organic matter, quality and quantity of humic components…) factors which characterize basic humus forms and their varieties. The content of the new version of the classification is planned to be more "practical", like an ecological manual which lists associated humus forms and environmental data in the aim to contribute to a more precise environmental diagnosis of every analysed terrestrial and semiterrestrial European ecosystem. The Humus group is also involved in an endeavour to include humus forms in the World Reference Base for Soils (WRB-FAO) according to nomenclatural principles erected for soil profiles. Thirty basic references have been defined, complemented by a set of qualifiers (prefixes and suffixes), allowing to classify European humus forms and probably a large majority of humus forms known worldwide. The principles of the classification, the diagnostic horizons and humus forms main references are presented at the General Assembly of

  8. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  9. Public health microbiology in Germany: 20 years of national reference centers and consultant laboratories.

    PubMed

    Beermann, Sandra; Allerberger, Franz; Wirtz, Angela; Burger, Reinhard; Hamouda, Osamah

    2015-10-01

    In 1995, in agreement with the German Federal Ministry of Health, the Robert Koch Institute established a public health microbiology system consisting of national reference centers (NRCs) and consultant laboratories (CLs). The goal was to improve the efficiency of infection protection by advising the authorities on possible measures and to supplement infectious disease surveillance by monitoring selected pathogens that have high public health relevance. Currently, there are 19 NRCs and 40 CLs, each appointed for three years. In 2009, an additional system of national networks of NRCs and CLs was set up in order to enhance effectiveness and cooperation within the national reference laboratory system. The aim of these networks was to advance exchange in diagnostic methods and prevention concepts among reference laboratories and to develop geographic coverage of services. In the last two decades, the German public health laboratory reference system coped with all major infectious disease challenges. The European Union and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) are considering implementing a European public health microbiology reference laboratory system. The German reference laboratory system should be well prepared to participate actively in this upcoming endeavor.

  10. Cost-containment and the use of reference laboratories.

    PubMed

    Shaw, S T; Miller, J M

    1985-12-01

    Hospital laboratories and hospital-independent reference laboratories will need to change in order to provide comprehensive, medically appropriate, and reasonably priced laboratory services in the cost-containment age we are entering. The change must be economically and technologically innovative and relevant to society's next generation of health care needs. Hospital laboratories and commercial laboratories may become weaker or stronger relative to one another, but our guess is that they will ultimately become more like one another or even may join forces to provide optimal patient care in the future. Until that time comes, hospital laboratories must decide whether to employ reference laboratory services more or less, enter a joint venture with a reference laboratory, or become a reference laboratory. Some of the items that could be considered in arriving at this decision are listed in Table 2. Some items favor hospital laboratories; some favor reference laboratories; some are a toss-up; and some suggest there are advantages in a team approach. For the present, we believe there are many arguments favoring a continuation and possibly even an expansion of hospital laboratory services, but this will likely be most feasible in financially sound and progressive hospitals having forward-looking administrators and imaginative but fiscally minded laboratory directors and managers. If decisions are made to send more tests to reference laboratories, each hospital or user laboratory must seek the best and most cost-effective services available. Various financial, technical, and medical considerations are described that should aid in the evaluation of where to have tests performed. We have provided suggestions on how agreements with reference laboratories can be established in either a formal (contractual) or an informal (verbal) way. Additionally, we have described methods for evaluating (or monitoring) the quality and quantity of services received from a reference

  11. Measurement comparisons of radioactivity among European monitoring laboratories for the environment and food stuff.

    PubMed

    Wätjen, U; Spasova, Y; Altzitzoglou, T

    2008-01-01

    For more than 15 years, European Union (EU) laboratories monitoring environmental radioactivity have been obliged to participate in measurement comparisons organised by the European Commission. After a short review of comparisons conducted during the 1990s, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. It relies on the provision of comparison samples with reference values traceable to the International Reference System for radionuclides (SIR). The results of the most recent comparison, the determination of (40)K, (90)Sr and (137)Cs in milk powder, are presented. The influence of repetitive participation in measurement comparisons on laboratory performance is studied on the basis of data from more than 20 laboratories having participated in several exercises during the last 15 years.

  12. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries.

    PubMed

    Rautemaa-Richardson, Riina; der Reijden Wa, Wil A Van; Dahlen, Gunnar; Smith, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB) Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135) number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  13. Comparison of the Vitek 2 antifungal susceptibility system with the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) Broth Microdilution Reference Methods and with the Sensititre YeastOne and Etest techniques for in vitro detection of antifungal resistance in yeast isolates.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Bernal-Martinez, Leticia; Cuesta, Isabel; Buitrago, Maria J; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L

    2010-05-01

    The commercial technique Vitek 2 system for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast species was evaluated. A collection of 154 clinical yeast isolates, including amphotericin B- and azole-resistant organisms, was tested. Results were compared with those obtained by the reference procedures of both the CLSI and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Two other commercial techniques approved for clinical use, the Etest and the Sensititre YeastOne, were included in the comparative exercise as well. The average essential agreement (EA) between the Vitek 2 system and the reference procedures was >95%, comparable with the average EAs observed between the reference procedures and the Sensititre YeastOne and Etest. The EA values were >97% for Candida spp. and stood at 92% for Cryptococcus neoformans. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between the commercial techniques and the reference procedures were statistically significant (P<0.01). Percentages of very major errors were 2.6% between Vitek 2 and the EUCAST technique and 1.6% between Vitek 2 and the CLSI technique. The Vitek 2 MIC results were available after 14 to 18 h of incubation for all Candida spp. (average time to reading, 15.5 h). The Vitek 2 system was shown to be a reliable technique to determine antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast species and a more rapid and easier alternative for clinical laboratories than the procedures developed by either the CLSI or EUCAST.

  14. Establishing an enteric bacteria reference laboratory in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Kamara, Abdul; Rhodes, Fay; Kaffeta, Konneh; Jambai, Amara; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Islam, Mohammed Sirajul; Freeman, Molly M; Welfare, William; Harding, Doris; Samba, Ahmed F; Abu, Musu; Kamanda, Sylvester; Grant, Kathie; Jenkins, Claire; Nair, Satheesh; Connell, Steve; Siorvanes, Lisa; Desai, Sarika; Allen, Collette; Frost, Margaret; Hughes, Daniel; Jeffrey, Zonya; Gill, Noel; Salter, Mark

    2014-06-09

    In 2012, Sierra Leone experienced its worst cholera outbreak in over 15 years affecting 12 of the country's 13 districts. With limited diagnostic capability, particularly in bacterial culture, the cholera outbreak was initially confirmed by microbiological testing of clinical specimens outside of Sierra Leone. During 2012 - 2013, in direct response to the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities, and to assist in investigating and monitoring the cholera outbreak, diagnostic and reference services were established in Sierra Leone at the Central Public Health Reference Laboratory focusing specifically on isolating and identifying Vibrio cholerae and other enteric bacterial pathogens. Sierra Leone is now capable of confirming cholera cases by reference laboratory testing.

  15. The European Micropaleontological Reference Centre in Kraków

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Michael; Waskowska, Anna; Bebenek, Slawomir; Pilarz, Monika

    2016-04-01

    We are pleased to announce the establishment of the European Micropaleontological Reference Centre, housed in the offices of Micropress Europe at the AGH University of Science & Technology in Krakow, Poland. The new European Micropaleontological Reference Centre is an initiative of the Grzybowski Foundation and Micropress Europe. The centre is designed to serve the micropaleontological community by providing a permanent repository or "museum" for published microfossil collections. The centre houses a growing collection of microfossils picked into faunal slides, as well as a well-stocked library of micropaleontological books, journals, and reprints. We have the only up-to-date paper copy of the Ellis & Messina Catalogue of Foraminifera in Central Europe. Currently, the slide collections include: - Type slides of benthic foraminifera from Poland (the collection of I. Heller from the Polish oil company GEONAFTA), - Carboniferous foraminifera from Germany and Poland (collections of G. Eickhoff and Z. Alexandrowicz), - IODP sites in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans (collections of M. Kaminski, E. Setoyama, A. Holborn), - Exploration wells in the Boreal seas: North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Western Barents Sea, Labrador Sea, Bering Sea, Spitsbergen, Western Siberia (collections of M. Kaminski, J. Nagy, T. Van Den Akker, V. Podobina, and others), - Paratethyan Foraminifera (collections of E. Luczkowska, C. Beldean, F. Szekely), - Mesozoic-Paleogene Foraminifera from Gubbio, Italy (collections of M. Kaminski, C. Cetean, and students) and the Polish Carpathians (collection of A. Waskowska), - Caribbean (collection of M. Kaminski, R. Preece), West Africa (collection of R. Preece, S. Kender, C. Cetean), - We have a separate collection of type specimens of species (paratypes). Slides are housed in cabinet drawers together with the relevant publication. Researchers are welcome to visit the offices of Micropress Europe to view the archived microfossil collections. The center

  16. European registration process for Clinical Laboratory Geneticists in genetic healthcare.

    PubMed

    Liehr, Thomas; Carreira, Isabel M; Aktas, Dilek; Bakker, Egbert; Rodríguez de Alba, Marta; Coviello, Domenico A; Florentin, Lina; Scheffer, Hans; Rincic, Martina

    2017-03-08

    Tremendous progress in genetics and genomics led to a wide range of healthcare providers, genetic tests, and more patients who can benefit from these developments. To guarantee and improve the quality of genetic testing, a unified European-based registration for individuals qualified in biomedicine was realized. Therefore a Europe-wide recognition of the profession 'European registered Clinical Laboratory Geneticist (ErCLG)' based on a syllabus of core competences was established which allows for harmonization in professional education. The 'European Board of Medical Genetics division - Clinical Laboratory Geneticist' provides now since 3 years the possibility to register as an ErCLG. Applicants may be from all European countries and since this year also from outside of Europe. Five subtitles reflect the exact specialty of each ErCLG, who can reregister every 5 years. A previously not possible statistics based on ~300 individuals from 19 countries as holders of an ErCLG title provides interesting insights into the professionals working in human genetics. It could be substantiated that there are around twice as many females than males and that a PhD title was achieved by 80% of registered ErCLGs. Also most ErCLGs are still trained as generalists (66%), followed by such ErCLGs with focus on molecular genetics (23%); the remaining are concentrated either on clinical (6%), tumor (4%) or biochemical genetics (1%). In conclusion, besides MDs and genetic counselors/nurses an EU-wide recognition system for Clinical Laboratory Geneticist has been established, which strengthens the status of specialists working in human genetic diagnostics in Europe and worldwide.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.25.

  17. Transport equations of electrodiffusion processes in the laboratory reference frame.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Javier

    2006-02-23

    The transport equations of electrodiffusion processes use three reference frames for defining the fluxes: Fick's reference in diffusion, solvent-fixed reference in transference numbers, and laboratory fluxes in electric conductivity. The convenience of using only one reference frame is analyzed here from the point of view of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. A relation between the fluxes of ions and solvent and the electric current density is deduced first from a mass and volume balance. This is then used to show that (i) the laboratory and Fick's diffusion coefficients are identical and (ii) the transference numbers of both the solvent and the ion in the laboratory reference frame are related. Finally, four experimental methods for the measurement of ion transference numbers are analyzed critically. New expressions for evaluating transference numbers for the moving boundary method and the chronopotentiometry technique are deduced. It is concluded that the ion transport equation in the laboratory reference frame plays a key role in the description of electrodiffusion processes.

  18. [Determining and verifying reference intervals in clinical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Henny, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Based on the original recommendation of the Expert Panel on the Theory of Reference Values of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC-LM), updated guidelines were recently published under the auspices of the IFCC-LM and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). This article summarises these new proposals: (1) defining more precisely the terminology, which is often confusing, noticeably concerning the terms of reference limits and decision limits; (2) showing the different steps for determining reference limits according to the original procedure and the conditions which should be respected and (3) proposing a simple methodology allowing to the Clinical Laboratories to satisfy the needs of the Regulation and Standards. The updated document proposes to verify if published reference limits are applicable to the Laboratory involved. Finally the strengths and limits of the revised recommendations (noticeably the selection of the reference population, the maintenance of the analytical quality, the choice of the statistical methodology, etc.) will be briefly discussed.

  19. Effluent-Monitoring Procedures: Basic Laboratory Skills. Student Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, William T.; And Others

    This is one of several short-term courses developed to assist in the training of waste water treatment plant operational personnel in the tests, measurements, and report preparation required for compliance with their NPDES Permits. This Student Reference Manual provides a review of basic mathematics as it applies to the chemical laboratory. The…

  20. European medical laboratory accreditation. Present situation and steps to harmonisation.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Wim

    2012-07-01

    Accreditation of medical laboratories in Europe is primarily according to ISO15189. The percentage of accredited laboratories is still small. The time spent on an assessment is quite different between countries. More important is the way the assessment process is carried out. Harmonisation in accrediting medical laboratories is the main task of the Health Care Committee within EA (European cooperation of Accreditation). The EFCC Working Group on Accreditation strongly contributes as the representative of laboratory professionals. An important item is the use of flexible scope. The intention is that all tests within a medical discipline are offered for accreditation. This is not yet normal practice. Other items concern accreditation of point-of-care testing (POCT) - reliability of the pre-analytical phase, when the phlebotomy is not done by the laboratory, and practical use of uncertainty and verification. Also the diversity in time spent for an assessment is discussed. The added value of accreditation is strongly dependent upon the assessors who have an important task. Their training and calibration needs continuous input. The medical laboratory professionals should participate in all aspects concerning the quality system, starting with the standard, working on the guidelines, the assessment itself, and input in the accreditation bodies.

  1. The" Common European Framework of Reference for Languages," the European Language Portfolio, and Language Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the relevance of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP) to language learning in higher education, especially as regards the definition of aims and learning outcomes and the promotion of students' capacity to manage their own learning. After…

  2. GMOMETHODS: the European Union database of reference methods for GMO analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonfini, Laura; Van den Bulcke, Marc H; Mazzara, Marco; Ben, Enrico; Patak, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide reliable and harmonized information on methods for GMO (genetically modified organism) analysis we have published a database called "GMOMETHODS" that supplies information on PCR assays validated according to the principles and requirements of ISO 5725 and/or the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry protocol. In addition, the database contains methods that have been verified by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed in the context of compliance with an European Union legislative act. The web application provides search capabilities to retrieve primers and probes sequence information on the available methods. It further supplies core data required by analytical labs to carry out GM tests and comprises information on the applied reference material and plasmid standards. The GMOMETHODS database currently contains 118 different PCR methods allowing identification of 51 single GM events and 18 taxon-specific genes in a sample. It also provides screening assays for detection of eight different genetic elements commonly used for the development of GMOs. The application is referred to by the Biosafety Clearing House, a global mechanism set up by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to facilitate the exchange of information on Living Modified Organisms. The publication of the GMOMETHODS database can be considered an important step toward worldwide standardization and harmonization in GMO analysis.

  3. Aligning ESP Courses with the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiou, Androulla; Constantinou, Elis Kakoulli; Neophytou, Maro; Nicolaou, Anna; Papadima Sophocleous, Salomi; Yerou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article explains how the "Common European Framework of References for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001, "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) has been applied in language courses at the Language Centre (LC) of the Cyprus…

  4. Severe Weather Research at the European Severe Storms Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenemeijer, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    The European Severe Storms Laboratory's (ESSL) aim is to increase understanding of high-impact weather, with a particular focus on phenomena with small spatial and temporal dimensions, such as large hail, convectively-driven severe wind gusts, tornadoes and extreme precipitation.The ESSL performs and supports research activities and contributes to enhancing forecasting and warning capabilities in several ways. First, ESSL supports research by providing quality-controlled point data on severe weather events in the European Severe Weather Database. These data are collected through collaborations with networks of voluntary observers, and National HydroMeteorological Institutes throughout Europe. Second, research carried out at ESSL includes modelling the present and future occurrence of severe weather phenomena. This is done by developing proxies for severe weather events for use with reanalysis and climate model data. Third, at the ESSL Testbed, new products to support forecasting and warning operations are tested and demonstrated. Among these tools are visualizations of NWP ensemble data as well as radar, satellite and lightning detection data. Testbed participants provide feedback to the products and receive training in forecasting severe convective weather. Last, every second year ESSL organizes or co-organizes the European Conferences on Severe Storms.

  5. Reference materials and reference measurement systems in laboratory medicine. Harmonization of nomenclature and definitions in reference measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Dybkaer, R

    1995-12-01

    Reliability of clinical laboratory results is obtained through quality assurance in both their production and transmission. The former involves a reference measurement system of reference materials and reference measurement procedures with metrological and statistical verification of results. The latter requires that sender and receiver have access to a common terminology. Thus, two data banks are required. A plurilingual systematic vocabulary related to the reference measurement system, giving concepts with terms and definitions concerning measurement standards, reference measurement procedures, internal quality control, external quality assessment, probability and statistics-mainly based on existing authoritative publications. The material should be processed by standard scientific terminological procedure and offered to pertinent organizations and specialists for comment before finalization and authorization. A multilingual collection of systematic names for properties examined by the branches of Laboratory Medicine, such as clinical chemistry, clinical immunology, clinical microbiology, clinical pharmacology, haematology and blood banking, and histochemistry and cytology. The database should function as a reference to consultation and as a link in the transmission of data between local laboratory "dialects". This should be based on the ongoing comprehensive IUPAC/IFCC project for forming names in collaboration with relevant scientific organisations and area specialists. The relational data base including "run-time" software would be accessed by e-mail (gopher or other storage medium).

  6. The European Network of Analytical and Experimental Laboratories for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freda, Carmela; Funiciello, Francesca; Meredith, Phil; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Troll, Valentin R.; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2013-04-01

    Integrating Earth Sciences infrastructures in Europe is the mission of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS).The integration of European analytical, experimental, and analogue laboratories plays a key role in this context and is the task of the EPOS Working Group 6 (WG6). Despite the presence in Europe of high performance infrastructures dedicated to geosciences, there is still limited collaboration in sharing facilities and best practices. The EPOS WG6 aims to overcome this limitation by pushing towards national and trans-national coordination, efficient use of current laboratory infrastructures, and future aggregation of facilities not yet included. This will be attained through the creation of common access and interoperability policies to foster and simplify personnel mobility. The EPOS ambition is to orchestrate European laboratory infrastructures with diverse, complementary tasks and competences into a single, but geographically distributed, infrastructure for rock physics, palaeomagnetism, analytical and experimental petrology and volcanology, and tectonic modeling. The WG6 is presently organizing its thematic core services within the EPOS distributed research infrastructure with the goal of joining the other EPOS communities (geologists, seismologists, volcanologists, etc...) and stakeholders (engineers, risk managers and other geosciences investigators) to: 1) develop tools and services to enhance visitor programs that will mutually benefit visitors and hosts (transnational access); 2) improve support and training activities to make facilities equally accessible to students, young researchers, and experienced users (training and dissemination); 3) collaborate in sharing technological and scientific know-how (transfer of knowledge); 4) optimize interoperability of distributed instrumentation by standardizing data collection, archive, and quality control standards (data preservation and interoperability); 5) implement a unified e-Infrastructure for data

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  8. Online reference database of European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Roewer, L; Krawczak, M; Willuweit, S; Nagy, M; Alves, C; Amorim, A; Anslinger, K; Augustin, C; Betz, A; Bosch, E; Cagliá, A; Carracedo, A; Corach, D; Dekairelle, A F; Dobosz, T; Dupuy, B M; Füredi, S; Gehrig, C; Gusmaõ, L; Henke, J; Henke, L; Hidding, M; Hohoff, C; Hoste, B; Jobling, M A; Kärgel, H J; de Knijff, P; Lessig, R; Liebeherr, E; Lorente, M; Martínez-Jarreta, B; Nievas, P; Nowak, M; Parson, W; Pascali, V L; Penacino, G; Ploski, R; Rolf, B; Sala, A; Schmidt, U; Schmitt, C; Schneider, P M; Szibor, R; Teifel-Greding, J; Kayser, M

    2001-05-15

    The reference database of highly informative Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes (YHRD), available online at http://ystr.charite.de, represents the largest collection of male-specific genetic profiles currently available for European populations. By September 2000, YHRD contained 4688 9-locus (so-called "minimal") haplotypes, 40% of which have been extended further to include two additional loci. Establishment of YHRD has been facilitated by the joint efforts of 31 forensic and anthropological institutions. All contributing laboratories have agreed to standardize their Y-STR haplotyping protocols and to participate in a quality assurance exercise prior to the inclusion of any data. In view of its collaborative character, and in order to put YHRD to its intended use, viz. the support of forensic caseworkers in their routine decision-making process, the database has been made publicly available via the Internet in February 2000. Online searches for complete or partial Y-STR haplotypes from evidentiary or non-probative material can be performed on a non-commercial basis, and yield observed haplotype counts as well as extrapolated population frequency estimates. In addition, the YHRD website provides information about the quality control test, genotyping protocols, haplotype formats and informativity, population genetic analysis, literature references, and a list of contact addresses of the contributing laboratories.

  9. Annual report of the Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory 2012.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason; Hobday, Linda; Ibrahim, Aishah; Aitken, Thomas; Thorley, Bruce

    2013-06-30

    In 2012 no cases of poliomyelitis were reported through clinical surveillance in Australia, and poliovirus was not detected through virological surveillance. Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years as the main mechanism to monitor its polio-free status in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System. In 2012 Australia reported 1.2 non-polio AFP cases per 100,000 children, meeting the WHO performance criterion for a sensitive system for the fifth year in a row. However the faecal specimen collection rate from AFP cases was 29%, which was well below the WHO target of 80%. Virological surveillance for poliovirus consists of two components. Firstly, the Enterovirus Reference Laboratory Network of Australia (ERLNA) reports on the typing of enteroviruses detected in or isolated from clinical specimens. Secondly, environmental surveillance is conducted at sentinel sites. These surveillance systems are co-ordinated by the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory (NERL).

  10. Language Educational Policy and Language Learning Quality Management: The "Common European Framework of Reference"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenfanger, Olaf; Tschirner, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    The major goal of the Council of Europe to promote and facilitate communication and interaction among Europeans of different mother tongues has led to the development of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment" (CEFR). Among other things, the CEFR is intended to help language…

  11. Learning to Learn in the European Reference Framework for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Thoutenhoofd, Ernst D.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the construction of learning to learn that is implicit in the document "Key Competences for Lifelong Learning--European Reference Framework" and related education policy from the European Commission. The authors argue that the hallmark of learning to learn is the development of a fluid sociality rather than the…

  12. Diagnosing Malaria Cases Referred to the Malaria Reference Laboratory in Tehran University of Medical Science, Iran

    PubMed Central

    NATEGHPOUR, Mehdi; EDRISSIAN, Gholamhossein; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; FARIVAR, Leila; KAZEMI-RAD, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of malaria cases is declining worldwide; however, it remains as a serious health problem. Diagnosing unusual cases is the most important issue to manage the problem. This study designed to describe the number of falciparum and vivax malaria infected patients referred to Malaria Reference Laboratory in Tehran University of Medical Science from 2000 to 2012. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted based on the collected questionnaires from each patient referred to the laboratory. Diagnosing results and demographic information for positive cases were analyzed using SPSS software. Problematic cases were evaluated for any difficulties in diagnosis or in clinical signs. Scanning and molecular methods were performed whenever there was an atypical case referred to the laboratory. Some of the samples had various difficulties for diagnosing such as presence of fussed gametocytes and schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum in peripheral blood and CCHF like hemoragic disorders. Results: Plasmodium vivax caused a large proportion of the cases (76.1%) in contrast with P. falciparum that included smaller proportion (22.8%) and the rest (1.1) belonged to mixed infection. Most of the positive cases (69.6%) were belonged to Afghani people. Men (94.6%) showed more infection than women (5.4%), moreover the most infection (44.5%) was seen at a range of 21–30 yr. Conclusion: In the case of existing atypical issues to diagnose, it is needed to perform more precise microscopical examination beyond the current standard conditions. Sometimes molecular method is required to verify the exact agent of the disease. PMID:26811720

  13. Laboratory testing of West Valley reference 6 glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of laboratory tests is being conducted to characterize the corrosion of West Valley reference 6 glass (WV6) and to provide parametric values for modeling its long-term durability. Models require measurement of the corrosion rate in the absence of corrosion products and in fluids that are {open_quotes}saturated{close_quotes} with corrosion products, and the identification of alteration phases. Corrosion rates in dilute and saturated conditions were measured using MCC-1 and PCT tests, respectively. Vapor hydration tests were performed to generate secondary phases. The PCT tests show the WV6 glass to be more durable than SRL EA, SRL 202, and HW-39-1 glasses. Vapor hydration tests show weeksite (a uranyl silicate), a potassium-bearing zeolite, analcime, potassium feldspar, a calcium silicate phase, and lithium phosphate to form as WV6 glass corrodes. Test results are presented and their relevance to long-term performance discussed.

  14. Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason A; Hobday, Linda K; Ibrahim, Aishah; Aitkin, Thomas; Thorley, Bruce R

    2015-06-30

    Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age as the main method to monitor its polio-free status in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2013, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1.4 non-polio AFP cases per 100,000 children, meeting the WHO performance criterion for a sensitive surveillance system. Non-polio enteroviruses can also be associated with AFP and enterovirus A71 was identified from nine of the 61 cases classified as non-polio AFP in 2013, which was part of a larger outbreak associated with this virus. A Sabin poliovirus was detected in an infant recently returned from Pakistan and who had been vaccinated while abroad. Globally, 416 cases of polio were reported in 2013, with the 3 endemic countries: Afghanistan; Nigeria; and Pakistan, accounting for 38% of the cases. To safeguard the progress made towards polio eradication, in May 2014, WHO recommended travellers from the 10 countries that are currently reporting wild poliovirus transmission have documented evidence of recent polio vaccination before departure.

  15. Emissions of maritime transport: a European reference system.

    PubMed

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Panis, Luc Int; Chiffi, Cosimo; Pastori, Enrico

    2009-12-20

    Emissions from ships have recently received more attention since they have become a significant concern for air quality in harbours and port cities. This paper presents the methodology for a comprehensive maritime transport database of activity data, specific energy consumption, emission factors, and total emissions that have been developed within the European EX-TREMIS project. The model is built upon 3 modules: the fleet module, the transport activity module, and the emission module. The fleet module defines the ship categories, the loading capacities, and the engine characteristics of the different vessels by using EUROSTAT data, Sea Web Lloyd's database, and international literature. The transport activity module transforms total cargo handled (mainly based on EUROSTAT data and CEMT statistics) into ship-equivalents. These ship-equivalents are further transformed into ship-hours. The emission module calculates energy uses and CO(2), NO(X), SO(2), CO, HC, CH(4), NMHC, PM emissions from the resulting maritime activities. We have used technology based emission factors to take into account the technological evolution of vessels. To illustrate this new methodology, we present some results (emissions, fuel consumption and emission factors) for different countries. The overall methodology as well as the results and the country specific energy consumption and emission factors per ship type and size class can be extracted from the EX-TREMIS website (www.ex-tremis.eu). Our results contribute to more accurate estimates of emissions and air quality assessments in coastal cities and ports.

  16. [Tasks and duties of veterinary reference laboratories for food borne zoonoses].

    PubMed

    Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Alter, T; Johne, R; Nöckler, K; Beutin, L; Helmuth, R

    2009-02-01

    Reference laboratories are of central importance for consumer protection. Field expertise and high scientific competence are basic requirements for the nomination of a national reference laboratory. To ensure a common approach in the analysis of zoonotic hazards, standards have been developed by the reference laboratories together with national official laboratories on the basis of Art. 33 of Directive (EG) No. 882/2004. Reference laboratories function as arbitrative boards in the case of ambivalent or debatable results. New methods for detection of zoonotic agents are developed and validated to provide tools for analysis, e. g., in legal cases, if results from different parties are disputed. Besides these tasks, national reference laboratories offer capacity building and advanced training courses and control the performance of ring trials to ensure consistency in the quality of analyses in official laboratories. All reference laboratories work according to the ISO standard 17025 which defines the grounds for strict laboratory quality rules and in cooperation with the respective Community Reference Laboratories (CRL). From the group of veterinary reference laboratories for food-borne zoonoses, the national reference laboratories are responsible for Listeria monocytogenes, for Campylobacter, for the surveillance and control of viral and bacterial contamination of bivalve molluscs, for E. coli, for the performance of analysis and tests on zoonoses (Salmonella), and from the group of parasitological zoonotic agents, the national reference laboratory for Trichinella.

  17. Annual report of the Australian National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory, 2008.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason A; Grant, Kristina A; Yoon, Yeon Kyung; Polychronopoulos, Sophie; Ibrahim, Aishah; Thorley, Bruce R

    2009-09-01

    The Australian National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory (NPRL) is accredited by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the testing of stool specimens from cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), a major clinical presentation of poliovirus infection. The NPRL, in collaboration with the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit, co-ordinates surveillance for cases of AFP in children in Australia, according to criteria recommended by the WHO. Clinical specimens are referred from AFP cases in children and suspected case of poliomyelitis in persons of any age. The WHO AFP surveillance performance indicator for a polio-free country such as Australia, is 1 non-polio AFP case per 100,000 children less than 15 years of age. In 2008, the Polio Expert Committee (PEC) classified 62 cases as non-polio AFP, or 1.51 non-polio AFP cases per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years. Poliovirus infection is confirmed by virus culture of stool specimens from AFP cases as other conditions that present with acute paralysis can mimic polio. While no poliovirus was reported in Australia from any source in 2008, the non-polio enteroviruses echovirus 25, coxsackievirus B2 and echovirus 11 were isolated from stool specimens of AFP cases. The last report of a wild poliovirus in Australia was due to an importation from Pakistan in 2007. With 4 countries remaining endemic for poliomyelitis--Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan--and more than 1,600 confirmed cases of wild poliovirus infection in 18 countries in 2008, Australia continues to be at risk of further importation events.

  18. Groove depth measurements on roughness reference standards of the Croatian National Laboratory for Length (LFSB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baršić, Gorana; Mahović, Sanjin; Bartolo Picotto, Gian; Amer, Mohamed A.; Runje, Biserka

    2011-09-01

    In the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, LFSB, which is now the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique roughness reference standards were developed in the year 1986. Because of the world-class quality of those standards and their measuring features, the same were sold in several European countries, and today they, among others, are used as roughness reference standards in Italy, Slovenia and Croatia. However, especially in the last decade, there was significant progress in the field of nanotechnology that led to the development of new measuring equipment. The above-mentioned standards due to their size, production technology and measuring features cannot fully meet metrological requirements in the field of nanometrology, i.e. they are not compatible with scanning probe microscopes. Therefore, it was decided to search for possible limitations in the procedure of groove depth measurements on the LFSB standards. In order to include as many measuring devices as possible, i.e. measurement methods, in this research, in 2008 the LFSB launched EURAMET Project 1012 'Limitations of methods for measuring the depth of the groove' in collaboration with national metrology institutes of Italy and Egypt. In this paper the results of measurements performed within the project are presented, and based on the obtained results, the advantages and limitations of the LFSB standards have been discussed, with recommendations for their improvement.

  19. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  20. High heterogeneity in methods used for the laboratory confirmation of pertussis diagnosis among European countries, 2010: integration of epidemiological and laboratory surveillance must include standardisation of methodologies and quality assurance.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Glismann, S; Bacci, S

    2012-08-09

    Despite extensive childhood immunisation, pertussis remains one of the world’s leading causes of vaccine preventable deaths. The current methods used for laboratory diagnosis of pertussis include bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology. We conducted a questionnaire survey to identify variations in the laboratory methods and protocols used among participating countries included in the European surveillance network for vaccine-preventable diseases(EUVAC.NET). In February 2010, we performed the survey using a web-based questionnaire and sent it to the country experts of 25 European Union countries,and two European Economic Area (EEA) countries,Norway and Iceland. The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions which covered both general information on surveillance methods and detailed laboratory methods used. A descriptive analysis was performed.Questionnaires were answered by all 27 contacted countries. Nineteen countries had pertussis reference laboratories at the national level; their functions varied from performing diagnosis to providing technical advice for routine microbiology laboratories. Culture,PCR and serology were used in 17, 18 and 20 countries,respectively. For PCR, nine laboratories used insertion sequence IS481 as the target gene, which is present in multiple copies in the Bordetella pertussis genome and thus has a greater sensitivity over single copy targets, but has been proved not to be specific for B.pertussis. Antibodies directed against pertussis toxin(PT) are specific for B. pertussis infections. For ELISA serology, only 13 countries’ laboratories used purified PT as coating antigen and 10 included World Health Organization (WHO) or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reference sera in their tests. This present survey shows that methods used for laboratory confirmation of pertussis differ widely among European countries and that there is a great heterogeneity of the reference

  1. European Fiber Optics. USAF Laboratory Experts’ Visit,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    emitting at 480 ma. AE-Telefunken Telecomunications and Cable Systems Division Postfach 1120 7150 Backnang, Germany Principal Contact: Dr. K. D. 4chenkel...alignment purposes. Standard Telecomunication Laboratories, Inc. (STL) London Road Harlow, Essex 017 9NA, England Principal Contact: Dr. M. Chown - Manager

  2. Reference percentiles for FEV1 and BMI in European children and adults with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical course of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is usually measured using the percent predicted FEV1 and BMI Z-score referenced against a healthy population, since achieving normality is the ultimate goal of CF care. Referencing against age and sex matched CF peers may provide valuable information for patients and for comparison between CF centers or populations. Here, we used a large database of European CF patients to compute CF specific reference equations for FEV1 and BMI, derived CF-specific percentile charts and compared these European data to their nearest international equivalents. Methods 34859 FEV1 and 40947 BMI observations were used to compute European CF specific percentiles. Quantile regression was applied to raw measurements as a function of sex, age and height. Results were compared with the North American equivalent for FEV1 and with the WHO 2007 normative values for BMI. Results FEV1 and BMI percentiles illustrated the large variability between CF patients receiving the best current care. The European CF specific percentiles for FEV1 were significantly different from those in the USA from an earlier era, with higher lung function in Europe. The CF specific percentiles for BMI declined relative to the WHO standard in older children. Lung function and BMI were similar in the two largest contributing European Countries (France and Germany). Conclusion The CF specific percentile approach applied to FEV1 and BMI allows referencing patients with respect to their peers. These data allow peer to peer and population comparisons in CF patients. PMID:22958330

  3. The "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages," the European Language Portfolio, and Language Teaching/Learning at University: An Argument and Some Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    2016-01-01

    I begin this article by briefly explaining why I think CercleS should encourage university language centres to align their courses and assessment with the proficiency levels of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR) and why they should use a version of the European Language Portfolio (ELP) to support the…

  4. The space laboratory: A European-American cooperative effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, H. E. W.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the history of the European participation in the American space shuttle project is presented. Some early work carried out in West Germany on the rocket-powered second state of a reusable launch vehicle system is cited, in particular wind tunnel studies of the aerodynamic and flight-mechanical behavior of various lifting body configurations in the subsonic range. The offer made by the U.S. to Europe of participating in the space shuttle program by developing a reusable launch vehicle is discussed, noting West Germany's good preparation in this area, as well as the ultimate decision of the U.S. to exclude Europe from participation in the design of the Orbiter and the booster stage of the shuttle.

  5. Programme of the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza to improve Influenza Surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Adam; Brown, Caroline; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Valette, Martine; van der Werf, Sylvie; Zambon, Maria

    2006-11-10

    All laboratories participating in the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL) co-ordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) should be able to perform a range of influenza diagnostics. This includes direct detection, culture, typing, subtyping and strain characterisation of influenza viruses, diagnostic serology and the creation of archives for clinical specimens and virus isolates. To improve the capacity and quality of the laboratories of the CNRL and to increase the consistency in performance among all 25 European Union countries plus Norway, Romania, and Switzerland, five task groups were set up in February 2005. These task groups developed work programmes in the areas of virus isolation, antibodies, molecular virology, quality control assessment and antiviral susceptibility testing. This report outlines the programmes and the results achieved in the first half-year of operation of the task groups. The action plans are challenging and it is expected that these efforts will lead to considerable improvements in the performance of the laboratories and in the standardisation of methods employed in Europe with regard to routine influenza surveillance and early warning for emerging viruses.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Sample Project: Performance Evaluation of Analytical Laboratories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, H. Keith; Daddow, Richard L.; Farrar, Jerry W.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1962, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated the Standard Reference Sample Project to evaluate the performance of USGS, cooperator, and contractor analytical laboratories that analyze chemical constituents of environmental samples. The laboratories are evaluated by using performance evaluation samples, called Standard Reference Samples (SRSs). SRSs are submitted to laboratories semi-annually for round-robin laboratory performance comparison purposes. Currently, approximately 100 laboratories are evaluated for their analytical performance on six SRSs for inorganic and nutrient constituents. As part of the SRS Project, a surplus of homogeneous, stable SRSs is maintained for purchase by USGS offices and participating laboratories for use in continuing quality-assurance and quality-control activities. Statistical evaluation of the laboratories results provides information to compare the analytical performance of the laboratories and to determine possible analytical deficiences and problems. SRS results also provide information on the bias and variability of different analytical methods used in the SRS analyses.

  7. Quality management in European screening laboratories in blood establishments: A view of current approaches and trends.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2015-04-01

    The screening laboratory has a critical role in the post-transfusion safety. The success of its targets and efficiency depends on the management system used. Even though the European Union directive 2002/98/EC requires a quality management system in blood establishments, its requirements for screening laboratories are generic. Complementary approaches are needed to implement a quality management system focused on screening laboratories. This article briefly discusses the current good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices, as well as the trends in quality management system standards. ISO 9001 is widely accepted in some European Union blood establishments as the quality management standard, however this is not synonymous of its successful application. The ISO "risk-based thinking" is interrelated with the quality risk-management process of the EuBIS "Standards and criteria for the inspection of blood establishments". ISO 15189 should be the next step on the quality assurance of a screening laboratory, since it is focused on medical laboratory. To standardize the quality management systems in blood establishments' screening laboratories, new national and European claims focused on technical requirements following ISO 15189 is needed.

  8. Laboratory breeding of the European rabbit flea, Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale).

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, J. A.; Coombs, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the laboratory breeding of the rabbit flea in which the immature stages are reared at constant temperature and humidity. Eggs are obtained by confining fleas taken from a rabbit and her nest shortly after parturition with two of her nestlings in an incubator for 24 h. The eggs are transferred to an artificial diet medium on which the immature stages are reared. On average a female flea produces 50 eggs during the first six days post-partum. At 25 degrees C, 95% of eggs hatched at 79% RH and 98% at 84% RH. Most eggs hatched on the third day after laying and hatching was completed by the fourth day. Significantly more fleas of both sexes were obtained when larvae were reared at 25 degrees C on a medium containing powdered 41B rodent diet than on one containing terrier meal. Both diets also contained yeast and dried rabbit blood. There was no significant difference between the numbers of fleas obtained at 79% RH and 84% RH. Significantly more fleas were also obtained when larvae were reared at 27 degrees C, 84% RH, than at 25 degrees C. Female fleas emerged sooner than males at both 27 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Fleas from the laboratory culture were heavier than those from wild nests. Female fleas were heavier than male fleas in both cases. PMID:512357

  9. European Pharmacopoeia biological reference preparation for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated): collaborative study for the establishment of batch No. 3.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Daas, A; Milne, C

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines are an important part of the World Health Organization (WHO) control strategy to eradicate poliomyelitis. Requirements for the quality control of poliomyelitis vaccines (inactivated) include the use of an in vitro D antigen quantification assay for potency determination on the final lot as outlined in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph 0214. Performance of this assay requires a reference preparation calibrated in International Units (IU). A Ph. Eur. biological reference preparation (BRP) for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) calibrated in IU has been established for this purpose. Due to the dwindling stocks of batch 2 of the BRP a collaborative study was run as part of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) Biological Standardisation Programme to establish BRP batch 3 (BRP3). Twelve laboratories including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers participated. The candidate BRP3 (cBRP3) was from the same source and had the same characteristics as BRP batch 2 (BRP2). During the study the candidate was calibrated against the 3(rd) International Standard for inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine using in-house D antigen ELISA assays in line with the Ph. Eur. monograph 0214. The candidate was also compared to BRP2 to evaluate the continuity. Based on the results of the study, values of 320 DU/mL, 78 DU/mL and 288 DU/mL (D antigen units/mL) (IU) for poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 respectively were assigned to the candidate. In June 2016, the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted the material as Ph. Eur. BRP for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) batch 3.

  10. Recommendation for the review of biological reference intervals in medical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Henny, Joseph; Vassault, Anne; Boursier, Guilaine; Vukasovic, Ines; Mesko Brguljan, Pika; Lohmander, Maria; Ghita, Irina; Andreu, Francisco A Bernabeu; Kroupis, Christos; Sprongl, Ludek; Thelen, Marc H M; Vanstapel, Florent J L A; Vodnik, Tatjana; Huisman, Willem; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2016-12-01

    This document is based on the original recommendation of the Expert Panel on the Theory of Reference Values of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), updated guidelines were recently published under the auspices of the IFCC and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). This document summarizes proposals for recommendations on: (i) The terminology, which is often confusing, noticeably concerning the terms of reference limits and decision limits. (ii) The method for the determination of reference limits according to the original procedure and the conditions, which should be used. (iii) A simple procedure allowing the medical laboratories to fulfill the requirements of the regulation and standards. The updated document proposes to verify that published reference limits are applicable to the laboratory involved. Finally, the strengths and limits of the revised recommendations (especially the selection of the reference population, the maintenance of the analytical quality, the choice of the statistical method used…) will be briefly discussed.

  11. Establishment of Traceability of Reference Grade Hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (npli)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Harish; Mandal, Goutam; Das, M. B.; Sharma, D. C.

    The present paper discusses the establishment of traceability of reference grade hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI). The reference grade hydrometers are calibrated and traceable to the primary solid density standard. The calibration has been done according to standard procedure based on Cuckow's Method and the reference grade hydrometers calibrated covers a wide range. The uncertainty of the reference grade hydrometers has been computed and corrections are also calculated for the scale readings, at which observations are taken.

  12. External Quality Assessment Scheme for reference laboratories - review of 8 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Anja; Siekmann, Lothar; Weykamp, Cas; Geilenkeuser, Wolf Jochen; Dreazen, Orna; Middle, Jonathan; Schumann, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    We describe an External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) intended for reference (calibration) laboratories in laboratory medicine and supervised by the Scientific Division of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and the responsible Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine. The official EQAS website, RELA (www.dgkl-rfb.de:81), is open to interested parties. Information on all requirements for participation and results of surveys are published annually. As an additional feature, the identity of every participant in relation to the respective results is disclosed. The results of various groups of measurands (metabolites and substrates, enzymes, electrolytes, glycated hemoglobins, proteins, hormones, thyroid hormones, therapeutic drugs) are discussed in detail. The RELA system supports reference measurement laboratories preparing for accreditation according to ISO 17025 and ISO 15195. Participation in a scheme such as RELA is one of the requirements for listing of the services of a calibration laboratory by the Joint Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine.

  13. A plea for intra-laboratory reference limits. Part 1. General considerations and concepts for determination.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Arzideh, Farhad

    2007-01-01

    Accurate results for quantitative procedures can be useless if the reference limits for the interpretation of laboratory results are unreliable. Recent concepts for quality management systems require that laboratories pay more attention to identification and verification of reference limits. Scientific recommendations often claim that each laboratory should determine intra-laboratory reference limits, which should be reviewed periodically. This recommendation is currently neglected by most laboratories; instead they use reference limits from external sources, despite various problems of transference. Prospective and retrospective methods either using or neglecting disease prevalences (polymodal or unimodal concepts, respectively) and applying different statistical approaches for determining reference limits have been described. The various procedures are reviewed with regard to their diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and (non-)efficiency. The present gold standard is the reference limit concept according to IFCC recommendations (a unimodal prospective approach). This concept, together with trueness-based standardization, is the most useful basis for harmonization of the decision-making process with laboratory results, despite complex problems of traceability and transference. This harmonization is at present only achieved for a limited number of analytes for which SI units and traceability can be technically realized. For the majority of measurands in laboratory medicine, much research is still required and results cannot be expected in the near future. For these measurands, a need remains for internal, efficient and simple identification of population-based reference limits. Therefore, newer retrospective concepts were developed that use large data sets from laboratory information systems to derive intra-laboratory reference limits. These approaches appear promising and should be further developed.

  14. The Monitoring of Triphenylmethane Dyes in Aquaculture Products Through the European Union Network of Official Control Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Eric; Bessiral, Melaine; Chotard, Marie-Pierre; Couëdor, Pierrick; Fourmond, Marie-Pierre; Fuselier, Régine; Gaugain, Murielle; Gautier, Sophie; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Laurentie, Michel; Pirotais, Yvette; Roudaut, Brigitte; Sanders, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal production industry for the past four decades, and almost half of the fish eaten in the world are now farmed fish. To prevent diseases in this more intensive aquaculture farming, use of therapeutic chemicals has become a basic choice. The monitoring of malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye and one of the oldest and widely used chemicals in fish production, has gained more interest since the mid 1990s when this substance was finally proven to be toxic enough to be prohibited in seafood products destined for human consumption. The enforcement of the European Union (EU) regulation of this banned substance along with some other triphenylmethane dye congeners and their metabolites in its domestic production and in seafood imports was undertaken through the National Residue Monitoring Plans implemented in nearly all of the 28 EU member states. The reliability of the overall European monitoring of this dye contamination in aquaculture products was assessed by using the results of proficiency testing (PT) studies provided by the EU Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) in charge of the network of the EU National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). The proficiency of each NRL providing analytical support services for regulating dye residues was carefully checked during three PT rounds. In the process, the analytical methods developed and validated for this purpose have gradually been improved and extended over the last two decades.

  15. Implementing a network for electronic surveillance reporting from public health reference laboratories: an international perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Bean, N. H.; Martin, S. M.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic data reporting from public health laboratories to a central site provides a mechanism for public health officials to rapidly identify problems and take action to prevent further spread of disease. However, implementation of reference laboratory systems is much more complex than simply adopting new technology, especially in international settings. We describe three major areas to be considered by international organizations for successful implementation of electronic reporting systems from public health reference laboratories: benefits of electronic reporting, planning for system implementation (e.g., support, resources, data analysis, country sovereignty), and components of system initiation (e.g., authority, disease definition, feedback, site selection, assessing readiness, problem resolution). Our experience with implementation of electronic public health laboratory data management and reporting systems in the United States and working with international organizations to initiate similar efforts demonstrates that successful reference laboratory reporting can be implemented if surveillance issues and components are planned. PMID:11747687

  16. A European Network of Analytical and Experimental Laboratories for Geosciences: Challenges and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freda, C.; Funiciello, F.; Meredith, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Scarlato, P.; Troll, V. R.; Willingshofer, E.; EPOS-WG6

    2012-04-01

    The EU policy for scientific research in the third millennium is that of a coordinated approach to support and develop continent-scale research infrastructures. The vision is to integrate the existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data, enhancing worldwide interoperability by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. Integrating Earth Sciences infrastructures in Europe is the mission of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), a research infrastructure and e-science for data and observatories on earthquakes, volcanoes, surface dynamics and tectonics. Within the existing core elements to be integrated in the EPOS cyber-infrastructure are: geographical distributed observational infrastructures (seismic and geodetic networks), observatories for multidisciplinary local data acquisition (e.g., volcanoes, active fault-zone, geothermal and deep drilling experiments), and analytical facilities for data repositories and integration. The integration of European analytical, experimental, and analogue laboratories plays a key role in this context and is the task of EPOS Working Group 6 (WG6). The Analytical and Experimental LaboratoriesGroup thus aims to link experimental, analytical, and analogue laboratories into a single, but geographically distributed, infrastructure for rock physics, including palaeomagnetism, analytical and experimental petrology and volcanology, and tectonic modeling.The WG6 has set a short term goal that has now been achieved, being a review of operational laboratory facilities in the community and the creation of a database from that information. Currently 12 countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, United Kingdom) are included in the database. As long-term goals, the WG6 aims to create mechanisms and procedures for easy access to laboratory facilities, turning small

  17. Standardization in laboratory medicine: Adoption of common reference intervals to the Croatian population

    PubMed Central

    Flegar-Meštrić, Zlata; Perkov, Sonja; Radeljak, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Considering the fact that the results of laboratory tests provide useful information about the state of health of patients, determination of reference value is considered an intrinsic part in the development of laboratory medicine. There are still huge differences in the analytical methods used as well as in the associated reference intervals which could consequently significantly affect the proper assessment of patient health. In a constant effort to increase the quality of patients’ care, there are numerous international initiatives for standardization and/or harmonization of laboratory diagnostics in order to achieve maximum comparability of laboratory test results and improve patient safety. Through the standardization and harmonization processes of analytical methods the ability to create unique reference intervals is achieved. Such reference intervals could be applied globally in all laboratories using methods traceable to the same reference measuring system and analysing the biological samples from the populations with similar socio-demographic and ethnic characteristics. In this review we outlined the results of the harmonization processes in Croatia in the field of population based reference intervals for clinically relevant blood and serum constituents which are in accordance with ongoing activity for worldwide standardization and harmonization based on traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:27019800

  18. Assembling and auditing a comprehensive DNA barcode reference library for European marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L M; Knebelsberger, T; Landi, M; Soares, P; Raupach, M J; Costa, F O

    2016-12-01

    A large-scale comprehensive reference library of DNA barcodes for European marine fishes was assembled, allowing the evaluation of taxonomic uncertainties and species genetic diversity that were otherwise hidden in geographically restricted studies. A total of 4118 DNA barcodes were assigned to 358 species generating 366 Barcode Index Numbers (BIN). Initial examination revealed as much as 141 BIN discordances (more than one species in each BIN). After implementing an auditing and five-grade (A-E) annotation protocol, the number of discordant species BINs was reduced to 44 (13% grade E), while concordant species BINs amounted to 271 (78% grades A and B) and 14 other had insufficient data (grade D). Fifteen species displayed comparatively high intraspecific divergences ranging from 2·6 to 18·5% (grade C), which is biologically paramount information to be considered in fish species monitoring and stock assessment. On balance, this compilation contributed to the detection of 59 European fish species probably in need of taxonomic clarification or re-evaluation. The generalized implementation of an auditing and annotation protocol for reference libraries of DNA barcodes is recommended.

