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Sample records for european tree frogs

  1. Conservation phylogeography: does historical diversity contribute to regional vulnerability in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea)?

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Wassef, Jérôme; Ghali, Karim; Brelsford, Alan; Stöck, Matthias; Lymberakis, Petros; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Jelka; Perrin, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Documenting and preserving the genetic diversity of populations, which conditions their long-term survival, have become a major issue in conservation biology. The loss of diversity often documented in declining populations is usually assumed to result from human disturbances; however, historical biogeographic events, otherwise known to strongly impact diversity, are rarely considered in this context. We apply a multilocus phylogeographic study to investigate the late-Quaternary history of a tree frog (Hyla arborea) with declining populations in the northern and western part of its distribution range. Mitochondrial and nuclear polymorphisms reveal high genetic diversity in the Balkan Peninsula, with a spatial structure moulded by the last glaciations. While two of the main refugial lineages remained limited to the Balkans (Adriatic coast, southern Balkans), a third one expanded to recolonize Northern and Western Europe, loosing much of its diversity in the process. Our findings show that mobile and a priori homogeneous taxa may also display substructure within glacial refugia ('refugia within refugia') and emphasize the importance of the Balkans as a major European biodiversity centre. Moreover, the distribution of diversity roughly coincides with regional conservation situations, consistent with the idea that historically impoverished genetic diversity may interact with anthropogenic disturbances, and increase the vulnerability of populations. Phylogeographic models seem important to fully appreciate the risks of local declines and inform conservation strategies.

  2. Range-Wide Sex-Chromosome Sequence Similarity Supports Occasional XY Recombination in European Tree Frogs (Hyla arborea)

    PubMed Central

    Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In contrast with mammals and birds, most poikilothermic vertebrates feature structurally undifferentiated sex chromosomes, which may result either from frequent turnovers, or from occasional events of XY recombination. The latter mechanism was recently suggested to be responsible for sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea). However, no single case of male recombination has been identified in large-scale laboratory crosses, and populations from NW Europe consistently display sex-specific allelic frequencies with male-diagnostic alleles, suggesting the absence of recombination in their recent history. To address this apparent paradox, we extended the phylogeographic scope of investigations, by analyzing the sequences of three sex-linked markers throughout the whole species distribution. Refugial populations (southern Balkans and Adriatic coast) show a mix of X and Y alleles in haplotypic networks, and no more within-individual pairwise nucleotide differences in males than in females, testifying to recurrent XY recombination. In contrast, populations of NW Europe, which originated from a recent postglacial expansion, show a clear pattern of XY differentiation; the X and Y gametologs of the sex-linked gene Med15 present different alleles, likely fixed by drift on the front wave of expansions, and kept differentiated since. Our results support the view that sex-chromosome homomorphy in H. arborea is maintained by occasional or historical events of recombination; whether the frequency of these events indeed differs between populations remains to be clarified. PMID:24892652

  3. Speciation history and widespread introgression in the European short-call tree frogs (Hyla arborea sensu lato, H. intermedia and H. sarda).

    PubMed

    Gvoždík, Václav; Canestrelli, Daniele; García-París, Mario; Moravec, Jiří; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Recuero, Ernesto; Teixeira, José; Kotlík, Petr

    2015-02-01

    European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridization were detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felix arabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show

  4. Impact assessment of a high-speed railway line on species distribution: application to the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) in Franche-Comté.

    PubMed

    Clauzel, Céline; Girardet, Xavier; Foltête, Jean-Christophe

    2013-09-30

    The aim of the present work is to assess the potential long-distance effect of a high-speed railway line on the distribution of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) in eastern France by combining graph-based analysis and species distribution models. This combination is a way to integrate patch-level connectivity metrics on different scales into a predictive model. The approach used is put in place before the construction of the infrastructure and allows areas potentially affected by isolation to be mapped. Through a diachronic analysis, comparing species distribution before and after the construction of the infrastructure, we identify changes in the probability of species presence and we determine the maximum distance of impact. The results show that the potential impact decreases with distance from the high-speed railway line and the largest disturbances occur within the first 500 m. Between 500 m and 3500 m, the infrastructure generates a moderate decrease in the probability of presence with maximum values close to -40%. Beyond 3500 m the average disturbance is less than -10%. The spatial extent of the impact is greater than the dispersal distance of the tree frog, confirming the assumption of the long-distance effect of the infrastructure. This predictive modelling approach appears to be a useful tool for environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. The results of the species distribution assessment may provide guidance for field surveys and support for conservation decisions by identifying the areas most affected.

