Science.gov

Sample records for european scientific user

  1. Scientific customer needs - NASA user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Some requirements for scientific users of the Space Station are considered. The use of testbeds to evaluate design concepts for information systems, and for interfacing between designers and builders of systems is examined. The need for an information system that provides an effective interaction between ground-based users and their space-based equipment is discussed.

  2. Scientific dishonestry: European reflections.

    PubMed

    Riis, P

    2001-01-01

    Scientific dishonesty has attracted increased attention around the world during the past three to four decades. Europe became aware of the problem later than the USA, but has within the past 10 years created national control systems for all biomedical projects, not only those supported by public money. The prevalence of the problem can only be calculated indirectly by referring to population figures as denominators. Measured this way, figures from Denmark as a whole show: 1-2 cases referred/million inhabitants/year, 1 case treated/million inhabitants/year, 1 case of scientific dishonesty/million inhabitants/5 years. For Finland, 1-2 cases were referred/million inhabitants/1-2 years; for Norway, similar figures of 1/4 million inhabitants/year were calculated. Figures from the Danish national independent control body 1993-7 show the distribution of the types of cases that were charged, with numbers of confirmed cases in parentheses: fabrication, 2 (1); plagiarism, 3 (0); theft, 2 (0); ghost authorship, 2 (1); false methodological description, 3 (1); twisted statistics, 2 (0); suppression of existing data, 4 (0); unwarranted use of data, 4 (0); and authorship problems, 8 (1). This survey emphasises the need for national guidelines, an independent national control body, and initiatives for strong preventive actions.

  3. 2006 XSD Scientific Software User Survey.

    SciTech Connect

    Jemian, P. R.

    2007-01-22

    In preparation for the 2006 XSD Scientific Software workshop, our committee sent a survey on June 16 to 100 users in the APS user community. This report contains the survey and the responses we received. The responses are presented in the order received.

  4. NASA scientific and technical program: User survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Judy F.; Shockley, Cynthia W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of an intensive user requirements survey conducted by NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program with the goal of improving the foundation for the user outreach program. The survey was carried out by interviewing 550 NASA scientists, engineers, and contractors and by analyzing 650 individual responses to a mailed out questionnaire. To analyze the user demographic data, a data base was built and used, and will be applied to ongoing analysis by the NASA STI Program.

  5. European scientific notes. Volume 34, Number 9

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, W.V.; Peters, D.J.

    1980-09-30

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by calling attention to current development and to institutions and individuals engaged in these scientific efforts. The articles are written primarily by members of the staff of ORNL and occasionally articles are prepared by, or in cooperation with, members of the scientific staffs of the United States Air Force's European Office of Aerospace Research and Development and the United States ARmy Research and Standardization Group. Articles are also contributed by visiting Stateside scientists.

  6. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-30

    primarily for the information of L ’ S. Government scientific personnel and contractors. It i-, not coli- c sidered part of the scientific literature...Stjbtiti.) S YEO EOT&PRO OEE EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC NOTES April_____________ S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(#) 9... PERFORMING ORGANI1ZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10, PROGRAM ELEMENT PROJECT, TASK( AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS US OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH BRANCH OFFICE

  7. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-30

    probed, or as relativistic components may help resolve the remaining dis- of the nucleus ’ mcmentum distribution crepancies. For large momentum trans...RESOLUTION TST CHART OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON COLEYEL> EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC NOTES 0 ESN 34-4+ 30 April 1980 DTlC ELECTE Distributed by the Office...contractors. It is not con- sidered part of the scientific literature and should not be. cited : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED 80 6

  8. European user trial of paging by satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fudge, R. E.; Fenton, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    British Telecom conceived the idea of adapting their existing paging service, together with the use of existing terrestrial pagers, to yield a one way data (i.e., paging) satellite service to mobiles. The user trial of paging by satellites was successful. It demonstrated that services could be provided over a wide geographical area to low priced terminals. Many lessons were learned in unexpected areas. These include the need for extensive liaison with all users involved, especially the drivers, to ensure they understood the potential benefits. There was a significant desire for a return acknowledgement channel or even a return data channel. Above all there is a need to ensure that the equipment can be taken across European borders and legitimately used in all European countries. The next step in a marketing assessment would be to consider the impact of two way data messaging such as INMARSAT-C.

  9. 11th European VLBI Network Symposium & Users Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux (LAB) at the University of Bordeaux (France), on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, hosted the 11th European VLBI Network (EVN) Symposium and EVN Users Meeting on October 9-12, 2012. The Symposium was held at the "Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Bordeaux", located in the "Palais de la Bourse", in the center of Bordeaux. The conference highlighted the latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI, space VLBI and e-VLBI. All fields of astrophysics were concerned - stellar, galactic and extragalactic - as well as astrometry and planetary science. Presentations addressing synergy between (e-)VLBI and other new or planned radio facilities (ALMA, LOFAR, e-MERLIN,...) or instruments at other wavelengths (Fermi, CTA, Gaia,...) were also an integral part of the program. The scientific program was organized in 11 sessions including 71 oral presentations, with an additional 43 posters available for viewing during the entire length of the conference. An EVN Users Meeting was also held during one of the evening to foster interaction between the EVN users and the EVN organization. The symposium was attended by a total of 122 delegates originating from 47 institutes world-wide, sharing new VLBI science and innovations while also building links with other communities. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 283393 (RadioNet3).

  10. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 6.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-30

    AD-A31 850 EUROPEAN SlN11I NOTE VOUM 37 NUMBRbU OFIC 1/ OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) D MOSHER ET AL. 30 JUN 83 ESN-37-6 UNLASSIFIED F/G 5/2 NIL... RESEARCH LONDON EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC NOTES ESN 37-6 30 JUNE 1983 V OF Distributed by the Office of Naval Research Branch Office. C This document is issued...PROJECT TASK US Office of Naval Research , Branch Office London Box 39 FPO NY 09510 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE 30 aune

  11. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.

  12. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34. Number 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-31

    UNCLASSIFIED E SN-34-5 NL Ehhhhhhhhhommml Emomhhhmhhhhhhl OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC NOTES ESN 34-5S 51 MAY 1980 Il *o Distributed by...Israeli Universities R.E. Machol 240 Operations Research in Italy- Part I R.E. Machol 245 IN E MThe Institute of Physics J.R. Neiahbours 250 Lasers...those of SRC’s Rutherford Laboratory The laboratory-environment studies at Chilton. Chilton is about 40. miles of nm-wave gaseous absorption have

  13. National Scientific User Facility Purpose and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K. E. Rosenberg; T. R. Allen; J. C. Haley; M. K. Meyer

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007. This designation allows the ATR to become a cornerstone of nuclear energy research and development (R&D) within the U.S. by making it easier for universities, the commercial power industry, other national laboratories, and international organizations to conduct nuclear energy R&D. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide nuclear energy researchers access to world-class facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology within the U.S. In support of this mission, hot cell laboratories are being upgraded. These upgrades include a set of lead shielded cells that will house Irradiated Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) test rigs and construction of a shielded laboratory facility. A primary function of this shielded laboratory is to provide a state of the art type laboratory facility that is functional, efficient and flexible that is dedicated to the analysis and characterization of nuclear and non-nuclear materials. The facility shall be relatively easy to reconfigure to provide laboratory scale hot cave space for housing current and future nuclear material scientific research instruments.

  14. 12th European VLBI Network Symposium and Users Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, Andrea; Giroletti, Marcello; Feretti, Luigina

    The Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA) di Bologna and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (OAC), on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, hosted the 12th European VLBI Network (EVN) Symposium and Users Meeting. The Conference was held from 7th to 10th of October at the Hotel Regina Margherita, in the center of Cagliari. The latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI, and, in particular, e-VLBI and space-VLBI (RadioAstron) outcomes were reported. The timing of this meeting coincided with the first successful observational tests of the Sardinia Radio Telescopes within the EVN, and with a number of results from new and upgraded radio facilities around the globe, such as e-MERLIN, ALMA, and the SKA pathfinders. The symposium was attended by 133 participants from all over the world, with the Asian community represented by more than 20 colleagues. The program of the meeting consisted of 70 oral contributions (including 8 invited speakers) and 50 poster that covered a very wide range of VLBI topics both in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics (e.g., AGN, stellar evolution from birth to death, astrometry, and planetary science) as well as technological developments and future international collaborations. The scientific program also included a visit to the 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) and the EVN Users Meeting, where astronomers have provided useful feedback on various matters regarding EVN operations. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 283393 (RadioNet3). EDITORIAL BOARD: Andrea Tarchi, Marcello Giroletti, Luigina Feretti

  15. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, E.; Zwaan, M.; Andreani, P.; Barta, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Brand, J.; Gueth, F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Maercker, M.; Massardi, M.; Muehle, S.; Muxlow, Th.; Richards, A.; Schilke, P.; Tilanus, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Afonso, J.; Messias, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  16. The USER: Utilizing Scientific Environments for Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Lakeisha

    A lot of hard work goes into submitting a proposal for access to equipment in our nation's top science research facilities. It seems the biggest focus for a facility USER should be on the acceptance of the proposal, however, the job of a facility USER actually begins after the acceptance letter arrives. In order to make the most of the Awarded experiment time and cultivate collaborations for the future, facility USERs need to look beyond the proposal. From experiment scheduling to arrival to data analysis the entire USER experience is valuable and worth doing well. This presentation will discuss best practices for facility USERs and highlight successful USER collaborations at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor. Funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. DOE. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for US DOE.

  17. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Julie A.; Robertson, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    This is the 2013 Annual Report for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility. This report includes information on university-run research projects along with a description of the program and the capabilities offered researchers.

  18. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 7,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-31

    Fig. 1. Simplified mechanical system repre- physical Illness; at least some of the negative senting the human body standing on a effects observed are...meeting. D. x. Barr 161 The European Spaue Agency and the * 5gIEKP. Popoe Kepler Miesion,Among the poelbl new Btau" under onsideration by the European spac...defining equal fatigue- keep the effective vibration below the discom decreased proficiency boundaries. fort levels; this Is especially true if critical

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 7.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    London. ESN 38-7 (1984) NATO Establishes Special Program Panel on Sensory Systems for Robotic Control ............................ J.F. Blackburn 365...technical information about sensing technology- and machine intelligence in robots . S Parallel Processing at the University of Amsterdam ....... J.F...Rozzell 407 Robot Census: Too Many Manufacturers .................. Larry E. Shaffer 408 Stage Set for European Standards for Biomaterials ..... Thomas

  20. European Scientific Notes 36-1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-31

    prevention deals with measures ized because of an accident . His private taken by those with no diagnosis estab- physician addressed the assembly...could lead to test satellite (OTS) from CERN (Conseil commercial products. Wide area communi- European pour La Recherche Nucleaire , cations under

  1. Developing Concept-Based User Interfaces for Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Stephan, Eric G.; Gracio, Deborah K.; Kuchar, Olga A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2006-09-01

    From our interactions with researchers from different scientific fields and disciplines, we have observed that scientists often describe and convey concepts, theories, processes, and results using basic graphs and diagrams. Semantic graphs such as these provide a universal language that all scientists may apply to document their scientific knowledge and to communicate this knowledge to others. Furthermore, studies have shown that the cognitive processing of complex subject matter is improved when the structure of ideas and concepts are made explicit [39] and that semantic graphs may serve as effective “scaffolds” for cognitive processing [29]. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are deploying semantic graphs within scientific computing systems as central user representations of scientific knowledge. These systems provide concept-based user interfaces that allow scientists to visually define and capture conceptual models of their scientific problems, hypotheses, theories, and processes. Once defined, the visual models then become interaction framework for accessing and applying scientific and computational resources and capabilities. In this paper, through the examination of three visual research systems, we illustrate different ways concept-based user interfaces and semantic graph knowledge representations may make scientific knowledge concrete, usable, shareable, and computable in scientific computing systems.

  2. A training program for scientific supercomputing users

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, F.; Moher, T.; Sabelli, N.; Solem, A.

    1988-01-01

    There is need for a mechanism to transfer supercomputing technology into the hands of scientists and engineers in such a way that they will acquire a foundation of knowledge that will permit integration of supercomputing as a tool in their research. Most computing center training emphasizes computer-specific information about how to use a particular computer system; most academic programs teach concepts to computer scientists. Only a few brief courses and new programs are designed for computational scientists. This paper describes an eleven-week training program aimed principally at graduate and postdoctoral students in computationally-intensive fields. The program is designed to balance the specificity of computing center courses, the abstractness of computer science courses, and the personal contact of traditional apprentice approaches. It is based on the experience of computer scientists and computational scientists, and consists of seminars and clinics given by many visiting and local faculty. It covers a variety of supercomputing concepts, issues, and practices related to architecture, operating systems, software design, numerical considerations, code optimization, graphics, communications, and networks. Its research component encourages understanding of scientific computing and supercomputer hardware issues. Flexibility in thinking about computing needs is emphasized by the use of several different supercomputer architectures, such as the Cray X/MP48 at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IBM 3090 600E/VF at the Cornell National Supercomputer Facility, and Alliant FX/8 at the Advanced Computing Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    R.L. Carovillano 218 The Seventh European Regional Astronomy meeting dealt with almost every area of astronomy; coverage included solar ...in the 25- to found in areas as diverse as electro- 35-m range at the Comitato Nazionale optics and pharmacology. Energia Nucleare laboratory in...physics research has led to knowledge gained in one area (or param- many discoveries in the solar system and eter domain) to another area that lacks to

  4. Three-dimensional user interfaces for scientific visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDam, Andries (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this grant was to experiment with novel user interfaces for scientific visualization applications using both desktop and virtual reality (VR) systems, and thus to advance the state of the art of user interface technology for this domain. This technology has been transferred to NASA via periodic status reports and papers relating to this grant that have been published in conference proceedings. This final report summarizes the research completed over the past three years, and subsumes all prior reports.

  5. A User-Driven Annotation Framework for Scientific Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qinglan

    2013-01-01

    Annotations play an increasingly crucial role in scientific exploration and discovery, as the amount of data and the level of collaboration among scientists increases. There are many systems today focusing on annotation management, querying, and propagation. Although all such systems are implemented to take user input (i.e., the annotations…

  6. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Catherine Thelen; Todd R. Allen

    2011-05-01

    This is the 2010 ATR National Scientific User Facility Annual Report. This report provides an overview of the program for 2010, along with individual project reports from each of the university principal investigators. The report also describes the capabilities offered to university researchers here at INL and at the ATR NSUF partner facilities.

  7. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  8. Present activies and opinions of scientific and technical information users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikura, Ryo; Marumo, Kazuaki

    Present activities and opinions of database users at private enterprises, national institutes or universities are surveyed by a questionnaire and interviews. The investigation includes the following items : 1. Establishment of the inhouse database, 2. Complaints against the existing services of scientific and technical information, 3. Expense for collecting information, 4. Comparison of the database services between public and private, and Japanese and foreign, 5. Requirements to the organization for information service, and government. As the result, they knew that users expect much on the online service and especially wish providers to lower the price and make a single command which enables searchers to make easy access to the various databases.

  9. Scientific preparations for lunar exploration with the European Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Houdou, B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Lunar missions and new scientific results in multiple disciplines have shown that working and operating in the complex lunar environment and exploiting the Moon as a platform for scientific research and further exploration poses major challenges. Underlying these challenges are fundamental scientific unknowns regarding the Moon's surface, its environment, the effects of this environment and the availability of potential resources. The European Lunar Lander is a mission proposed by the European Space Agency to prepare for future exploration. The mission provides an opportunity to address some of these key unknowns and provide information of importance for future exploration activities. Areas of particular interest for investigation on the Lunar Lander include the integrated plasma, dust, charge and radiation environment and its effects, the properties of lunar dust and its physical effects on systems and physiological effects on humans, the availability, distribution and potential application of in situ resources for future exploration. A model payload has then been derived, taking these objectives to account and considering potential payloads proposed through a request for information, and the mission's boundary conditions. While exploration preparation has driven the definition there is a significant synergy with investigations associated with fundamental scientific questions. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission, which emphasise human exploration preparatory science and introduces the model scientific payload considered as part of the on-going mission studies, in advance of a formal instrument selection.

  10. European lead standardisation—its relevance to users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillerie, J. L.

    The European lead industry, including users and producers, has agreed to prepare unique standards for lead products and analytical control methods. A technical committee (TC) was created in 1993 within the Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) under the identification code CEN-TC 306. In 1998, 10 standards were prepared and two standards are available. To illustrate the work done by the experts, the lead 99.97 definition is presented in detail. Harmonisation has its limits. A unique standard for general applications, common to several countries, cannot cover all the numerous specific demands from users but has to reflect progress in refining and testing, and changes in demand. Recently, product standardisation covers the terminology of used products.

  11. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; Jeff B. Benson; James I. Cole; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2012-03-01

    In 2007, the United States Department of Energy designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at Idaho National Laboratory, as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). This designation made test space within the ATR and post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment at INL available for use by researchers via a proposal and peer review process. The goal of the ATR NSUF is to provide researchers with the best ideas access to the most advanced test capability, regardless of the proposer's physical location. Since 2007, the ATR NSUF has expanded its available reactor test space, and obtained access to additional PIE equipment. Recognizing that INL may not have all the desired PIE equipment, or that some equipment may become oversubscribed, the ATR NSUF established a Partnership Program. This program enables and facilitates user access to several university and national laboratories. So far, seven universities and one national laboratory have been added to the ATR NSUF with capability that includes reactor-testing space, PIE equipment, and ion beam irradiation facilities. With the addition of these universities, irradiation can occur in multiple reactors and post-irradiation exams can be performed at multiple universities. In each case, the choice of facilities is based on the user's technical needs. Universities and laboratories included in the ATR NSUF partnership program are as follows: (1) Nuclear Services Laboratories at North Carolina State University; (2) PULSTAR Reactor Facility at North Carolina State University; (3) Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator) at the University of Michigan; (4) Irradiated Materials at the University of Michigan; (5) Harry Reid Center Radiochemistry Laboratories at University of Nevada, Las Vegas; (6) Characterization Laboratory for Irradiated Materials at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; (7) Tandem Accelerator Ion Beam. (1.7 MV terminal voltage tandem ion accelerator) at the University of Wisconsin

  12. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; James I. Cole; Jeff B. Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2012-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is one of the world’s premier test reactors for studying the effects of intense neutron radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR began operation in 1967, and has operated continuously since then, averaging approximately 250 operating days per year. The combination of high flux, large test volumes, and multiple experiment configuration options provide unique testing opportunities for nuclear fuels and material researchers. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected highly-enriched uranium fueled, reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The ATR peak thermal flux can reach 1.0 x1015 n/cm2-sec, and the core configuration creates five main reactor power lobes (regions) that can be operated at different powers during the same operating cycle. In addition to these nine flux traps there are 68 irradiation positions in the reactor core reflector tank. The test positions range from 0.5” to 5.0” in diameter and are all 48” in length, the active length of the fuel. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material radiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. Goals of the ATR NSUF are to define the cutting edge of nuclear technology research in high temperature and radiation environments, contribute to improved industry performance of current and future light water reactors, and stimulate cooperative research between user groups conducting basic and applied research. The ATR NSUF has developed partnerships with other universities and national laboratories to enable ATR NSUF researchers to perform research at these other facilities, when the research objectives

  13. Third European Influenza Summit: organized by the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI).

    PubMed

    McElhaney, Janet; Osterhaus, Ab

    2013-12-16

    On 2 May 2013, the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) held its third influenza summit at the Institute of European Studies at the Free University of Brussels. ESWI brought together more than 90 representatives of organizations of healthcare providers, senior citizens, at-risk patients and public health authorities for a day of tailored lectures, Q&A sessions and networking. Since recent studies, surveys and reviews have shed new light on some of the most intriguing influenza issues, the Summit faculty translated the newest scientific data into practice. The first part of the Summit programme focused on the current flu status in Europe, paying special attention to the protection of pregnant women and the elderly as well as to the issues of vaccine safety and effectiveness. The programme continued to highlight future challenges and evolutions like novel antiviral drugs against influenza, improved flu vaccines and the prospect of a universal flu vaccine. The annual ESWI flu summits are the pinnacles of ESWI's efforts to bridge the gap between science and society. ESWI's members are convinced that the fight against influenza can only be won when all parties are well informed and ready to work together.

  14. Advanced Test Reactor - A National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford J. Stanley

    2008-05-01

    The ATR is a pressurized, light-water moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected nuclear research reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The unique serpentine configuration of the fuel elements creates five main reactor power lobes (regions) and nine flux traps. In addition to these nine flux traps there are 68 additional irradiation positions in the reactor core reflector tank. There are also 34 low-flux irradiation positions in the irradiation tanks outside the core reflector tank. The ATR is designed to provide a test environment for the evaluation of the effects of intense radiation (neutron and gamma). Due to the unique serpentine core design each of the five lobes can be operated at different powers and controlled independently. Options exist for the individual test trains and assemblies to be either cooled by the ATR coolant (i.e., exposed to ATR coolant flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and neutron flux) or to be installed in their own independent test loops where such parameters as temperature, pressure, flow rate, neutron flux, and energy can be controlled per experimenter specifications. The full-power maximum thermal neutron flux is ~1.0 x1015 n/cm2-sec with a maximum fast flux of ~5.0 x1014 n/cm2-sec. The Advanced Test Reactor, now a National Scientific User Facility, is a versatile tool in which a variety of nuclear reactor, nuclear physics, reactor fuel, and structural material irradiation experiments can be conducted. The cumulative effects of years of irradiation in a normal power reactor can be duplicated in a few weeks or months in the ATR due to its unique design, power density, and operating flexibility.

  15. Deploying user-developed scientific analyses on federated data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, V.; Ansari, S.; Radhakrishnan, A.

    2011-12-01

    V. Balaji (balaji@princeton.edu: corresponding author) Sameer Ansari, Georgia Institute of Technology Aparna Radhakrishnan, High Performance Technologies, Inc. The scale of the climate modeling enterprise has grown to the point where computing, storage, and analytic resources are all globally distributed. The CMIP5 project is an example of such a global undertaking. This scientific project was designed by a team spanning 20 or more modeling centers across the planet: many of the largest supercomputers in the world were given over for many months to the running of the experiments; the data is now stored in a distributed archive of nodes governed by the Earth System Grid Federation, with a core measuring more than 1 PB, and the total of about 20 PB. There is an explosion of interest in climate analytics since the archives were made available. Scientists who could not dream of building or running these models can now analyze them. New ways of diagnosing and analyzing the results of Earth System models emerge continually from an increasingly diverse set of sources, and there is often immediate interest from other researchers in replicating the analysis using other datasets or experiments. We address here one of the key questions regarding the future of such analytics on federated archives. Here is an innovative analysis script developed by a user, who has developed it using local analysis resources and some small subset of data downloaded from the CMIP5 federated archive. Her analysis is widely cited, and there is interest worldwide in replicating her study on other datasets from the archive. How is this to be achieved? We demonstrate here a mechanism for deploying such user-developed analysis on the ESGF federated archive. There are several elements in this solution: - a common layer for locating resources across the federation: in the case of ESGF this is based on underlying technologies (THREDDS, OPeNDAP) providing URL mechanisms for addressing datasets; - shared

  16. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2009 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen; Mitchell K. Meyer; Frances Marshall; Mary Catherine Thelen; Jeff Benson

    2010-11-01

    This report describes activities of the ATR NSUF from FY-2008 through FY-2009 and includes information on partner facilities, calls for proposals, users week and education programs. The report also contains project information on university research projects that were awarded by ATR NSUF in the fiscal years 2008 & 2009. This research is university-proposed researcher under a user facility agreement. All intellectual property from these experiments belongs to the university per the user agreement.

  17. Three-dimensional user interfaces for scientific visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, Andries

    1995-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to develop novel and productive user interface techniques for creating and managing visualizations of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) datasets. We have implemented an application framework in which we can visualize computational fluid dynamics user interfaces. This UI technology allows users to interactively place visualization probes in a dataset and modify some of their parameters. We have also implemented a time-critical scheduling system which strives to maintain a constant frame-rate regardless of the number of visualization techniques. In the past year, we have published parts of this research at two conferences, the research annotation system at Visualization 1994, and the 3D user interface at UIST 1994. The real-time scheduling system has been submitted to SIGGRAPH 1995 conference. Copies of these documents are included with this report.

  18. User Facilities of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences: A National Resource for Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.

  19. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  20. NASA Scientific Data Purchase Project: From Collection to User

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lamar; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rose

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) project is currently a $70 million operation managed by the Earth Science Applications Directorate at Stennis Space Center. The SDP project was developed in 1997 to purchase scientific data from commercial sources for distribution to NASA Earth science researchers. Our current data holdings include 8TB of remote sensing imagery consisting of 18 products from 4 companies. Our anticipated data volume is 60 TB by 2004, and we will be receiving new data products from several additional companies. Our current system capacity is 24 TB, expandable to 89 TB. Operations include tasking of new data collections, archive ordering, shipment verification, data validation, distribution, metrics, finances, customer feedback, and technical support. The program has been included in the Stennis Space Center Commercial Remote Sensing ISO 9001 registration since its inception. Our operational system includes automatic quality control checks on data received (with MatLab analysis); internally developed, custom Web-based interfaces that tie into commercial-off-the-shelf software; and an integrated relational database that links and tracks all data through operations. We've distributed nearly 1500 datasets, and almost 18,000 data files have been downloaded from our public web site; on a 10-point scale, our customer satisfaction index is 8.32 at a 23% response level. More information about the SDP is available on our Web site.

  1. Lessons from Introducing New Scientific Disciplines Into European Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Martin C. E.

    Physics experiments in space will permit us to investigate natural phenomena that cannot be observed on the ground, such as low-frequency gravitational waves, and to reach uncharted realms of accuracy — accessible only through experiments carried out in space — where current foundations of physics can be further tested and potentially falsified. Such projects require technologies that have not been in hand for a long time but are available now. To avoid conflict of interest, the merit of space projects in physics, from the proposal stage through development, ought to be judged by experts in physics, rather than by space scientists from other fields. It is time now to set aside some funding to let missions in fundamental physics compete fairly with the established space sciences, thereby enriching and deepening the space enterprise — and broadening its advocacy base. We look, in the context of the European space scene, at the measures and events that resurrected the initially suppressed planetary sciences and brought solar physics to blooming after a long drought; and derive ideas on how to increase the number of flight opportunities for fundamental physics in space.

  2. The transnational circulation of scientific ideas: importing behavioralism in European political science (1950-1970).

    PubMed

    Boncourt, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to deepen our understanding of the transatlantic circulation of scientific ideas during the Cold War by looking at the importation of behavioralism in European political science. It analyses the social, institutional, and intellectual dynamics that led to the creation, in 1970, of a transnational organization that aimed to promote behavioralism in Europe: the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR). Using qualitative material drawn from archives and interviews, the study shows that the creation of the ECPR was the joint product of academic, scientific, and political rivalries. It argues that the founding of the organization served a purpose for several agents (chiefly, academic entrepreneurs and philanthropic foundations) who pursued different strategies in different social fields in the context of the Cold War. More broadly, it suggests that the postwar development of the social sciences and the circulation of scientific ideas are best accounted for by mapping sociological interactions between scientific fields and neighboring social spheres.

  3. Education and Training of Users of Scientific and Technical Information: UNISIST Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, A. J.; And Others

    This guide is addressed to teachers who develop information retrieval skills in users of scientific and technical information--undergraduate and graduate students, scientists, and technologists. It is intended to have particular application in developing countries. The teacher is likely to need expertise in library and information science,…

  4. Implementing the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: Scientific challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Alice; Borja, Angel; Solidoro, Cosimo; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; EC, 2008) is an ambitious European policy instrument that aims to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in the 5,720,000 km2 of European seas by 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GES is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators (European Commission, 2010), and the goal is for clean, healthy and productive seas that are the basis for marine-based development, known as Blue-Growth. The MSFD is one of many policy instruments, such as the Water Framework Directive, the Common Fisheries Policy and the Habitats Directive that, together, should result in "Healthy Oceans and Productive Ecosystems - HOPE". Researchers working together with stakeholders such as the Member States environmental agencies, the European Environmental Agency, and the Regional Sea Conventions, are to provide the scientific knowledge basis for the implementation of the MSFD. This represents both a fascinating challenge and a stimulating opportunity.

  5. [Scientific advice by the national and European approval authorities concerning advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Jost, Nils; Schüssler-Lenz, Martina; Ziegele, Bettina; Reinhardt, Jens

    2015-11-01

    The aim of scientific advice is to support pharmaceutical developers in regulatory and scientific questions, thus facilitating the development of safe and efficacious new medicinal products. Recent years have shown that the development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) in particular needs a high degree of regulatory support. On one hand, this is related to the complexity and heterogeneity of this group of medicinal products and on the other hand due to the fact that mainly academic research institutions and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are developing ATMPs. These often have limited regulatory experience and resources. In 2009 the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) initiated the Innovation Office as a contact point for applicants developing ATMPs. The mandate of the Innovation Office is to provide support on regulatory questions and to coordinate national scientific advice meetings concerning ATMPs for every phase in drug development and especially with view to the preparation of clinical trial applications. On the European level, the Scientific Advice Working Party (SAWP) of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicinal Agency (EMA) offers scientific advice. This article describes the concepts of national and EMA scientific advice concerning ATMPs and summarizes the experience of the last six years.

  6. The development of a prototype intelligent user interface subsystem for NASA's scientific database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Roelofs, Larry H.; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) has initiated an Intelligent Data Management (IDM) research effort which has as one of its components the development of an Intelligent User Interface (IUI).The intent of the latter is to develop a friendly and intelligent user interface service that is based on expert systems and natural language processing technologies. The purpose is to support the large number of potential scientific and engineering users presently having need of space and land related research and technical data but who have little or no experience in query languages or understanding of the information content or architecture of the databases involved. This technical memorandum presents prototype Intelligent User Interface Subsystem (IUIS) using the Crustal Dynamics Project Database as a test bed for the implementation of the CRUDDES (Crustal Dynamics Expert System). The knowledge base has more than 200 rules and represents a single application view and the architectural view. Operational performance using CRUDDES has allowed nondatabase users to obtain useful information from the database previously accessible only to an expert database user or the database designer.

  7. A decade of spore-forming bacterial infections among European injecting drug users: pronounced regional variation.

    PubMed

    Hope, Vivian D; Palmateer, Norah; Wiessing, Lucas; Marongiu, Andrea; White, Joanne; Ncube, Fortune; Goldberg, David

    2012-01-01

    The recent anthrax outbreak among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Europe has highlighted an ongoing problem with severe illness resulting from spore-forming bacteria in IDUs. We collated the numbers of cases of 4 bacterial illnesses (botulism, tetanus, Clostridium novyi, and anthrax) in European IDUs for 2000 to 2009 and calculated population rates. Six countries reported 367 cases; rates varied from 0.03 to 7.54 per million people. Most cases (92%) were reported from 3 neighboring countries: Ireland, Norway, and the United Kingdom. This geographic variation needs investigation.

  8. [Internationalism and science. Social and scientific bases of the European information science movement].

    PubMed

    Olague de Ros, G; Menendez Navarro, A; Medina Domenech, R M; Astrain Gallart, M

    1997-01-01

    As part of a continuing line of research on scientific documentation we propose in this article a novel approach to the study of the European information science movement at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. We suggest that this movement took place within the context of increasing internationalism of scientific endeavours, a process which was paralleled by the standardization of units, weight and measures for the different sciences. We investigate problems arising from scientific communication in connection with other aspects apparently unrelated to Information Science. Specifically, we refer to conflicts between nationalism and colonialism; concordance and discord between science policy and the corporate interests of nonscientific associations; higher educational policy; the professionalization of sciences; and the economic interests at stake as a consequence of the use of different information models.

  9. User choice in European health systems: towards a systematic framework for analysis.

    PubMed

    Kreisz, Florian P; Gericke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a systematic framework for analysis of the increasingly popular concept of user choice in European health systems. The development of such a framework is exemplified using one category of potential choice: the choice of health service provider. In the first part, the paper summarises the conceptual background of the user choice debate. Subsequently, the paper theoretically analyses the concept of user choice alongside a stringent set of standard dimensions embracing technical, administrative and allocative efficiency, as well as equity in access and finance. Reference to available evidence is made where applicable. The employed dimensions are critically discussed and finally mapped against the identified determinants within a systematic matrix framework for analysis. Furthermore, the paper underlines that user choice is by no means a panacea but rather a highly complex and ambiguous political strategy. Extended choice in some sectors and levels of health systems may lead to inefficiencies and may therefore lead to loss of benefits, including choice, for individuals and society.

  10. Operational Philosophy for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    J. Benson; J. Cole; J. Jackson; F. Marshall; D. Ogden; J. Rempe; M. C. Thelen

    2013-02-01

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). At its core, the ATR NSUF Program combines access to a portion of the available ATR radiation capability, the associated required examination and analysis facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and INL staff expertise with novel ideas provided by external contributors (universities, laboratories, and industry). These collaborations define the cutting edge of nuclear technology research in high-temperature and radiation environments, contribute to improved industry performance of current and future light-water reactors (LWRs), and stimulate cooperative research between user groups conducting basic and applied research. To make possible the broadest access to key national capability, the ATR NSUF formed a partnership program that also makes available access to critical facilities outside of the INL. Finally, the ATR NSUF has established a sample library that allows access to pre-irradiated samples as needed by national research teams.

  11. User input and program assessment - An evaluation of the NASA Langley Scientific and Technical Information Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cross, E. M.; Hinnebusch, P. A.; Glassman, M.

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of the scientific and technical information (STI) program of the Langley Research Center has been conducted, including surveys of both internal and external patrons. Questions included the perceived prestige of the Center's publications, the adequacy of Langley technical reports, and the use of selected NASA STI products and services. The internal and external profiles proved to be very similar, and the results indicated that the Langley STI program is meeting the information needs of both populations. A number of areas for increasing user satisfaction were identified.

  12. Interfacing Microcomputers: A Brief Guide for the Scientific User of S-100, TRS-80, PET, and Apple Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razlaff, Kanneth L.

    1981-01-01

    Presents information on interfacing microcomputers for scientific users of S-100, TRS-80, PET, and Apple microcomputers, including device-select pulses, programing considerations, data input, data output, and power supplies. (JN)

  13. European Union research in support of environment and health: Building scientific evidence base for policy.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Tuomo; Hoeveler, Arnd; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2017-04-03

    Opinion polls show that the European Union citizens are increasingly concerned about the impact of environmental factors on their health. In order to respond and provide solid scientific evidence for the numerous policies related to the protection of human health and the environment managed at the Union level, the European Union made a substantial investment in research and innovation in the past two decades through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, including the current programme, Horizon 2020, which started in 2014. This policy review paper analysed the portfolio of forty collaborative projects relevant to environment and health, which received a total amount of around 228 million euros from the EU. It gives details on their contents and general scientific trends observed, the profiles of the participating countries and institutions, and the potential policy implications of the results obtained. The increasing knowledge base is needed to make informed policy decisions in Europe and beyond, and should be useful to many stakeholders including the scientific community and regulatory authorities.

  14. European Bioanalysis Forum recommendation: scientific validation of quantification by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Higton, David; Young, Graeme; Timmerman, Philip; Abbott, Richard; Knutsson, Magnus; Svensson, Leif D

    2012-11-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is being used more widely to provide PK data for early decision making or to generate absolute bioavailability data in later phases of development. Presently, there is no clear consensus on the level of the scientific validation required for these assays. The European Bioanalysis Forum (EBF) has conducted two surveys with its members and presented the results at its 4th Open Symposium. With AMS being used for discrete scientific assessment, method establishment of AMS assays should focus on science rather than trying to fit the assay parameters into validation criteria used for Regulated Bioanalysis guidance, and an amount of freedom of execution and interpretation is needed. Hence, the EBF focuses their recommendation on introducing terminology around scientific qualification or validation to be used in relation to AMS. Guidance is given on which parameters should be investigated when a qualified method is required. The recommendations of the EBF for scientific validation are described herein. The scientific validation of AMS assays will be different to that applied for LC-MS/MS assays, and an example is that accuracy and precision limits, as used for ligand-binding assays, would be more appropriate.

  15. European Extremely Large Telescope: some history, and the scientific community's preferences for wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Gerard

    2008-04-01

    Extremely expensive new telescopes involve a compromise between the extreme ambitions of the scientific community, whose support justifies the financial costs, and the need to have a telescope design which can actually be built today at appropriate cost. In this article I provide a brief history of the process which built community support in Europe for what has become the European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT). I then review remaining tensions between the community science case and day-one technical performance. While the range of very strong scientific cases which support the E-ELT project will largely be delivered, and lead to a quite outstanding scientific return, there are - as always! - demands for even more impressive performance. In addition to what the E-ELT will deliver, much of the community wants high spatial resolution at wavelengths shorter than one micron. Affordable adaptive optics systems will work best, initially at somewhat longer wavelengths. Planned performance enhancement during its operational life is very desirable in the E-ELT.

  16. What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured…

  17. The French initiative for scientific cores virtual curating : a user-oriented integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignol, Cécile; Godinho, Elodie; Galabertier, Bruno; Caillo, Arnaud; Bernardet, Karim; Augustin, Laurent; Crouzet, Christian; Billy, Isabelle; Teste, Gregory; Moreno, Eva; Tosello, Vanessa; Crosta, Xavier; Chappellaz, Jérome; Calzas, Michel; Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Arnaud, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    Managing scientific data is probably one the most challenging issue in modern science. The question is made even more sensitive with the need of preserving and managing high value fragile geological sam-ples: cores. Large international scientific programs, such as IODP or ICDP are leading an intense effort to solve this problem and propose detailed high standard work- and dataflows thorough core handling and curating. However most results derived from rather small-scale research programs in which data and sample management is generally managed only locally - when it is … The national excellence equipment program (Equipex) CLIMCOR aims at developing French facilities for coring and drilling investigations. It concerns indiscriminately ice, marine and continental samples. As part of this initiative, we initiated a reflexion about core curating and associated coring-data management. The aim of the project is to conserve all metadata from fieldwork in an integrated cyber-environment which will evolve toward laboratory-acquired data storage in a near future. In that aim, our demarche was conducted through an close relationship with field operators as well laboratory core curators in order to propose user-oriented solutions. The national core curating initiative currently proposes a single web portal in which all scientifics teams can store their field data. For legacy samples, this will requires the establishment of a dedicated core lists with associated metadata. For forthcoming samples, we propose a mobile application, under Android environment to capture technical and scientific metadata on the field. This application is linked with a unique coring tools library and is adapted to most coring devices (gravity, drilling, percussion, etc...) including multiple sections and holes coring operations. Those field data can be uploaded automatically to the national portal, but also referenced through international standards or persistent identifiers (IGSN, ORCID and INSPIRE

  18. Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.