  19. Reference intervals of bone turnover markers in healthy premenopausal women: results from a cross-sectional European study.

    PubMed

    Eastell, Richard; Garnero, Patrick; Audebert, Christine; Cahall, David L

    2012-05-01

    Robust validated reference intervals for bone turnover markers (BTMs) are required to assess fracture risk and effectiveness of therapy. However, there are currently limited reference intervals for BTMs in premenopausal women, especially comparing manual and automated assays. This study determined the BTM reference intervals using automated and manual assays, compared the results obtained from two different assays, and evaluated the factors that may affect BTM levels. This was a cross-sectional registry study in 194 healthy, premenopausal, European Caucasian women aged 35 to 39years from France (n=98) and Denmark (n=96). Two independent specialized laboratories, one in France (Synarc) and the other in Denmark (Nordic Bioscience), analyzed blood and urine samples from each woman for BTM levels. The type of assay used in this study significantly affected the reference intervals obtained for serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX/Cr; both P<0.001), but not for serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP; P=0.28). The Serum Crosslaps® ELISA; Microtitre-plate based ELISA; Metra BAP EIA; and UniQ® PINP RIA assays yielded higher BTM reference values. The reference intervals for the BTMs, as measured with Serum β-Crosslaps, Elecsys® 2010 Systems; VITROS® ECI System; Ostase®, Access® Immunoassay System; and Total PINP, Elecsys® 2010 Systems assays, were 0.111-0.791ng/mL for sCTX, 12.3-59.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 5.8-17.5ng/mL for bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 17.3-83.4ng/mL for PINP, respectively. When measured with Serum Crosslaps® ELISA, Microtitre-plate based ELISA, Metra BAP EIA, and UniQ® PINP RIA, the reference intervals were 0.177-0.862ng/mL for sCTX, 22.6-95.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 14.8-38.8U/L for bone ALP, and 19.5-75.2ng/mL for PINP, respectively. The clinical interpretation of the BTMs of a subject

  20. Report of the Australian National Polio Reference Laboratory. 1 July to 31 December 1999.

    PubMed

    Kennett, M; Stambos, V; Turnbull, A; Ibrahim, A; Kelly, H

    2000-05-01

    Since 1994, as part of the global eradication of poliomyelitis, the Australian National Polio Reference Laboratory (NPRL) at the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL) has been responsible for virological testing to confirm the absence of poliomyelitis in Australia. Samples from patients with acute flaccid paralysis are transported to VIDRL for viral culture. Polio and enteroviruses are referred for intratypic differentiation as wild or Sabin (vaccine) strains. A total of 23 faecal specimens from 17 patients were processed for enterovirus culture in the period 1 July to 31 December 1999. Since 1995, 1,078 enterovirus isolates from six states have been tested for the presence of wild poliovirus. To date, 562 strains were confirmed as Sabin vaccine-like, one non Sabin-like strain was identical with a laboratory control virus and the other strains were non-polio enteroviruses or other viruses. A World Health Organization (WHO) workshop in diagnostic polio polymerase chain reaction techniques was held at VIDRL in November 1999. The laboratory was reaccredited as a regional polio reference laboratory for the WHO Western Pacific region and a national laboratory for Australia, the Pacific Island countries and Brunei Darussalam. Planning is proceeding for the polio-free certification and containment of laboratory stocks of wild poliovirus infectious materials in Australia.

  1. An overview of the European Organization for External Quality Assurance Providers in Laboratory Medicine (EQALM)

    PubMed Central

    Stavelin, Anne; Albe, Xavier; Meijer, Piet; Sarkany, Erika; MacKenzie, Finlay

    2017-01-01

    The European Organisation for External Quality Assurance Providers in Laboratory Medicine (EQALM) was founded in 1996 and currently has members from 29 European countries and 6 countries from outside Europe. EQALM provides a forum for co-operation and exchange of knowledge on quality-related matters in laboratory medicine, especially with regard to external quality assessment (EQA) programs in Europe. In addition, EQALM represent the EQA providers in laboratory medicine at European level vis-ŕ-vis political, professional, scientific and other bodies, including patients’ organisations. To this end EQALM promotes activities such as organizing meetings with scientific and practical themes for members and other interested parties, issuing scientific publications, developing EQA projects and representing laboratory medicine EQA activities within other organisations and networks. EQALM is active in scientific and educational activity in different fields such as survey frequency, haematology, haemostasis, microbiology, nomenclature, virtual microscopy, traceability, accreditation, and quality assurance of the total testing process. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the EQALM organisation. PMID:28392724

  2. The "Common European Framework of Reference" Down Under: A Survey of Its Use and Non-Use in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand-Marconnet, Nadine; Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Today, the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001) is widely recognised as emblematic of globalization in education, both in the realms of policy and in educational practice (Byram et al. 2012a). In Europe the CEFR is regularly cited as a reference point for curriculum planning, and is often…

  3. Criteria for Centers of Reference for pediatric diabetes--a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Danne, Thomas; Lion, Sylvia; Madaczy, Lazlo; Veeze, Henk; Raposo, Fillipe; Rurik, Imre; Aschemeier, Bärbel; Kordonouri, Olga

    2012-09-01

    'SWEET' is an acronym standing for 'Better control in pediatric and adolescent diabeteS: Working to crEate CEnTers of Reference (CORs)' and is based on a partnership of established national and European diabetes organizations such as International Diabetes Federation, Federation of European Nurses in Diabetes, and Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE, www.sweet-project.eu). A three-level classification of centers has been put forward. In addition to centers for local care, SWEET collaborating centers on their way to being a COR have been defined. Peer-audited CORs with a continuous electronic documentation of at least 150 pediatric patients with diabetes treated by a multidisciplinary team based on the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice recommendations have been created in 12 European countries. In 2011, they cared for between 150 to more than 700 youth with diabetes with an average hemoglobin A1c between 7.6 and 9.2%. Although these clinics should not be regarded as representative for the whole country, the acknowledgment as COR includes a common objective of targets and guidelines as well as recognition of expertise in treatment and education at the center. In a first step, the SWEET Online platform allows 12 countries using 11 languages to connect to one unified diabetes database. Aggregate data are de-identified and exported for longitudinal health and economic data analysis. Through their network, the CORs wish to obtain political influence on a national and international level and to facilitate dissemination of new approaches and techniques. The SWEET project hopes to extend from the initial group of centers within countries, throughout Europe, and beyond with the help of the ISPAD network.

  4. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: Code of Conduct, Version 2--2008.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Janet; Zerah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael; Koeller, Ursula; Blaton, Victor; Tzatchev, Kamen; Charilaou, Charis; Racek, Jaroslav; Johnsen, Anders; Tomberg, Karel; Harmoinen, Aimo; Baum, Hannsjörg; Rizos, Demetrios; Kappelmayer, Janos; O'Mullane, John; Nubile, Giuseppe; Pupure, Silvija; Kucinskiene, Zita; Opp, Matthias; Huisman, Wim; Solnica, Bogdan; Reguengo, Henrique; Grigore, Camelia; Spanár, Július; Strakl, Greta; Queralto, Josep; Wallinder, Hans; Schuff-Werner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 10 years, more than 2000 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). A Code of Conduct was adopted in 2003 and a revised and updated version, taking account particularly of the guidelines of the Conseil Européen des Professions Libérales (CEPLIS) of which EFCC is a member, is presented in this article. The revised version was approved by the EC4 Register Commission and by the EFCC Executive Board in Paris on 6 November, 2008.

  5. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: guide to the Register, version 3-2010.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Janet; Zérah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael; Schuff-Werner, Peter; Haushofer, Alexander; Szekeres, Thomas; Wallemacq, Pierre; Tzatchev, Kamen; Charilaou, Charis; Racek, Jaroslav; Johnsen, Anders; Tomberg, Karel; Harmoinen, Aimo; Baum, Hannsjörg; Rizos, Demetrios; Kappelmayer, Janos; O'Mullane, John; Nubile, Giuseppe; Pupure, Silvija; Kucinskiene, Zita; Opp, Matthias; Jansen, Rob; Solnica, Bogdan; Reguengo, Henrique; Grigore, Camelia; Spanár, Július; Strakl, Greta; Queralto, Josep; Wallinder, Hans; Wieringa, Gijsbert

    2010-07-01

    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 12 years, more than 2200 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Forum of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). Two previous Guides to the Register have been published, one in 1997 and another in 2003. The third version of the Guide is presented in this article and is based on the experience gained and development of the profession since the last revision. Registration is valid for 5 years and the procedure and criteria for re-registration are presented as an Appendix at the end of the article.

  6. SENIORLAB: a prospective observational study investigating laboratory parameters and their reference intervals in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Risch, Martin; Nydegger, Urs; Risch, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: In clinical practice, laboratory results are often important for making diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic decisions. Interpreting individual results relies on accurate reference intervals and decision limits. Despite the considerable amount of resources in clinical medicine spent on elderly patients, accurate reference intervals for the elderly are rarely available. The SENIORLAB study set out to determine reference intervals in the elderly by investigating a large variety of laboratory parameters in clinical chemistry, hematology, and immunology. Methods/design: The SENIORLAB study is an observational, prospective cohort study. Subjectively healthy residents of Switzerland aged 60 years and older were included for baseline examination (n = 1467), where anthropometric measurements were taken, medical history was reviewed, and a fasting blood sample was drawn under optimal preanalytical conditions. More than 110 laboratory parameters were measured, and a biobank was set up. The study participants are followed up every 3 to 5 years for quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The primary aim is to evaluate different laboratory parameters at age-related reference intervals. The secondary aims of this study include the following: identify associations between different parameters, identify diagnostic characteristics to diagnose different circumstances, identify the prevalence of occult disease in subjectively healthy individuals, and identify the prognostic factors for the investigated outcomes, including mortality. Discussion: To obtain better grounds to justify clinical decisions, specific reference intervals for laboratory parameters of the elderly are needed. Reference intervals are obtained from healthy individuals. A major obstacle when obtaining reference intervals in the elderly is the definition of health in seniors because individuals without any medical condition and any medication are rare in older adulthood. Reference

  7. GCR Simulator Reference Field and a Spectral Approach for Laboratory Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Rusek, Adam; La Tessa, Chiara; Walker, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    The galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) is intended to deliver the broad spectrum of particles and energies encountered in deep space to biological targets in a controlled laboratory setting. In this work, certain aspects of simulating the GCR environment in the laboratory are discussed. Reference field specification and beam selection strategies at NSRL are the main focus, but the analysis presented herein may be modified for other facilities. First, comparisons are made between direct simulation of the external, free space GCR field and simulation of the induced tissue field behind shielding. It is found that upper energy constraints at NSRL limit the ability to simulate the external, free space field directly (i.e. shielding placed in the beam line in front of a biological target and exposed to a free space spectrum). Second, variation in the induced tissue field associated with shielding configuration and solar activity is addressed. It is found that the observed variation is likely within the uncertainty associated with representing any GCR reference field with discrete ion beams in the laboratory, given current facility constraints. A single reference field for deep space missions is subsequently identified. Third, an approach for selecting beams at NSRL to simulate the designated reference field is presented. Drawbacks of the proposed methodology are discussed and weighed against alternative simulation strategies. The neutron component and track structure characteristics of the simulated field are discussed in this context.

  8. Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirnberger, D.; Kräling, U.; Müllejans, H.; Salis, E.; Emery, K.; Hishikawa, Y.; Kiefer, K.

    2014-10-01

    Measurement results from a worldwide intercomparison of photovoltaic module calibrations are presented. Four photovoltaic reference laboratories in the USA, Japan and Europe with different traceability chains, measurement equipment and procedures, and uncertainty estimation concepts, participated. Seven photovoltaic modules of different technologies were measured (standard and high-efficiency crystalline silicon, cadmium telluride, single and double-junction amorphous and micromorph silicon). The measurement results from all laboratories and for all devices agreed well. Maximum power for the crystalline silicon samples was within ±1.3% for all thin-film modules roughly within ±3%, which is an improvement compared to past intercomparisons. The agreement between the results was evaluated using a weighted mean as a reference value, which considers results-specific uncertainty, instead of the widely used unweighted arithmetic mean. A further statistical analysis of all deviations between results and the corresponding reference mean showed that the uncertainties estimated by the participating laboratories were realistic, with a slight tendency towards being too conservative. The observed deviations of results from the reference mean concerned mainly short-circuit current and fill factor. Module stability was monitored through repeated measurements at Fraunhofer ISE before and after measurements at each of the other participating laboratories. Based on these re-measurements, stability problems that occurred for some thin-film modules and influenced the results were analyzed and explained in detail.

  9. Clinical isolates and laboratory reference Candida species and strains have varying abilities to form biofilms.

    PubMed

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Candida biofilms are a major virulence trait for this yeast. In this study, the biofilm-forming ability of the major medically important clinical and laboratory reference strains was compared. Biofilms were quantified using traditional methods, that is, crystal violet (CV), tetrazolium (XTT) reduction and colony-forming unit assays (CFU), and two new methods: an automated cell counter (ACC) and biofilm suspension turbidity (BST) method. Biofilms could be categorized based on biofilm biomass (high, medium and low) and growth state (high and low). Candida albicans genotypes, A, B and C, showed medium biofilm mass and low growth rate, and only one C. albicans laboratory strain, ATCC MYA-2719, matched this biofilm category. Of all non-albicans Candida species tested, only Candida dubliniensis and Candida glabrata laboratory and clinical isolates had similar biofilm development. The ACC and BST methods for measuring biofilm significantly correlated with CV and CFU biofilm mass measurements. Thus, biofilm mass can be rapidly assessed using biofilm disruptive/cellular nondestructive methods allowing yeast biofilm cells to be used for further analysis. In conclusion, Candida laboratory reference strains and clinical isolates have been shown to form biofilms at different rates; hence for validity, the selection of laboratory reference strains in biofilm studies may be critical for virulence assessment.

  10. Data Services and Transnational Access for European Geosciences Multi-Scale Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funiciello, Francesca; Rosenau, Matthias; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Tesei, Telemaco; Trippanera, Daniele; Spires, Chris; Drury, Martyn; Kan-Parker, Mirjam; Lange, Otto; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    The EC policy for research in the new millennium supports the development of european-scale research infrastructures. In this perspective, the existing research infrastructures are going to be integrated with the objective to increase their accessibility and to enhance the usability of their multidisciplinary data. Building up integrating Earth Sciences infrastructures in Europe is the mission of the Implementation Phase (IP) of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) project (2015-2019). The integration of european multiscale laboratories - analytical, experimental petrology and volcanology, magnetic and analogue laboratories - plays a key role in this context and represents a specific task of EPOS IP. In the frame of the WP16 of EPOS IP working package 16, European geosciences multiscale laboratories aims to be linked, merging local infrastructures into a coherent and collaborative network. In particular, the EPOS IP WP16-task 4 "Data services" aims at standardize data and data products, already existing and newly produced by the participating laboratories, and made them available through a new digital platform. The following data and repositories have been selected for the purpose: 1) analytical and properties data a) on volcanic ash from explosive eruptions, of interest to the aviation industry, meteorological and government institutes, b) on magmas in the context of eruption and lava flow hazard evaluation, and c) on rock systems of key importance in mineral exploration and mining operations; 2) experimental data describing: a) rock and fault properties of importance for modelling and forecasting natural and induced subsidence, seismicity and associated hazards, b) rock and fault properties relevant for modelling the containment capacity of rock systems for CO2, energy sources and wastes, c) crustal and upper mantle rheology as needed for modelling sedimentary basin formation and crustal stress distributions, d) the composition, porosity, permeability, and

  11. Generation of daylight reference years for two European cities with different climate: Athens, Greece and Bratislava, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markou, M. T.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Bartzokas, A.; Darula, S.; Kittler, R.

    2007-12-01

    In this work, daylight reference years (DRYs), based on daylight and solar radiation measurements, are designed for two European cities, Athens, Greece and Bratislava, Slovakia, by using the Danish method, the Festa-Ratto technique and the Modified Sandia National Laboratories methodology. The data basis consists of 5-minute values of global and diffuse horizontal illuminance, global and diffuse horizontal irradiance, zenith luminance and solar altitude as well as of daily values of sunshine duration for 5 years for Athens and 8 years for Bratislava. Moreover, Linke's turbidity factor, luminous turbidity factor and relative sunshine duration are calculated and utilized. Then, for each DRY, the predominant sky-luminance distributions over Athens and Bratislava are identified, by using the methodology of Kittler et al., who corresponded the main sky conditions to 15 theoretical sky standards in diagrams of the ratio of zenith luminance to diffuse horizontal illuminance against solar altitude. For both cities the three aforementioned methods do not create identical DRYs. Despite the differences, the sky types defined for each of the two places seem not to depend on the choice of DRY. The predominant sky standard, for all of them, is a cloudless, polluted sky with a broad solar corona for Athens and an overcast sky with slight brightening towards the sun as well as very clear sky with low atmospheric turbidity for Bratislava. However, the selection of the DRY, which represents best the daylight conditions, is necessary for studies in saving energy in buildings. The DRY, which is created by the Modified Sandia National Laboratories method, is chosen for most cases, while the one created by the Danish method is also useful on certain occasions.

  12. Adult Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Reference Ranges in a Zimbabwean Population

    PubMed Central

    Mandozana, Gibson; Tinago, Willard; Nhando, Nehemiah; Mgodi, Nyaradzo M.; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsawashe F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry laboratory reference ranges using more rigorous methods. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. A multistage sampling technique was used. Samples were transported from the field for analysis at the ISO15189 certified University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Central Research Laboratory. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges lower and upper reference limits were estimated at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. Results A total of 769 adults (54% males) aged 18 to 55 years were included in the analysis. Median age was 28 [IQR: 23–35] years. Males had significantly higher red cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to females. Females had higher white cell counts, platelets, absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts compared to males. There were no gender differences in eosinophils, monocytes, and absolute basophil count. Males had significantly higher levels of urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, amylase, total protein, albumin and liver enzymes levels compared to females. Females had higher cholesterol and lipase compared with males. There are notable differences in the white cell counts, neutrophils, cholesterol, and creatinine kinase when compared with the currently used reference ranges. Conclusion Data from this study provides new country specific reference ranges which should be immediately adopted for routine clinical care and accurate monitoring of adverse events in research studies. PMID:27812172

  13. Collaborative study for the establishment of a European Phamacopoeia Biological reference preparation for Bordetella pertussis mouse antiserum for serological potency testing of acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Bertrand; Bornstein, Nicole; Andre, Murielle; Marmonier, Denis; Pares, Monique; Vanhooren, Gerard; Rautmann, Guy; Behr-Gross, Marie-Emmanuelle; Dobbelaer, Roland; Fuchs, Florence

    2003-03-01

    A collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate For the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) to assess the suitability of a candidate mouse antiserum as a European Pharmacopoeia Biological reference preparation (BRP) for acellular pertussis vaccine potency testing. The candidate antiserum was obtained by immunising mice with a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine: pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN) and Fimbrial 2/Fimbrial 3 (Fim 2&3). The study has been divided into two separate phases. Phase I was a pre-qualification study including three laboratories. This phase was aimed at pre-qualifying the candidate BRP (cBRP) and at documenting the impact of differences in the antibody detection methodology enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures on results of pertussis antisera calibration versus the currently used standard US standard pertussis antiserum (mouse) Lot 1 (SPAM-1) (United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) reference serum) and the cBRP. As no significant difference between the antibody titres determined by using the different ELISA methodologies was found, a large-scale study enrolling 13 laboratories (Phase II) was carried out, each participant performing its in-house methodology. Its aim was to calibrate the cBRP (in terms of the SPAM-1 reference) and to demonstrate its equivalence or superiority to internal references. The study showed that there was no difference in positive sera titres expressed relative to their corresponding internal reference (homologous situation) or the proposed standard (heterologous situation) reference. The cBRP can, therefore, reliably act as replacement for the in-house reference preparations. Further analysis of the outcome of this study enabled to assign to the cBRP a potency of 39, 138, 34 and 56 ELISA unit per millilitre, respectively, to its anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN and anti-Fim 2&3 antibody contents. The cBRP has been adopted by the European

  14. The Council of Europe's "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR): Approach, Status, Function and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyniuk, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    The Council of Europe's "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" is rapidly becoming a powerful instrument for shaping language education policies in Europe and beyond. The task of relating language policies, language curricula, teacher education and training, textbook and course design and content, examinations and…

  15. Reference ranges for the clinical laboratory derived from a rural population in Kericho, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kibaya, Rukia S; Bautista, Christian T; Sawe, Frederick K; Shaffer, Douglas N; Sateren, Warren B; Scott, Paul T; Michael, Nelson L; Robb, Merlin L; Birx, Deborah L; de Souza, Mark S

    2008-10-03

    The conduct of Phase I/II HIV vaccine trials internationally necessitates the development of region-specific clinical reference ranges for trial enrollment and participant monitoring. A population based cohort of adults in Kericho, Kenya, a potential vaccine trial site, allowed development of clinical laboratory reference ranges. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping was performed on 1293 HIV seronegative study participants. Hematology and clinical chemistry were performed on up to 1541 cohort enrollees. The ratio of males to females was 1.9:1. Means, medians and 95% reference ranges were calculated and compared with those from other nations. The median CD4+ T cell count for the group was 810 cells/microl. There were significant gender differences for both red and white blood cell parameters. Kenyan subjects had lower median hemoglobin concentrations (9.5 g/dL; range 6.7-11.1) and neutrophil counts (1850 cells/microl; range 914-4715) compared to North Americans. Kenyan clinical chemistry reference ranges were comparable to those from the USA, with the exception of the upper limits for bilirubin and blood urea nitrogen, which were 2.3-fold higher and 1.5-fold lower, respectively. This study is the first to assess clinical reference ranges for a highland community in Kenya and highlights the need to define clinical laboratory ranges from the national community not only for clinical research but also care and treatment.

  16. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing.

    PubMed

    Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S

    2012-03-28

    Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006).

  17. The European reference condition concept: A scientific and technical approach to identify minimally-impacted river ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Isabel; Gómez-Rodríguez, Carola; Wasson, Jean-Gabriel; Owen, Roger; van de Bund, Wouter; Kelly, Martyn; Bennett, Cathy; Birk, Sebastian; Buffagni, Andrea; Erba, Stefania; Mengin, Nicolas; Murray-Bligh, John; Ofenböeck, Gisela

    2012-03-15

    One objective of the European Union (EU)'s Water Framework Directive (WFD: Directive 2000/60/EC) is for all European surface waters to achieve 'good status' by 2015. In support of this objective, the EU has facilitated an intercalibration exercise to ensure harmonized definitions of the status of water bodies, reflecting the deviation of their properties (mainly biotic assemblages) from a minimally disturbed state, termed the "reference condition". One of the major challenges of the WFD has been to find common approaches for defining reference conditions and to define the level of anthropogenic intervention allowed in reference sites. In this paper we describe how river reference sites were selected in the Central-Baltic region of Europe. A list of pressure criteria was provided and 14 Member States (MSs) categorized each criterion according to the method (i.e. measured, field inspection, etc.) used for reference site screening. Additionally, reference land-use and water-chemistry thresholds were agreed among countries in order to base reference site selection on objective criteria. For land-use criteria, a reference threshold and a rejection threshold were established. Sites with all criteria below the reference threshold were considered to be reference sites; sites having most criteria below the reference threshold and only some parameters between the reference and rejection threshold were "possible reference sites". These sites were retained only after carefully checking the cumulative effects of the pressures using local expertise, and a posteriori water-chemistry evaluation was necessary. In general, the most widespread method for defining a reference site was the measurement of pressures, followed by field inspections and expert judgment. However, some major pressures (e.g. hydromorphological alteration) were evaluated in a number of different ways (e.g. measured, field inspection, expert judgment). Our meta-analyses reveal a need to reinforce standardization

  18. Annual report of the Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason; Hobday, Linda; Ibrahim, Aishah; Aitken, Thomas; Thorley, Bruce

    2013-06-30

    Australia conducts clinical surveillance for cases of polio-like illness in children in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended surveillance criteria for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). AFP cases are ascertained either by clinicians notifying the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or designated nurses enrolling cases as part of the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance system at four sentinel tertiary paediatric hospitals. The National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory (NERL), formerly the National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory, is accredited by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the testing of faecal specimens from cases of AFP and operates as a Poliovirus Regional Reference Laboratory for the Western Pacific Region. In 2010 and 2011, for the 3rd and 4th consecutive years, Australia met the WHO AFP surveillance performance indicator. This is indicative of a sensitive surveillance system capable of detecting an imported case of polio in children. However, the faecal collection rate for the virological investigation of AFP cases was below the WHO surveillance performance indicator in both years and represented a gap in Australia's polio surveillance. Enterovirus and environmental surveillance were established in Australia as virological surveillance to complement the clinical surveillance schemes. No poliovirus was detected by the clinical or virological surveillance schemes in 2010 or 2011 and Australia maintained its polio-free status. India was declared polio-free in January 2012, a significant step towards global polio eradication, leaving Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan as the remaining countries endemic for wild poliovirus.

  19. Food adulteration analysis without laboratory prepared or determined reference food adulterant values.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Moira, Marianna; Tsafaras, Ilias; Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Mousdis, George A

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of food adulterants is an important health and economic issue that needs to be fast and simple. Spectroscopy has significantly reduced analysis time. However, still needed are preparations of analyte calibration samples matrix matched to prediction samples which can be laborious and costly. Reported in this paper is the application of a newly developed pure component Tikhonov regularization (PCTR) process that does not require laboratory prepared or reference analysis methods, and hence, is a greener calibration method. The PCTR method requires an analyte pure component spectrum and non-analyte spectra. As a food analysis example, synchronous fluorescence spectra of extra virgin olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower oil is used. Results are shown to be better than those obtained using ridge regression with reference calibration samples. The flexibility of PCTR allows including reference samples and is generic for use with other instrumental methods and food products.

  20. [The role of reference laboratories in animal health programmes in South America].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, I E

    2003-08-01

    The contribution of the Panamerican Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Centre (PANAFTOSA), as an OIE (World organisation for animal health) regional reference laboratory for the diagnosis of FMD and vesicular stomatitis, and for the control of the FMD vaccine, has been of fundamental importance to the development, implementation and harmonisation of modern laboratory procedures in South America. The significance of the work conducted by PANAFTOSA is particularly obvious when one considers the two pillars on which eradication programmes are based, namely: a well-structured regional laboratory network, and the creation of a system which allows technology and new developments to be transferred to Member Countries as quickly and efficiently as possible. Over the past decade, PANAFTOSA has kept pace with the changing epidemiological situation on the continent, and with developments in the international political and economical situation. This has involved the strengthening of quality policies, and the elaboration and implementation of diagnostic tools that make for more thorough epidemiological analyses. The integration of PANAFTOSA into the network of national laboratories and its cooperation with technical and scientific institutes, universities and the private sector means that local needs can be met, thanks to the design and rapid implementation of methodological tools which are validated using internationally accepted criteria. This collaboration, which ensures harmonisation of laboratory tests and enhances the quality of national Veterinary Services, serves to promote greater equity, a prerequisite for regional eradication strategies and this in turn, helps to increase competitiveness in the region.

  1. Proficiency Testing of Feed Constituents: A Comparative Evaluation of European and Developing Country Laboratories and Its Implications for Animal Production.

    PubMed

    Makkar, H P S; Strnad, I; Mittendorfer, J

    2016-10-06

    Proficiency tests, with two feed samples each year, for various constituents (proximate, macro- and microminerals, feed additives, and amino acids) were conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 40 and 50 European and 73 and 63 developing country feed analysis laboratories participated in the study in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The data obtained from these two sets of laboratories in each year enabled a comparison of the performance of the European and developing country laboratories. Higher standard deviation and several-fold higher coefficients of variation were obtained for the developing country laboratories. The coefficients of variation for chemical composition parameters, macrominerals, microminerals, and amino acids were higher by up to 9-fold, 14-fold, 10-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, for the developing country laboratories compared with the European laboratories in 2014, while the corresponding values for 2015 were 4.6-fold, 4.4-fold, 9-fold, and 14-fold higher for developing county laboratories. Also, higher numbers of outliers were observed for developing countries (2014, 7.6-8.7% vs 2.9-3.0%; 2015, 7.7-9.5% vs 4.2-7.0%). The results suggest higher need for developing country feed analysis laboratories to improve the quality of data being generated. The likely impact of higher variability of the data generated in developing countries toward safe and quality preparation of animal diets, their impact on animal productivity, and possible ways to improve the quality of data from developing countries are discussed.

  2. Comparison of Leishmania typing results obtained from 16 European clinical laboratories in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Van der Auwera, Gert; Bart, Aldert; Chicharro, Carmen; Cortes, Sofia; Davidsson, Leigh; Di Muccio, Trentina; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Felger, Ingrid; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Grimm, Felix; Harms, Gundel; Jaffe, Charles L.; Manser, Monika; Ravel, Christophe; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Töz, Seray; Verweij, Jaco J.; Chiodini, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern Europe, and in other European countries cases are diagnosed in travellers who have visited affected areas both within the continent and beyond. Prompt and accurate diagnosis poses a challenge in clinical practice in Europe. Different methods exist for identification of the infecting Leishmania species. Sixteen clinical laboratories in 10 European countries, plus Israel and Turkey, conducted a study to assess their genotyping performance. DNA from 21 promastigote cultures of 13 species was analysed blindly by the routinely used typing method. Five different molecular targets were used, which were analysed with PCR-based methods. Different levels of identification were achieved, and either the Leishmania subgenus, species complex, or actual species were reported. The overall error rate of strains placed in the wrong complex or species was 8.5%. Various reasons for incorrect typing were identified. The study shows there is considerable room for improvement and standardisation of Leishmania typing. The use of well validated standard operating procedures is recommended, covering testing, interpretation, and reporting guidelines. Application of the internal transcribed spacer 1 of the rDNA array should be restricted to Old World samples, while the heat-shock protein 70 gene and the mini-exon can be applied globally. PMID:27983510

  3. Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sivill, R.L.

    1990-03-01

    This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Ring trial among National Reference Laboratories for parasites to detect Trichinella spiralis larvae in pork samples according to the EU directive 2075/2005.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Gianluca; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2009-02-23

    To control Trichinella spp. infection in the European Union, all slaughtered pigs should be tested by one of the approved digestion methods described in EU directive 2075/2005. The aim of the present work was to evaluate, by a ring trial, the sensitivity of the digestion method used at the National Reference Laboratories for Parasites (NRLP). These Laboratories are responsible for the quality of the detection method in their own country. Of the 27 EU countries, only three (Hungary, Luxembourg and Malta) did not participate in the ring trial. Each participating laboratory received 10 samples of 100g of minced pork containing 3-5 larvae (3 samples), 10-20 larvae (3 samples), 30-50 larvae (3 samples), and one negative control. In each positive sample, there were living Trichinella spiralis larvae without the collagen capsule, obtained by partial artificial digestion of muscle tissue from infected mice. No false positive sample was found in any laboratories, whereas nine laboratories (37.5%) failed to detect some positive samples with the percentage of false negatives ranging from 11 to 100%. The variation between expected and reported larval counts observed among the participating laboratories was statistically significant. There was a direct correlation between the consistency of the results and the use of a validated/accredited digestion method. Conversely, there was no correlation between the consistency of the results and the number of digestions performed yearly by the NRLP. These results support the importance of validating the test.

  5. A review of the work of the EU Reference Laboratory supporting the authorisation process of feed additives in the EU. [corrected].

    PubMed

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; González de la Huebra, María José; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods.

  6. Properties of colour reference solutions of the European Pharmacopoea in CIE L*a*b* colour space.

    PubMed

    Subert, J; Farsa, O; Gajdosová, Z

    2006-12-01

    The coordinates of CIE L*a*b* uniform colour space have been acquired from the transmitance spectra of colour reference solutions of European Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur.). Calculation of colour differences of these solutions from purified water deltaE* gave their values in the range between 0.7 (B9 solution) to 36 (Y1 solution) CIE units. Excluding red colour reference soulutions, deltaE* values did not depend on concentrations of colour compounds linearly. Small deltaE* values founded by the brown and brownish-yellow colour reference solutions of the lowest concentrations can possibly cause some problems of visual examination of the degree of coloration of liquids according to Ph.Eur.

  7. Advanced Yellow Fever Virus Genome Detection in Point-of-Care Facilities and Reference Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pranav; Yillah, Jasmin; Weidmann, Manfred; Méndez, Jairo A.; Nakouné, Emmanuel Rivalyn; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Reported methods for the detection of the yellow fever viral genome are beset by limitations in sensitivity, specificity, strain detection spectra, and suitability to laboratories with simple infrastructure in areas of endemicity. We describe the development of two different approaches affording sensitive and specific detection of the yellow fever genome: a real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and an isothermal protocol employing the same primer-probe set but based on helicase-dependent amplification technology (RT-tHDA). Both assays were evaluated using yellow fever cell culture supernatants as well as spiked and clinical samples. We demonstrate reliable detection by both assays of different strains of yellow fever virus with improved sensitivity and specificity. The RT-qPCR assay is a powerful tool for reference or diagnostic laboratories with real-time PCR capability, while the isothermal RT-tHDA assay represents a useful alternative to earlier amplification techniques for the molecular diagnosis of yellow fever by field or point-of-care laboratories. PMID:23052311

  8. Advanced yellow fever virus genome detection in point-of-care facilities and reference laboratories.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Cristina; Patel, Pranav; Yillah, Jasmin; Weidmann, Manfred; Méndez, Jairo A; Nakouné, Emmanuel Rivalyn; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Reported methods for the detection of the yellow fever viral genome are beset by limitations in sensitivity, specificity, strain detection spectra, and suitability to laboratories with simple infrastructure in areas of endemicity. We describe the development of two different approaches affording sensitive and specific detection of the yellow fever genome: a real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and an isothermal protocol employing the same primer-probe set but based on helicase-dependent amplification technology (RT-tHDA). Both assays were evaluated using yellow fever cell culture supernatants as well as spiked and clinical samples. We demonstrate reliable detection by both assays of different strains of yellow fever virus with improved sensitivity and specificity. The RT-qPCR assay is a powerful tool for reference or diagnostic laboratories with real-time PCR capability, while the isothermal RT-tHDA assay represents a useful alternative to earlier amplification techniques for the molecular diagnosis of yellow fever by field or point-of-care laboratories.

  9. Internationalisation and Changing Skill Needs in European Small Firms: The Services Sector. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassid, Joseph

    A study explored questions on changing skill requirements of small firms in the services sector that are internationalizing their activities. These seven European Union (EU) member states were involved: Greece, Spain, Italy, Ireland, Austria, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The services sector accounted for a significant part of the EU…

  10. Facing Up to the Learning Organization Challenge: Selected European Writings. Volume II. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Barry, Ed.; Kelleher, Michael, Ed.; Cressey, Peter, Ed.; Poell, Rob, Ed.

    This volume, the second of a two-volume publication, comprises 15 papers that present the work of individual European projects dealing with learning within organizations. These five chapters in Part 1, The Meaning of the Learning Organization, examine the conceptual frameworks and dilemmas at the heart of the notion of the learning organization:…

  11. Internationalisation and Changing Skills Needs in European Small Firms: Synthesis Report. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassid, Joseph

    The changing skill needs being experienced by small European firms because of increasing internationalization were examined in a survey of owners/managers and employees of 85 small manufacturing businesses in Greece, Spain, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, and the United Kingdom and case studies of an additional 16 businesses that have…

  12. Viral diseases of wild and farmed European eel Anguilla anguilla with particular reference to the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Beurden, Steven J; Engelsma, Marc Y; Roozenburg, Ineke; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal A; van Tulden, Peter W; Kerkhoff, Sonja; van Nieuwstadt, Anton P; Davidse, Aart; Haenen, Olga L M

    2012-10-10

    Diseases are an important cause of losses and decreased production rates in freshwater eel farming, and have been suggested to play a contributory role in the worldwide decline in wild freshwater eel stocks. Three commonly detected pathogenic viruses of European eel Anguilla anguilla are the aquabirnavirus eel virus European (EVE), the rhabdovirus eel virus European X (EVEX), and the alloherpesvirus anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV1). In general, all 3 viruses cause a nonspecific haemorrhagic disease with increased mortality rates. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the aetiology, prevalence, clinical signs and gross pathology of these 3 viruses. Reported experimental infections showed the temperature dependency and potential pathogenicity of these viruses for eels and other fish species. In addition to the published literature, an overview of the isolation of pathogenic viruses from wild and farmed A. anguilla in the Netherlands during the past 2 decades is given. A total of 249 wild A. anguilla, 39 batches of glass eels intended for farming purposes, and 239 batches of farmed European eels were necropsied and examined virologically. AngHV1 was isolated from wild yellow and silver A. anguilla from the Netherlands from 1998 until the present, while EVEX was only found sporadically, and EVE was never isolated. In farmed A. anguilla AngHV1 was also the most commonly isolated virus, followed by EVE and EVEX.

  13. Laboratory facility to create reference radon + thoron atmosphere under dynamic exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Pressyanov, D; Mitev, K; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Kolev, J

    2017-01-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) levels in the environment are typically subject to significant random and systematic variations. Creation in the laboratory of reproducible and controlled exposure conditions close to that in the real environment can be useful for testing (222)Rn and (220)Rn detectors and for research. In this report the design and performance of a novel laboratory facility with such functionality is presented. The facility allows the exposure of detectors under controlled dynamic as well as static activity concentrations of (222)Rn and (220)Rn (pure and mixed) and temperature. The temperature is measured and regulated within -15 °C ÷ +60 °C by a dedicated programmable thermostat. Different reference activity concentrations in the exposure vessel are made by regulating the flow-rate of the air that flushes (222)Rn/(220)Rn activity from the sources towards the exposure vessel. Reference atmospheres that contain (222)Rn, (220)Rn or a specified ratio of the two can be created. Pilot experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of the approach are presented. They include follow-up of a pre-defined temperature profile (in the range -5 °C ÷ +35 °C), test of the correspondence between planned and measured (222)Rn and (220)Rn activity concentrations, follow-up of a pre-defined dynamic profile of (220)Rn concentrations and test of the possibility to create mixed (220)Rn/(222)Rn atmospheres (experimentally checked for ratio of the activity concentrations from 0.27 to 4.5). The results from the experimental tests are in agreement with the values obtained by the developed theoretical model. The proposed approach can be used to plan and create stationary and dynamic reference exposure conditions that are close to the real exposure regimes in the environment.

  14. Nitric oxide levels regulate the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster reference laboratory strains to bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Eleftherianos, Ioannis; More, Kareen; Spivack, Stephanie; Paulin, Ethan; Khojandi, Arman; Shukla, Sajala

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in Drosophila melanogaster involve mutant strains and their reference strains that act as experimental controls. We used five standard D. melanogaster laboratory reference strains (Oregon R, w1118, Canton-S, Cinnabar Brown, and Yellow White [YW]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens and Enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We detected high sensitivity among YW flies to bacterial infections and increased bacterial growth compared to the other strains. We also found variation in the transcription of certain antimicrobial peptide genes among strains, with Oregon and YW infected flies showing the highest and lowest gene transcription levels in most cases. We show that Oregon and w1118 flies possess more circulating hemocytes and higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the other strains upon infection with the nonpathogenic bacteria. We further observed reduced fat accumulation in YW flies infected with the pathogenic bacteria, which suggests a possible decline in physiological condition. Finally, we found that nitrite levels are significantly lower in infected and uninfected YW flies compared to w1118 flies and that nitric oxide synthase mutant flies in YW background are more susceptible to bacterial infection compared to mutants in w1118 background. Therefore, increased sensitivity of YW flies to bacterial infections can be partly attributed to lower levels of nitric oxide. Such studies will significantly contribute toward a better understanding of the genetic variation between D. melanogaster reference strains.

  15. Nitric Oxide Levels Regulate the Immune Response of Drosophila melanogaster Reference Laboratory Strains to Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    More, Kareen; Spivack, Stephanie; Paulin, Ethan; Khojandi, Arman; Shukla, Sajala

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in Drosophila melanogaster involve mutant strains and their reference strains that act as experimental controls. We used five standard D. melanogaster laboratory reference strains (Oregon R, w1118, Canton-S, Cinnabar Brown, and Yellow White [YW]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens and Enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We detected high sensitivity among YW flies to bacterial infections and increased bacterial growth compared to the other strains. We also found variation in the transcription of certain antimicrobial peptide genes among strains, with Oregon and YW infected flies showing the highest and lowest gene transcription levels in most cases. We show that Oregon and w1118 flies possess more circulating hemocytes and higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the other strains upon infection with the nonpathogenic bacteria. We further observed reduced fat accumulation in YW flies infected with the pathogenic bacteria, which suggests a possible decline in physiological condition. Finally, we found that nitrite levels are significantly lower in infected and uninfected YW flies compared to w1118 flies and that nitric oxide synthase mutant flies in YW background are more susceptible to bacterial infection compared to mutants in w1118 background. Therefore, increased sensitivity of YW flies to bacterial infections can be partly attributed to lower levels of nitric oxide. Such studies will significantly contribute toward a better understanding of the genetic variation between D. melanogaster reference strains. PMID:25047850

  16. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material.

  17. The "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" and the European Language Portfolio: Some History, a View of Language Learner Autonomy, and Some Implications for Language Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a plenary talk given at the CercleS seminar hosted by the University of Groningen in November 2011 to mark the tenth anniversary of the publication of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" and the launch of the European Language Portfolio. The first part of the article summarizes the history…

  18. The relation of the European Datum to a geocentric reference system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Douglas, B. C.; Klosko, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    Over 31,000 precision reduced optical observations of GEOS-1 and 2 in 70 two-day orbital arcs were used at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in a dynamical solution to determine center-of-mass coordinates for 15 tracking stations on the European Datum. Comparisons with the results obtained at Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) give agreement of about 1.5 ppm for chord lengths. After considering a scale correction to the European Datum (ED) of 1950 to account for the absence of geoid heights at the time of its reduction, agreement to a few ppm between the CNES/GSFC and the ED chords is obtained. However, a small systematic difference between survey and satellite results remains for stations in southeastern France and Switzerland.

  19. Status of the laboratory infrastructure for detector calibration and characterization at the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, N.; Ballak, K.-E.; Dietze, T.; Ekmedzič, M.; Hauf, S.; Januschek, F.; Kaukher, A.; Kuster, M.; Lang, P. M.; Münnich, A.; Schmitt, R.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Turcato, M.

    2016-12-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide unprecedented peak brilliance and ultra-short and spatially coherent X-ray pulses in an energy range of 0.25 to 25 keV . The pulse timing structure is unique with a burst of 2700 pulses of 100 fs length at a temporal distance of 220 ns followed by a 99.4 ms gap. To make optimal use of this timing structure and energy range a great variety of detectors are being developed for use at XFEL.EU, including 2D X-ray imaging cameras that are able to detect images at a rate of 4.5 MHz, provide dynamic ranges up to 105 photons per pulse per pixel under different operating conditions and covering a large range of angular resolution \\cite{requirements,Markus}. In order to characterize, commission and calibrate this variety of detectors and for testing of detector prototypes the XFEL.EU detector group is building up an X-ray test laboratory that allows testing of detectors with X-ray photons under conditions that are as similar to the future beam line conditions at the XFEL.EU as is possible with laboratory sources [1]. A total of four test environments provide the infrastructure for detector tests and calibration: two portable setups that utilize low power X-ray sources and radioactive isotopes, a test environment where a commercial high power X-ray generator is in use, and a pulsed X-ray/electron source which will provide pulses as short as 25 ns in XFEL.EU burst mode combined with target anodes of different materials. The status of the test environments, three of which are already in use while one is in commissioning phase, will be presented as well as first results from performance tests and characterization of the sources.

  20. EC4 European Syllabus for Post-Graduate Training in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: version 3 - 2005.

    PubMed

    Zerah, Simone; McMurray, Janet; Bousquet, Bernard; Baum, Hannsjorg; Beastall, Graham H; Blaton, Vic; Cals, Marie-Josèphe; Duchassaing, Danielle; Gaudeau-Toussaint, Marie-Françoise; Harmoinen, Aimo; Hoffmann, Hans; Jansen, Rob T; Kenny, Desmond; Kohse, Klaus P; Köller, Ursula; Gobert, Jean-Gérard; Linget, Christine; Lund, Erik; Nubile, Giuseppe; Opp, Matthias; Pazzagli, Mario; Pinon, Georges; Queralto, José M; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Szekeres, Thomas; Vidaud, Michel; Wallinder, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The EC4 Syllabus for Postgraduate Training is the basis for the European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The syllabus: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. The syllabus is not primarily meant to be a training guide, but on the basis of the overview given (common minimal programme), national societies should formulate programmes that indicate where knowledge and experience is needed. The main points of this programme are: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Knowledge in biochemistry, haematology, immunology, etc.; Pre-analytical conditions; Evaluation of results; Interpretations (post-analytical phase); Laboratory management; and Quality insurance management. The aim of this version of the syllabus is to be in accordance with the Directive of Professional Qualifications published on 30 September 2005. To prepare the common platforms planned in this directive, the disciplines are divided into four categories: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Knowledge in biochemistry, haematology, immunology, etc.; Pre-analytical conditions; Evaluation of results; Interpretations (post-analytical phase); Laboratory

  1. Genetic counselor review of genetic test orders in a reference laboratory reduces unnecessary testing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christine E; Krautscheid, Patti; Baldwin, Erin E; Tvrdik, Tatiana; Openshaw, Amanda S; Hart, Kim; Lagrave, Danielle

    2014-05-01

    Genetic tests are routinely ordered by health care providers (HCPs) within a wide range of medical specialties. Many providers have limited knowledge or experience with ordering and interpreting genetic tests; thus, test order errors are common. Rigorous review of genetic test orders by genetic counselors (GCs) can provide a direct financial benefit to medical institutions, patients and insurers. GCs at ARUP (Associated Regional University Pathologists) Laboratories routinely perform a preanalytic assessment of complex molecular genetic test orders that includes reviewing clinical and family history information and considering the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of ordered tests. GCs contact the ordering institution and/or HCP as needed to collect additional clinical information and confirm the test order or suggest alternative testing based on the provided information. A retrospective review of the GC-facilitated test changes over a 21-month period at ARUP laboratories was performed. Approximately 26% of all requests for complex genetic tests assessing germ line mutations were changed following GC review. Testing fees associated with canceled tests were summed to estimate the cost-savings resulting from GC-facilitated test reviews. The test review process resulted in an average reduction in charges to the referring institutions of $48,000.00 per month. GC review of genetic test orders for appropriateness and clinical utility reduces healthcare costs to hospitals, insurers, and patients.

  2. Comprehensive Reference Ranges for Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Parameters Derived from Normal Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash’le

    2014-01-01

    Background Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. Methods and findings Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors’ questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4%) males, 125 (32.6%) non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2%) with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB) and Hematocrit (HCT) had significant gender difference (p = 0.000) but not for total white blood count (p>0.05) which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000). Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001) but lower in pregnant women (p = 0.001) with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05) but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p<0.05). Total bilirubin was significantly higher in males than females (p = 0.000). Significant differences exist for all chemistry parameters between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study (p<0.05), except Amylase and total cholesterol (p>0.05). Conclusions Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non

  3. Reference values of total serum IgE and their significance in the diagnosis of allergy in young European adults.

    PubMed

    Carosso, Aurelia; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Migliore, Enrica; Antò, Josep Maria; DeMarco, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Allergic sensitization mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) is the basis of allergic diseases, and elevated total IgE, in spite of some well-known limitations, is frequently included as a diagnostic criterion for allergic diseases. The reference value of total IgE (IgE-t) in the literature (1.5-144 kU/l) was established almost 2 decades ago. The aim of this study was to establish IgE-t reference values, establishing an updated cutoff value able to identify atopic subjects, defined as a positive CAP-radioallergosorbent test to at least one of a panel of common allergens, among young European adults. The study included 6,670 subjects from 10 Western European countries within the framework of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. IgE-t and specific IgE (IgE-s) were measured for the main inhalant allergens; IgE-s in class 0 for all allergens (66.2%) characterized non-atopy. The reference values were estimated by means of linear regression using a 50% random subsample of non-atopic subjects. Two non-atopic subsamples were examined so that one subsample could be used to establish reference IgE-t values, and these values were compared to those in the second non-atopic subsample to validate the findings. Sensitivity and specificity for atopy were assessed on the other 50% of non-atopic and on all atopic subjects. The 95th percentile of IgE-t reference values in non-smokers was 148 kU/l in women and 169 kU/l in men, while it was 194 and 220 kU/l in female and male smokers, respectively: serum IgE-t above the 95th percentile identifies <32% and above the 99th percentile <20% of atopic adults (low sensitivity), but a serum IgE-t below the 95th percentile identifies >90% and below the 99th percentile identifies >95% of non-atopic adults (good specificity). Due to the adequate specificity, IgE-t values exceeding the normal limits confirm a suspected atopic status; however, because of the low sensitivity, values below the cutoff seem not to exclude an atopic status

  4. Method applied to the background analysis of energy data to be considered for the European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD).