  5. High-density sex-specific linkage maps of a European tree frog (Hyla arborea) identify the sex chromosome without information on offspring sex

    PubMed Central

    Brelsford, A; Dufresnes, C; Perrin, N

    2016-01-01

    Identifying homology between sex chromosomes of different species is essential to understanding the evolution of sex determination. Here, we show that the identity of a homomorphic sex chromosome pair can be established using a linkage map, without information on offspring sex. By comparing sex-specific maps of the European tree frog Hyla arborea, we find that the sex chromosome (linkage group 1) shows a threefold difference in marker number between the male and female maps. In contrast, the number of markers on each autosome is similar between the two maps. We also find strongly conserved synteny between H. arborea and Xenopus tropicalis across 200 million years of evolution, suggesting that the rate of chromosomal rearrangement in anurans is low. Finally, we show that recombination in males is greatly reduced at the centers of large chromosomes, consistent with previous cytogenetic findings. Our research shows the importance of high-density linkage maps for studies of recombination, chromosomal rearrangement and the genetic architecture of ecologically or economically important traits. PMID:26374238

  6. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Ikkyu

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  7. Immune challenges and visual signalling in tree frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desprat, Julia L.; Lengagne, Thierry; Mondy, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    In animals, mate-choice is often based on sexual signals that carry information and help the receiver make the best choice to improve the receiver's fitness. Orange visual sexual signals have been hypothesised to carry immune information because they are often due to carotenoid pigments which are also involved in immunity response. Although many studies have focused on the direct relationships between coloration and immunocompetence, few studies have simultaneously studied immunocompetent response and coloration variation after an immune challenge. We tested this hypothesis on starved and ad libitum-fed males of the European tree frog Hyla arborea. Our results show that male coloration is not a reliable indicator of its immune response capacity in this species. However, after an immune challenge induced by a PHA ( Phaseolus vulgaris phytohaemagglutinin) injection, starved males presented a significant coloration loss and this alteration was related to the immune response intensity. Taken together, these results suggest that the brighter (lighter) coloration may be used as a cue by female to exclude males with a recent immune challenge, due to diseases or parasites for example.

  8. A tree of tree frogs around the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Darren E

    2016-09-01

    Speciation, the process by which one species evolves into two or more, is a major focus of ongoing debate, particularly regarding the geographic context in which it occurs. Geographic models of speciation tend to fall into discrete categories, typically referred to as allopatric, parapatric and sympatric speciation, according to whether two groups evolve reproductive isolation while geographically isolated, differentiated but connected by gene flow, or completely co-occurring. Yet molecular studies indicate that full development of reproductive isolation can take very long compared with the timescale at which climatic oscillations occur, such that the geographic context of differentiating forms might change often during the long process to full species. Studies of genetic relationships across the ranges of organisms with low-dispersal distances have the potential to reveal these complex histories. In a particularly elegant example in this issue, Dufresnes et al. () use genetic variation and ecological niche modelling to show that a ring of populations of the eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis) surrounding the Black Sea had a complex history of geographic differentiation. Alternating phases of geographic fragmentation and phases of gene flow between neighbouring populations have produced a pattern of gradual genetic change connecting the western, southern and eastern sides of the ring, with the northwestern and northeastern forms being most differentiated. In the north, a population in Crimea appears to have been produced through mixture of the two extreme forms. The overall genetic relationships are reminiscent of those found in ring species, which have been used as prime demonstrations of the process of speciation. The difference, however, is that the terminal forms appear to have mixed rather than be reproductively isolated, although more research is needed to infer whether there might be some reproductive isolation on the northern side of the ring.