    PubMed

    Emilien, G

    1997-01-01

    The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market.

  19. Scientific collaboration between 'old' and 'new' member states: Did joining the European Union make a difference?

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo

    This paper provides new insights on the effects of the enlargement of the European Union (EU) and European integration by investigating the issue of scientific collaboration within the new EU member states vis-à-vis the old EU member states. The question addressed is whether the EU membership following the two enlargement waves 2004 and 2007 has significantly increased the co-publication intensity of the new member states with other member countries. The empirical results based on data collected from the Web of Science database and Difference-in-Difference estimations point towards a conclusion that joining the EU indeed has had an additional positive impact on the co-publication intensity between the new and old member states and, in particular, within the new member states themselves. These results give tentative support for the successfulness of the EU's science policies in achieving a common 'internal market' in research. We also find evidence for early anticipation effects of the consecutive EU accession.

  20. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy and Sarah Robertson attended the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo in Anaheim, California, Nov. 10-13. ATR NSUF exhibited at the technology expo where hundreds of meeting participants had an opportunity to learn more about ATR NSUF. Dr. Kennedy briefed the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO) on the workings of the ATR NSUF. • Rory Kennedy, James Cole and Dan Ogden participated in a reactor instrumentation discussion with Jean-Francois Villard and Christopher Destouches of CEA and several members of the INL staff. • ATR NSUF received approval from the NE-20 office to start planning the annual Users Meeting. The meeting will be held at INL, June 22-25. • Mike Worley, director of the Office of Innovative Nuclear Research (NE-42), visited INL Nov. 4-5. Milestones Completed • Recommendations for the Summer Rapid Turnaround Experiment awards were submitted to DOE-HQ Nov. 12 (Level 2 milestone due Nov. 30). Major Accomplishments/Activities • The University of California, Santa Barbara 2 experiment was unloaded from the GE-2000 at HFEF. The experiment specimen packs will be removed and shipped to ORNL for PIE. • The Terrani experiment, one of three FY 2014 new awards, was completed utilizing the Advanced Photon Source MRCAT beamline. The experiment investigated the chemical state of Ag and Pd in SiC shell of irradiated TRISO particles via X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Upcoming Meetings/Events • The ATR NSUF program review meeting will be held Dec. 9-10 at L’Enfant Plaza. In addition to NSUF staff and users, NE-4, NE-5 and NE-7 representatives will attend the meeting. Awarded Research Projects Boise State University Rapid Turnaround Experiments (14-485 and 14-486) Nanoindentation and TEM work on the T91, HT9, HCM12A and 9Cr ODS specimens has been completed at

  1. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Advancing Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Allen; J. B. Benson; J. A. Foster; F. M. Marshall; M. K. Meyer; M. C. Thelen

    2009-05-01

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  2. The Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation Capabilities Available as a National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. The ATR is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These capabilities include simple capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. Monitoring systems have also been utilized to monitor different parameters such as fission gases for fuel experiments, to measure specimen performance during irradiation. ATR’s control system provides a stable axial flux profile throughout each reactor operating cycle, and allows the thermal and fast neutron fluxes to be controlled separately in different sections of the core. The ATR irradiation positions vary in diameter from 16 mm to 127 mm over an active core height of 1.2 m. This paper discusses the different irradiation capabilities with examples of different experiments and the cost/benefit issues related to each capability. The recent designation of ATR as a national scientific user facility will make the ATR much more accessible at very low to no cost for research by universities and possibly commercial entities.

  3. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014 Highlights • Rory Kennedy, Dan Ogden and Brenden Heidrich traveled to Germantown October 6-7, for a review of the Infrastructure Management mission with Shane Johnson, Mike Worley, Bradley Williams and Alison Hahn from NE-4 and Mary McCune from NE-3. Heidrich briefed the group on the project progress from July to October 2014 as well as the planned path forward for FY15. • Jim Cole gave two invited university seminars at Ohio State University and University of Florida, providing an overview of NSUF including available capabilities and the process for accessing facilities through the peer reviewed proposal process. • Jim Cole and Rory Kennedy co-chaired the NuMat meeting with Todd Allen. The meeting, sponsored by Elsevier publishing, was held in Clearwater, Florida, and is considered one of the premier nuclear fuels and materials conferences. Over 340 delegates attended with 160 oral and over 200 posters presented over 4 days. • Thirty-one pre-applications were submitted for NSUF access through the NE-4 Combined Innovative Nuclear Research Funding Opportunity Announcement. • Fourteen proposals were received for the NSUF Rapid Turnaround Experiment Summer 2014 call. Proposal evaluations are underway. • John Jackson and Rory Kennedy attended the Nuclear Fuels Industry Research meeting. Jackson presented an overview of ongoing NSUF industry research.

  4. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  5. New Sensors for In-Pile Temperature Detection at the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; J. E. Daw; K. G. Condie; S. Curtis Wilkins

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. As a user facility, the ATR is supporting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, as they conduct basic and applied nuclear research and development to advance the nation’s energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to develop and evaluate new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing measurements of key parameters during irradiation. This paper describes the strategy for determining what instrumentation is needed and the program for developing new or enhanced sensors that can address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available and under development for in-pile detection of temperature at various irradiation locations in the ATR.

  6. Scientific Issues Relevant to Setting Regulatory Criteria to Identify Endocrine-Disrupting Substances in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Rémy; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Demeneix, Barbara; Ivell, Richard; Panzica, Giancarlo; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as exogenous compounds or mixtures that alter function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations. European regulations on pesticides, biocides, cosmetics, and industrial chemicals require the European Commission to establish scientific criteria to define EDs. Objectives: We address the scientific relevance of four options for the identification of EDs proposed by the European Commission. Discussion: Option 1, which does not define EDs and leads to using interim criteria unrelated to the WHO definition of EDs, is not relevant. Options 2 and 3 rely on the WHO definition of EDs, which is widely accepted by the scientific community, with option 3 introducing additional categories based on the strength of evidence (suspected EDs and endocrine-active substances). Option 4 adds potency to the WHO definition, as a decision criterion. We argue that potency is dependent on the adverse effect considered and is scientifically ambiguous, and note that potency is not used as a criterion to define other particularly hazardous substances such as carcinogens and reproductive toxicants. The use of potency requires a context that goes beyond hazard identification and corresponds to risk characterization, in which potency (or, more relevantly, the dose–response function) is combined with exposure levels. Conclusions: There is scientific agreement regarding the adequacy of the WHO definition of EDs. The potency concept is not relevant to the identification of particularly serious hazards such as EDs. As is common practice for carcinogens, mutagens, and reproductive toxicants, a multi-level classification of ED based on the WHO definition, and not considering potency, would be relevant (corresponding to option 3 proposed by the European Commission). Citation: Slama R, Bourguignon JP, Demeneix B, Ivell R, Panzica G

  7. Cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility--findings from the European innovAge Project.

    PubMed

    Haak, Maria; Slaug, Björn; Oswald, Frank; Schmidt, Steven M; Rimland, Joseph M; Tomsone, Signe; Ladö, Thomas; Svensson, Torbjörn; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-03-02

    To develop an innovative information and communication technology (ICT) tool intended to help older people in their search for optimal housing solutions, a first step in the development process is to gain knowledge from the intended users. Thus the aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about needs and expectations about housing options as expressed and prioritized by older people, people ageing with disabilities and professionals. A participatory design focus was adopted; 26 people with a range of functional limitations representing the user perspective and 15 professionals with a variety of backgrounds, participated in research circles that were conducted in four European countries. An additional 20 experts were invited as guests to the different research circle meetings. Three themes illustrating cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility were identified: "Information barrier: accessible housing", "Information barrier: housing adaptation benefits", and "Cost barrier: housing adaptations". In conclusion, early user involvement and identification of cross-national differences in priorities and housing options will strengthen the development of a user-friendly ICT tool that can empower older people and people with disabilities to be more active consumers regarding housing provision.

  8. Establishing a research agenda for scientific and technical information (STI) - Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  9. Establishing a research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI): Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  10. Development of an XUV-IR free-electron laser user facility for scientific research and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Newnam, B.E.; Warren, R.W.; Conradson, S.D.; Goldstein, J.C.; McVey, B.D.; Schmitt, M.J.; Elliott, C.J.; Burns, M.J.; Carlsten, B.E.; Chan, K.C.; Johnson, W.J.; Wang, T.S.; Sheffield, R.L.; Meier, K.L.; Olsher, R.H.; Scott, M.L.; Griggs, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos has designed and proposes to establish an XUV-IR free- electron laser (FEL) user facility for scientific research and industrial applications based on coherent radiation ranging from soft x-rays as short as 1 nm to far-infrared wavelengths as long as 100 {mu}m. As the next-generation light source beyond low-emittance storage rings with undulator insertion devices, this proposed national FEL user facility should make available to researchers broadly tunable, picosecond-pulse, coherent radiation with 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} greater spectral flux and brightness. The facility design is based on two series of FEL oscillators including one regenerative amplifier. The primary series of seven FEL oscillators, driven by a single, 1-GeV rf linac, spans the short-wavelength range from 1 to 600 nm. A second 60-MeV rf linac, synchronized with the first, drives a series of three Vis/IR FEL oscillators to cover the 0. 5 to 100-{mu}m range. This paper presents the motivation for such a facility arising from its inherently high power per unit bandwidth and its potential use for an array of scientific and industrial applications, describes the facility design, output parameters, and user laboratories, makes comparisons with synchrotron radiation sources, and summarizes recent technical progress that supports the technical feasibility. 80 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. New Sensors for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Heng Ban; Brandon Fox; Gordon Kohse

    2009-06-01

    A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to develop and evaluate new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. This paper describes the selection strategy of what instrumentation is needed, and the program generated for developing new or enhanced sensors that can address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF with data from irradiation tests using these sensors. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users advanced methods for detecting temperature, fuel thermal conductivity, and changes in sample geometry.

  12. Editorial: a scientifically rigorous and user-friendly Rangeland Ecology & Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland Ecology and Management (REM) is the premier journal for communication of science-based knowledge and for fostering both innovation and rigor in our stewardship of the world’s rangelands. REM is critical to the mission of the Society for Range Management and has had increasing scientific im...

  13. The Users and Uses of Scientific and Technical Information: Critical Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, James E.; Rubenstein, Albert H.

    At a 1973 workshop held in Denver, Colorado, 21 participants familiar with the uses of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) services gathered to identify the system's major research needs. Initially, 50 research projects were suggested in the areas of design, management, operations, marketing, and global considerations. Using a priority…

  14. Communication Strategies in the Writing of Scientific Research Articles by Non-native Users of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sionis, Claude

    1995-01-01

    This article compares the communication strategies used by representatives of two generations of French scientists (pre- and postcommunicative language teaching) in the writing of research articles in English-language scientific journals. It focuses on the relationships between general argumentative language and hard-core mathematical language in…

  15. The Mystery of the European Smile: A Comparison Based on Individual Photographs Provided by Internet Users

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cross-cultural differences in preference for smiling among the users of one of the most popular instant messaging sites called Windows Live Messenger in terms of facial expression (smiling vs. non-smiling) on the photographs accompanying their profiles. 2,000 photos from 10 countries were rated by two independent judges. Despite the fact that 20 years have passed since the fall of the Berlin Wall, Internet users from a former Soviet bloc appear to smile less often than those from Western Europe. Also, replicating past research, women irrespective of their nationality smiled more than men. PMID:21057574

  16. UIMX: A User Interface Management System For Scientific Computing With X Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foody, Michael

    1989-09-01

    Applications with iconic user interfaces, (for example, interfaces with pulldown menus, radio buttons, and scroll bars), such as those found on Apple's Macintosh computer and the IBM PC under Microsoft's Presentation Manager, have become very popular, and for good reason. They are much easier to use than applications with traditional keyboard-oriented interfaces, so training costs are much lower and just about anyone can use them. They are standardized between applications, so once you learn one application you are well along the way to learning another. The use of one reinforces the common elements between applications of the interface, and, as a result, you remember how to use them longer. Finally, for the developer, their support costs can be much lower because of their ease of use.

  17. Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright: The case of biodiversity information.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Willi; Patterson, David J; Agosti, Donat; Hagedorn, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Background. The 7(th) Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European Union to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme "Horizon 2020" aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights. We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information. Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an impediment to the

  18. Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright: The case of biodiversity information

    PubMed Central

    Egloff, Willi; Patterson, David J.; Agosti, Donat; Hagedorn, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European Union to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme “Horizon 2020” aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights. We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information. Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an

  19. Advanced Test Reactor -- Testing Capabilities and Plans AND Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility -- Partnerships and Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2008-07-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world’s premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner “lobes” to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 122 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. In 2007 the US Department of Energy designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and plans for the NSUF.

  20. Injuries among powered two-wheeler users in eight European countries: a descriptive analysis of hospital discharge data.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Pollack, Keshia; Heredero-Ordoyo, Rafael; Molinero, Aquilino; Mansilla, Alberto; Fildes, Brian; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2012-11-01

    Powered two-wheelers (PTWs--mopeds, motorcycles, and scooters) remain the most dangerous form of travel on today's roads. This study used hospital discharge data from eight European countries to examine the frequencies and patterns of injury among PTW users (age≥14 years), the predicted incidence of the loss of functional ability, and the mechanisms of the head injuries observed (all in light of increased helmet use). Of 977,557 injured patients discharged in 2004, 12,994 were identified as having been injured in PTW collisions. Lower extremity injuries accounted for 26% (25.6-26.7, 95% C.I.) of the total injuries, followed by upper extremity injuries (20.7%: 20.3-21.2), traumatic brain injuries (TBI) (18.5%: 18-19), and thoracic injuries (8.2%: 7.8-8.5). Approximately 80% of the lower extremity injury cases were expected to exhibit some functional disability one year following discharge (predicted Functional Capacity Index, pFCI-AIS98<100), compared to 47% of the upper extremity injury cases and 24% of the TBI cases. Although it occurred less frequently, patients that were expected to experience some functional limitation from TBI were predicted to fair worse on average (lose more functional ability) than patients expected to have functional limitations from extremity injuries. Cerebral concussion was the most common head injury observed (occurring in 56% of head injury cases), with most concussion cases (78%) exhibiting no other head injury. Among the AIS3+ head injuries that could be mapped to an injury mechanism, 48% of these were associated with a translational-impact mechanism, and 37% were associated with a rotational mechanism. The observation of high rates of expected long-term disability suggests that future efforts aim to mitigate lower and upper extremity injuries among PTW users. Likewise, the high rates of concussion and head injuries associated with a rotational mechanism provide goals for the next phase of PTW user head protection.

  1. Ethics issues in scientific data and service provision: evidence and challenges for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, Massimo; Freda, Carmela; Haslinger, Florian; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    Addressing Ethics issues is nowadays a relevant challenge for any initiative, program or project dealing with scientific data and products provision, access to services for scientific purposes and communication with different stakeholders, including society. This is corroborated by the evidence that Ethics has very high priority in EU funded research. Indeed, all the activities carried out under Horizon 2020 must comply with ethical principles and national, Union and international legislation. This implies that "For all activities funded by the European Union, Ethics is an integral part of research from beginning to end, and ethical compliance is seen as pivotal to achieve real research excellence." Here, we present the experience of EPOS, a public pan-European research infrastructure. EPOS aims at integrating data, data products, services and software (DDSS) for solid Earth science generated and provided by monitoring networks, observing systems and facilities belonging to European countries. EPOS fosters the integrated use of multidisciplinary solid Earth data to improve the understanding of physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and surface dynamics. The EPOS integration plan will make significant contributions to understanding and mitigating geo-hazards, yielding data for hazard assessment, data products for engaging different stakeholders, and services for training, education and communication to society. Numerous national research infrastructures engaged in EPOS are deployed for the monitoring of areas prone to geo-hazards and for the surveillance of the national territory including areas used for exploiting geo-resources. The EPOS community is therefore already trained to provide services to public (civil defence agencies, local and national authorities) and private (petroleum industry, mining industry, geothermal companies, aviation security) stakeholders. Our ability to

  2. Teaching nanoscience across scientific and geographical borders A European Master programme in nanoscience and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, A.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.; Rep, D.; Rudquist, P.; Schwille, P.; Sluijter, B.; Wendin, G.

    2008-03-01

    Within the Erasmus Mundus Master (EMM) Programme, five European Universities (KU Leuven, Belgium, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Delft University of Technology and Leiden University, the Netherlands, and the University of Dresden, Germany) have joined forces to offer a unique master programme in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 'EMM-nano', at the cutting edge of state-of-the-art research. The students design and build their individual area of specialisation within nanophysics, nanotechnology, biophysics, biotechnology through their choice of trajectory between the partners. We discuss some of the challenges related to the crossdisciplinary nature of the field, educational activities in cleanrooms, and issues related to the integration of teaching programmes across the borders within Europe.

  3. Is dental amalgam safe for humans? The opinion of the scientific committee of the European Commission

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    It was claimed by the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR)) in a report to the EU-Commission that "....no risks of adverse systemic effects exist and the current use of dental amalgam does not pose a risk of systemic disease..." [1, available from: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scenihr/docs/scenihr_o_016.pdf]. SCENIHR disregarded the toxicology of mercury and did not include most important scientific studies in their review. But the real scientific data show that: (a) Dental amalgam is by far the main source of human total mercury body burden. This is proven by autopsy studies which found 2-12 times more mercury in body tissues of individuals with dental amalgam. Autopsy studies are the most valuable and most important studies for examining the amalgam-caused mercury body burden. (b) These autopsy studies have shown consistently that many individuals with amalgam have toxic levels of mercury in their brains or kidneys. (c) There is no correlation between mercury levels in blood or urine, and the levels in body tissues or the severity of clinical symptoms. SCENIHR only relied on levels in urine or blood. (d) The half-life of mercury in the brain can last from several years to decades, thus mercury accumulates over time of amalgam exposure in body tissues to toxic levels. However, SCENIHR state that the half-life of mercury in the body is only "20-90 days". (e) Mercury vapor is about ten times more toxic than lead on human neurons and with synergistic toxicity to other metals. (f) Most studies cited by SCENIHR which conclude that amalgam fillings are safe have severe methodical flaws. PMID:21232090

  4. Vaccinations in migrants and refugees: a challenge for European health systems. A systematic review of current scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Mipatrini, Daniele; Stefanelli, Paola; Severoni, Santino; Rezza, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    The decline of immunization rates in countries of origin of migrants and refugees, along with risky conditions during the journey to Europe, may threaten migrants' health. We performed a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to assess the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases, and vaccination coverage among migrants and refugees in Europe. To this end, Medline and Cochrane databases were considered. After the screening and the selection process, 58 papers were included in the review. We focused on the following vaccine-preventable diseases: hepatitis B, measles, rubella, mumps, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, diphtheria, meningitis, and varicella. The results were presented as a qualitative synthesis. In summary, several studies highlighted that migrants and refugees have lower immunization rates compared to European-born individuals. Firstly, this is due to low vaccination coverage in the country of origin. Then, several problems may limit migrants' access to vaccination in Europe: (i) migrants are used to move around the continent, and many vaccines require multiple doses at regular times; (ii) information on the immunization status of migrants is often lacking; (iii) hosting countries face severe economic crises; (iv) migrants often refuse registration with medical authorities for fear of legal consequences and (v) the lack of coordination among public health authorities of neighboring countries may determine either duplications or lack of vaccine administration. Possible strategies to overcome these problems include tailoring immunization services on the specific needs of the target population, developing strong communication campaigns, developing vaccination registers, and promoting collaboration among public health authorities of European Countries.

  5. Development status of the X-ray beam diagnostics devices for the commissioning and user operation of the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünert, Jan; Buck, Jens; Freund, Wolfgang; Ozkan, Cigdem; Molodtsov, Serguei

    2013-03-01

    X-ray Free-Electron-Lasers (XFEL) as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in the USA, SACLA in Japan, and the European XFEL under construction in Germany are 4th generation light sources which allow research of at the same time extremely small structures (Ångström resolution) and extremely fast phenomena (femtosecond resolution). Unlike the pulses from a conventional optical laser, the radiation in these sources is created by the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) process when electron bunches pass through very long segmented undulators. The shot noise at the origin of this process leads to significant pulse-to-pulse variations of pulse intensity, spectrum, wavefront, temporal properties etc. so that for user experiments an online monitoring of these properties is mandatory. Also, the adjustment of the long segmented undulators requires dedicated diagnostics such as an undulator commissioning spectrometer and spontaneous radiation analysis. The extremely high brilliance and resulting single-shot damage issue are difficult to handle for any XFEL diagnostics. Apart from the large energy range of operation of the facility from 280 eV to 25 keV in FEL fundamental, the particular challenge for the European XFEL diagnostics is the high intra bunch train photon pulse repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, potentially causing additional damage by high heat loads and making shot-to-shot diagnostics very demanding. This contribution reports on the facility concepts, recent progress in instrumentation development, and the optimization of diagnostics performance with respect to resolution/accuracy, shot-to-shot capabilities and energy range.

  6. A network approach for the scientific collaboration in the European Framework Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas, A.; Argyrakis, P.

    2008-12-01

    We construct the networks of collaboration between partners for projects carried out with the support of European Commission Framework Programs FP5 and FP6. We analyze in detail these networks, not only in terms of total number of projects, but also for the different tools employed, the different geographical partitions, and the different thematic areas. For all cases we find a scale-free behavior, as expected for such social networks, and also reported in the literature. In comparing FP5 to FP6, we show that, despite a decrease in the number of signed contracts, and the total number of unique partners, there is an increase in the average number of collaborative partners per institution. Furthermore, we establish a measure for the central role (hub) for each country, by using the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), which we construct in detail for each thematic area (e.g. Informatics, Nanoscience, Life Sciences, etc.). The importance of these network hubs is highlighted, as this information can be used by policy planners in designing future research plans regarding the distribution of available funds.

  7. European Training and Research in Peritoneal Dialysis--A Network to Deliver Scientific Peritoneal Dialysis Training to a New Generation of Researchers.

    PubMed

    Machowska, Anna; van Wier, Tanja; Aufricht, Christoph; Beelen, Rob; Rutherford, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) utilization varies across countries, and of the factors that explain the variation, the scientific and clinical knowledge of health care professionals is potentially important. In this paper, we describe a European collaboration--between 8 academic PD research programs, a small-to-medium-sized enterprise, and a large PD product manufacturer--that received significant research funding from the EU commission to establish a training network. European Training and Research in Peritoneal Dialysis (EuTRiPD) is providing training to 12 PhD students who have moved within the European Union and are completing research training. The underlying structure and processes within EuTRiPD (http://www.eutripd. eu) are described, and the benefits of the collaborative approach are discussed. This model could be useful to other research groups and will assist in maintaining and growing scientific expertise in PD research.

  8. Managing scientific, technical and regulatory innovation in regulated bioanalysis: a discussion paper from the European Bioanalysis Forum.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Philip; Henderson, Neil; Smeraglia, John; Mulder, Hans; Ingelse, Benno; Brudny-Kloeppel, Margarete; Companjen, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    On 12-13 June 2012, the European Bioanalysis Forum hosted its third Focus Meeting in Brussels (Belgium). At the meeting, a panel discussion was held on the hurdles that the bioanalytical community encounters when adopting new technologies or managing regulated bioanalysis expectations around emerging technologies. Over the last few years, the industry has seen many new technologies maturing. As they became available, the bioanalytical scientist has observed that implementing these technologies in the regulated environment has become increasingly challenging. For one, scientific developments and regulatory expectations may not go hand in hand. At the same time, the pharmaceutical industry has become increasingly risk averse in their response to these real or perceived higher expectations in regulated bioanalysis. As a downstream consequence, the potential result of overinterpretation of guidance or occasional widespread and premature implementation of responses to health authority inspections, industry may be contributing significantly to raising the bar on some processes related to day-to-day practices in the bioanalytical laboratory. Last but not least, with the community being satisfied with the performance of the current tools, potential complacency can be observed in the regulated bioanalytical community because existing technologies, such as LC-MS/MS and ligand-binding assays, have served and still are serving them extremely well. Hence, the question 'what's next after LC-MS/MS or ELISA?' is not resonating with many scientists as pertinently compared with 'What's next after RIA, GC or LC-UV?', which was the key question in the 1990s, certainly in the context of an increasing effort needed to validate these new tools. With this article, the European Bioanalysis Forum aims to stimulate an open dialogue between all stakeholders in regulated bioanalysis to positively influence how we balance science, process and regulations in day-to-day work. This discussion

  9. Tiered approach into practice: scientific validation for chromatography-based assays in early development - a recommendation from the European Bioanalysis Forum.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Philip; White, Stephen; Dougall, Stuart Mc; Kall, Morten A; Smeraglia, John; Fjording, Marianne Scheel; Knutsson, Magnus

    2015-09-10

    The principles of tiered approach have been part of the bioanalytical toolbox for some years. Nevertheless, an in spite of many valuable discussions in industry, they remain difficult to apply in a harmonized way for a broad array of studies in early drug development where these alternative approaches to regulated validation would make sense. The European Bioanalysis Forum has identified the need to proposes some practical workflows for five categories of studies for chromatography based assays where scientific validation will allow additional freedom while safeguarding scientific rigor and robust documentation: quantification of metabolites in plasma in relation to ICH M3(R2), urine analysis, tissue homogenate analysis, and preclinical and clinical studies in early stages of drug development. The recommendation would introduce a common language and harmonized best practice for these study categories and can help to refocus towards optimized scientific and resource investments for bioanalysis in early drug development.

  10. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  11. Some ethical aspects of xenotransplantation in light of the proposed European directive on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes.

    PubMed

    Jorqui-Azofra, M; Romeo-Casabona, C M

    2010-01-01

    Unlike what has happened in other times, society in general and especially the scientific community has become aware that animals share our sensitivity to pain and the capacity to suffer. In this regard, it is generally accepted that animals must be protected from all types of abuse. In fact, it is unavoidable today that animals used in scientific experiments enjoy the maximum degree of protection and well-being. This view is based on an ecocentric notion of living matter as opposed to the traditional anthropocentric approach because it has become evident that ethics should not be limited to those belonging to the same species. Likewise, there is a broad consensus-with the exception of members of certain animal protection groups-regarding the need to experiment with animals, when no alternative methods (AM) are available, given that the current state of scientific knowledge still does not allow for this type of experimentation to be entirely abolished. Nevertheless, we must keep in mind that not every scientific procedure in which animals are used is legitimate. On one side of the scale that symbolizes the legislation in this field, we find the weight of science and safety, and on the other side, the weight of ethics. In this article we have reviewed some of the main ethical criteria that serve as a basis to balance the scale, in other words, to guide and legalize animal experimentation in the field of xenotransplantation (XT). To that end, we take into account the current revisions made to the European Directive regarding the welfare of animals used in scientific procedures (86/609/EEC), in order to reflect, in turn, on the following issue: where is European institutional ethics headed on this issue?

  12. Do students with higher self-efficacy exhibit greater and more diverse scientific inquiry skills: An exploratory investigation in "River City", a multi-user virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    In this thesis, I conduct an exploratory study to investigate the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into authentic scientific activity and the scientific inquiry behaviors they employ while engaged in that process, over time. Scientific inquiry has been a major standard in most science education policy doctrines for the past two decades and is exemplified by activities such as making observations, formulating hypotheses, gathering and analyzing data, and forming conclusions from that data. The self-efficacy literature, however, indicates that self-efficacy levels affect perseverance and engagement. This study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. The study is conducted in a novel setting, using an innovative science curriculum delivered through an interactive computer technology that recorded each student's conversations, movements, and activities while behaving as a practicing scientist in a "virtual world" called River City. River City is a Multi-User Virtual Environment designed to engage students in a collaborative scientific inquiry-based learning experience. As a result, I was able to follow students' moment-by-moment choices of behavior while they were behaving as scientists. I collected data on students' total scientific inquiry behaviors over three visits to River City, as well as the number of sources from which they gathered their scientific data. I analyzed my longitudinal data on the 96 seventh-graders using individual growth modeling. I found that self-efficacy played a role in the number of data-gathering behaviors students engaged in initially, with high self-efficacy students engaging in more data gathering than students with low self-efficacy. However, the impact of student self-efficacy on rate of change in data gathering behavior differed by gender; by the end of the study, student self-efficacy did not impact data gathering. In addition, students' level of self-efficacy did not affect how many different

  13. Determinants of Information Behaviour and Information Literacy Related to Healthy Eating among Internet Users in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…

  14. User's Guide to OASIS, Oceanic and Atmospheric Scientific Information System. Key to Oceanic and Atmospheric Information Sources No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Washington, DC. Environmental Data Service.

    OASIS (Oceanic and Atmospheric Scientific Information System) is an information retrieval service that furnishes ready reference to the technical literature and research efforts concerning the environmental sciences and marine and coastal resources. It provides computerized searches of both NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)…

  15. Case histories in scientific and pseudo-scientific mass-media communication in energy/heat production from underground (geogas storage, geothermics, hydrocarbons), in the frame of Nimby Sindrome enhancement in Europe: the proposal of a new European Direct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of energy/heat production from underground, the paper considers some European case histories and the needs of a complex and motley stakeholders community, made by scientific-industry-institutions, involved in the difficult task to study and accept (or refuse) projects strongly impacting the lived territory & underground, in densely populate countries, as Italy, in terms of appropriate public communication and sound deontological behaviour. Successively, the paper recalls years of "scientific" communication within the mass-media, highlighting the positive and negative messages, in comparison to the true and objective experimental data gathered by the real scientific work, as perceived by citizens of medium scholastic culture, which not delve the geologic disciplines, but receive simply the journalistic front-end, very often as sensationalist scoop. The authors retrace case histories of heuristic-participatory communication with the citizenship about the scientific results on challenges raised by certain technologies. The objective and rational communication is often impeded by local interests and by local journalism, which prefers to create sensationalist news more than scientific truths. This path progressively tangles as a consequence of the complex and with conflicting use of underground to produce energy (heat as gas storage, geothermical, unconventional gas exploitation, mining, etc…). Even the chain of renewables meets by now serious issues, exacerbated also by the need to start mining and drilling for the smart grids materials too (metals, rare Earths, etc..). A new text for a smart and innovative European Directivity is discussed, starting from the Italian regulatory issue. The review efforts for a "paper" on both a newspaper or a blog could be more difficult than the review a scientific paper, as a consequence of the peculiar situations behind the scenes and the conflicts of interests staying in the nest in a newspaper article or in a blog

  16. [Scientific collaboration of the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy with prominent European scientists during the first decades of its existence].

    PubMed

    Brodel, E G; Ionescu, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This article details the scientific collaboration of the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy with prominent European scientists during the first decades of its existence. The intensity of the scientific contacts of the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy arise from detailed analysis of the correspondence that outlasts time in the state archive of Jassy. 75% of this correspondence was written in German, and most of it was sent from the German Confederate or the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. This influence and contribution of German science in Moldavian natural science development, was undoubtedly in the first half of the 19th century. This can be attributed to dr. Iacob Cihac, one of the founders of the Society, who was born in Aschaffenburg (Germany) and studied medicine in Heidelberg (Germany), before he moved to Moldavia. Based on the initiative of drs. Cihac and Zotta, and not least the financial support of a part of the Moldavian high class and the Moldavian government, the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy was founded in 1833. This became the first scientific society in the territory of modern Romania. Since the inception of the Moldavian Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy, it has pushed the boundaries of a simple scientific society. This society provides an encyclopedic framework of most of the scientific subjects of the 19th century (medicine, pharmacy, natural science, agronomy, paleontology and geology). It played a major role during the democratization of the Moldavian education system, for example by founding a medical school teaching in the Romanian language in Jassy. The society survived and continued to maintain scientific activities during all the political changes in Moldavia during the 19th century, particularly the revolution of 1848 and the unification process of Romania. The influence and activity of the society in Jassy has continued to make a significant contribution to science and education

  17. Three-dimensional dynamics of scientific balloon systems in response to sudden gust loadings. [including a computer program user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, D. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed of the three-dimensional dynamics of a high-altitude scientific research balloon system perturbed from its equilibrium configuration by an arbitrary gust loading. The platform is modelled as a system of four coupled pendula, and the equations of motion were developed in the Lagrangian formalism assuming a small-angle approximation. Three-dimensional pendulation, torsion, and precessional motion due to Coriolis forces are considered. Aerodynamic and viscous damping effects on the pendulatory and torsional motions are included. A general model of the gust field incident upon the balloon system was developed. The digital computer simulation program is described, and a guide to its use is given.

  18. Zero tolerances in food and animal feed -- are there any scientific alternatives? A European point of view on an international controversy.

    PubMed

    Heberer, Thomas; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Abraham, Klaus; Pzyrembel, Hildegard; Henning, Klaus Juergen; Schauzu, Marianna; Braeunig, Juliane; Goetz, Mario; Niemann, Lars; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Luch, Andreas; Appel, Bernd; Banasiak, Ursula; Böl, Gaby Fleur; Lampen, Alfonso; Wittkowski, Reiner; Hensel, Andreas

    2007-12-10

    A number of zero tolerance provisions are contained in both food and animal feed law, e.g. for chemical substances whose occurrence is not permitted or is directly prohibited in food or animal feed. In the European Union, bans of this kind were introduced to give consumers and animals the greatest possible protection from substances with a possible hazard potential within the intendment of the hazard prevention principles and current precautionary measures. This also applies to substances for which an acceptable daily intake cannot be derived and a maximum residue limit cannot, therefore, be established, e.g. due to missing or inadequate toxicological data. Zero tolerances are also under discussion as trade barriers because their use has triggered numerous legal disputes. This paper draws together the results of an evaluation of alternative risk assessment methods to be used for the risk assessment of substances to which currently only zero tolerances apply. It will demonstrate that, depending on the available toxicological data, a scientifically sound risk assessment may still be possible. In this context, the two concepts - margin of exposure and threshold of toxicological concern - are very promising approaches. Until the scientific and sociopolitical discussions have been completed, it is essential that the principle of zero tolerances be upheld, especially for those substances which may be genotoxic carcinogens. In microbiology, there is no legal room for manoeuvre with regard to food safety criteria established for reasons of consumer health protection on the basis of scientific assessments.

  19. Home care robot for socially supporting the elderly: focus group studies in three European countries to screen user attitudes and requirements.

    PubMed

    Zsiga, Katalin; Edelmayer, Georg; Rumeau, Pierre; Péter, Orsolya; Tóth, András; Fazekas, Gábor

    2013-12-01

    The growing number of elderly individuals presents new challenges for society. Many elderly individuals have physical or cognitive impairments and require support from caregivers. An attempt to overcome the limitations caused by the lack of human caregivers is the inclusion of assistive technology such as socially active robots. The Domeo-project of the Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme of the European Union aims to develop a new companion robotic system that would allow assistance to the elderly. The requirements and attitude of the potential users and caregivers have been assessed in Austria, France and Hungary. The robot functions were demonstrated to the participants. Three focus groups were formed: potential end users, older caregivers and younger caregivers. The discussions were recorded and processed according to six aspects: (i) acceptability and privacy, (ii) pertinence of services, (iii) possible obstacles, (iv) motivation level to use the proposed services, (v) organizational issues and (vi) recommendations. Minor differences were observed between the countries, but there were considerable differences regarding the age of the participants. The younger caregivers want to be assured of the safety of their client and to receive immediate notification in case of an emergency. As for the elderly, the most important aspect is to gain a companion and a physical helper. Many of the recommendations can be taken into consideration during robot development, but some of them are not realistic at present.