    PubMed

    Fazio, Simone; Garraín, Daniel; Mathieux, Fabrice; De la Rúa, Cristina; Recchioni, Marco; Lechón, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Under the framework of the European Platform on Life Cycle Assessment, the European Reference Life-Cycle Database (ELCD - developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission), provides core Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data from front-running EU-level business associations and other sources. The ELCD contains energy-related data on power and fuels. This study describes the methods to be used for the quality analysis of energy data for European markets (available in third-party LC databases and from authoritative sources) that are, or could be, used in the context of the ELCD. The methodology was developed and tested on the energy datasets most relevant for the EU context, derived from GaBi (the reference database used to derive datasets for the ELCD), Ecoinvent, E3 and Gemis. The criteria for the database selection were based on the availability of EU-related data, the inclusion of comprehensive datasets on energy products and services, and the general approval of the LCA community. The proposed approach was based on the quality indicators developed within the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook, further refined to facilitate their use in the analysis of energy systems. The overall Data Quality Rating (DQR) of the energy datasets can be calculated by summing up the quality rating (ranging from 1 to 5, where 1 represents very good, and 5 very poor quality) of each of the quality criteria indicators, divided by the total number of indicators considered. The quality of each dataset can be estimated for each indicator, and then compared with the different databases/sources. The results can be used to highlight the weaknesses of each dataset and can be used to guide further improvements to enhance the data quality with regard to the established criteria. This paper describes the application of the methodology to two exemplary datasets, in order to show the potential of the methodological approach. The analysis helps LCA

  5. Harmonization of European laboratory response networks by implementing CWA 15793: use of a gap analysis and an "insider" exercise as tools.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Bo; Bengtsson, Ulrika Allard; Wisselink, Henk J; Peeters, Ben P H; van Rotterdam, Bart; Kampert, Evelien; Bereczky, Sándor; Johan Olsson, N G; Szekely Björndal, Asa; Zini, Sylvie; Allix, Sébastien; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory response networks (LRNs) have been established for security reasons in several countries including the Netherlands, France, and Sweden. LRNs function in these countries as a preparedness measure for a coordinated diagnostic response capability in case of a bioterrorism incident or other biocrimes. Generally, these LRNs are organized on a national level. The EU project AniBioThreat has identified the need for an integrated European LRN to strengthen preparedness against animal bioterrorism. One task of the AniBioThreat project is to suggest a plan to implement laboratory biorisk management CWA 15793:2011 (CWA 15793), a management system built on the principle of continual improvement through the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. The implementation of CWA 15793 can facilitate trust and credibility in a future European LRN and is an assurance that the work done at the laboratories is performed in a structured way with continuous improvements. As a first step, a gap analysis was performed to establish the current compliance status of biosafety and laboratory biosecurity management with CWA 15793 in 5 AniBioThreat partner institutes in France (ANSES), the Netherlands (CVI and RIVM), and Sweden (SMI and SVA). All 5 partners are national and/or international laboratory reference institutes in the field of public or animal health and possess high-containment laboratories and animal facilities. The gap analysis showed that the participating institutes already have robust biorisk management programs in place, but several gaps were identified that need to be addressed. Despite differences between the participating institutes in their compliance status, these variations are not significant. Biorisk management exercises also have been identified as a useful tool to control compliance status and thereby implementation of CWA 15793. An exercise concerning an insider threat and loss of a biological agent was performed at SVA in the AniBioThreat project to evaluate

  6. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for QPCR during ontogenesis and of immune-relevant tissues of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Mitter, Karin; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Mulero, Victor; Sepulcre, Pilar; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatrice; Sarropoulou, Elena

    2009-08-01

    The expression level of mRNA can vary significantly in different experimental conditions, such as stress, infection, developmental stage or tissue. Suitable reference genes are expected to exhibit constant expression levels. However no single gene is constitutively expressed in all cell types and under all experimental conditions. It has become clear that expression stability of the intended reference gene has to be examined before each experiment. For expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) at least two reference genes have to be applied. So far expression studies in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) as well as in the Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) have been performed with only one reference gene (S18, Ef-1 alpha or Gapdh). Though significant variations showed up in other teleost species such as the Atlantic halibut and the zebrafish affirming the need for proper normalization strategies, the present study aims at identifying suitable reference genes among nine candidates [glyceraldehyde-phosphate-dehydrogenase (Gapdh), beta-actin (two regions of beta-actin), 40S ribosomal protein S30 (Fau), ribosomal protein L13 a (L13a), beta2-tubulin (Tubb2) and tyrosine 3 monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein (Tyr)] for expression analysis of 8 developmental stages and a tissue panel (spleen, liver, kidney and brain) with samples infected with Nodavirus and Vibrio anguillarum in D. labrax. Besides the analysis of raw Ct-values, the gene expression stability was determined using two different software applications BestKeeper and NormFinder. According to both algorithms the best two reference genes for an appropriate normalization approach during D. labrax development are Ef-1 alpha and L13a whereas in the tissue panel Fau and L13a are recommended for qPCR normalization.

  7. Serological Diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis: High Rate of Inter-laboratorial Variability among Medical Mycology Reference Centers

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Monica Scarpelli Martinelli; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini; Svidzinski, Teresinha Inez Estivalet; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Martinez, Roberto; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Benard, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Background Serological tests have long been established as rapid, simple and inexpensive tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of PCM. However, different protocols and antigen preparations are used and the few attempts to standardize the routine serological methods have not succeeded. Methodology/Principal findings We compared the performance of six Brazilian reference centers for serological diagnosis of PCM. Each center provided 30 sera of PCM patients, with positive high, intermediate and low titers, which were defined as the “reference” titers. Each center then applied its own antigen preparation and serological routine test, either semiquantitative double immunodifusion or counterimmmunoelectrophoresis, in the 150 sera from the other five centers blindly as regard to the “reference” titers. Titers were transformed into scores: 0 (negative), 1 (healing titers), 2 (active disease, low titers) and 3 (active disease, high titers) according to each center's criteria. Major discordances were considered between scores indicating active disease and scores indicating negative or healing titers; such discordance when associated with proper clinical and other laboratorial data, may correspond to different approaches to the patient's treatment. Surprisingly, all centers exhibited a high rate of “major” discordances with a mean of 31 (20%) discordant scores. Alternatively, when the scores given by one center to their own sera were compared with the scores given to their sera by the remaining five other centers, a high rate of major discordances was also found, with a mean number of 14.8 sera in 30 presenting a discordance with at least one other center. The data also suggest that centers that used CIE and pool of isolates for antigen preparation performed better. Conclusion There are inconsistencies among the laboratories that are strong enough to result in conflicting information regarding the patients' treatment. Renewed efforts should be promoted to improve

  8. The EC4 European syllabus for post-graduate training in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine: version 4--2012.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Gijsbert; Zerah, Simone; Jansen, Rob; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Queralto, José; Solnica, Bogdan; Gruson, Damien; Tomberg, Karel; Riittinen, Leena; Baum, Hannsjörg; Brochet, Jean-Philippe; Buhagiar, Gerald; Charilaou, Charis; Grigore, Camelia; Johnsen, Anders H; Kappelmayer, Janos; Majkic-Singh, Nada; Nubile, Giuseppe; O'Mullane, John; Opp, Matthias; Pupure, Silvija; Racek, Jaroslav; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Rogic, Dunja; Špaňár, Július; Štrakl, Greta; Szekeres, Thomas; Tzatchev, Kamen; Vitkus, Dalius; Wallemacq, Pierre; Wallinder, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory medicine's practitioners across the European community include medical, scientific and pharmacy trained specialists whose contributions to health and healthcare is in the application of diagnostic tests for screening and early detection of disease, differential diagnosis, monitoring, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations in translating knowledge and skills into ability to practice. In a 'Specialist knowledge' division, the expectations from the individual disciplines of Clinical Chemistry/Immunology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion, Microbiology/ Virology, Genetics and In Vitro Fertilisation are described. Beyond providing a common platform of knowledge, skills and competency, the syllabus supports the aims of the European Commission in providing safeguards to increasing professional mobility across European borders at a time when demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing and the labour force is declining. It continues to act as a guide for the formulation of national programmes supplemented by the needs of individual country priorities.

  9. Reference materials produced for a European metrological research project focussing on measurements of NORM.

    PubMed

    Larijani, C; Pearce, A K; Regan, P H; Russell, B C; Jerome, S M; Crespo, M T; de Felice, P; Lutter, G; Maringer, F; Mazánová, M

    2017-02-08

    Reliable measurement of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials is of significance in order to comply with environmental regulations and for radiological protection purposes. This paper discusses the standardisation of three reference materials, namely sand, tuff and TiO2 to serve as quality control materials for traceability, method validation and instrument calibration. The sample preparation, material characterization via γ, α and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the assignment of values for both the 4n (Thorium) and 4n+2 (Uranium) decay series are described.

  10. Survey of rotavirus surveillance, laboratory capacity and disease burden in the eastern part of the WHO European Region.

    PubMed

    Williams, C J; Gray, Jim; Pebody, R G; Lobanov, A

    2008-08-21

    Following the licensure of two rotavirus vaccines in Europe, we aimed to assess factors, such as surveillance, disease burden and laboratory capacity, which will be relevant for making decisions about rotavirus vaccine introduction in the different countries. We conducted an email-based survey of the national public health bodies in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region in 2006 and report here the results from the 23 countries in the eastern part of the region. The survey included questions on rotavirus surveillance, laboratory capacity, burden (in children under the age of five years) and intention to introduce rotavirus vaccination. Countries were grouped into the four per-capita income categories defined by the World Bank. Fourteen of the 23 countries responded to the survey. All except one country reported that less than a quarter of their laboratories had rotavirus diagnostic capacity. Four countries had some form of specific rotavirus surveillance, but half were of very limited coverage. Ten countries did not report data on the incidence of rotavirus hospital admissions, although nine were able to report some data on rotavirus burden. Six of the responding countries said they were likely to introduce universal rotavirus vaccination. Rotavirus surveillance and laboratory capacity in the eastern part of the WHO European Region is limited but most countries had some estimate of rotavirus burden, often from special studies. The reported mortality rates were lower than those from a WHO mortality data source. Many countries in the eastern part of WHO European Region face a number of challenges before vaccine implementation, including strengthening surveillance, improving laboratory capacity and addressing financial barriers.

  11. The pooling of manpower and resources through the establishment of European reference networks and rare disease patient registries is a necessary area of collaboration for rare renal disorders.

    PubMed

    Parker, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This review aims to provide guidance on emerging concepts and policy related to European reference networks (ERNs) for rare diseases (RDs) and the development and management of RD patient registries. A major problem facing many RDs including rare renal disorders is that patients do not have a specialist centre that they can attend where clinicians, working as a multidisciplinary team, are experts in the particular disease. Furthermore, for most RDs, no single centre, and in many cases no single country, has sufficient numbers of patients and resources to fully understand the natural history or to conduct clinical and translational research. Therefore, the pooling of manpower and resources through the establishment of ERN and RD patient registries is a common and necessary area of collaboration. The concept of European networks for RDs dates back to the early 2000s and the Commission launch of a call for European pilot reference networks for RDs. These networks of expert centres have been brought together through the desire for further knowledge and innovation in RD areas. Networks demand a holistic approach and long-term vision with close collaboration between clinicians, diagnostic laboratories, scientists, patients and their families. The development of legal measures for ERNs is in progress at the Commission and these networks will be a shared responsibility of the Commission and member states. In the context of ERNs, an essential activity is the patient registries. Patient registries are organized databases where patient information, including demographic, medical and family history, are collected, stored and available for retrieval via standardized and secure methods. Patient registries are increasingly recognized as crucial tools for RD research for which international collaboration is absolutely essential to understand the pathogenesis of rare genotypes, achieve a unified collection of phenotypic data, foster natural history studies providing the foundation

  12. Smoking in film and impact on adolescent smoking: with special reference to European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J D

    2006-02-01

    This review examines the evidence supporting an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often modeled by movie stars who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies assessing audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The population-based data include cross sectional samples from different regions of the United States, all supporting a movie smoking-teen smoking link. The 2 published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Experimental research adds support by showing that scene depictions of smoking enhance positive views of smokers and increase intent to smoke in the future. Taken as a whole, this rich research base provides very strong support for the notion that movie smoking plays a role in smoking initiation among adolescents that warrants action at the individual and societal level. A major gap in our understanding is the impact of Hollywood movies on adolescents outside the United States. There is a real need for studies to be conducted in European and other populations to better understand the global reach of smoking in American film, since over half of box office revenues come from outside the United States.

  13. Engineering education research in European Journal of Engineering Education and Journal of Engineering Education: citation and reference discipline analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankat, Phillip C.; Williams, Bill; Neto, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The authors, citations and content of European Journal of Engineering Education (EJEE) and Journal of Engineering Education (JEE) in 1973 (JEE, 1975 EJEE), 1983, 1993, 2003, and available 2013 issues were analysed. Both journals transitioned from house organs to become engineering education research (EER) journals, although JEE transitioned first. In this process the number of citations rose, particularly of education and psychology sources; the percentage of research articles increased markedly as did the number of reference disciplines. The number of papers per issue, the number of single author papers, and the citations of science and engineering sources decreased. EJEE has a very broad geographic spread of authors while JEE authors are mainly US based. A 'silo' mentality where general engineering education researchers do not communicate with EER researchers in different engineering disciplines is evident. There is some danger that EER may develop into a silo that does not communicate with technically oriented engineering professors.

  14. Health effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on wildlife, with special reference to the European situation.

    PubMed

    Vos, J G; Dybing, E; Greim, H A; Ladefoged, O; Lambré, C; Tarazona, J V; Brandt, I; Vethaak, A D

    2000-01-01

    Many wildlife species may be exposed to biologically active concentrations of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. There is strong evidence obtained from laboratory studies showing the potential of several environmental chemicals to cause endocrine disruption at environmentally realistic exposure levels. In wildlife populations, associations have been reported between reproductive and developmental effects and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In the aquatic environment, effects have been observed in mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and mollusks from Europe, North America, and other areas. The observed abnormalities vary from subtle changes to permanent alterations, including disturbed sex differentiation with feminized or masculinized sex organs, changed sexual behavior, and altered immune function. For most reported effects in wildlife, however, the evidence for a causal link with endocrine disruption is weak or nonexisting. Crucial in establishing causal evidence for chemical-induced wildlife effects appeared semifield or laboratory studies using the wildlife species of concern. Impaired reproduction and development causally linked to endocrine-disrupting chemicals are well documented in a number of species and have resulted in local or regional population changes. These include: Masculinization (imposex) in female marine snails by tributyltin, a biocide used in antifouling paints, is probably the clearest case of endocrine disruption caused by an environmental chemical. The dogwhelk is particularly sensitive, and imposex has resulted in decline or extinction of local populations worldwide, including coastal areas all over Europe and the open North Sea. DDE-induced egg-shell thinning in birds has caused severe population declines in a number of raptor species in Europe and North America. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have adversely affected a variety of fish species. In the vicinity of certain sources (e.g., effluents of water treatment plants) and in the most

  15. Establishment of European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparations (BRP) batch 2 for rDNA hepatitis B vaccine (method A and B).

    PubMed

    Dobbelaer, R; Daas, A; Milne, C

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study was initiated by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM), to assign a potency value for candidate batch 2 of European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for Hepatitis B (rDNA) antigen in vitro assays, for both method A and method B by calibrating them against the Ph. Eur. BRPs, batch 1 for methods A and B respectively. The study was prompted by the observation that the first batch of BRP for method B appeared to have lost potency over time. BRP 1 for method A showed no loss in potency, however stocks of the material were nearing depletion. Eleven laboratories participated in the study and all reported results. Participants performed 3 independent assays using both method A and method B. Method A was used to assess BRPs for method A and method B was used to assess BRPs for method B. Since BRP 1B was suspected to have lost potency, an additional sample was included in the method B test in an attempt to clarify the situation. BRP 1B was also assayed in method A against BRP 1A in the hope of also attaining further information by comparing the results from this study to those obtained in the original study to establish the first batch of BRP [1]. Although it was not the primary aim of this study to correlate in vitro potency with the immunogenicity assay in mice, a number of interested parties also performed the mouse in vivo assay to obtain data on the behaviour of the candidate BRPs in this assay. For method A, potency estimates were satisfactory in terms of repeatability and reproducibility. The candidate material was therefore assigned a value of 16.6 micrograms/ml. For method B, it appeared that the observation of reduced in vitro potency of BRP1 was confirmed. Despite the attempt to clarify the situation with additional studies, it was not possible to assign a potency value with the results obtained. A small-scale collaborative study will be organised to determine an appropriate value for the

  16. Phosphorus Concentrations in Stream-Water and Reference Samples - An Assessment of Laboratory Comparability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHale, Michael R.; McChesney, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, a study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and precision of 10 laboratories that analyze water-quality samples for phosphorus concentrations in the Catskill Mountain region of New York State. Many environmental studies in this region rely on data from these different laboratories for water-quality analyses, and the data may be used in watershed modeling and management decisions. Therefore, it is important to determine whether the data reported by these laboratories are of comparable accuracy and precision. Each laboratory was sent 12 samples for triplicate analysis for total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, and soluble reactive phosphorus. Eight of these laboratories reported results that met comparability criteria for all samples; the remaining two laboratories met comparability criteria for only about half of the analyses. Neither the analytical method used nor the sample concentration ranges appeared to affect the comparability of results. The laboratories whose results were comparable gave consistently comparable results throughout the concentration range analyzed, and the differences among methods did not diminish comparability. All laboratories had high data precision as indicated by sample triplicate results. In addition, the laboratories consistently reported total phosphorus values greater than total dissolved phosphorus values, and total dissolved phosphorus values greater than soluble reactive phosphorus values, as would be expected. The results of this study emphasize the importance of regular laboratory participation in sample-exchange programs.

  17. A step forward in molecular diagnostics of lyssaviruses--results of a ring trial among European laboratories.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Melina; Wernike, Kerstin; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas; Aylan, Orhan; Brochier, Bernard; Cliquet, Florence; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Hostnik, Peter; Huovilainen, Anita; Isaksson, Mats; Kooi, Engbert A; Mooney, Jean; Turcitu, Mihai; Rasmussen, Thomas B; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Smreczak, Marcin; Fooks, Anthony R; Marston, Denise A; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a lethal and notifiable zoonotic disease for which diagnostics have to meet the highest standards. In recent years, an evolution was especially seen in molecular diagnostics with a wide variety of different detection methods published. Therefore, a first international ring trial specifically designed on the use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of lyssavirus genomic RNA was organized. The trial focussed on assessment and comparison of the performance of conventional and real-time assays. In total, 16 European laboratories participated. All participants were asked to investigate a panel of defined lyssavirus RNAs, consisting of Rabies virus (RABV) and European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and -2) RNA samples, with systems available in their laboratory. The ring trial allowed the important conclusion that conventional RT-PCR assays were really robust assays tested with a high concordance between different laboratories and assays. The real-time RT-PCR system by Wakeley et al. (2005) in combination with an intercalating dye, and the combined version by Hoffmann and co-workers (2010) showed good sensitivity for the detection of all RABV samples included in this test panel. Furthermore, all used EBLV-specific assays, real-time RT-PCRs as well as conventional RT-PCR systems, were shown to be suitable for a reliable detection of EBLVs. It has to be mentioned that differences were seen in the performance between both the individual RT-PCR systems and the laboratories. Laboratories which used more than one molecular assay for testing the sample panel always concluded a correct sample result. Due to the markedly high genetic diversity of lyssaviruses, the application of different assays in diagnostics is needed to achieve a maximum of diagnostic accuracy. To improve the knowledge about the diagnostic performance proficiency testing at an international level is recommended before using lyssavirus molecular diagnostics e

  18. Teaching Writing within the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR): A Supplement Asynchronous Blended Learning Approach in an EFL Undergraduate Course in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaarawy, Hanaa Youssef; Lotfy, Nohayer Esmat

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and following a blended learning approach (a supplement model), this article reports on a quasi-experiment where writing was taught evenly with other language skills in everyday language contexts and where asynchronous online activities were required from students to extend learning beyond…

  19. Standard Setting in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…

  20. Background qualitative analysis of the European reference life cycle database (ELCD) energy datasets - part II: electricity datasets.

    PubMed

    Garraín, Daniel; Fazio, Simone; de la Rúa, Cristina; Recchioni, Marco; Lechón, Yolanda; Mathieux, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify areas of potential improvement of the European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD) electricity datasets. The revision is based on the data quality indicators described by the International Life Cycle Data system (ILCD) Handbook, applied on sectorial basis. These indicators evaluate the technological, geographical and time-related representativeness of the dataset and the appropriateness in terms of completeness, precision and methodology. Results show that ELCD electricity datasets have a very good quality in general terms, nevertheless some findings and recommendations in order to improve the quality of Life-Cycle Inventories have been derived. Moreover, these results ensure the quality of the electricity-related datasets to any LCA practitioner, and provide insights related to the limitations and assumptions underlying in the datasets modelling. Giving this information, the LCA practitioner will be able to decide whether the use of the ELCD electricity datasets is appropriate based on the goal and scope of the analysis to be conducted. The methodological approach would be also useful for dataset developers and reviewers, in order to improve the overall Data Quality Requirements of databases.

  1. RUBI -a Reference mUltiscale Boiling Investigation for the Fluid Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Nils; Stelzer, Marco; Schoele-Schulz, Olaf; Picker, Gerold; Ranebo, Hans; Dettmann, Jan; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Winter, Josef; Tadrist, Lounes; Stephan, Peter; Grassi, Walter; di Marco, Paolo; Colin, Catherine; Piero Celata, Gian; Thome, John; Kabov, Oleg

    Boiling is a two-phase heat transfer process where large heat fluxes can be transferred with small driving temperature differences. The high performance of boiling makes the process very interesting for heat transfer applications and it is widely used in industry for example in power plants, refrigeration systems, and electronics cooling. Nevertheless, due to the large number of involved phenomena and their often highly dynamic nature a fundamental understanding and closed theoretical description is not yet accomplished. The design of systems incorporating the process is generally based on empirical correlations, which are commonly accompanied by large uncertainties and, thus, has to be verified by expensive test campaigns. Hence, strong efforts are currently made to develop applicable numerical tools for a reliable prediction of the boiling heat transfer performance and limits. In order to support and validate this development and, in particular as a precondition, to enhance the basic knowledge about boiling the comprehensive multi-scale experiment RUBI (Reference mUlti-scale Boiling Investigation) for the Fluid Science Laboratory on board the ISS is currently in preparation. The scientific objectives and requirements of RUBI have been defined by the members of the ESA topical team "Boiling and Multiphase Flow" and addresses fundamental aspects of boiling phenomena. The main objectives are the measurement of wall temperature and heat flux distribution underneath vapour bubbles with high spatial and tem-poral resolution by means of IR thermography accompanied by the synchronized high-speed observation of the bubble shapes. Furthermore, the fluid temperature in the vicinity and inside of the bubbles will be measured by a micro sensor array. Additional stimuli are the generation of an electric field above the heating surface and a shear flow created by a forced convection loop. The objective of these stimuli is to impose forces on the bubbles and investigate the

  2. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNulty, E.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition at the start of a test. We evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl2, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl2 (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  3. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, E.W.; Ellersieck, M.R.; Rabeni, C.F.; Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1999-03-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition, at the start of a test. The authors evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl{sub 2}, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl{sub 2} (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods, such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  4. EPOS-WP16: A Platform for European Multi-scale Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiers, Chris; Drury, Martyn; Kan-Parker, Mirjam; Lange, Otto; Willingshofer, Ernst; Funiciello, Francesca; Rosenau, Matthias; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Sagnotti, Leonardo; W16 Participants

    2016-04-01

    The participant countries in EPOS embody a wide range of world-class laboratory infrastructures ranging from high temperature and pressure experimental facilities, to electron microscopy, micro-beam analysis, analogue modeling and paleomagnetic laboratories. Most data produced by the various laboratory centres and networks are presently available only in limited "final form" in publications. As such many data remain inaccessible and/or poorly preserved. However, the data produced at the participating laboratories are crucial to serving society's need for geo-resources exploration and for protection against geo-hazards. Indeed, to model resource formation and system behaviour during exploitation, we need an understanding from the molecular to the continental scale, based on experimental data. This contribution will describe the work plans that the laboratories community in Europe is making, in the context of EPOS. The main objectives are: - To collect and harmonize available and emerging laboratory data on the properties and processes controlling rock system behaviour at multiple scales, in order to generate products accessible and interoperable through services for supporting research activities. - To co-ordinate the development, integration and trans-national usage of the major solid Earth Science laboratory centres and specialist networks. The length scales encompassed by the infrastructures included range from the nano- and micrometer levels (electron microscopy and micro-beam analysis) to the scale of experiments on centimetre sized samples, and to analogue model experiments simulating the reservoir scale, the basin scale and the plate scale. - To provide products and services supporting research into Geo-resources and Geo-storage, Geo-hazards and Earth System Evolution.

  5. Proficiency testing linked to the national reference system for the clinical laboratory: a proposal for achieving accuracy.

    PubMed

    Lasky, F D

    1992-07-01

    I propose using proficiency testing (PT) to achieve one of the important goals of CLIA: accurate and reliable clinical testing. Routine methods for the clinical laboratory are traceable to Definitive (DM) or Reference Methods (RM) or to Methodological Principles (MP) through a modification of the National Reference System for the Clinical Laboratory. PT is the link used to monitor consistent field performance. Although PT has been effective as a relative measure of laboratory performance, the technical limitations of PT fluids and of routine methods currently in use make it unlikely that PT alone can be used as a reliable measure of laboratory accuracy. Instead, I recommend calibration of routine systems through correlation to DM, RM, or MP with use of patients' specimens. The manufacturer is in the best position to assume this responsibility because of also being responsible for consistent, reliable product. Analysis of different manufactured batches of reagent would be compared with predetermined goals for precision and accuracy, as illustrated with data from product testing of Kodak Ektachem clinical chemistry slides. Adoption of this proposal would give manufacturers of PT materials, manufacturers of analytical systems, PT providers, and government agencies time to understand and resolve sources of error that limit the utility of PT for the job required by law.

  6. An assessment of the developmental toxicity of BDE-99 in the European starling using an integrated laboratory and field approach.

    PubMed

    Eng, Margaret L; Elliott, John E; Williams, Tony D

    2014-10-01

    Developmental exposure of wildlife to anthropogenic contaminants can have long-term effects that are difficult to assess in field monitoring studies, and may not be evident in laboratory studies that lack ecological components. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effects of early exposure to contaminants under ecological conditions in a model passerine species, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). We selected 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) as a representative contaminant, as it is one of the major constituents of the commercial penta-BDE flame retardant mixture, and has been reported in avian egg and tissue samples worldwide. We developed a novel approach to assess the developmental toxicity of BDE-99 in starlings by combining aspects of laboratory and field studies. We dosed free-living nestlings living in natural broods in the field with environmentally relevant concentrations of BDE-99 (0-173.8 ng/g bw/day) for the duration of the nesting cycle. To simulate monitoring of long-term effects we brought birds into captivity just prior to fledging and used photoperiod manipulations to induce reproductive development. We assessed a range of physiological and development measures such as hematocrit, oxidative stress, thyroid hormones, neuroanatomy, growth, molt rate, bill color, and testes development. We found some evidence of thyroid hormone disruption, but there were no effects on any other measures of physiology or development. The European starling could serve as a valuable model species for assessing early exposure and long-term effects of anthropogenic contaminants in terrestrial wildlife using this combined field/laboratory approach.

  7. Estimation of soil adsorption coefficients of organic compounds by HPLC screening using the second generation of the European reference soil set.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, B M; Kettrup, A; Muntau, H

    2000-11-01

    The European reference soil set was introduced as common basis for a better comparability of soil sorption data measured within the framework of chemical testing of environmental chemicals. The success of the EUROSOILS, as the set is commonly called, convinced the European Commission's Joint Research Centre to evaluate the possibility of producing a remake of these unique and new type of reference materials maintaining the principal sorption-controlling properties of the soils. In this paper the recently proposed second generation of the EUROSOILS is used to evaluate a HPLC-screening technique for the estimation of soil adsorption coefficients of organic chemicals. It could be shown that the derived correlations between HPLC capacity factors of the test substances and the respective soil adsorption coefficients resulting from batch experiments with the second version of the EUROSOILS agreed with those derived for the first generation of reference soils at a different occasion.

  8. Understanding the 'Silver Book' - An important reference for standardised nomenclature in clinical laboratory sciences.

    PubMed

    Flatman, Robert; Férard, Georges; Dybkaer, René

    2016-06-29

    Clinical laboratories perform a wide menu of testing (examinations). Successful requesting, examination, and ordering in this environment requires clear standardised nomenclature. The Silver Book (SB) is an IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) publication, produced with the support of both IUPAC and the IFCC (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine), that makes recommendations on logical standardised nomenclature, symbols, properties, and units in many disciplines of the clinical laboratory sciences. These recommendations are founded on and in agreement with the principles and work of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), IUPAC, and the IFCC. Practical applications described are based on those scientific principles. The SB recommendations apply to all types of examination, not only to measurement of quantities but also examination of nominal properties where no magnitude is involved. The SB is applicable not only to clinical chemistry, but to many other clinical laboratory disciplines. For examples, reports regarding haemostasis, toxicology, clinical microbiology, reproduction and fertility, clinical pharmacology, clinical allergology, clinical molecular biology, and clinical immunohaematology have been published by the IUPAC and the IFCC. Peak scientific bodies such as the IUPAC and the IFCC have important roles in the development of sound international standards for nomenclature of examinations. Such standards support safe and effective representation of patient health information, foster portability, and empower future decision support systems.

  9. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: reducing misdiagnosis via collaboration between an inpatient anticoagulation pharmacy service and hospital reference laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Allison E; Bowles, Harmony; Borrego, Matthew E; Montoya, Tiffany N; Garcia, David A; Mahan, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Misdiagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is common and exposes patients to high-risk therapies and potentially serious adverse events. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of collaboration between an inpatient pharmacy-driven anticoagulation management service (AMS) and hospital reference laboratory to reduce inappropriate HIT antibody testing via pharmacist intervention and use of the 4T pre-test probability score. Secondary objectives included clinical outcomes and cost-savings realized through reduced laboratory testing and decreased unnecessary treatment of HIT. This was a single center, pre-post, observational study. The hospital reference laboratory contacted the AMS when they received a blood sample for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent HIT antibody (HIT Ab). Trained pharmacists prospectively scored each HIT Ab ordered by using the 4T score with subsequent communication to physicians recommending for or against processing and reporting of lab results. Utilizing retrospective chart review and a database for all patients with a HIT Ab ordered during the study period, we compared the incidence of HIT Ab testing before and after implementation of the pharmacy-driven 4T score intervention. Our intervention significantly reduced the number of inappropriate HIT Ab tests processed (176 vs. 63, p < 0.0001), with no increase in thrombotic or hemorrhagic events. Overall incidence of suspected and confirmed HIT was <3 and <0.005 %, respectively. Overall cost savings were $75,754 (US) or 62 % per patient exposed to heparin between the pre and post intervention groups. Collaboration between inpatient pharmacy AMS and hospital reference laboratories can result in reduction of misdiagnosis of HIT and significant cost savings with similar safety.

  10. European multicentre evaluation of the Du Pont Dimension 380 under the auspices of the European Group for the Evaluation of Analytical Systems in Laboratory Medicine (EGE-Lab).

    PubMed

    Hänseler, E; Vonderschmitt, D; Haeckel, R; Römer, M; Collombel, C; Goudable, J; Pourcher, E

    1991-01-01

    The Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Dimension 380 manufactured by Du Pont de Nemours was tested in a multicentre evaluation according to the guide-lines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS) and in part to the protocol of the Société Française de Biologie Clinique (SFBC). The instrument and the reagents were evaluated as a system, since both reagents and reagent cartridges are specifically designed for the instrument. Fourteen analytes including electrolytes, substrates and enzymes were tested. The evaluators summarized their experience as follows: 1. All parameters tested yield results comparable to established procedures. 2. Very good performance of the ion-selective-electrode unit. 3. The imprecision data of the system are, for most parameters, between 1 and 4% CV and thus equal to or better than those of the instruments compared. 4. No reagent or sample carry-over was detected after a minor modification of the instrument. 5. The linearity of Dimension test methods in general covers the range stated by the manufacturer. 6. Very good stability of the calibration curves (up to 2 months). 7. Good practicability of the whole system, including handling of reagents and a very user-friendly software.

  11. Inter-laboratory variation in the chemical analysis of acidic forest soil reference samples from eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Donald S.; Bailiey, Scott W; Briggs, Russell D; Curry, Johanna; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Fredriksen, Guinevere; Goodale, Christine L.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Heine, Paul R; Johnson, Chris E.; Larson, John T; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Kolka, Randy K; Ouimet, Rock; Pare, D; Richter, Daniel D.; Shirmer, Charles D; Warby, Richard A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term forest soil monitoring and research often requires a comparison of laboratory data generated at different times and in different laboratories. Quantifying the uncertainty associated with these analyses is necessary to assess temporal changes in soil properties. Forest soil chemical properties, and methods to measure these properties, often differ from agronomic and horticultural soils. Soil proficiency programs do not generally include forest soil samples that are highly acidic, high in extractable Al, low in extractable Ca and often high in carbon. To determine the uncertainty associated with specific analytical methods for forest soils, we collected and distributed samples from two soil horizons (Oa and Bs) to 15 laboratories in the eastern United States and Canada. Soil properties measured included total organic carbon and nitrogen, pH and exchangeable cations. Overall, results were consistent despite some differences in methodology. We calculated the median absolute deviation (MAD) for each measurement and considered the acceptable range to be the median 6 2.5 3 MAD. Variability among laboratories was usually as low as the typical variability within a laboratory. A few areas of concern include a lack of consistency in the measurement and expression of results on a dry weight basis, relatively high variability in the C/N ratio in the Bs horizon, challenges associated with determining exchangeable cations at concentrations near the lower reporting range of some laboratories and the operationally defined nature of aluminum extractability. Recommendations include a continuation of reference forest soil exchange programs to quantify the uncertainty associated with these analyses in conjunction with ongoing efforts to review and standardize laboratory methods.

  12. Cytopathology laboratory accreditation, with special reference to the American Society of Cytology programs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Erozan, Y S

    1989-01-01

    The features of the Laboratory Accreditation Program of the American Society of Cytology that pertain to quality assurance in cytopathology are reviewed. The areas considered include: (1) specimen procurement and cytopreparation, (2) the role of the cytotechnologist in cytoscreening, evaluation and reporting, (3) the role of the cytopathologist and (4) quality control measures. Attention to the issues raised in these areas is essential to achieving the best possible cytopathology practice in the most efficient and economical manner.

  13. The OIE World Animal Health Information System: the role of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres in disease reporting.

    PubMed

    Ben Jebara, K

    2010-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is to ensure transparency in and knowledge of the world animal health situation. To achieve this objective, the OIE relies on its network of Member Countries, which is complemented by the activities of 221 Reference Laboratories (RLs) and Collaborating Centres. The RL mandate states that, in the case of positive results for diseases notifiable to the OIE, the laboratory should inform the OIE Delegate of the Member Country from which the samples originated and send a copy of the information to OIE Headquarters. However, since 2006 the OIE has received a lower than expected number of notifications from RLs, which implies eitherthat the majority of samples are sent to national laboratories or that some RLs are not fully complying with their mandate. The OIE sent a questionnaire to RLs in preparation for the Second Global Conference of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres (Paris, France, 21-23 June 2010). Two main factors emerged: the need for RLs to clarify their role and responsibilities in disease reporting and the need for an awareness campaign to sensitise national Veterinary Services to the importance of conducting more surveillance (and consequently of submitting samples to RLs) for all OIE-listed diseases. Reference laboratories indicated two main reasons for not sharing more data on positive samples with the OIE: i) a perceived contradiction between their mandate as OIE RLs and the standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) dealing with confidentiality; and ii) certain Member Countries or stakeholders asking RLs not to share positive results with the OIE, for political or economic reasons. The OIE has put forward proposals to help RLs resolve these problems in future. The use of ISO standards must be clarified and there must be improved communication between the OIE and its RLs. A lack of transparency about a significant disease event can

  14. [Molecular characterization of hepatitis C virus in patients referred to a reference laboratory of public health, University Hospital "Antonio Patricio de Alcalá", Cumani, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Sulbarán, María Zulay; Montaño, Lérida; Sulbarán, Yoneira; Loureiro, Carmen Luisa; Flores, Carmen Rosa; Farías, Yurviris; Maldonado, Antonio; Guillen, Genny; Rangel, Héctor; Pujol, Flor

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 170 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study evaluated the presence of antibodies against HCV by two immunoassays. HCV genotypes were analyzed by phylogenetic analysis of viral genome fragments amplified from the 5 'non-coding (5'NC) region and non-structural region 5b (NS5b), using reverse transcription and nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in patients referred from January 2010 to February 2013 to the Reference Laboratory of Public Health, University Hospital "Antonio Patricio de Alcalá". The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 0.57% (17/3005), being the group of patients older than 41 years the most affected (0.9%). A total of 16 samples were found positive for HCV RNA by RT-PCR in the 5'NC region (16/17, 94%). Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'NC region allowed to identify the circulation of genotypes 2 and 1, and one genotype 3 and one 4. By phylogenetic analysis of the NS5b region, diverse subtypes of HCV genotype 2 were identified (2a, 2j and 2s). This finding is in accordance with previous studies that indicate that this genotype is relatively diverse in our country.

  15. A combined reference panel from the 1000 Genomes and UK10K projects improved rare variant imputation in European and Chinese samples.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Yan, Han; Wang, Li; Han, Fang; Richards, J Brent; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2016-12-22

    Imputation using the 1000 Genomes haplotype reference panel has been widely adapted to estimate genotypes in genome wide association studies. To evaluate imputation quality with a relatively larger reference panel and a reference panel composed of different ethnic populations, we conducted imputations in the Framingham Heart Study and the North Chinese Study using a combined reference panel from the 1000 Genomes (N = 1,092) and UK10K (N = 3,781) projects. For rare variants with 0.01% < MAF ≤ 0.5%, imputation in the Framingham Heart Study with the combined reference panel increased well-imputed genotypes (with imputation quality score ≥0.4) from 62.9% to 76.1% when compared to imputation with the 1000 Genomes. For the North Chinese samples, imputation of rare variants with 0.01% < MAF ≤ 0.5% with the combined reference panel increased well-imputed genotypes by from 49.8% to 61.8%. The predominant European ancestry of the UK10K and the combined reference panels may explain why there was less of an increase in imputation success in the North Chinese samples. Our results underscore the importance and potential of larger reference panels to impute rare variants, while recognizing that increasing ethnic specific variants in reference panels may result in better imputation for genotypes in some ethnic groups.

  16. A combined reference panel from the 1000 Genomes and UK10K projects improved rare variant imputation in European and Chinese samples

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Yan, Han; Wang, Li; Han, Fang; Richards, J. Brent; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Imputation using the 1000 Genomes haplotype reference panel has been widely adapted to estimate genotypes in genome wide association studies. To evaluate imputation quality with a relatively larger reference panel and a reference panel composed of different ethnic populations, we conducted imputations in the Framingham Heart Study and the North Chinese Study using a combined reference panel from the 1000 Genomes (N = 1,092) and UK10K (N = 3,781) projects. For rare variants with 0.01% < MAF ≤ 0.5%, imputation in the Framingham Heart Study with the combined reference panel increased well-imputed genotypes (with imputation quality score ≥0.4) from 62.9% to 76.1% when compared to imputation with the 1000 Genomes. For the North Chinese samples, imputation of rare variants with 0.01% < MAF ≤ 0.5% with the combined reference panel increased well-imputed genotypes by from 49.8% to 61.8%. The predominant European ancestry of the UK10K and the combined reference panels may explain why there was less of an increase in imputation success in the North Chinese samples. Our results underscore the importance and potential of larger reference panels to impute rare variants, while recognizing that increasing ethnic specific variants in reference panels may result in better imputation for genotypes in some ethnic groups. PMID:28004816

  17. Structure and presentation of a World Wide Web database of CSF virus isolates held at the EU reference laboratory.

    PubMed

    Greiser-Wilke, I; Zimmermann, B; Fritzemeier, J; Floegel, G; Moennig, V

    2000-04-13

    A computerized database was generated with the epidemiological data of more than 600 CSF virus strains and isolates kept in the EU Reference Laboratory for Classical Swine Fever in Hanover. In addition, as sequence data from defined regions of the genome are increasingly being used for genetic typing of new isolates and are thus being published, it was decided to integrate them into the database. In order to make the epidemiological and the sequence data available to other laboratories through the World Wide Web, a searchable web interface was programmed, which can be accessed using an Internet browser like Netscape or Internet Explorer. The possibility to exchange data via the web has the potential to increase our knowledge concerning genetic and epidemiological links between outbreaks worldwide.

  18. Racial/Ethnic-Specific Reference Intervals for Common Laboratory Tests: A Comparison among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and White.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eunjung; Miyamura, Jill; Chen, John J

    2015-09-01

    Reference intervals (RIs) for common clinical laboratory tests are usually not developed separately for different subpopulations. The aim of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic differences in RIs of common biochemical and hematological laboratory tests using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 data. This current study included 3,077 participants aged 18-65 years who reported their health status as "Excellent," "Very good," or "Good," with known race/ethnicity as white, black, Hispanic, or Asian. Quantile regression analyses adjusted for sex were conducted to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in the normal ranges of 38 laboratory tests. Significant racial/ethnic differences were found in almost all laboratory tests. Compared to whites, the normal range for Asians significantly shifted to higher values in globulin and total protein and to lower values in creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and mean platelet volume. These results indicate that racial/ethnic subpopulations have unique distributions in the labortoary tests and race/ethnicity may need to be incorporated in the development of their RIs. Establishment of racial/ethnic-specific RIs may have significant clinical and public health implication for more accurate disease diagnosis and appropriate treatment to improve quality of patient care, especially for a state with diverse racial/ethnic subpopuations such as Hawai'i.

  19. Engineering Education Research in "European Journal of Engineering Education" and "Journal of Engineering Education": Citation and Reference Discipline Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.; Williams, Bill; Neto, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The authors, citations and content of "European Journal of Engineering Education" ("EJEE") and "Journal of Engineering Education" ("JEE") in 1973 ("JEE," 1975 "EJEE"), 1983, 1993, 2003, and available 2013 issues were analysed. Both journals transitioned from house organs to become…

  20. Comparison of GLONASS and GPS time transfers between two west European time laboratories and VNIIFTRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, P.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz; Petit, Gerard; Thomas, Claudine

    1992-01-01

    The University of Leeds built a Global Positioning System/Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GPS/GLONASS) receiver about five years ago and since then has provided continuous information about GLONASS time and its comparison with GPS time. For the last two years, VNIIFTRI (All Union Institute for Physical, Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements) and some other Soviet time laboratories have used Soviet built GLONASS navigation receivers for time comparisons. Since June 1991, VNIIFTIR has been operating a GPS time receiver on loan from the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures). This offered, for the first time, an opportunity for direct comparison of time transfers using GPS and GLONASS. This experiment shows that even with relatively imprecise data recording and processing, in terms of time metrology, GLONASS can provide continental time transfer at a level of several tens of nanoseconds.

  1. Neither snow nor rain: contingency planning by a clinical reference laboratory courier service for weather related emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bankson, Daniel D; Heim, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    To optimize transportation processes, we present herein a contingency plan that coordinates interim measures used to ensure continued and timely services when climate based events might cause an interruption of the usual specimen transportation processes. As an example, we outline the implementation and effectiveness of a contingency plan for network laboratory courier automobile transportation during times of mountain pass highway closure. Data available from an approximately 3-year period from October 10, 2010 through August 29, 2013 revealed a total of 690 complete closures in the eastbound or westbound lanes of the Interstate-90 highway in the Snoqualmie Pass area in the state of Washington. Despite the frequency of closures, the Washington State Department of Transportation was effective in limiting the duration of closures. Road closures of less than 1 hour accounted for 58.7% of the total closures. No recorded closures prevented dispatched couriers from completing a prescheduled Snoqualmie Pass route. We identified no delays as being clinically significant, despite that there were 5 instances of delays greater than 4 hours. We implemented a contingency plan of aiding courier logistics during all times of pass closure. The plan includes an easy to interpret Condition Dashboard as a status indicator and a Decision Tree that references and summarizes information. Overall, the contingency plan allows for an objective, robust, proactive decision support system that has enabled operational flexibility and has contributed to continued safe, on-time specimen transportation; clients and courier and reference laboratory staff have appreciated these features and associated outcomes.

  2. Quality guidelines and standards for genetic laboratories/clinics in prenatal diagnosis on fetal samples obtained by invasive procedures. An attempt to establish a common European framework for quality assessment. EUCROMIC Quality Assessment Group.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    At a workshop in Leuven, November 8-10, 1996, 24 clinical and laboratory geneticists from 15 countries in Europe met and discussed minimum standards for prenatal diagnosis. These guidelines are intended for use as a reference manual by genetic centres all over Europe, especially in countries without national guidelines, in their efforts to achieve and maintain high standards. The workshop was restricted to discuss quality assessment on established invasive procedures for cytogenetic and molecular studies. The committee brought together from their own countries substantial experience of genetic counselling, cytogenetics, molecular biology and quality assessment. It is hoped that future discussions, embracing all aspects of clinical and laboratory genetic services will lead to the establishment of common guidelines for all European countries.

  3. Towards the Learning Region: Education and Regional Innovation in the European Union and the United States. CEDEFOP Reference Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Barry, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.; Deitmer, Ludger, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of innovative education practices throughout regions in the United States (US) and Europe. It contains 16 papers written by experts from the educational, economic, and regional development fields in the US and the European Union (EU). Introductory materials are: a foreword (David O'Sullivan); preface (Stavros…

  4. A reference interval study for common biochemical analytes in Eastern Turkey: a comparison of a reference population with laboratory data mining

    PubMed Central

    Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Ozarda, Yesim; Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Umudum, Fatma Zuhal; Bakan, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to define the reference intervals (RIs) in a Turkish population living in Northeast Turkey (Erzurum) for 34 analytes using direct and indirect methods. In the present study, the regional RIs obtained were compared with other RI studies, primarily the nationwide study performed in Turkey. Materials and methods For the direct method, 435 blood samples were collected from a healthy group of females (N = 218) and males (N = 217) aged between 18 and 65 years. The sera were analysed in Ataturk University hospital laboratory using Roche reagents and analysers for 34 analytes. The data from 1,366,948 records were used to calculate the indirect RIs using a modified Bhattacharya method. Results Significant gender-related differences were observed for 17 analytes. There were also some apparent differences between RIs derived from indirect and direct methods particularly in some analytes (e.g. gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase, LDL-cholesterol and iron). The RIs derived with the direct method for some, but not all, of the analytes were generally comparable with the RIs reported in the nationwide study and other previous studies in Turkey.There were large differences between RIs derived by the direct method and the expected values shown in the kit insert (e.g. aspartate aminotransferase, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and vitamin B12). Conclusions These data provide region-specific RIs for 34 analytes determined by the direct and indirect methods. The observed differences in RIs between previous studies could be related to nutritional status and environmental factors. PMID:27346966

  5. Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia monograph on derivative spectrophotometry method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Marković, Bojan; Ignjatović, Janko; Vujadinović, Mirjana; Savić, Vedrana; Vladimirov, Sote; Karljiković-Rajić, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia (EP) monograph on derivative spectrophotometry (DS) method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride was carried out on two generation of instruments (earlier GBC Cintra 20 and current technology TS Evolution 300). Instruments operate with different versions of Savitzky-Golay algorithm and modes of generating digital derivative spectra. For resolution power parameter, defined as the amplitude ratio A/B in DS method EP monograph, comparable results were obtained only with algorithm's parameters smoothing points (SP) 7 and the 2nd degree polynomial and those provided corresponding data with other two modes on TS Evolution 300 Medium digital indirect and Medium digital direct. Using quoted algorithm's parameters, the differences in percentages between the amplitude ratio A/B averages, were within accepted criteria (±3%) for assay of drug product for method transfer. The deviation of 1.76% for the degree of deacetylation assessment of chitosan hydrochloride, determined on two instruments, (amplitude (1)D202; the 2nd degree polynomial and SP 9 in Savitzky-Golay algorithm), was acceptable, since it was within allowed criteria (±2%) for assay deviation of drug substance, for method transfer in pharmaceutical analyses.

  6. E-health, phase two: the imperative to integrate process automation with communication automation for large clinical reference laboratories.