  9. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  10. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  11. Behavior of Japanese tree frogs under microgravity on MIR and in parabolic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi-Kurotani, A.; Yamashita, M.; Kawasaki, Y.; Kurotani, T.; Mogami, Y.; Okuno, M.; Oketa, A.; Shiraishi, A.; Ueda, K.; Wassersug, R. J.; Naitoh, T.

    1994-08-01

    Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) were flown to the space station MIR and spent eight days in orbit during December, 1990/1/. Under microgravity, their postures and behaviors were observed and recorded. On the MIR, floating frogs stretched four legs out, bent their bodies backward and expanded their abdomens. Frogs on a surface often bent their neck backward and walked backwards. This behavior was observed on parabolic flights and resembles the retching behavior of sick frogs on land- a possible indicator of motion sickness. Observations on MIR were carried out twice to investigate the frog's adaptation to space. The frequency of failure in landing after a jump decreased in the second observation period. After the frogs returned to earth, readaptation processes were observed. The frogs behaved normally as early as 2.5 hours after landing.

  12. Time Series Analysis of Sound Data on Interactive Calling Behavior of Japanese Tree Frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horai, Shunsuke; Aihara, Ikkyu; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    We have analyzed time series data of sound on interactive calling behavior of two male Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica Nihon-Ama-Gaeru). First, we have extracted two time series data mainly corresponding to respective frogs from the single time series data of calls of two frogs by the free and cross-platform sound editor Audacity. Then, we have quantitatively analyzed timing and inter-call intervals of respective frogs. Finally, we have characterized nonstationarily temporal change of the interactive calling behavior of two frogs by analysis of the cross recurrence plot. The results have shown that a pair of male frogs called in almost anti-phase synchronization after a short-term period of nearly in-phase synchronization, which implies existence of complex interactive calling behavior of two male frogs.

  13. [Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae)].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber

    2011-03-01

    The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the species (one female and one male). The metaphase analysis allowed the establishment of the modal haploid number of 1n = 12 bivalent chromosomes. The chromosomic formulae from the haploid bivalent karyotype was integrated by 12 biarmed chromosomes characterized by twelve pairs of metacentric-submetacentric (msm) chromosomes. The meiotic counting gives the idea that diploid chromosome number is integrated by a complement of 2n = 24 biarmed chromosomes. The presence of sex chromosomes from female and male meiotic spreads was not observed. Current results suggest that S. baudinii chromosome structure is well shared among Hylidae family and "B" chromosomes are particular structures that have very important evolutionary consequences in species diversification.

  14. Frankixalus, a New Rhacophorid Genus of Tree Hole Breeding Frogs with Oophagous Tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    Biju, S. D.; Mahony, Stephen; Kamei, Rachunliu G.; Thomas, Ashish; Shouche, Yogesh; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Bocxlaer, Ines Van

    2016-01-01

    Despite renewed interest in the biogeography and evolutionary history of Old World tree frogs (Rhacophoridae), this family still includes enigmatic frogs with ambiguous phylogenetic placement. During fieldwork in four northeastern states of India, we discovered several populations of tree hole breeding frogs with oophagous tadpoles. We used molecular data, consisting of two nuclear and three mitochondrial gene fragments for all known rhacophorid genera, to investigate the phylogenetic position of these new frogs. Our analyses identify a previously overlooked, yet distinct evolutionary lineage of frogs that warrants recognition as a new genus and is here described as Frankixalus gen. nov. This genus, which contains the enigmatic ‘Polypedates’ jerdonii described by Günther in 1876, forms the sister group of a clade containing Kurixalus, Pseudophilautus, Raorchestes, Mercurana and Beddomixalus. The distinctiveness of this evolutionary lineage is also corroborated by the external morphology of adults and tadpoles, adult osteology, breeding ecology, and life history features. PMID:26790105

  15. The scotopic and photopic visual sensitivity in the nocturnal tree frog Agalychnis callidryas.

    PubMed

    Liebau, Arne; Eisenberg, Tobias; Esser, Karl-Heinz

    2015-10-01

    The red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) is endemic to the rainforests of Central America. During the night, it hunts for insects in the treetops whereas at daytime, the frogs rest under leaves. In the present study we determined the relative visual sensitivity spectrum of this nocturnal frog species by ERG recordings in both the dark- and light-adapted state. In both the scotopic- and photopic-sensitivity curve, we found only minor individual variations among the tested individuals. The sensitivity maximum of the scotopic curve was determined at 500 nm, which matches the absorption properties of the RH1-visual pigment expressed in the red rods of frogs. The sensitivity maximum of the photopic curve was found at 545 nm which is close to the absorption maximum of the LWS pigment type expressed in most cones of the frog retina. The threshold curves determined by ERG recordings here reveal no unusual features in the sensitivity spectrum of the red-eyed tree frog that could be interpreted as adaptations for its strictly nocturnal life style.