  20. Great Lakes Integrated Sciences + Assessments: Connecting Users and Generators of Scientific Information to Inform Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baule, W. J.; Briley, L.; Brown, D.; Gibbons, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes Integrated Sciences + Assessments (GLISA) is one of eleven NOAA Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISAs) and is a co-hosted by the University of Michigan and Michigan State University. The Great Lakes region falls between areas that are typically defined as the Midwest and Northeast in the United States and also includes portions of Ontario in Canada. This unique and complex region holds approximately 21% of global surface fresh water and is home to 23 million people on the United States side of the basin alone. GLISA functions as a bridge between climate science researchers and boundary organizations in the Great Lakes region, with the goals of contributing to the long-term sustainability of the region in face of a changing climate and to facilitate smart decision-making backed by sound scientific knowledge. Faculty and staff associated with GLISA implement physical and social science practices in daily operations, which includes but is not limited to: activating the boundary chain model to facilitate the transfer of knowledge through the community, integrating local and historical climate data into decision-making processes, addressing uncertainty and the downscaling of climate information, and implementing network analyses to find key access points to information networks across the Great Lakes region. GLISA also provides funding for projects related to climate and climate change adaptation in the Great Lakes region, as well as expertise to partner organizations through collaborations. Information from boundary organizations, stakeholders, and collaborators also flows back to GLISA to aid in the determination of the physical and social science needs of the region. Recent findings point to GLISA playing a crucial role in the scaling information across scales of government and ensuring that federal agencies and local stakeholders are able to learn from one another and share experiences and knowledge to continue building climate ready

  1. The European reference condition concept: A scientific and technical approach to identify minimally-impacted river ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Isabel; Gómez-Rodríguez, Carola; Wasson, Jean-Gabriel; Owen, Roger; van de Bund, Wouter; Kelly, Martyn; Bennett, Cathy; Birk, Sebastian; Buffagni, Andrea; Erba, Stefania; Mengin, Nicolas; Murray-Bligh, John; Ofenböeck, Gisela

    2012-03-15

    One objective of the European Union (EU)'s Water Framework Directive (WFD: Directive 2000/60/EC) is for all European surface waters to achieve 'good status' by 2015. In support of this objective, the EU has facilitated an intercalibration exercise to ensure harmonized definitions of the status of water bodies, reflecting the deviation of their properties (mainly biotic assemblages) from a minimally disturbed state, termed the "reference condition". One of the major challenges of the WFD has been to find common approaches for defining reference conditions and to define the level of anthropogenic intervention allowed in reference sites. In this paper we describe how river reference sites were selected in the Central-Baltic region of Europe. A list of pressure criteria was provided and 14 Member States (MSs) categorized each criterion according to the method (i.e. measured, field inspection, etc.) used for reference site screening. Additionally, reference land-use and water-chemistry thresholds were agreed among countries in order to base reference site selection on objective criteria. For land-use criteria, a reference threshold and a rejection threshold were established. Sites with all criteria below the reference threshold were considered to be reference sites; sites having most criteria below the reference threshold and only some parameters between the reference and rejection threshold were "possible reference sites". These sites were retained only after carefully checking the cumulative effects of the pressures using local expertise, and a posteriori water-chemistry evaluation was necessary. In general, the most widespread method for defining a reference site was the measurement of pressures, followed by field inspections and expert judgment. However, some major pressures (e.g. hydromorphological alteration) were evaluated in a number of different ways (e.g. measured, field inspection, expert judgment). Our meta-analyses reveal a need to reinforce standardization

  2. The Impact of Student Self-efficacy on Scientific Inquiry Skills: An Exploratory Investigation in River City, a Multi-user Virtual Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    2007-02-01

    This exploratory study investigated data-gathering behaviors exhibited by 100 seventh-grade students as they participated in a scientific inquiry-based curriculum project delivered by a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). This research examined the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into the authentic scientific activity and the longitudinal data-gathering behaviors they employed while engaged in that process. Three waves of student behavior data were gathered from a server-side database that recorded all student activity in the MUVE; these data were analyzed using individual growth modeling. The study found that self-efficacy correlated with the number of data-gathering behaviors in which students initially engaged, with high self-efficacy students engaging in more data gathering than students with low self-efficacy. Also, the impact of student self-efficacy on rate of change in data gathering behavior differed by gender. However, by the end of their time in the MUVE, initial student self-efficacy no longer correlated with data gathering behaviors. In addition, students' level of self-efficacy did not affect how many different sources from which they chose to gather data. These results suggest that embedding science inquiry curricula in novel platforms like a MUVE might act as a catalyst for change in students' self-efficacy and learning processes.

  3. Antibiotic therapy in the critically ill - expert opinion of the Intensive Care Medicine Scientific Subcommittee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Leone, Marc; Madách, Krisztina; Martin, Claude; Einav, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobial treatment is the cornerstone of infection treatment, and the selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment for critically ill patients is challenging. Clinicians working with critically ill patients usually feel a greater obligation towards their patient than towards maintenance of the delicate ecological balance of prevalent microbiological threats and their resistance patterns. Although antibiotic overtreatment is a frequent phenomenon, patient outcomes need not be compromised when antibiotic treatment is driven by informed decision-making.At the 2016 Euro Anaesthesia Conference (London, UK), the European Society of Anaesthesia Intensive Care Scientific Subcommittee convened an expert panel on antibiotic therapy. This article summarises the main conclusions of the panel, namely the principles of antibiotic therapy that all physicians working with critically ill patients must know.

  4. Antibiotic therapy in critically ill patients: expert opinion of the European Society of Anaesthesia Intensive Care Scientific Subcommittee: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Leone, Marc; Madách, Krisztina; Martin, Claude; Einav, Sharon

    2017-01-30

    Antimicrobial treatment is the cornerstone of infection treatment, and the selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment for critically ill patients is challenging. Clinicians working with critically ill patients usually feel a greater obligation towards their patient than towards maintenance of the delicate ecological balance of prevalent microbiological threats and their resistance patterns. Although antibiotic overtreatment is a frequent phenomenon, patient outcomes need not be compromised when antibiotic treatment is driven by informed decision-making.At the 2016 Euro Anaesthesia Conference (London, UK), the European Society of Anaesthesia Intensive Care Scientific Subcommittee convened an expert panel on antibiotic therapy. This article summarises the main conclusions of the panel, namely the principles of antibiotic therapy that all physicians working with critically ill patients must know.

  5. Modelling and Predicting eHealth Usage in Europe: A Multidimensional Approach From an Online Survey of 13,000 European Union Internet Users

    PubMed Central

    Soler-Ramos, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Background More advanced methods and models are needed to evaluate the participation of patients and citizens in the shared health care model that eHealth proposes. Objective The goal of our study was to design and evaluate a predictive multidimensional model of eHealth usage. Methods We used 2011 survey data from a sample of 13,000 European citizens aged 16–74 years who had used the Internet in the previous 3 months. We proposed and tested an eHealth usage composite indicator through 2-stage structural equation modelling with latent variables and measurement errors. Logistic regression (odds ratios, ORs) to model the predictors of eHealth usage was calculated using health status and sociodemographic independent variables. Results The dimensions with more explanatory power of eHealth usage were health Internet attitudes, information health Internet usage, empowerment of health Internet users, and the usefulness of health Internet usage. Some 52.39% (6811/13,000) of European Internet users’ eHealth usage was more intensive (greater than the mean). Users with long-term health problems or illnesses (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.29) or receiving long-term treatment (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03–1.20), having family members with long-term health problems or illnesses (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.34–1.55), or undertaking care activities for other people (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.40–1.77) had a high propensity toward intensive eHealth usage. Sociodemographic predictors showed that Internet users who were female (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14–1.31), aged 25–54 years (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.21), living in larger households (3 members: OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15–1.36; 5 members: OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.97–1.28; ≥6 members: OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10–1.57), had more children <16 years of age (1 child: OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.18–1.14; 2 children: OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94–1.17; 4 children: OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.88–2.08), and had more family members >65 years of age (1 member: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.18–1.50; ≥4 members

  6. Franklin: User Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  7. Relations between professional medical associations and healthcare industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.

  8. Relations between professional medical associations and the health-care industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.

  9. Relations between professional medical associations and the health-care industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a Policy Statement from the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    2012-03-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.

  10. European meteorological data: contribution to research, development, and policy support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biavetti, Irene; Karetsos, Sotiris; Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Panagos, Panos

    2014-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed Interpolated Meteorological Datasets available on a regular 25x25km grid both to the scientific community and the general public. Among others, the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets include daily maximum/minimum temperature, cumulated daily precipitation, evapotranspiration and wind speed. These datasets can be accessed through a web interface after a simple registration procedure. The Interpolated Meteorological Datasets also serve the Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) at European level. The temporal coverage of the datasets is more than 30 years and the spatial coverage includes EU Member States, neighboring European countries, and the Mediterranean countries. The meteorological data are highly relevant for the development, implementation and assessment of a number of European Union (EU) policy areas: agriculture, soil protection, environment, agriculture, food security, energy, climate change. An online user survey has been carried out in order to assess the impact of the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets on research developments. More than 70% of the users have used the meteorological datasets for research purposes and more than 50% of the users have used those sources as main input for their models. The usefulness of the data scored more than 70% and it is interesting to note that around 25% of the users have published their scientific outputs based on the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets. Finally, the user feedback focuses mostly on improving the data distribution process as well as the visibility of the web platform.

  11. Tracking and responding to a changing Arctic sea-ice cover: How ice users can help the scientific community design better observing systems (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, Hajo

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic sea-ice cover is undergoing a major transformation, with substantial reductions in summer ice extent reflecting changes in ice thickness, age, and circulation. These changes are impacting Arctic ecosystems and a range of human activities. Anticipating and responding to such impacts, exacerbated by increasing economic activity in parts of the Arctic, requires a foundation of environmental observations and model predictions. Recent increases in industrial activities such as shipping and resource development in parts of the Arctic have further highlighted the need for an integrated observing system. In the case of a changing sea-ice cover, how would one best design and optimize such a system? One of the challenges is to meet the information needs of the scientific community in furthering fundamental understanding of the Arctic system, as well as those of key stakeholders and society, helping them to prepare for and respond to Arctic change. This presentation focuses on how the concept of sea-ice system services, i.e., the uses and benefits (or harm) derived from sea ice, may help guide the implementation of an effective observing system. Principal service categories are (1) sea ice as climate regulator, marine hazard, and coastal buffer; (2) transportation and use of ice as a platform; (3) cultural services obtained from the "icescape"; and (4) support of food webs and biological diversity by sea ice. An analysis of the different ice services provided to different user groups can help prioritize different types of observations and determine optimal measurement strategies. Moreover, the focus on different uses of the ice cover may also help synthesize fundamental and applied research to help Arctic communities adapt in a changing environment. Alaska has experienced some of the most substantial changes in sea-ice conditions throughout the Arctic over the past three decades and is used to illustrate the concepts discussed above. Specifically, we have examined

  12. The European Medicines Agency review of eltrombopag (Revolade) for the treatment of adult chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura: summary of the scientific assessment of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Maria; Calvo, Gonzalo; Hudson, Ian; Feldschreiber, Peter; Brown, David; Lee, Ching Cheng; Lay, Geoffrey; Valeri, Anna; Abadie, Eric; Thomas, Angela; Pignatti, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    On 11th March 2010, the European Commission issued a marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union for Revolade for the treatment of adult chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura. Revolade is an orphan medicinal product indicated for splenectomized patients with immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura who are refractory to other treatments (e.g. corticosteroids, immunoglobulins) and as second-line treatment for non-splenectomized patients where surgery is contraindicated. The active substance of Revolade is eltrombopag (ATC code B02BX05). Eltrombopag increases platelet production through activation of the thrombopoietin receptor. The recommended oral dose is 50 mg once daily to achieve and maintain a platelet count of the 50×109/L or more necessary to reduce or prevent the risk of bleeding. The benefit of Revolade is a durable response in maintaining platelet levels. The most common side effects include headache, nausea, hepatobiliary toxicity, diarrhea, fatigue, paresthesia, constipation, rash, pruritus, cataract, arthralgia and myalgia. The decision to grant the marketing authorization was based on the favorable recommendation of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency. The objective of this paper is to describe the data submitted to the European Medicines Agency and to summarize the scientific review of the application. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information, including the summary of product characteristics, are available on the European Medicines Agency website (www.ema.europa.eu). PMID:21712542

  13. Electromagnetic fields: activities in the European Commission with a focus on research projects and the Scientific Committee of Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR).

    PubMed

    Meroni, Donata; Schreck, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    The article summarizes the main activities of the European Commission concerning electromagnetic fields. It explains also the regulatory context, with a special focus on past and current research projects funded by the European Union and the role of the SCENIHR in assessing risks related to EMF. Main conclusions of the SCENIHR opinion adopted in 2015 on EMF are reported.

  14. DOD USER-NEEDS STUDY, PHASE II -- FLOW OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION WITHIN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME II, A. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION, B. TECHNICAL APPENDICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOODMAN, ARNOLD F.; AND OTHERS

    IN PHASE II OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD) SURVEY TO FIND OUT HOW SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS IN GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES ACQUIRE INFORMATION, SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY WERE INTERVIEWED TO DETERMINE THEIR INFORMATION NEEDS AND THE FLOW OF INFORMATION INHERENT IN SATISFYING THESE…

  15. The new European Hubble archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Arevalo, Maria; Merin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The European Hubble Archive (hereafter eHST), hosted at ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre, has been released for public use in October 2015. The eHST is now fully integrated with the other ESA science archives to ensure long-term preservation of the Hubble data, consisting of more than 1 million observations from 10 different scientific instruments. The public HST data, the Hubble Legacy Archive, and the high-level science data products are now all available to scientists through a single, carefully designed and user friendly web interface. In this talk, I will show how the the eHST can help boost archival research, including how to search on sources in the field of view thanks to precise footprints projected onto the sky, how to obtain enhanced previews of imaging data and interactive spectral plots, and how to directly link observations with already published papers. To maximise the scientific exploitation of Hubble's data, the eHST offers connectivity to virtual observatory tools, easily integrates with the recently released Hubble Source Catalog, and is fully accessible through ESA's archives multi-mission interface.

  16. PREFACE: SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor: Devoted to the 75th anniversary of Yu M Ostanevich's birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordely, Valentin; Kuklin, Alexander; Balasoiu, Maria

    2012-03-01

    The Second International Workshop 'SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor', devoted to the 75th anniversary of the birth of Professor Yu M Ostanevich (1936-1992), an outstanding neutron physicist and the founder of small-angle neutron scattering (field, group, and instrument) at JINR FLNPh, was held on 27-30 May at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. The first Workshop was held in October 2006. Research groups from different neutron centers, universities and research institutes across Europe presented more than 35 oral and poster presentations describing scientific and methodological results. Most of them were obtained with the help of the YuMO instrument before the IBR-2 shutdown in 2006. For the last four years the IBR-2 reactor has been shut down for refurbishment. At the end of 2010 the physical launch of the IBR-2M reactor was finally realized. Nowadays the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique is applied to a wide range of scientific problems in condensed matter, soft condensed matter, biology and nanotechnology, and despite the fact that there are currently over 30 SANS instruments in operation worldwide at both reactor and spallation sources, the demand for beam-time is considerably higher than the time available. It must be remembered, however, that as the first SANS machine on a steady-state reactor was constructed at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, the first SANS instrument on a 'white' neutron pulsed beam was accomplished at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at the IBR-30 reactor, beamline N5. During the meeting Yu M Ostanevich's determinative and crucial contribution to the construction of spectrometers at the IBR-2 high-pulsed reactor was presented, as well as his contribution to the development of the time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle scattering technique, and a selection of other scientific areas. His leadership and outstanding scientific achievements in applications of the

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 22: Establishing a research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI): Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    The goal is the creation of a generally accepted, systematically developed and implemented, but user focused, research agenda for the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) and the Technical Information Panel (TIP) member countries. Information use seldom exists as an isolated incident. Information use usually takes place within organizational and interpersonal contexts. Therefore, it should not be studied in isolation, but rather in an holistic environment. Once implemented, this research agenda could be completed within 3 to 5 years. The results would be generalizable to AGARD member nations, would form the basis for the development of theory based practice, and would form a significant body of knowledge that can be used by AGARD information professionals for policy, practice, product, and systems development.

  18. Students' Knowledge of Nuclear Science and Its Connection with Civic Scientific Literacy in Two European Contexts: The Case of Newspaper Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Hartzavalos, Sotiris; Nakiboglu, Canan

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science has uses and applications that are relevant and crucial for world peace and sustainable development, so knowledge of its basic concepts and topics should constitute an integral part of civic scientific literacy. We have used two newspaper articles that deal with uses of nuclear science that are directly relevant to life, society,…

  19. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  20. Maternal obesity in Europe: where do we stand and how to move forward?: A scientific paper commissioned by the European Board and College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG).

    PubMed

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter; Van Assche, André; Mathieu, Chantal; Mahmood, Tahir; Dunne, Fidelma; Bogaerts, Annick

    2016-06-01

    Paralleling the global epidemic of obesity figures in the general population, the incidence of maternal obesity (BMI>30kg/m(2) at the start of pregnancy) has been rising over the last world. While most European countries do not systematically report obesity figures in their pregnant population, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2) the optimal gestational weight gain to advise and the lifestyle messages to deliver in order to achieve this, (3) the optimal strategy and timing of screening for gestational diabetes (GDM) and (4) the optimal timing and mode of delivery. These controversies are reviewed in this review, with the exception of screening for gestational diabetes that is discussed extensively elsewhere in this issue (Benhalima et al.). An agenda for research is proposed with the hope that it will catch the attention of policy-makers and funders and ultimately lead to the development of European-wide evidence-based guidelines for clinicians.

  1. The European Medicines Agency Review of Tegafur/Gimeracil/Oteracil (Teysuno™) for the Treatment of Advanced Gastric Cancer When Given in Combination with Cisplatin: Summary of the Scientific Assessment of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP)

    PubMed Central

    van Zwieten-Boot, Barbara; Calvo Rojas, Gonzalo; ter Hofstede, Hadewych; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocio; Camarero, Jorge; Abadie, Eric; Pignatti, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The product Teysuno™ (S-1) contains tegafur, a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and two modulators of 5-FU metabolism, gimeracil and oteracil. The main clinical study in this application was a randomized controlled study comparing S-1 plus cisplatin with 5-FU plus cisplatin. In this study, median overall survival times of 8.6 months and 7.9 months for S-1 plus cisplatin and 5-FU plus cisplatin, respectively, were observed (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.80–1.05). The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency concluded that S-1 in combination with cisplatin (75 mg/m2) was noninferior to 5-FU plus cisplatin (100 mg/m2) in patients with advanced gastric cancer and adopted a positive opinion recommending the marketing authorization for this product for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer when given in combination with cisplatin. The recommended dose of S-1 is 25 mg/m2 (expressed as tegafur content) twice a day, for 21 consecutive days followed by 7 days rest (one treatment cycle), in combination with 75 mg/m2 cisplatin i.v. administered on day 1. This treatment cycle is repeated every 4 weeks. The most common side effects reported in the pivotal study were anemia, neutropenia, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight decrease, anorexia, and fatigue. The objective of this paper is to summarize the scientific review of the application leading to approval in the EU. The full scientific assessment report and the summary of product characteristics are available on the European Medicines Agency website (http://www.ema.europa.eu). PMID:21963999

  2. Level 4 Global and European Chl-a Daily Analyses for End Users and Data Assimilation in the Frame of the Copernicus-Marine Environment Monitoring Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulquin, Bertrand; Gohin, Francis; Garnesson, Philippe; Demaria, Julien; Mangin, Antoine; Fanton d'Andon, Odile

    2016-08-01

    The level-4 daily chl-a products are a combination of a water typed merge of chl-a estimates and an optimal interpolation based on the kriging method with regional anisotropic models [1, 2]. The Level 4 products basically pro- vide a global continuous (cloud free) estimation of the surface chl-a concentration at 4 km resolution over the world and 1 km resolution over the Europe. The level-4 products gather MODIS, MERIS, SeaWiFS, VIIRS and OLCI daily observations from 1998 to now.The Level 4 product avoids end users to consider typical lack of data as observed during cloudy conditions and the historical multiplicity of available algorithms such as involved by case 1 (oligotrophic) and case 2 (turbid) water issues in ocean colour. [3, 4].A total product uncertainty, i.e. a combination of the interpolation and the estimation error, is provided for each daily product. The L4 products are freely distributed in the frame of the Copernicus - Marine environment monitoring service.

  3. Easily cracked: scientific instruments in states of disrepair.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Simon

    2011-12-01

    There has been much scholarly attention to definitions of the term "scientific instrument." Rather more mundane work by makers, curators, and users is devoted to instruments' maintenance and repair. A familiar argument holds that when a tool breaks, its character and recalcitrance become evident. Much can be gained from historical study of instruments' breakages, defects, and recuperation. Maintenance and repair technologies have been a vital aspect of relations between makers and other users. Their history illuminates systems of instruction, support, and abuse. These systems were, for example, evident in the development of astronomical instruments around 1800 within and beyond the European sphere. Episodes from that milieu are used to explore how instrument users sought autonomy, how instruments' mutable character was defined, and how judgments of instruments' failure or success were ever secured.

  4. Astrium spaceplane for scientific missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavagnac, Christophe; Gai, Frédéric; Gharib, Thierry; Mora, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Since years Novespace and Astrium are discussing mutual interest in cooperating together when considering Novespace well established capabilities and the ongoing development of the Astrium Spaceplane and its unique features. Indeed both companies are proposing service for non-public missions which require microgravity environment especially. It relies on assets of both parties: Novespace in operating 0-G aircraft platforms for the sake of the European scientific community for decades; Astrium and its Spaceplane currently in pre-development phase. Novespace and its Airbus A300 Zero-G exhibit a unique know-how in Europe for operating scientific payload on aeronautic platform(s). Moreover Astrium is preparing the development of a safe and passenger friendly Spaceplane, taking off and landing from a standard airport runway powered by turbofans and using a rocket engine of proven design to reach 100 km altitude. The paper details the joint service offered and the added value of the partnership of Novespace and Astrium for various end-users. In addition longer duration of on-board microgravity periods and ultra high altitude features of the Astrium Spaceplane mission expand the scope of possible non-public applications which includes e.g.: Earth system science and probing of uncharted layers of Earth atmosphere on a regular basis and in various locations worldwide; Spaceflight crew training.

  5. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  6. User Modeling in Adaptive Hypermedia Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Antonio Constantino; Faria, Luiz; Vaz de Carvalho, Carlos; Carrapatoso, Eurico

    2008-01-01

    This document is a survey in the research area of User Modeling (UM) for the specific field of Adaptive Learning. The aims of this document are: To define what it is a User Model; To present existing and well known User Models; To analyze the existent standards related with UM; To compare existing systems. In the scientific area of User Modeling…

  7. Science in bullet points: How to compile scientific results to underpin guidelines for CO2 storage for the German transposition of the European CCS Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streibel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In 2012 the German Parliament passed the transposition of the EC Directive 2009/31/EC the "Carbon Dioxide Storage Law" (KSpG). The law focuses on the demonstration of the CO2 storage technology and mainly regulates the storage part of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) chain. As the law has a conceptual character, appendix 1 provides a description of criteria for the characterisation and assessment of a potential CO2 storage site starting with field data ending with requirements for dynamic modelling of the storage complex. Appendix 2 describes the expected monitoring system during all relevant phases of a life cycle of a CO2 storage site. The criteria given in the appendices are of general nature, which reflects on one hand that the CO2 storage technology is still being developed and on the other hand that site specific aspects needs to be considered. In 2004 the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany launched the programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN with one key aspect being the development of technologies for a sustainable storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations. Within this research field more than 30 projects in three phases have been funded until the end of 2014. In order to benefit from the gathered knowledge and use the experiences for the policy/law making process the umbrella project AUGE has been launched in October 2012 with a life time of three years. The aim of the project is to review and compile all results of projects funded during the three phases to underpin the appendices of the KSpG. In the first part of the paper the most important findings of the project with regard to the overall risk of a geological CO2 storage and the procedure of compiling the guidance document will be discussed. Milestones of this project were • the compilation of the results of national, European and international projects; • interviews with stakeholders; • a workshops to define state of the art for certain involved technologies and existing gaps

  8. European Crew Personal Active Dosimeter (EuCPAD), a novel dosimetry system utilizing operational and scientific synergies for the benefit of humans in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas

    A significant expansion of Human presence in space can be recognized over the last decade. Not only the frequency of human space mission did rise, but also time in space, mission duration with extended flights lasting half a year or more are becoming "standard". Despite the challenges to human health and well-being are still significant, or may even increase with mission length and work density. Also radiation exposure in space remains one of the inevitable and dominating factors relevant to crew- health, -safety and therefore mission success. The radiation environment that the space crews are exposed to differs significantly as compared to earth. Exposure in flight exceed doses that are usually received by terrestrial radiation workers on ground. Expanding "medical" demands are not a solely characteristics of current and current and upcoming mission scenarios. Likewise the margins for what is understood as "efficient utilization" for the fully operational science platform ISS, are immense. Understanding, accepting and approaching these challenges ESA-HSO did choose a particular pass of implementation for one of their current developments. Exploiting synergies of research, science and medical operational aspects, the "European Crew Personal Active Dosimeter for Astronauts (EuCPAD)" development exactly addresses these circumstances. It becomes novel part of ESA Radiation Protection Initiative for astronauts. The EuCPAD project aims at the development and manufacturing of an active (powered) dosimeter system to measure astronaut's exposures, support risk assessment dose management by providing a differentiated data set. Final goal is the verification of the system capabilities for medical monitoring at highest standards. The EuCPAD consists of several small portable Personal Active Dosimeters (MU = Mobile Unitas) and a rack mounted docking station “Personal Storage Device (PSD)” for MU storage, data read out and telemetry. The PSD furthermore contains a Tissue

  9. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Engdahl, Marcus; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Arino, Olivier; Bojkov, Bojan; Ferran, Gaston; Donlon, Craig; Kern, Michael; Scipal, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The prime objective of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 20 years. It aims to further strengthen the international leadership of European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit observations from future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address many new avenues of scientific research that will be opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 covering Sentinel 1 (FRINGE /SEASAR ), Sentinel 2 ( S2 symposium), Sentinel 3 (COAST-ALT workshop , 20 Years Progress in Radar Altimetry, Sentinel 3 OLCI/SLSTR 2012 workshop) and Sentinel 4-5 (Atmospheric Science Confrence). The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the work plan 2013 for the SEOM element. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing, validating and maintaining open-source, multi-mission, scientific software toolboxes capable to handle the Sentinels data products 2. Stimulating the development and validation of advanced EO methods and observation strategies in particular the new TOpS mode on Sentinel 1, the new band settings on Sentinel 2, the new geometry/bands of Sentinel 3 OLCI ,SLSTR intruments and the advanced delay-doppler (SAR) altimeter exploitation. 3. Continuing to federate, support and expand the multi-disciplinary expert EO research communities by organizing thematic workshops and ensuring high-quality scientific publications linked to these research domains. Promoting widespread scientific use of data. 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinel s data

  10. EREP users handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Revised Skylab spacecraft, experiments, and mission planning information is presented for the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) users. The major hardware elements and the medical, scientific, engineering, technology and earth resources experiments are described. Ground truth measurements and EREP data handling procedures are discussed. The mission profile, flight planning, crew activities, and aircraft support are also outlined.

  11. Toxic element mobility assessment and modeling for regional geo-scientific survey to support Risk Assessment in a European Union context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdaal, Ahmed; Jordan, Gyozo; Bartha, Andras; Fugedi, Ubul

    2013-04-01

    The Mine Waste Directive 2006/21/EC requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe. The geochemical documentation concerning inert classification and ranking of the mine wastes requires detailed field study and laboratory testing and analyses of waste material to assess the Acid Mine Drainage potential and toxic element mobility. The procedure applied in this study used a multi-level decision support scheme including: 1) expert judgment, 2) data review, 3) representative field sampling and laboratory analysis of formations listed in the Inert Mining Waste List, and 4) requesting available laboratory analysis data from selected operating mines. Based on expert judgment, the listed formations were classified into three categories. A: inert B: probably inert, but has to be checked, C: probably not inert, has to be examined. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination risk assessment (RA) in leached quarry-mine waste sites in Hungary. In total 34 mine waste sites (including tailing lagoons and heaps of both abandoned mines and active quarries) have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection Protocol. Over 93 field samples have been collected from the mine sites including Ore (Andesite and Ryolite), Coal (Lignite, black and brown coals), Peat, Alginite, Bauxite, Clay and Limestone. Laboratory analyses of the total toxic element content (aqua regia extraction), the mobile toxic element content (deionized water leaching) and the analysis of different forms of sulfur (sulfuric acid potential) ) on the base of Hungarian GKM Decree No. 14/2008. (IV. 3) concerning mining waste management. A detailed geochemical study together with spatial analysis and GIS has been performed to derive a geochemically sound contamination RA of the mine waste sites. Key parameters such as heavy metal and sulphur content, in addition to the distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, or to sensitive receptors such as settlements and

  12. Adding value to figures: a web-based European public health information system.

    PubMed

    van der Wilk, Eveline A; Verschuuren, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 a prototype, web-based system was launched which provided information for different user groups interested in European public health topics. The EUPHIX system contained scientifically sound data, with presentations as well as textual information. The information was structured according to the European Community Health Indicators (ECHI) shortlist. The information included different types of data presentations (tables, interactive graphs and maps), explanatory texts and overviews of the data sources and the literature used. The content was produced by a network of European experts according to a structured, peer-reviewed editorial process. Thus EUPHIX provided an easily accessible, comprehensive, state-of-the-art information source. To ensure that it will continue, financial support will be needed. Co-ownership by the European Commission and the Member States seems an appropriate solution.

  13. SOAP-based services provided by the European Bioinformatics Institute

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, S.; Silventoinen, V.; Kallio, K.; Senger, M.; Sobhany, S.; Tate, J.; Velankar, S.; Golovin, A.; Henrick, K.; Rice, P.; Stoehr, P.; Lopez, R.

    2005-01-01

    SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) () based Web Services technology () has gained much attention as an open standard enabling interoperability among applications across heterogeneous architectures and different networks. The European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) is using this technology to provide robust data retrieval and data analysis mechanisms to the scientific community and to enhance utilization of the biological resources it already provides [N. Harte, V. Silventoinen, E. Quevillon, S. Robinson, K. Kallio, X. Fustero, P. Patel, P. Jokinen and R. Lopez (2004) Nucleic Acids Res., 32, 3–9]. These services are available free to all users from . PMID:15980463

  14. Program Supports Scientific Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Stephan

    1994-01-01

    Primary purpose of General Visualization System (GVS) computer program is to support scientific visualization of data generated by panel-method computer program PMARC_12 (inventory number ARC-13362) on Silicon Graphics Iris workstation. Enables user to view PMARC geometries and wakes as wire frames or as light shaded objects. GVS is written in C language.

  15. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  16. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    patients with other causes of pain. trial fluorosis also occurs but it is Scintigraphy has proved very useful in never as severe as the endemic variety...and radiologic appbarance of the intake of water increase the se- a number of different tumors. The point verity of the fluorosis . The flouri- was...world. Fluorosis is the biochemical geophysicist. replacement of CaCO. with CaF,. Indus- 90 ESN 34-2 From 4 to 6 students at the Uni- Institute, is the

  17. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 8,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-31

    opened (January 1980) UK office There must of course be acceptable of IMPI under the management of Mr. underlying principles. These are still Percy Giles...terminals for both family requirements. Only after that instructional use and for some course trial period is the full tuition pay- management , e.g...by covering elements with a a sphere, randomly populated by 39 loop sheet of metal. .lement radiation radiators, and represents an extreme patterns of

  18. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 12,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    facilities worldwide, Serological identification of are inexpensive, easily transported, and Campylobacetera is complicated by the do not have to be sterile...were presented to distinguish it from ulcerative colitis, in poster sessions followed by discussion proctitis , and inflammatory bowel disease, sessions...workers in Switzerland, ning radiation at 300 Miz. The system who used less modern equipment. The wa designed to provide points at a rate combined

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-31

    For NTISGPa DTIC TAB Distribution/ t i t Y Codes Avail and/0 Dist Special fP I. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OP THIS PAGS(Who. Doto Eam0...distribution of acoustic testing paint adhesion are constantly being events during a tensile test was deconvoluted sought and assessed. One promising...solid. optical phenomena worthy of mention; two fields The signal, at approximately 450 kHz, has been in particular, photoacoustic spectroscopy and

  20. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 11.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    spatial Matrices or the Cattell Culture Fair stimuli, presented so that separate 4 Intelligence Test ). The routine size of scores could be obtained for...5/2 NL mmmmmmmommm E~lllllllEEllI EhIEEEEE -r% 1- *:-I ,AL -,I:. IImi1 : IIIL1111-1 11W 1111I5 U11 1. II1125 . 6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART...competition and punish- and now in Britain. The rationale and ment in school as fair . data analyses are described in detail by Kozeki and Entwistle

  1. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 6.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    Force and Israel Aircraft Industries, voltaic applications of photoelectrochem- the state-owned aircraft company, the ical cells are now nominally at...for his arsenide photoelectrochemical cells via selection of them for comment, surface modification techniques. It has The first cited paper, presented...the diagnosis is For the first part, three parallel devel- globally validated by the cooperation opment teams are involved in a 5-year among the

  2. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    a resistivity greater than 106 p-cm execution will be included in all and consequently of little use as programs. deposited. To become useful, -the...backscattering for production. The process begins with data correlated with contact resistivity the electrophoresis of CdS on glass or measurements, they...impurity dopants obtain specific contact resistivities of affecting the mechanical properties of 8.1 x 10- 6 0-cm2 . materials. For example, p-type

  3. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Hall - meeting. The conferences have reflected resistivity P exhibits quantized *’ the continuing progress in two-dimen- lateaus in xy sioalsysem. or...doping, in Hall resistance assumes its quantized combination with molecular beam epitaxy values p = h/ne2, (n = 1, 2, 3,...) (MBE), has permitted...generation of xy two-dimensional electron systems at the the diagonal resistivity pxx goes to junction between two III-V semiconductor zero as the

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 7,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-31

    wafers (0.0S jim), achieves an accuracy of covered with photo- resist ), mask making, registration (from one exposure to and reticle fabrication, next) of...of a low throughput, speciality application, relatively robust resist . At present, (3) Making medium-geometry devices the very sensitive resists are... resists data to the first wafer (sometimes the have to be used for direct writing. only wafer). An example is customiza- As a result, the writing

  5. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-30

    the " cashless society ." This one is Furthermore, both cows and the farmers a little different from all the others. who own them are conse.vative, and...science to the practical needs of society Faraday Research Laboratory (the inde- through research and experimentation. pendent research laboratory at the...both groups is given ment. It depends on the subscriptions below. of its members (membership in the Society Most of the research in Porter’s is open

  6. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 6,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    Pearson texts are applied in a program designed to detect diversion of sensitive material in a nuclear plant. D.R. Barr 131 A.4 ESN 36-6 (1982...processing of divers who differed in experi- To start a data -taking session, ECG elec- ence. The major hypothesis was that more trodes (left-right chest...target counter). had frogman training). The test site was at an Analysis of heart-rate data emphasized the ocean training center with a flat sandy

  7. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35. Number 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-31

    resident est ocean cleft known with the lowest staff are carrying out mariculture research width to depth ratio, 11:1. Its massive (see ESN1 34-12:S60...descriptions. (Wayne pond-reared fish through research in the V. Burt mariculture laboratory. Paperna and his associates are now looking into the pos

  8. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-31

    OF TIS PAG9 (OWN -WO 9010" . - erospace Research and Development and the United States Army Research and Standardization Group . Articles are also...solid-state physics group . J. R. Neighbours 117 PM & NOTES News 117 ONR Cosponsored Conferences 120 ONRL Visiting Scientist Program 120A ’. ESN 36-5...one imag - ines, gigantic data banks available, and the (1) Commitment at executive level material in them could be converted into ac- to systematize

  9. European Scientific Notes. Volume 33, Number 9,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-30

    ai (CU hUnL-Ri lights . TO the left Mf the left scat A.nd to the right of the right sear Are large sets of’ but tons tor controlling. these displays...they have k’..’covered display formats and haratter fonts’ it. This research may be dtvoted to How, should night lighting be arranged’ engineering...questions---how should lights Where should the CRTs be located and and/or sounds for warning purposes be how large should they be’ What infor- deigned"-tr

  10. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-31

    included £1.5 million (S3.S million) it seems lithium / thionyl chloride and lithium /sul- likely that more studies, especially fur dioxide batteries, sea... lithium thionyl chloride systems, the cell conductivity. The cell perform- was still the major concern. ance remains essentially unchanged, Lithium ...button-type batteries the chemistry and products produced during annually for use in calculators, etc., the discharge of lithium - thionyl chloride and

  11. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Biology large and small eddies, and upwelling. The 15 MIZEX biologists will meas- These range in size from tens of meters ure phytoplankton biomass... phytoplankton to kilometers; and to complicate the species, nutrients, zooplankton biomass picture, the MIZ corresponds with a per- and diversity, and...utility networks, and wind-transported pollutants, particular- similar systems ly those causing acidification of pre- " Navigating and positioning

  12. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 9

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-30

    3) nitrodiene polymers, (4) nitro materials for low weapon vulnerability. The and diazide oxetanes, and (5) glycidylazide subject embraces technical...up to 5 cal/cm 2 sec) in a nitro - Bonded High Explosives Based on HTPB."The gen atmosphere. Three different subatmos- work illustrated the effect of...such as nitrate and nitro chemistry group in the MoD, it provides general groups, in order to be able to reduce the synthesis expertise to other

  13. European Scientific Notes Number 8-3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1954-02-01

    12.0 and 13.5. A scme~:hc t mor e deta Iled account of this dis— cuss~ 0n is given ~n ~ecnn~ca1 ~aport ~.~u..—14Z—53. IONIC E~~d :L1S~~IA IN FIJ22S...inch active i~ nOth and is filled w i t h f our • ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ of c~’gon and 6 cm of CH~ . It is operated at • • 5000 volts cad is surrounded by a...double b ank of long • - C o i ;~~r coun ter s arrangad in anticoincidence wi th it. S C 1~S~~t iVC ~rec available for a samole is 1ZOO c~~. ~hea su

  14. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-31

    observing optical activity in such aspects. Lund has long had a tradition ring systems when suitable substituents of research in thermochemistry by Sunner are...now been reduced formation and chemical reactivity of to 20 (from an initial 30) and the very electrogenerated radical anions. fine teaching ...whom most are neering and Theoretical Electrical En- students), five lecturers teaching ginering. courses in his area, and half a dozen Prof. Riedler

  15. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 7,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-31

    with a trans- energy due to the variation of velocity mitter on one side and a receiver on of propagation with depth. Caustics the other. Rather than...lack of knowledge of the velocity of Mathematical Science. I had heard of propagation . Raz pointed out that of his work from Dr. Thomas apRhys at...scattering occurred, due to inhomoge- NRI.. Blank also comes from the [IS, neities in the velocity of propagation where he obtained both an MIAE and an and

  16. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 7.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-31

    support materials might be even a manual foot pump device for provided until the DSRV rescue activ- driving air through the absorbing ities can begin...conversion yield of exothermic reactions. Urea levels can 95%. The photo-induced crosslink system be determined by the analysis of the uses polyethylene ... glycol with isophorone heat given off by immobilized urease as isocyanate bridges. The same crosslink it encounters the substrate. Antigen system can

  17. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-28

    NaNO , ranges from -150 to In the area of nhotooxidation, Davidson -300 mV versus SCE depending somewhat and his co-worker, Dean Goodwin, have on the...biochemistry, in Italy left me impressed with the amount cystology); (2) Institute for Water, and quality of the work. There may be Soil , and Air Health...environmental studies (natural and man- times. The region was conquered by the made radioactivity in air, soil and Romans in 15 BC, but it was not until