    PubMed

    White, L; Terner, C

    2001-01-01

    The initial efforts of e-health have fallen far short of expectations. They were buoyed by the hype and excitement of the Internet craze but limited by their lack of understanding of important market and environmental factors. E-health now recognizes that legacy systems and processes are important, that there is a technology adoption process that needs to be followed, and that demonstrable value drives adoption. Initial e-health transaction solutions have targeted mostly low-cost problems. These solutions invariably are difficult to integrate into existing systems, typically requiring manual interfacing to supported processes. This limitation in particular makes them unworkable for large volume providers. To meet the needs of these providers, e-health companies must rethink their approaches, appropriately applying technology to seamlessly integrate all steps into existing business functions. E-automation is a transaction technology that automates steps, integration of steps, and information communication demands, resulting in comprehensive automation of entire business functions. We applied e-automation to create a billing management solution for clinical reference laboratories. Large volume, onerous regulations, small margins, and only indirect access to patients challenge large laboratories' billing departments. Couple these problems with outmoded, largely manual systems and it becomes apparent why most laboratory billing departments are in crisis. Our approach has been to focus on the most significant and costly problems in billing: errors, compliance, and system maintenance and management. The core of the design relies on conditional processing, a "universal" communications interface, and ASP technologies. The result is comprehensive automation of all routine processes, driving out errors and costs. Additionally, compliance management and billing system support and management costs are dramatically reduced. The implications of e-automated processes can extend

  7. [Influenza surveillance in nine consecutive seasons, 2003-2012: results from National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty Of Medicine, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Akçay Ciblak, Meral; Kanturvardar Tütenyurd, Melis; Asar, Serkan; Tulunoğlu, Merve; Fındıkçı, Nurcihan; Badur, Selim

    2012-10-01

    Influenza is a public health problem that affects 5-20% of the world population annually causing high morbidity and mortality especially in risk groups. In addition to determining prevention and treatment strategies with vaccines and antivirals, surveillance data plays an important role in combat against influenza. Surveillance provides valuable data on characteristics of influenza activity, on types, sub-types, antigenic properties and antiviral resistance profile of circulating viruses in a given region. The first influenza surveillance was initiated as a pilot study in 2003 by now named National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Surveillance was launched at national level by Ministry of Health in 2004 and two National Influenza Laboratories, one in Istanbul and the other in Ankara, have been conducting surveillance in Turkey. Surveillance data obtained for nine consecutive years, 2003-2012, by National Influenza Reference Laboratory in Istanbul Faculty of Medicine have been summarized in this report. During 2003-2012 influenza surveillance seasons, a total of 11.077 nasal swabs collected in viral transport medium were sent to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul for analysis. Immun-capture ELISA followed by MDCK cell culture was used for detection of influenza viruses before 2009 and real-time RT-PCR was used thereafter. Antigenic characterizations were done by hemagglutination inhibition assay with the reactives supplied by World Health Organization. Analysis of the results showed that influenza B viruses have entered the circulation in 2005-2006 seasons, and have contributed to the epidemics at increasing rates every year except in the 2009 pandemic season. Influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages were cocirculating for two seasons. For other seasons either lineage was in circulation. Antigenic characterization revealed that circulating B viruses matched the vaccine composition either partially or totally for only

  8. Latino and European American early adolescents' exposure to music with substance-use references: examining parent-child communication as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Wang, Ningxin; Harvey, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    This study hypothesized that frequent exposure to and attention to music with substance-use references would be indirectly related to alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use through pro-substance-use beliefs (e.g., norms, outcome expectancies, and refusal efficacy). Parent-child communication, however, would attenuate such associations, which would differ by ethnicity. Multigroup mediation and moderation analyses were conducted, using cross-sectional survey data from 253 Latino and 308 European American 6th-8th grades students. For Latino and European American early adolescents, best-friend-injunctive norms and weak refusal efficacy were significant mediators, but not positive outcome expectancies. Descriptive norms were a significant mediator, but only for European American early adolescents. Although targeted parent-child communication and parental mediation did not moderate the associations between the music-exposure variables and the pro-substance-use beliefs variables, targeted parent-child communication attenuated the association between listening to favorite songs and alcohol consumption. Parental mediation attenuated the association between attention to music and alcohol consumption.

  9. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material.

    PubMed

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B

    2010-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  10. Economic impact of childhood/adolescent ADHD in a European setting: the Netherlands as a reference case.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoa H; Hodgkins, Paul; Postma, Maarten J; Kahle, Jennifer; Sikirica, Vanja; Setyawan, Juliana; Erder, M Haim; Doshi, Jalpa A

    2014-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder in children/adolescents. This study reviews available European-based studies of ADHD-related costs and applies the findings to the Netherlands to estimate annual national costs for children/adolescents from a societal perspective. A systematic literature search was conducted for primary studies in Europe, published January 1, 1990 through April 23, 2013. Per-person cost estimates were converted to 2012 Euros and used to estimate annual national ADHD-related costs based on the Dutch 2011 census, ADHD prevalence rates, family composition, and employment rates. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The average total ADHD-related costs ranged from €9,860 to 14,483 per patient and annual national costs were between €1,041 and €1,529 million (M). The largest cost category was education (€648 M), representing 62 and 42 % of the low- and high-value overall national estimates, respectively. By comparison, ADHD patient healthcare costs ranged between €84 M (8 %) and €377 M (25 %), and social services costs were €4.3 M (0.3-0.4 %). While the majority of the costs were incurred by ADHD patients themselves, €161 M (11-15 %) was healthcare costs to family members that were attributable to having an ADHD child/adolescent. In addition, productivity losses of family members were €143-€339 M (14-22 %). Despite uncertainties because of the small number of studies identified and the wide range in the national cost estimates, our results suggest that ADHD imposes a significant economic burden on multiple public sectors in Europe. The limited number of European-based studies examining the economic burden of ADHD highlights the need for more research in this area.

  11. Review of 16S and ITS Direct Sequencing Results for Clinical Specimens Submitted to a Reference Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Michael; Azana, Robert; Hoang, Linda M. N.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of 16S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region amplification and sequencing of rDNA from clinical specimens, for the respective detection and identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Direct rDNA amplification of 16S and ITS targets from clinical samples was performed over a 4-year period and reviewed. All specimens were from sterile sites and submitted to a reference laboratory for evaluation. Results of 16S and ITS were compared to histopathology, Gram and/or calcofluor stain microscopy results. A total of 277 16S tests were performed, with 64 (23%) positive for the presence of bacterial DNA. Identification of an organism was more likely in microscopy positive 16S samples 14/21 (67%), compared to 35/175 (20%) of microscopy negative samples. A total of 110 ITS tests were performed, with 14 (13%) positive. The yield of microscopy positive ITS samples, 9/44 (21%), was higher than microscopy negative samples 3/50 (6%). Given these findings, 16S and ITS are valuable options for culture negative specimens from sterile sites, particularly in the setting of positive microscopy findings. Where microscopy results are negative, the limited sensitivity of 16S and ITS in detecting and identifying an infectious agent needs to be considered. PMID:27366168

  12. Applications of Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Supporting Mission Site Selection for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is an engineering level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. An overview is presented of Mars-GRAM 2005 and its new features. One new feature of Mars-GRAM 2005 is the 'auxiliary profile' option. In this option, an input file of temperature and density versus altitude is used to replace mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. An auxiliary profile can be generated from any source of data or alternate model output. Auxiliary profiles for this study were produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5)model) and a global Thermal Emission Spectrometer(TES) database. The global TES database has been specifically generated for purposes of making Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components,averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude-longitude bins and 15 degree L(s) bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from the mesoscale model output and TES observed data for candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  13. Applying the Writing Scales of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" to the New HSK Test of Proficiency in Chinese: Realities, Problems and Some Suggestions for Chinese Language Teachers and Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ya Ping; Broeder, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article explores levels of proficiency in Chinese with reference to the new HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi) Chinese Proficiency Test and the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR). Special attention is given to learning and teaching the writing of Chinese characters and the use of Pinyin, a phonetic Romanization…

  14. Investigation of synthesized Be-bearing silicate glass as laboratory reference sample at X-ray electron probe microanalysis of silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, Olga Yu.; Mikhailov, Mikhail A.; Demina, Tamara V.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses estimates of the stability and homogeneity in Be-Mg-Al-silicate glass produced by the authors and its applicability as a laboratory reference sample for X-ray electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of Be-bearing silicate matters: crystals and quenching melt (glasses), silicates and oxides. The results were obtained using Superprobe-733 and Superprobe JXA-8200 (JEOL Ltd, Japan) devices. The sample homogeneity was studied on macro (10-100 μm) and micro (1-10 μm) levels and was evaluated by the scheme of dispersion analysis. The applicability of Be-bearing silicate glass as a reference sample for Mg, Al, Si determinations was tested on the international certified reference glasses and laboratory reference samples of minerals with a known composition. The obtained experimental metrological characteristics correspond to the "applied geochemistry" type of analysis (second category) and suggest that Be-bearing silicate glass is appropriate as a laboratory reference sample for EPMA of Be-bearing silicate matters, silicates and oxides. Using Be-Mg-Al-silicate glass as a reference sample we obtained satisfactory data on the composition of both some minerals including cordierite and beryllium cordierite, beryllium indialite, beryl and metastable phases (chrysoberyl, compounds with structure of β-quartz and petalite).

  15. Establishment of reference intervals for von Willebrand factor antigen and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Hyun; Seo, Ja-Young; Bang, Sung-Hwan; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-04-01

    Establishment of reference intervals for coagulation molecules is important but is costly and sometimes not feasible. Since reference intervals from manufacturers or the literature are mostly out of date or involved Western populations, the authors determined reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight factors in a Korean population. VWF: Ag, factor VIII (FVIII), FII, FV, FVII, FIX, FX, FXI, and FXII were determined in Korean individuals visiting for routine checkup following the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) guidelines. Reagents by Diagnostica Stago were used on the STA Compact Analyzer (Diagnostica Stago). Exclusion criteria were medical history or laboratory findings that could affect the factor levels. Influence of demographic factors was analyzed. Mean +/- 2 x SD or central 95 percentile was used, as appropriate. We obtained data from 266 adults for VWF: Ag, 371 adults for FVIII, and minimum 136 adults for the rest. Reference interval for VWF was 51-176% (52-155% in blood group O and 71-186% for non-O). Reference interval for FVIII was 64-197% (55-150% in O and 77-205% in non-O). Reference interval for FII was 77-121%, FV 81-160%, FVII 68-149%, FIX 67-154%, FX 69-126%, FXI 59-138%, and FXII 48-177%. The medians of VWF: Ag, FVIII, and FIX were significantly higher in the elderly group (> or =60 years). We established local reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population according to the CLSI guidelines. Significantly, different reference intervals were obtained in blood group O vs. non-O for VWF: Ag and FVIII. The reference intervals obtained in this study could be adopted in other clinical laboratories after appropriate validation.

  16. Characterisation of meteoritic samples with the Rosetta Cosima TOF-SIMS laboratory reference model --- a covariance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, O.; Varmuza, K.; Engrand, C.; Ferrière, L.; Brandstätter, F.; Koeberl, C.; Filzmoser, P.; Hilchenbach, M.

    2014-07-01

    The time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer Cosima onboard Rosetta will analyze cometary grains ejected off the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from September 2014 onwards. In our effort to understand the composition and the history of these cometary grains, we study the characteristics of different meteorite samples with the Cosima reference instruments at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Göttingen, with the goal to separate individual compounds and their fragmentation patterns. Different types of meteorite samples are prepared in the laboratory. Among these are one ordinary chondrite H4 (Ochansk), one unequilibrated ordinary chondrite H3 (Tieschitz), one carbonaceous chondrite CR (Renazzo), and a martian shergottite (Tissint). Grains of sizes up to 100 μ m are pressed into a blank gold metal target. The grains are identified with the instrument microscope and positive and negative secondary ion mass spectra are accumulated on different positions on selected grains. The mass spectra are accumulating all secondary ions up to mass 300 with reasonable detection efficiency and a mass resolution of 1400@ 100 amu. This mass resolution is sufficient to separate organic (hydrogen-rich) molecule peaks from minerals or elemental mass peaks. We are trying to assess how the covariances of count rates between different parts of the mass spectra, i.e., specific atomic and molecule peaks of a single meteorite, can be used to infer some properties of its constituents and how this differs between the different meteorites that show varying degrees of alteration. In a first step, we look at the covariance and the correlation matrices S of the mass spectra for individual meteorite samples. The elements s_{ij} of S are the covariances/correlations of the mass spectra at the masses i and j for a given meteorite sample. This will help us, after future analysis, to place the cometary grains into the proper compositional and evolutionary context

  17. Preanalytical quality improvement. In pursuit of harmony, on behalf of European Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE).

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe; Church, Stephen; Cornes, Michael; De Carli, Gabriella; Grankvist, Kjell; Kristensen, Gunn B; Ibarz, Mercedes; Panteghini, Mauro; Plebani, Mario; Nybo, Mads; Smellie, Stuart; Zaninotto, Martina; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory diagnostics develop through different phases that span from test ordering (pre-preanalytical phase), collection of diagnostic specimens (preanalytical phase), sample analysis (analytical phase), results reporting (postanalytical phase) and interpretation (post-postanalytical phase). Although laboratory medicine seems less vulnerable than other clinical and diagnostic areas, the chance of errors is not negligible and may adversely impact on quality of testing and patient safety. This article, which continues a biennial tradition of collective papers on preanalytical quality improvement, is aimed to provide further contributions for pursuing quality and harmony in the preanalytical phase, and is a synopsis of lectures of the third European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)-Becton Dickinson (BD) European Conference on Preanalytical Phase meeting entitled 'Preanalytical quality improvement. In pursuit of harmony' (Porto, 20-21 March 2015). The leading topics that will be discussed include unnecessary laboratory testing, management of test request, implementation of the European Union (EU) Directive on needlestick injury prevention, harmonization of fasting requirements for blood sampling, influence of physical activity and medical contrast media on in vitro diagnostic testing, recent evidence about the possible lack of necessity of the order of draw, the best practice for monitoring conditions of time and temperature during sample transportation, along with description of problems emerging from inappropriate sample centrifugation. In the final part, the article includes recent updates about preanalytical quality indicators, the feasibility of an External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for the preanalytical phase, the results of the 2nd EFLM WG-PRE survey, as well as specific notions about the evidence-based quality management of the preanalytical phase.

  18. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis).

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Bennett, Nigel Charles; Amrein, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis). Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important requirement under

  19. Optimisation of an analytical method and results from the inter-laboratory comparison of the migration of regulated substances from food packaging into the new mandatory European Union simulant for dry foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Natalia; Beldì, Giorgia; Peychès Bach, Aurélie; Simoneau, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of the development, optimisation and validation at European Union level of an analytical method for using poly(2,6-diphenyl phenylene oxide--PPPO), which is stipulated in Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011, as food simulant E for testing specific migration from plastics into dry foodstuffs. Two methods for fortifying respectively PPPO and a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film with surrogate substances that are relevant to food contact were developed. A protocol for cleaning the PPPO and an efficient analytical method were developed for the quantification of butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), benzophenone (BP), diisobutylphthalate (DiBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) from PPPO. A protocol for a migration test from plastics using small migration cells was also developed. The method was validated by an inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) with 16 national reference laboratories for food contact materials in the European Union. This allowed for the first time data to be obtained on the precision and laboratory performance of both migration and quantification. The results showed that the validation ILC was successful even when taking into account the complexity of the exercise. The results showed that the method performance was 7-9% repeatability standard deviation (rSD) for most substances (regardless of concentration), with 12% rSD for the high level of BHT and for DiBP at very low levels. The reproducibility standard deviation results for the 16 European Union laboratories were in the range of 20-30% for the quantification from PPPO (for the three levels of concentrations of the five substances) and 15-40% from migration experiments from the fortified plastic at 60°C for 10 days and subsequent quantification. Considering the lack of data previously available in the literature, this work has demonstrated that the validation of a method is possible both for migration from a film and for

  20. Total cholesterol performance of Abell–Levy–Brodie–Kendall reference measurement procedure: Certification of Japanese in-vitro diagnostic assay manufacturers through CDC’s Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network☆

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Kayamori, Yuzo; Koyama, Isao; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Dasti, Mahnaz; Vesper, Hubert W.; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of total cholesterol (TC) is important for cardiovascular disease risk management. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network (CRMLN) perform Abell–Levy–Brodie–Kendall (AK) reference measurement procedure (RMP) for TC as a secondary reference method, and implement Certification Protocol for Manufacturers. Japanese CRMLN laboratory at Osaka performed the AK RMP for 22 years, and conducted TC certification for reagent/calibrator/instrument systems of six Japanese manufacturers every 2 years for 16 years. Osaka TC performance was examined and compared to CDC’s reference values. Methods AK RMP involved sample hydrolysis, cholesterol extraction, and determination of cholesterol levels by spectrophotometry. The Certification Protocol for Manufacturers includes comparison with AK RMP using at least 40 fresh specimens. Demonstration of average bias ≤3% and total coefficient of variation ≤3% qualified an analytical system for certification. Results In the AK RMP used in the Osaka CRMLN laboratory, the regression equation for measuring TC was y (Osaka) = 1.000x (CDC) + 0.032 (n = 619, R2 = 1.000). Six Japanese manufacturers had allowable performance for certification. Conclusions The AK RMP for TC measurement was accurate, precise, and stable for 22 years. Six Japanese manufacturers were certified for 16 years. PMID:25818239

  1. Contribution of 32 GWAS-Identified Common Variants to Severe Obesity in European Adults Referred for Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yousseif, Ahmed; Pucci, Andrea; Santini, Ferruccio; Karra, Efthimia; Querci, Giorgia; Pelosini, Caterina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥35.0 kg/m2, is rising rapidly. Given the disproportionately high health burden and healthcare costs associated with this condition, understanding the underlying aetiology, including predisposing genetic factors, is a biomedical research priority. Previous studies have suggested that severe obesity represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation, reflecting shared genetic factors operating across the spectrum. Here, we sought to determine whether a panel of 32 known common obesity-susceptibility variants contribute to severe obesity in patients (n = 1,003, mean BMI 48.4±8.1 kg/m2) attending bariatric surgery clinics in two European centres. We examined the effects of these 32 common variants on obesity risk and BMI, both as individual markers and in combination as a genetic risk score, in a comparison with normal-weight controls (n = 1,809, BMI 18.0–24.9 kg/m2); an approach which, to our knowledge, has not been previously undertaken in the setting of a bariatric clinic. We found strong associations with severe obesity for SNP rs9939609 within the FTO gene (P = 9.3×10−8) and SNP rs2815752 near the NEGR1 gene (P = 3.6×10−4), and directionally consistent nominal associations (P<0.05) for 12 other SNPs. The genetic risk score associated with severe obesity (P = 8.3×10−11) but, within the bariatric cohort, this score did not associate with BMI itself (P = 0.264). Our results show significant effects of individual BMI-associated common variants within a relatively small sample size of bariatric patients. Furthermore, the burden of such low-penetrant risk alleles contributes to severe obesity in this population. Our findings support that severe obesity observed in bariatric patients represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation. Moreover, future genetic studies focused on bariatric patients may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of

  2. The role of European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase in standardization and harmonization of the preanalytical phase in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cornes, Michael P; Church, Stephen; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell; Guimarães, João T; Ibarz, Mercedes; Kovalevskaya, Svetlana; Kristensen, Gunn Bb; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Sprongl, Ludek; Sumarac, Zorica; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-09-01

    Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) was established to lead in standardization and harmonization of preanalytical policies and practices at a European level. One of the key activities of the WG-PRE is the organization of the biennial EFLM-BD conference on the preanalytical phase to provide a forum for National Societies (NS) to discuss their issues. Since 2012, a year after the first Preanalytical phase conference, there has been a rapid growth in the number of NS with a working group engaged in preanalytical phase activities and there are now at least 19 countries that have one. As a result of discussions with NS at the third conference held in March 2015 five key areas were identified as requiring harmonisation. These were test ordering, sample transport and storage, patient preparation, sampling procedures and management of unsuitable specimens. The article below summarises the work that has and will be done in these areas. The goal of this initiative is to ensure the EFLM WG-PRE produces work that meets the needs of the European laboratory medicine community. Progress made in the identified areas will be updated at the next preanalytical phase conference and show that we have produced guidance that has enhanced standardisation in the preanalytical phase and improved patient safety throughout Europe.

  3. Equilibrium of vegetation and climate at the European rear edge. A reference for climate change planning in mountainous Mediterranean regions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Labourdette, Diego; Martínez, Felipe; Martín-López, Berta; Montes, Carlos; Pineda, Francisco D

    2011-05-01

    Mediterranean mountains harbour some of Europe's highest floristic richness. This is accounted for largely by the mesoclimatic variety in these areas, along with the co-occurrence of a small area of Eurosiberian, Boreal and Mediterranean species, and those of Tertiary Subtropical origin. Throughout the twenty-first century, we are likely to witness a climate change-related modification of the biogeographic scenario in these mountains, and there is therefore a need for accurate climate regionalisations to serve as a reference of the abundance and distribution of species and communities, particularly those of a relictic nature. This paper presents an objective mapping method focussing on climate regions in a mountain range. The procedure was tested in the Cordillera Central Mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, in the western Mediterranean, one of the ranges occupying the largest area of the Mediterranean Basin. This regionalisation is based upon multivariate analyses and upon detailed cartography employing 27 climatic variables. We used spatial interpolation of data based on geographic information. We detected high climatic diversity in the mountain range studied. We identified 13 climatic regions, all of which form a varying mosaic throughout the annual temperature and rainfall cycle. This heterogeneity results from two geographically opposed gradients. The first one is the Mediterranean-Euro-Siberian variation of the mountain range. The second gradient involves the degree of oceanicity, which is negatively related to distance from the Atlantic Ocean. The existing correlation between the climatic regions detected and the flora existing therein enables the results to be situated within the projected trends of global warming, and their biogeographic and ecological consequences to be analysed.

  4. Operational Definition of Active and Healthy Aging (AHA): The European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on AHA Reference Site Questionnaire: Montpellier October 20-21, 2014, Lisbon July 2, 2015.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Malva, Joao; Nogues, Michel; Mañas, Leocadio Rodriguez; Vellas, Bruno; Farrell, John

    2015-12-01

    A core operational definition of active and healthy aging (AHA) is needed to conduct comparisons. A conceptual AHA framework proposed by the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing Reference Site Network includes several items such as functioning (individual capability and underlying body systems), well-being, activities and participation, and diseases (including noncommunicable diseases, frailty, mental and oral health disorders). The instruments proposed to assess the conceptual framework of AHA have common applicability and availability attributes. The approach includes core and optional domains/instruments depending on the needs and the questions. A major common domain is function, as measured by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). WHODAS 2.0 can be used across all diseases and healthy individuals. It covers many of the AHA dimensions proposed by the Reference Site network. However, WHODAS 2.0 does not include all dimensions proposed for AHA assessment. The second common domain is health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A report of the AHA questionnaire in the form of a spider net has been proposed to facilitate usual comparisons across individuals and groups of interest.

  5. Using European travellers as an early alert to detect emerging pathogens in countries with limited laboratory resources

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Philippe J; Grais, Rebecca Freeman; Rottingen, John Arne; Valleron, Alain Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Background The volume, extent and speed of travel have dramatically increased in the past decades, providing the potential for an infectious disease to spread through the transportation network. By collecting information on the suspected place of infection, existing surveillance systems in industrialized countries may provide timely information for areas of the world without adequate surveillance currently in place. We present the results of a case study using reported cases of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (Sd1) in European travellers to detect "events" of Sd1, related to either epidemic cases or endemic cases in developing countries. Methods We identified papers from a Medline search for reported events of Sd1 from 1940 to 2002. We requested data on shigella infections reported to the responsible surveillance entities in 17 European countries. Reports of Sd1 from the published literature were then compared with Sd1 notified cases among European travellers from 1990 to 2002. Results Prior to a large epidemic in 1999–2000, no cases of Sd1 had been identified in West Africa. However, if travellers had been used as an early warning, Sd1 could have been identified in this region as earlier as 1992. Conclusion This project demonstrates that tracking diseases in European travellers could be used to detect emerging disease in developing countries. This approach should be further tested with a view to the continuous improvement of national health surveillance systems and existing European networks, and may play a significant role in aiding the international public health community to improve infectious disease control. PMID:17239228

  6. Construction of Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode from Used Felt-Tipped Pen Barrel for Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inamdar, Shaukatali N.; Bhat, Mohsin A.; Haram, Santosh K.

    2009-01-01

    A reference electrode is one of the prerequisites of electrochemical investigations. Many electrodes are commercially available but are expensive and prone to accidental breakage by students. Here we report a simple, easy-to-fabricate, inexpensive, reliable, unbreakable, and reproducible Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The empty barrel of a…

  7. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: external quality assessment and comparative testing for reference and in-clinic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Camus, Melinda S; Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathleen P; Cruz Cardona, Janice A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to educate providers of veterinary laboratory diagnostic testing in any setting about comparative testing. These guidelines will define, explain, and illustrate the importance of a multi-faceted laboratory quality management program which includes comparative testing. The guidelines will provide suggestions for implementation of such testing, including which samples should be tested, frequency of testing, and recommendations for result interpretation. Examples and a list of vendors and manufacturers supplying control materials and services to veterinary laboratories are also included.

  8. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. I. A review of Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Chromý, Vratislav; Vinklárková, Bára; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    We found previously that albumin-calibrated total protein in certified reference materials causes unacceptable positive bias in analysis of human sera. The simplest way to cure this defect is the use of human-based serum/plasma standards calibrated by the Kjeldahl method. Such standards, commutative with serum samples, will compensate for bias caused by lipids and bilirubin in most human sera. To find a suitable primary reference procedure for total protein in reference materials, we reviewed Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine. We found two methods recommended for total protein in human samples: an indirect analysis based on total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. The methods found will be assessed in a subsequent article.

  9. From the Cosmos to the Geosphere: the quest of four European Deep Underground Laboratories originally built for Astroparticle Physics to understand Global Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafioti, I.

    2014-12-01

    A number of deep underground laboratories exist around the world, all originally developed to advance our understanding of the Universe. They were built to host 'low-background' Astroparticle Physics experiments, needing to be shielded from interference produced by cosmic radiation. These unique infrastructures show great diversity in terms of depth, size, and geological and environmental characteristics. Over the last decade, the four European deep underground laboratories - LSM in France, LSC in Spain, LNGS in Italy and Boulby in the UK - supported by their funding agencies, have been making great efforts to get integrated into a single distributed research infrastructure. At the same time, they have been asking "how can our facilities, primarily built for Astroparticle Physics, be used to tackle global challenges?". Astroparticle Physicists have wide experience in forming long-term large international collaborations, developing innovative technologies, building unique facilities and organising data handling, reduction, storage and analysis: all of these were put to the disposal of scientists from other disciplines. As a result, a number of very interesting multidisciplinary projects have been hosted in the labs with excellent scientific results: geologists, climatologists, environmental scientists and biologists from academia and public authorities have all used these deep underground environments. Even more recently, the four European labs have decided to go one step further: in order to treat global challenges, global cooperation is necessary, so they are trying to unite the global deep underground science community around these multidisciplinary synergies. The objective of this talk is to present the bottom-up policy adopted by these world-leading European research infrastructures related to global environmental change, including some of the most interesting scientific results received so far (e.g. muon tide detector for continuous, passive monitoring of

  10. Preparation and certification of two new bulk welding fume reference materials for use in laboratories undertaking analysis of occupational hygiene samples.

    PubMed

    Butler, Owen; Musgrove, Darren; Stacey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Workers can be exposed to fume, arising from welding activities, which contain toxic metals and metalloids. Occupational hygienists need to assess and ultimately minimize such exposure risks. The monitoring of the concentration of particles in workplace air is one assessment approach whereby fume, from representative welding activities, is sampled onto a filter and returned to a laboratory for analysis. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are generally employed as instrumental techniques of choice for the analysis of such filter samples. An inherent difficulty, however, with inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques is that they typically require a sample to be presented for analysis in the form of a solution. The efficiency of the required dissolution step relies heavily upon the skill and experience of the analyst involved. A useful tool in assessing the efficacy of this dissolution step would be the availability and subsequent analysis of welding fume reference materials with stated elemental concentrations and matrices that match as closely as possible the matrix composition of welding fume samples submitted to laboratories for analysis. This article describes work undertaken at the Health and Safety Laboratory to prepare and certify two new bulk welding fume reference materials that can be routinely used by analysts to assess the performance of the digestion procedures they employ in their laboratories.

  11. Preparation and Certification of Two New Bulk Welding Fume Reference Materials for Use in Laboratories Undertaking Analysis of Occupational Hygiene Samples

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Owen; Musgrove, Darren; Stacey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Workers can be exposed to fume, arising from welding activities, which contain toxic metals and metalloids. Occupational hygienists need to assess and ultimately minimize such exposure risks. The monitoring of the concentration of particles in workplace air is one assessment approach whereby fume, from representative welding activities, is sampled onto a filter and returned to a laboratory for analysis. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are generally employed as instrumental techniques of choice for the analysis of such filter samples. An inherent difficulty, however, with inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques is that they typically require a sample to be presented for analysis in the form of a solution. The efficiency of the required dissolution step relies heavily upon the skill and experience of the analyst involved. A useful tool in assessing the efficacy of this dissolution step would be the availability and subsequent analysis of welding fume reference materials with stated elemental concentrations and matrices that match as closely as possible the matrix composition of welding fume samples submitted to laboratories for analysis. This article describes work undertaken at the Health and Safety Laboratory to prepare and certify two new bulk welding fume reference materials that can be routinely used by analysts to assess the performance of the digestion procedures they employ in their laboratories. PMID:24499055

  12. Linking English-Language Test Scores onto the Common European Framework of Reference: An Application of Standard-Setting Methodology. TOEFL iBT Research Report TOEFL iBt-06. ETS RR-08-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a 6-level scale. In this study, English-language experts from across Europe linked CEFR levels to scores on three tests: the TOEFL® iBT test, the TOEIC® assessment, and the TOEIC "Bridge"™ test.…

  13. Comparison of species-level identification and antifungal susceptibility results from diagnostic and reference laboratories for bloodstream Candida surveillance isolates, South Africa, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Naicker, Serisha D; Govender, Nevashan; Patel, Jaymati; Zietsman, Inge L; Wadula, Jeannette; Coovadia, Yacoob; Kularatne, Ranmini; Seetharam, Sharona; Govender, Nelesh P

    2016-11-01

    From February 2009 through August 2010, we compared species-level identification of bloodstream Candida isolates and susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin between diagnostic and reference South African laboratories during national surveillance for candidemia. Diagnostic laboratories identified isolates to genus/species level and performed antifungal susceptibility testing, as indicated. At a reference laboratory, viable Candida isolates were identified to species-level using automated systems, biochemical tests, or DNA sequencing; broth dilution susceptibility testing was performed. Categorical agreement (CA) was calculated for susceptibility results of isolates with concordant species identification. Overall, 2172 incident cases were detected, 773 (36%) by surveillance audit. The Vitek 2 YST system (bioMérieux Inc, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was used for identification (360/863, 42%) and susceptibility testing (198/473, 42%) of a large proportion of isolates. For the five most common species (n = 1181), species-level identification was identical in the majority of cases (Candida albicans: 98% (507/517); Candida parapsilosis: 92% (450/488); Candida glabrata: 89% (89/100); Candida tropicalis: 91% (49/54), and Candida krusei: 86% (19/22)). However, diagnostic laboratories were significantly less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans versus C. albicans (607/664, 91% vs. 507/517, 98%; P < .001). Susceptibility data were compared for isolates belonging to the five most common species and fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin in 860, 580, and 99 cases, respectively. Diagnostic laboratories significantly under-reported fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis (225/393, 57% vs. 239/393, 61%; P < .001) but over-reported fluconazole non-susceptibility in C. albicans (36/362, 10% vs. 3/362, 0.8%; P < .001). Diagnostic laboratories were less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans, under

  14. [Report of the NEDO project "Research and development to promote the creation and utilization of an intellectual infrastructure: development of reference materials for laboratory medicine" "Development of pure substance-type certified reference materials"].

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Akiko

    2009-06-01

    There is an increasing demand to establish a metrological traceability system for in vitro diagnostics and medical devices. Pure substance-type reference materials are playing key roles in metrological traceability, because they form the basis for many traceability chains in chemistry. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), has been developing purity-certified reference materials (CRMs) in this field, such as cholesterol, creatinine, and urea. In the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) project, entitled: "Research and Development to Promote the Creation and Utilization of an Intellectual Infrastructure: Development of Reference Materials for Laboratory Medicine", several pure substance-type CRMs were developed. For a pure protein solution CRM, amino acid analysis and nitrogen determination were chosen as the certification methods. The development and certification processes for the C-reactive protein (CRP) solution CRM were completed, with the recombinant human CRP solution as a candidate material. This CRP solution CRM is now available as NMIJ CRM. For cortisol CRM, a purified candidate material and highly pure primary reference material were prepared. Each impure compound in the materials was identified and quantified. The pure cortisol CRM will be available in 2009. These two CRMs provide a traceability link between routine clinical methods and the SI unit.

  15. Comparison of results of fluconazole and voriconazole disk diffusion testing for Candida spp. with results from a central reference laboratory in the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A; Boyken, Linda; Hollis, Richard J; Kroeger, Jennifer; Messer, Shawn A; Tendolkar, Shailesh; Diekema, Daniel J

    2009-09-01

    The accuracy of antifungal susceptibility testing is important for reliable resistance surveillance and for the clinical management of patients with serious infections due to Candida spp. Our primary objective was to compare the results of fluconazole and voriconazole disk diffusion testing of 3227 Candida spp. performed by 47 centers participating in the ARTEMIS program with disk diffusion and MIC results obtained by the central reference laboratory. The overall categoric agreement between participant disk diffusion test results and reference MIC results was 87% for fluconazole and 95.2% for voriconazole. Likewise good agreement was observed between participant disk diffusion test results and reference laboratory disk diffusion test results, with an agreement of 90.5%, 1% very major error (VME), and 3.4% major error (ME) for fluconazole and 94.2%, 1.1% VME, and 2.5% ME for voriconazole. The disk diffusion test was reliable for detecting those isolates of Candida spp. that were characterized as resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole by MIC testing. External quality assurance data obtained by surveillance programs such as the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Surveillance Program ensure the generation of useful surveillance data and result in the continued improvement of antifungal susceptibility testing protocols.

  16. European Trends in the Development of Occupations and Qualifications. Findings of Research, Studies and Analyses for Policy and Practice. Volume II. CEDEFOP Reference Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart, Ed.

    This document contains 23 papers on European trends in vocational education and training (VET) and the development of occupations and qualifications. The following papers are included: "Vocational Socialisation and Competence Development: The Historical Dimension" (Walter R. Heinz); "European Trends in the Development of Vocational…

  17. An European inter-laboratory validation of alternative endpoints of the murine local lymph node assay: 2nd round.

    PubMed

    Ehling, G; Hecht, M; Heusener, A; Huesler, J; Gamer, A O; van Loveren, H; Maurer, Th; Riecke, K; Ullmann, L; Ulrich, P; Vandebriel, R; Vohr, H-W

    2005-08-15

    The original local lymph node assay (LLNA) is based on the use of radioactive labelling to measure cell proliferation. Other endpoints for the assessment of proliferation are also authorized by the OECD Guideline 429 provided there is appropriate scientific support, including full citations and description of the methodology (OECD, 2002. OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals; Skin Sensitization: Local Lymph Node Assay, Guideline 429. Paris, adopted 24th April 2002.). Here, we describe the outcome of the second round of an inter-laboratory validation of alternative endpoints in the LLNA conducted in nine laboratories in Europe. The validation study was managed and supervised by the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic) in Bern. Ear-draining lymph node (LN) weight and cell counts were used to assess LN cell proliferation instead of [3H]TdR incorporation. In addition, the acute inflammatory skin reaction was measured by ear weight determination of circular biopsies of the ears to identify skin irritation properties of the test items. The statistical analysis was performed in the department of statistics at the university of Bern. Similar to the EC(3) values defined for the radioactive method, threshold values were calculated for the endpoints measured in this modification of the LLNA. It was concluded that all parameters measured have to be taken into consideration for the categorisation of compounds due to their sensitising potencies. Therefore, an assessment scheme has been developed which turned out to be of great importance to consistently assess sensitisation versus irritancy based on the data of the different parameters. In contrast to the radioactive method, irritants have been picked up by all the laboratories applying this assessment scheme.

  18. Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16.

  19. Manual versus automated γ-H2AX foci analysis across five European laboratories: can this assay be used for rapid biodosimetry in a large scale radiation accident?

    PubMed

    Rothkamm, Kai; Barnard, Stephen; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Al-Hafidh, Jenna; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Lindholm, Carita; Moquet, Jayne; Perälä, Marjo; Roch-Lefèvre, Sandrine; Scherthan, Harry; Thierens, Hubert; Vral, Anne; Vandersickel, Veerle

    2013-08-30

    The identification of severely exposed individuals and reassurance of the 'worried well' are of prime importance for initial triage following a large scale radiation accident. We aim to develop the γ-H2AX foci assay into a rapid biomarker tool for use in accidents. Here, five laboratories established a standard operating procedure and analysed 100 ex vivo γ-irradiated, 4 or 24h incubated and overnight-shipped lymphocyte samples from four donors to generate γ-H2AX reference data, using manual and/or automated foci scoring strategies. In addition to acute, homogeneous exposures to 0, 1, 2 and 4Gy, acute simulated partial body (4Gy to 50% of cells) and protracted exposures (4Gy over 24h) were analysed. Data from all laboratories could be satisfactorily fitted with linear dose response functions. Average yields observed at 4h post exposure were 2-4 times higher than at 24h and varied considerably between laboratories. Automated scoring caused larger uncertainties than manual scoring and was unable to identify partial exposures, which were detectable in manually scored samples due to their overdispersed foci distributions. Protracted exposures were detectable but doses could not be accurately estimated with the γ-H2AX assay. We conclude that the γ-H2AX assay may be useful for rapid triage following a recent acute radiation exposure. The potentially higher speed and convenience of automated relative to manual foci scoring needs to be balanced against its compromised accuracy and inability to detect partial body exposures. Regular re-calibration or inclusion of reference samples may be necessary to ensure consistent results between laboratories or over long time periods.

  20. Inter-laboratory comparison on the size and stability of monodisperse and bimodal synthetic reference particles for standardization of extracellular vesicle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolet, Anaïs; Meli, Felix; van der Pol, Edwin; Yuana, Yuana; Gollwitzer, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Cizmar, Petr; Buhr, Egbert; Pétry, Jasmine; Sebaihi, Noham; de Boeck, Bert; Fokkema, Vincent; Bergmans, Rob; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2016-03-01

    In future, measurements of extracellular vesicles in body fluids could become a standard diagnostic tool in medicine. For this purpose, reliable and traceable methods, which can be easily applied in hospitals, have to be established. Within the European Metrological Research Project (EMRP) ‘Metrological characterization of micro-vesicles from body fluids as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers’ (www.metves.eu), various nanoparticle reference materials were developed and characterized. We present results of an international comparison among four national metrology institutes and a university hospital. The size distributions of five monodisperse and two bimodal spherical particle samples with diameters ranging from 50 nm to 315 nm made out of silica and polystyrene were compared. Furthermore, the stability of the samples was verified over a period of 18 months. While monodisperse reference particle samples above a certain size level lead to good agreements of the size measurements among the different methods, small and bimodal samples show the limitations of current ‘clinical’ methods. All samples proved to be stable within the uncertainty of the applied methods.

  1. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    PubMed

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  2. Demographics of the European Apicultural Industry

    PubMed Central

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620 000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220 000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  3. Reference method for detection of Pgp mediated multidrug resistance in human hematological malignancies: a method validated by the laboratories of the French Drug Resistance Network.

    PubMed

    Huet, S; Marie, J P; Gualde, N; Robert, J

    1998-12-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with overexpression of the MDR1 gene and of its product, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), plays an important role in limiting cancer treatment efficacy. Many studies have investigated Pgp expression in clinical samples of hematological malignancies but failed to give definitive conclusion on its usefulness. One convenient method for fluorescent detection of Pgp in malignant cells is flow cytometry which however gives variable results from a laboratory to another one, partly due to the lack of a reference method rigorously tested. The purpose of this technical note is to describe each step of a reference flow cytometric method. The guidelines for sample handling, staining and analysis have been established both for Pgp detection with monoclonal antibodies directed against extracellular epitopes (MRK16, UIC2 and 4E3), and for Pgp functional activity measurement with Rhodamine 123 as a fluorescent probe. Both methods have been validated on cultured cell lines and clinical samples by 12 laboratories of the French Drug Resistance Network. This cross-validated multicentric study points out crucial steps for the accuracy and reproducibility of the results, like cell viability, data analysis and expression.

  4. Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM among individuals who were referred to medical laboratories in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Mehdi; Daryani, Ahmad; Ebrahimnejad, Zahra; Gholami, Shirzad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Borhani, Samaneh; Lamsechi, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a protozoan parasite that can cause toxoplasmosis in humans. However, there is no current data regarding Toxoplasma infection among individuals who were referred to medical laboratories in Mazandaran province (northern Iran). Therefore, we performed a population-based study of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in this region. A total of 1832 sera samples (from 654 men and 1178 women) were collected from people who were referred to medical laboratories in different cities throughout Mazandaran province between March and July 2012. The serum titers of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 55.5%; and 14.4% of the positive samples were seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. The highest seroprevalence was observed among people who were >50 years old (90.6%), and the lowest seroprevalence was observed among children who were 0-9 years old (9.4%; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalences for each sex in the study population. However, a regional sex-specific difference in seroprevalence was observed between men (54.1%) and women (70.6%; P=0.003) in the western cities of Mazandaran. As the seroprevalence of T. gondii in western and eastern Mazandaran was higher than that in the central cities, there is a need to evaluate the nature of the infection chain in these areas.

  5. Trace Elements, With Special Reference to Mercury, in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    P. R. Fresquez; J. D. Huchton; M. A. Mullen

    1999-11-01

    Trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cr, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) were determined in muscle (fillet) of average sized fish (mostly carp, catfish, and sucker) collected from the confluences of major canyons that cross Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lands with the Rio Grande (RG). Also, trace elements were determined in fish from reservoirs upstream (Abiquiu [AR]) and downstream (Cochiti [CR]) of LANL from 1991 through 1999. In general, all of the (mean) trace elements, including Hg, were either at the limits of detection (LOD) or in low concentrations at all study sites. Of the trace elements (e.g., Ba, Cu, and Hg) that were found to be above the LOD in fish muscle collected from LANL canyons/RG, none were in significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations than in muscle of fish collected from background locations. Mercury concentrations (mean of means) in fish from AR (all other trace elements were at LOD) were significantly higher (p < 0.10) than Hg concentrations in fish from CR, and Hg concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (AR = p <0.05 and CR = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time.

  6. Evaluating Mars Science Laboratory Landing Sites with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL) [1]. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), with altitudes referenced to the MOLA areoid, or constant potential surface. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: (1) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) mapping years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) results driven by observed TES dust optical depth or (2) TES mapping year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from MGCM model results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated [2] against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from TES [3]. There are several new features included in Mars-GRAM 2005. The first is the option to use input data sets from MGCM model runs that were designed to closely simulate conditions observed during the first two years of TES observations at Mars. The TES Year 1 option includes values from April 1999 through January 2001. The TES Year 2 option includes values from February 2001 through December 2002. The second new feature is the option to read and use any auxiliary profile of temperature and density versus altitude. In exercising the auxiliary profile Mars-GRAM option, values from the auxiliary profile replace data from the original MGCM databases. Some examples of auxiliary profiles include data from TES nadir or limb observations and Mars mesoscale model output at a particular

  7. Order of blood draw: Opinion Paper by the European Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE).

    PubMed

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell; Ibarz, Mercedes; Kristensen, Gunn; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2017-01-01

    It has been well reported over recent years that most errors within the total testing process occur in the pre-analytical phase (46%-68.2%), an area that is usually outside of the direct control of the laboratory and which includes sample collection (phlebotomy). National and international (WHO, CLSI) guidelines recommend that the order of draw of blood during phlebotomy should be blood culture/sterile tubes, then plain tubes/gel tubes, then tubes containing additives. This prevents contamination of sample tubes with additives from previous tubes that could cause erroneous results. There have been a number of studies recently looking at whether order of draw remains a problem with modern phlebotomy techniques and materials, or it is an outdated practice followed simply because of historical reasons. In the following article, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols are not always followed or possible, EFLM WG-PRE supports the continued recommendation of ensuring a correct order of draw for venous blood collection.

  8. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis and related risk factors among humans referred to main laboratories of Urmia city, North West of Iran, 2013.

    PubMed

    Sadaghian, Mohammad; Amani, Sasan; Jafari, Rasool

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is mostly asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent individuals while it can cause a severe infection in human fetus during pregnancy and immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG seropositivity and potential risk factors of the infection in humans referred to Urmia City main diagnostic laboratories, Urmia, Iran. Totally 195 blood samples were collected from the individuals referred to main diagnostic laboratories of Urmia City, 2013. Serum concentration of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM were determined using ELISA method. Demographic variables of the participants were collected by interviewing, which are including sex, age, occupation, educational and residential status, eating undercooked meat, consumption of raw vegetable and the method of washing raw vegetables. None of all 200 serum sample were anti-Toxoplasma IgM positive, but different concentrations of anti-Toxoplasma IgG were observed in 88 (45.12 %) of samples. The significant higher rate of anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity were observed in people with soil related jobs (P = 0.005, OR = 2.266; 95 % CI 1.260, 4.078) and history of eating raw vegetables at restaurant (P = 0.036, OR = 1.985; 95 % CI 0.991, 3.978). Also anti-Toxoplasma IgG concentration mean was significantly higher in people who were commonly eaten raw vegetable at restaurants (P < 0.001, t = 7.918). The prevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis is considerably high while the acute infection is very low in the studied area. Having soil related jobs and eating raw vegetables at restaurants increases the risk of acquiring the infection.

  9. Study of demographic, clinical, laboratory and electromyographic symptoms in Myasthenia Gravis patients referred to the neurology clinic of Rasoul Akram hospital in 2015.

    PubMed

    Sadri, Y; Haghi-Ashtiani, B; Zamani, B; Akhundi, F H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Myasthenia Gravis is an autoimmune disorder, which is clinically a neuromuscular illness that shows itself as muscular weakness and fatigue. The diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis depends on clinical evaluation, electrophysiological assessment, and autoantibody detection in serum. Known antibodies could be found in about 90% of the patients, which had a causative relation with disease symptoms. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was a survey on demographic features, clinical, laboratorial, and electromyographic signs of patients with Myasthenia Gravis referred to the neurology clinic of Rasoul Akram hospital. Materials and methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional one that used an easy sampling method: 54 patients with Myasthenia Gravis who were referred to the neurology clinic of Rasoul Akram were elected in 2015. The patients' information was recorded in the checklists based on the variables and the data were analyzed by using SPSS software version 21. The results. The demographic and the clinical symptoms data of 54 known Myasthenia Gravis patients, whose diagnosis was made according to the clinical symptoms, electrophysiological findings and autoantibody detection, were analyzed in this paper. There were 31 females (57.4%) and 23 males (42.6%) with an average age of 47.3 years. The average age of diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis in these patients was 42.8 years. Among the patients, 19 (35.2%) had a hospitalization history because of their disease. Due to laboratory findings, 10 patients (18.5%) had Musk antibody, 34 patients (62.9%) had acetylcholine receptor antibodies and 10 patients (18.5%) had none of these two antibodies. Moreover, in electromyographic findings, 38 patients (70.37%) had positive findings and 16 patients (29.6%) had normal findings. Discussion and Conclusion. Due to the chronic nature of this disease, and its rising trend, educating the people for the early detection of the disease, was necessary as soon as possible so

  10. Quality of Agricultural Products and Protection of the Environment: Training, Knowledge Dissemination and Certification. Synthesis Report of a Study in Five European Countries. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadaki-Klavdianou, A.; Menkisoglou-Spiroudi, O.; Tsakiridou, E.

    This book examines existing European environmental education and agricultural practices friendly to the environment. Focus is on studies conducted in five countries Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain--that aimed to define new knowledge qualifications related to environmental issues in producing alternative agricultural products…

  11. The Optics and Alignment of the Divergent Beam Laboratory X-ray Powder Diffractometer and its Calibration Using NIST Standard Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Cline, James P.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Black, David; Windover, Donald; Henins, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory X-ray powder diffractometer is one of the primary analytical tools in materials science. It is applicable to nearly any crystalline material, and with advanced data analysis methods, it can provide a wealth of information concerning sample character. Data from these machines, however, are beset by a complex aberration function that can be addressed through calibration with the use of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Laboratory diffractometers can be set up in a range of optical geometries; considered herein are those of Bragg-Brentano divergent beam configuration using both incident and diffracted beam monochromators. We review the origin of the various aberrations affecting instruments of this geometry and the methods developed at NIST to align these machines in a first principles context. Data analysis methods are considered as being in two distinct categories: those that use empirical methods to parameterize the nature of the data for subsequent analysis, and those that use model functions to link the observation directly to a specific aspect of the experiment. We consider a multifaceted approach to instrument calibration using both the empirical and model based data analysis methods. The particular benefits of the fundamental parameters approach are reviewed. PMID:26958446

  12. The Optics and Alignment of the Divergent Beam Laboratory X-ray Powder Diffractometer and its Calibration Using NIST Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Cline, James P; Mendenhall, Marcus H; Black, David; Windover, Donald; Henins, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory X-ray powder diffractometer is one of the primary analytical tools in materials science. It is applicable to nearly any crystalline material, and with advanced data analysis methods, it can provide a wealth of information concerning sample character. Data from these machines, however, are beset by a complex aberration function that can be addressed through calibration with the use of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Laboratory diffractometers can be set up in a range of optical geometries; considered herein are those of Bragg-Brentano divergent beam configuration using both incident and diffracted beam monochromators. We review the origin of the various aberrations affecting instruments of this geometry and the methods developed at NIST to align these machines in a first principles context. Data analysis methods are considered as being in two distinct categories: those that use empirical methods to parameterize the nature of the data for subsequent analysis, and those that use model functions to link the observation directly to a specific aspect of the experiment. We consider a multifaceted approach to instrument calibration using both the empirical and model based data analysis methods. The particular benefits of the fundamental parameters approach are reviewed.