  16. Defects in Host Immune Function in Tree Frogs with Chronic Chytridiomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sam; Whitehorn, Paul; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F.; Speare, Rick; Garland, Stephen; Webb, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused mass mortality leading to population declines and extinctions in many frog species worldwide. The lack of host resistance may be due to fungal immunosuppressive effects that have been observed when Bd is incubated with cultured lymphocytes, but whether in vivo host immunosuppression occurs is unknown. We used a broad range of hematologic and protein electrophoresis biomarkers, along with various functional tests, to assess immune competence in common green (Litoria caerulea) and white-lipped (L. infrafrenata) tree frogs experimentally infected with Bd. Compared with uninfected frogs, Bd infection in L. caerulea caused a reduction in immunoglobulin and splenic lymphocyte responses to antigenic stimulation with sheep red blood cells, along with decreased white blood cell and serum protein concentrations, indicating possible impaired immune response capability of Bd-infected frogs. This is the first in vivo study suggesting that infection with Bd causes multiple defects in systemic host immune function, and this may contribute to disease development in susceptible host species. Although L. infrafrenata failed to maintain Bd infection after exposure, white blood cell and serum globulin concentrations were lower in recovered frogs compared with unexposed frogs, but antigen-specific serum and splenic antibody, and splenic cellular, responses were similar in both recovered and unexposed frogs. This may indicate potential systemic costs associated with infection clearance and/or redirection of host resources towards more effective mechanisms to overcome infection. No clear mechanism for resistance was identified in L. infrafrenata, suggesting that localized and/or innate immune defense mechanisms may be important factors involved in disease resistance in this species. PMID:25211333

  17. Sticking like sticky tape: tree frogs use friction forces to enhance attachment on overhanging surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Endlein, Thomas; Ji, Aihong; Samuel, Diana; Yao, Ning; Wang, Zhongyuan; Barnes, W. Jon P.; Federle, Walter; Kappl, Michael; Dai, Zhendong

    2013-01-01

    To live and clamber about in an arboreal habitat, tree frogs have evolved adhesive pads on their toes. In addition, they often have long and slender legs to facilitate not only long jumps, but also to bridge gaps between leaves when climbing. Both adhesive pads and long limbs are used in conjunction, as we will show in this study. Previous research has shown that tree frogs change from a crouched posture (where the limbs are close to the body) to a sprawled posture with extended limbs when clinging on to steeper inclines such as vertical or overhanging slopes. We investigated this change in posture in White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) by challenging the frogs to cling onto a tiltable platform. The platform consisted of an array of 24 three-dimensional force transducers, which allowed us to measure the ground reaction forces of the frogs during a tilt. Starting from a crouched resting position, the normal forces on the forelimbs changed sign and became increasingly negative with increasing slope angle of the platform. At about 106°±12°, tilt of the platform the frogs reacted by extending one or two of their limbs outwards. At a steeper angle (131°±11°), the frogs spread out all their limbs sideways, with the hindlimbs stretched out to their maximum reach. Although the extension was strongest in the lateral direction, limbs were significantly extended in the fore–aft direction as well. With the extension of the limbs, the lateral forces increased relative to the normal forces. The large contribution of the in-plane forces helped to keep the angle between the force vector and the platform small. The Kendall theory for the peeling of adhesive tape predicts that smaller peel angles lead to higher attachment forces. We compare our data with the predictions of the Kendall model and discuss possible implications of the sliding of the pads on the surface. The forces were indeed much larger for smaller angles and thus can be explained by peeling theory. PMID