  18. European Scientific Notes. Volume 30, Number 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Laser Development at SERL; The Rosenhain Centenary Conference on Physical Metallurgy. Surface Layer Analysis by Means of Ion Beams; Atmospheric Sounding the French Way; Meteorology in France; Ocean Engineering -- Dutch Plumbing in the North Sea; Acoustics Research in Germany; and Electron Spectroscopy of Solid

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-31

    Planck-Institut fdr Kohlen- thermal decomposition of high- energy forschung in M0lheim was founded in 1912. peroxides, 1,2-dioxetanes. The product The...on acoustic microscopy using tity production cost of $700/ module . frequencies from a few MHz to the GHz The overall engineering will be at ASWE...Nome and Fairbanks, Alaska, (Wayne V. Burt) it grows a surplus of meat and dairy products and further development of agriculture is discouraged. Bananas

  20. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 10,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-31

    Spectroscopy in Solids, A Discussion Meeting of the Royal Society A.N. Garroway 496 Some Solid State Physics in Birmingham J.R. Neighbours ’ ~ INEWS AND NOTES... Garroway (NRL, Washington, about June 1981 in the Proceedings of DC) suggested that presently achieved the Royal Society (London). This written...solid- tnributions of isotropic chemical shifts state NMR. (A.N. Garroway , Chemistry within the specimen, and no improvement Division, Naval Research

  1. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Numbers 12.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Geology of Tidal Rivers ................................ Robert Dolan 450 The Regional Conference of the UK Geological Society’s Engineering Group...Hamburg during August. This article highlights some of the papers dealing with oceano- graphy, geology , and geophysics. ENERGY Egypt’s Energy Crisis...mass. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY OF TIDAL RIVERS 2. The Alvey report is a compro- mise of focus. It mandates a dispersion by Robert Dolan. Dr. Dolan iB the of

  2. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 8.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    429 Professor J.M. Imbrie, speaking at a meeting of the British Geologi - cal Society, presented a framework for investigations of Pleistocene climates... Mesozoic climates to mathematical model- finite-elements techniques. This mesh ing. I was able to attend four of the . can be improved by adding new...for Geology and the internal processes which control the Oceanography in Europe and the Middle response to this forcing (and which also East for the

  3. European Scientific Notes. Volume 39, Number 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    at millimeter-wave frequencies states--X, Y, and Z. These substates between 40 and 100 GHz (Webb, 1969; differ in energy, if the molecular sym...aerodynam- ONR, London, report R-11-84 ics, meteorology, and molecular science, examines developments in the program -0 Preliminary results, as reported by...per la Corrosione Marina dei results have been obtained with an epoxy Metalli Reparto di Biologia Marina, Con- base paint containing 30 percent ZnO

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38. Number 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    software Dipartimento di Informatica e engineering, knowledge engineering, " 9 Sistemistica, Via Eudossiana 18, artificial intelligence , and pattern 00184...graph- support software development and the ics, and patterns, and for artificial architecture of the machines. The intelligence --including inference...Application programs using Figure 4. Hardware configuration of sophisticated techniques cf artificial PSI. intelligence will f nable natural lan

  5. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 6.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    extension research on problem solvi ng, adult of physical and biological science, intelligence , and individual differ- Piaget’s stupendous...s a LI Pies and for construc inJ, pxplairi- Expert systems are a major concern ins, nr applying solj’tions. of the research on artificial inteli...microprogram for each Berlin. It is marketed by International function in the control store to gener- Robomation/ Intelligence , Carlsbad, CA, ate the appropriate

  6. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 6,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-30

    Greenfield Radiological Science & Medical Physics CDR J.A. Holt Undersea Systems Dr. R.S. Hughes Laser Physics Dr. I. Kaufman Electronic Engineering Dr. R.E...CHENUSTRY However, considering the sensitivity of neodymium YAG lasers to dust and lint AWRE--AN EXCITING VISIT particles, one can understand the care...that must be undertaken befeve entering A 30-minute train ride from cen- the area. The laser facilities are tral London, followed by a 30-minute

  7. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 8.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-31

    useful. The films are metallized on one refractive indices on exposure can also side with aluminum or nickel before be exploited. Cheap solid-state lasers ...developed techniques Dr. R. Kellner (Crossfields Elec- for the continuous production of poled tronics Co., London) reviewed the laser piezoelectric...discharge applied outside with a ablation of polymers using a high-power- grounding wire inside the tubing. Wall ed, carbon dioxide infrared laser

  8. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-30

    Systems CDR M.G. Surdyk Command, Control and CommunicationsMr. M.N. Yoder Electronics ESV 37-4 (1983) I Immediate hard-copy scores fromBSOCIENCEA...The facility had long been an industrial obvious convenience of the system leader in electronic image devices, it probably means that such stations...complexes Sciences et Techniques du Laiguedoc of a number of transition metals. [USTLI, Montpellier) described some electron spin resonance (ESR

  9. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 10,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-31

    It also contains recommendations about future areas of research. C-11-81 Ninth International Conference on Sarcoidosis , by John C. Rose In this report...on the most recent international conference on sarcoidosis , the author discusses the current status of sarcoidosis research and the latest

  10. European Scientific Notes, Volume 37, Number 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-31

    Institute of Physics.) Hirsch will deliver the paper "Effect of Doping on Mechanical Properties, Recrystallization and Diffusion in Semiconductors ...Conference on Higher Performance Electronic Devices M.N. Yoder The 16th Biennial Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors reported findings pertinent to...MATERIAL SCIENCES Metallurgy and Materials at Oxford R.W. Armstrong Metal deformation properties, electron microscopy and semiconductor

  11. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 9.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-30

    polyphos- characteristics. Scanning electron phates. By forcing the crosslinked microscopy has yielded valuable informa- cell-polyelectrolyte mixtures...fracture mechan- ities at ETH-Zurich and alloy processing ics testing of crack growth (Dattwil), 363 i~w ESN 37-9 (1983) electron beam welding of...the system is shallow water. A faired tow cable is quite simple. A collimated sound beam used. Normally the body is towed at a is incident on a flat

  12. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-28

    an electron beam lithography system phosphide (InP) substrates. The pro- to define transducer arrays of 0.4- to cedure will eliminate the tedious and...nucleated on .. electron x-ray auger Fourier spectros- the surface will predominate, and the copy (SEXAFS) technique; an x-ray beam deposition rate is the...10 W of light in a number projection screen in a manner similar to of green and blue lines at the rated the electron beam sweep in a CRT. 14-kW

  13. European Scientific Notes, Volume 38, Number 9.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    France dealt with fractals--geometric structures which possess no characteristic size, but instead have features on many scales . Recent research...disclosure, and a number widespread among soldiers in the heat of of other factors. State-rating scales battle, and it can be made worse by poor...administered during time of danger or communications and loneliness ; after the its anticipation may be responded to Battle of Gettysburg, and in many later

  14. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 10,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-31

    secondary electron emission , a 7.7-Tesla superconducting magnet, UV illumination, and a fast-atom ion sputter source in the form of a photoelectron spectro...check the explained the organization. The laboratory has effect of impact sounds. Another large room is about 68 scientists (chercheurs), about 62 set up...signal. The effect of :1 turbulence can be reduced by 9 dB with an As computing systems have become array of eight microphones. As good control of

  15. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    are being exposed in San Jose (California), Saudi Arabia, and Durham, ___ and surface changes are being monitored ELECTRONICS using XPS. He hopes to...cells are indistinct. Dr. Luis -M. on the microstructure of foamed Cruz-Orive, from Weibel’s group, spoke rubber. Changes in the structure of on the...34 one thousand. I spoke with the Direc- At first I looked blank, but then tor, Julio Ferry Borges , the Chief of realized he meant "pipes." (Wayne V

  16. European Scientific Notes, Volume 36, Number 12,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-31

    relatively simple labora- fingers must press down large pads that are tory media . The organism’s growth conditions linked to several feet of clanking brass...predictor of y is then -THRIVING BRITISH MAKET IN AEROSPACE y = + x.TheS quadratic loss function also British government statistics transforms to released in...90% of the heavy metals from industrial On 11 November 1982, a meeting sponsored wastes. And although silver is normally highly by the Social

  17. European Scientific Notes. Volume 39, Number 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    currently considering application of a lands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Japan, rudder-roll stabilization autopilot to a and Spain. Sixty unclassified...an adaptive autopilot . These parame- ger is the Liaison Scientist for Materi- ters are equally important for assessing als Science in Europe and the...Middle the performance of an autopilot with East for the Office of Naval Research’s respect to fuel economy, because the London Branch Office. He is on

  18. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 8,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-31

    over 123 ft long. diesel engines, thie ship has a cruising speed The Jean Charcot (246 ft), Le Noroit (167 ft), of 12 knots. and Le Suroit (186 ft) are...ministry’s’ vessels, construction (see ESN 36-4:79 119821). These Include the 121-ft Martin Knudsen, which * the ministry charters from a West German ITALY... Jean -Pierre difficult that may be to achieve. MIT is a Chevenement expects this shot-in-the-arm "will private institution with substantial endowment

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-31

    by time-consuming calorimetric multimode to single mode splitter- means. couplers. The photonics group is also working on solar cells using the... models in which "quick games" supplement higher resolution games at all levels of the hierarchy. * Thames Barrier Becomes Operational...qualitatively different from the older "playback" or walkthrough of the events analog models , in which a physical model preceding a famous ship

  20. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 11.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-30

    language, and linguistics with a Matignon. M. Jean -Jacques Servan-Schrieber pilot project in Marseilles, France. Third, was appointed chief executive...at forefront of the tiscipline at the Univ. of MIT under the direction of Professor Seymour Geneva, where Piaget did his fundamental Papert. The

  1. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-28

    with agina pectoris due to effort and psychologic adaptation. J.P.M. Diederiks (The found that diltiazem increased exercise capacity Netherlands...plotted, and followed for 24 work load before the onset of angina than did months. With an excess of psychologic and patients on beta-adrenergic

  2. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 9,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    placed on a fish or crustacean . The whole discussed "New Results in the Field of unit is about the size of a pint thermos Organic Photochemistry." (It...are eaten by small crusta- 20 or more years to reverse the process. ceans which are eaten by larger crustaceans The project is concerned with con...possibility lar movements that have developed in other of obtaining gas from Algeria or Tunisia parts of the world, particularly in the through a pipeline which

  3. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 12,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    St. Mark’s Annaba, in eastern Algeria , helping to Square during the morning and late after- develop greater automation and better con- noon. It...15. systematics and morphology of fresh-watei With reference to Table 2 Great Bri- copepods (small crustaceans that are tain has the smallest

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 33, Number 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-31

    of storage tests as well reserve batteries such as Pb/PbO 2 with as fundamental studies of passivation fluoboric acid electrolyte, lithium , phenomena...the lithium anode has lance, or are simply being stored until prompted RARDE to carry out comparative the opportune time for examination, abuse...ing in accordance with a UK Standard. AgCl 3-V batteries. The simple conclu- Various lithium cells have been studied, sion after painstaking

  5. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 11,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-30

    papers and 23 poster sessions. The origin, such as tobacco, potato chips, former were divided into 9 invited pa- or sugar beet pulp. With the organic...of osmoregulation in marine organisms, tion de Geodynamics Sous Marine (Marine (6) The cytology of microtubes, micro- Geophysics Station) at

  6. Selections from European Scientific Notes 1946 - 1976.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    certain Saltwater lines throughout the special facilities exclusively available aquarium are plastic. Sea water in- to the Institute. It is expected...completed through the heavy-duty of a large specimen, gear root, etc. crocodile clip on the gear (anode). The replica method is particularly The water...sipunculid, four struction of the Suez Canal (completed copepods, two amphipods, one cumacean, in 1809), hotever, was a saltwater pas- 33 decapods, one

  7. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 5.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    1984) Spe!ia, Italy, is sponsoring an interna- Astrophysics 2; (3) Hard Hadron Colli- tional symposium called "The Silent sions, 1; (4) e+e- Collisions ...NOTES ESN 38-5 May 1984 I -A r- IONOO0 C-3 LUJ Distributed by the Office of Naval Research Branch Office. dz London This document is issued primarily...be cited as such. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEAS&.: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED t 84 05 30 101 momI UNCLASSIFIED ECUPJ.ITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE ( oen

  8. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-30

    nonintuitive command prac- and his recent "trail" of activities during a tices for transferring or storing data may prove session. to be far less...through the nonprofit He is now making a similar study of ’nodular Industrial association Fabrimetal (Fdlration des cast iron. entreprises de I’industrie

  9. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 8,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-31

    reinforced plastic 308 • ~- - - ••——"mi—»*••- i ESN 35-8 11981) ( GRP ) pipe . This change in direction came about when Hull was dean of engi- neering...to pipe . At about the same time, prob- lems were developing in the use of GRP pipe in the chemical industry. Unexpect- ed failures and weeping...materials. (ESN 33-5:189 [1979], 34-3:125, 34-7:330 [1980]) The present work at Liverpool on GRP pipe involves the hydrostatic test- ing of

  10. Magnetic tape user guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. B.; Lee, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    This User Guide provides a general introduction to the structure, use, and handling of magnetic tapes at Langley Research Center (LaRC). The topics covered are tape terminology, physical characteristics, error prevention and detection, and creating, using, and maintaining tapes. Supplementary documentation is referenced where it might be helpful. The documentation is included for the tape utility programs, BLOCK, UNBLOCK, and TAPEDMP, which are available at the Central Scientific Computing Complex at LaRC.

  11. PISCES 2 users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Terrence W.

    1987-01-01

    PISCES 2 is a programming environment and set of extensions to Fortran 77 for parallel programming. It is intended to provide a basis for writing programs for scientific and engineering applications on parallel computers in a way that is relatively independent of the particular details of the underlying computer architecture. This user's manual provides a complete description of the PISCES 2 system as it is currently implemented on the 20 processor Flexible FLEX/32 at NASA Langley Research Center.

  12. Scientific/Techical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chris Leighton, Neutron Scattering Society of American; Mr. J. Ardie Dillen, MRS Director of Finance and Administration

    2012-11-07

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the North American neutron user community, strengthening ties within this diverse group, and promoting neutron research in related disciplines. The conference thus serves a dual role as both a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides a forum for scientific discussion of neutron-enabled research in fields as diverse as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, elementary excitations, fundamental physics, and development of neutron instrumentation. This is achieved through a combination of invited oral presentations, contributed oral presentations, and poster sessions. Adequate opportunity for spontaneous discussion and collaboration is also built into the ACNS program in order to foster free exchange of new scientific ideas and the potential for use of powerful neutron scattering methods beyond the current realms of application. The sixth American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2012) provided essential information on the breadth and depth of current neutron-related research worldwide. A strong program of plenary, invited and contributed talks showcased recent scientific results in neutron science in a wide range of fields, including soft and hard condensed matter, biology, chemistry, energy and engineering applications, and neutron physics.

  13. USGS Scientific Visualization Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Scientific Visualization Laboratory at the National Center in Reston, Va., provides a central facility where USGS employees can use state-of-the-art equipment for projects ranging from presentation graphics preparation to complex visual representations of scientific data. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products.

  14. The impact of information technology and networks: new perspectives for scientific, technical and medical (STM) publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kemp, Arnoud

    This contribution is a strongly abbreviated notation of a much longer presentation at the Workshop on Strategies and Techniques of Information for Astronomy, organized by the European Science Foundation in Strasbourg on 21/22 June 1996. The process of publishing will undergo dramatic changes due to the influences of information technology and networks. The publishing business as a whole will shift from traditional print- and paper-based organisations to a fully digital workflow from author to end-user. Electronic publishing has moved from pre-print activities to digital preprints on a variety of servers, but still most scientific documentation is printed and not only for archival purposes. In this short contribution, a plea is made for new rules in scientific communication that authors, editors, publishers, societies, libraries and users can recognize. In addition, in the electronic age we need more security for copyright, transactions over networks and against misuse in general.

  15. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  16. GumTree—An integrated scientific experiment environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Götz, Andy; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia

    2006-11-01

    GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis.

  17. User Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) impact of frequency change of user and spacecraft antenna gain and size; (2) basic personal terminal antennas (impact of 20/30 GHz frequency separation; parametric studies - gain, size, weight; gain and figure of merit (G/T); design data for selected antenna concepts; critical technologies and development goals; and recommendations); and (3) user antenna radiation safety concerns.

  18. The European Cancer Observatory: A new data resource.

    PubMed

    Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; O'Callaghan, Mark; Ferlay, Jacques; Masuyer, Eric; Rosso, Stefano; Forman, David; Bray, Freddie; Comber, Harry

    2015-06-01

    Population-based cancer registries provide indispensable information on cancer incidence and survival, which cannot be obtained by any other means. It is clear that complete and effective use of these data is essential for cancer control, but sharing this information in a uniform, timely and user-friendly manner has been somewhat limited up to now. The European Cancer Observatory (ECO, http://eco.iarc.fr) has been developed in the framework of the EUROCOURSE project (EUROpe against Cancer: Optimisation of Use of Registries for Scientific Excellence in Research) as a comprehensive resource combining all the information currently available in Europe on cancer incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence. The website provides analytical and presentation tools to examine national estimates for 2012 in 40 European countries (EUCAN), data for 130 national or sub-national areas covered by cancer registries for up to 60 years, until 2011 (EUREG) and a planned mechanism for data download (European Cancer Incidence and Mortality (EUROCIM)). The generated statistics outline the considerable variability across Europe in the rates of all major cancer types and help identify key concerns that need to be addressed by public health policies e.g. the unprecedented rise of lung cancer incidence in women with its full impact expected within a decade or so. The support, maintenance and further development of the ECO website should be a high priority for European cancer policymakers, to continue providing this unique information to health professionals, researchers and the general public in Europe and beyond.

  19. European grid services for global earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, S.; Sipos, G.

    2012-04-01

    Force is already providing a cloud infrastructure through a few committed NGIs. This is being made available to research communities participating in the Task Force and the long-term aim is to integrate these national clouds into a pan-European infrastructure for scientific communities. • The MPI group provides support for application developers to port and scale up parallel applications to the global European Grid Infrastructure. • A lively portal developer and provider community that is able to setup and operate custom, application and/or community specific portals for members of the Earth Science community to interact with EGI. • A project to assess the possibilities for federated identity management in EGI and the readiness of EGI member states for federated authentication and authorisation mechanisms. • Operating resources and user support services to process data with new types of services and infrastructures, such as desktop grids, map-reduce frameworks, GPU clusters.

  20. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  1. GEO Standard and Interoperability Forum (SIF) European Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    The European GEO SIF has been initiated by the GIGAS project in an effort to better coordinate European requirements for GEO and GEOSS related activities, and is recognised by GEO as a regional SIF. To help advance the interoperability goals of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS), the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Architecture and Data Committee (ADC) has established a Standards and Interoperability Forum (SIF) to support GEO organizations offering components and services to GEOSS. The SIF will help GEOSS contributors understand how to work with the GEOSS interoperability guidelines and how to enter their "interoperability arrangements" (standards or other ad hoc arrangements for interoperability) into the GEOSS registries. This will greatly facilitate the utility of GEOSS and encourage significant increase in participation. To carry out its work most effectively, the SIF promotes to form Regional Teams. They will help to organize and optimize the support coming from the different parts of the World and reach out regional and multi-disciplinary Scientific Communities. This will allow to have true global representation in supporting GEOSS interoperability. A SIF European Team is foreseen. The main role of the SIF is facilitating interoperability and working with members and participating organizations as they offer data and information services to the users of GEOSS. In this framework, the purpose of having a European Regional Team is to increase efficiency in carrying out the work of the SIF. Experts can join the SIF European Team by registering at the SIF European Team wiki site: http://www.thegigasforum.eu/sif/

  2. Vascular surgery: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1999-09-01

    Isaac Newton, among others, observed that 'we see so far because we are standing upon the shoulders of giants'. In vascular surgery most of the giants have been European, and this is a heritage which we as Europeans can take pride in and build upon if we chose to do so. As in other areas of life, commitment is essential in order to influence the future. For vascular surgeons in Europe this means active participation in the European scientific societies for vascular surgery and in the UEMS. The main value of the EBSQ.VASC assessments to date has been to expose the uneven standards of training in vascular surgery within the European Union. Only if action follows to address these inequalities will the tactics of the European Board of Vascular Surgery be vindicated.

  3. QMRPACK user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, R.W.; Nachtigal, N.M.; Reeb, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    QMRPACK is a library of FORTRAN 77 subroutines that may be used to solve linear systems of equations with the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) method and to compute eigenvalue approximations. This User`s Guide is designed to be an overview of the codes contained in QMRPACK. Installation information is provided, and the example matrix format is discussed. The relative merits of each algorithm, as well as usage criterion are described. The authors also provide instructions for making the test drivers, as well as test output from several machines.

  4. Relating costs to the user value of farmland biodiversity measurements.

    PubMed

    Targetti, S; Herzog, F; Geijzendorffer, I R; Pointereau, P; Viaggi, D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of agricultural management on global biodiversity highlights the need for farm-scale monitoring programmes capable of determining the performance of agriculture practices. Yet the identification of appropriate indicators is a challenging process and one that involves considering a number of different aspects and requirements. Besides the attention given to scientific effectiveness, relevant but less studied issues related to biodiversity measurements include the economic feasibility of monitoring programmes and the relevance of indicators for different end-users. In this paper, we combine an analytic assessment of costs and a stakeholder-based evaluation of the usefulness of a set of biodiversity-related parameters (habitat mapping, vegetation, bees, earthworms, spiders, and a farmer questionnaire) tested for scientific consistency in 12 European case studies and on more than 14,000 ha of farmland. The results point to the possibility of meeting the expectations of different end-users (administrators, farmers and consumers) with a common indicator set. Combining costs and usefulness also suggests the possibility of designing more efficient monitoring approaches involving private agencies and networks of volunteers and farmers for the field data collection at different stages of a monitoring programme. Although complex, such an approach would make it possible to enhance the effectiveness of available funds for farmland biodiversity monitoring.

  5. Identification of User Facility Related Publications

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Stahl, Christopher G; Wells, Jack C; Potok, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Scientific user facilities provide physical resources and technical support that enable scientists to conduct experiments or simulations pertinent to their respective research. One metric for evaluating the scientific value or impact of a facility is the number of publications by users as a direct result of using that facility. Unfortunately, for a variety of reasons, capturing accurate values for this metric proves time consuming and error-prone. This work describes a new approach that leverages automated browser technology combined with text analytics to reduce the time and error involved in identifying publications related to user facilities. With this approach, scientific user facilities gain more accurate measures of their impact as well as insight into policy revisions for user access.

  6. Unifying access to services: ESO's user portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, A. M.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Peron, M.; Sogni, F.; Canavan, T.; Nass, P.

    2006-06-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is in the process of creating a central access point for all services offered to its user community via the Web. That gateway, called the User Portal, will provide registered users with a personalized set of service access points, the actual set depending on each user's privileges. Correspondence between users and ESO will take place by way of "profiles", that is, contact information. Each user may have several active profiles, so that an investigator may choose, for instance, whether their data should be delivered to their own address or to a collaborator. To application developers, the portal will offer authentication and authorization services, either via database queries or an LDAP server. The User Portal is being developed as a Web application using Java-based technology, including servlets and JSPs.

  7. Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

    2005-12-30

    The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic/mutagenic/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with other guidelines for testing a wide range of chemical substances, lead to the conclusion that potential genotoxic activity may effectively be determined by the application of a limited number of well-validated test systems that are capable of detecting induced gene mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal changes. We conclude that highly effective screening for genotoxicity of hair dyes can be achieved by the use of three assays, namely the bacterial gene mutation assay, the mammalian cell gene mutation assay (mouse lymphoma tk assay preferred) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. These need to be combined with metabolic activation systems optimised for the individual chemical types. Recent published evidence [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggests that our recommended three tests will detect all known genotoxic carcinogens, and that increasing the number of in vitro assays further would merely reduce specificity (increase false positives). Of course there may be occasions when standard tests need to be modified to take account of special situations such as a specific pathway of biotransformation, but this should be considered as part of routine testing. It is clear that individual dyes and any other novel ingredients should be tested in this three-test battery. However, new products are formed on the scalp by

  8. End-User Applications of Real-Time Earthquake Information in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, G. B.; Gasparini, P.; Giardini, D.; Zschau, J.; Filangieri, A. R.; Reakt Wp7 Team

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of European FP7 project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction) is to improve the efficiency of real-time earthquake risk mitigation methods and their capability of protecting structures, infrastructures, and populations. REAKT aims to address the issues of real-time earthquake hazard and response from end-to-end, with efforts directed along the full spectrum of methodology development in earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, and real-time vulnerability systems, through optimal decision-making, and engagement and cooperation of scientists and end users for the establishment of best practices for use of real-time information. Twelve strategic test cases/end users throughout Europe have been selected. This diverse group of applications/end users includes civil protection authorities, railway systems, hospitals, schools, industrial complexes, nuclear plants, lifeline systems, national seismic networks, and critical structures. The scale of target applications covers a wide range, from two school complexes in Naples, to individual critical structures, such as the Rion Antirion bridge in Patras, and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet bridge in Istanbul, to large complexes, such as the SINES industrial complex in Portugal and the Thessaloniki port area, to distributed lifeline and transportation networks and nuclear plants. Some end-users are interested in in-depth feasibility studies for use of real-time information and development of rapid response plans, while others intend to install real-time instrumentation and develop customized automated control systems. From the onset, REAKT scientists and end-users will work together on concept development and initial implementation efforts using the data products and decision-making methodologies developed with the goal of improving end-user risk mitigation. The aim of this scientific/end-user partnership is to ensure that scientific efforts are applicable to operational

  9. DOD USER-NEEDS STUDY, PHASE II -- FLOW OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION WITHIN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME III, A. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS AND CORRELATION, B. RELATIONSHIP AND COMPARISON.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOODMAN, ARNOLD F.; AND OTHERS

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NATION'S DEFENSE INDUSTRY TO DETERMINE ITS INFORMATION NEEDS AND THE FLOW OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION (FLOW PROCESS) NECESSARY TO SATISFY THESE NEEDS. VOLUME I, LI 000 345, OF THE THREE VOLUME FINAL REPORT IS AN OVERVIEW OF THE OTHER TWO VOLUMES AND INCLUDES GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT DECISIONS AND…

  10. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  11. Application of the object-oriented paradigm for scientific experiment monitoring & control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racaud, Thierry; Assis-Arantes, Patrick

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the monitoring and control of scientific experiments. This new approach is based on an object-oriented environment composed of three elements: (a) A graphical environment that allows the creation of an object-oriented model of the experiment based on objects, attributes and methods. (b) A language for writing procedures to access the model by sending messages in order to operate the experiment. (c) A man-machine interface based on an interactive graphical layer above the object-oriented representation for controlling and monitoring the experiment. This new approach has been prototyped in a project called "Man-Machine Interface Software for Ground User Terminal", or User Terminal in short. The project is carried out by SPACEBEL Informatique on behalf of the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC). Although this project has been undertaken for the operation of scientific experiments in space, User Terminal can naturally be used for the monitoring and control of ground based experiments. This article presents the User Terminal system as well as one of the first practical exercises performed in the context of the teleoperation of a liquid science experiment to be shipped into space.

  12. Adding intelligence to scientific data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.; Treinish, Lloyd A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA plans to solve some of the problems of handling large-scale scientific data bases by turning to artificial intelligence (AI) are discussed. The growth of the information glut and the ways that AI can help alleviate the resulting problems are reviewed. The employment of the Intelligent User Interface prototype, where the user will generate his own natural language query with the assistance of the system, is examined. Spatial data management, scientific data visualization, and data fusion are discussed.

  13. Scientific Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    1919 paper (ref. 9), in which he suggested a Moon rocket. Rock- etry was on a par with extrasensory perception in those days. 38 SCIENTIFIC SA&TLLITES...this way, images of sky can be taken at different wavelengths. The perceptive reader will note that the two zodiacal-light ex- periments described

  14. Scientific Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how scientific documentation is taught in three 50-minute sessions in a technical writing course. Tells how session one distinguishes between in-text notes, footnotes, and reference entries; session two discusses the author-year system of citing references; and session three is concerned with the author-number system of reference…

  15. The new Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Santa; Besse, Sebastien; Heather, Dave; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime; ESDC (European Space Data Centre) Team

    2016-10-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more specialised views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will be also up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's ExoMars and upcoming BepiColombo missions. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). This contribution will introduce the new PSA, its key features and access interfaces.

  16. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  17. Office of Science User Facilities Summary Report, Fiscal Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science provides the Nation’s researchers with worldclass scientific user facilities to propel the U.S. to the forefront of science and innovation. A user facility is a federally sponsored research facility available for external use to advance scientific or technical knowledge under the following conditions: open, accessible, free, collaborative, competitive, and unique.

  18. Design and implementation of the European Space Information System query environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, J.J. ); Ciarlo, A. ); Benso, S. )

    1993-08-01

    The European Space Information System (ESIS) project is a major pilot project undertaken by the European Space Agency's Research and Information center, ESRIN. It has as its primary aim to design and develop a set of information systems which will form an integrated environment for the retrieval, dissemination, and application of space scientific data. One of these information systems which shall form an important part of the ESIS concept is the ESIS Query Environment (ESIS QE). The ESIS QE project is concerned with the development of a distributed software system which shall provide its users with an environment allowing for uniform and easy access to a set of heterogeneous and geographically distributed databases and space science data archives. (AIP)

  19. Scientific Misconduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2002-12-01

    These cases provide a good basis for discussions of scientific ethics, particularly with respect to the responsibilities of colleagues in collaborative projects. With increasing numbers of students working in cooperative or collaborative groups, there may be opportunities for more than just discussion—similar issues of responsibility apply to the members of such groups. Further, this is an area where, “no clear, widely accepted standards of behavior exist” (1). Thus there is an opportunity to point out to students that scientific ethics, like science itself, is incomplete and needs constant attention to issues that result from new paradigms such as collaborative research. Finally, each of us can resolve to pay more attention to the contributions we and our colleagues make to collaborative projects, applying to our own work no less critical an eye than we would cast on the work of those we don’t know at all.

  20. Justine user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.

  1. The Gaia scientific exploitation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.

    2015-05-01

    On July 2014 the Gaia satellite, placed at L2 since January 2014, finished their commissioning phase and started collecting high accurate scientific data. New and more realistic estimations of the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic accuracy expected after five years mission operation (2014-2019) have been recently published in the Gaia Science Performance Web page. Here we present the coordination efforts and the activities being conducted through the two GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training) European Networks, the GREAT-ESF, a programme supported by the European Science Foundation (2010-2015), and the GREAT-ITN network, from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (2011-2015). The main research theme of these networks is to unravel the origin and history of our home galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the research projects being conducted by the Spanish Researchers through these networks, well coordinated by the Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia (REG network, with more than 140 participants). Members of the REG play an important role on the collection of complementary spectroscopic data from ground based telescopes, on the development of new tools for an optimal scientific exploitation of Gaia data and on the preparation task to create the Gaia archive.

  2. Scientific computing environment for the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. R.

    1986-01-01

    An emerging scientific computing environment in which computers are used not only to solve large-scale models, but are also integrated into the daily activities of scientists and engineers, is discussed. The requirements of the scientific user in this environment are reviewed, and the hardware environment is described, including supercomputers, work stations, mass storage, and communications. Significant increases in memory capacity to keep pace with performance increases, the introduction of powerful graphics displays into the work station, and networking to integrate many computers are stressed. The emerging system software environment is considered, including the operating systems, communications software, and languages. New scientific user tools and utilities that will become available are described.

  3. Library User Education under the Circumstance of Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Tian-hui

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of user education, this paper discusses the necessity of user education in library under the circumstance of network, describes the contents and forms of user education and puts forward the problems that should be paid attention to during education. [This paper was supported by scientific research project of Qufu Normal…

  4. Media Selection for Information User Training. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, A. W.

    Undertaken to determine reasons for the lack of success experienced by suppliers of scientific and technical information (STI) services in the promotion of their services to users, this study has identified the attitudes, settings, functions, needs and perceptions of the user audiences. A user panel, selected to interact with the education and…

  5. Screening for gestational diabetes in Europe: where do we stand and how to move forward?: A scientific paper commissioned by the European Board & College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG).

    PubMed

    Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter; Van Assche, André; Mathieu, Chantal; Devlieger, Roland; Mahmood, Tahir; Dunne, Fidelma

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) is rising globally and it represents an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. GDM is also associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. Acceptance and implementation of the 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria varies globally and within Europe. There is at present no consensus on the optimal approach to GDM screening in Europe. More uniformity in GDM screening across Europe will lead to an opportunity for more timely diagnosis and treatment for GDM in a greater number of women. More targeted research is necessary to evaluate optimal screening strategies based on the 2013 WHO criteria across different European populations with a focus on implementation strategy. Future research should address these important questions so that solid recommendations for GDM screening can be made to European health organizations based on screening uptake rates, maternal well-being, maternal and neonatal health outcomes, equity and cost-effectiveness. Here we describe the ongoing controversy on GDM screening and diagnosis, and provide an overview of important topics for future research concerning GDM screening in Europe.

  6. Multi-year Content Analysis of User Facility Related Publications

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Stahl, Christopher G; Hines, Jayson; Potok, Thomas E; Wells, Jack C

    2013-01-01

    Scientific user facilities provide resources and support that enable scientists to conduct experiments or simulations pertinent to their respective research. Consequently, it is critical to have an informed understanding of the impact and contributions that these facilities have on scientific discoveries. Leveraging insight into scientific publications that acknowledge the use of these facilities enables more informed decisions by facility management and sponsors in regard to policy, resource allocation, and influencing the direction of science as well as more effectively understand the impact of a scientific user facility. This work discusses preliminary results of mining scientific publications that utilized resources at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These results show promise in identifying and leveraging multi-year trends and providing a higher resolution view of the impact that a scientific user facility may have on scientific discoveries.

  7. Virtual Environments in Scientific Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Lisinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Virtual environment technology is a new way of approaching the interface between computers and humans. Emphasizing display and user control that conforms to the user's natural ways of perceiving and thinking about space, virtual environment technologies enhance the ability to perceive and interact with computer generated graphic information. This enhancement potentially has a major effect on the field of scientific visualization. Current examples of this technology include the Virtual Windtunnel being developed at NASA Ames Research Center. Other major institutions such as the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and SRI International are also exploring this technology. This talk will be describe several implementations of virtual environments for use in scientific visualization. Examples include the visualization of unsteady fluid flows (the virtual windtunnel), the visualization of geodesics in curved spacetime, surface manipulation, and examples developed at various laboratories.

  8. Adding a user and changing user roles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Webmasters can add users to a web area, and assign or change roles, which define the actions a user is able to take in the web area. Non-webmasters must use a request form to add users and change roles.

  9. User Working Group Charter

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    ... Amended 2010   The Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) User Working Group (UWG) is chartered by the Earth Observing ... of the ASDC user interface, development of the Information Management System (IMS), and ASDC user conferences requirements for and ...

  10. Coordinating Council. Sixth Meeting: Who Are Our Key Users?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Coordinating Council meeting deals with the topic 'Who are our key users?' Presentations were made on the following subtopics: Key users: Who uses the system the most, Who orders the most documents, Users: What do we know about them?, NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion research project on 'Potential key users', How we meet the user's needs, and STI Council user requirements update. Summaries of discussions after the presentations are included along with visuals for the presentations.

  11. Fauna Europaea - all European animal species on the web.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Yde; Verbeek, Melina; Michelsen, Verner; Bjørn, Per de Place; Los, Wouter; Steeman, Fedor; Bailly, Nicolas; Basire, Claire; Chylarecki, Przemek; Stloukal, Eduard; Hagedorn, Gregor; Wetzel, Florian Tobias; Glöckler, Falko; Kroupa, Alexander; Korb, Günther; Hoffmann, Anke; Häuser, Christoph; Kohlbecker, Andreas; Müller, Andreas; Güntsch, Anton; Stoev, Pavel; Penev, Lyubomir

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260,000 taxon names, including 145,000 accepted (sub)species, assembled by a large network of (>400) leading specialists, using advanced electronic tools for data collations with data quality assured through sophisticated validation routines. Fauna Europaea started in 2000 as an EC funded FP5 project and provides a unique taxonomic reference for many user-groups such as scientists, governments, industries, nature conservation communities and educational programs. Fauna Europaea was formally accepted as an INSPIRE standard for Europe, as part of the European Taxonomic Backbone established in PESI. Fauna Europaea provides a public web portal at faunaeur.org with links to other key biodiversity services, is installed as a taxonomic backbone in wide range of biodiversity services and actively contributes to biodiversity informatics innovations in various initiatives and EC programs.