  13. Herbal reference standards.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  14. IFCC reference procedures for measurement of the catalytic concentrations of enzymes: corrigendum, notes and useful advice. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC)--IFCC Scientific Division.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Gerhard; Canalias, Francesca; Joergensen, Poul J; Kang, Dongchon; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Klauke, Rainer; Committee On Reference Systems For Enzymes C-Rse; International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Scientific Division

    2010-05-01

    The primary reference measurement procedures (PRMPs) for the international standardization of catalytic concentration measurements of alpha-amylase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), gamma-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase have been performed in reference laboratories for several years. The IFCC Committee on Reference Systems for Enzymes and two reference laboratories, with official accreditation for the PRMPs, have collected useful information on some of the steps of the reference procedures that require special attention. This document comprises errata corrige for minor mistakes in published PRMPs for AST and CK. Several notes on the PRMPs are emphasized. This includes details that are very important for improved standardization, and general suggestions for reducing measurement uncertainty.

  15. Analysis of Diagnostic Findings From the European Mobile Laboratory in Guéckédou, Guinea, March 2014 Through March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Romy; Krumkamp, Ralf; Diallo, Boubacar; Jaeger, Anna; Rudolf, Martin; Lanini, Simone; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Fleischmann, Erna; Stoecker, Kilian; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stéphane; Newman, Edmund N. C.; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Korva, Misa; Wolff, Svenja; Molkenthin, Peter; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Bocquin, Anne; Strecker, Thomas; Fizet, Alexandra; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Ottowell, Lisa; Kurth, Andreas; Atkinson, Barry; Badusche, Marlis; Cannas, Angela; Pallasch, Elisa; Bosworth, Andrew; Yue, Constanze; Pályi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Kohl, Claudia; Oestereich, Lisa; Logue, Christopher H.; Lüdtke, Anja; Richter, Martin; Ngabo, Didier; Borremans, Benny; Becker, Dirk; Gryseels, Sophie; Abdellati, Saïd; Vermoesen, Tine; Kuisma, Eeva; Kraus, Annette; Liedigk, Britta; Maes, Piet; Thom, Ruth; Duraffour, Sophie; Diederich, Sandra; Hinzmann, Julia; Afrough, Babak; Repits, Johanna; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Bah, Amadou; Sachse, Andreas; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Wurr, Stephanie; Bockholt, Sabrina; Nitsche, Andreas; Županc, Tatjana Avšič; Strasser, Marc; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Becker, Stephan; Raoul, Herve; Carroll, Miles W.; De Clerck, Hilde; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Keïta, Sakoba; Drury, Patrick; Gurry, Cèline; Formenty, Pierre; May, Jürgen; Gabriel, Martin; Wölfel, Roman; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Background. A unit of the European Mobile Laboratory (EMLab) consortium was deployed to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) treatment unit in Guéckédou, Guinea, from March 2014 through March 2015. Methods. The unit diagnosed EVD and malaria, using the RealStar Filovirus Screen reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit and a malaria rapid diagnostic test, respectively. Results. The cleaned EMLab database comprised 4719 samples from 2741 cases of suspected EVD from Guinea. EVD was diagnosed in 1231 of 2178 hospitalized patients (57%) and in 281 of 563 who died in the community (50%). Children aged <15 years had the highest proportion of Ebola virus–malaria parasite coinfections. The case-fatality ratio was high in patients aged <5 years (80%) and those aged >74 years (90%) and low in patients aged 10–19 years (40%). On admission, RT-PCR analysis of blood specimens from patients who died in the hospital yielded a lower median cycle threshold (Ct) than analysis of blood specimens from survivors (18.1 vs 23.2). Individuals who died in the community had a median Ct of 21.5 for throat swabs. Multivariate logistic regression on 1047 data sets revealed that low Ct values, ages of <5 and ≥45 years, and, among children aged 5–14 years, malaria parasite coinfection were independent determinants of a poor EVD outcome. Conclusions. Virus load, age, and malaria parasite coinfection play a role in the outcome of EVD. PMID:27638946

  16. Predicting skin sensitization potential and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) in the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) ring trials.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Ryan, Cindy; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Schroeder, Klaus R; Ashikaga, Takao

    2010-09-01

    Regulatory policies in Europe prohibited the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for a number of toxicological endpoints. Currently no validated non-animal test methods exist for skin sensitization. Evaluation of changes in cell surface marker expression in dendritic cell (DC)-surrogate cell lines represents one non-animal approach. The human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) examines the level of CD86 and CD54 expression on the surface of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, following 24h of chemical exposure. To examine protocol transferability, between-lab reproducibility, and predictive capacity, the h-CLAT has been evaluated by five independent laboratories in several ring trials (RTs) coordinated by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA). The results of the first and second RTs demonstrated that the protocol was transferable and basically had good between-lab reproducibility and predictivity, but there were some false negative data. To improve performance, protocol and prediction model were modified. Using the modified prediction model in the first and second RT, accuracy was improved. However, about 15% of the outcomes were not correctly identified, which exposes some of the limitations of the assay. For the chemicals evaluated, the limitation may due to chemical being a weak allergen or having low solubility (ex. alpha-hexylcinnamaldehyde). The third RT evaluated the modified prediction model and satisfactory results were obtained. From the RT data, the feasibility of utilizing cell lines as surrogate DC in development of in vitro skin sensitization methods shows promise. The data also support initiating formal pre-validation of the h-CLAT in order to fully understand the capabilities and limitations of the assay.

  17. Flexible scope for ISO 15189 accreditation: a guidance prepared by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group Accreditation and ISO/CEN standards (WG-A/ISO).

    PubMed

    Thelen, Marc H M; Vanstapel, Florent J L A; Kroupis, Christos; Vukasovic, Ines; Boursier, Guilaime; Barrett, Edward; Bernabeu Andreu, Francisco; Brguljan, Pika Meško; Brugnoni, Duilio; Lohmander, Maria; Sprongl, Ludek; Vodnik, Tatjana; Ghita, Irina; Vaubourdolle, Michel; Huisman, Willem

    2015-07-01

    The recent revision of ISO15189 has further strengthened its position as the standard for accreditation for medical laboratories. Both for laboratories and their customers it is important that the scope of such accreditation is clear. Therefore the European co-operation for accreditation (EA) demands that the national bodies responsible for accreditation describe the scope of every laboratory accreditation in a way that leaves no room for doubt about the range of competence of the particular laboratories. According to EA recommendations scopes may be fixed, mentioning every single test that is part of the accreditation, or flexible, mentioning all combinations of medical field, examination type and materials for which the laboratory is competent. Up to now national accreditation bodies perpetuate use of fixed scopes, partly by inertia, partly out of fear that a too flexible scope may lead to over-valuation of the competence of laboratories, most countries only use fixed scopes. The EA however promotes use of flexible scopes, since this allows for more readily innovation, which contributes to quality in laboratory medicine. In this position paper, the Working Group Accreditation and ISO/CEN Standards belonging to the Quality and Regulation Committee of the EFLM recommends using an approach that has led to successful introduction of the flexible scope for ISO15189 accreditation as intended in EA-4/17 in The Netherlands. The approach is risk-based, discipline and competence-based, and focuses on defining a uniform terminology transferable across the borders of scientific disciplines, laboratories and countries.

  18. A comparison of the structure of American (Homarus americanus) and European (Homarus gammarus) lobster cuticle with particular reference to shell disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte E; Whitten, Miranda M A; Kim, Anita; Wootton, Emma C; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Tlusty, Michael; Vogan, Claire L; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-03-01

    The integument of arthropods is an important first-line defence against the invasion of parasites and pathogens. Once damaged, this can be subject to colonisation by microbial agents from the surrounding environment, which in crustaceans can lead to a condition termed shell disease syndrome. This condition has been reported in several crustacean species, including crabs and lobsters. The syndrome is a progressive condition where the outer cuticle becomes pitted and eroded, and in extreme cases is compromised, leaving animals susceptible to septicaemia. This study examined the susceptibility of juvenile American (Homarus americanus) and European (Homarus gammarus) lobsters to shell disease, as a result of mechanical damage. Scanning electron microscopy was used as a method to identify differences in the cuticle structure and consequences of mechanical damage. Claw regions were aseptically punctured, whilst carapaces were abraded using sterile sandpaper, to mimic natural damage. After a period of between 10 and 12 weeks, lobsters were sacrificed, fixed and stored for later examination. The carapace and claws of juvenile American lobsters were shown to be thinner and more vulnerable to abrasion damage than their European counterparts. In addition, the number and distribution of setal pits and pore canal openings also differed between the two species of lobster. Mechanical damage resulted in the formation of shell disease lesions on the claw and carapace of both lobster species. However, American lobsters, unlike their European counterparts, had extensive bacterial colonisation on the margins of these lesions. Overall, it is concluded that the cuticle of the American lobster is more susceptible to damage and resulting microbial colonisation. This may have implications for susceptibility of both species of lobster to shell disease syndrome.

  19. Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa – in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of ≥ 50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season

  20. EDEX Educational Expansion and Labour Market: A Comparative Study of Five European Countries--France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom with Special Reference to the United States. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beduwe, Catherine; Planas, Jordi

    The long-term economic and social impacts of the rise in levels of education on mechanisms of access to employment and on human resources management were examined in a comparative study of educational expansion and the labor markets of France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom, with special reference to the United States. Five teams of…

  1. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007 - 2012; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Maureen

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides a summary of IEA Wind Task 26 report on Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007-2012

  2. Study of the Vitamin D Levels in Patients Referred to Clinical Laboratories in Mashhad in 2015 and their Relationship with the Patients’ Lipid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Shamsian, Ali Akbar; Rezaee, Seyyed Abdolrahim; Rajabiian, Majid; Moghaddam, Habibolah Taghizadeh; Saeidi, Masumeh; Bahreini, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that has a significant role in the metabolism of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus; it also is a major determinant of the strength of bones. This hormone has a significant effect on three major health issues that people worldwide encounter, i.e., high blood pressure, cancer, and diabetes. Considering the limited and dispersed studies on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Iran and the relationship of vitamin D with lipid profiles in different people, this study was conducted to determine the vitamin D levels in patients and its relationship with their lipid profiles. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on 1,110 patients who were referred to the two laboratories at Jihad Daneshgahi and to eight specialist laboratories in Mashhad through random sampling of patients for whom serum vitamin D and serum lipid tests were prescribed. The data that were obtained were entered into SPSS 13 software. Results Sixty-eight percent of the patients in the study were deficient in vitamin D. The vitamin D levels in males were significantly lower than those in females (p < 0.05). The relationship between age and vitamin D deficiency was significant as well (p < 0.05). A positive and significant relationship was observed between age and vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.000, r = 0.187), i.e., vitamin D deficiency was more apparent in patients whose ages were in the range of 40–59. The relationship between the levels of vitamin D and serum lipids was significant and positive (p = 0.05), with the exception of LDL. Conclusion About two-thirds of the population that was studied had a vitamin D deficiency. There was a positive and significant relationship between serum vitamin D and serum lipids and serum calcium. The results of this study showed the necessity for more research and the implementation of preventive measures related to vitamin D deficiency. It is recommended that vitamin D enrichment

  3. World Health Organization 2006 child growth standards and 2007 growth reference charts: A discussion paper by the committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique; Michaelsen, Kim F; Shamir, Raanan; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamás; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    Growth charts are essential for evaluating children's health including their nutrition; however, the evaluation of child growth trajectories and consequently the decision to intervene are highly dependent on the growth charts used. The aim of this discussion paper of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition is to provide information on the background and rationale of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 child growth standards and WHO 2007 growth reference charts, describe their development, outline their main innovative aspects, discuss potential limitations, and make recommendations. WHO 2006 child growth standards (0-5 years) are based on prospectively collected data describing the growth of healthy infants who were breast-fed according to WHO recommendations, showing a pattern of linear growth, which is remarkably consistent between different countries and ethnic groups. WHO 2007 growth reference charts (5-19 years) are based mainly on a re-analysis of National Centre for Health Statistics data from 1977, without information on feeding. European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recommends that WHO child growth standards should be used to monitor growth in all children in the age range 0 to 2 years in Europe, whether breast- or formula-fed, and that they should be considered to be used in the age range 2 to 5 years. Implementation of the WHO child growth standards should be preceded by evaluation of the implication of their use on national healthcare policies. Health professionals should be guided on their use and interpretation and an adequate communication strategy should be available locally to ensure that parents receive clear and consistent advice. The decision on whether to implement the WHO growth references (5-19 years) should be made by national bodies because the growth pattern during the 5- to 19-year period differs between

  4. European Gene Mapping Project (EUROGEM): breakpoint panels for human chromosomes based on the CEPH reference families. Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain.

    PubMed

    Cox, S A; Attwood, J; Bryant, S P; Bains, R; Povey, S; Rebello, M; Kapsetaki, M; Moschonas, N K; Grzeschik, K H; Otto, M; Dixon, M; Sudworth, H E; Kooy, R F; Wright, A; Teague, P; Terrenato, L; Vergnaud, G; Monfouilloux, S; Weissenbach, J; Alibert, O; Dib, C; Fauré, S; Bakker, E; Pearson, N M; Spurr, N K

    1996-11-01

    Meiotic breakpoint panels for human chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20 and X were constructed from genotypes from the CEPH reference families. Each recombinant chromosome included has a breakpoint well-supported with reference to defined quantitative criteria. The panels were constructed at both a low-resolution, useful for a first-pass localization, and high-resolution, for a more precise placement. The availability of such panels will reduce the number of genotyping experiments necessary to order new polymorphisms with respect to existing genetic markers. This paper shows only a representative sample of the breakpoints detected. The complete data are available on the World Wide Web (URL http:/(/)www.icnet.uk/axp/hgr/eurogem++ +/HTML/data.html) or by anonymous ftp (ftp.gene.ucl.ac.uk in/pub/eurogem/maps/breakpoints).

  5. Factors predictive of obstructive sleep apnea in patients undergoing pre-operative evaluation for bariatric surgery and referred to a sleep laboratory for polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Ricardo Luiz de Menezes; Magalhães-da-Silveira, Flavio José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the main predictive factors for obtaining a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients awaiting bariatric surgery. Methods: Retrospective study of consecutive patients undergoing pre-operative evaluation for bariatric surgery and referred for in-laboratory polysomnography. Eight variables were evaluated: sex, age, neck circumference (NC), BMI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, snoring, observed apnea, and hypertension. We employed ROC curve analysis to determine the best cut-off value for each variable and multiple linear regression to identify independent predictors of OSA severity. Results: We evaluated 1,089 patients, of whom 781 (71.7%) were female. The overall prevalence of OSA-defined as an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5.0 events/h-was 74.8%. The best cut-off values for NC, BMI, age, and ESS score were 42 cm, 42 kg/m2, 37 years, and 10 points, respectively. All eight variables were found to be independent predictors of a diagnosis of OSA in general, and all but one were found to be independent predictors of a diagnosis of moderate/severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15.0 events/h), the exception being hypertension. We devised a 6-item model, designated the NO-OSAS model (NC, Obesity, Observed apnea, Snoring, Age, and Sex), with a cut-off value of ≥ 3 for identifying high-risk patients. For a diagnosis of moderate/severe OSA, the model showed 70.8% accuracy, 82.8% sensitivity, and 57.9% specificity. Conclusions: In our sample of patients awaiting bariatric surgery, there was a high prevalence of OSA. At a cut-off value of ≥ 3, the proposed 6-item model showed good accuracy for a diagnosis of moderate/severe OSA. PMID:26578136

  6. Histopathological lesions and DNA adducts in the liver of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) collected in the Seine estuary versus two reference estuarine systems on the French Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Cachot, Jérôme; Cherel, Yan; Larcher, Thibaut; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Laroche, Jean; Quiniou, Louis; Morin, Jocelyne; Schmitz, Julien; Burgeot, Thierry; Pottier, Didier

    2013-02-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in the Seine estuary and in two smaller and relatively preserved estuaries on the French Atlantic coast in order to estimate the occurrence of liver lesions in European flounder, Platichthys flesus, and also to seek putative risk factors for the recorded pathologies. Four hundred and seventy-eight fish of both sexes and of different size ranges were sampled in the three studied areas, 338 of which in the Seine estuary. All fish were examined for histopathological liver lesions, while DNA adducts and otoliths were analyzed on a subsample. Five categories of hepatic lesions were recorded with the following prevalence for the Seine estuary: 36.7 % inflammations, 8 % parasites (mainly encysted nematodes), 6.5 % foci of cellular alteration (FCA), 5.3 % foci of necrosis or regeneration (FNR), and 1.5 % tumors. Inflammation occurrence increased according to age, contrary to parasitic infestations and FCA which were more prevalent in young fish, notably those of <1 year old (group 0). Tumors were only observed in females of more than two winters. Females exhibited a higher prevalence of tumors (3.0 %) and FCA (6.5 %) than males (0 and 2.6 %, respectively). Parasitic and infectious lesions and FNR were equally distributed in males and females. The prevalence of FNR was also shown to vary according to sampling season, with significantly more occurrences of liver necrosis in the fish collected in summer than in spring. Spatial differences were observed with a higher occurrence of encysted parasites in flounders from the upper Seine estuary, while inflammations predominated in flounders living downstream. Temporal trends were also noted, with an increased prevalence of parasitic infestations, inflammations, and FCA in the 2002-2003 period in comparison to the 1996-1997 one. The three flounder populations from the Seine estuary (Normandy), Ster estuary (Brittany), and Bay of Veys (Normandy) showed different spectra of hepatic lesions

  7. Future directions in the European union for veterinary education as related to food-producing animals, with special reference to Greece.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, Spyridon C; Alexopoulos, Constantinos; Tassis, Panayiotis D; Tzika, Eleni D; Kritas, Spyridon K; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2004-01-01

    During the past 50 years, procedures for raising food-producing animals have changed. Intensification of food production was necessary to keep prices low and to fulfill market demands for the continuously increasing worldwide population. Intensification of farming procedures produced many new problems, some of which had a considerable impact on public opinion about how animals are raised and how food of animal origin is produced and preserved. "Man made diseases" of animals such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE); contamination of foods with dioxins either through contamination of animal feeds or from the environment; and increased microbial resistance to drugs used for treatment, for prophylaxis of animals from infectious agents, and for growth promotion are some well-known hazards of intensified farming. Veterinarians working on food-producing animals are faced with an increased demand for foods of high quality and safety in developed countries, and higher quantities in the rest of the world. These qualitative and quantitative changes indicate that they must adjust to these new conditions. They will be most successful if their education is adjusted to meet the challenges that the public has created for them through new concepts of the production of food of animal origin. One such concept is the production of foods under fully certified procedures from the farm to the consumer's table. Food safety measures protecting public health will better be achieved if the education of the future veterinarian includes the principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) starting at farm level. This article provides some market-driven ideas in this direction for European Union (EU) countries, including Greece.

  8. European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation. A multicentre calibration study of WHO international reference preparations for thromboplastin, rabbit (RBT/90) and human (rTF/95)

    PubMed Central

    Poller, L; Keown, M; Chauhan, N; van den Besselaar, A M H P; Tripodi, A; Shiach, C; Jespersen, J

    2005-01-01

    A 10 centre calibration was performed after six years to determine the international sensitivity index (ISI) of rTF/95 relative to RBT/90, and to assess any international normalised ratio (INR) bias compared with the original multicentre calibration. After exclusion of one outlying centre, the follow up calibration gave a mean ISI for rTF/95 of 0.99, which although a small difference, is significantly greater than the mean ISI of 0.94 obtained previously. The change in ISI for international reference preparation (IRP) rTF/95 relative to RBT/90 would lead to a slight bias in INR for human compared with rabbit thromboplastins. At a theoretical INR of 3.0, the INR bias is 6.0%, and this is below the accepted 10% level of clinical relevance. Ongoing stability monitoring of World Health Organisation thromboplastin IRP is advised. PMID:15917425

  9. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  10. Postnatal Identification of Trisomy 21: An Overview of 7,133 Postnatal Trisomy 21 Cases Identified in a Diagnostic Reference Laboratory in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Menghua; Jiang, Shuai; Wu, Binbin; Luo, Huali; Wen, Jingyi; Hu, Chaohui; Yu, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the cytogenetic characteristics of 7,133 trisomy 21 (Tri21) identified from 247,818 consecutive postnatal cases karyotyped in a single reference laboratory in China for a period of 4 years. The average detection rate of Tri21 is 2.88% ranging from 3.39% in 2011 to 2.52% in 2014. The decreased detection rates over the years might reflect a possible impact of noninvasive prenatal testing applied rapidly in China and elective termination of affected pregnancies. 95.32% of the Tri21 karyotypes are standard Tri21, 4.53% are Robertsonian Tri21, and less than 1% are other Tri21 forms. There are more mosaic Tri21 in older children and adults, consistent with previous observations that clinical features in individuals with mosaic Tri21 are generally milder and easily missed during perinatal period. The male/female (M/F ratio) for the total 7,133 Tri21 cases and for the 6,671 cases with non-mosaic standard Tri21 are 1.50 and 1.53 respectively, significantly higher than the 0.93 for all the 247,818 cases we karyotyped, the 1.30 for the Down syndrome (DS) identified during perinatal period in China, and the 1.20 for the livebirth in Chinese population. In contrast, the mosaic standard Tri21 case has a significantly lower proportion of males when compared with the non-mosaic standard Tri21, indicating different underlying mechanisms leading to their formations. Opposite M/F ratios in different subtypes of ROB Tri21 were observed. A long list of rare or private karyotypes where Tri21 are concurrently present was identified. The large collection of Tri21 cases with a diversity of clinical findings and a wide age range allowed us to determine the frequency of the different karyotypes of Down syndrome in China, given the fact that this kind of national epidemiological data is lacking currently. PMID:26176847

  11. A Side by Side Comparison of Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS: Utility of MALDI-TOF MS Technology for Microorganism Identification in a Public Health Reference Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Simon; Dufresne, Philippe J; Soualhine, Hafid; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bekal, Sadjia; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a rapid, highly accurate, and cost-effective method for routine identification of a wide range of microorganisms. We carried out a side by side comparative evaluation of the performance of Bruker Biotyper versus VITEK MS for identification of a large and diverse collection of microorganisms. Most difficult and/or unusual microorganisms, as well as commonly encountered microorganisms were selected, including Gram-positive and negative bacteria, mycobacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts and filamentous fungi. Six hundred forty two strains representing 159 genera and 441 species from clinical specimens previously identified at the Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ) by reference methods were retrospectively chosen for the study. They included 254 Gram-positive bacteria, 167 Gram-negative bacteria, 109 mycobacteria and aerobic actinomycetes and 112 yeasts and moulds. MALDI-TOF MS analyses were performed on both systems according to the manufacturer's instructions. Of the 642 strains tested, the name of the genus and / or species of 572 strains were referenced in the Bruker database while 406 were present in the VITEK MS IVD database. The Biotyper correctly identified 494 (86.4%) of the strains, while the VITEK MS correctly identified 362 (92.3%) of the strains (excluding 14 mycobacteria that were not tested). Of the 70 strains not present in the Bruker database at the species level, the Biotyper correctly identified 10 (14.3%) to the genus level and 2 (2.9%) to the complex/group level. For 52 (74.2%) strains, we obtained no identification, and an incorrect identification was given for 6 (8.6%) strains. Of the 178 strains not present in the VITEK MS IVD database at the species level (excluding 71 untested mycobacteria and actinomycetes), the VITEK MS correctly identified 12 (6.8%) of the strains each to the genus and to the complex/group level. For 97 (54

  12. Postnatal Identification of Trisomy 21: An Overview of 7,133 Postnatal Trisomy 21 Cases Identified in a Diagnostic Reference Laboratory in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Chen, Fan; Wu, Menghua; Jiang, Shuai; Wu, Binbin; Luo, Huali; Wen, Jingyi; Hu, Chaohui; Yu, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the cytogenetic characteristics of 7,133 trisomy 21 (Tri21) identified from 247,818 consecutive postnatal cases karyotyped in a single reference laboratory in China for a period of 4 years. The average detection rate of Tri21 is 2.88% ranging from 3.39% in 2011 to 2.52% in 2014. The decreased detection rates over the years might reflect a possible impact of noninvasive prenatal testing applied rapidly in China and elective termination of affected pregnancies. 95.32% of the Tri21 karyotypes are standard Tri21, 4.53% are Robertsonian Tri21, and less than 1% are other Tri21 forms. There are more mosaic Tri21 in older children and adults, consistent with previous observations that clinical features in individuals with mosaic Tri21 are generally milder and easily missed during perinatal period. The male/female (M/F ratio) for the total 7,133 Tri21 cases and for the 6,671 cases with non-mosaic standard Tri21 are 1.50 and 1.53 respectively, significantly higher than the 0.93 for all the 247,818 cases we karyotyped, the 1.30 for the Down syndrome (DS) identified during perinatal period in China, and the 1.20 for the livebirth in Chinese population. In contrast, the mosaic standard Tri21 case has a significantly lower proportion of males when compared with the non-mosaic standard Tri21, indicating different underlying mechanisms leading to their formations. Opposite M/F ratios in different subtypes of ROB Tri21 were observed. A long list of rare or private karyotypes where Tri21 are concurrently present was identified. The large collection of Tri21 cases with a diversity of clinical findings and a wide age range allowed us to determine the frequency of the different karyotypes of Down syndrome in China, given the fact that this kind of national epidemiological data is lacking currently.

  13. A Side by Side Comparison of Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS: Utility of MALDI-TOF MS Technology for Microorganism Identification in a Public Health Reference Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Simon; Dufresne, Philippe J.; Soualhine, Hafid; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bekal, Sadjia; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a rapid, highly accurate, and cost-effective method for routine identification of a wide range of microorganisms. We carried out a side by side comparative evaluation of the performance of Bruker Biotyper versus VITEK MS for identification of a large and diverse collection of microorganisms. Most difficult and/or unusual microorganisms, as well as commonly encountered microorganisms were selected, including Gram-positive and negative bacteria, mycobacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts and filamentous fungi. Six hundred forty two strains representing 159 genera and 441 species from clinical specimens previously identified at the Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ) by reference methods were retrospectively chosen for the study. They included 254 Gram-positive bacteria, 167 Gram-negative bacteria, 109 mycobacteria and aerobic actinomycetes and 112 yeasts and moulds. MALDI-TOF MS analyses were performed on both systems according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Of the 642 strains tested, the name of the genus and / or species of 572 strains were referenced in the Bruker database while 406 were present in the VITEK MS IVD database. The Biotyper correctly identified 494 (86.4%) of the strains, while the VITEK MS correctly identified 362 (92.3%) of the strains (excluding 14 mycobacteria that were not tested). Of the 70 strains not present in the Bruker database at the species level, the Biotyper correctly identified 10 (14.3%) to the genus level and 2 (2.9%) to the complex/group level. For 52 (74.2%) strains, we obtained no identification, and an incorrect identification was given for 6 (8.6%) strains. Of the 178 strains not present in the VITEK MS IVD database at the species level (excluding 71 untested mycobacteria and actinomycetes), the VITEK MS correctly identified 12 (6.8%) of the strains each to the genus and to the complex/group level. For 97

  14. An evaluation of two commercially available ELISAs and one in-house reference laboratory ELISA for the determination of human anti-rabies virus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ryan J; Anderson, Brian L; Litwin, Christine M

    2009-06-01

    The envelope glycoprotein G of rabies virus in vaccines induces the production of neutralizing antibodies important in the protection against the disease. The measurement of anti-envelope glycoprotein antibodies is a good predictor of the degree of humoral immunity in people during anti-rabies treatment or after vaccination. Several assays exist for the serological determination of antibody protection against rabies virus infection. Antibody neutralization by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) or the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test is currently the gold standard. Performance of the highly complex RFFIT and FAVN tests, however, requires specialized reference laboratories with expertise with this assay. Although not widely used, ELISA test kits are available and may be an additional option for testing that is more accessible. The aim of the present study was to evaluate available ELISA assays for the determination of anti-rabies antibodies. We compared the Bio-Rad Platelia Rabies II ELISA, DRG Rabies Virus IgG Ab ELISA and Focus Diagnostics Rabies Antibody Detection by ELISA to RFFIT. Bland-Altman plots comparing the Bio-Rad Platelia assay and the Focus Diagnostics assay to RFFIT showed a low degree of variability between the ELISA assays and RFFIT results except in samples with high RFFIT values. The agreement, sensitivity and specificity of Bio-Rad Platelia Rabies II ELISA when compared to RFFIT were 95.1 %, 94.1 % and 95.8 %, respectively. The DRG Rabies assay compared to RFFIT had an agreement of 77.7 %, a sensitivity of 86.7 % and a specificity of 69.4 %. The agreement, sensitivity and specificity of Focus Diagnostics Rabies Detection by ELISA when compared to RFFIT were 82.2 %, 91.7 % and 73.0 %, respectively. Overall, the Bio-Rad Platelia assay showed higher accuracy and specificity than either the DRG or Focus assays. All of these ELISAs, however, measure all antibody types and do not discriminate the neutralizing

  15. European Measurement Comparisons of Environmental Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Waetjen, Uwe

    2008-08-14

    The scheme of European measurement comparisons to verify radioactivity monitoring in the European Union is briefly explained. After a review of comparisons conducted during the years 1990, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. IRMM is providing comparison samples with a reference value traceable to the SI units and which is fully documented to all participants and national authorities after completion of the comparison. The sample preparation and determination of traceable reference values at IRMM, the sample treatment and measurement in the participating laboratories, as well as the evaluation of comparison results are described in some detail using the example of an air filter comparison. The results of a comparison to determine metabolised {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in milk powder are presented as well. The necessary improvements in the estimation of measurement uncertainty by the participating laboratories are discussed. The performance of individual laboratories which have participated in at least four comparison exercises over the years is studied in terms of observable trends.

  16. Improving quality in the preanalytical phase through innovation, on behalf of the European Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE).

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Baird, Geoffrey S; Banfi, Giuseppe; Bölenius, Karin; Cadamuro, Janne; Church, Stephen; Cornes, Michael P; Dacey, Anna; Guillon, Antoine; Hoffmann, Georg; Nybo, Mads; Premawardhana, Lakdasa Devananda; Salinas, María; Sandberg, Sverre; Slingerland, Robbert; Stankovic, Ana; Sverresdotter, Sylte Marit; Vermeersch, Pieter; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2017-03-01

    It is now undeniable that laboratory testing is vital for the diagnosis, prognostication and therapeutic monitoring of human disease. Despite the many advances made for achieving a high degree of quality and safety in the analytical part of diagnostic testing, many hurdles in the total testing process remain, especially in the preanalytical phase ranging from test ordering to obtaining and managing the biological specimens. The Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has planned many activities aimed at mitigating the vulnerability of the preanalytical phase, including the organization of three European meetings in the past 7 years. Hence, this collective article follows the previous three opinion papers that were published by the EFLM WGPRE on the same topic, and brings together the summaries of the presentations that will be given at the 4th EFLM-BD meeting "Improving quality in the preanalytical phase through innovation" in Amsterdam, 24-25 March, 2017.

  17. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing corn grain with insect-protected (corn rootworm and European corn borer) and herbicide-tolerant (glyphosate) traits, control corn, or commercial reference corn--revisited.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M L; Hartnell, G; Nemeth, M; Karunanandaa, K; George, B

    2005-12-01

    A 42-d feeding experiment with growing Ross x Ross 508 broilers showed that the nutritional value of insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant corn was comparable to that of the genetically similar control and 5 commercial reference corn hybrids. MON 88017 provides protection from feeding damage by coleopteran pest corn rootworm and is tolerant to the action of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the Roundup family of agricultural herbicides. MON 88017 x MON 810 was developed by the traditional breeding of MON 88017 with MON 810, which provides protection from the European corn borer and other lepidopteran pests. A randomized complete block design was used with 8 dietary treatments in each of 5 replicated blocks of pens. No differences among diets were observed (P > 0.05) in performance (final live weights, feed intake, feed conversion, and adjusted feed conversion), carcass yield (chill, fat pad, breast, thigh, wing, and drum weight), or percentage of moisture, protein, and fat in breast meat and moisture and fat in thigh meat. Thigh protein was similar (P > 0.05) in broilers fed diets containing MON 88017 x MON 810 and conventional control or all commercial reference corns; however, differences (P < 0.05) were noted for the percentage of thigh protein among broilers fed the control and 2 of the 5 reference diets, attributable to biological variability among the conventional corn hybrids. Broilers overall performed consistently and had similar carcass yield and meat composition when fed diets containing MON 88017 or MON 88017 x MON 810 as compared with those fed the conventional control and commercial diets, supporting a conclusion of nutritional equivalence.

  18. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing corn grain with insect-protected (corn rootworm and European corn borer) and herbicide-tolerant (glyphosate) traits, control corn, or commercial reference corn.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M L; Hartnell, G; Nemeth, M; Karunanandaa, K; George, B

    2005-04-01

    A 42-d feeding experiment with growing Ross x Ross 508 broilers showed that the nutritional value of insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant corn was comparable to that of the genetically similar control and 5 commercial reference corn hybrids. MON 88017 provides protection from feeding damage by coleopteran pest corn rootworm and is tolerant to the action of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the Roundup family of agricultural herbicides. MON 88017 x MON 810 was developed by the traditional breeding of MON 88017 with MON 810, which provides protection from the European corn borer and other lepidopteran pests. A randomized complete block design was used with 8 dietary treatments in each of 5 replicated blocks of pens. No differences among diets were observed (P > 0.05) in performance (final live weights, feed intake, feed conversion, and adjusted feed conversion), carcass yield (chill, fat pad, breast, thigh, wing, and drum weight), or percentage of moisture, protein, and fat in breast meat and moisture and fat in thigh meat. Thigh protein was similar (P > 0.05) in broilers fed diets containing MON 88017 x MON 810 and conventional control or all commercial reference corns; however, differences (P < 0.05) were noted for the percentage of thigh protein among broilers fed the control and 2 of the 5 reference diets, attributable to biological variability among the conventional corn hybrids. Broilers overall performed consistently and had similar carcass yield and meat composition when fed diets containing MON 88017 or MON 88017 x MON 810 as compared with those fed the conventional control and commercial diets, supporting a conclusion of nutritional equivalence.

  19. FELASA recommendations for the education and training of laboratory animal technicians: category A: report of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations Working Group on Education of Animal Technicians (Category A) accepted by the FELASA Board of Management.

    PubMed

    Weiss Convenor, J; Bukelskiene, V; Chambrier, Ph; Ferrari, L; van der Meulen, M; Moreno, M; Mulkens, F; Sigg, H; Yates, N

    2010-07-01

    The future laboratory animal technician in Europe will be provided with three different levels of education. All candidates have to start with an introductory course to reach level A0. At this level (A0) they will be able to assist in the laboratory animal facility by undertaking limited specific duties under supervision. Most A0 assistants will continue their education and training for at least one year while in full-time employment. This process will include continual assessment with the option of a final examination to become qualified at level A1. A1 represents a comprehensively educated laboratory animal technician with theoretical background knowledge and practical skills. Some of the A1 laboratory animal technicians may continue specific education for at least another year of full-time employment. They will develop knowledge and expertise as well as supervisory and basic managerial skills in order to obtain level A2.

  20. Validation of 24-hour flucytosine MIC determination by comparison with 48-hour determination by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 broth microdilution reference method.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Bolden, Carol B; Iqbal, Naureen; Kuykendall, Randall J

    2011-12-01

    Flucytosine and itraconazole are the only antifungal agents for which the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute recommendations include MIC breakpoint readings at 48 h only. Here we show good essential and categorical agreement between the flucytosine MIC readings at 48 and 24 h for Candida species.

  1. Standardization of collection requirements for fasting samples: for the Working Group on Preanalytical Phase (WG-PA) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM).

    PubMed

    Simundic, A M; Cornes, M; Grankvist, K; Lippi, G; Nybo, M

    2014-05-15

    Standardized protocols for patient preparation for laboratory testing are currently lacking. Moreover, a great heterogeneity exists in the definitions of "fasting" currently being used among healthcare workers and in the literature. Marked metabolic and hormonal changes occur after food ingestion, mainly due to the absorption of fluids, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and other food constituents. This postprandial response varies markedly in response to numerous factors, such as eating behavior, food composition, fasting duration, time of the day, chronic and acute smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption. It is therefore crucial to minimize the total variability by controlling as many of these modifying factors as possible. Control of the abovementioned effects on postprandial response can only be achieved by standardizing the way patients are prepared for laboratory testing, i.e. by defining the fasting duration, as well as what is and what is not allowed (e.g., coffee, tea, smoking, water) during the period of fasting prior to sample collection. The aim of this article is to describe the range of effects of different approaches to fasting on laboratory tests, and to provide a framework for the harmonization of definitions for fasting requirements for laboratory tests.

  2. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  3. A Request for Planning Funds for a Research and Study Abroad Facility in Geneva, Switzerland in Affiliation with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    campbell, myron

    2013-03-31

    To create a research and study abroad program that would allow U.S. undergraduate students access to the world-leading research facilities at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the World Health Organization, various operations of the United Nations and other international organizations based in Geneva.The proposal is based on the unique opportunities currently existing in Geneva. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now operational at CERN, data are being collected, and research results are already beginning to emerge. At the same time, a related reduction of activity at U.S. facilities devoted to particle physics is expected. In addition, the U.S. higher-education community has an ever-increasing focus on international organizations dealing with world health pandemics, arms control and human rights, a nexus also centered in Geneva.

  4. Isotope reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic reference materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.

  5. In vitro susceptibility of filamentous fungi to itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference method and E-test.

    PubMed

    Kondori, N; Svensson, E; Mattsby-Baltzer, I

    2011-09-01

    The use of anti-fungal agents has increased dramatically in recent years and new drugs have been developed. Several methods are available for determinations of their specific biological activities, i.e. the standard method for minimum inhibitory concentration-determination is described in M-38 [Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M-38 (CLSI M-38)]. However, alternative methods, such as the E-test, are currently available in Mycology laboratories. The susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. (n = 29), Fusarium spp. (n = 5), zygomycetes (n = 21) and Schizophyllum (n = 1) were determined for itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, using the CLSI M-38-A broth dilution method and also by the E-test. A good overall agreement (83.7%) between the two methods for all drugs and organisms was observed. Analyses of voriconazole showed a better agreement (93%) between the methods than posaconazole and itraconazole (85% and 74% respectively). Aspergillus spp. were the most susceptible fungi to the anti-fungal agents tested in this study. Posaconazole was the most active drug against filamentous fungi in vitro, followed by itraconazole and voriconazole. The latter (voriconazole) demonstrated no significant in vitro activity against zygomycetes.

  6. Extrapolating laboratory avian toxicity data to free-living birds: Comparison of the toxicity of parathion to captive and free-living European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Rattner, B.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, we captured nesting wild female European starlings with young 8-10 days of age. Birds were weighted, banded, and given one of four dosages of the OP insecticide parathion (50, 72, 104 or 150 mg/kg dissolved in corn oil) or pure corn-oil (control). and their young weighed. Nest boxes (7- 12/treatment) were observed and young re-weighed 2-3 days postdose to determine presence/absence of the females. If necessary, males were captured and fate of young used to confirm female response. Brain ChE inhibition in dosed birds (based on a pilot study) was 55-74%. EC50's (failure to return to nest box) for the females was 74 mg/kg in 1985 and 92 mg/kg in 1986. Confidence limit (95%) for these estimates overlapped LD50's for captive female starlings dosed with the OP in spring and early summer 1987 (136, 128 mg/kg, respectively). Results suggest that responses of captive and free-living birds to potentially lethal concentrations of OP's are similar, despite the additional stresses in the wild.

  7. Comparative evaluation of Etest and sensititre yeastone panels against the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A2 reference broth microdilution method for testing Candida susceptibility to seven antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Barbara D; Byrne, Terry C; Smith, Kelly L; Hanson, Kimberly E; Anstrom, Kevin J; Perfect, John R; Reller, L Barth

    2007-03-01

    To assess their utility for antifungal susceptibility testing in our clinical laboratory, the Etest and Sensititre methods were compared with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A2 reference broth microdilution method. Fluconazole (FL), itraconazole (I), voriconazole (V), posaconazole (P), flucytosine (FC), caspofungin (C), and amphotericin B (A) were tested with 212 Candida isolates. Reference MICs were determined after 48 h of incubation, and Etest and Sensititre MICs were determined after 24 h and 48 h of incubation. Overall, excellent essential agreement (EA) between the reference and test methods was observed for Etest (95%) and Sensititre (91%). Etest showed an >or=92% EA for MICs for all drugs tested; Sensititre showed a >or=92% EA for MICs for I, FC, A, and C but 82% for FL and 85% for V. The overall categorical agreement (CA) was 90% for Etest and 88% for Sensititre; minor errors accounted for the majority of all categorical errors for both systems. Categorical agreement was lowest for Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis with both test systems. Etest and Sensititre provided better CA at 24 h compared to 48 h for C. glabrata; however, CA for C. glabrata was <80% for FL with both test systems despite MIC determination at 24 h. Agreement between technologists for both methods was >or=98% for each agent against all organisms tested. Overall, Etest and Sensititre methods compared favorably with the CLSI reference method for determining the susceptibility of Candida. However, further evaluation of their performance for determining the MICs of azoles, particularly for C. glabrata, is warranted.

  8. Comparison of exhaust emissions from Swedish environmental classified diesel fuel (MK1) and European Program on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) reference fuel: a chemical and biological characterization, with viewpoints on cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, R; Christensen, A; Törnqvist, M; Ehrenberg, L; Rannug, U; Sjögren, M; Rafter, J; Soontjens, C; Almén, J; Grägg, K

    2001-05-01

    Diesel fuels, classified as environmentally friendly, have been available on the Swedish market since 1991. The Swedish diesel fuel classification is based upon the specification of selected fuel composition and physical properties to reduce potential environmental and health effects from direct human exposure to exhaust. The objective of the present investigation was to compare the most stringent, environmentally classified Swedish diesel fuel (MK1) to the reference diesel fuel used in the "European Program on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies" (EPEFE) program. The study compares measurements of regulated emissions, unregulated emissions, and biological tests from a Volvo truck using these fuels. The regulated emissions from these two fuels (MK1 vs EPEFE) were CO (-2.2%), HC (12%), NOx (-11%), and particulates (-11%). The emissions of aldehydes, alkenes, and carbon dioxide were basically equivalent. The emissions of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 1-nitropyrene were 88% and 98% lower than those of the EPEFE fuel, respectively. The emissions of semi-volatile PAHs and 1-nitropyrene were 77% and 80% lower than those from the EPEFE fuel, respectively. The reduction in mutagenicity of the particle extract varied from -75 to -90%, depending on the tester strain. The reduction of mutagenicity of the semi-volatile extract varied between -40 and -60%. Furthermore, the dioxin receptor binding activity was a factor of 8 times lower in the particle extracts and a factor of 4 times lower in the semi-volatile extract than that of the EPEFE fuel. In conclusion, the MK1 fuel was found to be more environmentally friendly than the EPEFE fuel.

  9. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 °C. Part 9: reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alkaline phosphatase International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Scientific Division, Committee on Reference Systems of Enzymes (C-RSE) (1)).

    PubMed

    Schumann, Gerhard; Klauke, Rainer; Canalias, Francesca; Bossert-Reuther, Steffen; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F-Javier; Jørgensen, Poul J; Kang, Dongchon; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Panteghini, Mauro; Ceriotti, Ferruccio

    2011-09-01

    Abstract This paper is the ninth in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 °C and the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 1. The concept of reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes; Part 2. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of creatine kinase; Part 3. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of lactate dehydrogenase; Part 4. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alanine aminotransferase; Part 5. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of aspartate aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of γ-glutamyltransferase; Part 7. Certification of four reference materials for the determination of enzymatic activity of γ-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase at 37 °C; Part 8. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of α-amylase. The procedure described here is derived from the previously described 30 °C IFCC reference method. Differences are tabulated and commented on in Appendix 1.

  10. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for δ18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Böhlke, J.K.; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groning, Manfred; Jansen, Henk G.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Soergel, Karin; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Weise, Stephan M.; Werner, Roland A.

    2009-01-01

    −55.5‰ The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for δ18O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (δ18O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the δ18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA-SO-6, and NBS 127), or organic material (IAEA-601 benzoic acid, IAEA-602 benzoic acid, and IAEA-600 caffeine), as appropriate to the material being analyzed, had these reference materials been analyzed with unknowns. This procedure ensures that readers will be able to normalize the δ18O values at a later time should it become necessary. The high-temperature reduction technique for analyzing δ18O and δ2H is not as widely applicable as the well-established combustion technique for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope determination. To obtain the most reliable stable isotope data, materials should be treated in an identical fashion; within the same sequence of analyses, samples should be compared with working reference materials that are as similar in nature and in isotopic composition as feasible. 

  11. X-Ray Diffraction Reference Intensity Ratios of Amorphous and Poorly Crystalline Phases: Implications for CheMin on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity is an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument capable of providing the mineralogical and chemical compositions of rocks and soils on the surface of Mars. CheMin uses a microfocus X-ray tube with a Co target, transmission geometry, and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D XRD patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray histograms from powdered samples. Piezoelectric vibration of the cell is used to randomize the sample to reduce preferred orientation effects. Instrument details are provided in [1, 2, 3]. Analyses of rock and soil samples by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) show nanophase ferric oxide (npOx) is a significant component of the Martian global soil [4] and is thought to be one of the major contributing phases that the Curiosity rover will encounter if a soil sample is analyzed in Gale Crater. Because of the nature of this material, npOx will likely contribute to an X-ray amorphous or short-order component of a XRD pattern measured by the CheMin instrument.

  12. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for d18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Bohlke, Johnkarl F.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Brand, Willi A.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groning, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    IAEA-602 benzoic acid +71.28?±?0.36‰ USGS35 sodium nitrate +56.81?±?0.31‰ IAEA-NO-3 potassium nitrate +25.32?±?0.29‰ IAEA-601 benzoic acid +23.14?±?0.19‰ IAEA-SO-5 barium sulfate +12.13?±?0.33‰ NBS 127 barium sulfate +8.59?±?0.26‰ VSMOW2 water 0‰ IAEA-600 caffeine -3.48?±?0.53‰ IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfate -11.35?±?0.31‰ USGS34 potassium nitrate -27.78?±?0.37‰ SLAP water -55.5‰ The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for d18O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (d18O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the d18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA-SO-6, and NBS 127), or organic material (IAEA-601 benzoic acid, IAEA-602 benzoic acid, and IAEA-600 caffeine), as appropriate to the material being analyzed, had these reference materials been analyzed with unknowns. This procedure ensures that readers will be able to normalize the d18O values at a later time should it become necessary. The high-temperature reduction technique for analyzing d18O and d2H is not as widely applicable as the well-established combustion technique for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope determination. To obtain the most reliable stable isotope data, materials should be treated in an identical fashion; within the same sequence of analyses, samples should be compared with working reference materials that are as similar in nature and in isotopic composition as feasible."

  13. The standardized fish bioassay procedure for detecting and culturing actively toxic Pfiesteria, used by two reference laboratories for atlantic and gulf coast states.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, J M; Marshall, H G; Glasgow, H B; Seaborn, D W; Deamer-Melia, N J

    2001-10-01

    In the absence of purified standards of toxins from Pfiesteria species, appropriately conducted fish bioassays are the "gold standard" that must be used to detect toxic strains of Pfiesteria spp. from natural estuarine water or sediment samples and to culture actively toxic Pfiesteria. In this article, we describe the standardized steps of our fish bioassay as an abbreviated term for a procedure that includes two sets of trials with fish, following the Henle-Koch postulates modified for toxic rather than infectious agents. This procedure was developed in 1991, and has been refined over more than 12 years of experience in research with toxic Pfiesteria. The steps involve isolating toxic strains of Pfiesteria (or other potentially, as-yet-undetected, toxic Pfiesteria or Pfiesteria-like species) from fish-killing bioassays with natural samples; growing the clones with axenic algal prey; and retesting the isolates in a second set of fish bioassays. The specific environmental conditions used (e.g., temperature, salinity, light, other factors) must remain flexible, given the wide range of conditions from which natural estuarine samples are derived. We present a comparison of information provided for fish culture conditions, reported in international science journals in which such research is routinely published, and we provide information from more than 2,000 fish bioassays with toxic Pfiesteria, along with recommendations for suitable ranges and frequency of monitoring of environmental variables. We present data demonstrating that algal assays, unlike these standardized fish bioassays, should not be used to detect toxic strains of Pfiesteria spp. Finally, we recommend how quality control/assurance can be most rapidly advanced among laboratories engaged in studies that require research-quality isolates of toxic Pfiesteria spp.