  18. Sticking like sticky tape: tree frogs use friction forces to enhance attachment on overhanging surfaces.

    PubMed

    Endlein, Thomas; Ji, Aihong; Samuel, Diana; Yao, Ning; Wang, Zhongyuan; Barnes, W Jon P; Federle, Walter; Kappl, Michael; Dai, Zhendong

    2013-03-06

    To live and clamber about in an arboreal habitat, tree frogs have evolved adhesive pads on their toes. In addition, they often have long and slender legs to facilitate not only long jumps, but also to bridge gaps between leaves when climbing. Both adhesive pads and long limbs are used in conjunction, as we will show in this study. Previous research has shown that tree frogs change from a crouched posture (where the limbs are close to the body) to a sprawled posture with extended limbs when clinging on to steeper inclines such as vertical or overhanging slopes. We investigated this change in posture in White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) by challenging the frogs to cling onto a tiltable platform. The platform consisted of an array of 24 three-dimensional force transducers, which allowed us to measure the ground reaction forces of the frogs during a tilt. Starting from a crouched resting position, the normal forces on the forelimbs changed sign and became increasingly negative with increasing slope angle of the platform. At about 106° ± 12°, tilt of the platform the frogs reacted by extending one or two of their limbs outwards. At a steeper angle (131° ± 11°), the frogs spread out all their limbs sideways, with the hindlimbs stretched out to their maximum reach. Although the extension was strongest in the lateral direction, limbs were significantly extended in the fore-aft direction as well. With the extension of the limbs, the lateral forces increased relative to the normal forces. The large contribution of the in-plane forces helped to keep the angle between the force vector and the platform small. The Kendall theory for the peeling of adhesive tape predicts that smaller peel angles lead to higher attachment forces. We compare our data with the predictions of the Kendall model and discuss possible implications of the sliding of the pads on the surface. The forces were indeed much larger for smaller angles and thus can be explained by peeling theory.

  19. Chloramphenicol with fluid and electrolyte therapy cures terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with chytridiomycosis.

    PubMed

    Young, Sam; Speare, Rick; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F

    2012-06-01

    Terminal changes in frogs infected with the amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) include epidermal degeneration leading to inhibited epidermal electrolyte transport, systemic electrolyte disturbances, and asystolic cardiac arrest. There are few reports of successful treatment of chytridiomycosis and none that include curing amphibians with severe disease. Three terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with heavy Bd infections were cured using a combination of continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution for 14 days, parenteral isotonic electrolyte fluid therapy for 6 days, and increased ambient temperature to 28 degrees C for 14 days. All terminally ill frogs recovered rapidly to normal activity levels and appetite within 5 days of commencing treatment. In contrast, five untreated terminally ill L. caerulea with heavy Bd infections died within 24-48 hr of becoming moribund. Subclinical infections in 15 experimentally infected L. caerulea were cured within 28 days by continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution without adverse effects. This is the first known report of a clinical treatment protocol for curing terminally ill Bd-infected frogs.

  20. Influence of water temperature on acetylcholinesterase activity in the pacific tree frog (Hyla regilla)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Catherine S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Henderson, John D.; Wilson, Barry W.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation evaluated whether acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in Pacific tree frogs (Hyla regilla) from different geographical locations was influenced by different temperatures during early aquatic life stages, independent of pesticide exposure. Tadpoles were collected from both a California coastal pond and a Sierra Nevada mountain range pond, USA. Groups of frogs from each location were raised in temperatures representative of either the Sierra Nevada (8°C) or the coastal (19°C) location. Metamorphs from both locations raised as tadpoles at 19°C had AChE activities of 42.3 and 38.7 nm/min/mg protein, while those raised as tadpoles at 8°C had activities of 26.9 and 28.2 nm/min/mg protein. A two-way analysis of variance revealed temperature to be the significant factor in determining AChE activity (F = 22.3, p < 0.001), although origin was not important (F = 0.09, p = 0.75). Interpretations regarding the influence of pesticides upon AChE activity in Pacific tree frogs must consider the influence of environmental temperature to enable cross-population comparisons.