  12. Fauna Europaea – all European animal species on the web

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, Melina; Michelsen, Verner; Bjørn, Per de Place; Los, Wouter; Steeman, Fedor; Bailly, Nicolas; Basire, Claire; Chylarecki, Przemek; Stloukal, Eduard; Hagedorn, Gregor; Wetzel, Florian Tobias; Glöckler, Falko; Kroupa, Alexander; Korb, Günther; Hoffmann, Anke; Häuser, Christoph; Kohlbecker, Andreas; Müller, Andreas; Güntsch, Anton; Stoev, Pavel; Penev, Lyubomir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260,000 taxon names, including 145,000 accepted (sub)species, assembled by a large network of (>400) leading specialists, using advanced electronic tools for data collations with data quality assured through sophisticated validation routines. Fauna Europaea started in 2000 as an EC funded FP5 project and provides a unique taxonomic reference for many user-groups such as scientists, governments, industries, nature conservation communities and educational programs. Fauna Europaea was formally accepted as an INSPIRE standard for Europe, as part of the European Taxonomic Backbone established in PESI. Fauna Europaea provides a public web portal at faunaeur.org with links to other key biodiversity services, is installed as a taxonomic backbone in wide range of biodiversity services and actively contributes to biodiversity informatics innovations in various initiatives and EC programs. PMID:25349527

  13. The European Marine Observing Network and the development of an Integrated European Ocean Observing System. An EuroGOOS perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Vicente; Gorringe, Patrick; Nolan, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The ocean benefits many sectors of society, being the biggest reservoir of heat, water, carbon and oxygen and playing a fundamental role regulating the earth's climate. We rely on the oceans for food, transport, energy and recreation. Therefore, a sustained marine observation network is crucial to further our understanding of the oceanic environment and to supply scientific data to meet society's need. Marine data and observations in Europe, collected primarily by state governmental agencies, is offered via five Regional Operational Oceanographic Systems (ROOS) within the context of EuroGOOS (http://www.eurogos.eu), an International Non-Profit Association of national governmental agencies and research organizations (40 members from 19 member states) committed to European-scale operational oceanography within the context of the Intergovernmental Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Strong cooperation within these regions, enabling the involvement of additional partners and countries, forms the basis of EuroGOOS work. Ocean data collected from different type of sensors (e.g. moored buoys, tide gauges, Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars, gliders and profiling floats) is accessible to scientist and other end users through data portals and initiatives such as the European Marine Observations and Data Network (EMODnet) (www.emodnet.eu) and the Copernicus Marine Service Copernicus (www.copernicus.eu). Although a relatively mature European ocean observing capability already exists and its well-coordinated at European level, some gaps have been identified, for example the demand for ecosystem products and services, or the case that biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. Assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems is still

  14. User interface devices for mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boatman, Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The Mission Control Center (MCC) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, is being upgraded with new technology engineering/scientific workstations. These workstations will replace the existing consoles and will emulate the present hardware input and display media. The workstations will be using new and different input devices for the flight controller to interact with the workstation and mainframes. This paper presents the results of the User Interface survey conducted by the Workstation Prototype Lab (WPL). The WPL offered the opportunity for users to do hands-on evaluations of a number of user interface options prototyped by lab personnel.

  15. User Facilities: The Education of New Neutron Users

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Yamali; Brown, Craig M.

    2009-08-19

    Neutron scattering is a particularly useful tool enabling the study of compositional, structural and dynamical properties of materials down to the atomic scale. Due to the complexity of operating an intense source of neutrons, this technique is primarily practiced at large national facilities that cater to the research needs of chemists, biologists, physicists, engineers, and material scientists in general. In particular, these user facilities provide specialized instrumentation along with the scientific and technical support required to efficiently utilize it. Since neutron scattering experiments are performed at central facilities rather than in the home-laboratories of individual investigators, the facilities themselves must play a key role in the education and development of new users. The role of neutron scattering facilities in educating young scientists will be examined using examples from current programs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research.

  16. The User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  17. Acid Precipitation: Scientific Progress and Public Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowling, Ellis B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes certain perspectives on scientific research and on the public debates about acid deposition and its effects. Although primary attention is given to European/North American research, the ideas developed are relevant in any world region sensitive to acid deposition resulting from intense industrialization. (Author/JN)

  18. Development concept for Dutch user support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronk, C. N. A.; Koopman, N.; Dehoop, D.

    1992-06-01

    The main development approaches and some technologies developed in support of the different objectives of the Dutch Utilization Center (DUC) are reported. The DUC acts as a point of coordination of Dutch user support activities. The support needs of the user are analyzed and from there the required support efforts of the entities in the Dutch User Support Organization (DUSO) are activated. The main objectives of the DUSO are to promote the availability of the Columbus Space Station infrastructure among potential Dutch users, and to assist the users during the process of experiment definition, development, execution, and results evaluation. The DUSO support activities cover promotion and familiarization, and administrative, scientific, technical, and operational support to microgravity and space experimentation. The DUC developmental approaches consist of two approaches: a top down or formal approach; and a bottom up approach.

  19. Display system for imaging scientific telemetric information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabiyakin, G. I.; Rykovanov, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A system for imaging scientific telemetric information, based on the M-6000 minicomputer and the SIGD graphic display, is described. Two dimensional graphic display of telemetric information and interaction with the computer, in analysis and processing of telemetric parameters displayed on the screen is provided. The running parameter information output method is presented. User capabilities in the analysis and processing of telemetric information imaged on the display screen and the user language are discussed and illustrated.

  20. The European Supersites coordination: joining efforts for a federated data infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos; Consortium, Med-Suv; Consortium, Marsite; Consortium, FutureVolc

    2014-05-01

    The integration of satellite and in-situ Earth observations envisioned in the GEO Geohazards Supersites and National Laboratories (GSNL) initiative is aimed at providing access to spaceborne and in-situ geoscience data for selected sites prone to earthquakes, volcanoes or other environmental hazards. The initiative began with the "Frascati declaration" at the conclusion of the 3rd International Geohazards workshop of the Group of Earth Observation (GEO) held in November 2007 in Frascati, Italy. The key players involved in the GSNL initiative are the space agencies and satellite operators providing SAR data, the national agencies in charge of the monitoring of earthquakes and volcanic areas that provide in-situ data and the global geo-hazard scientific community. The development of the GSNL and the integration of in-situ and spaceborne Earth observations require the implementation of in-situ e-infrastructures and services to scientific users and stakeholders. These e-science implementation plans must be coherent and coordinated in order to guarantee interoperability among the different Supersites. In this work, we will present the strategic approach for promoting the European Supersites. The establishment of a network of supersites in Europe will facilitate the link with the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Here we present the EPOS federated approach to integrating Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science in Europe and we will discuss the synergies with the three European supersites projects: FUTUREVOLC for the Icelandic volcanoes, MED-SUV for Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius (Italy), and MARSITE for the Marmara Sea (Turkey). The EPOS federated approach might be considered as an example for other regions of the world and therefore it could contribute to develop the supersite initiative globally. In this work, we will present the key actions needed to: i) develop sustainable long-term Earth observation strategies preceding and following

  1. AquaUsers: Improving access to remotely sensed data for non-specialists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Oliver; Walker, Peter; Calton, Ben; Miller, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In recent years more and more complex remotely sensed data have been made available to the public by national and international agencies. These data are also reprocessed by different organisations to produce secondary products that are of specific need to a community. For instance the production of chlorophyll concentration maps from ocean colour data provided by NASA for the marine community. Providing access to such data has normally been focused on simply making the data available with appropriate metadata so that domain specialists can make use of it. One area that has seen significant investment, both of time and money, has been in the production of web based data portals. Primarily these have focused on spatial data. By providing a web map visualisation users are able to quickly assess both spatial coverage and data values. Data portal improvements have been possible thanks to advancements in back end data servers such as Thredds and ncWMS as well as improvements in front-end libraries for data visualisation including OpenLayers and D3. Data portals that make use of these technological advancements have aimed at improving the access and use of data by trained scientific domain specialists. There is now a push to improve access to these systems by non-scientific domain specialists through several European Commission funded projects, including OPEC and AquaUsers. These projects have improved upon an open source web GIS portal created by Plymouth Marine Laboratory [https://github.com/pmlrsg/GISportal]. We will present the latest version of our GIS portal, discuss the designs steps taken to achieve the latest build and share user stories as to how non-domain specialists are now able to utilise the system and get benefits from remotely sensed data. A first version was produced and disseminated to end users for feedback. At this stage the end users included government advisors, fish farmers and scientific groups with no specific GIS training or knowledge. This

  2. FAMIAS User Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Wolfgang

    2008-10-01

    The excitation of pulsation modes in Beta Cephei and Slowly Pulsating B stars is known to be very sensitive to opacity changes in the stellar interior where T ~ 2 x 10E5 K. In this region differences in opacity up to ~ 50% can be induced by the choice between OPAL and OP opacity tables, and between two different metal mixtures (Grevesse & Noels 1993 and Asplund et al. 2005). We have extended the non-adiabatic computations presented in Miglio et al. (2007) towards models of higher mass and pulsation modes of degree l = 3, and we present here the instability domains in the HR- and log P-log Teff diagrams resulting from different choices of opacity tables, and for three different metallicities. FAMIAS (Frequency Analysis and Mode Identification for AsteroSeismology) is a collection of state-of-the-art software tools for the analysis of photometric and spectroscopic time series data. It is one of the deliverables of the Work Package NA5: Asteroseismology of the European Coordination Action in Helio-and Asteroseismology (HELAS). Two main sets of tools are incorporated in FAMIAS. The first set allows to search for periodicities in the data using Fourier and non-linear least-squares fitting algorithms. The other set allows to carry out a mode identification for the detected pulsation frequencies to determine their pulsational quantum numbers, the harmonic degree, m. The types of stars to which famias is applicable are main-sequence pulsators hotter than the Sun. This includes the Gamma Dor stars, Delta Sct stars, the slowly pulsating B stars and the Beta Cep stars - basically all pulsating main-sequence stars, for which empirical mode identification is required to successfully carry out asteroseismology. This user manual describes how to use the different features of FAMIAS and provides two tutorials that demonstrate the usage of FAMIAS for spectroscopic and photometric mode identification.

  3. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions. PMID:21736748

  4. Quantitative Decision Support Requires Quantitative User Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Is it conceivable that models run on 2007 computer hardware could provide robust and credible probabilistic information for decision support and user guidance at the ZIP code level for sub-daily meteorological events in 2060? In 2090? Retrospectively, how informative would output from today’s models have proven in 2003? or the 1930’s? Consultancies in the United Kingdom, including the Met Office, are offering services to “future-proof” their customers from climate change. How is a US or European based user or policy maker to determine the extent to which exciting new Bayesian methods are relevant here? or when a commercial supplier is vastly overselling the insights of today’s climate science? How are policy makers and academic economists to make the closely related decisions facing them? How can we communicate deep uncertainty in the future at small length-scales without undermining the firm foundation established by climate science regarding global trends? Three distinct aspects of the communication of the uses of climate model output targeting users and policy makers, as well as other specialist adaptation scientists, are discussed. First, a brief scientific evaluation of the length and time scales at which climate model output is likely to become uninformative is provided, including a note on the applicability the latest Bayesian methodology to current state-of-the-art general circulation models output. Second, a critical evaluation of the language often employed in communication of climate model output, a language which accurately states that models are “better”, have “improved” and now “include” and “simulate” relevant meteorological processed, without clearly identifying where the current information is thought to be uninformative and misleads, both for the current climate and as a function of the state of the (each) climate simulation. And thirdly, a general approach for evaluating the relevance of quantitative climate model output

  5. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  6. ENVRI Cluster - a community-driven platform of European environmental research infrastructures for providing common solution for science and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorvari, Sanna; Kutsch, Werner; Laj, Paolo; Asmi, Ari; Brus, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    European long-term environmental research infrastructures (often referred as ESFRI RIs) are the core facilities for providing services for scientists in their quest for understanding and predicting the complex Earth system and its functioning that requires long-term efforts to identify environmental changes (trends, thresholds and resilience, interactions and feedbacks). Many of the research infrastructures originally have been developed to respond to the needs of their specific research communities, however, it is clear that strong collaboration among research infrastructures is needed to serve the trans-boundary research requires exploring scientific questions at the intersection of different scientific fields, conducting joint research projects and developing concepts, devices, and methods that can be used to integrate knowledge. European Environmental research infrastructures have already been successfully worked together for many years and have established a cluster - ENVRI cluster - for their collaborative work. ENVRI cluster act as a collaborative platform where the RIs can jointly agree on the common solutions for their operations, draft strategies and policies and share best practices and knowledge. Supporting project for the ENVRI cluster, ENVRIplus project, brings together 21 European research infrastructures and infrastructure networks to work on joint technical solutions, data interoperability, access management, training, strategies and dissemination efforts. ENVRI cluster act as one stop shop for multidisciplinary RI users, other collaborative initiatives, projects and programmes and coordinates and implement jointly agreed RI strategies.

  7. Supporting National User Communities at NERSC and NCAR

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, Timothy L.; Simon, Horst D.

    2006-05-16

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center(NERSC) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) are twocomputing centers that have traditionally supported large national usercommunities. Both centers have developed responsive approaches to supportthese user communities and their changing needs, providing end-to-endcomputing solutions. In this report we provide a short overview of thestrategies used at our centers in supporting our scientific users, withan emphasis on some examples of effective programs and futureneeds.

  8. CHALLENGES IN DATA INTENSIVE ANALYSIS AT SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTAL USER FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Li, Dongsheng; Miller, Stephen D.; Cobb, John W.; Green, Mark L.; Ruby, Catherine L.

    2011-12-31

    This chapter will discuss the critical data intensive analysis and visualiza-tion challenges faced by the experimental science community at large scale and laboratory based facilities. The chapter will further highlight initial solutions under development through community efforts and lay out perspectives for the future, such as the potential of more closely linked experimental and computational science approaches, methods to achieve real time analysis capabilities and the challenges and opportunities of data integration across experimental scales, levels of theory and varying techniques.

  9. User Inspired Management of Scientific Jobs in Grids and Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withana, Eran Chinthaka

    2011-01-01

    From time-critical, real time computational experimentation to applications which process petabytes of data there is a continuing search for faster, more responsive computing platforms capable of supporting computational experimentation. Weather forecast models, for instance, process gigabytes of data to produce regional (mesoscale) predictions on…

  10. User interface user's guide for HYPGEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Ing-Tsau

    1992-01-01

    The user interface (UI) of HYPGEN is developed using Panel Library to shorten the learning curve for new users and provide easier ways to run HYPGEN for casual users as well as for advanced users. Menus, buttons, sliders, and type-in fields are used extensively in UI to allow users to point and click with a mouse to choose various available options or to change values of parameters. On-line help is provided to give users information on using UI without consulting the manual. Default values are set for most parameters and boundary conditions are determined by UI to further reduce the effort needed to run HYPGEN; however, users are free to make any changes and save it in a file for later use. A hook to PLOT3D is built in to allow graphics manipulation. The viewpoint and min/max box for PLOT3D windows are computed by UI and saved in a PLOT3D journal file. For large grids which take a long time to generate on workstations, the grid generator (HYPGEN) can be run on faster computers such as Crays, while UI stays at the workstation.

  11. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  12. Structural biology at the European X-ray free-electron laser facility.

    PubMed

    Altarelli, Massimo; Mancuso, Adrian P

    2014-07-17

    The European X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility, under construction in the Hamburg region, will provide high-peak brilliance (greater than 10(33) photons s(-1) mm(-2) mrad(-2) per 0.1% BW), ultrashort pulses (approx. 10 fs) of X-rays, with a high repetition rate (up to 27 000 pulses s(-1)) from 2016 onwards. The main features of this exceptional X-ray source, and the instrumentation developments necessary to exploit them fully, for application to a variety of scientific disciplines, are briefly summarized. In the case of structural biology, that has a central role in the scientific case of this new facility, the instruments and ancillary laboratories that are being planned and built within the baseline programme of the European XFEL and by consortia of users are also discussed. It is expected that the unique features of the source and the advanced features of the instrumentation will allow operation modes with more efficient use of sample materials, faster acquisition times, and conditions better approaching feasibility of single molecule imaging.

  13. Autonomous European lunar exploration—Entry point for a global cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, H.; Heidmann, H.-J.; Apel, U.

    2007-06-01

    Since several years the institutions of the authors have conducted many strategic studies, which are aiming at lunar ventures serving both scientific and commercial applications. The latest mission concept, which has been created in this partnership together with scientific user groups from nine countries is targeting towards the establishment of lunar infrastructures serving multiple sciences. The selected strategy for the implementation of this scenario leads to the definition of the erection of a low frequency radio telescope on the far side of the Moon as initial venture. As starting point the erection of a first hub at a lunar pole was discussed. The further analyses show that the completion of the scenario will demand a global co-operation also in the sense of man tended missions or even permanent human bases. For this reason a global roadmap has to be considered for the generation of a credible programmatic. On the other hand to achieve a sustainable political and public support for this kind of venture it seems mandatory for Europe to achieve a visible contribution in such kind of venture. Therefore the identification of an autonomous European mission element, which allows self-standing execution of missions on one hand, but also provides key contributions to an international road map are major elements of the study. An overview on the current status of the proposed scenario will be given in terms of technical solution but with a strong focus on the programmatic, leading from an autonomous European initial mission to an international lunar venture.

  14. European Nucleotide Archive in 2016

    PubMed Central

    Toribio, Ana Luisa; Alako, Blaise; Amid, Clara; Cerdeño-Tarrága, Ana; Clarke, Laura; Cleland, Iain; Fairley, Susan; Gibson, Richard; Goodgame, Neil; ten Hoopen, Petra; Jayathilaka, Suran; Kay, Simon; Leinonen, Rasko; Liu, Xin; Martínez-Villacorta, Josué; Pakseresht, Nima; Rajan, Jeena; Reddy, Kethi; Rosello, Marc; Silvester, Nicole; Smirnov, Dmitriy; Vaughan, Daniel; Zalunin, Vadim; Cochrane, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) offers a rich platform for data sharing, publishing and archiving and a globally comprehensive data set for onward use by the scientific community. With a broad scope spanning raw sequencing reads, genome assemblies and functional annotation, the resource provides extensive data submission, search and download facilities across web and programmatic interfaces. Here, we outline ENA content and major access modalities, highlight major developments in 2016 and outline a number of examples of data reuse from ENA. PMID:27899630

  15. Networked Services, User Support and Libraries: Mutual Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijne, Maria

    1992-01-01

    Describes the activities of SURFnet BV, a research network that provides information and communication services in higher education and scientific or industrial research in The Netherlands. Topics discussed include standardization; user services, including electronic mail; costs of using SURFnet; user support services; and the role of libraries in…

  16. End-User Training for Sci-Tech Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Issues related to end-user training for scientific and technical online databases are discussed in five articles. Topics covered include instruction in the use of controlled and natural language vocabularies; a planning assessment for end-user searching; the role of the information center in industrial research; training for health care…

  17. Visualization and characterization of users in a citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Alessandra M. M.; Raddick, Jordan; Coelho dos Santos, Rafael D.

    2013-05-01

    Recent technological advances allowed the creation and use of internet-based systems where many users can collaborate gathering and sharing information for specific or general purposes: social networks, e-commerce review systems, collaborative knowledge systems, etc. Since most of the data collected in these systems is user-generated, understanding of the motivations and general behavior of users is a very important issue. Of particular interest are citizen science projects, where users without scientific training are asked for collaboration labeling and classifying information (either automatically by giving away idle computer time or manually by actually seeing data and providing information about it). Understanding behavior of users of those types of data collection systems may help increase the involvement of the users, categorize users accordingly to different parameters, facilitate their collaboration with the systems, design better user interfaces, and allow better planning and deployment of similar projects and systems. Behavior of those users could be estimated through analysis of their collaboration track: registers of which user did what and when can be easily and unobtrusively collected in several different ways, the simplest being a log of activities. In this paper we present some results on the visualization and characterization of almost 150.000 users with more than 80.000.000 collaborations with a citizen science project - Galaxy Zoo I, which asked users to classify galaxies' images. Basic visualization techniques are not applicable due to the number of users, so techniques to characterize users' behavior based on feature extraction and clustering are used.

  18. Understanding Climate Service Science: Balancing Users' Needs with Providers' Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Roger B.; Bley, Dagmar; Manez, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Understanding Climate Service Science: Balancing Users' Needs with Providers' Capabilities The overall strategic objective of the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI)-Climate is to contribute to highly coordinated knowledge development by not only improving the scientific expertise on climate change risks and adaptation options, but also by connecting that knowledge with decision making. Understanding the nature and scope of those providing climate services and the services being provided and understanding userś needs and requirements is critical to realisation of this strategic objective. The main aim of the JPI-Climate Working Group 2 "Researching and advancing Climate Service Development" is to coordinate knowledge development and transfer to improve the climate (change) services to society and within Europe. In order to avoid duplication of efforts and picking on differences in the quality and nature of information being provided from country to country there is a need for a certain degree of consistency of approaches and quality assurance. The JPI-Climate will bring interaction between the emerging national and European climate services initiatives. Climate services produce strongly science-based client-oriented information. They should be built on a good understanding of the stakeholder needs, and provide easy access to up-to-date information and expertise regarding specific policy or research questions. It is evident from experience that such services need (and are perceived) to be salient, credible and legitimate from the perspective of the intended users and providers of those services, and within the supportive research community. Achieving this aim and developing and delivering the required services necessitates the engagement of the spectrum of users and providers, as well as researchers from the physical, natural, engineering, economics and social sciences - the science underpinning climate services. The JPI-Climate, Module 2 Fast Track Activities (FTAs

  19. The Philosophy of User Interfaces in HELIO and the Importance of CASSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, X.; Aboudarham, J.; Renié, C.; Csillaghy, A.; Messerotti, M.; Bentley, R. D.

    2012-09-01

    HELIO is a European project funded under FP7 (Project No. 238969). One of its goals as a Heliospheric Virtual Observatory is to provide an easy access to many datasets scattered all over the world, in the fields of Solar physics, Heliophysics, and Planetary magnetospheres. The efficiency of such a tool is very much related to the quality of the user interface. HELIO infrastructure is based on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), regrouping a network of standalone components, which allows four main types of interfaces: - HELIO Front End (HFE) is a browser-based user interface, which offers a centralized access to the HELIO main functionalities. Especially, it provides the possibility to reach data directly, or to refine selection by determination of observing characteristics, such as which instrument was observing at that time, which instrument was at this location, etc. - Many services/components provide their own standalone graphical user interface. While one can directly access individually each of these interfaces, they can also be connected together. - Most services also provide direct access for any tools through a public interface. A small java library, called Java API, simplifies this access by providing client stubs for services and shields the user from security, discovery and failover issues. - Workflows capabilities are available in HELIO, allowing complex combination of queries over several services. We want the user to be able to navigate easily, at his needs, through the various interfaces, and possibly use a specific one in order to make much-dedicated queries. We will also emphasize the importance of the CASSIS project (Coordination Action for the integration of Solar System Infrastructure and Science) in encouraging the interoperability necessary to undertake scientific studies that span disciplinary boundaries. If related projects follow the guidelines being developed by CASSIS then using external resources with HELIO will be greatly simplified.

  20. NASCAP user's manual, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. J., III

    1978-01-01

    NASCAP simulates the charging process for a complex object in either tenuous plasma (geosynchronous orbit) or ground test (electron gun source) environment. Program control words, the structure of user input files, and various user options available are described in this computer programmer's user manual.

  1. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  2. WEBSIM-COMPASS: a new generation scientific instrument simulator for the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puech, M.; Yang, Y.; Jégouzo, I.; Marchal, O.; Disseau, K.; Paillous, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Taburet, S.; Clénet, Y.; Gratadour, D.; Flores, H.; Hammer, F.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new scientific instrument simulator dedicated to the E-ELT named WEBSIM-COMPASS, and developed in the frame of the COMPASS project. This simulator builds on the previous series of WEBSIM simulators developed during the ESO E-ELT Design Reference Mission and Instrument Phase A studies. The WEBSIM-COMPASS observations simulator consists in a web interface coupled to an IDL code, which allows the user to perform end-to-end simulations of all E-ELT optical/NIR imagers and spectrographs foreseen for the future 39m European Extremely Large Telescope, i.e., MICADO, HARMONI, and MOSAIC. The simulation pipeline produces fake simulations in FITS format that mimic the result of a data reduction pipeline with perfectly extracted/reduced data. We give a functional description of this new simulator, emphasizing the new functionalities and current developments, and present science cases simulated used as test cases.

  3. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - Project Overview and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, A.; Jean, Y.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Flechtner, F.; Gruber, C.; Guntner, A.; Gouweleeuw, B.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Kvas, A.; Martinis, S.; Zwenzer, H.; Bruinsma, S.; Lemoine, J. M.; Flury, J.; Bourgogne, S.

    2015-12-01

    The project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission has started in January 2015. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. We give an overview of the project and present first results from the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall also be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.

  4. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - Status and project highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer-Guerr, Torsten; Adrian, Jäggi; Meyer, Ulrich; Jean, Yoomin; Susnik, Andreja; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Flechtner, Frank; Gruber, Christian; Güntner, Andreas; Gouweleeuw, Ben; Kvas, Andreas; Klinger, Beate; Flury, Jakob; Bruinsma, Sean; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Zwenzner, Hendrik; Bourgogne, Stephane; Bandikova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) is a project of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. In the frame of EGSIEM three key services should established: 1) a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall also be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools. In this talk the status of the ongoing project is presented and selected results are discussed.

  5. Scientific Workflow Management in Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Jeroen S.; Deelder, André M.; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Data processing in proteomics can be a challenging endeavor, requiring extensive knowledge of many different software packages, all with different algorithms, data format requirements, and user interfaces. In this article we describe the integration of a number of existing programs and tools in Taverna Workbench, a scientific workflow manager currently being developed in the bioinformatics community. We demonstrate how a workflow manager provides a single, visually clear and intuitive interface to complex data analysis tasks in proteomics, from raw mass spectrometry data to protein identifications and beyond. PMID:22411703

  6. Collaboratively Sharing Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal

    Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.

  7. DOSFAC2 user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.L.; Chanin, D.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the DOSFAC2 code, which is used for generating dose-to-source conversion factors for the MACCS2 code. DOSFAC2 is a revised and updated version of the DOSFAC code that was distributed with version 1.5.11 of the MACCS code. included are (1) an overview and background of DOSFAC2, (2) a summary of two new functional capabilities, and (3) a user`s guide. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Coastal Operational Oceanography: understanding user needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J.; Lopez, J.; Jerez, F.; Hermosilla, F.; Espino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the 7th Framework European project FIELD_AC, SIMO and the LIM/UPC have undertaken a study about the operational oceanography requirements of a selected group of specific end-users in four different European coastal regions, namely Hamburg, Liverpool, Barcelona and Venice. The activities of all the target organisations are related to coastal issues, varying from aquaculture to marinas and port management, Water Framework Directive implementation, renewable energies and flooding alerts. Information has been compiled using a specific questionnaire that has been distributed to all potential users, in addition to workshops held in the four mentioned regions. A total number of 25 questionnaires have been collected in all the locations from a variety of users. Results have been analysed depending on the location but also considering the type of organisation. Information about the spatial and temporal resolution requirements, variables needed, locations to be considered, frequency of data delivery and formats requirements have been gathered. This input from the end-users is being used both in the FIELD_AC modelling set up and also in the development of an application to visualise the results. Regarding the latter, all the modelling results and observational data will be handled using a THREDDS catalogue linked to a web-based GIS application.

  9. A European Federated Cloud: Innovative distributed computing solutions by EGI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, Gergely; Turilli, Matteo; Newhouse, Steven; Kacsuk, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) is the result of pioneering work that has, over the last decade, built a collaborative production infrastructure of uniform services through the federation of national resource providers that supports multi-disciplinary science across Europe and around the world. This presentation will provide an overview of the recently established 'federated cloud computing services' that the National Grid Initiatives (NGIs), operators of EGI, offer to scientific communities. The presentation will explain the technical capabilities of the 'EGI Federated Cloud' and the processes whereby earth and space science researchers can engage with it. EGI's resource centres have been providing services for collaborative, compute- and data-intensive applications for over a decade. Besides the well-established 'grid services', several NGIs already offer privately run cloud services to their national researchers. Many of these researchers recently expressed the need to share these cloud capabilities within their international research collaborations - a model similar to the way the grid emerged through the federation of institutional batch computing and file storage servers. To facilitate the setup of a pan-European cloud service from the NGIs' resources, the EGI-InSPIRE project established a Federated Cloud Task Force in September 2011. The Task Force has a mandate to identify and test technologies for a multinational federated cloud that could be provisioned within EGI by the NGIs. A guiding principle for the EGI Federated Cloud is to remain technology neutral and flexible for both resource providers and users: • Resource providers are allowed to use any cloud hypervisor and management technology to join virtualised resources into the EGI Federated Cloud as long as the site is subscribed to the user-facing interfaces selected by the EGI community. • Users can integrate high level services - such as brokers, portals and customised Virtual Research

  10. Current status of the HED instrument design at the European XFEL for studying plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsutsumi, M.; Appel, K.; Thorpe, I.; Priebe, G.; Pelka, A.; Cowan, T.; Tschentscher, Th.

    2014-10-01

    The High Energy Density Physics (HED) instrument at the European XFEL will provide an unique platform for experiments combining hard x-ray FEL radiation (3 -- 24 keV range) and the capability to generate matter under extreme conditions of pressure, temperature or electric field using high energy optical lasers (100 TW Ti-Sapphire and 100 J/ns diode-pumped laser) or pulsed magnets (30 T). Scientific applications will be studies of matter occurring inside exoplanets, of new extreme-pressure phases and solid-density plasmas, and of structural phase transitions of complex solids in high magnetic fields. Following the delivery of the technical design documents, the HED instrument is presently completed with the goal of first x-ray beam in spring 2017. User operation shall start at the end of 2017. The talk includes a presentation of the current HED instrument design as following from specific experiment requirements, which will be discussed.

  11. Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Eduardo; Porcas, Richard W.; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Zensus, J. Anton

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 6th Symposium of the European VLBI Network, held in Bonn on 25-28 June 2002. The initial aim of these biennial gatherings of European VLBI practitioners was to review in a timely manner new results and technical developments related to Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Now, however, interest and participation in the EVN Symposia reaches far beyond Europe, reflecting the fact that scientific research and development programs are carried out to a high degree in international and often truly global collaborations. More than 120 scientists from around the world registered for participation in the Symposium. The Symposium was hosted by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie and was held at the Gustav Stresemann Institut. In addition to the scientific sessions and poster presentations, the program included an EVN Users Meeting, an MPIfR versus Rest-of-the-World football match (highly appropriate given the competing World Cup event!), a visit to the MPIfR's 100m radio telescope in Effelsberg, and a Conference Dinner held in the nearby old walled town of Bad Müunstereifel. To maximize the usefulness of these proceedings (and possibly as a daring precedent) the Editors decided to demand the written versions of talks and posters and to complete the editorial work before the meeting, and to deliver the book to the participants at the beginning of the Symposium. We thank the authors for their cooperation in delivering publication-ready electronic manuscripts and for meeting the strict deadlines. It is highly gratifying that only a handful of the 100 presentations are not represented in this volume. The editors have made minor changes to some of the contributions in order to improve readability, and take responsibility for any errors arising from these changes. Besides the authors, many individuals have contributed to the preparation of the meeting and its proceedings. In addition to many members of the MPIfR staff, we

  12. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  13. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Per; Benveniste, Jerome; Team Gut

    2016-04-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products.
GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information
and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced
computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations,
and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT
Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Without any doubt the development
of the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data for
oceanography. The GUT version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and beside some bug-fixes it adds the capability for the computation of Simple Bouguer Anomaly (Solid-Earth). During this fall a new GUT version 3 has been released. GUTv3 was further developed through a collaborative effort where the scientific communities participate aiming
on an implementation of remaining functionalities facilitating a wider span of research in the fields of Geodesy,
Oceanography and Solid earth studies.
Accordingly, the GUT version 3 has:
 - An attractive and easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the toolbox,
 - Enhance the toolbox with some further software functionalities such as to facilitate the use of gradients,
anisotropic diffusive filtering and computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies.
 - An associated GUT VCM tool for analyzing the GOCE variance covariance matrices.

  14. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Knudsen, Per

    2016-07-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products. GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations, and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Without any doubt the development of the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data for oceanography. The GUT version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and beside some bug-fixes it adds the capability for the computation of Simple Bouguer Anomaly (Solid-Earth). During this fall a new GUT version 3 has been released. GUTv3 was further developed through a collaborative effort where the scientific communities participate aiming on an implementation of remaining functionalities facilitating a wider span of research in the fields of Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid earth studies. Accordingly, the GUT version 3 has: - An attractive and easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the toolbox, - Enhance the toolbox with some further software functionalities such as to facilitate the use of gradients, anisotropic diffusive filtering and computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies. - An associated GUT VCM tool for analyzing the GOCE variance covariance matrices.

  15. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Per; Benveniste, Jerome; Team GUT

    2015-04-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products.
GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information
and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced
computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations,
and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT
Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Without any doubt the development
of the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data for
oceanography. The current version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and beside some bug-fixes it adds the capability for the computation of Simple Bouguer Anomaly (Solid-Earth). The GUT will be further developed through a collaborative effort where the scientific communities participate aiming
on an implementation of remaining functionalities facilitating a wider span of research in the fields of Geodesy,
Oceanography and Solid earth studies.
 The objective of the new GUT project is to further develop GUT by implementing functionalities that have been
requested by the general science community. Accordingly, the GUT version 3 will have:
 - An attractive and easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the toolbox,
 - Enhance the toolbox with some further software functionalities such as to facilitate the use of gradients,
anisotropic diffusive filtering and computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies.
 - An associated GUT VCM tool for analyzing the GOCE variance covariance matrices.

  16. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Numbers 10/11.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    percent decrease in the intensity of space-geodetic methods for monitoring solar radiation reachipg the earth’s local crustal deformations. surface, the...1983) - and solids. The average power available 35-nm range at the Comitato Nazionale and the predicted high efficiency of Energia Nucleare laboratory in...the David W. Taylor Naval gated for transmittance. These measure- Ship Research and Development Center, ments are important for solar energy Bethesda

  17. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  18. European XFEL: Soft X-Ray instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Molodtsov, S. L.

    2011-12-15

    The currently constructed European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) will generate new knowledge in almost all the technical and scientific disciplines that are shaping our daily life-including nanotechnology, medicine, pharmaceutics, chemistry, materials science, power engineering and electronics. On 8 January 2009, civil engineering work (tunnels, shafts, halls) has been started at all three construction sites. In this presentation status and parameters of the European XFEL facility and instrumentation as well as planned research applications particularly in the range of soft X-rays are reviewed.

  19. European Science Notes, volume 40, number 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, L. E.

    1986-02-01

    ESN is a monthly publication with brief articles on recent developments in European scientific research. Its partial contents are: Biotechnology Research at GBF, and at the Inst. of Technical Chemistry, Univ. of Hanover, West Germany; 7th European Immunology Congress; Biotechnia '85 - First International Congress for Biotechnology; Acoustic Cavitation Generated by Clinical Ultrasound; Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics; Geophysics Research in Israel; Fiber Composite Research at Paisley College of Technology, Scotland; A review of International Research on the Physical Metallurgy of Welding; Silicon Metallurgy at the Helsinki Technical Univ.; A Conference on Guided Optical Structures and Their Applications; Optoelectronics Research at Oxford Univ.; and Fractal Conferences in Europe.

  20. MADS Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    MADS (Minimization Assistant for Dynamical Systems) is a trajectory optimization code in which a user-specified performance measure is directly minimized, subject to constraints placed on a low-order discretization of user-supplied plant ordinary differential equations. This document describes the mathematical formulation of the set of trajectory optimization problems for which MADS is suitable, and describes the user interface. Usage examples are provided.

  1. LIMS user acceptance testing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Corbett S

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry. Thorough and accurate validation of such systems is critical and is a regulatory requirement. LIMS user acceptance testing is one aspect of this testing and enables the user to make a decision to accept or reject implementation of the system. This paper discusses key elements in facilitating the development and execution of a LIMS User Acceptance Test Plan (UATP).

  2. Preliminary ISIS users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, C.

    1979-01-01

    The Interactive Software Invocation (ISIS), an interactive data management system, was developed to act as a buffer between the user and host computer system. The user is provided by ISIS with a powerful system for developing software or systems in the interactive environment. The user is protected from the idiosyncracies of the host computer system by providing such a complete range of capabilities that the user should have no need for direct access to the host computer. These capabilities are divided into four areas: desk top calculator, data editor, file manager, and tool invoker.

  3. User Registration in EOSDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the lifetime of EOSDIS the topic of user registration has received varied attention. Initially, for example, users ordering data from the Earth Science Data Gateway were required to register for delivery of media orders, to check order status and save profile information for future interactions. As EOSDIS embraced evolution of its data systems, the mostly centralized search and order system was replaced with a more diverse set of interfaces allowing (mostly) anonymous online access to data, tools and services. The changes to EOSDIS were embraced by users but the anonymous nature of the interaction made it more difficult to characterize users, capture metrics and provide customized services that benefit users. Additionally, new tools and interfaces have been developed without a centralized registration system. Currently a patchwork of independent registration systems exists throughout EOSDIS for ordering data and interacting with online tools and services. Each requires a separate username and password that must be managed by users. A consolidation of registration systems presents an opportunity to improve not only the user experience through tool customization and simplification of password management, but the understanding of users. This work discusses the options for implementing a common user registration for the EOSDIS, anticipated benefits and pitfalls.

  4. The Chaco user`s guide. Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-11-01

    Graph partitioning is a fundamental problem in many scientific settings. This document describes the capabilities and operation of Chaco, a software package designed to partition graphs. Chaco allows for recursive application of any of several different methods for finding small edge separators in weighted graphs. These methods include inertial, spectral, Kernighan-Lin and multilevel methods in addition to several simpler strategies. Each of these methods can be used to partition the graph into two, four or eight pieces at each level of recursion. In addition, the Kernighan-Lin method can be used to improve partitions generated by any of the other methods. Brief descriptions of these methods are provided, along with references to relevant literature. The user interface, input/output formats and appropriate settings for a variety of code parameters are discussed in detail, and some suggestions on algorithm selection are offered.

  5. Summary Scientific Performance of EUCLID Detector Prototypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) plan to partner to build the EUCLID mission. EUCLID is a mission concept for studying the Dark Energy that is hypothesized to account for the accelerating cosmic expansion. For the past year, NASA has been building detector prototypes at Teledyne Imaging Sensors. This talk will summarize the measured scientific performance of these detector prototypes for astrophysical and cosmological applications.