  14. The standardized fish bioassay procedure for detecting and culturing actively toxic Pfiesteria, used by two reference laboratories for atlantic and gulf coast states.

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, J M; Marshall, H G; Glasgow, H B; Seaborn, D W; Deamer-Melia, N J

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of purified standards of toxins from Pfiesteria species, appropriately conducted fish bioassays are the "gold standard" that must be used to detect toxic strains of Pfiesteria spp. from natural estuarine water or sediment samples and to culture actively toxic Pfiesteria. In this article, we describe the standardized steps of our fish bioassay as an abbreviated term for a procedure that includes two sets of trials with fish, following the Henle-Koch postulates modified for toxic rather than infectious agents. This procedure was developed in 1991, and has been refined over more than 12 years of experience in research with toxic Pfiesteria. The steps involve isolating toxic strains of Pfiesteria (or other potentially, as-yet-undetected, toxic Pfiesteria or Pfiesteria-like species) from fish-killing bioassays with natural samples; growing the clones with axenic algal prey; and retesting the isolates in a second set of fish bioassays. The specific environmental conditions used (e.g., temperature, salinity, light, other factors) must remain flexible, given the wide range of conditions from which natural estuarine samples are derived. We present a comparison of information provided for fish culture conditions, reported in international science journals in which such research is routinely published, and we provide information from more than 2,000 fish bioassays with toxic Pfiesteria, along with recommendations for suitable ranges and frequency of monitoring of environmental variables. We present data demonstrating that algal assays, unlike these standardized fish bioassays, should not be used to detect toxic strains of Pfiesteria spp. Finally, we recommend how quality control/assurance can be most rapidly advanced among laboratories engaged in studies that require research-quality isolates of toxic Pfiesteria spp. PMID:11677184

  15. Comparison of a spectrophotometric microdilution method with RPMI-2% glucose with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards reference macrodilution method M27-P for in vitro susceptibility testing of amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole against Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Tudela, J L; Berenguer, J; Martínez-Suárez, J V; Sanchez, R

    1996-01-01

    The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has proposed a reference broth macrodilution method for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts (the M27-P method). This method is cumbersome and time-consuming and includes MIC endpoint determination by visual and subjective inspection of growth inhibition after 48 h of incubation. An alternative microdilution procedure was compared with the M27-P method for determination of the amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole susceptibilities of 8 American Type Culture Collection strains (6 of them were quality control or reference strains) and 50 clinical isolates of candida albicans. This microdilution method uses as culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with 18 g of glucose per liter (RPMI-2% glucose). Preparation of drugs, basal medium, and inocula was done by following the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The MIC endpoint was calculated objectively from the turbidimetric data read at 24 h. Increased growth of C. albicans in RPMI-2% glucose and its spectrophotometric reading allowed for the rapid (24 h) and objective calculation of MIC endpoints compared with previous microdilution methods with standard RPMI 1640. Nevertheless, good agreement was shown between the M27-P method and this microdilution test. The MICs obtained for the quality control or reference strains by the microdilution method were in the ranges published for those strains. For clinical isolates, the percentages of agreement were 100% for amphotericin B and fluconazole and 98.1% for flucytosine. These data suggest that this microdilution method may serve as a less subjective and more rapid alternative to the M27-P method for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts. PMID:8878570

  16. Laboratory-based investigation of suspected mumps cases submitted to the German National Reference Centre for Measles, Mumps, and Rubella, 2008 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Mankertz, Annette; Beutel, Ulrike; Schmidt, Franz-Josef; Borgmann, Stefan; Wenzel, Jürgen J; Ziegler, Peter; Weißbrich, Benedikt; Santibanez, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    From 2008 to 2013, sample sets from 534 patients displaying clinical symptoms of mumps were submitted to the German Reference Centre for Measles, Mumps and Rubella. Mumps virus infection was confirmed in 216 cases (40%) by PCR and/or serology. Confirmed cases were more frequently seen in male than in female patients (128 vs. 81); the age group predominantly affected was 15 to 29 years old (65%, median age: 26.4 years). The majority of the confirmed cases had a remote history of vaccination with one or two doses of a mumps-containing vaccine (69%). Our results indicate that mumps virus caused two outbreaks in Bavaria in 2008 and 2010/2011 and a third one in Lower Saxony in 2011. Mumps virus genotype G was preponderantly detected from 2008 to 2013. For 107 of the 216 patients with a confirmed mumps infection, we correlated the results from PCR and serology. PCR detected cases during the first week after onset of symptoms (74% positive results). PCR worked best with throat swabs and oral fluids (61% and 60% positive results, respectively). IgM was more reliable with a longer time after onset of symptoms (67%), but indirect IgM serology was of insufficient sensitivity for vaccinated mumps cases (30%); the IgM μ-capture assay detected more cases in this group. Mumps virus is able to initiate an infection in vaccinated patients (secondary vaccine failure, SVF) although it is unclear to what extent. Since SVF does occur in highly vaccinated populations and IgM will not increase to detectable levels in all SVF patients, we strongly recommend using PCR plus serology tests to avoid false-negative diagnoses in vaccinated individuals with clinical signs of mumps.

  17. Proficiency Program for Real-Time PCR Diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis Infections in French Hospital Laboratories and at the French National Reference Center for Whooping Cough and other Bordetelloses▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Valérie; Guiso, Nicole; Alberti, Corinne; Liguori, Sandrine; Burucoa, Christophe; Couetdic, Gérard; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Ferroni, Agnès; Papin-Gibaud, Sophie; Grattard, Florence; Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Raymond, Josette; Soler, Catherine; Bouchet, Sylvie; Charreau, Sandrine; Couzon, Brigitte; Leymarie, Isabelle; Tavares, Nicole; Choux, Mathilde; Bingen, Edouard; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    With the support of a ministerial program for innovative and expensive technologies, dedicated to the economic evaluation of laboratory diagnosis of pertussis by real-time PCR, external quality assessment for real-time IS481 PCR was carried out. Coordinated by the National Centre of Reference of Pertussis and other Bordetelloses (NCR), this study aimed to harmonize and to assess the performances of eight participating microbiology hospital laboratories throughout the French territory. Between January 2006 and February 2007, 10 proficiency panels were sent by the NCR (ascending proficiency program), representing a total of 49 samples and including eight panels to analyze and evaluate the global sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR, one to assess the limit of detection, and one to evaluate nucleic acid extraction methods. As part of the descending proficiency program, extracted DNA from clinical samples was sent by the eight participating laboratories in different panels and analyzed by the NCR. In the ascending proficiency analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR methods were 92.2% and 94.3%, respectively. The limit of detection of the different methods ranged between 0.1 and 1 fg/μl (0.2 to 2 CFU/μl). The nucleic acid extraction methods showed similar performances. During the descending proficiency analysis, performed with 126 samples, the result of the NCR for 15 samples (11.9%) was discordant with the result obtained by the source laboratory. Despite several initial differences, harmonization was easy and performances were homogeneous. However, the risk of false-positive results remains quite high, and we strongly recommend establishment of uniform quality control procedures performed regularly. PMID:19692562

  18. Proficiency program for real-time PCR diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infections in French hospital laboratories and at the French National Reference Center for Whooping Cough and other Bordetelloses.

    PubMed

    Caro, Valérie; Guiso, Nicole; Alberti, Corinne; Liguori, Sandrine; Burucoa, Christophe; Couetdic, Gérard; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Ferroni, Agnès; Papin-Gibaud, Sophie; Grattard, Florence; Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Raymond, Josette; Soler, Catherine; Bouchet, Sylvie; Charreau, Sandrine; Couzon, Brigitte; Leymarie, Isabelle; Tavares, Nicole; Choux, Mathilde; Bingen, Edouard; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2009-10-01

    With the support of a ministerial program for innovative and expensive technologies, dedicated to the economic evaluation of laboratory diagnosis of pertussis by real-time PCR, external quality assessment for real-time IS481 PCR was carried out. Coordinated by the National Centre of Reference of Pertussis and other Bordetelloses (NCR), this study aimed to harmonize and to assess the performances of eight participating microbiology hospital laboratories throughout the French territory. Between January 2006 and February 2007, 10 proficiency panels were sent by the NCR (ascending proficiency program), representing a total of 49 samples and including eight panels to analyze and evaluate the global sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR, one to assess the limit of detection, and one to evaluate nucleic acid extraction methods. As part of the descending proficiency program, extracted DNA from clinical samples was sent by the eight participating laboratories in different panels and analyzed by the NCR. In the ascending proficiency analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR methods were 92.2% and 94.3%, respectively. The limit of detection of the different methods ranged between 0.1 and 1 fg/microl (0.2 to 2 CFU/microl). The nucleic acid extraction methods showed similar performances. During the descending proficiency analysis, performed with 126 samples, the result of the NCR for 15 samples (11.9%) was discordant with the result obtained by the source laboratory. Despite several initial differences, harmonization was easy and performances were homogeneous. However, the risk of false-positive results remains quite high, and we strongly recommend establishment of uniform quality control procedures performed regularly.

  19. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  20. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  1. Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  2. Advancements in NORM metrology - Results and impact of the European joint research project MetroNORM.

    PubMed

    Josef Maringer, Franz; Baumgartner, Andreas; Cardellini, Francesco; Cassette, Philippe; Crespo, Teresa; Dean, Julian; Wiedner, Hannah; Hůlka, Jiři; Hult, Mikael; Jerome, Simon; Kabrt, Franz; Kovář, Petr; Larijani, Cyrus; Lutter, Guillaume; Marouli, Maria; Mauring, Alexander; Mazánová, Monika; Michalik, Bogusław; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peyres, Virginia; Pierre, Sylvie; Pöllänen, Roy; Pommé, Stefaan; Reis, Mário; Stietka, Michael; Szücs, László; Vodenik, Branko

    2017-03-08

    The results of the three years European Metrology Research Programme's (EMRP) joint research project 'Metrology for processing materials with high natural radioactivity' (MetroNORM) are presented. In this project, metrologically sound novel instruments and procedures for laboratory and in-situ NORM activity measurements have been developed. Additionally, standard reference materials and sources for traceable calibration and improved decay data of natural radionuclides have been established.

  3. Comparison of the Sensititre YeastOne® dilution method with the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 microbroth dilution reference method for determining MIC of eight antifungal agents on 102 yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Bertout, S; Dunyach, C; Drakulovski, P; Reynes, J; Mallié, M

    2011-02-01

    The Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute ([CLSI] formerly NCCLS) reference broth microdilution testing method (protocol M27-A3) was compared with a commercially available methods (Sensititre YeastOne(®)) by testing two quality control strains and 102 isolates of Candida sp. and Cryptococcus sp. against fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, flucytosin, amphotericin B and caspofungin. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) endpoints were determined after 24h of incubation for Sensititre YeastOne(®) and after 24 and 48 h for CLSI microdilution method. Essential agreements between methods vary from 70.6 to 92.2%. Categorical agreements vary from 94.1% for 5FC to 72.6% for AMB. Sensititre YeastOne(®) reading appears to be useful for avoiding very major errors and this confirms the interest of this method for evaluating new antifungals activity in vitro.

  4. Linguistic Competences of Learners of Dutch as a Second Language at the B1 and B2 Levels of Speaking Proficiency of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Schoonen, Rob; de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral Production scale of the Common European Framework of…

  5. [Echocardiographic reference ranges of sedated cats].

    PubMed

    Dümmel, C; Neu, H; Hüttig, A; Failing, K

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this study was to get echocardiographic values of sedated healthy cats of the race European short hair for further reference. After the preliminary examinations checking on the state of health (anamnesis, general and special clinical examinations, ECG, X-ray of thorax and preparation of selected laboratory parameters), 74 sedated animals and additionally 33 cats without sedation were echocardiographically measured. For sedatives we used ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine in order to minimize defending movements of the animals and to reduce the heart rate, which facilitated the echocardiographical measurements. The covariance analysis of the measured values showed a statistically significant dependence on the weight. This did not hold for the two calculated values of the fractional shortening (FS) and the quotient of left atrium and aorta (LA/Ao), where the weight-dependence of each component was compensated by the calculation of the quotient. All stated weight-dependent reference values refer to an average bodyweight of 4.0 kg. A dependence on the age did not show in the covariance analysis. Due to the sedation, the diameter of the left atrium (LA) and the diameter of the left ventricular lumen in the diastole (LVDd) as well as the fractional shortening decreased significantly.

  6. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  7. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  8. Reference Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  9. Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for…

  10. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-13

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  11. Quality assurance practices in Europe: a survey of molecular genetic testing laboratories.

    PubMed

    Berwouts, Sarah; Fanning, Katrina; Morris, Michael A; Barton, David E; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2012-11-01

    In the 2000s, a number of initiatives were taken internationally to improve quality in genetic testing services. To contribute to and update the limited literature available related to this topic, we surveyed 910 human molecular genetic testing laboratories, of which 291 (32%) from 29 European countries responded. The majority of laboratories were in the public sector (81%), affiliated with a university hospital (60%). Only a minority of laboratories was accredited (23%), and 26% was certified. A total of 22% of laboratories did not participate in external quality assessment (EQA) and 28% did not use reference materials (RMs). The main motivations given for accreditation were to improve laboratory profile (85%) and national recognition (84%). Nearly all respondents (95%) would prefer working in an accredited laboratory. In accredited laboratories, participation in EQA (P<0.0001), use of RMs (P=0.0014) and availability of continuous education (CE) on medical/scientific subjects (P=0.023), specific tasks (P=0.0018), and quality assurance (P<0.0001) were significantly higher than in non-accredited laboratories. Non-accredited laboratories expect higher restriction of development of new techniques (P=0.023) and improvement of work satisfaction (P=0.0002) than accredited laboratories. By using a quality implementation score (QIS), we showed that accredited laboratories (average score 92) comply better than certified laboratories (average score 69, P<0.001), and certified laboratories better than other laboratories (average score 44, P<0.001), with regard to the implementation of quality indicators. We conclude that quality practices vary widely in European genetic testing laboratories. This leads to a potentially dangerous situation in which the quality of genetic testing is not consistently assured.

  12. Fasting is not routinely required for determination of a lipid profile: clinical and laboratory implications including flagging at desirable concentration cut-points—a joint consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society and European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Langsted, Anne; Mora, Samia; Kolovou, Genovefa; Baum, Hannsjörg; Bruckert, Eric; Watts, Gerald F.; Sypniewska, Grazyna; Wiklund, Olov; Borén, Jan; Chapman, M. John; Cobbaert, Christa; Descamps, Olivier S.; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Pulkki, Kari; Kronenberg, Florian; Remaley, Alan T.; Rifai, Nader; Ros, Emilio; Langlois, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Aims To critically evaluate the clinical implications of the use of non-fasting rather than fasting lipid profiles and to provide guidance for the laboratory reporting of abnormal non-fasting or fasting lipid profiles. Methods and results Extensive observational data, in which random non-fasting lipid profiles have been compared with those determined under fasting conditions, indicate that the maximal mean changes at 1–6 h after habitual meals are not clinically significant [+0.3 mmol/L (26 mg/dL) for triglycerides; −0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for total cholesterol; −0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for LDL cholesterol; +0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for calculated remnant cholesterol; −0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for calculated non-HDL cholesterol]; concentrations of HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a) are not affected by fasting/non-fasting status. In addition, non-fasting and fasting concentrations vary similarly over time and are comparable in the prediction of cardiovascular disease. To improve patient compliance with lipid testing, we therefore recommend the routine use of non-fasting lipid profiles, while fasting sampling may be considered when non-fasting triglycerides >5 mmol/L (440 mg/dL). For non-fasting samples, laboratory reports should flag abnormal concentrations as triglycerides ≥2 mmol/L (175 mg/dL), total cholesterol ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol ≥3 mmol/L (115 mg/dL), calculated remnant cholesterol ≥0.9 mmol/L (35 mg/dL), calculated non-HDL cholesterol ≥3.9 mmol/L (150 mg/dL), HDL cholesterol ≤1 mmol/L (40 mg/dL), apolipoprotein A1 ≤1.25 g/L (125 mg/dL), apolipoprotein B ≥1.0 g/L (100 mg/dL), and lipoprotein(a) ≥50 mg/dL (80th percentile); for fasting samples, abnormal concentrations correspond to triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L (150 mg/dL). Life-threatening concentrations require separate referral when triglycerides >10 mmol/L (880 mg/dL) for the risk of pancreatitis, LDL cholesterol >13 mmol/L (500 mg/dL) for

  13. Probing Microcomputer-Based Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Microcomputer-based laboratories (MBLs) refer to a laboratory where a microcomputer gathers and displays data directly from the environment. Program listings for a response timer (using game paddles) to illustrate the nature of MBLs are presented. (JN)

  14. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  15. Metabolite profiling of a NIST Standard Reference Material for human plasma (SRM 1950): GC-MS, LC-MS, NMR, and clinical laboratory analyses, libraries, and web-based resources.

    PubMed

    Simón-Manso, Yamil; Lowenthal, Mark S; Kilpatrick, Lisa E; Sampson, Maureen L; Telu, Kelly H; Rudnick, Paul A; Mallard, W Gary; Bearden, Daniel W; Schock, Tracey B; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V; Blonder, Niksa; Yan, Xinjian; Liang, Yuxue; Zheng, Yufang; Wallace, William E; Neta, Pedatsur; Phinney, Karen W; Remaley, Alan T; Stein, Stephen E

    2013-12-17

    Recent progress in metabolomics and the development of increasingly sensitive analytical techniques have renewed interest in global profiling, i.e., semiquantitative monitoring of all chemical constituents of biological fluids. In this work, we have performed global profiling of NIST SRM 1950, "Metabolites in Human Plasma", using GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR. Metabolome coverage, difficulties, and reproducibility of the experiments on each platform are discussed. A total of 353 metabolites have been identified in this material. GC-MS provides 65 unique identifications, and most of the identifications from NMR overlap with the LC-MS identifications, except for some small sugars that are not directly found by LC-MS. Also, repeatability and intermediate precision analyses show that the SRM 1950 profiling is reproducible enough to consider this material as a good choice to distinguish between analytical and biological variability. Clinical laboratory data shows that most results are within the reference ranges for each assay. In-house computational tools have been developed or modified for MS data processing and interactive web display. All data and programs are freely available online at http://peptide.nist.gov/ and http://srmd.nist.gov/ .

  16. Collaborative study for the calibration of replacement batches for the heparin low-molecular-mass for assay biological reference preparation.

    PubMed

    Terao, E; Daas, A

    2016-01-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) prescribes the control of the activity of low molecular mass heparins by assays for anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities (monograph 0828), using a reference standard calibrated in International Units (IU). An international collaborative study coded BSP133 was launched in the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) run under the aegis of the Council of Europe and the European Commission to calibrate replacement batches for the dwindling stocks of the Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch 8. Thirteen official medicines control and manufacturers laboratories from European and non-European countries took part in this study to calibrate two freeze-dried candidate batches against the 3rd International Standard (IS) for heparin, low molecular weight (11/176; 3rd IS). The Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay BRP (batch 8) was also included in the test panel to check the continuity between subsequent BRP batches. Taking into account the stability data, the results of this collaborative study and on the basis of the central statistical analysis performed at the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM), the 2 candidate batches were officially adopted by the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia as Heparin low-molecular-mass for assay BRP batches 9 and 10 with assigned anti-Xa activities of 102 and 100 IU/vial and anti-IIa activities of 34 and 33 IU/vial respectively.

  17. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  18. Laboratory guidelines for the diagnosis of infections caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C. ulcerans. World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Efstratiou, A; George, R C

    1999-12-01

    These guidelines represent an application of the World Health Organization European Region's manual for the laboratory diagnosis of diphtheria for laboratories in the United Kingdom (UK), but they could be applied to laboratories overseas. The manual was rewritten in response to the re-emergence of diphtheria in eastern Europe and the emergence of other infections caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C. ulcerans in the UK and overseas. The guidelines summarise our current recommendations and procedures for the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates of corynebacteria, with particular reference to C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans.

  19. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  20. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  1. Inventory study of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is not notifiable in most European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries, the epidemiological situation of the >150 NTM species is largely unknown. We aimed to collect data on the frequency of NTM detection and NTM species types in EU/EEA countries. Methods Officially nominated national tuberculosis reference laboratories of all EU/EEA countries were asked to provide information on: laboratory routines for detection and identification of NTM, including drug sensitivity testing (DST) methods; data on the number and type of NTM species identified; coverage and completeness of the provided data on NTM; type and number of human specimens tested for NTM; and number of specimens tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and NTM. This information was summarized and the main results are described. Results In total, 99 different NTM species were identified with M. avium, M. gordonae, M. xenopi , M. intracellulare, and M. fortuitum identified most frequently. Seven percent of the NTM species could not be identified. NTM was cultured from between 0.4-2.0% of the specimens (data from four countries). The laboratories use culturing methods optimised for M. tuberculosis complex. Identification is mainly carried out by a commercial line probe assay supplemented with sequencing. Most laboratories carried out DST for rapid growers and only at the explicit clinical request for slow growers. Conclusion It is likely that the prevalence of NTM is underestimated because diagnostic procedures are not optimized specifically for NTM and isolates may not be referred to the national reference laboratory for identification. Due to the diagnostic challenges and the need to establish the clinical relevance of NTM, we recommend that countries should concentrate detection and identification in only few laboratories. PMID:24502462

  2. EPOS--The European E-Portfolio of Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kühn, Bärbel

    2016-01-01

    Democratic principles and human rights, the core values of the Council of Europe, informed the development of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001. "Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.…

  3. Establishment of a reference collection of additives and an analytical handbook of reference data to support enforcement of EU regulations on food contact plastics.

    PubMed

    van Lierop, B; Castle, L; Feigenbaum, A; Ehlert, K; Boenke, A

    1998-10-01

    A collection has been made of additives that are required as analytical standards for enforcement of European Union legislation on food contact plastics. The 100 additives have been characterized by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to provide reference spectra. Gas chromatographic retention times have been recorded to facilitate identification by retention index. This information has been further supplemented by physico-chemical data. Finally, chromatographic methods have been used to indicate the presence of any impurities in the commercial chemicals. Samples of the reference substances are available on request and the collection of spectra and other information will be made available in printed format and on-line through the Internet. This paper gives an overview of the work done to establish the reference collection and the spectral atlas, which together will assist enforcement laboratories in the characterization of plastics and the selection of analytical methods for additives that may migrate.

  4. European courts and old people.

    PubMed

    Mulley, Graham P

    2013-09-01

    There are two major European Courts, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The ECJ deals with legal matters, mainly involving the interpretation of EU law and ensuring that the law is applied evenly across all 27 EU member states. The ECHR aims to make certain that civil and political rights of citizens in the 46 member states of the Council of Europe are observed. Most cases involving older citizens are about social policy (such as pension arrangements, equality, age discrimination and mandatory retirement). There have been few cases dealing with patients' rights, long-term care or housing. Referrals of selected cases involving old people should be considered if their rights are not being protected. In this Commentary, there is an account of how these Courts have evolved, together with guidance on whom to refer, to which Court, and when and how referrals should be made.

  5. The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project: towards transnational comparability and reliability of human biomonitoring results.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Esteban, Marta; Koch, Holger Martin; Castano, Argelia; Koslitz, Stephan; Cañas, Ana; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Schoeters, Greet; Hond, Elly Den; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Lopez, Ana; Huetos, Olga; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Maurer-Chronakis, Katja; Kasparova, Lucie; Vrbík, Karel; Rudnai, Peter; Naray, Miklos; Guignard, Cedric; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Janasik, Beata; Reis, M Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Pop, Cristian; Dumitrascu, Irina; Halzlova, Katarina; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Berglund, Marika; Jönsson, Bo; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Flemming; McGrath, Helena; Nesbitt, Ian; De Cremer, Koen; Vanermen, Guido; Koppen, Gudrun; Wilhelm, Michael; Becker, Kerstin; Angerer, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European countries. These specimens were investigated for six biomarkers (mercury in hair; creatinine, cotinine, cadmium, phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine). The results for mercury in hair are described in a separate paper. Each participating member state was requested to contract laboratories, for capacity building reasons ideally within its borders, carrying out the chemical analyses. To ensure comparability of analytical data a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) was established which provided the participating laboratories with standard operating procedures (SOP) and with control material. This material was specially prepared from native, non-spiked, pooled urine samples and was tested for homogeneity and stability. Four external quality assessment exercises were carried out. Highly esteemed laboratories from all over the world served as reference laboratories. Web conferences after each external quality assessment exercise functioned as a new and effective tool to improve analytical performance, to build capacity and to educate less experienced laboratories. Of the 38 laboratories participating in the quality assurance exercises 14 laboratories qualified for cadmium, 14 for creatinine, 9 for cotinine, 7 for phthalate metabolites and 5 for bisphenol A in urine. In the last of the four external quality assessment exercises the laboratories that qualified for DEMOCOPHES performed the determinations in urine with relative standard deviations (low/high concentration) of 18.0/2.1% for cotinine, 14.8/5.1% for cadmium, 4.7/3.4% for creatinine. Relative standard deviations for the newly emerging biomarkers were higher, with values between 13.5 and 20.5% for bisphenol A and

  6. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  7. First European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox teeth following oral rabies vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Demerson, Jean-Michel; Andrieu, Sabrina; Cliquet, Florence

    2012-10-01

    The first European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox (Vulpes vulpes) tooth samples was organized by the European Union Reference Laboratory for rabies. Performance and procedures implemented by member states were compared. These techniques are widely used to monitor bait uptake in European oral rabies vaccination campaigns. A panel of five red fox half-mandibles comprising one weak positive juvenile sample, two positive adult samples, one negative juvenile sample, and one negative adult sample were sent, along with a technical questionnaire, to 12 laboratories participating on a voluntary basis. The results of only three laboratories (25%) were 100% correct. False-negative results were more frequently seen in weak positive juvenile samples (58%) but were infrequent in positive adult samples (4%), probably due to differences in the ease of reading the two groups of teeth. Four laboratories (44%) had correct results for age determination on all samples. Ages were incorrectly identified in both adult and juvenile samples, with 11 and 17% of discordant results, respectively. Analysis of the technical questionnaires in parallel with test results suggested that all laboratories cutting mandible sections between the canine and first premolar obtained false results. All the laboratories using longitudinal rather than transverse sections and those not using a mounting medium also produced false results. Section thickness appeared to affect the results; no mistakes were found in laboratories using sections <150 μm thick. Factors having a potential impact on the success of laboratories were discussed, and recommendations proposed. Such interlaboratory trials underline the importance of using standardized procedures for biomarker detection in oral rabies vaccination campaigns. Several changes can be made to improve analysis quality and increase the comparability of bait uptake frequencies among member states.

  8. Laboratory Astrophysics White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Federman, Steve; Kwong, Victor; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel; Stancil, Phillip; Weingartner, Joe; Ziurys, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics and complementary theoretical calculations are the foundations of astronomical and planetary research and will remain so for many generations to come. From the level of scientific conception to that of the scientific return, it is our understanding of the underlying processes that allows us to address fundamental questions regarding the origins and evolution of galaxies, stars, planetary systems, and life in the cosmos. In this regard, laboratory astrophysics is much like detector and instrument development at NASA and NSF; these efforts are necessary for the astronomical research being funded by the agencies. The NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop met at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from 14-16 February, 2006 to identify the current laboratory data needed to support existing and future NASA missions and programs in the Astrophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Here we refer to both laboratory and theoretical work as laboratory astrophysics unless a distinction is necessary. The format for the Workshop involved invited talks by users of laboratory data, shorter contributed talks and poster presentations by both users and providers that highlighted exciting developments in laboratory astrophysics, and breakout sessions where users and providers discussed each others' needs and limitations. We also note that the members of the Scientific Organizing Committee are users as well as providers of laboratory data. As in previous workshops, the focus was on atomic, molecular, and solid state physics.

  9. Nomenclature and basic concepts in automation in the clinical laboratory setting: a practical glossary.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Dalamaga, Maria; Panoutsopoulos, Konstantinos; Dima, Kleanthi

    2013-01-01

    In the early 80s, the word automation was used in the clinical laboratory setting referring only to analyzers. But in late 80s and afterwards, automation found its way into all aspects of the diagnostic process, embracing not only the analytical but also the pre- and post-analytical phase. While laboratories in the eastern world, mainly Japan, paved the way for laboratory automation, US and European laboratories soon realized the benefits and were quick to follow. Clearly, automation and robotics will be a key survival tool in a very competitive and cost-concious healthcare market. What sets automation technology apart from so many other efficiency solutions are the dramatic savings that it brings to the clinical laboratory. Further standardization will assure the success of this revolutionary new technology. One of the main difficulties laboratory managers and personnel must deal with when studying solutions to reengineer a laboratory is familiarizing themselves with the multidisciplinary and technical terminology of this new and exciting field. The present review/glossary aims at giving an overview of the most frequently used terms within the scope of laboratory automation and to put laboratory automation on a sounder linguistic basis.

  10. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  11. A proficiency testing scheme for aromatic hydrocarbons in air by the manual thermal desorption-GC method: a comparison of laboratory performance with the uncertainty requirements of the European Union Ambient Air Directive.

    PubMed

    Stacey, P R; Wright, M D

    2001-08-01

    The Workplace Analysis Scheme for Proficiency (WASP) is a proficiency testing scheme for the analysis of occupational hygiene and environmental air samples and is operated in the UK by the Health and Safety Laboratory. Since 1997, WASP has offered samples of benzene, toluene and m-xylene, at environmental levels on Tenax, and has about 35 laboratories participating, mostly from industry, local government and consultancy organisations in the UK. The results reported cover the first 10 rounds of the environmental analytes (1997-1999) and demonstrate the important role of proficiency testing in assessing the quality of laboratory performance. Estimates are obtained for within-laboratory precision and the total variability at each analyte level. The estimates of within-laboratory precision suggest that laboratories have more difficulty analysing toluene and m-xylene than benzene. Linear relationships for the reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDT) with loading level are evident for the analytes at occupational levels. At environmental levels, the relationship between loading level and reproducibility is much less well defined. The standard deviation for the proficiency testing assessment for all three analytes at the environmental level is 14%, as derived from the benzene data. Expanded uncertainty estimates (k = 1.96), for the analysis of samples since the scheme started, are obtained from the average total variance, and are 27% for benzene, 39% for toluene and 36% for m-xylene. Although the linear trend of performance against round number was not significant at the 95% level of confidence (p = 0.23 for benzene, p = 0.3 for toluene and p = 0.32 for m-xylene), there was a general improvement in RSDT from 26-34% to about 8-13% 10 rounds later. Currently, for a laboratory to meet one of the data quality objectives in the Ambient Air Directive (indicative measurement of benzene, expanded uncertainty +/- 30% or less), it would have to achieve a level of

  12. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  13. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  14. Benefits of a European Project on Diagnostics of Highly Pathogenic Agents and Assessment of Potential “Dual Use” Issues

    PubMed Central

    Grunow, Roland; Ippolito, G.; Jacob, D.; Sauer, U.; Rohleder, A.; Di Caro, A.; Iacovino, R.

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance exercises and networking on the detection of highly infectious pathogens (QUANDHIP) is a joint action initiative set up in 2011 that has successfully unified the primary objectives of the European Network on Highly Pathogenic Bacteria (ENHPB) and of P4-laboratories (ENP4-Lab) both of which aimed to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and response capabilities of laboratories directed at protecting the health of European citizens against high consequence bacteria and viruses of significant public health concern. Both networks have established a common collaborative consortium of 37 nationally and internationally recognized institutions with laboratory facilities from 22 European countries. The specific objectives and achievements include the initiation and establishment of a recognized and acceptable quality assurance scheme, including practical external quality assurance exercises, comprising living agents, that aims to improve laboratory performance, accuracy, and detection capabilities in support of patient management and public health responses; recognized training schemes for diagnostics and handling of highly pathogenic agents; international repositories comprising highly pathogenic bacteria and viruses for the development of standardized reference material; a standardized and transparent Biosafety and Biosecurity strategy protecting healthcare personnel and the community in dealing with high consequence pathogens; the design and organization of response capabilities dealing with cross-border events with highly infectious pathogens including the consideration of diagnostic capabilities of individual European laboratories. The project tackled several sensitive issues regarding Biosafety, Biosecurity and “dual use” concerns. The article will give an overview of the project outcomes and discuss the assessment of potential “dual use” issues. PMID:25426479

  15. From Time to Time: Processing Time Reference Violations in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragoy, Olga; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bos, Laura S.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    Time reference in Indo-European languages is marked on the verb. With tensed verb forms, the speaker can refer to the past (wrote, has written), present (writes, is writing) or future (will write). Reference to the past through verb morphology has been shown to be particularly vulnerable in agrammatic aphasia and both agrammatic and…

  16. [Accreditation of medical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Andrea Rita; Ring, Rózsa; Fehér, Miklós; Mikó, Tivadar

    2003-07-27

    In Hungary, the National Accreditation Body was established by government in 1995 as an independent, non-profit organization, and has exclusive rights to accredit, amongst others, medical laboratories. The National Accreditation Body has two Specialist Advisory Committees in the health care sector. One is the Health Care Specialist Advisory Committee that accredits certifying bodies, which deal with certification of hospitals. The other Specialist Advisory Committee for Medical Laboratories is directly involved in accrediting medical laboratory services of health care institutions. The Specialist Advisory Committee for Medical Laboratories is a multidisciplinary peer review group of experts from all disciplines of in vitro diagnostics, i.e. laboratory medicine, microbiology, histopathology and blood banking. At present, the only published International Standard applicable to laboratories is ISO/IEC 17025:1999. Work has been in progress on the official approval of the new ISO 15189 standard, specific to medical laboratories. Until the official approval of the International Standard ISO 15189, as accreditation standard, the Hungarian National Accreditation Body has decided to progress with accreditation by formulating explanatory notes to the ISO/IEC 17025:1999 document, using ISO/FDIS 15189:2000, the European EC4 criteria and CPA (UK) Ltd accreditation standards as guidelines. This harmonized guideline provides 'explanations' that facilitate the application of ISO/IEC 17025:1999 to medical laboratories, and can be used as a checklist for the verification of compliance during the onsite assessment of the laboratory. The harmonized guideline adapted the process model of ISO 9001:2000 to rearrange the main clauses of ISO/IEC 17025:1999. This rearrangement does not only make the guideline compliant with ISO 9001:2000 but also improves understanding for those working in medical laboratories, and facilitates the training and education of laboratory staff. With the

  17. Diagnostic testing for Clostridium difficile in Italian microbiological laboratories.

    PubMed

    Spigaglia, Patrizia; Barbanti, Fabrizio; Morandi, Matteo; Moro, Maria Luisa; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2016-02-01

    A laboratory diagnosis survey of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was performed in Italy in 2012-2013. Questionnaires from 278 healthcare settings from 15 regions of Italy were collected and analysed. Eighty seven percent of the laboratories declared to routinely perform CDI diagnosis, 99% of them only after the clinician's request. Among the 216 laboratories providing information on the size of the hospitals in which they were located, 65 had more than 500 beds (large hospitals), while 151 had less than 500 beds (small hospitals). The average percentage of positive tests for C. difficile toxins was 12.2%. Almost half of the laboratories (42%) used immunoenzymatic assay (EIA) for Tox A/B as a stand-alone method, while only 34% used an algorithm for CDI as indicated by the European guidelines. A low percentage of laboratories performed molecular assays or C. difficile culture, 25% and 29%, respectively. Most laboratories (161/278) declared to type C. difficile strains, the majority in collaboration with a reference laboratory. Among the 103 C. difficile clinical isolates collected during the study, 31 different PCR-ribotypes were identified. PCR-ribotype 356/607 (27%) was predominant, followed by 018 (12%). These two PCR-ribotypes show 87.5% of similarity in ribotyping profile. PCR-ribotypes 027 and 078 represented 8% and 4% of the strains, respectively. Four PCR-ribotypes (027, 033, 078 and 126) were positive for the binary toxin CDT. In particular, PCR-ribotype 033 produces only CDT, and it has recently been associated with symptomatic cases. The majority of strains were multidrug resistant. In particular, all strains PCR-ribotypes 356/607 and 018 were resistant to moxifloxacin, rifampicin, erythromycin and clindamycin. The results obtained highlight the need to raise awareness to the microbiological diagnosis of CDI among clinicians and to implement and harmonize diagnostic methods for CDI in Italian laboratories in the perspective of a future national

  18. Quality management in reference tests for the diagnosis of classical swine fever.

    PubMed

    Floegel-Niesmann, G; Moennig, V

    2004-12-01

    Inter-laboratory comparison tests for the diagnosis of classical swine fever (CSF) have been established by the national swine fever laboratories of European Union (EU) Member States. They provide a method of measuring both the quality of the results of diagnostic tests performed by laboratories and the competence with which they were performed. The objective is that all laboratories obtain the same result when investigating the same sample. This study evaluates the results of serological and virological reference tests for CSF (neutralisation test and virus isolation) performed over a period of three years. The sensitivity of the serological diagnosis for the detection of CSF antibodies was very good and revealed a tolerance limit of the scored antibody titres of one dilution step. Results on the same sample in two consecutive years were similar. The variation of the scored antibody titres was larger when testing sera with a low CSF antibody titre. The interpretation of the antibody titres as 'CSF positive or negative' was only slightly altered by these variations. The backtitration of a neutralisation test (used as a control measure) is a more mathematical value which does not correlate directly with the biological system. Commercial CSF antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays still display a lower sensitivity on individual samples compared to the reference neutralisation test. Classical swine fever virus isolation was well established in all participating laboratories and caused very few problems. Specificity of CSF diagnosis by investigating CSF antibody and CSF virus negative sera was not problematic either. In general, the reference tests for CSF diagnosis are well established in the EU. They are based on living systems, e.g. cells and virus, and consequently they have a different tolerance limit than pure mathematical values. What is important is that the interpretation of the test result is identical in all laboratories.

  19. Reference Ranges of Cholesterol Sub-Fractions in Random Healthy Adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Koumaré, Alice T. C. R. Kiba; Sakandé, Linda P. L.; Kabré, Elie; Sondé, Issaka; Simporé, Jacques; Sakandé, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the values that serve as clinical chemistry reference ranges are those provided by European manufacturers’ insert sheets based on reference of the Western population. However, studies conducted so far in some African countries reported significant differences in normal laboratory ranges compared with those of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of cholesterol fractions in apparently normal adults in Burkina Faso that could be used to better assess the risks related to cardiovascular diseases. Study population was 279 healthy subjects aged from 15 to 50 years including 139 men and 140 women recruited at the Regional Center of Blood Transfusion of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Exclusion criteria based on history and clinical examination were used for defining reference individuals. The dual-step precipitation of HDL cholesterol sub-fractions using dextran sulfate was performed according to the procedure described by Hirano. The medians were calculated and reference values were determined at 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The median and upper ranges for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were observed to be higher in women in comparison to men (p <0.05). These reference ranges were similar to those derived from other African countries but lower than those recorded in France and in USA. This underscores the need for such comprehensible establishment of reference values for limited resources countries. Our study provides the first cholesterol sub-fractions (HDL2 and HDL3) reference ranges for interpretation of laboratory results for cardiovascular risk management in Burkina Faso. PMID:25611320

  20. Usefulness of EC4 essential criteria for quality systems of medical laboratories as guideline to the ISO 15189 and ISO 17025 documents. European Community Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) Working Group on Harmonisation of Quality Systems and Accreditation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, R T; Kenny, D; Blaton, V; Burnett, D; Huisman, W; Plebani, M; Queraltó, J M; Zérah, S; van Lieshout, J

    2000-10-01

    Many medical laboratories have made a start with the introduction of quality management systems. However, it is still not clear against which standards such systems should be measured. The existing ISO and CEN standards do not cover essential aspects of medical laboratories. The publication of the EC4 Essential Criteria has stimulated the development of the ISO/Draft International Standard 15189. This standard seems adequate for our type of laboratories. However, it is not easy to read. The EC4 Essential Criteria could well serve as a guide, covering additional aspects, e.g. on total quality management and budget management as required in the EFQM model, that are not (yet) included in the ISO standard. In the present article the EC4 Essential Criteria are cross-referenced with two new international ISO standards, ISO/FDIS 15189 and ISO/FDIS 17025, the latter being the successor of ISO guide 25 and EN 45000. Both new ISO documents are in compliance with the new ISO 9000:2000 standard.

  1. Molecular biology references.

    PubMed

    2003-05-01

    Many of the units in this manual describe methods and techniques for the cloning, expression, and structural analysis of neural genes and proteins. We assume that users of these protocols have at least some introductory background in recombinant DNA technology (or are working with a collaborator who does); therefore, we have not provided comprehensive coverage of all of these topics, but rather have concentrated on presenting selected techniques that will be of the most interest and use to the general neuroscience laboratory. More comprehensive coverage of these topics can be found in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (CPMB), which is extensively cross-referenced throughout this manual. These cross-references are summarized in this appendix.

  2. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  3. Laboratory Activities for Introductory Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruglak, Haym

    1973-01-01

    Presents sample laboratory activities designed for use in astronomy teaching, including naked eye observations, instrument construction, student projects, and cloudy weather activities. Appended are bibliographies of journal articles and reference books and lists of films, laboratory manuals, and distributors of apparatus and teaching aids. (CC)

  4. British Columbia. Reference Series No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…

  5. Preparing for the European Language Portfolio: Internet Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Philip; Mirici, Ismail Hakki; Aksu, Mualla Bilgin

    2005-01-01

    The European Language Portfolio (ELP) is a tool for developing learner responsibility and autonomy through reflection and self-awareness.The ELP is based on the Common European Framework (CEF) Reference Levels that enable learners to describe what they can do in different languages.The CEF is a Council of Europe initiative aimed at improving the…

  6. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  7. The European Qualifications Framework: A Technical Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Stan

    2015-01-01

    The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) was introduced in 2008 as a "meta-framework" or common reference point for national qualifications frameworks in Europe, a function for which, with some caveats, it has been pragmatically successful. It has also been used with variable success to support the development or referencing of…

  8. European Perspectives on Global Climate Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempton, Willett; Craig, Paul P.

    1993-01-01

    Explores why some European countries are much more eager than the United States to endorse international environmental treaties and the roles history, culture, economics, and geography play. Influential policymakers throughout Austria, Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom are interviewed. (12 references) (Author/MCO)

  9. Putting the Common European Framework of Reference to Good Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper recapitulates the aims of the CEFR and highlights three aspects of good practice in exploiting it: firstly, taking as a starting point the real-world language ability that is the aim of all modern language learners; secondly, the exploitation of good descriptors as transparent learning objectives in order to involve and empower the…

  10. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  11. Establishment of Biochemistry Reference Values for Healthy Tanzanian Infants, Children, and Adolescents in Kilimanjaro Region

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Ann M.; Fiorillo, Suzanne P.; Omondi, Michael W.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish common biochemistry reference intervals for Tanzanian infants, children, and adolescents living in the Kilimanjaro Region. Methods We recruited healthy, HIV-uninfected Tanzanian infants, children, and youth between the ages of one month and 17 years from local schools and clinics to participate in this study. Only afebrile children without signs of physical or chronic illness were enrolled. Nonparametric methods were used to determine 95% reference limits and their 90% confidence intervals, with outliers removed by the Tukey method. Results A total of 619 healthy infants, children, and adolescents were enrolled into the study. Twenty-three biochemistry parameters were measured. Compared to U.S. reference intervals, several of the biochemistry parameters showed notable differences; namely, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, amylase, and lipase. Comparing our data to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grading criteria for classification of adverse events, we found that for select parameters, up to 15% of infants or children in certain age groups would have been categorized as having an adverse event as defined by DAIDS. Conclusions Our study further confirms the need to use locally established reference intervals to define reference laboratory parameters among children in Africa, rather than relying on those derived from U.S. or European populations. To our knowledge, this study provides the first set of locally validated biochemistry reference ranges for a pediatric population in Tanzania. PMID:26224122

  12. Reference change values.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Callum G

    2011-09-30

    Reference change values (RCV) provide objective tools for assessment of the significance of differences in serial results from an individual. The concept is simple and the calculation easy, since all laboratories know their analytical imprecision (CV(A)) and estimates of within-subject biological variation (CV(I)) are available for a large number of quantities. Generally, CV(I) are constant over time, geography, methodology and in health and chronic stable disease. The formula is RCV=2(1/2) · Z · (CV(A)(2) + CV(I)(2))(1/2), where Z is the number of standard deviations appropriate to the probability. Correct interpretation of the semantics describing the clinical use of RCV is vital for selection of the Z-score. Many quantities of clinically importance exist for which good estimates of RCV are unavailable. Derivation of CV(I) may be difficult for such quantities: flair and imagination are required in selecting populations with chronic but stable disease on whom CV(I) can be determined. RCV can be used for delta-checking and auto-verification and laboratory information management systems (LIMS) can be adapted to do this. Recently, log-normal transformation to obtain unidirectional RCV has been used. Gaps in knowledge of RCV still require filling since the need for measures of change is clearly expressed in guidelines.

  13. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  14. Inter-laboratory comparison of cell lines for susceptibility to three viruses: VHSV, IHNV and IPNV.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, E; Carstensen, B; Olesen, N J

    1999-07-30

    Eleven European National Reference Laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory comparison of the susceptibility of 5 selected cell lines to 3 fish pathogenic viruses. The test included viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV); infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), and the cell lines derived from bluegill fry (BF-2), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM) and rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2). The results showed that for isolation of VHSV, BF-2 and RTG-2 cells performed equally well and had higher sensitivity compared to the other cell lines. For IHNV, EPC and FHM cells gave the best results, and for IPNV it was BF-2 and CHSE-214 cells. FHM cells showed the largest variability among laboratories, whereas EPC was the cell line showing the smallest variability.

  15. TB and MDR/XDR-TB in European Union and European Economic Area countries: managed or mismanaged?

    PubMed

    Migliori, G B; Sotgiu, G; D'Ambrosio, L; Centis, R; Lange, C; Bothamley, G; Cirillo, D M; De Lorenzo, S; Guenther, G; Kliiman, K; Muetterlein, R; Spinu, V; Villar, M; Zellweger, J P; Sandgren, A; Huitric, E; Manissero, D

    2012-03-01

    In spite of the growing awareness of emerging drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the extent of inappropriate tuberculosis (TB) case management may be underestimated, even in Europe. We evaluated TB case management in the European Union/European Economic Area countries, with special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB, using a purposely developed, standardised survey tool. National reference centres in five countries representing different geographical, socioeconomic and epidemiological patterns of TB in Europe were surveyed. 40 consecutive, original clinical TB case records (30 MDR/XDR-TB cases) were reviewed in each of the five countries. The findings were recorded and, through the survey tool, compared with previously agreed and identified international standards. Deviations from international standards of TB care were observed in the following areas: surveillance (no information available on patient outcomes); infection control (lack of respiratory isolation rooms/procedures and negative-pressure ventilation rooms); clinical management of TB, MDR-TB and HIV co-infection (inadequate bacteriological diagnosis, regimen selection and treatment duration); laboratory support; and diagnostic/treatment algorithms. Gaps between present international standards of care and the management of MDR/XDR-TB patients were identified. Training, increased awareness, promotion of standards and allocation of appropriate resources are necessary to ensure appropriate care and management as well as to prevent further emergence of drug resistance.

  16. Development of a Certified Reference Material for myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (MPO-ANCA).

    PubMed

    Monogioudi, Evanthia; Hutu, Dana Petronela; Martos, Gustavo; Sheldon, Joanna; Schimmel, Heinz; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Zegers, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    A serum Certified Reference Material (CRM) for supporting reliable autoimmune diagnostics was recently released by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. It was produced in collaboration with a Working Group on the Harmonisation of Autoimmune Tests of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC WG-HAT). This material is aimed at facilitating the standardisation of measurements of anti-myeloperoxidase immunoglobulin G antibodies. The CRM could be used as a common calibrant by clinicians and manufacturers thereby significantly improving the comparability of results from commercial immunoassays used for IgG anti-MPO measurements. This paper provides information on the new CRM and its intended use.