  1. Environmental DNA Detection of the Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliads

    PubMed Central

    Torresdal, Jack D.; Farrell, Aidan D.; Goldberg, Caren S.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is a powerful, non-destructive technique for detecting rare or hard to find freshwater organisms. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of environmental DNA analysis as a method for detecting a rare amphibian, the golden tree frog (Phytotriades auratus). These frogs are believed to live exclusively within one species of tank bromeliad, Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora, found on the highest peaks of the island of Trinidad in the West Indies. Previous survey methods for this species involved bromeliad destruction, while here we collected and analyzed water samples from discrete pools within G. erectiflora plants for species-specific DNA. We found 1) that we can identify the presence of P. auratus in the bromeliads using environmental DNA analysis, and 2) that environmental DNA evidence indicates the presence of a previously undiscovered P. auratus population, increasing the species’ range from two isolated ‘sky islands’ to three. PMID:28052079

  2. Sexual differences in the auditory system of the tree frog Eleutherodactylus coqui.

    PubMed

    Narins, P M; Capranica, R R

    1976-04-23

    Acoustic playback experiments with calling males in their natural habitat and two-choice orientation experiments with females indicate that males and females of the neotropical tree frog Elutherodactylus coqui respond to different notes in the two-note call of the male. This functional dichotomy of the two notes in the male's call reflects a difference in the distribution of the best excitatory frequencies of primary auditory neurons for the males and females. To the best of our knowledge, Eleutherodactylus is the first known example of a vertebrate in which the peripheral auditory sensitivity shows a sexual difference.

  3. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-03-02

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population.

  4. Combined Effects of Pesticides and Trematode Infections on Hourglass Tree Frog Polypedates cruciger

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Rohr, Jason R.; Navaratne, Ayanthi N.; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.; Rajakaruna, Rupika S.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of widespread and common environmental factors, such as chemical contaminants, on infectious disease risk in amphibians is particularly important because both chemical contaminants and infectious disease have been implicated in worldwide amphibian declines. Here we report on the lone and combined effects of exposure to parasitic cercariae (larval stage) of the digenetic trematode, Acanthostomum burminis, and four commonly used pesticides (insecticides: chlorpyrifos, dimethoate; herbicides: glyphosate, propanil) at ecologically relevant concentrations on the survival, growth, and development of the common hourglass tree frog, Polypedates cruciger Blyth 1852. There was no evidence of any pesticide-induced mortality on cercariae because all the cercariae successfully penetrated each tadpole host regardless of pesticide treatment. In isolation, both cercarial and pesticide exposure significantly decreased frog survival, development, and growth, and increased developmental malformations, such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and also edema and skin ulcers. The combination of cercariae and pesticides generally posed greater risk to frogs than either factor alone by decreasing survival or growth or increasing time to metamorphosis or malformations. The exception was that lone exposure to chlorpyrifos had higher mortality without than with cercariae. Consistent with mathematical models that suggest that stress should increase the impact of generalist parasites, the weight of the evidence from the field and laboratory suggests that ecologically relevant concentrations of agrochemicals generally increase the threat that trematodes pose to amphibians, highlighting the importance of elucidating interactions between anthropogenic activities and infectious disease in taxa of conservation concern. PMID:26911919

  5. The use of clamping grips and friction pads by tree frogs for climbing curved surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Aihong; Yuan, Shanshan; Hill, Iain; Wang, Huan; Barnes, W. Jon P.; Dai, Zhendong; Sitti, Metin

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on the adhesive mechanisms of climbing animals have addressed attachment against flat surfaces, yet many animals can climb highly curved surfaces, like twigs and small branches. Here we investigated whether tree frogs use a clamping grip by recording the ground reaction forces on a cylindrical object with either a smooth or anti-adhesive, rough surface. Furthermore, we measured the contact area of fore and hindlimbs against differently sized transparent cylinders and the forces of individual pads and subarticular tubercles in restrained animals. Our study revealed that frogs use friction and normal forces of roughly a similar magnitude for holding on to cylindrical objects. When challenged with climbing a non-adhesive surface, the compressive forces between opposite legs nearly doubled, indicating a stronger clamping grip. In contrast to climbing flat surfaces, frogs increased the contact area on all limbs by engaging not just adhesive pads but also subarticular tubercles on curved surfaces. Our force measurements showed that tubercles can withstand larger shear stresses than pads. SEM images of tubercles revealed a similar structure to that of toe pads including the presence of nanopillars, though channels surrounding epithelial cells were less pronounced. The tubercles' smaller size, proximal location on the toes and shallow cells make them probably less prone to buckling and thus ideal for gripping curved surfaces. PMID:28228509