  6. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  7. European Community Projects on Surface Electromyography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    surface EMG and provided insight in muscular disorders in computer users. Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker (NEW, 2001-2004) will apply...sport and geriatric medicine. Keywords - electromyography, surface EMG, fine wire EMG, needle EMG, muscles, European Union I. INTRODUCTION...Pullman et al. [3] are “SEMG is considered unacceptable as a clinical t ool i n the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease at t his time.” a nd “SEMG

  8. MeshTV: scientific visualization and graphical analysis software

    SciTech Connect

    Brugger, E S; Roberts, L; Wookey, S G

    1999-02-08

    The increasing data complexity engendered by the Accelerated Scientific Computing Initiative (ASCI) requires more capability in our scientific visualization software. B Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) addresses these new and changing requirements with MeshTV. We began work on MeshTV around eight years ago, and have progressively refined the software to provide improved scientific analysis and visualization to well over 100 users at Liver-more, Los Alamos, Sandia, and in private industry. (U)

  9. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  10. EUDAT and EPOS moving towards the efficient management of scientific data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiameni, Giuseppe; Bailo, Daniele; Cacciari, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    This abstract presents the collaboration between the European Collaborative Data Infrastructure (EUDAT) and the pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science (EPOS) which draws on the management of scientific data sets through a reciprocal support agreement. EUDAT is a Consortium of European Data Centers and Scientific Communities whose focus is the development and realisation of the Collaborative Data Infrastructure (CDI), a common model for managing data spanning all European research data centres and data repositories and providing an interoperable layer of common data services. The EUDAT Service Suite is a set of a) implementations of the CDI model and b) standards, developed and offered by members of the EUDAT Consortium. These EUDAT Services include a baseline of CDI-compliant interface and API services - a "CDI Gateway" - plus a number of web-based GUIs and command-line client tools. On the other hand,the EPOS initiative aims at creating a pan-European infrastructure for the solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. In accordance with this scientific vision, the mission of EPOS is to integrate the diverse and advanced European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth Science relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and unravel the dynamic and complex Earth System. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through the integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. To achieve this integration challenge and the

  11. EST: The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.

    2008-09-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project for a 4 meter-class ground-based telescope, to be located in the Canary Islands. The project is promoted by the European Association for Solar Telescopes (EAST), a consortium formed by research organizations from 15 European countries. EST will be optimized for studies of magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. The project has been approved for funds by the European Union, within the FP-7 framework, to produce the design of all systems and subsystems of the telescope during the next three years. This includes the optical and optomechanical design of the telescope itself and of the instruments and their control. MCAO will be included in the optical path in a natural way to compensate for atmospheric disturbances in an optimum way. The design of EST will strongly emphasize the use of a large number of visible and near-infrared instruments simultaneously which will influence the telescope design from the very beginning. This communication will center mainly on the scientific objectives that EST will address. Generally speaking, they involve understanding how the magnetic field emerges through the solar surface, interacts with the plasma dynamics to transfer energy between different regions, and finally releases it in the form of heat or as violent events in the solar chromosphere and corona. Among the many topics of interest, one may cite, as described in the EST Science Requirements Document: small-scale flux emergence in quiet sun regions, large-scale magnetic structures, magnetic flux cancellation processes, polar magnetic fields, magnetic topology of the photosphere and chromosphere, conversion of mechanical to magnetic energy in the photosphere, wave propagation from photosphere to chromosphere, energy dissipation in the chromosphere at small and large scales, etc. The present status and future perspectives of the project will also be outlined.

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source user`s manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beamlines. Fifth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1993-04-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source is based, in large part, on the size of the user community and the diversity of the scientific and technical disciplines represented by these users. As evidence of this success, the VUV Ring has just celebrated its 10th anniversary and the X-ray Ring will do the same in 1995. In order to enhance this success, the NSLS User`s Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beamlines - Fifth Edition, is being published. This Manual presents to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture, capabilities and research programs of the various VUV and X-ray beamlines. Also detailed is the research and computer equipment a General User can expect to find and use at each beamline when working at the NSLS. The Manual is updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes on these beamlines.

  13. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace".

  14. An Experiment in Scientific Program Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.; Owen, Karl (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, independent expert parsers. These semantic parsers encode domain knowledge and recognize formulae in different disciplines including physics, numerical methods, mathematics, and geometry. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and help locate some program semantic errors. Results are shown for three intensively studied codes and seven blind test cases; all test cases are state of the art scientific codes. These techniques may apply to a wider range of scientific codes. If so, the techniques could reduce the time, risk, and effort required to develop and modify scientific codes.

  15. European emission inventories—a proposal of international worksharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübkert, B.; Zierock, K.-H.

    For several years, a number of different national and international organizations or research programmes have been working in parallel—and with rather limited practical co-operation—in the field of emission inventory compilation. Most relevant for the purpose of this paper is work carried out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) of the United Nations (UN) and the Dutch/German PHOXA project. There is a clear interest for the main European organizations and their member states to organize an international worksharing for the next work phase in elaborating one European emission data base. The inventories being worked out by the organizations listed, cover almost the same pollutants for the same base year(s) and, even more important, most institutions or research projects plan to continue their efforts in one or the other way. On the other hand, the inventories differ considerably with respect to (a) the spatial and temporal disaggregation of the data, (b) the source categories included; and (c) the emission factors used. A co-ordinated action in order to set up a system of regular emission data compilation would, therefore, need to try to harmonize these technical parameters. In order to serve as a tool for the international organizations, the European Community, and the Member States as well as to the public at large, a regular European emission inventory should be fully recognized by all users as reliable information. It should therefore fulfil the following requirements: (a) it must be complete; (b) it must be understandable; (c) it must be up-to-date; (d) it must be flexible in its structure; and (e) it must be based upon harmonized sets of technical definitions (source categories, emission factors, etc.). In order to comply with these points, one has to set up an appropriate working structure. The main characteristics of this structure

  16. The Institute for Scientific Information Electronic Library Project: Partnering as the Predominant Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trolley, Jacqueline H.; Cody, Julianne W.

    1997-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information Electronic Library Project (ELP) is a result of user demand for electronic access to scientific journal literature as well as to those journals themselves. This article describes the ELP; examines ELP's partnerships with technological organizations, publishers, librarians, and users; and discusses two core…

  17. NASTRAN: Users' experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the experiences of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's experience, and (6) system experience. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.

  18. User's Guide for SKETCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgley, David R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A user's guide for the computer program SKETCH is presented on this disk. SKETCH solves a popular problem in computer graphics-the removal of hidden lines from images of solid objects. Examples and illustrations are included in the guide. Also included is the SKETCH program, so a user can incorporate the information into a particular software system.

  19. LANES 1 Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.

    1985-01-01

    This document is intended for users of the Local Area Network Extensible Simulator, version I. This simulator models the performance of a Fiber Optic network under a variety of loading conditions and network characteristics. The options available to the user for defining the network conditions are described in this document. Computer hardware and software requirements are also defined.

  20. User Language Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-30

    this can be assisted by using an automated complaint log for user comments. User acceptance of a language is almost impossible to verify in the...of libaries of pro- grams where each library represents a coherent set of data types and parameterized nodes which operate on those types. * Allow

  1. SOSS User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Gridnev, Sergei; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    This User Guide describes SOSS (Surface Operations Simulator and Scheduler) software build and graphic user interface. SOSS is a desktop application that simulates airport surface operations in fast time using traffic management algorithms. It moves aircraft on the airport surface based on information provided by scheduling algorithm prototypes, monitors separation violation and scheduling conformance, and produces scheduling algorithm performance data.

  2. KDYNA user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Levatin, J.A.L.; Attia, A.V.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1990-09-28

    This report is a complete user's manual for KDYNA, the Earth Sciences version of DYNA2D. Because most features of DYNA2D have been retained in KDYNA much of this manual is identical to the DYNA2D user's manual.

  3. Museology and Scientific Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunier, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the period of transition and self examination of the museology of science. Defines the main issues and limits of the museum as a means of transmitting a scientific culture and scientific ways. (Author/RT)

  4. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Experts on the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel provide independent scientific advice to the EPA on a wide range of health and safety issues related to pesticides.

  5. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    PubMed

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories.

  6. User interface support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Clayton; Wilde, Nick

    1989-01-01

    Space construction will require heavy investment in the development of a wide variety of user interfaces for the computer-based tools that will be involved at every stage of construction operations. Using today's technology, user interface development is very expensive for two reasons: (1) specialized and scarce programming skills are required to implement the necessary graphical representations and complex control regimes for high-quality interfaces; (2) iteration on prototypes is required to meet user and task requirements, since these are difficult to anticipate with current (and foreseeable) design knowledge. We are attacking this problem by building a user interface development tool based on extensions to the spreadsheet model of computation. The tool provides high-level support for graphical user interfaces and permits dynamic modification of interfaces, without requiring conventional programming concepts and skills.

  7. The PANTHER User Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Coram, Jamie L.; Morrow, James D.; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  8. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  9. User`s guide to MIDAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tisue, S.A.; Williams, N.B.; Huber, C.C.; Chun, K.C.

    1995-12-01

    Welcome to the MIDAS User`s Guide. This document describes the goals of the Munitions Items Disposition Action System (MIDAS) program and documents the MIDAS software. The main text first describes the equipment and software you need to run MIDAS and tells how to install and start it. It lists the contents of the database and explains how it is organized. Finally, it tells how to perform various functions, such as locating, entering, viewing, deleting, changing, transferring, and printing both textual and graphical data. Images of the actual computer screens accompany these explanations and guidelines. Appendix A contains a glossary of names for the various abbreviations, codes, and chemicals; Appendix B is a list of modem names; Appendix C provides a database dictionary and rules for entering data; and Appendix D describes procedures for troubleshooting problems associated with connecting to the MIDAS server and using MIDAS.

  10. MFIX documentation: User`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Syamlal, M.

    1994-11-01

    MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase exchanges) is a general-purpose hydro-dynamic model for describing chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, which typically occur in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. MFIX calculations give time-dependent information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. The theoretical basis of the calculations is described in the MFIX Theory Guide. This report, which is the MFIX User`s Manual, gives an overview of the numerical technique, and describes how to install the MFIX code and post-processing codes, set up data files and run MFIX, graphically analyze MFIX results, and retrieve data from the output files. Two tutorial problems that highlight various features of MFIX are also discussed.

  11. Perspectives on distributed computing : thirty people, four user types, and the distributed computing user experience.

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, L.; Liming, L.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-10-15

    This report summarizes the methodology and results of a user perspectives study conducted by the Community Driven Improvement of Globus Software (CDIGS) project. The purpose of the study was to document the work-related goals and challenges facing today's scientific technology users, to record their perspectives on Globus software and the distributed-computing ecosystem, and to provide recommendations to the Globus community based on the observations. Globus is a set of open source software components intended to provide a framework for collaborative computational science activities. Rather than attempting to characterize all users or potential users of Globus software, our strategy has been to speak in detail with a small group of individuals in the scientific community whose work appears to be the kind that could benefit from Globus software, learn as much as possible about their work goals and the challenges they face, and describe what we found. The result is a set of statements about specific individuals experiences. We do not claim that these are representative of a potential user community, but we do claim to have found commonalities and differences among the interviewees that may be reflected in the user community as a whole. We present these as a series of hypotheses that can be tested by subsequent studies, and we offer recommendations to Globus developers based on the assumption that these hypotheses are representative. Specifically, we conducted interviews with thirty technology users in the scientific community. We included both people who have used Globus software and those who have not. We made a point of including individuals who represent a variety of roles in scientific projects, for example, scientists, software developers, engineers, and infrastructure providers. The following material is included in this report: (1) A summary of the reported work-related goals, significant issues, and points of satisfaction with the use of Globus software; (2

  12. Quality user support: Supporting quality users

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    During the past decade, fundamental changes have occurred in technical computing in the oil industry. Technical computing systems have moved from local, fragmented quantity, to global, integrated, quality. The compute power available to the average geoscientist at his desktop has grown exponentially. Technical computing applications have increased in integration and complexity. At the same time, there has been a significant change in the work force due to the pressures of restructuring, and the increased focus on international opportunities. The profile of the user of technical computing resources has changed. Users are generally more mature, knowledgeable, and team oriented than their predecessors. In the 1990s, computer literacy is a requirement. This paper describes the steps taken by Oryx Energy Company to address the problems and opportunities created by the explosive growth in computing power and needs, coupled with the contraction of the business. A successful user support strategy will be described. Characteristics of the program include: (1) Client driven support; (2) Empowerment of highly skilled professionals to fill the support role; (3) Routine and ongoing modification to the support plan; (4) Utilization of the support assignment to create highly trained advocates on the line; (5) Integration of the support role to the reservoir management team. Results of the plan include a highly trained work force, stakeholder teams that include support personnel, and global support from a centralized support organization.

  13. Aztec user`s guide. Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    Aztec is an iterative library that greatly simplifies the parallelization process when solving the linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. Aztec is intended as a software tool for users who want to avoid cumbersome parallel programming details but who have large sparse linear systems which require an efficiently utilized parallel processing system. A collection of data transformation tools are provided that allow for easy creation of distributed sparse unstructured matrices for parallel solution. Once the distributed matrix is created, computation can be performed on any of the parallel machines running Aztec: nCUBE 2, IBM SP2 and Intel Paragon, MPI platforms as well as standard serial and vector platforms. Aztec includes a number of Krylov iterative methods such as conjugate gradient (CG), generalized minimum residual (GMRES) and stabilized biconjugate gradient (BICGSTAB) to solve systems of equations. These Krylov methods are used in conjunction with various preconditioners such as polynomial or domain decomposition methods using LU or incomplete LU factorizations within subdomains. Although the matrix A can be general, the package has been designed for matrices arising from the approximation of partial differential equations (PDEs). In particular, the Aztec package is oriented toward systems arising from PDE applications.

  14. Leveling the Playing Field for Users with Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, C. M.; Ahern, T. K.; Karstens, R.; Weertman, B.; Suleiman, Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The dawn of digital seismological data recording began approximately 4 decades ago. Since then multiple networks of seismological recording stations have and continue to exist. It is common for each network to operate a data center to store and distribute the collected data. Increasingly there are data centers that archive and distribute data produced by multiple networks and organizations. The modern landscape for seismological data users consists of many data centers spread across the globe offering a variety of data. Luckily most of these centers exchange data in standard formats defined by the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN). Working with our partners in the FDSN, the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) developed specifications for 3 standard web service interfaces that are intended to provide an abstraction layer on each center's customized data management system. These services provide access to seismological time series data, related metadata and event (earthquake) parameters. An important part of the interface design is to adhere to web standards and common conventions, which allows use of ubiquitous web client software and toolkits. Another critical design criteria is simple usage, we recognize that our user base is scientific data consumers and not necessarily technologists. The IRIS DMC has implemented each of these 3 service interfaces and made the common software components freely available. Under the NSF's EarthScope program and within the international COOPEUS project, the DMC worked with European partners to help install these standardized interfaces on their own data management systems. One key development was the addition of these web services to the SeisComP3 data handling system, which is common in many seismological data centers, especially in Europe. The combination of standardized data formats and access interfaces removes the need for complex request brokers that translate between centers. Instead, it allows

  15. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Walter, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system.

  16. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F.; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R.; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems• Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space• Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life• Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability• Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. Key Words: Astrobiology roadmap—Europe—Origin and evolution of life—Habitability—Life detection—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 16, 201–243. PMID:27003862

  17. Radiological Toolbox User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, KF

    2004-07-01

    A toolbox of radiological data has been assembled to provide users access to the physical, chemical, anatomical, physiological and mathematical data relevant to the radiation protection of workers and member of the public. The software runs on a PC and provides users, through a single graphical interface, quick access to contemporary data and the means to extract these data for further computations and analysis. The numerical data, for the most part, are stored within databases in SI units. However, the user can display and extract values using non-SI units. This is the first release of the toolbox which was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  18. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  19. An European framework for the long term preservation of EO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcada, E.; Albani, M.; Beruti, V.

    2009-04-01

    The need for accessing historical Earth Observation (EO) data series strongly increased in the last ten years, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. This trend is likely to increase even more in the future in particular for the growing interest on global change monitoring that requires data time-series spanning 20 years and more, and for the need to support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Content of EO data archives is extending from a few years to decades and their scientific value is continuously increasing hence is well recognized the need to preserve them without time limitation and to keep the archived EO data well accessible and exploitable as they constitute a humankind asset. The large amount of new Earth Observation missions upcoming in the next years will moreover lead to a major increase of EO data volumes. This fact, together with the increased demands from the scientific user community, marks a challenge for Earth Observation satellite operators, Space Agencies and EO data providers regarding coherent data preservation and optimum availability and accessibility of the different data products. Traditionally in Europe, there has been poor cooperation in this field with no common approach for long term preservation and access to EO space data even if cooperation and sharing are key aspects to be pursued for the benefit of the user community. Single organizations have difficulties to afford data preservation in the long term that calls for the need of optimising costs and efforts, identifying commonalities. In 2006, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated a coordination action to share among all the European (and Canadian) stakeholders a common approach to the long term preservation of Earth Observation data. During 2007, the Agency started consultations with its Member States presenting an EO Long Term Data Preservation (LTDP) strategy targeting the preservation of all European

  20. SCE: Grid Environment for Scientific Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Haili; Wu, Hong; Chi, Xuebin

    Over the last few years Grid computing has evolved into an innovating technology and gotten increased commercial adoption. However, existing Grids do not have enough users as for sustainable development in the long term. This paper proposes several suggestions to this problem on the basis of long-term experience and careful analysis. The Scientific Computing Environment (SCE) in the Chinese Academy of Sciences is introduced as a completely new model and a feasible solution to this problem.

  1. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  2. Interactive Office user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.

    1990-01-01

    Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

  3. EPA User Personas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how EPA's three web user personas (Information Consumer, Information Intermediary, and Information Interpreter) can help you identify appropriate top audiences and top tasks for a topic or web area.

  4. Bevalac user's handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This report is a users manual on the Bevalac accelerator facility. This paper discuses: general information; the Bevalac and its operation; major facilities and experimental areas; and experimental equipment.

  5. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  6. ULDA user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Charleen; Driessen, Cornelius; Pasian, Fabio

    1989-01-01

    The Uniform Low Dispersion Archive (ULDA) is a software system which, in one sitting, allows one to obtain copies on one's personal computer of those International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) low dispersion spectra that are of interest to the user. Overviews and use instructions are given for two programs, one to search for and select spectra, and the other to convert those spectra into a form suitable for the user's image processing system.

  7. Hanford inventory program user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-09-12

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS.

  8. Fifth Annual Meeting of the Advanced Light Source User`s Association

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS Project Status; Accelerator Commissioning; Experimental Systems: Supersmooth Optics and Ultra-Precise Undulators; Planning for Users and User Services; ALS Scientific Program; High Resolution Core-Level Photoemission; Photoelectron Diffraction and Holography; Soft X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy of Solids at the NSLS and the ALS; Gas-Phase Spectrometry; Spectromicroscopy; X-Ray Dichroism Experiments Using Circular Polarization; Magnetic Circular X-Ray Dichroism and MCXD Microscopy; Applications of Soft X-Ray Optics to Sub-Micron Silicon Device Technology; Bend Magnet Microprobe; Protein Crystallography: Recent Developments and Plans for the ALS; and Applications of High-Brightness Synchrotron Radiation to Protein Crystallography.

  9. Scientific integrity memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama signed a presidential memorandum on 9 March to help restore scientific integrity in government decision making. The memorandum directs the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to develop a strategy within 120 days that ensures that "the selection of scientists and technology professionals for science and technology positions in the executive branch is based on those individuals' scientific and technological knowledge, credentials, and experience; agencies make available to the public the scientific or technological findings or conclusions considered or relied upon in policy decisions; agencies use scientific and technological information that has been subject to well-established scientific processes such as peer review; and agencies have appropriate rules and procedures to ensure the integrity of the scientific process within the agency, including whistleblower protection."

  10. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  11. The European Network of Analytical and Experimental Laboratories for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freda, Carmela; Funiciello, Francesca; Meredith, Phil; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Troll, Valentin R.; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2013-04-01

    Integrating Earth Sciences infrastructures in Europe is the mission of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS).The integration of European analytical, experimental, and analogue laboratories plays a key role in this context and is the task of the EPOS Working Group 6 (WG6). Despite the presence in Europe of high performance infrastructures dedicated to geosciences, there is still limited collaboration in sharing facilities and best practices. The EPOS WG6 aims to overcome this limitation by pushing towards national and trans-national coordination, efficient use of current laboratory infrastructures, and future aggregation of facilities not yet included. This will be attained through the creation of common access and interoperability policies to foster and simplify personnel mobility. The EPOS ambition is to orchestrate European laboratory infrastructures with diverse, complementary tasks and competences into a single, but geographically distributed, infrastructure for rock physics, palaeomagnetism, analytical and experimental petrology and volcanology, and tectonic modeling. The WG6 is presently organizing its thematic core services within the EPOS distributed research infrastructure with the goal of joining the other EPOS communities (geologists, seismologists, volcanologists, etc...) and stakeholders (engineers, risk managers and other geosciences investigators) to: 1) develop tools and services to enhance visitor programs that will mutually benefit visitors and hosts (transnational access); 2) improve support and training activities to make facilities equally accessible to students, young researchers, and experienced users (training and dissemination); 3) collaborate in sharing technological and scientific know-how (transfer of knowledge); 4) optimize interoperability of distributed instrumentation by standardizing data collection, archive, and quality control standards (data preservation and interoperability); 5) implement a unified e-Infrastructure for data

  12. Inter-disciplinary European guidelines on surgery of severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Fried, M; Hainer, V; Basdevant, A; Buchwald, H; Deitel, M; Finer, N; Greve, J W M; Horber, F; Mathus-Vliegen, E; Scopinaro, N; Steffen, R; Tsigos, C; Weiner, R; Widhalm, K

    2007-04-01

    In 2005, for the first time in European history, an extraordinary Expert panel named 'The BSCG' (Bariatric Scientific Collaborative Group), was appointed through joint effort of the major European Scientific Societies which are active in the field of obesity management. Societies that constituted this panel were: IFSO - International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity, IFSO-EC - International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity - European Chapter, EASO - European Association for Study of Obesity, ECOG - European Childhood Obesity Group, together with the IOTF (International Obesity Task Force) which was represented during the completion process by its representative. The BSCG was composed not only of the top officers representing the respective Scientific Societies (four acting presidents, two past presidents, one honorary president, two executive directors), but was balanced with the presence of many other key opinion leaders in the field of obesity. The BSCG composition allowed the coverage of key disciplines in comprehensive obesity management, as well as reflecting European geographical and ethnic diversity. This joint BSCG expert panel convened several meetings which were entirely focused on guidelines creation, during the past two years. There was a specific effort to develop clinical guidelines, which will reflect current knowledge, expertise and evidence based data on morbid obesity treatment.

  13. Interdisciplinary European guidelines on surgery of severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Fried, Martin; Hainer, Vojtĕch; Basdevant, Arnaud; Buchwald, Henry; Deitel, Mervyn; Finer, Nicholas; Greve, Jan Willem M; Horber, Fritz; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth; Scopinaro, Nicola; Steffen, Rudolf; Tsigos, Constantine; Weiner, Rudolf; Widhalm, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, for the first time in European history, an extraordinary expert panel named BSCG (Bariatric Scientific Collaborative Group), was appointed through joint effort of the major European scientific societies which are active in the field of obesity management. Societies that constituted this panel were: IFSO - International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity, IFSO-EC - International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity - European Chapter, EASO - European Association for Study of Obesity, ECOG - European Childhood Obesity Group, together with the IOTF (International Obesity Task Force) which was represented during the completion process by its representative. The BSCG was composed not only of the top officers representing the respective scientific societies (four acting presidents, two past presidents, one honorary president, two executive directors), but was balanced with the presence of many other key opinion leaders in the field of obesity. The BSCG composition allowed the coverage of key disciplines in comprehensive obesity management, as well as reflecting European geographical and ethnic diversity. This joint BSCG expert panel convened several meetings which were entirely focused on guidelines creation, during the past 2 years. There was a specific effort to develop clinical guidelines, which will reflect current knowledge, expertise and evidence based data on morbid obesity treatment.

  14. Globus-based Services for the Hydro-Meteorology Scientific Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Ioan-Lucian; Hofmann, Matthias; Heller, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Scientific workflows in hydro-meteorology involve multiple applications with varying computational requirements. These are best met by different e-Infrastructures in Europe: sequential codes with modest requirements are well suited to resources offered in EGI (European Grid Infrastructure) while parallelized, computationally demanding codes have to run on PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) resources. Access to major Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI) in Europe such as PRACE and EGI is provided by means of grid middleware like Globus, which is available in both eInfrastructures and thus can bridge between them. The consortium "Initiative for Globus in Europe" (IGE - http://www.ige-project.eu) and its community body EGCF (http://www.egcf.eu) act as European provider for Globus technology, offering the resource providers and scientific user communities professional services such as Globus software provisioning and certification, training and documentation, and community software adaptation to Globus technology. This presentation will cover the following two parts: an outline of the IGE/EGCF services for the DRIHM community and an introduction to data handling with Globus Online, with emphasis on the achievements to date. The set of Globus-centered services of potential interest to the hydro-meteorology community have been identified to be: Globus support for: data access and handling: GridFTP, Globus Online, Globus Connect, Globus Storage; computing: GRAM for submission of parallel jobs to PRACE or of high-throughput jobs to EGI; accounting: tracking the usage records with GridSAFE. Infrastructure and workflow integration support such as: setup of virtual organizations for DRIHM community; access to EGI and PRACE infrastructures via Globus-based tools; investigation of workflow interoperability technologies (such as SHIWA). Furthermore, IGE successfully provides access to test bed resources where developers of the DRIHM community can port

  15. The StratusLab cloud distribution: Use-cases and support for scientific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floros, E.

    2012-04-01

    The StratusLab project is integrating an open cloud software distribution that enables organizations to setup and provide their own private or public IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) computing clouds. StratusLab distribution capitalizes on popular infrastructure virtualization solutions like KVM, the OpenNebula virtual machine manager, Claudia service manager and SlipStream deployment platform, which are further enhanced and expanded with additional components developed within the project. The StratusLab distribution covers the core aspects of a cloud IaaS architecture, namely Computing (life-cycle management of virtual machines), Storage, Appliance management and Networking. The resulting software stack provides a packaged turn-key solution for deploying cloud computing services. The cloud computing infrastructures deployed using StratusLab can support a wide range of scientific and business use cases. Grid computing has been the primary use case pursued by the project and for this reason the initial priority has been the support for the deployment and operation of fully virtualized production-level grid sites; a goal that has already been achieved by operating such a site as part of EGI's (European Grid Initiative) pan-european grid infrastructure. In this area the project is currently working to provide non-trivial capabilities like elastic and autonomic management of grid site resources. Although grid computing has been the motivating paradigm, StratusLab's cloud distribution can support a wider range of use cases. Towards this direction, we have developed and currently provide support for setting up general purpose computing solutions like Hadoop, MPI and Torque clusters. For what concerns scientific applications the project is collaborating closely with the Bioinformatics community in order to prepare VM appliances and deploy optimized services for bioinformatics applications. In a similar manner additional scientific disciplines like Earth Science can take

  16. Scientific Journalism in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, the problems of scientific journalism and activities of Armenian science journalists are presented. Scientific journalism in the world, forms of its activities, Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) press-releases and their subjects, ArAS website "Mass Media News" section, annual and monthly calendars of astronomical events, and "Astghagitak" online journal are described. Most interesting astronomical subjects involved in scientific journalism, reasons for non-satisfactory science outreach and possible solutions are discussed.

  17. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  18. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Ballentine, C. J.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Slater, G.; Moser, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey distribution of European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieschke, Renee L.

    2017-03-31

    A partnership established between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) allows for USGS storage and redistribution of images acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) on the European Union's Sentinel-2 satellite mission. The MSI data are acquired from a pair of satellites, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, which are part of a larger set of ESA missions focusing on different aspects of Earth observation. The primary purpose of the Sentinel-2 series is to collect multispectral imagery over the Earth’s land surfaces, large islands, and inland and coastal waters. Sentinel-2A was launched in 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in 2017.The collaborative effort between ESA and USGS provides for public access and redistribution of global acquisitions of Sentinel-2 data at no cost, which allows users to download the MSI imagery from USGS access systems such as Earth- Explorer, in addition to the ESA Sentinels Scientific Data Hub. The MSI sensor acquires 13 spectral bands that are highly complementary to data acquired by the USGS Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The product options from USGS include a Full-Resolution Browse (FRB) image product generated by USGS, along with a 100-kilometer (km) by 100-km tile-based Level-1C top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product that is very similar (but not identical) to the currently (2017) distributed ESA Level 1C product.

  20. Sustainable access to data, products, services and software from the European seismological Research Infrastructures: the EPOS TCS Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, Florian; Dupont, Aurelien; Michelini, Alberto; Rietbrock, Andreas; Sleeman, Reinoud; Wiemer, Stefan; Basili, Roberto; Bossu, Rémy; Cakti, Eser; Cotton, Fabrice; Crawford, Wayne; Diaz, Jordi; Garth, Tom; Locati, Mario; Luzi, Lucia; Pinho, Rui; Pitilakis, Kyriazis; Strollo, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Easy, efficient and comprehensive access to data, data products, scientific services and scientific software is a key ingredient in enabling research at the frontiers of science. Organizing this access across the European Research Infrastructures in the field of seismology, so that it best serves user needs, takes advantage of state-of-the-art ICT solutions, provides cross-domain interoperability, and is organizationally and financially sustainable in the long term, is the core challenge of the implementation phase of the Thematic Core Service (TCS) Seismology within the EPOS-IP project. Building upon the existing European-level infrastructures ORFEUS for seismological waveforms, EMSC for seismological products, and EFEHR for seismological hazard and risk information, and implementing a pilot Computational Earth Science service starting from the results of the VERCE project, the work within the EPOS-IP project focuses on improving and extending the existing services, aligning them with global developments, to at the end produce a well coordinated framework that is technically, organizationally, and financially integrated with the EPOS architecture. This framework needs to respect the roles and responsibilities of the underlying national research infrastructures that are the data owners and main providers of data and products, and allow for active input and feedback from the (scientific) user community. At the same time, it needs to remain flexible enough to cope with unavoidable challenges in the availability of resources and dynamics of contributors. The technical work during the next years is organized in four areas: - constructing the next generation software architecture for the European Integrated (waveform) Data Archive EIDA, developing advanced metadata and station information services, fully integrate strong motion waveforms and derived parametric engineering-domain data, and advancing the integration of mobile (temporary) networks and OBS deployments in

  1. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  2. The intelligent user interface for NASA's advanced information management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Short, Nicholas, Jr.; Rolofs, Larry H.; Wattawa, Scott L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Intelligent Data Management Project to design and develop advanced information management systems. The project's primary goal is to formulate, design and develop advanced information systems that are capable of supporting the agency's future space research and operational information management needs. The first effort of the project was the development of a prototype Intelligent User Interface to an operational scientific database, using expert systems and natural language processing technologies. An overview of Intelligent User Interface formulation and development is given.

  3. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  4. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; de Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  5. A user-system interface agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakim, Nagi T.; Srivastava, Sadanand; Bousaidi, Mehdi; Goh, Gin-Hua

    1995-01-01

    Agent-based technologies answer to several challenges posed by additional information processing requirements in today's computing environments. In particular, (1) users desire interaction with computing devices in a mode which is similar to that used between people, (2) the efficiency and successful completion of information processing tasks often require a high-level of expertise in complex and multiple domains, (3) information processing tasks often require handling of large volumes of data and, therefore, continuous and endless processing activities. The concept of an agent is an attempt to address these new challenges by introducing information processing environments in which (1) users can communicate with a system in a natural way, (2) an agent is a specialist and a self-learner and, therefore, it qualifies to be trusted to perform tasks independent of the human user, and (3) an agent is an entity that is continuously active performing tasks that are either delegated to it or self-imposed. The work described in this paper focuses on the development of an interface agent for users of a complex information processing environment (IPE). This activity is part of an on-going effort to build a model for developing agent-based information systems. Such systems will be highly applicable to environments which require a high degree of automation, such as, flight control operations and/or processing of large volumes of data in complex domains, such as the EOSDIS environment and other multidisciplinary, scientific data systems. The concept of an agent as an information processing entity is fully described with emphasis on characteristics of special interest to the User-System Interface Agent (USIA). Issues such as agent 'existence' and 'qualification' are discussed in this paper. Based on a definition of an agent and its main characteristics, we propose an architecture for the development of interface agents for users of an IPE that is agent-oriented and whose resources

  6. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  7. TWEAT `95: User`s documentation update

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, B.; Lambert, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report is designed to be a supplement to TWEAT`94 (PVTD-C94-05.01K Rev.1). It is intended to describe the primary features of the Ternary Waste Envelope Assessment Tool software package that have been added in FY`95 and how to use them. It contains only minimal duplication of information found in TWEAT`94 even though all features of TWEAT`94 will still be available. Emphasis on this Update is the binary plotting capability and the OWL Import modifications. Like it`s predecessors, this manual does not provide instructions for modifying the program code itself. The user of TWEAT`95 is expected to be familiar with the basic concepts and operation of the TWEAT software as discussed in TWEAT`94. Software and hardware requirements have not changed since TWEAT`94. TWEAT has now been tested using Macintosh System software versions 6.05 through 7.5.

  8. Evaluating User Participation and User Influence in an Enterprise System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Does user influence have an impact on the data quality of an information systems development project? What decision making should users have? How can users effectively be engaged in the process? What is success? User participation is considered to be a critical success factor for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects, yet there is little…

  9. Creating User-Centered Instructions for Novice End-Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahl, Diane

    1999-01-01

    Discusses written instructional materials created by librarians for end users searching database systems. Highlights include novice user studies; the importance of print instruction in digital information environments; a paradigm shift from system-centered to user-centered focuses in technical writing and user documentation for software; and…

  10. Is there any legal and scientific basis for classifying electronic cigarettes as medications?

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Stimson, Gerry V

    2014-05-01

    The rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes has been accompanied by substantial discussions by governments, international organisations, consumers and public health experts about how they might be regulated. In the European Union they are currently regulated under consumer legislation but new legislation will regulate them under the Tobacco Products Directive. However, several countries have sought to regulate them under medicines regulations. These claims have been successfully challenged in 6 court cases in European states. Under European legislation a product may be deemed to be a medicine by function if it is used in or administered to human beings either with a view to restoring, correcting or modifying physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action, or to making a medical diagnosis. It is a medicine by presentation if it is presented (e.g. by a manufacturer or distributor) as having properties for treating or preventing disease in human beings. We assess the legal and scientific basis for the claim that electronic cigarettes should be regulated as medicines. We conclude that they are neither medicine by function nor necessarily by presentation The main reason for their existence is as a harm reduction product in which the liking for and/or dependence on nicotine is maintained, and adoption of use is as a substitute for smoking and not as a smoking cessation product. In reality, they are used as consumer products providing pleasure to the user. They are not used to treat nicotine addiction or other disease, but to enable continued use of nicotine. Their use is adjusted individually by each consumer according to his or her perceived pleasure and satisfaction. Gaps in current regulation regarding safety and quality can be met by tailored regulations.

  11. Scientific Notation Watercolor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…

  12. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    PubMed

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly.

  13. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Departments and Agencies Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of my..., and protection of national security. The public must be able to trust the science and scientific..., and integrity. By this memorandum, I assign to the Director of the Office of Science and...

  14. End User Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, Caroline; Lunn, Darren; Michailidou, Eleni

    As new technologies emerge, and Web sites become increasingly sophisticated, ensuring they remain accessible to disabled and small-screen users is a major challenge. While guidelines and automated evaluation tools are useful for informing some aspects of Web site design, numerous studies have demonstrated that they provide no guarantee that the site is genuinely accessible. The only reliable way to evaluate the accessibility of a site is to study the intended users interacting with it. This chapter outlines the processes that can be used throughout the design life cycle to ensure Web accessibility, describing their strengths and weaknesses, and discussing the practical and ethical considerations that they entail. The chapter also considers an important emerging trend in user evaluations: combining data from studies of “standard” Web use with data describing existing accessibility issues, to drive accessibility solutions forward.

  15. GRSAC Users Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-02-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model.

  16. Listening to the user: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    The managers of the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System consistently maintain that whatever scientific and technical information services and products are provided must be geared primarily to user needs and not simply system compatibility and convenience. A system evaluation study begun in 1973 and continued to the present is described. The thrust of this on-going examination is to regularly evaluate the usefulness of the present information system to those it is intended to serve, engineers and scientists working in their professional roles, and to identify areas and ways in which the system can be made more responsive to user needs. Techniques used have covered the range from personal, in-depth interviews to widely distributed questionnaires. The findings have been positive. Many refinements made to on-going programs and projects and new endeavors begun in direct response to stated user needs are discussed. In the main these needs are not unreasonable and thus can be responded to with cost effective system modifications.

  17. The European experience.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Rahmel, Axel

    2011-04-01

    This mini-review on European experiences with tackling the problem of organ shortage for transplantation was based on a literature review of predominantly European publications dealing with the issue of organ donation from deceased donors. The authors tried to identify the most significant factors that have demonstrated to impact on donation rates from deceased donors and subsequent transplant successes. These factors include legislative measures (national laws and European Directives), optimization of the donation process, use of expanded criteria donors, innovative preservation and surgical techniques, organizational efforts, and improved allocation algorithms.

  18. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  19. CARE 3 User's Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A user's workshop for CARE 3, a reliability assessment tool designed and developed especially for the evaluation of high reliability fault tolerant digital systems, was held at NASA Langley Research Center on October 6 to 7, 1987. The main purpose of the workshop was to assess the evolutionary status of CARE 3. The activities of the workshop are documented and papers are included by user's of CARE 3 and NASA. Features and limitations of CARE 3 and comparisons to other tools are presented. The conclusions to a workshop questionaire are also discussed.

  20. RADTRAN 5 user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanipe, Frances L.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde

    2003-07-01

    This User Guide for the RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis describes basic risk concepts and provides the user with step-by-step directions for creating input files by means of either the RADDOG input file generator software or a text editor. It also contains information on how to interpret RADTRAN 5 output, how to obtain and use several types of important input data, and how to select appropriate analysis methods. Appendices include a glossary of terms, a listing of error messages, data-plotting information, images of RADDOG screens, and a table of all data in the internal radionuclide library.

  1. TIA Software User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Syed, Hazari I.

    1995-01-01

    This user's manual describes the installation and operation of TIA, the Thermal-Imaging acquisition and processing Application, developed by the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. TIA is a user friendly graphical interface application for the Macintosh 2 and higher series computers. The software has been developed to interface with the Perceptics/Westinghouse Pixelpipe(TM) and PixelStore(TM) NuBus cards and the GW Instruments MacADIOS(TM) input-output (I/O) card for the Macintosh for imaging thermal data. The software is also capable of performing generic image-processing functions.