  17. Laboratory preparedness in EU/EEA countries for detection of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, May 2013

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, E; Pereyaslov, D; Struelens, M; Palm, D; Meijer, A; Ellis, J; Zambon, M; McCauley, J; Daniels, R

    2015-01-01

    Following human infections with novel avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and the European Reference Laboratory Network for Human Influenza (ERLI-Net) rapidly posted relevant information, including real-time RT-PCR protocols. An influenza RNA sequence-based computational assessment of detection capabilities for this virus was conducted in 32 national influenza reference laboratories in 29 countries, mostly WHO National Influenza Centres participating in the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). Twenty-seven countries considered their generic influenza A virus detection assay to be appropriate for the novel A(H7N9) viruses. Twenty-two countries reported having containment facilities suitable for its isolation and propagation. Laboratories in 27 countries had applied specific H7 real-time RT-PCR assays and 20 countries had N9 assays in place. Positive control virus RNA was provided by the WHO Collaborating Centre in London to 34 laboratories in 22 countries to allow evaluation of their assays. Performance of the generic influenza A virus detection and H7 and N9 subtyping assays was good in 24 laboratories in 19 countries. The survey showed that ERLI-Net laboratories had rapidly developed and verified good capability to detect the novel A(H7N9) influenza viruses. PMID:24507469

  18. Proficiency Tests for Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Organized by an Accredited Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Cédric; Osmond, Mélanie

    2008-08-01

    For 40 years, STEME (Environmental Sample Processing and Metrology Department) organized international proficiency testing (PT) exercises formerly for WHO (World Health Organization) and EC (European Community) and currently for ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority). Five PT exercises are organized each year for the measurement of radionuclides (alpha, beta and gamma) in different matrixes (water, soil, biological and air samples) at environmental levels. ASN can deliver a French ministerial agreement to participate on environmental radioactivity measurements French network for laboratories asking it [1]. Since 2006, November, STEME is the first French entity obtaining a COFRAC (French Committee of Accreditation) accreditation as "Interlaboratory Comparisons" for the organization of proficiency tests for environmental radioactivity measurement according to standard International Standard Organization (ISO) 17025 and guide ISO 43-1. STEME has in charge to find, as far as possible, real sample or to create, by radionuclide adding, an adapted sample. STEME realizes the sampling, the samples preparation and the dispatching. STEME is also accredited according to Standard 17025 for radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and determines homogeneity, stability and reference values. After the reception of participating laboratories results, STEME executes statistical treatments in order to verify the normal distribution, to eliminate outliers and to evaluate laboratories performance. Laboratories participate with several objectives, to obtain French agreement, to prove the quality of their analytical performance in regards to standard 17025 or to validate new methods or latest developments. For 2 years, in addition to usual PT exercises, new PT about alpha or beta measurement in air filters, radioactive iodine in carbon cartridges or measurement of environmental dosimeters are organized. These PT exercises help laboratories to improve radioactive measurements

  19. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall be obtained from the Center... shall be used for determining the potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen....

  20. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall be obtained from the Center for... used for determining the potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen....

  1. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall be obtained from the Center... shall be used for determining the potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen....

  2. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall be obtained from the Center... shall be used for determining the potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen....

  3. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall be obtained from the Center... shall be used for determining the potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen....

  4. Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements the curriculum guide for a laboratory course on the significance of nutrition in food science. The reference book is organized into 25 chapters, each beginning with essential elements and objectives. Within the text, italicized, bold-faced vocabulary terms are…

  5. Reference-based phasing using the Haplotype Reference Consortium panel.

    PubMed

    Loh, Po-Ru; Danecek, Petr; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Fuchsberger, Christian; A Reshef, Yakir; K Finucane, Hilary; Schoenherr, Sebastian; Forer, Lukas; McCarthy, Shane; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Durbin, Richard; L Price, Alkes

    2016-11-01

    Haplotype phasing is a fundamental problem in medical and population genetics. Phasing is generally performed via statistical phasing in a genotyped cohort, an approach that can yield high accuracy in very large cohorts but attains lower accuracy in smaller cohorts. Here we instead explore the paradigm of reference-based phasing. We introduce a new phasing algorithm, Eagle2, that attains high accuracy across a broad range of cohort sizes by efficiently leveraging information from large external reference panels (such as the Haplotype Reference Consortium; HRC) using a new data structure based on the positional Burrows-Wheeler transform. We demonstrate that Eagle2 attains a ∼20× speedup and ∼10% increase in accuracy compared to reference-based phasing using SHAPEIT2. On European-ancestry samples, Eagle2 with the HRC panel achieves >2× the accuracy of 1000 Genomes-based phasing. Eagle2 is open source and freely available for HRC-based phasing via the Sanger Imputation Service and the Michigan Imputation Server.

  6. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  7. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  8. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - References

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...—References (1) American National Standard Quality Systems for Environmental Data and Technology Programs... Exposure Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC, November 1998 or later edition....

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - References

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...—References (1) American National Standard Quality Systems for Environmental Data and Technology Programs... Exposure Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC, November 1998 or later edition....

  11. National Software Reference Library (NSRL)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  12. Experience and outcome of 3 years of a European EQA scheme for genetic testing of the spinocerebellar ataxias.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Sara; Morris, Michael A; Patton, Simon; Elles, Rob; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2008-08-01

    The European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) has been organizing an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for molecular genetic testing of trinucleotide repeat mutations in the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) since 2004. DNA samples were validated by at least two independent labs and two different methods. Together with mock clinical case descriptions and requests for specific SCA gene analyses, these were sent to registered participants each year. Laboratories were asked to use their routine procedures and protocols. A panel of assessors reviewed the final returns, including genotype results and reports, to assess the quality of (1) genotyping and (2) interpretation and reporting. A description of methods and raw data were also requested and were very useful for the final analysis. Altogether, during 3 years, 239 reports were received from the laboratories. Overall genotype error rate ranged 1.1-5.2%, a significant cause of concern. Scores for interpretation and reporting also showed that there is still much room for progress, although performance has improved over this period of assessment. The consequences of suboptimal laboratory practices, genotyping errors and misdiagnosis and of incorrect or incomplete interpretation and reporting have wide implications for patient lives, as well as for health management and counselling of relatives. EQA schemes are an important part of quality assurance in molecular genetic laboratories, and their use should become a routine part of laboratory diagnostic practice. Current evidence shows also that it is important that laboratories participate on a yearly basis and that this becomes mandatory for reference laboratories.

  13. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  14. European sero-epidemiology network: standardisation of the results of diphtheria antitoxin assays.

    PubMed

    von Hunolstein, C; Aggerbeck, H; Andrews, N; Berbers, G; Fievet-Groyne, F; Maple, P A; Olander, R M; Raux, M; Tischer, A

    2000-08-01

    A European Sero-Epidemiological Network (ESEN) was established with the aim to co-ordinate and harmonise serological surveillance of immunity to communicable diseases in Europe. In this study the inter-laboratory standardisation of diphtheria toxin antibody measurements is reported. A standard panel of 162 sera was tested by the participating laboratories using an in vitro assay of their choice: VERO cell toxin neutralisation assay (NT), double-antigen delayed time-resolved fluorescence immuno-assay (DA-DELFIA), double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAE), toxin binding inhibition test (ToBI) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were standardised using regression against the NT. The variations due to inter-laboratory and inter-assay variation, which would otherwise make it difficult directly to compare the main serum bank results by the different laboratories and the various assays were successfully minimised by the standardisation. The regression equations obtained will be used to transform the respective local results of testing the main serum bank into the reference test unitages. This study also gave the opportunity to compare the various assays within and between laboratories. This demonstrated a very high correlation between DA-DELFIA, DAE, ToBI and the NT. The ELISA showed a good correlation, too, however sera below some 0.1 IU/ml were overestimated.

  15. Student Reciprocal Peer Teaching as a Method for Active Learning: An Experience in an Electrotechnical Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-García, Miguel A.; Moreda, Guillermo P.; Hernández-Sánchez, Natalia; Valiño, Vanesa

    2012-10-01

    Active learning is one of the most efficient mechanisms for learning, according to the psychology of learning. When students act as teachers for other students, the communication is more fluent and knowledge is transferred easier than in a traditional classroom. This teaching method is referred to in the literature as reciprocal peer teaching. In this study, the method is applied to laboratory sessions of a higher education institution course, and the students who act as teachers are referred to as "laboratory monitors." A particular way to select the monitors and its impact in the final marks is proposed. A total of 181 students participated in the experiment, experiences with laboratory monitors are discussed, and methods for motivating and training laboratory monitors and regular students are proposed. The types of laboratory sessions that can be led by classmates are discussed. This work is related to the changes in teaching methods in the Spanish higher education system, prompted by the Bologna Process for the construction of the European Higher Education Area

  16. Reference values for the production of the aqueous fraction of the tear film measured by the standardized endodontic absorbent paper point test in different exotic and laboratory animal species.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rogério R; Lima, Leandro; Przydzimirski, Andreise C; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    The aqueous fraction of the tear film and the horizontal palpebral fissure length (HPFL) were measured in exotic and laboratory animals, specifically saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola), chestnut-bellied seed-finches (Sporophila angolensis), red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus). These species possess small eyes making it difficult to perform the typical Schirmer tear test. Measurement of the aqueous fraction of the tear was performed using the standardized endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (PPTT), accomplished with manual restraint by a single operator. The following results were obtained: saffron finches (n = 42)-HPFL (4.46 ± 0.09 mm) and PPTT (5.10 ± 0.26 mm); chestnut-bellied seed-finches (n = 38)-HPFL (4.77 ± 0.05 mm) and PPTT (4.11 ± 0.34 mm); red-eared sliders (n = 56)-HPFL (8.59 ± 0.08 mm) and PPTT (8.79 ± 0.38 mm); rats (n = 60)-HPFL (6.45 ± 0.09 mm) and PTT (6.18 ± 2.06 mm); and mice (n = 22)-HPFL (3.59 ± 0.27 mm) and PPTT (4.39 ± 1.45 mm).

  17. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  18. Laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Bradway, D E; Siegelman, F L

    1994-09-01

    An investigation of alleged data fraud at a pesticide analytical laboratory led EPA to take a closer look at the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection program. There was special focus on changes which might be made in the program to enhance the chances of detecting fraud in regulated studies. To this end, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) requested EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) to examine the GLP program. Several reports were issued by the OIG, including the recommendation that a laboratory accreditation program be adopted. EPA has been examining ways to implement the OIG's recommendations, including (1) laboratory accreditation consisting of three components: document submission and assessment, site visit and assessment, and proficiency assessment; and (2) mandatory registration of all facilities participating in GLP-regulated studies, based on document submission and assessment. These two alternatives are compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.

  19. Organization and ELISA-Based Results of the First Proficiency Testing to Evaluate the Ability of European Union Laboratories to Detect Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type B (SEB) in Buffer and Milk

    PubMed Central

    Nia, Yacine; Rodriguez, Mélanie; Zeleny, Reinhard; Herbin, Sabine; Auvray, Frédéric; Fiebig, Uwe; Avondet, Marc-André; Munoz, Amalia; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to organize the first proficiency test (PT) dedicated to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) detection in milk and buffer solutions. This paper describes the organization of the PT trial according to EN ISO 17043 requirements. Characterization of the SEB stock solution was performed using SDS-PAGE and SE-specific ELISA, and amino acid analysis was used to assign its protein concentration. The solution was then used to prepare six PT materials (four milk and two buffer batches) at a ng/g toxin level, which included one blank and one SEA-containing milk as specificity control. Suitable material homogeneity and stability were assessed using screening and quantitative ELISAs. Among the methods used by the participants, ELISA-based methods demonstrated their efficiency for the detection of SEB in both simple and complex matrices. The results serve as a basis for further improving the detection capabilities in expert laboratories and can therefore be considered as a contribution to biopreparedness. PMID:27649244

  20. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  1. Y chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD): update.

    PubMed

    Willuweit, Sascha; Roewer, Lutz

    2007-06-01

    The freely accessible YHRD (Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database, www.yhrd.org) is designed to store Y chromosome haplotypes from global populations and had replaced three earlier database versions collecting European, Asian and US American Y chromosomes separately. The focus is to disseminate haplotype frequency data to forensic analysts, researchers, and to everyone who is interested in historical and family genetics. YHRD considers reduction of the available number of polymorphisms on the Y chromosome to a uniform data string of 11 highly variable Y-STR loci as an efficient way to rapidly screen many world populations and to make their Y chromosome profiles comparable. Typing of the YHRD 11-locus core set is facilitated by commercial products, namely diagnostic PCR kits, and endorsed by scientific and forensic analyst's societies as ISFG or SWGDAM. YHRD is structured by the assignment of each submitted population sample to a set of populations sharing a common linguistic, demographic, genetic or geographic background (metapopulations). This principle facilitates the statistical evaluation of haplotype matches due to a significant enlargement of sample sizes. With the rapid growth of the database the definition of homogeneous metapopulations is now also feasible solely on the basis of the genetic data as exemplified for the whole dataset of YHRD, release 19 (August 2006). Large sample numbers within genetically defined metapopulations also allows the development of biostatistical methods to estimate the frequency of unobserved or rare haplotypes ("haplotype frequency surveying method"). Essential for the YHRD project is its collaborative character relying on the engagement of individual laboratories to make their data accessible via YHRD and to share the YHRD standards regarding data quality.

  2. Canadian listeriosis reference service.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Franco; Ng, Lai-King; Clark, Clifford; Farber, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic organism capable of growing at refrigeration temperatures, is of major concern in extended shelf life, refrigerated foods. Considering that as much as 80-90% of human listeriosis cases are linked to the ingestion of contaminated food, human cases are predominantly seen in high-risk individuals, including organ-transplant recipients, patients with AIDS and HIV-infected individuals, pregnant women, cancer patients, and the elderly. In 2001, the Canadian Listeriosis Reference Service (LRS) was created by the Bureau of Microbial Hazards (Health Canada) and the National Microbiology Laboratory (now part of the Public Health Agency of Canada). Major goals of the LRS include investigation of listeriosis cases and maintenance of a national collection of isolates. The LRS intends to create a comprehensive molecular epidemiological database of all isolates in Canada for use as a resource for outbreak investigations, research and other microbiological investigations. The PFGE profiles are being established and stored for clinical, food, environmental, and possibly animal strains of L. monocytogenes. The LRS pursues research activities for investigation and implementation of other molecular methods for characterizing L. monocytogenes isolates. Ribotyping, Multi-locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR), Multi-locus virulence sequence typing (MLVA), microarray- based technologies and sequence-based typing schemes, are being investigated on selected diversity sets. The LRS has also used PFGE typing for outbreak investigations. The molecular epidemiological data, timely coordination and exchange of information should help to reduce the incidence of listeriosis in Canada. In Canada, listeriosis is not a national notifiable disease, except for the province of Quebec, where it has been since 1999. The LRS, Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network, and federal epidemiologists are currently working on making human

  3. [Laboratory accreditation and proficiency testing].

    PubMed

    Kuwa, Katsuhiko

    2003-05-01

    ISO/TC 212 covering clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems will issue the international standard for medical laboratory quality and competence requirements, ISO 15189. This standard is based on the ISO/IEC 17025, general requirements for competence of testing and calibration laboratories and ISO 9001, quality management systems-requirements. Clinical laboratory services are essential to patient care and therefore should be available to meet the needs of all patients and clinical personnel responsible for human health care. If a laboratory seeks accreditation, it should select an accreditation body that operates according to this international standard and in a manner which takes into account the particular requirements of clinical laboratories. Proficiency testing should be available to evaluate the calibration laboratories and reference measurement laboratories in clinical medicine. Reference measurement procedures should be of precise and the analytical principle of measurement applied should ensure reliability. We should be prepared to establish a quality management system and proficiency testing in clinical laboratories.

  4. Sentinel 2 global reference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechoz, C.; Poulain, V.; Massera, S.; Languille, F.; Greslou, D.; de Lussy, F.; Gaudel, A.; L'Helguen, C.; Picard, C.; Trémas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is a multispectral, high-resolution, optical imaging mission, developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission. In cooperation with ESA, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) is responsible for the image quality of the project, and will ensure the CAL/VAL commissioning phase. Sentinel-2 mission is devoted the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas, and will provide a continuity of SPOT- and Landsat-type data. Sentinel-2 will also deliver information for emergency services. Launched in 2015 and 2016, there will be a constellation of 2 satellites on a polar sun-synchronous orbit, imaging systematically terrestrial surfaces with a revisit time of 5 days, in 13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red. Therefore, multi-temporal series of images, taken under the same viewing conditions, will be available. So as to ensure for the multi-temporal registration of the products, specified to be better than 0.3 pixels at 2σ, a Global Reference Image (GRI) will be produced during the CAL/VAL period. This GRI is composed of a set of Sentinel-2 acquisitions, which geometry has been corrected by bundle block adjustment. During L1B processing, Ground Control Points will be taken between this reference image and the sentinel-2 acquisition processed and the geometric model of the image corrected, so as to ensure the good multi-temporal registration. This paper first details the production of the reference during the CALVAL period, and then details the qualification and geolocation performance assessment of the GRI. It finally presents its use in the Level-1 processing chain and gives a first assessment of the multi-temporal registration.

  5. European bat lyssaviruses: an emerging zoonosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, A. R.; Brookes, S. M.; Johnson, N.; McElhinney, L. M.; Hutson, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, two bat lyssaviruses referred to as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs) types 1 and 2 (genotypes 5 and 6 respectively) which are closely related to classical rabies virus are responsible for an emerging zoonosis. EBLVs are host restricted to bats, and have been known to infect not only their primary hosts but also in rare circumstances, induce spillover infections to terrestrial mammals including domestic livestock, wildlife and man. Although spillover infections have occurred, there has been no evidence that the virus adapted to a new host. Since 1977, four human deaths from EBLVs have been reported. None of them had a record of prophylactic rabies immunization. Only fragmentary data exist about the effectiveness of current vaccines in cross-protection against EBLVs. It is clear that EBLV in bats cannot be eliminated using conventional strategies similar to the control programmes based on vaccine baits used for fox rabies in Europe during the 1980s. Due to the protected status of bats in Europe, our knowledge of EBLV prevalence and epidemiology is limited. It is possible that EBLV is under-reported and that the recorded cases of EBLV represent only a small proportion of the actual number of infected bats. For this reason, any interaction between man and bats in Europe must be considered as a possible exposure. Human exposure through biting incidents, especially unprovoked attacks, should be treated immediately with rabies post-exposure treatment and the bat, where possible, retained for laboratory analysis. Preventative measures include educating all bat handlers of the risks posed by rabies-infected animals and advising them to be immunized. This review provides a brief history of EBLVs, their distribution in host species and the public health risks. PMID:14959767

  6. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  7. Teaching Usage of Equipments in a Remote Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alparslan, N. Ceren; Ercil Cagiltay, Nergiz; Ozen, Mustafa; Uray Aydin, Elif

    2008-01-01

    Remote laboratories are technologies that aim to increase the effectiveness of educational programs. European Remote Radio Laboratory (ERRL) is an e-learning project for students, teachers and technicians who will use very important devices of a radio frequency laboratory remotely. As a solution we have developed an e-learning system which aims to…

  8. Reference materials (RMs) for analysis of the human factor II (prothrombin) gene G20210A mutation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christoph L; Márki-Zay, János; Corbisier, Philippe; Gancberg, David; Cooper, Susan; Gemmati, Donato; Halbmayer, Walter-Michael; Kitchen, Steve; Melegh, Béla; Neumaier, Michael; Oldenburg, Johannes; Leibundgut, Elisabeth Oppliger; Reitsma, Pieter H; Rieger, Sandra; Schimmel, Heinz G; Spannagl, Michael; Tordai, Attilia; Tosetto, Alberto; Visvikis, Sophie; Zadro, Renata; Mannhalter, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Scientific Committee of Molecular Biology Techniques (C-MBT) in Clinical Chemistry of the IFCC has initiated a joint project in co-operation with the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements to develop and produce plasmid-type reference materials (RMs) for the analysis of the human prothrombin gene G20210A mutation. Although DNA tests have a high impact on clinical decision-making and the number of tests performed in diagnostic laboratories is high, issues of quality and quality assurance exist, and currently only a few RMs for clinical genetic testing are available. A gene fragment chosen was produced that spans all primer annealing sites published to date. Both the wild-type and mutant alleles of this gene fragment were cloned into a pUC18 plasmid and two plasmid RMs were produced. In addition, a mixture of both plasmids was produced to mimic the heterozygous genotype. The present study describes the performance of these reference materials in a commutability study, in which they were tested by nine different methods in 13 expert laboratories. This series of plasmid RMs are, to the best of our knowledge, the first plasmid-type clinical genetic RMs introduced worldwide.

  9. Evaluation by data mining techniques of fluconazole breakpoints established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and comparison with those of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST).

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Isabel; Bielza, Concha; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Larrañaga, Pedro; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L

    2010-04-01

    The EUCAST and the CLSI have established different breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida spp. However, the reference methodologies employed to obtain the MICs provide similar results. The aim of this work was to apply supervised classification algorithms to analyze the clinical data used by the CLSI to establish fluconazole breakpoints for Candida infections and to compare these data with the results obtained with the data set used to set up EUCAST fluconazole breakpoints, where the MIC for detecting failures was >4 mg/liter, with a sensitivity of 87%, a false-positive rate of 8%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.89. Five supervised classifiers (J48 and CART decision trees, the OneR decision rule, the naïve Bayes classifier, and simple logistic regression) were used to analyze the original cohort of patients (Rex's data set), which was used to establish CLSI breakpoints, and a later cohort of candidemia (Clancy's data set), with which CLSI breakpoints were validated. The target variable was the outcome of the infections, and the predictor variable was the MIC or dose/MIC ratio. For Rex's data set, the MIC detecting failures was >8 mg/liter, and for Clancy's data set, the MIC detecting failures was >4 mg/liter, in close agreement with the EUCAST breakpoint (MIC > 4 mg/liter). The sensitivities, false-positive rates, and areas under the ROC curve obtained by means of CART, the algorithm with the best statistical results, were 52%, 18%, and 0.7, respectively, for Rex's data set and 65%, 6%, and 0.72, respectively, for Clancy's data set. In addition, the correlation between outcome and dose/MIC ratio was analyzed for Clancy's data set, where a dose/MIC ratio of >75 was associated with successes, with a sensitivity of 93%, a false-positive rate of 29%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.83. This dose/MIC ratio of >75 was identical to that found for the cohorts used by EUCAST to establish their breakpoints (a dose/MIC ratio of

  10. Evaluation by Data Mining Techniques of Fluconazole Breakpoints Established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and Comparison with Those of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)▿

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Isabel; Bielza, Concha; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Larrañaga, Pedro; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2010-01-01

    The EUCAST and the CLSI have established different breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida spp. However, the reference methodologies employed to obtain the MICs provide similar results. The aim of this work was to apply supervised classification algorithms to analyze the clinical data used by the CLSI to establish fluconazole breakpoints for Candida infections and to compare these data with the results obtained with the data set used to set up EUCAST fluconazole breakpoints, where the MIC for detecting failures was >4 mg/liter, with a sensitivity of 87%, a false-positive rate of 8%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.89. Five supervised classifiers (J48 and CART decision trees, the OneR decision rule, the naïve Bayes classifier, and simple logistic regression) were used to analyze the original cohort of patients (Rex's data set), which was used to establish CLSI breakpoints, and a later cohort of candidemia (Clancy's data set), with which CLSI breakpoints were validated. The target variable was the outcome of the infections, and the predictor variable was the MIC or dose/MIC ratio. For Rex's data set, the MIC detecting failures was >8 mg/liter, and for Clancy's data set, the MIC detecting failures was >4 mg/liter, in close agreement with the EUCAST breakpoint (MIC > 4 mg/liter). The sensitivities, false-positive rates, and areas under the ROC curve obtained by means of CART, the algorithm with the best statistical results, were 52%, 18%, and 0.7, respectively, for Rex's data set and 65%, 6%, and 0.72, respectively, for Clancy's data set. In addition, the correlation between outcome and dose/MIC ratio was analyzed for Clancy's data set, where a dose/MIC ratio of >75 was associated with successes, with a sensitivity of 93%, a false-positive rate of 29%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.83. This dose/MIC ratio of >75 was identical to that found for the cohorts used by EUCAST to establish their breakpoints (a dose/MIC ratio of

  11. The European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2: standardization of assay results for hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Kafatos, G; Anastassopoulou, C; Nardone, A; Andrews, N; Barbara, C; Boot, H J; Butur, D; Davidkin, I; Gelb, D; Griskevicius, A; Hesketh, L; Icardi, G; Jones, L; Kra-Oz, Z; Miller, E; Mossong, J; Nemecek, V; de Ory, F; Sobotová, Z; Thierfelder, W; Van Damme, P; Hatzakis, A

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2 was to coordinate and standardize the serological surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe. In this study, the standardization of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results is described. The 15 participating national laboratories tested a unique panel of 172 sera established by the Greek reference centre for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and/or to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) by assay methods of their choice. Country-specific quantitative measurements for anti-HBs and anti-HBc were transformed into common units using standardization equations derived by regressing each country's panel results against the reference centre's results, thus adjusting for interassay and interlaboratory variability. For HBsAg, a qualitative analysis (positive/negative) showed at least 99% agreement with the reference laboratory for all countries. By combining these standardized and qualitative results for the markers mentioned earlier, it was possible to achieve comparable estimates of the proportion of the population susceptible to HBV, vaccinated against HBV, with a past HBV infection, and with a current infection or chronic carrier state. Standardization is a very important tool that allows for international serological comparisons to assess the current vaccination policies and the progress of HBV control in Europe.

  12. Laboratory safety handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.

  13. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  14. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34. Number 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-31

    UNCLASSIFIED E SN-34-5 NL Ehhhhhhhhhommml Emomhhhmhhhhhhl OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC NOTES ESN 34-5S 51 MAY 1980 Il *o Distributed by...Israeli Universities R.E. Machol 240 Operations Research in Italy- Part I R.E. Machol 245 IN E MThe Institute of Physics J.R. Neiahbours 250 Lasers...those of SRC’s Rutherford Laboratory The laboratory-environment studies at Chilton. Chilton is about 40. miles of nm-wave gaseous absorption have

  15. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    R.L. Carovillano 218 The Seventh European Regional Astronomy meeting dealt with almost every area of astronomy; coverage included solar ...in the 25- to found in areas as diverse as electro- 35-m range at the Comitato Nazionale optics and pharmacology. Energia Nucleare laboratory in...physics research has led to knowledge gained in one area (or param- many discoveries in the solar system and eter domain) to another area that lacks to

  16. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  17. Live, Digital Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

  18. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  19. The European experience.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Rahmel, Axel

    2011-04-01

    This mini-review on European experiences with tackling the problem of organ shortage for transplantation was based on a literature review of predominantly European publications dealing with the issue of organ donation from deceased donors. The authors tried to identify the most significant factors that have demonstrated to impact on donation rates from deceased donors and subsequent transplant successes. These factors include legislative measures (national laws and European Directives), optimization of the donation process, use of expanded criteria donors, innovative preservation and surgical techniques, organizational efforts, and improved allocation algorithms.

  20. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  1. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  2. Role of the "National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection" in the official control of food and feed.

    PubMed

    Ciabatti, I; Marchesi, U; Froiio, A; Paternò, A; Ruggeri, M; Amaddeo, D

    2005-08-01

    The National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection was established in 2002 within the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lazio e Toscana, with the aim of providing scientific and technical support to the National Health System and to the Ministry of Health within the scope of the regulation of GMO use in food and feed.The recently adopted EU legislation on GMOs (Regulation CE no. 1829/2003 and no. 1830/2003) introduced more rigorous procedures for the authorisation, labelling and analytical control of food and feed consisting, containing or derived from GMOs. The National Reference Centre, besides its institutional tasks as one of the laboratories of the Italian National Health System, collects and analyses data and results of the national official control of GMOs; carries out scientific research aimed at developing, improving, validating and harmonising detection and quantification methods, in cooperation with other scientific institutions, the Community Reference Laboratory and within the European Network of GMOs laboratories (ENGL); collaborates with the Ministry of Health in the definition of control programmes and promotes educational and training initiatives. Objectives defined for 2004-2006, activities in progress and goals already achieved are presented.

  3. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  4. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    1990-01-01

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  5. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time

  6. Nonparametric spirometry reference values for Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nancy L; Brown, Vanessa M

    2011-02-01

    Recent literature sites ethnic origin as a major factor in developing pulmonary function reference values. Extensive studies established reference values for European and African Americans, but not for Hispanic Americans. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey defines Hispanic as individuals of Spanish speaking cultures. While no group was excluded from the target population, sample size requirements only allowed inclusion of individuals who identified themselves as Mexican Americans. This research constructs nonparametric reference value confidence intervals for Hispanic American pulmonary function. The method is applicable to all ethnicities. We use empirical likelihood confidence intervals to establish normal ranges for reference values. Its major advantage: it is model free, but shares asymptotic properties of model based methods. Statistical comparisons indicate that empirical likelihood interval lengths are comparable to normal theory intervals. Power and efficiency studies agree with previously published theoretical results.

  7. Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This report highlights the scientific and engineering accomplishments achieved during the 14-day Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission. The mission, managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, laid the groundwork for broader international partnerships and scientific alliances. Five other space agencies joined NASA on the mission: the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA), the French Space Agency (CNES), the German Space Agency (DARA), and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). For the mission, microgravity and life sciences investigations were completed inside Spacelab by a crew working around the clock. The report foreword and introduction describe the mission and the facilities used for IML-2. By the end of the mission, hundreds of primary and secondary experiments were completed. With the help of the principal investigators, most of the primary investigations and some of the co-investigations are described in this document. The lead report authors are cited at the beginning of each experiment description The remainder of the description includes the experiment objectives, flight activities postflight analysis, conclusions, illustrations, and references for further research. The major scientific accomplishments of each investigation are highlighted.

  8. Sprawl in European urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prastacos, Poulicos; Lagarias, Apostolos

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the 2006 edition of the Urban Atlas database is used to tabulate areas of low development density, usually referred to as "sprawl", for many European cities. The Urban Atlas database contains information on the land use distribution in the 305 largest European cities. Twenty different land use types are recognized, with six of them representing urban fabric. Urban fabric classes are residential areas differentiated by the density of development, which is measured by the sealing degree parameter that ranges from 0% to 100% (non-developed, fully developed). Analysis is performed on the distribution of the middle to low density areas defined as those with sealing degree less than 50%. Seven different country groups in which urban areas have similar sprawl characteristics are identified and some key characteristics of sprawl are discussed. Population of an urban area is another parameter considered in the analysis. Two spatial metrics, average patch size and mean distance to the nearest neighboring patch of the same class, are used to describe proximity/separation characteristics of sprawl in the urban areas of the seven groups.

  9. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  10. PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference

    SciTech Connect

    Dobos, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

  11. Laboratory accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1998-08-01

    Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepted world wide. The NACLA accreditation body recognition process is based on the requirements of ISO Guide 25 and Guide 58. A membership drive will begin some time this fall to solicit organizational members and an election of a permanent NACLA Board of Directors will follow later this year or early 1999.

  12. Collaborative study for the establishment of the WHO 3(rd) International Standard for Endotoxin, the Ph. Eur. endotoxin biological reference preparation batch 5 and the USP Reference Standard for Endotoxin Lot H0K354.

    PubMed

    Findlay, L; Desai, T; Heath, A; Poole, S; Crivellone, M; Hauck, W; Ambrose, M; Morris, T; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Buchheit, K H; Spieser, J M; Terao, E

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO)/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM/Council of Europe) for the establishment of harmonised replacement endotoxin standards for these 3 organisations. Thirty-five laboratories worldwide, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers enrolled in the study. Three candidate preparations (10/178, 10/190 and 10/196) were produced with the same material and same formulation as the current reference standards with the objective of generating a new (3(rd)) International Standard (IS) with the same potency (10 000 IU/vial) as the current (2(nd)) IS, as well as new European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). and USP standards. The suitability of the candidate preparations to act as the reference standard in assays for endotoxin performed according to compendial methods was evaluated. Their potency was calibrated against the WHO 2(nd) IS for Endotoxin (94/580). Gelation and photometric methods produced similar results for each of the candidate preparations. The overall potency estimates for the 3 batches were comparable. Given the intrinsic assay precision, the observed differences between the batches may be considered unimportant for the intended use of these materials. Overall, these results were in line with those generated for the establishment of the current preparations of reference standards. Accelerated degradation testing of vials stored at elevated temperatures supported the long-term stability of the 3 candidate preparations. It was agreed between the 3 organisations that batch 10/178 be shared between WHO and EDQM and that batches 10/190 and 10/196 be allocated to USP, with a common assigned value of 10 000 IU/vial. This value maintains the continuity of the global harmonisation of reference materials and

  13. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  14. Standardization and Interoperability Problems of European Electronic Tolling Service (EETS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, Gabriel; Mitraszewska, Izabella; Kamiński, Tomasz; Potapczuk, Włodzimierz; Kallweit, Thomas

    The paper refers to some standardization and interoperability problems of the European Electronic Toll Service (EETS) implementation in European Union. The existing EETS systems in the European Union member states are not interoperable due to many differences among them. European Commission has taken bold steps to address that issue. The first one was the 2004/52/EC Directive on the interoperability in the Community. The second one was the decision to launch Europe's own Galileo system. The third was the EC decision from 6th October 2009, based on Research Charging Interoperability (RCI) and the Common Electronic Fee Collection System for a Road Tolling European Service(CESARE) projects. Furthermore, the Motor Transport Institute researches, concerning the mentioned matters have been presented too.

  15. The New European Wind Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The New European Wind Atlas 1. European wind resource assessment through a ERA-NET Plus project 1.1 The new EU Atlas The Commission decided earlier this year to issue an ERA-NET Plus call for the creation and publication of a new EU wind atlas. The atlas will cover Member states as well as Member states' exclusive economic zones, both onshore and offshore. It involved the launch of a single joint call for proposals by promoters of national and/or regional programmes, thereby allowing a more efficient use of existing financial resources. Therefore the funding scheme is that of ERA-NET Plus which implies that at least 5 MS shall commit at least 1 million Euros each and the Commission tops up with on third of the MS contribution. Basically it is the MS research programmes that will execute the project but an important part of the project is to create "open project development platforms" with associated protocols allowing a wider range of scientists worldwide to contribute. The project has a duration of 5 years. The decision on the new wind atlas was taken after several years of work by the European Wind Energy Technology Platform and the European Energy Research Alliances' Joint programme for Wind Energy. 2. Structure of the project The project will be structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel: 2.1 Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form, which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database. The database will at a minimum include: Wind resources and their associated uncertainty; Extreme wind; Turbulence characteristics; Adverse weather conditions; Predictability for short term prediction; Guidelines. 2.2 Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made public available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and relevant data at several heights and a horizontal

  16. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  17. A unified gene catalog for the laboratory mouse reference genome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Richardson, J E; Hale, P; Baldarelli, R M; Reed, D J; Recla, J M; Sinclair, R; Reddy, T B K; Bult, C J

    2015-08-01

    We report here a semi-automated process by which mouse genome feature predictions and curated annotations (i.e., genes, pseudogenes, functional RNAs, etc.) from Ensembl, NCBI and Vertebrate Genome Annotation database (Vega) are reconciled with the genome features in the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) database (http://www.informatics.jax.org) into a comprehensive and non-redundant catalog. Our gene unification method employs an algorithm (fjoin--feature join) for efficient detection of genome coordinate overlaps among features represented in two annotation data sets. Following the analysis with fjoin, genome features are binned into six possible categories (1:1, 1:0, 0:1, 1:n, n:1, n:m) based on coordinate overlaps. These categories are subsequently prioritized for assessment of annotation equivalencies and differences. The version of the unified catalog reported here contains more than 59,000 entries, including 22,599 protein-coding coding genes, 12,455 pseudogenes, and 24,007 other feature types (e.g., microRNAs, lincRNAs, etc.). More than 23,000 of the entries in the MGI gene catalog have equivalent gene models in the annotation files obtained from NCBI, Vega, and Ensembl. 12,719 of the features are unique to NCBI relative to Ensembl/Vega; 11,957 are unique to Ensembl/Vega relative to NCBI, and 3095 are unique to MGI. More than 4000 genome features fall into categories that require manual inspection to resolve structural differences in the gene models from different annotation sources. Using the MGI unified gene catalog, researchers can easily generate a comprehensive report of mouse genome features from a single source and compare the details of gene and transcript structure using MGI's mouse genome browser.

  18. The European Military Environment: NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Volume 1. The European Environment (Update: 1982-Present).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    resulted from changes in the European political environment while others were driven 1-,y improvements in technology . Most of the developments...use of emerging technologies (ET). ET refers tu assets, both in existence and being developed, which increase the effectiveness of conventional defense...17). Finally, to calm European fcars that SDI might, result in an overwhelming technological gap b,’twten the U.S. and F,7rope, the Reagan

  19. Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J H; Jensen, L K

    2010-11-01

    The migration of phthalates into foodstuffs from food-contact materials (FCM) is a well-known source of food contamination. In 2005, the European Food Safety Authority finalized its risk assessment for several of the classical phthalate plasticizers. In their risk management procedure the European Commission transformed the tolerable daily intakes established by the Authority into legislative limits for phthalates in both plastic and food simulants, while taking exposure from other sources into consideration. These limits have been into force since 1 July 2008. A detailed interpretation of the regulation of these substances was agreed upon in the European network of FCM reference laboratories. This paper reports results from a Danish control campaign of samples collected by official food inspectors and analysed by a newly validated analytical method run under accreditation. Samples were from FCM producers, FCM importers and importers of packed foodstuffs from third-party countries. Products containing phthalates above the current limits were found in several categories of FCM: conveyor belts (six of six), lids from packed foodstuffs in glasses (eight of 28), tubes for liquid foodstuffs (four of five) and gloves (five of 14). More than 20% of the samples analysed contained dibutylphthalate (DBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) above the compositional limits of 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. Analysis of residual phthalates in metal lid gaskets instead of analysis of phthalates in the food when controlling foodstuffs packed outside the European Union proved to be an efficient and simple control method. All findings of phthalates were associated with the use of plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC).

  20. References for marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-06-01

    Standard and Reference Materials for Marine Science, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memo OMA-51 (2nd edition, 434 pp.), by A. Y. Cantillo, is now available. This compilation of reference materials was prepared at the request of the Group of Experts on Standards and Reference Materials and was printed by NOAA. GESREM is sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the United Nations Program.Reference materials are included on ashes, gases, instrument performance materials, oils, physical properties, rocks, sediments, sludges, tissues and waters. For each reference material, source, description and preparation, analyses and values, cost, references, and comments are given. Indices are included for elements, isotopes and organic compounds. Cross references to Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers and alternate names and chemical structures of organic compounds are also provided.

  1. Virtual Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  2. The syntheses of 1-(2-thienyl)-2-(methylamino) propane (methiopropamine) and its 3-thienyl isomer for use as reference standards.

    PubMed

    Angelov, D; O'Brien, J; Kavanagh, P

    2013-03-01

    1-(2-Thienyl)-2-(methylamino)propane (methiopropamine, MPA), the thiophene analogue of methamphetamine, has recently appeared on a number of websites offering 'legal highs' for sale and has also been reported as a new psychoactive substance by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drugs Addiction (EMCDDA) Early Warning System. The drug is currently not controlled in the European Union (EU) but it would be expected that forensic laboratories will encounter it during routine analysis. As no reference standard was available, we have established a three-step protocol for its synthesis. We have also synthesized its 3-thienyl isomer and have established that this is separable from methiopropamine by gas chromatography using one of our routine protocols. The synthetic methodology presented here could be readily extended to the syntheses of analogous compounds.

  3. A Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a biochemistry laboratory course in which the curriculum revolves around a single theme: the purification, characterization, and molecular biology of threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) from Escherechia coli. Lists examples of related class research projects. Contains 41 references. (WRM)

  4. Challenges in the size analysis of a silica nanoparticle mixture as candidate certified reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestens, Vikram; Roebben, Gert; Herrmann, Jan; Jämting, Åsa; Coleman, Victoria; Minelli, Caterina; Clifford, Charles; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Mast, Jan; Junjie, Liu; Babick, Frank; Cölfen, Helmut; Emons, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    A new certified reference material for quality control of nanoparticle size analysis methods has been developed and produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The material, ERM-FD102, consists of an aqueous suspension of a mixture of silica nanoparticle populations of distinct particle size and origin. The characterisation relied on an interlaboratory comparison study in which 30 laboratories of demonstrated competence participated with a variety of techniques for particle size analysis. After scrutinising the received datasets, certified and indicative values for different method-defined equivalent diameters that are specific for dynamic light scattering (DLS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle tracking analysis (PTA) and asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) were assigned. The value assignment was a particular challenge because metrological concepts were not always interpreted uniformly across all participating laboratories. This paper presents the main elements and results of the ERM-FD102 characterisation study and discusses in particular the key issues of measurand definition and the estimation of measurement uncertainty.

  5. Challenges in the size analysis of a silica nanoparticle mixture as candidate certified reference material.

    PubMed

    Kestens, Vikram; Roebben, Gert; Herrmann, Jan; Jämting, Åsa; Coleman, Victoria; Minelli, Caterina; Clifford, Charles; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Mast, Jan; Junjie, Liu; Babick, Frank; Cölfen, Helmut; Emons, Hendrik

    A new certified reference material for quality control of nanoparticle size analysis methods has been developed and produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The material, ERM-FD102, consists of an aqueous suspension of a mixture of silica nanoparticle populations of distinct particle size and origin. The characterisation relied on an interlaboratory comparison study in which 30 laboratories of demonstrated competence participated with a variety of techniques for particle size analysis. After scrutinising the received datasets, certified and indicative values for different method-defined equivalent diameters that are specific for dynamic light scattering (DLS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle tracking analysis (PTA) and asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) were assigned. The value assignment was a particular challenge because metrological concepts were not always interpreted uniformly across all participating laboratories. This paper presents the main elements and results of the ERM-FD102 characterisation study and discusses in particular the key issues of measurand definition and the estimation of measurement uncertainty.

  6. The Virtual Radiopharmacy Laboratory: A 3-D Simulation for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiou, Antonios; Bouras, Christos; Giannaka, Eri; Kapoulas, Vaggelis; Nani, Maria; Tsiatsos, Thrasivoulos

    2004-01-01

    This article presents Virtual Radiopharmacy Laboratory (VR LAB), a virtual laboratory accessible through the Internet. VR LAB is designed and implemented in the framework of the VirRAD European project. This laboratory represents a 3D simulation of a radio-pharmacy laboratory, where learners, represented by 3D avatars, can experiment on…

  7. Reference Excitation Unit for Micro-Vibration Test Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veal, Dan; Hughes, Ben; Wagner, Mark

    2012-07-01

    The verification of hardware, in particular with respect to micro-vibration requirements, is challenging for both numerical simulation and experimental methodology. A commonly used test approach is to measure the interface reaction forces, torques, accelerations, velocities or displacements in all six degrees of freedom generated by the unit under test. In Europe, several test facilities exist to measure these generated micro-vibration forces based on dynamometer, pendulum and reverse pendulum principles. All these facilities and test setups need to be validated and calibrated with traceability to recognized international standards to ensure validity of the measurement results. Ideally, inter-facility comparisons would be conducted with identical excitation input signals and identical boundary conditions to increase confidence in the validity of the measurement produced by different facilities. To facilitate this requirement, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) - the UK’s national measurement institute, is developing a reference vibration excitation unit that will be capable of generating vibrations, linear or angular, of known amplitude and direction traceable to international standards. This activity is funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of a Technology Research Study. This paper covers the design of the unit and how the vibrations generated will be traceable to international standards.

  8. Interior. Balance room for chemistry laboratory. Storage room for glassware ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Balance room for chemistry laboratory. Storage room for glassware and reference room with frequently used chemistry and chemical engineering texts. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  9. European Composite Honeycomb Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschepe, Christoph; Sauerbrey, Martin; Klebor, Maximillian; Henriksen, Torben

    2014-06-01

    A European CFRP honeycomb material for high demanding structure applications like antenna reflectors and optical benches was developed in the frame of an ESA GSTP project.The composite honeycomb was designed according to requirements defined by the European space industry. A developed manufacturing technique based on prepreg moulding enables the production of homogeneous CFRP honeycomb blocks. All characteristic material properties, including compression, tension and shear strength and CTE, were determined in a comprehensive verification test campaign. Competitiveness to comparable products was further verified by a representative breadboard.

  10. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  11. Laboratory restructuring in metropolitan Edmonton: a model for laboratory reorganization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Fagg, K L; Gordon, P; Reib, B; McGann, J T; Higa, T E; Kinniburgh, D W; Cembrowski, G S

    1999-12-01

    In 1994 the Alberta government acted to reduce to a decade-long deficit in the provincial budget with draconian reductions in the health, education and welfare expenditures. As a result, funding to Alberta clinical laboratories was to be reduced by approximately 40%. In response, the private and public laboratories in metropolitan Edmonton formed a unique alliance to provide laboratory testing in a more coordinated and efficient manner. Of the five metropolitan hospitals, only University of Alberta Hospital preserved its full service laboratory and its specialty reference testing. The other hospital laboratories were converted to rapid response laboratories with a merged private reference laboratory providing routine testing and support to the four hospitals, and far fewer outpatient collection facilities. This paper describes the steps in the laboratory restructuring from inception to execution.

  12. Harmonization of good laboratory practice requirements and laboratory accreditation programs.

    PubMed

    Royal, P D

    1994-09-01

    Efforts to harmonize Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) requirements have been underway through the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) since 1981. In 1985, a GLP panel was established to facilitate the practical implementation of the OECD/GLP program. Through the OECD/GLP program, Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) agreements which foster requirements for reciprocal data and study acceptance and unified GLP standards have been developed among member countries. Three OECD Consensus Workshops and three inspectors training workshops have been held. In concert with these efforts, several OECD countries have developed GLP accreditation programs, managed by local health and environmental ministries. In addition, Canada and the United States are investigating Laboratory Accreditation programs for environmental monitoring assessment and GLP-regulated studies. In the European Community (EC), the need for quality standards specifying requirements for production and international trade has promoted International Standards Organization (ISO) certification for certain products. ISO-9000 standards identify requirements for certification of quality systems. These certification programs may affect the trade and market of laboratories conducting GLP studies. Two goals identified by these efforts are common to both programs: first, harmonization and recognition of requirements, and second, confidence in the rigor of program components used to assess the integrity of data produced and study activities. This confidence can be promoted, in part, through laboratory inspection and screening processes. However, the question remains, will data produced by sanctioned laboratories be mutually accepted on an international basis?(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  14. Effluent Monitoring Procedures: Nutrients. Student Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This is one of several short-term courses developed to assist in the training of waste water treatment plant operational personnel in the tests, measurements, and report preparation required for compliance with their NPDES Permits. The Student Reference Manual provides step-by-step procedures for laboratory application of equipment operating…

  15. 32 CFR 555.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 555.3 Section 555.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES CORPS OF ENGINEERS, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, LABORATORY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND TESTS, WORK...

  16. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, conventional, and molecular serotyping of Listeria monocytogenes from food proficiency testing trials toward an harmonization of subtyping at European level.

    PubMed

    Félix, Benjamin; Dao, Trinh Tam; Grout, Joël; Lombard, Bertrand; Asséré, Adrien; Brisabois, Anne; Roussel, Sophie

    2012-08-01

    The European Union Reference Laboratory for Listeria monocytogenes (EURL for L. monocytogenes) coordinates a European network of 29 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). Depending on a national decision, NRLs undertake food, environmental, and veterinary L. monocytogenes strain surveillance in their respective countries. In the framework of the PulseNet Europe network, two pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping proficiency testing (PT) trials were carried out in 2003 and 2006. The obtained data showed that PFGE profiles can be compared and exchanged between laboratories. However, no further PT trial had been performed since 2006. In this context, two PT trials were organized by the EURL to evaluate the ability of NRLs to perform conventional serotyping, molecular serotyping and PFGE subtyping. Eleven well-characterized isolates of L. monocytogenes were used: six and nine isolates were tested in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Three isolates were repeated between the two studies. In the 2010 panel, a strain was tested in duplicate, and two strains were related to the same epidemiological group. The strains were analyzed blind in different laboratories (17 in 2009 and 25 in 2010) using (1) their own in-house method for serotyping methods and (2) standardized protocols based on the PulseNet protocol for PFGE. For conventional serotyping, 86.0% in 2009 and 91.0% in 2010 of the serotypes obtained were in agreement with the EURL data. For molecular serotyping, 93.5% of the results in 2009 and 95.2% in 2010 matched the EURL data. For PFGE, 68.9% in 2009 and 81.7% of the combined AscI/ApaI profiles were indistinguishable from the EURL reference profiles. The variations observed could be attributed to slight standardization defaults or, in a few cases, to a failure in DNA extraction. These PT trials provided a valuable opportunity to improve the subtyping ability of NRLs and facilitate exchanges of subtyping data in the future.

  17. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  18. Inter-laboratory comparison measurements of radiochemical laboratories in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Meresová, J; Belanová, A; Vrsková, M

    2010-01-01

    The first inter-laboratory comparison organized by the radiochemistry laboratory of Water Research Institute (WRI) in Bratislava was carried out in 1993 and since then is it realized on an annual basis and about 10 radiochemical laboratories from all over Slovakia are participating. The gross alpha and gross beta activities, and the activity concentrations of (222)Rn, tritium, and (226)Ra, and U(nat) concentration in synthetic water samples are compared. The distributed samples are covering the concentration range prevailing in potable and surface waters and are prepared by dilution of certified reference materials. Over the course of the years 1993-2008, we observed the improvement in the quality of results for most of the laboratories. However, the success rate of the gross alpha determination activity is not improving as much as the other parameters.

  19. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs.

  20. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  1. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  2. European Study Tour Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Vicki L.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.