  6. The use of clamping grips and friction pads by tree frogs for climbing curved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Endlein, Thomas; Ji, Aihong; Yuan, Shanshan; Hill, Iain; Wang, Huan; Barnes, W Jon P; Dai, Zhendong; Sitti, Metin

    2017-02-22

    Most studies on the adhesive mechanisms of climbing animals have addressed attachment against flat surfaces, yet many animals can climb highly curved surfaces, like twigs and small branches. Here we investigated whether tree frogs use a clamping grip by recording the ground reaction forces on a cylindrical object with either a smooth or anti-adhesive, rough surface. Furthermore, we measured the contact area of fore and hindlimbs against differently sized transparent cylinders and the forces of individual pads and subarticular tubercles in restrained animals. Our study revealed that frogs use friction and normal forces of roughly a similar magnitude for holding on to cylindrical objects. When challenged with climbing a non-adhesive surface, the compressive forces between opposite legs nearly doubled, indicating a stronger clamping grip. In contrast to climbing flat surfaces, frogs increased the contact area on all limbs by engaging not just adhesive pads but also subarticular tubercles on curved surfaces. Our force measurements showed that tubercles can withstand larger shear stresses than pads. SEM images of tubercles revealed a similar structure to that of toe pads including the presence of nanopillars, though channels surrounding epithelial cells were less pronounced. The tubercles' smaller size, proximal location on the toes and shallow cells make them probably less prone to buckling and thus ideal for gripping curved surfaces.

  7. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population. PMID:26932675

  8. DNA barcoding and the identification of tree frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Dang, Ning-Xin; Sun, Feng-Hui; Lv, Yun-Yun; Zhao, Bo-Han; Wang, Ji-Chao; Murphy, Robert W; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-07-01

    The DNA barcoding gene COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) effectively identifies many species. Herein, we barcoded 172 individuals from 37 species belonging to nine genera in Rhacophoridae to test if the gene serves equally well to identify species of tree frogs. Phenetic neighbor joining and phylogenetic Bayesian inference were used to construct phylogenetic trees, which resolved all nine genera as monophyletic taxa except for Rhacophorus, two new matrilines for Liuixalus, and Polypedates leucomystax species complex. Intraspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.000 to 0.119 and interspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.015 to 0.334. Within Rhacophorus and Kurixalus, the intra- and interspecific genetic distances did not reveal an obvious barcode gap. Notwithstanding, we found that COI sequences unambiguously identified rhacophorid species and helped to discover likely new cryptic species via the synthesis of genealogical relationships and divergence patterns. Our results supported that COI is an effective DNA barcoding marker for Rhacophoridae.

  9. Sperm competition and offspring viability at hybridization in Australian tree frogs, Litoria peronii and L. tyleri.

    PubMed

    Sherman, C D H; Wapstra, E; Olsson, M

    2010-02-01

    Hybridization between closely related species often leads to reduced viability or fertility of offspring. Complete failure of hybrid offspring (post-zygotic hybrid incompatibilities) may have an important role in maintaining the integrity of reproductive barriers between closely related species. We show elsewhere that in Peron's tree frog, Litoria peronii, males more closely related to a female sire more offspring in sperm competition with a less related rival male. Observations of rare 'phenotypic intermediate' males between L. peronii and the closely related L. tyleri made us suggest that these relatedness effects on siring success may be because of selection arising from risks of costly hybridization between the two species. Here, we test this hypothesis in an extensive sperm competition experiment, which shows that there is no effect of species identity on probability of fertilization in sperm competition trials controlling for sperm concentration and sperm viability. Instead, there was a close agreement between a male's siring success in isolation with a female and his siring success with the same female in competition with a rival male regardless of species identity. Offspring viability and survival, however, were strongly influenced by species identity. Over a 14-day period, hybrid offspring suffered increasing mortality and developed more malformations and an obvious inability to swim and right themselves, leading to compromised probability of survival. Thus, hybridization in these sympatric tree frogs does not compromise fertilization but has a strong impact on offspring viability and opportunity for reinforcement selection on mate choice for conspecific partners.