  2. MERBoard User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Shab, Ted; Vera, Alonso; Gaswiller, Rich; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An important goal of MERBoard is to allow users to quickly and easily share information. The front-end interface is physically a large plasma computer display with a touch screen, allowing multiple people to interact shoulder-to-shoulder or in a small meeting area. The software system allows people to interactively create digital whiteboards, browse the web, give presentations and connect to personal computers (for example, to run applications not on the MERBoard computer itself). There are four major integrated applications: a browser; a remote connection to another computer (VNC); a digital whiteboard; and a digital space (MERSpace), which is a digital repository for each individual user.

  3. The LERIX User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Seidler, G.T.; Fister, T.T.; Cross, J.O.; Nagle, K.P.

    2007-01-18

    We describe the lower energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (LERIX) spectrometer, located at sector 20 PNC-XOR of the Advanced Photon Source. This instrument, which is now available to general users, is the first user facility optimized for high throughput measurements of momentum transfer dependent nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) from the core shell electrons of relatively light elements or the less-tightly bound electrons of heavier elements. By means of example, we present new NRIXS measurements of the near-edge structure for the L-edges of Al and the K-edge in Si.

  4. Annual meeting of the Advanced Light Source Users` Association

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report contains discussions on: Welcome to the annual meeting of the ALS User`s Association; overview of the ALS; the ALS into the 21st century; report from the DOE; scientific program at the ALS; plans for industrial use of the ALS; progress in beamline commissioning and overview of new projects; ALS user program; the fluorescent x-ray microprobe beamline at the ALS; the early days of x-ray optics; high-resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy; soft x-ray emission spectroscopy; x-ray dichroism; and application of VUV undulator beamline to chemical dynamics at the ALS.

  5. The NASA EOS User Services Offices: Supporting Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, E.; Schumacher, J.; Harrison, S.; Jones, C.; Klaassen, A.; Morris, K.; Sandoval, M.; Scott, D.; Wolf, V.; Farnham, J.

    2004-12-01

    The primary goal for NASA's Sun-Earth System Division is to use satellite remote sensing to examine the Sun and Earth as a single connected system. Within the Sun-Earth System Division, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is composed of a series of satellites, scientific research, and a data collection and management system known as EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS). EOSDIS has nine discipline-specific data centers that manage, document, archive, and distribute a variety of Earth system science data. The data centers provide an assortment of services to their data users via their User Services Offices (USO). The nine USOs communicate regularly by email, phone, and teleconference, and have meetings twice a year during which they analyze, discuss, and determine how to better serve the Earth science community. The sharing of information among USO representatives within the User Services Working Group (USWG) results in an understanding of user needs and problems with data sets within EOS. By identifying these needs, we can improve our services and data distribution methods for users, and advocate solutions on behalf of the user community to the EOS project. Each User Services Office provides timely assistance answering a variety of user questions about its data and services, assists users with their data orders, provides referrals to other data centers, and establishes data subscriptions when applicable. USO troubleshoots problems with data sets and data distribution, recommends and supports tools for data subsetting, searching and ordering, handling, and manipulation, and communicates user needs to data and software developers. The USO is each data center's interface to the public, and has many resources available to assist the user, including data set guide documents, science team members, and programmers. Additionally, the USWG represents the nine data centers in the OneNASA outreach effort. Users will always find ready support for NASA Earth science data

  6. GENESI-DR Portal: a scientific gateway to distributed repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Pedro; Brito, Fabrice; D'Andria, Fabio; Cossu, Roberto; Fusco, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) is a European Commission (EC)-funded project, kicked-off early 2008 lead by ESA; partners include Space Agencies (DLR, ASI, CNES), both space and no-space data providers such as ENEA (I), Infoterra (UK), K-SAT (N), NILU (N), JRC (EU) and industry as Elsag Datamat (I), CS (F) and TERRADUE (I). GENESI-DR intends to meet the challenge of facilitating "time to science" from different Earth Science disciplines in discovery, access and use (combining, integrating, processing, …) of historical and recent Earth-related data from space, airborne and in-situ sensors, which are archived in large distributed repositories. "Discovering" which data are available on a "geospatial web" is one of the main challenges ES scientists have to face today. Some well- known data sets are referred to in many places, available from many sources. For core information with a common purpose many copies are distributed, e.g., VMap0, Landsat, and SRTM. Other data sets in low or local demand may only be found in a few places and niche communities. Relevant services, results of analysis, applications and tools are accessible in a very scattered and uncoordinated way, often through individual initiatives from Earth Observation mission operators, scientific institutes dealing with ground measurements, service companies or data catalogues. In the discourse of Spatial Data Infrastructures, there are "catalogue services" - directories containing information on where spatial data and services can be found. For metadata "records" describing spatial data and services, there are "registries". The Geospatial industry coins specifications for search interfaces, where it might do better to reach out to other information retrieval and Internet communities. These considerations are the basis for the GENESI-DR scientific portal, which adopts a simple model allowing the geo-spatial classification and discovery of

  7. How will 2014 European Society of Cardiology Congress influence our daily practice?

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, M Birhan

    2014-12-01

    European Cardiology Congress which was held in Barcelona in this year; was a meeting with striking results of the presented scientific studies. Herein, a brief overview of congress highlights is presented.

  8. User Centric Policy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Gorrell P.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use, in general, and online social networking sites, in particular, are experiencing tremendous growth with hundreds of millions of active users. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of privacy information and content online. Protecting this information is a challenge. Access control policy composition is complex, laborious and…

  9. User Working Group Members

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    User Working Group Members   Mail for the entire group may be directed to:  larc-asdc-uwg@lists.nasa.gov   Member Status Affiliation E-mail Contact Bob Holz (Co-Chair in 2010) Co-Chair University of ...

  10. CTF Preprocessor User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Avramova, Maria; Salko, Robert K.

    2016-05-26

    This document describes how a user should go about using the CTF pre- processor tool to create an input deck for modeling rod-bundle geometry in CTF. The tool was designed to generate input decks in a quick and less error- prone manner for CTF. The pre-processor is a completely independent utility, written in Fortran, that takes a reduced amount of input from the user. The information that the user must supply is basic information on bundle geome- try, such as rod pitch, clad thickness, and axial location of spacer grids|the pre-processor takes this basic information and determines channel placement and connection information to be written to the input deck, which is the most time-consuming and error-prone segment of creating a deck. Creation of the model is also more intuitive, as the user can specify assembly and water-tube placement using visual maps instead of having to place them by determining channel/channel and rod/channel connections. As an example of the bene t of the pre-processor, a quarter-core model that contains 500,000 scalar-mesh cells was read into CTF from an input deck containing 200,000 lines of data. This 200,000 line input deck was produced automatically from a set of pre-processor decks that contained only 300 lines of data.

  11. Educating the Music User

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    To better serve students' evolving needs in music, music educators must connect classroom learning with how students use and interact with music in their daily lives. One way to accomplish this is by approaching classrooms with the music user in mind, which can open new possibilities for meaningful music making and remove students from the…

  12. User Authentication. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Terry, Comp.; Bleiler, Richard, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to examine the systems research libraries use to authenticate and authorize the users of their online networked information resources. A total of 52 of 121 ARL member libraries responded to…

  13. HEMPDS user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, K.H.

    1983-02-01

    HEMPDS, the double-slide version of two-dimensional HEMP, allows the intersection of slide lines and slide lines in any direction, thus making use of triangular zones. this revised user's manual aids the physicist, computer scientist, and computer technician in using, maintaining, and coverting HEMPDS. Equations, EOS models, and sample problems are included.

  14. Empowering the User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Terrence J.; Mechley, Victor P.

    With respect to the college's information systems, there were three major challenges facing Ohio's Cincinnati Technical College (CTC) in 1991. The expanding use of personal computers (PC's) and non-integrated systems often duplicated efforts and data on CTC's existing computer systems, users were demanding more access to data and more integration…

  15. User's guide to SSARRMENU

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, M.C.; Le, Thanh

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pierce County Department of Public Works, Washington, has developed an operational tool called the Puyallup Flood-Alert System to alert users of impending floods in the Puyallup River Basin. The system acquires and incorporates meteorological and hydrological data into the Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR) hydrologic flow-routing model to simulate floods in the Puyallup River Basin. SSARRMENU is the user-interactive graphical interface between the user, the input and output data, and the SSARR model. In a companion cooperative project with Pierce County, the SSARR model for the Puyallup River Basin was calibrated and validated. The calibrated model is accessed through SSARRMENU, which has been specifically programed for the Puyallup River and the needs of Pierce County. SSARRMENU automates the retrieval of data from ADAPS (Automated DAta Processing System, the U.S. Geological Survey?s real-time hydrologic database), formats the data for use with SSARR, initiates SSARR model runs, displays alerts for impending floods, and provides utilities to display the simulated and observed data. An on-screen map of the basin and a series of menu items provide the user wi

  16. Power User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  17. TOTAL user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  18. Future User Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedinger, Lee

    2002-10-01

    The southeastern part of the U.S. is blessed with an array of national user facilities that are accessible to scientists in the region. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates 17 officially designated user facilities for the Department of Energy, the Jefferson Lab operates the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), and a number of universities have forefront experimental facilities that are widely accessible. The long lead time necessary to originate and construct new user facilities makes it imperative to consider the needs of the physical sciences 10 to 20 years in the future. The construction of the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL positions the southeast to lead in neutron science. Upgrades are desired for CEBAF and the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (ORNL). The more future possibilities are less clear, but are becoming a focus of strategic planning among the national laboratories. Possibilities may arise in the U.S. for next-generation light sources, large computational centers, advanced fusion devices, nanotechnology centers, and perhaps facilities that are not yet contemplated. A regional discussion of the needs for large-scale user facilities in the southeast is important.

  19. The GOCE User Toolbox (GUT) and Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R. J.; Benveniste, J.; Knudsen, P.

    2015-12-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox (GUT) is an integrated suite of tools for the analysis and use of GOCE Level 2 gravity products. GUT supports applications in geodesy, oceanography and solid earth physics. The accompanying GUT tutorial provides information and guidance on how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications within each of these domains. An important motivation for the development of GUT has been the desire that users should be able to exploit the GOCE gravity products to calculate derived products relevant to their particular domains without necessarily needing to understand the technicalities of particular geodetic concepts and algorithms. As such, GUT is also suitable for use as an aid to the teaching of geophysics. A comprehensive and up-to-date set of a-priori data and models are supplied with the toolbox, together with a range of pre-defined workflows, allowing the user to immediately calculate useful geophysical quantities. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT Install Guide. GUT is cross-platform and may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux workstations and Macs. GUT version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and, besides some bug-fixes, the capability to calculate the simple Bouguer anomaly was added. Recently, GUT version 3 has been released. Through a collaborative effort between the relevant scientific communities, this version has built on earlier releases by further extending the functionality of the toolbox within the fields of geodesy, oceanography and solid earth physics. Additions include the ability to work directly with gravity gradients, anisotropic diffusive filtering, and the computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies. The interface between the user and the toolbox has also been greatly improved and GUT version 3 now includes an attractive and intuitive Graphical User Interface. An associated GUT VCM tool for analysing the GOCE variance covariance matrices is also available.

  20. Fueling the Bio-economy: European Culture Collections and Microbiology Education and Training.

    PubMed

    Antunes, André; Stackebrandt, Erko; Lima, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    A survey of European Microbial Biological Resource Centers and their users provided an overview on microbiology education and training. The results identified future increases in demand despite several shortcomings and gaps in the current offer. Urgent adjustments are needed to match users' needs, integrate innovative programs, and adopt new technologies.

  1. Sentinel Convoy: Synergetic Earth Observation with Satellites Flying in Formation with European Operational Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Amanda; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Fernandez, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The successful launch of Sentinel-1A, Sentinel-1B, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-3A signify the beginning of the dedicated space segment for the Copernicus Programme, which is the result of the partnership between the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA). These Sentinels are the first of a long-term operational series of Earth Observation (EO) satellites to be launched by Europe that will complement the already well-established series of meteorological missions.For the first time, these missions will provide a continuous and long term European capability for systematic observations of the Earth surface, its oceans and atmosphere to unprecedented accuracies, resolutions, and temporal coverage. If additional cost- effective missions could be flown together with these operational missions (including operational meteorological satellite series such as MetOp (Second Generation - SG) then the possibilities for meeting new Earth science and application objectives could be far- reaching e.g. fulfilling observational gaps, synergistic measurements of Earth system processes, etc. To explore this potential, the ESA initiated three exploratory paper studies (known as the EO-Convoy studies). The aim of these studies is two fold: Firstly, to identify scientific and operational objectives and needs that would benefit from additional in-orbit support. Secondly, to identify and develop a number of cost- effective mission concepts that would meet these objectives and needs. Each EO Convoy study is dedicated to a specific theme, namely: Study 1 - Ocean and Ice Applications, Study 2 - Land Applications and Study 3 - Atmospheric Applications.This paper will present the results of the EO-Convoy studies including an overview of the user needs and derived convoy concept descriptions. This paper shall focus on the resulting science benefits. Example convoy concepts to be presented include a passive C-band SAR flying with Sentinel-1 and possible free flying thermal

  2. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  3. SHARP User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y. Q.; Shemon, E. R.; Thomas, J. W.; Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Rahaman, Ronald O.; Solberg, Jerome

    2016-03-31

    SHARP is an advanced modeling and simulation toolkit for the analysis of nuclear reactors. It is comprised of several components including physical modeling tools, tools to integrate the physics codes for multi-physics analyses, and a set of tools to couple the codes within the MOAB framework. Physics modules currently include the neutronics code PROTEUS, the thermal-hydraulics code Nek5000, and the structural mechanics code Diablo. This manual focuses on performing multi-physics calculations with the SHARP ToolKit. Manuals for the three individual physics modules are available with the SHARP distribution to help the user to either carry out the primary multi-physics calculation with basic knowledge or perform further advanced development with in-depth knowledge of these codes. This manual provides step-by-step instructions on employing SHARP, including how to download and install the code, how to build the drivers for a test case, how to perform a calculation and how to visualize the results. Since SHARP has some specific library and environment dependencies, it is highly recommended that the user read this manual prior to installing SHARP. Verification tests cases are included to check proper installation of each module. It is suggested that the new user should first follow the step-by-step instructions provided for a test problem in this manual to understand the basic procedure of using SHARP before using SHARP for his/her own analysis. Both reference output and scripts are provided along with the test cases in order to verify correct installation and execution of the SHARP package. At the end of this manual, detailed instructions are provided on how to create a new test case so that user can perform novel multi-physics calculations with SHARP. Frequently asked questions are listed at the end of this manual to help the user to troubleshoot issues.

  4. The crustal dynamics intelligent user interface anthology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Nicholas M., Jr.; Campbell, William J.; Roelofs, Larry H.; Wattawa, Scott L.

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) has initiated an Intelligent Data Management (IDM) research effort which has, as one of its components, the development of an Intelligent User Interface (IUI). The intent of the IUI is to develop a friendly and intelligent user interface service based on expert systems and natural language processing technologies. The purpose of such a service is to support the large number of potential scientific and engineering users that have need of space and land-related research and technical data, but have little or no experience in query languages or understanding of the information content or architecture of the databases of interest. This document presents the design concepts, development approach and evaluation of the performance of a prototype IUI system for the Crustal Dynamics Project Database, which was developed using a microcomputer-based expert system tool (M. 1), the natural language query processor THEMIS, and the graphics software system GSS. The IUI design is based on a multiple view representation of a database from both the user and database perspective, with intelligent processes to translate between the views.

  5. Operation of FERMI FELs for users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svandrlik, M.

    2015-05-01

    The FERMI seeded free electron laser facility, located at the Elettra laboratory in Trieste (Italy), has been operated for user experiments in the past years using the first FEL line, FEL-1, covering the VUV - EVU spectral range (100 - 20 nm). After the conclusion of the commissioning for the soft-X ray FEL line, FEL-2, the facility is now ready to provide the scientific community with intense FEL pulses (<10 μJ) characterized by a high degree of coherence and spectral stability in the whole range from 100 nm down to 4 nm. We report about the recent achievement of FERMI FELs and our experience with operations for user requiring specific FEL configurations.

  6. User's appraisal of yield model evaluation criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, F. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The five major potential USDA users of AgRISTAR crop yield forecast models rated the Yield Model Development (YMD) project Test and Evaluation Criteria by the importance placed on them. These users were agreed that the "TIMELINES" and "RELIABILITY" of the forecast yields would be of major importance in determining if a proposed yield model was worthy of adoption. Although there was considerable difference of opinion as to the relative importance of the other criteria, "COST", "OBJECTIVITY", "ADEQUACY", AND "MEASURES OF ACCURACY" generally were felt to be more important that "SIMPLICITY" and "CONSISTENCY WITH SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE". However, some of the comments which accompanied the ratings did indicate that several of the definitions and descriptions of the criteria were confusing.

  7. Intelligent assistance in scientific data preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Kandt, R. Kirk; Roden, Joseph; Doyle, Richard J.; Burleigh, Scott; King, Todd; Joy, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Scientific data preparation is the process of extracting usable scientific data from raw instrument data. This task involves noise detection (and subsequent noise classification and flagging or removal), extracting data from compressed forms, and construction of derivative or aggregate data (e.g. spectral densities or running averages). A software system called PIPE provides intelligent assistance to users developing scientific data preparation plans using a programming language called Master Plumber. PIPE provides this assistance capability by using a process description to create a dependency model of the scientific data preparation plan. This dependency model can then be used to verify syntactic and semantic constraints on processing steps to perform limited plan validation. PIPE also provides capabilities for using this model to assist in debugging faulty data preparation plans. In this case, the process model is used to focus the developer's attention upon those processing steps and data elements that were used in computing the faulty output values. Finally, the dependency model of a plan can be used to perform plan optimization and run time estimation. These capabilities allow scientists to spend less time developing data preparation procedures and more time on scientific analysis tasks.

  8. Risk assessment of biological hazards in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Hugas, Marta; Tsigarida, Eirini; Robinson, Tobin; Calistri, Paolo

    2007-11-30

    International, community and national food safety law and any subsequent decision-making practices aim to be based on risk analysis--a process consisting of risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. With the appointment of the European Food Safety Authority as an independent scientific point of reference in risk assessment, there is a clear functional separation between risk assessment and risk management in the European Union food safety context. When a food safety question on microbiological hazards is to be answered--which is under the remit of the EFSA's Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ)--extensive dialogue and interactions covering the clarity of the question, the acceptability of the deadline and the availability of all necessary information take place with both the risk managers who ask the question and the stakeholders. During the first mandate of the BIOHAZ Panel (2003-2006), the scientific opinions were mainly based on qualitative and in some cases semi-quantitative microbiological risk assessment. In the second mandate of the BIOHAZ Panel, and as a first step towards developing a European approach on Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA), EFSA is preparing to carry out a QMRA on Salmonella in pigs, at European level through a consortium of European institutes.

  9. Report on European COST action P8: materials and systems for optical data storage and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, H. J.; Toal, V.

    2006-05-01

    The COST action P8 has been initiated by a group of European Scientist and receives funding by the European Science Foundation ESF starting in March 2002 for four years. The action promotes cooperation between researchers from many European countries by organizing worhshops, conferences and short term scientific missions. Information about the conference activities can be obtained from the Action Web site: http://moebius.physik.tu-berlin.de/lasergrp/COST_P8/index_ns.html

  10. Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Science in the European Union: The "ETAN Report."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Examines the underrepresentation of European women in science, engineering, and technology, discussing the European Technology Assessment Network (ETAN)report on promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality. Women leave scientific careers in disproportionate numbers. Gender equality can be developed through equal treatment, positive…

  11. Anatomy of scientific evolution.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making.

  12. Ethics of scientific publication

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Published scientific research breeds the development of clinical management guidelines and pathways. Currently, scholarly proficiency is assessed using numerous primitive metrics for incentives that can kindle publication of hoax or flawed research content. Such flawed data can lead to wastage of resources, time, and most importantly harm to the society. Authors, editors, and peer reviewers need to be genuine in conducting, analyzing, and publication of scientific research. Institutions need to be aware and utilize advanced metrics to assess the scientific reputation of researchers. This short review discusses in brief the common authorship and editorial ethical issues encountered in scientific publication and the newer metrics available for the assessment of scholarly excellence. Editors and peer reviewers need to be acquainted with the common ethical issues and follow consensus international guidelines on publication ethics to tackle them appropriately. PMID:27722097

  13. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  14. STARPROBE: Scientific rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H. (Editor); Randolph, J. E. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The scientific rationale and instrumentation problems in the areas of solar internal dynamics and relativity, solar plasma and particle dynamics, and solar atmosphere structure were studied. Current STARPROBE mission and system design concepts are summarized.

  15. Report: Scientific Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of scientific software, including evaluation and selection of commercial software products; program exchanges, catalogs, and other information sources; major data analysis packages; statistics and chemometrics software; and artificial intelligence. (JN)

  16. Scientific data requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Each Scientific Data Requirement (SDR) is summarized in terms of professional discipline, research program, technical description, related parameters, geographical extent, resolution, error tolerance,space-based sensors systems, personnel, implementation expert, notes, and references.

  17. European registration: today, tomorrow, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Currie, W J

    1990-05-01

    Within the European Community (EC) countries the national pharmaceutical regulatory systems work with varying degrees of efficiency and scientific sophistication. At the Community level the objective of mutual recognition has failed to be realized. To achieve for one registration application within the EC, timely and simultaneous marketing approvals throughout the member states will require changes to the present regulatory procedures or the single market concept for pharmaceuticals will not be realized. To have the greatest chances for success we should move cautiously, identifying and correcting deficiencies in the present procedures, which are known from experience, rather than abandoning such hard won knowledge for a new system with all its attendant potential unknowns and uncertainty. The free movement of drugs within the Internal European market will be a reality. The question remaining is at what price will it be achieved? It is vital to the European economy and consumer, as well as to the innovative pharmaceutical industry, that Europe does not exchange its present competitive edge in the time to develop and register new drugs for a costly drug lag. The experiment must equally succeed as a torch showing the way forward not only for an enlarging European Community, but also to the ever increasing interest in global harmonization of drug regulation.

  18. Dealing with scientific integrity issues: the Spanish experience.

    PubMed

    Puigdomènech, Pere

    2014-02-01

    Integrity has been an important matter of concern for the scientific community as it affects the basis of its activities. Most countries having a significant scientific activity have dealt with this problem by different means, including drafting specific legal or soft law regulations and the appointment of stable or ad hoc committees that take care of these questions. This has also been the case in Spain. After the period of transition between dictatorship to a democratic regime, and, particularly, after the entrance in the European Union, scientific activity has increased in the country. As it could be expected, problems of misconduct have appeared and different institutions have been dealing with these matters. One of the best examples is that of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), the largest institution devoted to scientific research belonging to the Spanish Government. The experience of the CSIC’s Ethics Committee in dealing with conflicts related to scientific practices is discussed here.

  19. Publishing Platform for Scientific Software - Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Fritzsch, Bernadette; Reusser, Dominik; Brembs, Björn; Deinzer, Gernot; Loewe, Peter; Fenner, Martin; van Edig, Xenia; Bertelmann, Roland; Pampel, Heinz; Klump, Jens; Wächter, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    the life sciences. Based on the developed blueprints a scientific software publishing platform will be iteratively implemented, tested, and evaluated. Thus the platform should be developed continuously on the basis of gained experiences and results. The platform services will be extended one by one corresponding to the requirements of the communities. Thus the implemented platform for the publication of scientific software can be improved and stabilized incrementally as a tool with software, science, publishing, and user oriented features.

  20. Transdisciplinarity: a scientific essential.

    PubMed

    Hamberger, Erich

    2004-12-01

    Transdisciplinarity in science is necessary to counteract the rapid growth of scientific results and information, the elimination of logical inconsistencies, and the effect of specialization whereby uncomparable disciplines develop. A correspondence is drawn between the uncontrolled growth, immune system malfunction, repression/expansion, and isolation that are characteristic of cancer and of the scientific concept of modernity. Suggestions are presented regarding the promotion of healing in both of these realms.

  1. Inland Water Quality Assessment--A Joint European Masters Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waara, K. -O.; Petersen, A.; Lanaras, T.; Paulauskas, V.; Kleiven, S.; Crosa, G.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Quesada, A.; Kovats, N.; Galinou-Mitsoudi, S.; Lapinska, M.; Newton, A.; Balode, M.; Hindak, F.; Marsalek, B.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there is a European shortage of personnel qualified to adequately address the comprehensive scientific and regulatory requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The joint Masters programme described in this paper will provide students with the requisite expert knowledge and skills to progress the implementation of the WFD.…

  2. Transgenic Crops and Sustainable Agriculture in the European Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The rapid adoption of transgenic crops in the United States, Argentina, and Canada stands in strong contrast to the situation in the European Union (EU), where a de facto moratorium has been in place since 1998. This article reviews recent scientific literature relevant to the problematic introduction of transgenic crops in the EU to assess if…

  3. European aerospace science and technology, 1992: A bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography contains 1916 annotated references to reports and journal articles of European intellectual origin entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during 1992. Representative subject areas include: spacecraft and aircraft design, propulsion technology, chemistry and materials, engineering and mechanics, earth and life sciences, communications, computers and mathematics, and the natural space sciences.

  4. Space nuclear safety from a user's viewpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) two Voyager spacecraft to Jupiter in 1977, each using three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) supplied by the Department of Energy (DOE) for onboard electric power. In 1986 NASA will launch JPL's Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter equipped with two DOE supplied RTGs of an improved design. NASA and JPL are also responsible for obtaining a single RTG of this type from DOE and supplying it to the European Space Agency as part of its participation in the International Solar Polar Mission. As a result of these missions, JPL has been deeply involved in space nuclear safety as a user. This paper will give a brief review of the user contributions by JPL - and NASA in general - to the nuclear safety processes and relate them to the overall nuclear safety program necessary for the launch of an RTG. The two major safety areas requiring user support are the ground operations involving RTGs at the launch site and the failure modes and probabilities associated with launch accidents.

  5. Open scientific communication urged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a report released last week the National Academy of Sciences' Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security concluded that the ‘limited and uncertain benefits’ of controls on the dissemination of scientific and technological research are ‘outweighed by the importance of scientific progress, which open communication accelerates, to the overall welfare of the nation.’ The 18-member panel, chaired by Dale R. Corson, president emeritus of Cornell University, was created last spring (Eos, April 20, 1982, p. 241) to examine the delicate balance between open dissemination of scientific and technical information and the U.S. government's desire to protect scientific and technological achievements from being translated into military advantages for our political adversaries.The panel dealt almost exclusively with the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union but noted that there are ‘clear problems in scientific communication and national security involving Third World countries.’ Further study of this matter is necessary.

  6. 47 CFR 18.213 - Information to the user.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for any type of ISM equipment: (a) The interference potential of the device or system (b) Maintenance of the system (c) Simple measures that can be taken by the user to correct interference. (d... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL...

  7. 47 CFR 18.213 - Information to the user.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for any type of ISM equipment: (a) The interference potential of the device or system (b) Maintenance of the system (c) Simple measures that can be taken by the user to correct interference. (d... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL...

  8. 47 CFR 18.213 - Information to the user.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for any type of ISM equipment: (a) The interference potential of the device or system (b) Maintenance of the system (c) Simple measures that can be taken by the user to correct interference. (d... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL...

  9. 47 CFR 18.213 - Information to the user.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for any type of ISM equipment: (a) The interference potential of the device or system (b) Maintenance of the system (c) Simple measures that can be taken by the user to correct interference. (d... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL...

  10. 47 CFR 18.213 - Information to the user.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for any type of ISM equipment: (a) The interference potential of the device or system (b) Maintenance of the system (c) Simple measures that can be taken by the user to correct interference. (d... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL...

  11. ASSIST user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1995-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all the states and transitions in a complex system model can be devastatingly tedious and error prone. The Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST) computer program allows the user to describe the semi-Markov model in a high-level language. Instead of listing the individual model states, the user specifies the rules governing the behavior of the system, and these are used to generate the model automatically. A few statements in the abstract language can describe a very large, complex model. Because no assumptions are made about the system being modeled, ASSIST can be used to generate models describing the behavior of any system. The ASSIST program and its input language are described and illustrated by examples.

  12. The ISABEL user survey.

    PubMed

    Briggs, J S; Fitch, C J

    2005-06-01

    ISABEL is a web-based clinical decision-support system for use by health care professionals. The Web site has been developed by the ISABEL Medical Charity. The system has come to the attention of the Department of Health, which is examining its potential effectiveness in the wider clinical context and exploring options for promoting its wider use in the NHS. The objectives of the work reported here were to review the existing use of ISABEL and to identify impediments to its development. A questionnaire was sent by e-mail to selected users of the system. Based on an analysis of the results (n=518), we found ISABEL to be a useful tool with many users. We believe that there is evidence of its success sufficient to support its continued availability and development. However, the largest hurdles to its increased use are systemic ones within the NHS and the way services are delivered.

  13. Trilinos users guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Willenbring, James M.; Heroux, Michael Allen

    2003-08-01

    The Trilinos Project is an effort to facilitate the design, development, integration and ongoing support of mathematical software libraries. A new software capability is introduced into Trilinos as a package. A Trilinos package is an integral unit usually developed by a small team of experts in a particular algorithms area such as algebraic preconditioners, nonlinear solvers, etc. The Trilinos Users Guide is a resource for new and existing Trilinos users. Topics covered include how to configure and build Trilinos, what is required to integrate an existing package into Trilinos and examples of how those requirements can be met, as well as what tools and services are available to Trilinos packages. Also discussed are some common practices that are followed by many Trilinos package developers. Finally, a snapshot of current Trilinos packages and their interoperability status is provided, along with a list of supported computer platforms.

  14. RELAP-7 User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Zou, Ling; Andrs, David; Berry, Ray Alden; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2014-12-01

    The document contains a user's guide on how to run the RELAP-7 code. The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. RELAP-7 will become the main reactor systems simulation toolkit for the LWRS (Light Water Reactor Sustainability) program’s RISMC (Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization) effort and the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series. RELAP-7 is written with object oriented programming language C++. A number of example problems and their associated input files are presented in this document to guide users to run the RELAP-7 code starting with simple pipe problems to problems with increasing complexity.

  15. Outside users payload model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The outside users payload model which is a continuation of documents and replaces and supersedes the July 1984 edition is presented. The time period covered by this model is 1985 through 2000. The following sections are included: (1) definition of the scope of the model; (2) discussion of the methodology used; (3) overview of total demand; (4) summary of the estimated market segmentation by launch vehicle; (5) summary of the estimated market segmentation by user type; (6) details of the STS market forecast; (7) summary of transponder trends; (8) model overview by mission category; and (9) detailed mission models. All known non-NASA, non-DOD reimbursable payloads forecast to be flown by non-Soviet-block countries are included in this model with the exception of Spacelab payloads and small self contained payloads. Certain DOD-sponsored or cosponsored payloads are included if they are reimbursable launches.

  16. CSTEM User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, M.; McKnight, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    This manual is a combination of a user manual, theory manual, and programmer manual. The reader is assumed to have some previous exposure to the finite element method. This manual is written with the idea that the CSTEM (Coupled Structural Thermal Electromagnetic-Computer Code) user needs to have a basic understanding of what the code is actually doing in order to properly use the code. For that reason, the underlying theory and methods used in the code are described to a basic level of detail. The manual gives an overview of the CSTEM code: how the code came into existence, a basic description of what the code does, and the order in which it happens (a flowchart). Appendices provide a listing and very brief description of every file used by the CSTEM code, including the type of file it is, what routine regularly accesses the file, and what routine opens the file, as well as special features included in CSTEM.

  17. Ontolology Negotiation Between Scientific Archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailin, Sidney C.; Truszkowski, Walt; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to ontology negotiation between information agents. Ontologies are declarative (data driven) expressions of an agent's "world": the objects, operations, facts, and rules that constitute the logical space within which an agent performs. Ontology negotiation enables agents to cooperate in performing a task, even if they are based on different ontologies. 'Me process allows agents to discover ontology conflicts and then, though incremental interpretation, clarification, and explanation, establish a common basis for communicating with each other. The need for ontology negotiation stems from the proliferation of information sources and of agents with widely varying specialty expertise. The unmanageability of massive amounts of web-based information is already becoming apparent. It is starting to have an impact on professions that rely on distributed archived information. If the expansion continues at its present rate without an ontology negotiation process being introduced, there will soon be no way to ensure the accuracy and completeness of information that scientists obtain from sources other than their own experiments. Ontology negotiation is becoming increasingly recognized as a crucial element of scalable agent technology. This is because agents, by their very nature, are supposed to operate with a fair amount of autonomy and independence from their end-users. Part of this independence is the ability to enlist other agents for help in performing a task (such as locating information on the web). The agents enlisted for help may be "owned" by a different end-user or organization (such as a document archive), and there is no guarantee that they will use the same terminology or understand the same concepts (objects, operators, theorems, rules) as the recruiting agent. For NASA, the need for ontology negotiation arises at the boundaries between scientific disciplines. For example: modeling the effects of global warming might involve

  18. Accelerating Scientific Computations using FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, O.; Atasu, K.; Mencer, O.

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are semiconductor devices that contain a grid of programmable cells, which the user configures to implement any digital circuit of up to a few million gates. Modern FPGAs allow the user to reconfigure these circuits many times each second, making FPGAs fully programmable and general purpose. Recent FPGA technology provides sufficient resources to tackle scientific applications on large-scale parallel systems. As a case study, we implement the Fast Fourier Transform [1] in a flexible floating point implementation. We utilize A Stream Compiler [2] (ASC) which combines C++ syntax with flexible floating point support by providing a 'HWfloat' data-type. The resulting FFT can be targeted to a variety of FPGA platforms in FFTW-style, though not yet completely automatically. The resulting FFT circuit can be adapted to the particular resources available on the system. The optimal implementation of an FFT accelerator depends on the length and dimensionality of the FFT, the available FPGA area, the available hard DSP blocks, the FPGA board architecture, and the precision and range of the application [3]. Software-style object-orientated abstractions allow us to pursue an accelerated pace of development by maximizing re-use of design patterns. ASC allows a few core hardware descriptions to generate hundreds of different circuit variants to meet particular speed, area and precision goals. The key to achieving maximum acceleration of FFT computation is to match memory and compute bandwidths so that maximum use is made of computational resources. Modern FPGAs contain up to hundreds of independent SRAM banks to store intermediate results, providing ample scope for optimizing memory parallelism. At 175Mhz, one of Maxeler's Radix-4 FFT cores computes 4x as many 1024pt FFTs per second as a dual Pentium-IV Xeon machine running FFTW. Eight such parallel cores fit onto the largest FPGA in the Xilinx Virtex-4 family, providing a 32x speed-up over

  19. IAC user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Beste, D. L.; Gregg, J.

    1984-01-01

    The User Manual for the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) Level 1 system is presented. The IAC system currently supports the thermal, structures, controls and system dynamics technologies, and its development is influenced by the requirements for design/analysis of large space systems. The system has many features which make it applicable to general problems in engineering, and to management of data and software. Information includes basic IAC operation, executive commands, modules, solution paths, data organization and storage, IAC utilities, and module implementation.

  20. User Interface Software Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    97. 19. Mark A. Flecchia and R. Daniel Bergeron. Specifying Complex Dialogs in ALGAE. Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI+GI󈨛, Toronto, Ont...Spreadsheet Model. Tech. Rept. GIT-GVU-93-20, Georgia Tech Graphics, Visualization and Usability Center, May, 1993. 35. Daniel H.H. Ingalls. "I’he Smalltalk...Interactive Graphical Applications". Comm. ACM 36,4 (April 1993), 41-55. User Interface Software Tools -39 38. Anthony Karrer and Walt Scacchi . Requirements

  1. User Interface Design Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    the beginning of our research) led us to Glade (glade.gnome.org), a cross- platform GUI builder platform that saves its descriptive files in XML format...Major consideration was initially given to Java Netbeans and Java Eclipse, and later extended to Glade .) The saved XML files fully describe... Glade -designed user interfaces. Glade libraries are available for numerous programming languages on many computing platforms. This makes the choice of

  2. Salinas - User's Notes

    SciTech Connect

    ALVIN,KENNETH F.; BHARDWAJ,MANOJ K.; DRIESSEN,BRIAN; REESE,GARTH M.; SEGALMAN,DANIEL J.

    1999-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Salinas. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  3. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  4. Middle Mississippi River decision support system: user's manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohweder, Jason J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Fox, Timothy J.; Hulse, Steven N.

    2005-01-01

    This user's manual describes the Middle Mississippi River Decision Support System (MMRDSS) and gives detailed examples on its use. The MMRDSS provides a framework to assist decision makers regarding natural resource issues in the Middle Mississippi River floodplain. The MMRDSS is designed to provide users with a spatially explicit tool for tasks, such as inventorying existing knowledge, developing models to investigate the potential effects of management decisions, generating hypotheses to advance scientific understanding, and developing scientifically defensible studies and monitoring. The MMRDSS also includes advanced tools to assist users in evaluating differences in complexity, connectivity, and structure of aquatic habitats among river reaches. The Environmental Systems Research Institute ArcView 3.x platform was used to create and package the data and tools of the MMRDSS.

  5. PARFUME User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Hamman

    2010-09-01

    PARFUME, a fuel performance analysis and modeling code, is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for evaluating gas reactor coated particle fuel assemblies for prismatic, pebble bed, and plate type fuel geometries. The code is an integrated mechanistic analysis tool that evaluates the thermal, mechanical, and physico-chemical behavior of coated fuel particles (TRISO) and the probability for fuel failure given the particle-to-particle statistical variations in physical dimensions and material properties that arise during the fuel fabrication process. Using a robust finite difference numerical scheme, PARFUME is capable of performing steady state and transient heat transfer and fission product diffusion analyses for the fuel. Written in FORTRAN 90, PARFUME is easy to read, maintain, and modify. Currently, PARFUME is supported only on MS Windows platforms. This document represents the initial version of the PARFUME User Guide, a supplement to the PARFUME Theory and Model Basis Report which describes the theoretical aspects of the code. User information is provided including: 1) code development, 2) capabilities and limitations, 3) installation and execution, 4) user input and output, 5) sample problems, and 6) error messages. In the near future, the INL plans to release a fully benchmarked and validated beta version of PARFUME.