    Guidelines are presented for planning and financing European study tours at the community college level. First, a rationale for incorporating study tours of Europe within the community college curriculum is presented and the benefits of such tours in providing students with experiences they could not normally have are outlined. Next, the paper…

  3. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  4. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  5. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  6. GEMAS: Mineral magnetic properties of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzina, Dilyara; Kosareva, Lina; Fattakhova, Leysan; Fabian, Karl; Nourgaliev, Danis; Reimann, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    The GEMAS survey of European agricultural soil provides a unique opportunity to create the first comprehensive overview of mineral magnetic properties in agricultural soil on a continental scale. Samples from the upper 20 cm were taken in large agricultural fields (Ap-sample) at a density of 1 site/2500 km2. After air drying and sieving to < 2 mm, low (460 Hz), and high frequency (4600 Hz) magnetic susceptibility k was measured on 2500 samples using a Bartington MS2B sensor to obtain frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility kfd. Hysteresis properties are determined using a J coercivity spectrometer, built in the paleomagnetic laboratory of Kazan University, providing for each sample a modified hysteresis loop, backfield curve, acquisition curve of isothermal remanent magnetization, and a viscous IRM decay spectrum. Each measurement set is obtained in a single run from zero field up to 1.5 T and back to -1.5 T, taking approximately 15 minutes. This allows to measure a wide range of magnetic parameters for large sample collections. Because the GEMAS geochemical atlas provides a comprehensive set of geochemical measurements characterizing the individual soil samples, the new data allow to study magnetic parameters in relation to chemical and geological parameters. The results show a clear large scale spatial distribution with e.g. broad distinct lows of k over sandy sediments of the last glaciation in central northern Europe and other sedimentary basins. More localized positive k anomalies occur near young volcanism, or old basalts exposed on the surface. On the other hand, frequency dependence of k displays a much more scattered behavior, indicating either high noise level, or large local variability. Clearly distinguishable, small-scale patterns in the randomized data set indicate that the latter is more likely. This indicates that local influences on soil magnetic properties, including anthropogenic effects, may be easier detected by frequency dependence

  7. Preparing the references.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-07-01

    In a scientific paper, the references serve to provide background information and allow the researcher to compare and contrast the work of others in relation to his own study. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all references cited. The references quoted should be easily accessible and retrievable by anyone wishing to obtain further information. There is a strong preference for citing journal articles listed in PubMed. The two major reference format systems are the Vancouver and Harvard systems, with increasing preference for the Vancouver system. Authors should adhere exactly to the instructions to authors of the target journal.

  8. Directory of Accredited Laboratories, 1991. National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trahey, N.M.; White, V.R.; Horlick, J.

    1991-04-01

    The annual Directory provides a listing of laboratories accredited as of March 1, 1991, by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). The names of approximately 900 laboratories in 15 fields of testing are included. A brief description of the NVLAP program is given, and a summary of laboratory participation is provided. To aid the user, indexes cross reference the laboratories by company name, NVLAP Lab Code Number, field of testing, and geographic location (state or country). A listing of the test methods (scope of accreditation) is provided for each laboratory.

  9. Laboratory reporting of urine protein and albumin.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graham Rd

    2011-05-01

    Communication between pathology laboratories and clients involves more than just a result. There may be advice on recommended specimen type as well as the units and reference intervals used to report results. Between-laboratory variability in these factors has the potential to cause unnecessary confusion and even to lead to variation in interpretation for samples sent to different laboratories. A survey of Australian and New Zealand laboratories covering sample recommendations, specimens received, units and reference intervals for urine albumin and urine protein was conducted through the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP). The results confirm earlier findings of wide between-laboratory variability in all these factors. It is proposed that only recommendations developed by relevant professional societies and adopted by all laboratories can lead to reduction in this variability.

  10. Proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weck, Phillippe F. (Editor); Kwong, Victor H. S. (Editor); Salama, Farid (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers presented at the 2006 NASA Workshop on Laboratory Astrophysics held in the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) from February 14 to 16, 2006. This workshop brings together producers and users of laboratory astrophysics data so that they can understand each other's needs and limitations in the context of the needs for NASA's missions. The last NASA-sponsored workshop was held in 2002 at Ames Research Center. Recent related meetings include the Topical Session at the AAS meeting and the European workshop at Pillnitz, Germany, both of which were held in June 2005. The former showcased the importance of laboratory astrophysics to the community at large, while the European workshop highlighted a multi-laboratory approach to providing the needed data. The 2006 NASA Workshop on Laboratory Astrophysics, sponsored by the NASA Astrophysics Division, focused on the current status of the field and its relevance to NASA. This workshop attracted 105 participants and 82 papers of which 19 were invited. A White Paper identifying the key issues in laboratory astrophysics during the break-out sessions was prepared by the Scientific Organizing Committee, and has been forwarded to the Universe Working Group (UWG) at NASA Headquarters. This White Paper, which represented the collective inputs and opinions from experts and stakeholders in the field of astrophysics, should serve as the working document for the future development of NASA's R&A program in laboratory astrophysics.

  11. Towards Evaluating the Writing Laboratory: A Prototype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejorada, Ma. Flor E.; Fonacier, Elvira

    A model for evaluating a college second language writing instruction program is presented, based on experiences at the De La Salle University (Philippines) writing laboratory. The laboratory, a support unit of the university's language program, provides remedial instruction in composition and academic writing for referred students. The proposed…

  12. Proposal of a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure for free thyroxine in serum.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Linda M; Beastall, Graham; Christofides, Nicholas D; Faix, James D; Ieiri, Tamio; Jarrige, Véronique; Miller, W Greg; Miller, Richard; Nelson, Jerald C; Ronin, Cathérine; Ross, H Alec; Rottmann, Michael; Thijssen, Jos H; Toussaint, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper the IFCC WG-STFT recommends and provides the rationale to establish metrological traceability of serum free thyroxine (FT4) measurements to a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure. It is proposed that this procedure be based on equilibrium dialysis combined with determination of thyroxine in the dialysate with a trueness-based reference measurement procedure. The measurand is thus operationally defined as "thyroxine in the dialysate from equilibrium dialysis of serum prepared under defined conditions". With regard to the trueness-based reference measurement procedure, the WG-STFT recommends use of an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/tandem MS) procedure for total thyroxine that has been optimized towards measurement at picomolar concentration levels and that is listed in the database of the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM). For calibration, the purified thyroxine material IRMM-468 (resulting from a project funded by the European Commission and recently submitted to the JCTLM) is proposed. The WG-STFT stresses that according to this recommendation it is a prerequisite to strictly adhere to the defined equilibrium dialysis procedure, whereas it is permissible to introduce variants in the ID-LC/tandem MS procedure.

  13. Are aliens threatening European aquatic coastal ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, Karsten; Olenin, Sergej; Thieltges, David W.

    2006-05-01

    Inshore waters of European coasts have accumulated a high share of non-indigenous species, where a changeable palaeoenvironment has caused low diversity in indigenous biota. Also strongly transformed modern coastal ecosystems seem to assimilate whatever species have been introduced and tolerate the physical regime. Adding non-native species does not have any directional predetermined effects on recipient coastal ecosystems. The status of being a non-native rather refers to a position in evolutionary history than qualify as an ecological category with distinct and consistent properties. Effects of invaders vary between habitats and with the phase of invasion and also with shifting ambient conditions. Although aliens accelerate change in European coastal biota, we found no evidence that they generally impair biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. More often, invaders expand ecosystem functioning by adding new ecological traits, intensifying existing ones and increasing functional redundancy.

  14. Reference Point Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N.; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income. PMID:27672374

  15. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  16. An Online Reference System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisman, Janet; Treat, William

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer aid developed to assist in academic library reference service using the DataPhase Circulation System, an automated system that features full cataloging records in database and permits local programing. Access points (subject, type of reference work, course) and database structure and user screens are highlighted. (EJS)

  17. China Connections Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  18. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  19. Reference Point Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income.

  20. Production of Emotional Facial Expressions in European American, Japanese, and Chinese Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda A.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    European American, Japanese, and Chinese 11-month-olds participated in emotion-inducing laboratory procedures. Facial responses were scored with BabyFACS, an anatomically based coding system. Overall, Chinese infants were less expressive than European American and Japanese infants, suggesting that differences in expressivity between European…

  1. Collaborative study for the establishment of the Ph. Eur. Hepatitis E virus RNA for NAT testing biological reference preparation batch 1.

    PubMed

    Baylis, S A; Terao, E; Blümel, J; Hanschmann, K-M O

    2017-01-01

    A new European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) biological reference preparation (BRP) had to be established further to the decision to include nucleic acid testing (NAT) for the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA in the monograph Human plasma (pooled and treated for virus inactivation) (1646). To this purpose, an international collaborative study was launched in the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) and the Commission of the European Union (EU). The study was run in conjunction with the establishment of the 1(st) World Health Organization (WHO) international reference panel (IRP) for hepatitis E virus RNA genotypes (8578/13). Twenty-three laboratories used in-house developed and commercially available assays to calibrate a lyophilised candidate BRP prepared from a HEV 3f strain positive human plasma against the 1(st) WHO International Standard (IS) for HEV RNA (6329/10). Results from quantitative and qualitative assays were in good agreement and were combined to calculate an assigned potency. Real-time stability studies indicated that the candidate BRP is very stable at lower temperatures and is thus suitable for long-term use. Based on these results, in February 2016, the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted the candidate material as the hepatitis E virus RNA for NAT testing BRP batch 1, with an assigned unitage of 2.1 × 10(4) IU/vial (4.32 log10 IU/vial).

  2. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    PubMed

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF ; and at: http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_03j.pdf ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at: http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  3. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  4. Clinical laboratory accreditation in India.

    PubMed

    Handoo, Anil; Sood, Swaroop Krishan

    2012-06-01

    Test results from clinical laboratories must ensure accuracy, as these are crucial in several areas of health care. It is necessary that the laboratory implements quality assurance to achieve this goal. The implementation of quality should be audited by independent bodies,referred to as accreditation bodies. Accreditation is a third-party attestation by an authoritative body, which certifies that the applicant laboratory meets quality requirements of accreditation body and has demonstrated its competence to carry out specific tasks. Although in most of the countries,accreditation is mandatory, in India it is voluntary. The quality requirements are described in standards developed by many accreditation organizations. The internationally acceptable standard for clinical laboratories is ISO15189, which is based on ISO/IEC standard 17025. The accreditation body in India is the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories, which has signed Mutual Recognition Agreement with the regional cooperation the Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and with the apex cooperation the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation.

  5. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Elisabeth; Adler, Silke; Ungersböck, Markus; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". The Societas Meteorologicae Palatinae at Mannheim well known for its first European wide meteorological network also established a phenological network which was active from 1781 to 1792. Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies, as one has to address many National Observations Programs (NOP) to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2005 the COST-action 725 was running with the main objective to establish a European reference data set of phenological observations that can be used for climatological purposes, especially climate monitoring, and detection of changes. So far the common database/reference data set of COST725 comprises 7687248 data from 7285 observation sites in 15 countries and International Phenological Gardens (IPG) spanning the timeframe from 1951 to 2000. ZAMG is hosting the database. In January 2010 PEP725 has started and will take over not only the part of maintaining, updating the database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of

  6. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    For the assessment of CO2 storage in coal seams or enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM), the sorption properties of natural coals are important parameters. Since more and more laboratories worldwide are concerned with measurements of gas sorption on coal it is indispensable to establish quality standards for such experiments. The first two interlaboratory studies on CO2 sorption on coal (Goodman et al. 2004, 2007) revealed a poor agreement of sorption isotherms among the participating laboratories, particularly in the high-pressure range. During the MOVECBM (http://www.movecbm.eu/) project funded by the European Commission (6th framework), an interlaboratory comparison of CO2 sorption on selected coals and activated carbon was initiated. Measurements were performed on dry samples at 45° C using the manometric and the gravimetric method. up to a final pressure of 15 MPa. The first set of high-pressure sorption measurements was performed on a Filtrasorb 400 activated carbon sample in order to minimise heterogeneity effects and to optimize the experimental procedures for the individual (manometric or gravimetric) methods (Gensterblum et al. 2009). Since comparability for the activated carbon was excellent, the measurements were continued using natural coals of various rank (anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite) to study the influence of heterogeneities and varying starting conditions on the CO2 sorption properties (Gensterblum et al. 2010). Compared to the poor reproducibility observed in previous interlaboratory studies (Goodman et al., 2004, 2007) this European study showed excellent agreement (<5 % deviation) among the participating laboratories with good repeatability. The sorption data and technical information on the different experimental setups have been used to investigate errors and potential pitfalls in the assessment of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. References Gensterblum Y., P. van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, B.M. Krooss, G. de

  7. Jena Reference Air Set (JRAS): a multi-point scale anchor for isotope measurements of CO2 in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendeberg, M.; Richter, J. M.; Rothe, M.; Brand, W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The need for a unifying scale anchor for isotopes of CO2 in air was brought to light at the 11th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide in Tokyo 2001. During discussions about persistent discrepancies in isotope measurements between the worlds leading laboratories, it was concluded that a unifying scale anchor for Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) of CO2 in air was desperately needed. Ten years later, at the 2011 Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide in Wellington, it was recommended that the Jena Reference Air Set (JRAS) become the official scale anchor for isotope measurements of CO2 in air (Brailsford, 2012). The source of CO2 used for JRAS is two calcites. After releasing CO2 by reaction with phosphoric acid, the gases are mixed into CO2-free air. This procedure ensures both isotopic stability and longevity of the CO2. That the reference CO2 is generated from calcites and supplied as an air mixture is unique to JRAS. This is made to ensure that any measurement bias arising from the extraction procedure is eliminated. As every laboratory has its own procedure for extracting the CO2, this is of paramount importance if the local scales are to be unified with a common anchor. For a period of four years, JRAS has been evaluated through the IMECC1 program, which made it possible to distribute sets of JRAS gases to 13 laboratories worldwide. A summary of data from the six laboratories that have reported the full set of results is given here along with a description of the production and maintenance of the JRAS scale anchors. 1 IMECC refers to the EU project "Infrastructure for Measurements of the European Carbon Cycle" (http://imecc.ipsl.jussieu.fr/).

  8. European guidelines for workplace drug and alcohol testing in hair.

    PubMed

    Salomone, A; Tsanaclis, L; Agius, R; Kintz, P; Baumgartner, M R

    2016-10-01

    Guidelines for Legally Defensible Workplace Drug Testing have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). They are based on the 2010 version published by Pascal Kintz and Ronald Agius (Guidelines for European workplace drug and alcohol testing in hair. Drug Test. Anal. 2010, 2, 367) and in concordance with the Society of Hair Testing guidelines (Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair. Forensic Sci. Int. 2012, 218, 20-24). The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. International collaborative study to establish reference preparations to standardise haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in normal intravenous immunoglobulins by the direct method.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, S J; Fox, B; Sharp, G; Heath, A B; Behr-Gross, M-E; Terao, E; Virata-Theimer, M L; Yu, M W

    2010-04-01

    A joint project (coded BSP089) was run by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) of the Council of Europe, the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to evaluate, in an international collaborative study, 3 lyophilised intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations for their suitability to serve as Reference Preparations to standardise and control the highly variable haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in IVIG products. 23 laboratories tested candidate IVIG reference preparations consisting of a Positive control, a Negative control and a specifically formulated Limit test reference preparation to define the maximum (e.g., pharmacopoeial) limits of anti-A and anti-B haemagglutinins in IVIG products, where limits are applicable. Laboratories performed direct haemagglutination using papain-treated erythrocytes and/or indirect anti-globulin tests. For both methods, there was up to 16-fold variation in anti-A and anti-B titres, although there was good agreement over a 2-fold titre range for anti-A and anti-B between laboratories using the direct method for both the Positive control and Limit reference preparations. Comparative titration data for the Positive control and Limit reference preparations indicated that the use of a 'Limit' test reference preparation would facilitate identification of higher titre batches when the direct haemagglutination method is used. The Positive control, Negative control and Limit test preparations were adopted in November 2008 by the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) as Biological Reference Preparations. The same preparations have been established as reference reagents by the WHO and the U.S FDA, including the maximal specifications defined by the Limit test preparation. This will facilitate

  10. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials.

    PubMed

    Blowers, Paul; Caborn, Jane; Dell, Tony; Gingell, Terry; Harms, Arvic; Long, Stephanie; Sleep, Darren; Stewart, Charlie; Walker, Jill; Warwick, Phil E

    2011-10-01

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the (14)C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing (14)C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  11. Interior. Storage room for glassware and reference room with frequentlyused ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Storage room for glassware and reference room with frequently-used chemistry and chemical engineering texts. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  12. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  13. Education and European integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, John

    1992-11-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss the implications for education and training of the movement towards integration in Europe in the historic context of the creation of a single market within the European Community (EC) and the end of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. The experience of the EC is used to illustrate trends and problems in the development of international cooperation in education and training. Common concerns and priorities throughout the new Europe are then identified and discussed. These include the pursuit of quality in schooling, efforts to serve the interests of disadvantaged learners, and the treatment of European Studies in the curriculum, including the improvement of the teaching of foreign languages.

  14. Laboratory identification of arthropod ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Blaine A; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2014-01-01

    The collection, handling, identification, and reporting of ectoparasitic arthropods in clinical and reference diagnostic laboratories are discussed in this review. Included are data on ticks, mites, lice, fleas, myiasis-causing flies, and bed bugs. The public health importance of these organisms is briefly discussed. The focus is on the morphological identification and proper handling and reporting of cases involving arthropod ectoparasites, particularly those encountered in the United States. Other arthropods and other organisms not of public health concern, but routinely submitted to laboratories for identification, are also briefly discussed.

  15. Laboratory Identification of Arthropod Ectoparasites

    PubMed Central

    Pritt, Bobbi S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The collection, handling, identification, and reporting of ectoparasitic arthropods in clinical and reference diagnostic laboratories are discussed in this review. Included are data on ticks, mites, lice, fleas, myiasis-causing flies, and bed bugs. The public health importance of these organisms is briefly discussed. The focus is on the morphological identification and proper handling and reporting of cases involving arthropod ectoparasites, particularly those encountered in the United States. Other arthropods and other organisms not of public health concern, but routinely submitted to laboratories for identification, are also briefly discussed. PMID:24396136

  16. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.; Satogata, T

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  17. Buoy Reference Library

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    Oceanographic and Meterological Buoy. (June 1965) Litton Systems, Inc. Proposal for Offshore Light Staticns Oceanographic Digital Data Collection System...Ocean Anchoring. Navy Radiological Defense Laboratory (December 1959). A Fixed Gantry for Handling Data Buoys at Sea. NTIS AD774136 (1974). Fofonoff, N.P...for Open Ocean Anchoring. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory (December 1959). An Engineering Program to Improve the Reliability of Deep-Sea

  18. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  19. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  20. Good laboratory practice and laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J; McQuaker, N

    1993-12-01

    Principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and laboratory accreditation programs, particularly as they pertain to the environmental sector, are reviewed. The multitude of programs is proving costly for many laboratories and there is mounting pressure to develop reciprocity agreements between programs and to consolidate nationally and internationally. Inclusion of GLP and laboratory accreditation requirements in government regulations is resulting in a significantly increased number of laboratories participating in these programs.

  1. The European Framework of Languages: A Piloting Sample of Cross-Curricular Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansilla, Paloma Ubeda; Riejos, Ana Maria Roldan

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of the history of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEF) and European Language Portfolio (ELP) and explains their aims and functions. It then provides a summary of the ELP use in Europe and in Spain by showing a pilot study of its implementation carried out at the Schools of Civil Engineering and…

  2. Fostering Self-Regulated Learning through the European Language Portfolio: An Embedded Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Nicholas Allan

    2014-01-01

    The European Language Portfolio (ELP) is an alternative assessment used in foreign language classes throughout Europe to support and record language learning. Directly linked to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (Council of Europe, 2001) proficiency guidelines, it is designed to achieve an ambitious dual goal: document…

  3. A Digital European Self-Assessment Tool for Student Teachers of Foreign Languages: The EPOSTL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirici, Ismail Hakki; Hergüner, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    The acronym "EPOSTL" stands for the "European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages", which is a digital self-assessment tool for students in foreign language teacher training programs across Europe. It builds on insights from the "Common European Framework of Reference" ("CEFR") and the "European…

  4. From Action to Insight: A Professional Learning Community's Experiences with the European Language Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristmanson, Paula Lee; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community's (PLC's) exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP). Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related…

  5. Intercultural Communicative Competence in the Context of the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coperias Aguilar, Maria Jose

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the close relationship between the European higher education area (EHEA), the common European framework of reference for languages and intercultural communicative competence (ICC) and show how the implementation of ICC in foreign language teaching can become an essential tool to acquire the full achievement of the EHEA.…

  6. International collaborative study for the calibration of the Ph. Eur. somatropin chemical reference substance batches 3 and 4 (BSP108).

    PubMed

    Girard, M; Rautmann, G; Lorbetskie, B; Joly, M-A; Daas, A; Terao, E

    2013-01-01

    An international collaborative study was carried out for the establishment of replacement batches for the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Somatropin Chemical Reference Substance (CRS) batch 2. The study was organised within the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the Council of Europe and the European Commission. Seventeen laboratories from Europe, North America, South America and Australia took part in the collaborative study. The study aimed at calibrating the somatropin content of 2 candidate preparations and demonstrating their suitability to serve as a reference substance in the tests for identification, for related proteins, for dimers and related substances of higher molecular mass (HMM), for charged variants distribution and for the assay of somatropin, as prescribed by the current Ph. Eur. monographs 0950 Somatropin bulk solution, 0951 Somatropin and 0952 Somatropin for injection. Based on the results summarised herein the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted in January 2012 candidate preparation b (cCRS-b, Sample D) as somatropin CRS batch 3 with an assigned content of 3.86 mg of somatropin monomer per vial, and candidate preparation a (cCRS-a, Sample C) as somatropin CRS batch 4 with an assigned content of 2.59 mg of somatropin monomer per vial.

  7. A reference architecture for telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    The Telecare Interactive Continuous Monitoring System exploits GPRS to provide an ambulatory device that monitors selected vital signs on a continuous basis. Alarms are sent when parameters fall outside preset limits, and accompanying physiological data may also be transmitted. The always-connected property of GPRS allows continuous interactive control of the device and its sensors, permitting changes to monitoring parameters or even enabling continuous monitoring of a sensor in emergency. A new personal area network (PAN) has been developed to support short-range wireless connection to sensors worn on the body including ECG and finger worn SpO2. Most notable is use of ultra low radio frequency to reduce power to minimum. The system has been designed to use a hierarchical architecture for sensors and "derived" signals, such as HR from ECG, so that each can be independently controlled and managed. Sensors are treated as objects, and functions are defined to control aspects of behaviour. These are refined in order to define a generic set of abstract functions to handle the majority of functions, leaving a minimum of sensor specific commands. The intention is to define a reference architecture in order to research the functionality and system architecture of a telemonitoring system. The Telecare project is funded through a grant from the European Commission (IST programme).

  8. PETALL: A European Project on Technology-Mediated TBLT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, António

    2014-01-01

    The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) lays strong emphasis on task-based language teaching (TBLT). However, this approach constitutes a challenge for many foreign language teachers, not so much because they are not familiar with the approach or its benefits, but because of the requirements and practical conditions to be met. Most…

  9. Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes: Results of a European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayiotou, Anastasia; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.; McMahon, Léan; Vanlaar, Gudrun; Pfeifer, Michael; Rekalidou, Galini; Bren, Matevž

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness are associated with student achievement gains in six different European countries. At classroom level, the dynamic model refers to eight factors relating to teacher behavior in the classroom: orientation, structuring, questioning,…

  10. The European Entrepreneurial University: An Alternative to the US Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzkowitz, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The European entrepreneurial university is typically based on the teaching mission, the U.S. on the research mission. Given similar goals of contributing to regional development and return on research investment, each may adopt the other's style over time. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  11. Deluded by Artifices? The Common European Framework and Harmonization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    This commentary provides a critical and historical review of the "Common European Framework of Reference: Learning, Teaching, Assessment" (CEF). It is presented within the context of political and policy issues in Europe, and considers the role that the CEF is likely to play in that context, which is beyond the control of language…

  12. European aerospace science and technology, 1992: A bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography contains 1916 annotated references to reports and journal articles of European intellectual origin entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during 1992. Representative subject areas include: spacecraft and aircraft design, propulsion technology, chemistry and materials, engineering and mechanics, earth and life sciences, communications, computers and mathematics, and the natural space sciences.

  13. A survey of Australian haematology reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Leanne; Hall, Sara; Badrick, Tony

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to create a snapshot of Australian haematology reference intervals (RIs) in use, in particular red cell parameters. We present an analysis of survey results conducted across Australian laboratories between November 2012 and January 2013.All Australian laboratories enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were invited to participate in the December 2012 Survey Monkey survey, with a response from 85 laboratories (17%) received. The scope included laboratory demographics (location, size/throughput, and network), RIs in use for the full blood count and selected derived parameters, their frequency of revision, source and statistical approach for derivation. Further questions related to uncertainty of measurement, pregnancy values, paediatric/adult cut-off, haematology profiles reported and the use of extended parameters.There is more consistency with some upper and lower limits than others, and wide ranges for reported uncertainty of measurement (UM). There is no apparent consistency with RIs used for particular instruments and technologies. When laboratories change their RIs, most obtain them from a text book, paper or another laboratory and have difficulty in determining the source. If they do determine their own, most don't have a standard operating procedure and calculations are not consistent in terms of sample size and statistical methods used.We have presented evidence of the wide variations in RIs used in Australian laboratories and that arguably these do not differ significantly from each other. The paediatric age cut-off requires standardisation.

  14. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis: Results of a Multicenter Study of Laboratories in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel; Hess, Bernhard; Knoll, Thomas; Osther, Palle J.; Reis-Santos, José; Sarica, Kemal; Traxer, Olivier; Trinchieri, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment of 75% of the maximum total points, i.e. 99 points. The methods of stone analysis used were infrared spectroscopy (n = 7), chemical analysis (n = 1) and X-ray diffraction (n = 1). In the present study only 56% of the laboratories, four using infrared spectroscopy and one using X-ray diffraction, fulfilled the quality requirements. According to the current standard, chemical analysis is considered to be insufficient for stone analysis, whereas infrared spectroscopy or X-ray diffraction is mandatory. However, the poor results of infrared spectroscopy highlight the importance of equipment, reference spectra and qualification of the staff for an accurate analysis of stone composition. Regular quality control is essential in carrying out routine stone analysis. PMID:27248840

  15. European summer temperatures since Roman times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luterbacher, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    temperatures we find slightly better agreement between the reconstruction and the model simulations with high-end estimates for total solar irradiance. Temperature differences between the medieval period, the recent period and the Little Ice Age are larger in the reconstructions than the simulations. This may indicate either inflated variability of the reconstructions, a lack of sensitivity to external forcing on sub-hemispheric scales in the climate models and/or an underestimation of internal variability on centennial and longer time scales including the misinterpretation of internal feedback mechanisms. Reference: Euro-Med 2k Consortium, 2016: European summer temperatures since Roman times. Environ. Res. Lett., in press

  16. Multi-laboratory validation study of multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2015.

    PubMed

    Peters, Tansy; Bertrand, Sophie; Björkman, Jonas T; Brandal, Lin T; Brown, Derek J; Erdõsi, Tímea; Heck, Max; Ibrahem, Salha; Johansson, Karin; Kornschober, Christian; Kotila, Saara M; Le Hello, Simon; Lienemann, Taru; Mattheus, Wesley; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Rumore, Jillian; Sabol, Ashley; Torpdahl, Mia; Trees, Eija; Tuohy, Alma; de Pinna, Elizabeth

    2017-03-02

    Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a rapid and reproducible typing method that is an important tool for investigation, as well as detection, of national and multinational outbreaks of a range of food-borne pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common Salmonella serovar associated with human salmonellosis in the European Union/European Economic Area and North America. Fourteen laboratories from 13 countries in Europe and North America participated in a validation study for MLVA of S. Enteritidis targeting five loci. Following normalisation of fragment sizes using a set of reference strains, a blinded set of 24 strains with known allele sizes was analysed by each participant. The S. Enteritidis 5-loci MLVA protocol was shown to produce internationally comparable results as more than 90% of the participants reported less than 5% discrepant MLVA profiles. All 14 participating laboratories performed well, even those where experience with this typing method was limited. The raw fragment length data were consistent throughout, and the inter-laboratory validation helped to standardise the conversion of raw data to repeat numbers with at least two countries updating their internal procedures. However, differences in assigned MLVA profiles remain between well-established protocols and should be taken into account when exchanging data.

  17. Multi-laboratory validation study of multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Tansy; Bertrand, Sophie; Björkman, Jonas T; Brandal, Lin T; Brown, Derek J; Erdõsi, Tímea; Heck, Max; Ibrahem, Salha; Johansson, Karin; Kornschober, Christian; Kotila, Saara M; Le Hello, Simon; Lienemann, Taru; Mattheus, Wesley; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Rumore, Jillian; Sabol, Ashley; Torpdahl, Mia; Trees, Eija; Tuohy, Alma; de Pinna, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a rapid and reproducible typing method that is an important tool for investigation, as well as detection, of national and multinational outbreaks of a range of food-borne pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common Salmonella serovar associated with human salmonellosis in the European Union/European Economic Area and North America. Fourteen laboratories from 13 countries in Europe and North America participated in a validation study for MLVA of S. Enteritidis targeting five loci. Following normalisation of fragment sizes using a set of reference strains, a blinded set of 24 strains with known allele sizes was analysed by each participant. The S. Enteritidis 5-loci MLVA protocol was shown to produce internationally comparable results as more than 90% of the participants reported less than 5% discrepant MLVA profiles. All 14 participating laboratories performed well, even those where experience with this typing method was limited. The raw fragment length data were consistent throughout, and the inter-laboratory validation helped to standardise the conversion of raw data to repeat numbers with at least two countries updating their internal procedures. However, differences in assigned MLVA profiles remain between well-established protocols and should be taken into account when exchanging data. PMID:28277220

  18. Genetics Home Reference: nephronophthisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... these are often referred to as nephronophthisis -associated ciliopathies. For example, Senior-Løken syndrome is characterized by ... Nephronophthisis Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Ciliopathy Alliance National Kidney Foundation GeneReviews (1 link) Nephronophthisis ...

  19. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  20. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  1. Selecting a reference object.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jared E; Carlson, Laura A; Hill, Patrick L

    2011-07-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected. The current research tests this assumption, assessing the relative importance of spatial, perceptual, and functional-interactive features. Three experiments demonstrated that spatial features have the strongest influence on reference object selection, with the perceptual feature of color playing no significant role. Functional-interactive features were shown to be spatially dependent, having an influence only when the spatial configuration enabled an interaction between the located object and the reference object. These findings challenge the common perspective that salience in and of itself dictates reference object selection and argue for a reliance on spatial features.

  2. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    ... MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variation ...

  3. Enterprise Reference Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  4. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  5. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

  6. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  7. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Learning How to Run Safer Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses responsibilities for providing safe experiments and for teaching about safety. Provides lists of references on chemical safety and regulated/potential carcinogens. Also discusses general laboratory safety procedures including waste disposal and recycling of solvents. (JM)

  8. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  9. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment.

  10. Myths of Isotopic Reference Materials Busted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplen, T.

    2007-12-01

    During the past several years, the determination of the isotopic abundances of elements including H, Li, B, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Tl, and Se has substantially increased because of expanded use in hydrology, environmental studies, microbiology, forensic investigations, atmospheric investigations, oceanography, etc. Improvements in instrumentation enable increasingly precise isotope-amount-ratio measurements in these fields, but these improvements in precision commonly do not lead to improvements in accuracy because of the lack or improper use of isotopic reference materials. When properly used, these critically important materials enable any laboratory worldwide to measure the same homogeneous sample and report the same isotopic abundance within analytical uncertainty. For example, for stable isotopic analysis of gaseous hydrogen samples, the agreement among 36 laboratories worldwide before normalization to any hydrogen gas reference material was 11.8 per mill. After normalization to anchors (gaseous H isotopic reference materials) at each end of the delta H-2 scale, the agreement was 0.85 per mill, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude. Consistency of delta C-13 measurements often can be improved by nearly 50 percent by anchoring the delta C-13 scale with two isotopic reference materials differing substantially in C-13 mole fraction, namely NBS 19 calcite and L-SVEC lithium carbonate. Agreement of delta C-13 values of four expert laboratories analyzing USGS40 L- glutamic acid by CF-IRMS methods improved from 0.084 to 0.015 per mill with use of the two scale anchors (NBS 19 and L-SVEC). Solid oxygen isotopic reference materials (IAEA-600 caffeine, IAEA-601 and IAEA-602 benzoic acids, IAEA-NO-3, USGS32, USGS34, and USGS35 nitrates, NBS-127, IAEA-SO-5, and IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfates) are poorly calibrated. Calibrating these solids to the VSMOW-SLAP reference water scale has been very difficult because both the solids and reference

  11. European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshraqi, Mohammad; McGinnis, David; Lindroos, Mats

    The following sections are included: * Neutron usage and historical background * Spallation * History of spallation sources * The ESS facility * The ESS linac * Beam physics * The front-end and the normal conducting linac * Superconducting linac * RF sources * Summary * References

  12. Reference materials for quality assurance in sea-water analysis: performance of total-reflection X-ray fluorescence in the intercomparison and certification stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freimann, Peter; Schmidt, Diether; Neubauer-Ziebarth, Astrid

    1993-02-01

    The certification of a sea-water reference material (CRM 403) was completed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) of the Commission of the European Communities during an intercomparison exercise in which we were participants along with other highly experienced laboratories, who, beforehand, had given evidence of outstanding performance. Further, we participated in a feasibility study on estuarine water. In both studies we used total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) for the determination of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and U on the nmol/kg level. The enrichment of the trace metals and the separation from the salt matrix were performed by complexation with sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate and reverse-phase chromatography. In this paper, the high performance of our TXRF results is compared to other analytical techniques like voltammetric and atomic absorption methods.

  13. Setting maximum limits for trace elements in baby food in European legislation: the outcome of International Measurement Evaluation Programme®-33.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, F; Baer, I; Robouch, P; Emteborg, H; Can, S Z; Krata, A; Zampella, M; Quétel, C R; Hearn, R; De la Calle, B

    2013-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission, operates the International Measurement Evaluation Programme® (IMEP). It organises various types of inter-laboratory comparisons in support of European Union policies. This paper presents the results of a proficiency testing exercise (PT) focusing on the determination of total cadmium (Cd) and total lead (Pb) mass fractions in baby food in support to Commission Regulation (EC) 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. The test material used in this exercise was soya-based baby food formula purchased in a local pharmacy and prepared by the Reference Materials Unit of the IRMM for this exercise. Sixty-six laboratories from 23 countries registered to the exercise and 61 of them reported results. Each participant received one bottle containing approximately 15 g of test material. Participants were asked to quantify the measurands in the powder and in the reconstituted formula. Reference values independent from the participants' results were established using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The total Cd mass fraction was determined by IRMM and LGC Ltd (UK), while the total Pb was determined by IRMM. The standard deviation for proficiency assessment σ^ was set at 22% of the assigned value for all measurands. Laboratories were rated with z- and ζ- (zeta) scores in accordance with ISO 13528. The outcome of this exercise is clearly influenced by the very low level of Cd and Pb content in the test material which triggered: a high number of 'less than' values; overestimated values especially for Pb very likely due to contamination; and a visible method influence in the case of Pb (methods based on atomic absorption were not sensitive enough to attain such low limits of detection). The results were also evaluated with regard to the reported limit of

  14. European plans for new clocks in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschiutta, Sigfrido M.; Tavella, Patrizia

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the future European space research program where precise clocks are necessary is presented, pointing out how space applications are posing impressive requirements as regards clock mass, power, ruggedness, long life, accuracy and, in some cases, spectral purity. The material presented was gathered in some laboratories; useful information was obtained from the Space Agencies of France (CNES), Germany (DARA) and Italy (ASI), but the bulk is coming from a recent exercise promoted inside ESA (the European Space Agency) and aimed to prefigure space research activities at the beginning of the next millennium. This exercise was called Horizon 2000 plus; the outcomings were summarized in two reports, presented by ESA in may 1994. Precise clocks and time measurements are needed not only for deep-space or out-ward space missions, but are essential tools also for Earth oriented activities. In this latter field, the European views and needs were discussed in October 1994, in a meeting organized by ESA and devoted to Earth Observation problems. By a scrutiny of these reports, an analysis was performed on the missions requiring a precise clock on board and the driving requirements were pointed out, leading to a survey of the necessary PTTI developments that, to some extent, are in the realm of possibility but that pose serious challenges. In this report the use of frequency standards in the satellite navigation systems is not considered.

  15. Quality Management of Reference Geo-Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, A.; Hopfstock, A.; Beare, M.; Patrucco, R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper will introduce how quality of geo-information can be managed when the production environment is no longer inside one organization (e.g. collection of data is contracted out) or data is compiled from various sources like in case of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs). The bases for quality management of reference geo-information are discussed using three viewpoints; data, process and organization and user centric viewpoints. These viewpoints can be met using ISO 19157 and ISO 19158 standards together with ESDIN developed Quality Model and Data Quality Services Framework (DQSF). Two different services are identified a Data Quality Web Service and a Data User Web Service. We discuss how these principles and services are implemented now within EuroGeographics and Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. Further development will be done during the European Location Framework (ELF) project, which is providing a single source of reference geo-information for Europe during 2013-2016.

  16. [Professional profile and responsibility of the qualified person within the European Union].

    PubMed

    Valverde, J L

    1999-01-01

    The European Community has established a fundamental condition for opening a pharmaceutical laboratory, i.e. the designation of a qualified person having the professional profile detailed in the European Community Directive and who is responsible for implementing specific obligations. It is the final responsibility of this qualified person to release medicine on the market. Do to the importance of this person, we have analyzed his/her functions, obligations and responsibilities. The training required to fulfil the functions of a qualified person is presented. The profiles of qualified persons in the most representative European countries are discussed to demonstrate analogies and differences in national legislations and their adaptation to European Community regulations.

  17. Europlanet - Joining the European Planetary Research Information Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capria, M. T.; Chanteur, G.; Schmidt, W.

    2009-04-01

    The "Europlanet Research Infrastructure - Europlanet RI", supported by the European Commission's Framework Program 7, aims at integrating major parts of the distributed European Planetary Research infrastructure with as diverse components as space exploration, ground-based observations, laboratory experiments and numerical model-ling teams. A central part of Europlanet RI is the "Integrated and Distributed Information Service" or Europlanet-IDIS which intends to provide easy Web-based access to information about scientists and teams working in related fields, observatories or laboratories with capabilities possibly beneficial to planetary research, modelling expertise useful for planetary science and observations from space-based, ground-based or laboratory measurements. As far as the type of data and their access methods allow, IDIS will provide Virtual Observatory (VO) like access to a variety of data from distributed sources and tools to compare and integrate this information to further data analysis and re-search. IDIS itself is providing a platform for information and data sharing and for data mining. It is structured as a network of thematic nodes each concentrating on a sub-set of research areas in planetary sciences. But the most important elements of IDIS and the whole Europlanet RI are the single scientists, institutes, laboratories, observatories and mission project teams. Without them the whole effort would remain an empty shell. How can an interested individual or team join this activity and what are the benefits to be expected from the related effort? The poster gives detailed answers to these questions. Here some highlights: 1. Locate from the Europlanet web pages (addresses see below) the thematic node best related to the own field of expertise. This might be more than one. 2. Define which services you want to offer to the community: just the contact address, field of competence, off-line access to data on request or even on-line searchable access

  18. 21 CFR 660.25 - Potency tests without reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturer's package insert using red blood cells showing heterozygous or diminished expression of the... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.25 Potency tests without reference preparations. Products for which Reference...

  19. 21 CFR 660.25 - Potency tests without reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturer's package insert using red blood cells showing heterozygous or diminished expression of the... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.25 Potency tests without reference preparations. Products for which Reference...

  20. 21 CFR 660.25 - Potency tests without reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturer's package insert using red blood cells showing heterozygous or diminished expression of the... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.25 Potency tests without reference preparations. Products for which Reference...

  1. 21 CFR 660.25 - Potency tests without reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturer's package insert using red blood cells showing heterozygous or diminished expression of the... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.25 Potency tests without reference preparations. Products for which Reference...

  2. [Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Vañó Carruana, E; Fernández Soto, J M; Sánchez Casanueva, R M; Ten Morón, J I

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses the diagnostic reference levels for radiation exposure proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to facilitate the application of the optimization criteria in diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures. These levels are normally established as the third quartile of the dose distributions to patients in an ample sample of centers and are supposed to be representative of good practice regarding patient exposure. In determining these levels, it is important to evaluate image quality as well to ensure that it is sufficient for diagnostic purposes. When the values for the dose received by patients are systematically higher or much lower than the reference levels, an investigation should determine whether corrective measures need to be applied. The European and Spanish regulations require the use of these reference values in quality assurance programs. For interventional procedures, the dose area product (or kerma area product) values are usually used as reference values together with the time under fluoroscopy and the total number of images acquired. The most modern imaging devices allow the value of the accumulated dose at the entrance to the patient to be calculated to optimize the distribution of the dose on the skin. The ICRP recommends that the complexity of interventional procedures be taken into account when establishing reference levels. In the future, diagnostic imaging departments will have automatic systems to manage patient dosimetric data; these systems will enable continuous dosage auditing and alerts about individual procedures that might involve doses several times above the reference values. This article also discusses aspects that need to be clarified to take better advantage of the reference levels in interventional procedures.

  3. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  4. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  5. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  6. Setting reference targets

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  7. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  8. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  9. IERS Reference System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, K.

    Present circumstances related to IERS activities are described from various points of view. The NASA Dynamics of Solid Earth (DOSE) program and the IERS intensive campaign proposed by J. Dickey of JPL are particularly interesting. It is important to implement international cooperation to establish a fundamental radio reference frame by carrying out global solution based on all geodetic observations, past and future. A precession and nutation model may be determined observationally with an accuracy of 0.2 - 0.3 mas in a few years. Then it will become possible to establish the radio reference frame with this accuracy.

  10. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  11. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  12. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  13. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  14. Characterization techniques for nano-electronics, with emphasis to electron microscopy. The role of the European Project ANNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, A.

    2008-07-01

    , however, European laboratories with high-level expertise in materials characterization still operate in a largely independent way; this adversely affects the competitivity of European science and industry at the international level. For this reason the European Commission has started an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in the sixth Framework Programme (now continuing in FP7) and funded a project called ANNA (2006-2010). This acronym stands for European Integrated Activity of Excellence and Networking for Nano and Micro- Electronics Analysis. The consortium includes 12 partners from 7 European countries and is coordinated by the Fondazione B.Kessler (FBK) in Trento (Italy); CNR-IMM is one of the 12 partners. Aim of ANNA is the onset of strong, long-term collaboration among the partners, so to form an integrated multi-site analytical facility, able to offer to the European community a wide variety of top-level analytical expertise and services in the field of micro- and nano-electronics. They include X-ray diffraction and scattering, SIMS, electron microscopy, medium-energy ion scattering, optical and electrical techniques. The project will be focused on three main activities: Networking (standardization of samples and methodologies, establishment of accredited reference laboratories), Transnational Access to laboratories located in the partners' premises to perform specific analytical experiments (an example is given by the two STEM methodologies discussed above) and Joint Research activity, which is targeted at the improvement and extension of the methodologies through a continuous instrumental and technical development. It is planned that the European joint analytical laboratory will continue its activity beyond the end of the project in 2010.

  15. 19 CFR 151.12 - Accreditation of commercial laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... site: www.cbp.gov. Executive Director. In §§ 151.12 and 151.13, references to the “Executive Director... basis. (f) How would a commercial laboratory become a Customs-accredited laboratory?—(1) What should an... reports on behalf of the laboratory). In general, each technical staff member should hold, at a minimum,...

  16. 19 CFR 151.12 - Accreditation of commercial laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... site: www.cbp.gov. Executive Director. In §§ 151.12 and 151.13, references to the “Executive Director... basis. (f) How would a commercial laboratory become a Customs-accredited laboratory?—(1) What should an... reports on behalf of the laboratory). In general, each technical staff member should hold, at a minimum,...

  17. 19 CFR 151.12 - Accreditation of commercial laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... site: www.cbp.gov. Executive Director. In §§ 151.12 and 151.13, references to the “Executive Director... basis. (f) How would a commercial laboratory become a Customs-accredited laboratory?—(1) What should an... reports on behalf of the laboratory). In general, each technical staff member should hold, at a minimum,...

  18. Data for the Reference Man: skeleton content of chemical elements.

    PubMed

    Zaichick, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    This study was undertaken to provide reference values of chemical element mass fractions in intact bone of Reference (European Caucasian) Man/Woman. The rib bone samples investigated were obtained from autopsies of 84 apparently healthy 15-58-year-old citizens (38 females and 46 males) of a non-industrial region in the Central European part of Russia who had suffered sudden death. The mass fractions (mg/kg given on a wet mass basis) of 69 elements in these bone samples were measured by using neutron activation analysis with high-resolution spectrometry of short-lived and long-lived radionuclides, particle-induced gamma-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry including necessary quality control measures. Using published and measured data, mass fraction values of the 79 elements for the rib bone have been derived. Based on accepted rib to skeleton mass fractions and reference values of skeleton mass for Reference Man, the elemental burdens in the skeleton were estimated. These results may provide a representative bases for establishing related reference values for the Russian Reference Man/Woman and for revising and adding current reference values for the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The data presented will also be very valuable for many other applications in radiation protection, radiotherapy radiation dosimetry, and other scientific fields.

  19. Is European Defense a Bridge too Far?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-08

    Defense, European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified During the last several decades the European Union has not paid much...obvious European defense shortcomings. Then, after the Cologne European Council of June 1999, the European Union launched the European Security and...considerably and the military capabilities of the European Union have been strengthened with initiatives such as the battlegroup concept and the development of

  20. Reference dosimeter system of the iaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    1995-09-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation processing facilities to satisfy national and international Standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit.

  1. Multimedia Reference Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

  2. Digital Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the increasing demand for digital reference services from government Web sites via email, and describes a partnership between the Government Printing Office and the federal depository library at the University of Illinois at Chicago to create electronic access to the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network (DOSFAN). (Author/LRW)

  3. Reflections on Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Kerryn A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes programmatic changes in reference services at the Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical library and speculates on the future. Topics include institutional restructuring and consolidation; improvements in technology infrastructure; external economic pressure; and fiscal accountability, including library funding and cost center…

  4. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  5. The Reference Encounter Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

  6. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  7. Virtual Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  8. Reference Collections and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Lois

    1999-01-01

    Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

  9. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  10. Reference Sources for Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursing Outlook, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The ninth revision (including a Canadian supplement) of a list of nursing reference works lists items in the following sections: abstract journals, audiovisuals, bibliographies, dictionaries, directories, drug lists and pharmacologies, educational programs, histories, indexes, legal guides, library administration and organization, research grants,…

  11. Reference Sources for Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursing Outlook, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The tenth revision of a list of reference works for nurses, revised by a committee of the Interagency Council on Library Resources for Nursing, listed by type of publication as abstract journals, audiovisuals, bibliographies, books, dictionaries, directories, pharmacologies, indexes, guides, and so on. (MF)

  12. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  13. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  14. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  15. An Amharic Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

  16. The Unreliability of References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  17. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  18. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  19. Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Monocytotropic Ehrlichiosis in a Commercial Laboratory Setting

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Juan P.; Hogrefe, Wayne; Seaton, Brent; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory diagnostic issues of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME) were investigated in a retrospective case study conducted at a national reference laboratory (Focus Technologies, formerly MRL Reference Laboratory), and at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Texas, during 1997 and 1998. Standard questionnaires were sent to physicians for each laboratory-diagnosed patient 2 days to 2 weeks after immunofluorescent antibody assay results were available. Among the 41 cases for which data were obtained, 32 (78%) were definite cases of HME, and 9 (22%) were probable cases of HME. Tick bite or exposure to ticks was recorded in more than 97% of cases. The most prominent clinical findings were fever, abdominal tenderness, and regional lymphadenopathy. There was an association between age and severity of illness. The main laboratory findings included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Clinical and laboratory findings were nonspecific and were not good predictors of the severity of illness. The 90% of patients who received doxycycline treatment underwent rapid clinical improvement with a favorable outcome. The usual duration of effective treatment with doxycycline was 7 to 10 days. This retrospective study is unique because it was based in a commercial reference laboratory setting that receives specimens from different geographic locations. The clinical and laboratory information from 41 patients provides insight into the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of HME. PMID:12965923

  20. The total laboratory solution: a new laboratory E-business model based on a vertical laboratory meta-network.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B A

    2001-08-01

    Major forces are now reshaping all businesses on a global basis, including the healthcare and clinical laboratory industries. One of the major forces at work is information technology (IT), which now provides the opportunity to create a new economic and business model for the clinical laboratory industry based on the creation of an integrated vertical meta-network, referred to here as the "total laboratory solution" (TLS). Participants at the most basic level of such a network would include a hospital-based laboratory, a reference laboratory, a laboratory information system/application service provider/laboratory portal vendor, an in vitro diagnostic manufacturer, and a pharmaceutical/biotechnology manufacturer. It is suggested that each of these participants would add value to the network primarily in its area of core competency. Subvariants of such a network have evolved over recent years, but a TLS comprising all or most of these participants does not exist at this time. Although the TLS, enabled by IT and closely akin to the various e-businesses that are now taking shape, offers many advantages from a theoretical perspective over the current laboratory business model, its success will depend largely on (a) market forces, (b) how the collaborative networks are organized and managed, and (c) whether the network can offer healthcare organizations higher quality testing services at lower cost. If the concept is successful, new demands will be placed on hospital-based laboratory professionals to shift the range of professional services that they offer toward clinical consulting, integration of laboratory information from multiple sources, and laboratory information management. These information management and integration tasks can only increase in complexity in the future as new genomic and proteomics testing modalities are developed and come on-line in clinical laboratories.