  6. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas

    PubMed Central

    Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narščius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  7. Interdisciplinary and Military Determinants of Scientific Productivity: A Cross-Lagged Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1976-01-01

    This paper explores contemporaneous and intergenerational relationships among various scientific endeavors and military activity. Using European historical data from 1500 to 1900 A.D., generational (or 25-yr) fluctuations were examined for nine categories of scientific discovery and invention and for two aspects of military activity. Findings are…

  8. Cross-sectional survey of users of Internet depression communities

    PubMed Central

    Powell, John; McCarthy, Noel; Eysenbach, Gunther

    2003-01-01

    Background Internet-based depression communities provide a forum for individuals to communicate and share information and ideas. There has been little research into the health status and other characteristics of users of these communities. Methods Online cross-sectional survey of Internet depression communities to identify depressive morbidity among users of Internet depression communities in six European countries; to investigate whether users were in contact with health services and receiving treatment; and to identify user perceived effects of the communities. Results Major depression was highly prevalent among respondents (varying by country from 40% to 64%). Forty-nine percent of users meeting criteria for major depression were not receiving treatment, and 35% had no consultation with health services in the previous year. Thirty-six percent of repeat community users who had consulted a health professional in the previous year felt that the Internet community had been an important factor in deciding to seek professional help. Conclusions There are high levels of untreated and undiagnosed depression in users of Internet depression communities. This group represents a target for intervention. Internet communities can provide information and support for stigmatizing conditions that inhibit more traditional modes of information seeking. PMID:14664725

  9. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox - Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) Program Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Lucas, Bruno; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The prime objective of the SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have build up over the last 20 years for the future European operational Earth Observation missions, the Sentinels. Sentinel-3 builds directly on a proven heritage pioneered by ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2, with a dual-frequency (Ku and C band) advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) that provides measurements at a resolution of ~300m in SAR mode along track. Sentinel-3 will provide exact measurements of sea-surface height along with accurate topography measurements over sea ice, ice sheets, rivers and lakes. The first of the Sentinel-3 series is planned for launch in early 2015. The current universal altimetry toolbox is BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry mission's data, but it does not have the capabilities to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA will endeavour to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, the French Space Agency), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, the BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as net

  10. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox - Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) Program Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel

    The prime objective of the SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have build up over the last 20 years for the future European operational Earth Observation missions, the Sentinels. Sentinel-3 builds directly on a proven heritage pioneered by ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2, with a dual-frequency (Ku and C band) advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) that provides measurements at a resolution of ~300m in SAR mode along track. Sentinel-3 will provide exact measurements of sea-surface height along with accurate topography measurements over sea ice, ice sheets, rivers and lakes. The first of the Sentinel-3 series is planned for launch in early 2015. The current universal altimetry toolbox is BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry mission’s data, but it does not have the capabilities to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA will endeavour to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, the French Space Agency), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, the BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as

  11. European pharmacovigilance: increasingly outsourced to drug companies.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    New regulations reorganising pharmacovigilance at the European level were adopted in late 2010, then revised in 2012 in the wake of the Mediator (benfluorex) disaster. The European Commission's original proposals, released in 2008, would have represented a major step backwards in the protection afforded to European citizens, in particular by facilitating earlier marketing authorisations. Thanks to the mobilisation of civil society, the Members of the European Parliament have improved these proposals, supported by EU health ministers. The role of the new European Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) has been strengthened. Patients in every Member State have the right to report adverse drug effects directly to health authorities. EU drug regulatory agencies are required to provide greater transparency, and public access to information about adverse effects has been improved. However, one major regression persists: the central role given to pharmaceutical companies in the collection and interpretation of reports of adverse drug effects, despite their conflicts of interest. Drug companies are asked to record the adverse effect reports of which they are aware in a vast European centralised database, Eudravigilance, without going through drug regulatory agencies. Pharmaceutical companies remain responsible for producing "a scientific evaluation of the risk-benefit balance" of their drug, as part of the periodic benefit-risk assessment reports they are required to submit to drug regulatory agencies. These reports are analysed for the entire EU by two Member States (one rapporteur and one co-rapporteur), so that harmonised decisions can be taken. But these decisions are based on data preanalysed by the drug companies. In addition, the independence of the European Medicines Agency is undermined by its financial reliance on the fees paid by pharmaceutical companies in exchange for these assessments. In 2012, following France's Mediator disaster, several modest

  12. Progress in The Semantic Analysis of Scientific Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, independent expert parsers. These semantic parsers encode domain knowledge and recognize formulae in different disciplines including physics, numerical methods, mathematics, and geometry. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and help locate some program semantic errors. These techniques may apply to a wider range of scientific codes. If so, the techniques could reduce the time, risk, and effort required to develop and modify scientific codes.

  13. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  14. Reasoning about Users' Actions in a Graphical User Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

    2002-01-01

    Describes a graphical user interface called IFM (Intelligent File Manipulator) that provides intelligent help to users. Explains two underlying reasoning mechanisms, one an adaptation of human plausible reasoning and one that performs goal recognition based on the effects of users' commands; and presents results of an empirical study that…

  15. European Virtual Atomic And Molecular Data Center - VAMDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Sahal-Brechot, S.; Kovacevic, A.; Jevremovic, D.; Popovic, L. C.

    2010-07-01

    Reliable atomic and molecular data are of great importance for different applications in astrophysics, atmospheric physics, fusion, environmental sciences, combustion chemistry, and in industrial applications from plasmas and lasers to lighting. Currently, very important resources of such data are highly fragmented, presented in different, nonstandardized ways, available through a variety of highly specialized and often poorly documented interfaces, so that the full exploitation of all their scientific worth is limited, hindering research in many topics like e.g. the characterization of extrasolar planets, understanding the chemistry of our local solar system and of the wider universe, the study of the terrestrial atmosphere and quantification of climate change; the development of the fusion rersearch, etc. The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (http://www.vamdc.eu, VAMDC) is an European Union funded FP7 project aiming to build a secure, documented, flexible and interoperable e-science environment-based interface to existing atomic and molecular data. It will also provide a forum for training potential users and dissemination of expertise worldwide. Partners in the Consortium of the Project are: 1) Centre National de Recherche Scientifique - CNRS (Paris, Reims, Grenoble, Bordeaux, Dijon, Toulouse); 2) The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of the University of Cambridge - CMSUC; 3) University College London - UCL; 4) Open University - OU; (Milton Keynes, England); 5) Universitaet Wien - UNIVIE; 6) Uppsala Universitet - UU; 7) Universitaet zu Koeln - KOLN; 8) Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - INAF (Catania, Cagliari); 9) Queen's University Belfast - QUB; 10) Astronomska Opservatorija - AOB (Belgrade, Serbia); 11) Institute of Spectroscopy RAS - ISRAN (Troitsk, Russia); 12) Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Institute of Technical Physics - RFNC-VNIITF (Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia; 13) Institute of Atmospheric Optics - IAO (Tomsk, Russia

  16. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  17. The Circulation of Scientific Articles in the Sphere of Web-Based Media: Citation Practices, Communities of Interests and Local Ties

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    On 5th December 2012, a scientific article reviewing a change in the feeding behaviour of the European catfish, one of the largest freshwater fish, was published in the American scientific journal, PLOS ONE, an open access journal, which also allows the mass publication of pictures and videos. Within a few days following the publication of this article, it was relayed by numerous web sites and generated a media craze. In this paper, we analyse the circulation of this scientific information in the sphere of Web-based media during the two months following its publication, by revealing the citation mechanisms of the original article and the logic of the Internet users participating in its diffusion. In addition, since the circulation of its informational content travelled beyond linguistic and geographical boundaries, we chose to compare the citation modalities and intertextual relationships of documents in the three countries where the article spread the most widely, namely: France, the United States and Great Britain. Even though our study shows that the media circulation of scientific papers operates in a traditional way, the intertextual analysis underlines the grand variety of participants (such as journalists, non-scientists, fishermen, technology enthusiasts and Internet users) involved in the diffusion of this information, each of them mobilizing different intertextual strategies, according to their various targets. They all transformed, reformulated and appropriated the scientific information according to their own, unique interests. This study also emphasizes the importance of journalistic websites as opinion relays. They were the first diffusers involved in spreading the information but this role was rarely acknowledged by the Internet users - through citations, for example. In contrast, we observed that amateurs’ communities (communities of practices and communities of interest of fishermen or of buzz fans), which only became involved in a second

  18. The Circulation of Scientific Articles in the Sphere of Web-Based Media: Citation Practices, Communities of Interests and Local Ties.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Muriel; Renard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    On 5th December 2012, a scientific article reviewing a change in the feeding behaviour of the European catfish, one of the largest freshwater fish, was published in the American scientific journal, PLOS ONE, an open access journal, which also allows the mass publication of pictures and videos. Within a few days following the publication of this article, it was relayed by numerous web sites and generated a media craze. In this paper, we analyse the circulation of this scientific information in the sphere of Web-based media during the two months following its publication, by revealing the citation mechanisms of the original article and the logic of the Internet users participating in its diffusion. In addition, since the circulation of its informational content travelled beyond linguistic and geographical boundaries, we chose to compare the citation modalities and intertextual relationships of documents in the three countries where the article spread the most widely, namely: France, the United States and Great Britain. Even though our study shows that the media circulation of scientific papers operates in a traditional way, the intertextual analysis underlines the grand variety of participants (such as journalists, non-scientists, fishermen, technology enthusiasts and Internet users) involved in the diffusion of this information, each of them mobilizing different intertextual strategies, according to their various targets. They all transformed, reformulated and appropriated the scientific information according to their own, unique interests. This study also emphasizes the importance of journalistic websites as opinion relays. They were the first diffusers involved in spreading the information but this role was rarely acknowledged by the Internet users - through citations, for example. In contrast, we observed that amateurs' communities (communities of practices and communities of interest of fishermen or of buzz fans), which only became involved in a second temporal

  19. The Teaching of User Studies as a Subject for the Preparation of Librarians, Documentalists, Archivists and Other Information Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sene, H.

    This working paper focuses on methods for developing a study program on scientific and technical information users that could serve as a subject of study in the academic preparation of librarians, archivists, and scientific and technical information specialists. Recognizing that in most schools for training specialists of scientific and technical…

  20. Conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola): focus on reproduction and reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Amstislavsky, S; Lindeberg, H; Aalto, J; Kennedy, M W

    2008-08-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is a small mammal, which belongs to the Mustelidae family (Carnivora). Earlier, the range of distribution of this species encompassed much of the European continent. During the 20th century, the numbers of European mink declined and the range of its distribution became reduced to three fragmented populations; today this species faces extinction. The urgent necessity for effective conservation efforts to protect the European mink is accepted by the governmental organizations as well as scientific communities of most European countries. In this paper, the reasons for the disappearance of European mink are reviewed and results of past conservation efforts based on captive breeding and reintroduction programmes are critically evaluated in the broad context of modern concepts of conservation genetics and reproductive biology. The data recently obtained on the reproduction and pre-implantation development of European mink and the prospects of incorporation of modern reproductive technologies into the conservation programme of this species are discussed.

  1. European Composite Honeycomb Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschepe, Christoph; Sauerbrey, Martin; Klebor, Maximillian; Henriksen, Torben

    2014-06-01

    A European CFRP honeycomb material for high demanding structure applications like antenna reflectors and optical benches was developed in the frame of an ESA GSTP project.The composite honeycomb was designed according to requirements defined by the European space industry. A developed manufacturing technique based on prepreg moulding enables the production of homogeneous CFRP honeycomb blocks. All characteristic material properties, including compression, tension and shear strength and CTE, were determined in a comprehensive verification test campaign. Competitiveness to comparable products was further verified by a representative breadboard.

  2. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  3. The enemy within us: lessons from the 2011 European Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Karch, Helge; Denamur, Erick; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Finlay, B Brett; Hengge, Regine; Johannes, Ludgers; Ron, Eliora Z; Tønjum, Tone; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Vicente, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    In response to the 2011 European health alert caused by a pathogenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak, the European Academy of Microbiology (EAM), established by the Federation of European Microbiological Societies (FEMS), convened a meeting in Paris on November 30th, 2011 on ‘EHEC infection and control’ attended by world renowned experts in pathogenic E. coli. The major aims of this group were to review the scientific issues raised by the outbreak, to assess the handling of the crisis at the scientific and political levels, and to propose future actions. Several conclusions, which will have impact on future potential E. coli outbreaks, are outlined here. PMID:22927122

  4. Thirteen ways to say nothing with scientific visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, AL; Raible, E.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific visualization can be used to produce very beautiful images. Frequently, users and others not properly initiated into mysteries of visualization research fail to appreciate the artistic qualities of these images. Scientists will frequently use our work to needlessly understand the data from which it is derived. This paper describes a number of effective techniques to confound such pernicious activity.

  5. Internet Activities Using Scientific Data. A Self-Guided Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froseth, Stan; Poppe, Barbara

    This guide is intended for the secondary school teacher (especially math or science) or the student who wants to access and learn about scientific data on the Internet. It is organized as a self-guided exploration. Nine exercises enable the user to access and analyze on-line information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration…

  6. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  7. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  8. The future scientific CCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, J. R.; Elliott, T.; Collins, S.; Marsh, H.; Blouke, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in 1970, CCDs have been considered for applications related to memories, logic circuits, and the detection of visible radiation. It is pointed out, however, that the mass market orientation of CCD development has left largely untapped the enormous potential of these devices for advanced scientific instrumentation. The present paper has, therefore, the objective to introduce the CCD characteristics to the scientific community, taking into account prospects for further improvement. Attention is given to evaluation criteria, a summary of current CCDs, CCD performance characteristics, absolute calibration tools, quantum efficiency, aspects of charge collection, charge transfer efficiency, read noise, and predictions regarding the characteristics of the next generation of silicon scientific CCD imagers.

  9. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  10. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  11. Accelerating scientific discovery : 2007 annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, P.; Dave, P.; Drugan, C.

    2008-11-14

    As a gateway for scientific discovery, the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) works hand in hand with the world's best computational scientists to advance research in a diverse span of scientific domains, ranging from chemistry, applied mathematics, and materials science to engineering physics and life sciences. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, researchers are using the IBM Blue Gene/L supercomputer at the ALCF to study and explore key scientific problems that underlie important challenges facing our society. For instance, a research team at the University of California-San Diego/ SDSC is studying the molecular basis of Parkinson's disease. The researchers plan to use the knowledge they gain to discover new drugs to treat the disease and to identify risk factors for other diseases that are equally prevalent. Likewise, scientists from Pratt & Whitney are using the Blue Gene to understand the complex processes within aircraft engines. Expanding our understanding of jet engine combustors is the secret to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. Lessons learned from the scientific simulations of jet engine combustors have already led Pratt & Whitney to newer designs with unprecedented reductions in emissions, noise, and cost of ownership. ALCF staff members provide in-depth expertise and assistance to those using the Blue Gene/L and optimizing user applications. Both the Catalyst and Applications Performance Engineering and Data Analytics (APEDA) teams support the users projects. In addition to working with scientists running experiments on the Blue Gene/L, we have become a nexus for the broader global community. In partnership with the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory, we have created an environment where the world's most challenging computational science problems can be addressed. Our expertise in high-end scientific computing enables us to provide guidance for applications

  12. Data access for scientific problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James W.

    1987-01-01

    An essential ingredient in scientific work is data. In disciplines such as Oceanography, data sources are many and volumes are formidable. The full value of large stores of data cannot be realized unless careful thought is given to data access. JPL has developed the Pilot Ocean Data System to investigate techniques for archiving and accessing ocean data obtained from space. These include efficient storage and rapid retrieval of satellite data, an easy-to-use user interface, and a variety of output products which, taken together, permit researchers to extract and use data rapidly and conveniently.

  13. Scientific opportunities at the advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.

    1989-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory with a projected completion date of September 1992, the ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in eleven long straight sections. It will also have up to 48 bending-magnet ports. Scientific opportunities in materials science, surface science, chemistry, atomic and molecular physics, life science and other fields are reflected in Letters of Interest received for the establishment of beamlines.

  14. An Experiment in Scientific Code Semantic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, distributed expert parsers. These semantic parser are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. Results are shown for a subroutine test case and a collection of combustion code routines. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  15. Scientific applications for high-energy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.W.

    1994-03-01

    The convergence of numerous factors makes the time ripe for the development of a community of researchers to use the high-energy laser for scientific investigations. This document attempts to outline the steps necessary to access high-energy laser systems and create a realistic plan to implement usage. Since an academic/scientific user community does not exist in the USA to any viable extent, we include information on present capabilities at the Nova laser. This will briefly cover laser performance and diagnostics and a sampling of some current experimental projects. Further, to make the future possibilities clearer, we will describe the proposed next- generation high-energy laser, named for its inertial fusion confinement (ICF) goal, the multi-megaJoule, 500-teraWatt National Facility, or NIF.

  16. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-09

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  17. Awe and scientific explanation.

    PubMed

    Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Park, Jun; Gottlieb, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Past research has established a relationship between awe and explanatory frameworks, such as religion. We extend this work, showing (a) the effects of awe on a separate source of explanation: attitudes toward science, and (b) how the effects of awe on attitudes toward scientific explanations depend on individual differences in theism. Across 3 studies, we find consistent support that awe decreases the perceived explanatory power of science for the theistic (Study 1 and 2) and mixed support that awe affects attitudes toward scientific explanations for the nontheistic (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. European Marine Infrastructures: perspectives for Marine and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Egerton, P.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Los, W.

    2009-04-01

    The European Commission (EC) is supporting a variety of Research Infrastructures in many different scientific fields: Social Sciences and Humanities, Environmental Sciences, Energy, Biological and Medical Sciences, Physical Sciences and Engineering and e-Infrastructures. All these infrastructures are included in the new report of the "European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures" published in late 2008 by ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/). In particular, some research infrastructures for the Environmental Sciences specifically addressed to the marine environment are presented: • EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory). The development of this underwater network is being supported by several other EC initiatives, ESONET-NoE (European Seas Network), coordinated by IFREMER (http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/). • ERICON AURORA BOREALIS (European Research Icebreaker Consortium, http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/). • EURO-ARGO (Global Ocean Observing Infrastructure, http://www.euro-argo.eu/). • LIFEWATCH (E-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity data and observatories, http://www.lifewatch.eu/). In particular through its scientific marine networks: EUR-OCEANS (European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis, http://www.eur-oceans.eu/); MARBEF-NoE (MARine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, http://www.marbef.org/ and Marine Genomics (http://www.marine-genomics-europe.org/). Possible profitable links with new research infrastructures recently included in the roadmap, such as EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and SIAEOS (Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System) are also pointed out. The marine EC infrastructures presented constitute the fundamental tools to support the Earth Sciences, both terrestrial and marine.

  19. [Human cloning in the activities of the European Union].

    PubMed

    Mik, C

    2001-01-01

    The European Union has been concerned with human cloning since the late 80. It resulted from inclusion of biotechnology into the sphere of European integration. The attitude of the European Union in the domain of human cloning was shaped, in principle in the second part of the 90. As the Community law stands at present, the European Union is not able to regulate all aspects of the cloning of human beings. It has no general power to decide in that sphere, especially, as far as bioethic aspects are concerned. The cloning of human beings in the European Union is understood as a process aiming at producing new human being, genetically identical with another live or dead human being. Thus the notion of human cloning is reduced to reproductive cloning. Three instruments are at the disposal of the European Union in the domain of human cloning. The first is prohibition of reproductive cloning as a general principle of Community law. However, that principle is not the result of judicial activity of the European Court of Justice (as general principles normally are), but the logical consequence of views formally expressed by the European Parliament, the Council of the Europe as well as the Commission. The principle was finally included in the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union. The second instrument is an imperative prohibition of patent granting to biotechnological inventions on human reproductive cloning. Last, but not least, the Union applies a prohibition of financing scientific research connected with human cloning from the budget of the European Communities within the V Framework Programme in the field of research and technological development.

  20. User computer system pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Eimutis, E.C.

    1989-09-06

    The User Computer System (UCS) is a general purpose unclassified, nonproduction system for Mound users. The UCS pilot project was successfully completed, and the system currently has more than 250 users. Over 100 tables were installed on the UCS for use by subscribers, including tables containing data on employees, budgets, and purchasing. In addition, a UCS training course was developed and implemented.

  1. How to organize a neutron imaging user lab? 13 years of experience at PSI, CH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E. H.; Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Kuehne, G.; Kaestner, A.

    2011-09-01

    PSI has a relatively long tradition in neutron imaging since the first trials were done at its formerly existing research reactor SAPHIR with film methods. This reactor source was replaced after its shutdown in 1994 by the spallation neutron source SINQ in 1996, driven by the 590 MeV cyclotron for protons with presently up to 2.3 mA beam current. One of the first experimental devices at SINQ was the thermal neutron imaging facility NEUTRA, which was designed from scratch and has been the first device of its kind at a spallation source. Until now, NEUTRA has been successfully in use for many investigations in a wide range of studies covering fuel cell research, environmental behavior of plants, nuclear fuel inspection and the research on cultural heritage objects. It has been the host of PhD projects for students from all over Europe for years. In a previous meeting it has been offered as a European reference facility. Some of its features were really adapted to the layout of new installations. In 2004, it was possible to initiate the project of a second beam line at SINQ for imaging with cold neutrons. Previous studies have shown the potential of this option in order to broaden the user profile and to extend the scientific basis for neutron imaging. It was inaugurated with a workshop at PSI in 2005. The user service was started at the facility ICON in 2006. Beside the setup, installation and optimization of the facilities, the organization of the user program plays an important role. The two neutron imaging beam lines are equal installations at SINQ among the 14 scientific devices. Therefore, the user approach is organized via "calls for proposals", which are sent out each half year via the "Digital User Office (DUO)" (see http://duo.web.psi.ch). The evaluation of the proposals is done by the "Advisory Committee for Neutron Imaging (ACNI)" consisting of 6 external and PSI internal members. Further requests are given by industrial collaborations. This beam time

  2. 3D Geological modelling - towards a European level infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.

    2013-04-01

    The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving 3D geological models and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate models at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative model delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering 3D geological model data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring 3D geological models? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large

  3. Prism users guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Weirs, V. Gregory

    2012-03-01

    Prism is a ParaView plugin that simultaneously displays simulation data and material model data. This document describes its capabilities and how to use them. A demonstration of Prism is given in the first section. The second section contains more detailed notes on less obvious behavior. The third and fourth sections are specifically for Alegra and CTH users. They tell how to generate the simulation data and SESAME files and how to handle aspects of Prism use particular to each of these codes.

  4. User and technical documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The program LP1 calculates outbound and return trajectories between low earth orbit (LEO) and libration point no. 1 (L1). Libration points (LP) are defined as locations in space that orbit the Earth such that they are always stationary with respect to the Earth-Moon line. L1 is located behind the Moon such that the pull of the Earth and Moon together just cancel the centrifugal acceleration associated with the libration point's orbit. The input required from the user to define the flight is described. The contents of the six reports produced as outputs are presented. Also included are the instructions needed to execute the program.

  5. The SYSGEN user package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    The user documentation of the SYSGEN model and its links with other simulations is described. The SYSGEN is a production costing and reliability model of electric utility systems. Hydroelectric, storage, and time dependent generating units are modeled in addition to conventional generating plants. Input variables, modeling options, output variables, and reports formats are explained. SYSGEN also can be run interactively by using a program called FEPS (Front End Program for SYSGEN). A format for SYSGEN input variables which is designed for use with FEPS is presented.

  6. XTV users guide

    SciTech Connect

    Dearing, J.F.; Johns, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    XTV is an X-Windows based Graphical User Interface for viewing results of Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) calculations. It provides static and animated color mapped visualizations of both thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction components in a TRAC model of a nuclear power plant, as well as both on-screen and hard copy two-dimensional plot capabilities. XTV is the successor to TRAP, the former TRAC postprocessor using the proprietary DISSPLA graphics library. This manual describes Version 2.0, which requires TRAC version 5.4.20 or later for full visualization capabilities.

  7. XMGR5 users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Fisher, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    ACE/gr is XY plotting tool for workstations or X-terminals using X. A few of its features are: User defined scaling, tick marks, labels, symbols, line styles, colors. Batch mode for unattended plotting. Read and write parameters used during a session. Polynomial regression, splines, running averages, DFT/FFT, cross/auto-correlation. Hardcopy support for PostScript, HP-GL, and FrameMaker.mif format. While ACE/gr has a convenient point-and-click interface, most parameter settings and operations are available through a command line interface (found in Files/Commands).

  8. A user-friendly phytoremediation database: creating the searchable database, the users, and the broader implications.

    PubMed

    Famulari, Stevie; Witz, Kyla

    2015-01-01

    Designers, students, teachers, gardeners, farmers, landscape architects, architects, engineers, homeowners, and others have uses for the practice of phytoremediation. This research looks at the creation of a phytoremediation database which is designed for ease of use for a non-scientific user, as well as for students in an educational setting ( http://www.steviefamulari.net/phytoremediation ). During 2012, Environmental Artist & Professor of Landscape Architecture Stevie Famulari, with assistance from Kyla Witz, a landscape architecture student, created an online searchable database designed for high public accessibility. The database is a record of research of plant species that aid in the uptake of contaminants, including metals, organic materials, biodiesels & oils, and radionuclides. The database consists of multiple interconnected indexes categorized into common and scientific plant name, contaminant name, and contaminant type. It includes photographs, hardiness zones, specific plant qualities, full citations to the original research, and other relevant information intended to aid those designing with phytoremediation search for potential plants which may be used to address their site's need. The objective of the terminology section is to remove uncertainty for more inexperienced users, and to clarify terms for a more user-friendly experience. Implications of the work, including education and ease of browsing, as well as use of the database in teaching, are discussed.

  9. Service on demand for ISS users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüser, Detlev; Berg, Marco; Körtge, Nicole; Mildner, Wolfgang; Salmen, Frank; Strauch, Karsten

    2002-07-01

    Since the ISS started its operational phase, the need of logistics scenarios and solutions, supporting the utilisation of the station and its facilities, becomes increasingly important. Our contribution to this challenge is a SERVICE On DEMAND for ISS users, which offers a business friendly engineering and logistics support for the resupply of the station. Especially the utilisation by commercial and industrial users is supported and simplified by this service. Our industrial team, consisting of OHB-System and BEOS, provides experience and development support for space dedicated hard- and software elements, their transportation and operation. Furthermore, we operate as the interface between customer and the envisaged space authorities. Due to a variety of tailored service elements and the ongoing servicing, customers can concentrate on their payload content or mission objectives and don't have to deal with space-specific techniques and regulations. The SERVICE On DEMAND includes the following elements: ITR is our in-orbit platform service. ITR is a transport rack, used in the SPACEHAB logistics double module, for active and passive payloads on subrack- and drawer level of different standards. Due to its unique late access and early retrieval capability, ITR increases the flexibility concerning transport capabilities to and from the ISS. RIST is our multi-functional test facility for ISPR-based experiment drawer and locker payloads. The test program concentrates on physical and functional interface and performance testing at the payload developers site prior to the shipment to the integration and launch. The RIST service program comprises consulting, planning and engineering as well. The RIST test suitcase is planned to be available for lease or rent to users, too. AMTSS is an advanced multimedia terminal consulting service for communication with the space station scientific facilities, as part of the user home-base. This unique ISS multimedia kit combines

  10. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  11. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  12. European Study Tour Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Vicki L.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.

    Guidelines are presented for planning and financing European study tours at the community college level. First, a rationale for incorporating study tours of Europe within the community college curriculum is presented and the benefits of such tours in providing students with experiences they could not normally have are outlined. Next, the paper…

  13. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  14. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  15. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  16. Scientific Discovery for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul; Quarless, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    The scientific discovery process comes alive for 70 minority students each year at Uniondale High School in New York where students have won top awards for "in-house" projects. Uniondale High School is in a middle-income school district where over 95% of students are from minority groups. Founded in 2000, the Uniondale High School Research Program…

  17. Serendipity and Scientific Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of penicillin is cited in a discussion of the role of serendipity as it relates to scientific discovery. The importance of sagacity as a personality trait is noted. Successful researchers have questioning minds, are willing to view data from several perspectives, and recognize and appreciate the unexpected. (JW)

  18. Projecting the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

  19. Scientific Inquiry 'R' Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Virginia D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the role that informal interpretative programs and facilities can play in providing inquiry-oriented science experiences. Presents two examples of scientific inquiry programs: investigating wetlands and investigating density. In both examples, participants formulate questions, collect data, and attempt to answer their own questions. (DLH)

  20. Is risk analysis scientific?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part).

  1. Scientific and Artistic Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The differences and similarities between science and art are commonly discussed in various disciplines, e.g. collective versus individual, truth versus imagination, fact versus fiction, and more. Both art and science involve communication. Both artists and scientists have responsibilities of integrity in the arena of intellectual property. However, an artist has a primary responsibility to his/her personal artistic vision and craft. A scientist has a very clearly defined responsibility to scientific method as a collective practice, i.e. generally accepted scientific knowledge, norms of data collection and analysis as well as norms of communication. In presenting a work of art to an audience, it is accepted that different people will interpret the art through different lens. In science communication, we hope that the audience's understanding is in line with scientific interpretation. When science and art meet, how do we come to an understanding of what the intended message should be and how it should or must be received. Accuracy in fact is important in science, as is accuracy of the message whether it is a process, model, image or story. How do we mediate this tension in collaborative projects? How do we celebrate the artistic nature of an artwork based on science when there is tension between the artistic merit and the scientific content? Authority of the artist, scientist, and organization must be satisfied.

  2. Professional Scientific Blog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamás

    2009-01-01

    The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bears a resemblance to digital notice boards, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be…

  3. Assessing Scientific Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, John M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A method for assessing scientific performance based on relationships displayed numerically in published documents is proposed and illustrated using published documents in pediatric oncology for the period 1979-1982. Contributions of a major clinical investigations group, the Childrens Cancer Study Group, are analyzed. Twenty-nine references are…

  4. Scientific Imagination in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stableford, Brian M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between the religious and scientific imaginations as existing between the intellectual realms of unquestioning faith and constant questioning. Relates this conflict to writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g., Bacon, Kepler, Wilkins, Godwin, Harrington, Campanella, Cyrano, Le Bret, Defoe, Swift, Voltiare,…

  5. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  6. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current debate on realism in contemporary analytic philosophy.

  7. Scientific networking in disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Ray; Marks, Ann; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2013-03-01

    Scientific networking occurs at various levels. There are regional and worldwide professional organizations that link together national physical societies (IUPAP, EPS, AAPPS, FeLaSoFi), providing a platform to exchange ideas and advance common agendas. National and international agencies have special lines of funding for scientific collaboration between groups of various countries. Some of these lines are targeted at improving science education at all levels. There are then personal networks that link people with common interests or who know each other for any reason. The International Conferences on Women in Physics have provided a unique opportunity for female physicists from all over the world to start a network of interactions that can involve all sorts of collaborative efforts. In the three-session workshop organized at ICWIP11, we discussed these various issues that the worldwide scientific community faces. In this paper we summarize the main ideas that surged during the meeting and provide the list of recommendations that were to start and keep an active network of female physicists and to foster scientific collaboration regionally and internationally.

  8. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  9. Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  10. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  11. DAS User Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østensen, Roy

    2008-10-01

    The HELAS Database for AsteroSeismology (DAS) is one of the deliverables of the Work Package NA5: Asteroseismology of the European Coordination Action in Helio- and Asteroseismology (HELAS). The DAS aims to provide easy access to publicly available asteroseismological timeseries data, both photometric and spectroscopic. In particular, the DAS and the HELAS software package FAMIAS are ideally suited to train Master and PhD students in asteroseismic data analysis and to build longterm datasets. The number of stars in the system is still limited and reflects the willingness of data owners to provide their data after publication. Work continues to populate the database with contributions from the community, and at present the number of stars in the database is 82

  12. The LATDYN user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Mcgowan, P. E.; Abrahamson, A. L.; Powell, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    The LATDYN User's Manual presents the capabilities and instructions for the LATDYN (Large Angle Transient DYNamics) computer program. The LATDYN program is a tool for analyzing the controlled or uncontrolled dynamic transient behavior of interconnected deformable multi-body systems which can undergo large angular motions of each body relative other bodies. The program accommodates large structural deformation as well as large rigid body rotations and is applicable, but not limited to, the following areas: (1) development of large flexible space structures; (2) slewing of large space structure components; (3) mechanisms with rigid or elastic components; and (4) robotic manipulations of beam members. Presently the program is limited to two dimensional problems, but in many cases, three dimensional problems can be exactly or approximately reduced to two dimensions. The program uses convected finite elements to affect the large angular motions involved in the analysis. General geometry is permitted. Detailed user input and output specifications are provided and discussed with example runstreams. To date, LATDYN has been configured for CDC/NOS and DEC VAX/VMS machines. All coding is in ANSII-77 FORTRAN. Detailed instructions regarding interfaces with particular computer operating systems and file structures are provided.

  13. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  14. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  15. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  16. User and technical documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The program LIBRATE calculates velocities for trajectories from low earth orbit (LEO) to four of the five libration points (L2, L3, L4, and L5), and from low lunar orbit (LLO) to libration points L1 and L2. The flight to be analyzed departs from a circular orbit of any altitude and inclination about the Earth or Moon and finishes in a circular orbit about the Earth at the desired libration point within a specified flight time. This program produces a matrix of the delta V's needed to complete the desired flight. The user specifies the departure orbit, and the maximum flight time. A matrix is then developed with 10 inclinations, ranging from 0 to 90 degrees, forming the columns, and 19 possible flight times, ranging from the flight time (input) to 36 hours less than the input value, in decrements of 2 hours, forming the rows. This matrix is presented in three different reports including the total delta V's, and both of the delta V components discussed. The input required from the user to define the flight is discussed. The contents of the three reports that are produced as outputs are also described. The instructions are also included which are needed to execute the program.

  17. ARDS User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Personal computers (PCs) are now used extensively for engineering analysis. their capability exceeds that of mainframe computers of only a few years ago. Programs originally written for mainframes have been ported to PCs to make their use easier. One of these programs is ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) which was developed at Arizona State University (ASU) by Nelson et al. to quickly and accurately analyze rotor steady state and transient response using the method of component mode synthesis. The original ARDS program was ported to the PC in 1995. Several extensions were made at ASU to increase the capability of mainframe ARDS. These extensions have also been incorporated into the PC version of ARDS. Each mainframe extension had its own user manual generally covering only that extension. Thus to exploit the full capability of ARDS required a large set of user manuals. Moreover, necessary changes and enhancements for PC ARDS were undocumented. The present document is intended to remedy those problems by combining all pertinent information needed for the use of PC ARDS into one volume.

  18. User interface enhancement report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Gangel, J.; Shields, G.; Fala, G.

    1985-01-01

    The existing user interfaces to TEMPUS, Plaid, and other systems in the OSDS are fundamentally based on only two modes of communication: alphanumeric commands or data input and grapical interaction. The latter are especially suited to the types of interaction necessary for creating workstation objects with BUILD and with performing body positioning in TEMPUS. Looking toward the future application of TEMPUS, however, the long-term goals of OSDS will include the analysis of extensive tasks in space involving one or more individuals working in concert over a period of time. In this context, the TEMPUS body positioning capability, though extremely useful in creating and validating a small number of particular body positions, will become somewhat tedious to use. The macro facility helps somewhat, since frequently used positions may be easily applied by executing a stored macro. The difference between body positioning and task execution, though subtle, is important. In the case of task execution, the important information at the user's level is what actions are to be performed rather than how the actions are performed. Viewed slightly differently, the what is constant over a set of individuals though the how may vary.

  19. TRLAN User Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Simon, H.

    1999-03-09

    TRLAN is a program designed to find a small number of extreme eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors of a real symmetric matrix. Denote the matrix as A, the eigenvalue as {lambda}, and the corresponding eigenvector as x, they are defined by the following equation, Ax = {lambda}x. There are a number of different implementations of the Lanczos algorithm available. Why another one? Our main motivation is to develop a specialized version that only target the case where one wants both eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a large real symmetric eigenvalue problems that can not use the shift-and-invert scheme. In this case the standard non-restarted Lanczos algorithm requires one to store a large number of Lanczos vectors which can cause storage problem and make each iteration of the method very expensive. The underlying algorithm of TRLAN is a dynamic thick-restart Lanczos algorithm. Like all restarted methods, the user can choose how many vectors can be generated at once. Typically, th e user chooses a moderate size so that all Lanczos vectors can be stored in core. This allows the restarted methods to execute efficiently. This implementation of the thick-restart Lanczos method also uses the latest restarting technique, it is very effective in reducing the time required to compute a desired solutions compared to similar restarted Lanczos schemes, e.g., ARPACK.

  20. Nephrolithiasis in topiramate users.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Naim M; Langston, Joshua P; Van Ness, Paul C; Moe, Orson W; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2011-08-01

    Topiramate is a neuromodulatory agent increasingly prescribed for a number of neurological and non-neurological indications. Topiramate-treated patients are at risk for nephrolithiasis due to hypocitraturia and high urine pH. However, the prevalence of symptomatic stone disease in TPM users is generally perceived to be low. This study was undertaken to assess in topiramate-treated patients the prevalence of symptomatic nephrolithiasis (by history) and of asymptomatic nephrolithiasis by computed tomography (CT) scan. Topiramate users were identified from a database of patients with neurological disorders at a single university hospital. Among 75 topiramate-treated adult patients with a median daily dose of 300 mg and median treatment duration of 48 months, the prevalence of symptomatic nephrolithiasis was 10.7%. In a subset of topiramate-treated patients and no history of symptomatic stone disease, the prevalence of asymptomatic nephrolithiasis detected by CT scan was 20%. The prevalence of symptomatic nephrolithiasis with long-term topiramate use is higher than reported in short-term studies. Furthermore, clinical prevalence is underestimated due to asymptomatic nephrolithiasis.