  10. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  11. Whole animal measurements of shear and adhesive forces in adult tree frogs: insights into underlying mechanisms of adhesion obtained from studying the effects of size and scale.

    PubMed

    Barnes, W Jon P; Oines, Christine; Smith, Joanna M

    2006-11-01

    This allometric study of adhesion in 15 Trinidadian tree frog species investigates how relationships between length, area and mass limit the ability of adult frog species of different sizes to adhere to inclined and overhanging surfaces. Our experiments show that hylid frogs possess an area-based wet adhesive system in which larger species are lighter than expected from isometry and adhere better than expected from their toe pad area. However, in spite of these adaptations, larger species adhere less well than smaller species. In addition to these adhesive forces, tree frogs also generate significant shear forces that scale with mass, suggesting that they are frictional forces. Toe pads detach by peeling and frogs have strategies to prevent peeling from taking place while they are adhering to surfaces, including orienting themselves head-up on slopes. The scaling of tree frog adhesion is also used to distinguish between different models for adhesion, including classic formulae for capillarity and Stefan adhesion. These classic equations grossly overestimate the adhesive forces that tree frogs produce. More promising are peeling models, designed to predict the pull-off forces of adhesive tape. However, more work is required before we can qualitatively and quantitatively describe the adhesive mechanism of tree frogs.

  12. Enhanced call effort in Japanese tree frogs infected by amphibian chytrid fungus

    PubMed Central

    An, Deuknam

    2016-01-01

    Some amphibians have evolved resistance to the devastating disease chytridiomycosis, associated with global population declines, but immune defences can be costly. We recorded advertisement calls of male Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) in the field. We then assessed whether individuals were infected by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causal agent of the disease. This allowed us to analyse call properties of males as a function of their infection status. Infected males called more rapidly and produced longer calls than uninfected males. This enhanced call effort may reflect pathogen manipulation of host behaviour to foster disease transmission. Alternatively, increased calling may have resulted from selection on infected males to reproduce earlier because of their shortened expected lifespan. Our results raise the possibility that sublethal effects of Bd alter amphibian life histories, which contributes to long-term population declines. PMID:26932682

  13. Enhanced call effort in Japanese tree frogs infected by amphibian chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    An, Deuknam; Waldman, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    Some amphibians have evolved resistance to the devastating disease chytridiomycosis, associated with global population declines, but immune defences can be costly. We recorded advertisement calls of male Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) in the field. We then assessed whether individuals were infected by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causal agent of the disease. This allowed us to analyse call properties of males as a function of their infection status. Infected males called more rapidly and produced longer calls than uninfected males. This enhanced call effort may reflect pathogen manipulation of host behaviour to foster disease transmission. Alternatively, increased calling may have resulted from selection on infected males to reproduce earlier because of their shortened expected lifespan. Our results raise the possibility that sublethal effects of Bd alter amphibian life histories, which contributes to long-term population declines.

  14. Anesthesia of tadpoles of the southern brown tree frog (Litoria ewingii) with isoeugenol (Aqui-S).

    PubMed

    Speare, Rick; Speare, Benjamin; Muller, Reinhold; Bishop, Phil

    2014-09-01

    Because anesthesia of amphibian larvae is currently problematic, the aim of this study was to test if a fish anesthetic containing approximately 500 g/L isoeugenol (Aqui-S) could anesthetize tadpoles. Three concentrations of Aqui-S were tested (of commercial solution 10, 20, and 50 microl/L) with 10 tadpoles of the southern brown tree frog (Litoria ewingii) per concentration. Tadpoles were anesthetized for 15 min in water at 18-20 degrees C. Anesthetic criteria included four time points and two heart rates: time to loss of response to stimulation, loss of righting reflex, and return of spontaneous movement and of righting reflex after removal from Aqui-S, and heart rate after induction and after 15 min of anesthesia. No tadpole showed signs of irritation or excitement, no tadpole died, and all returned to normal behavior. The times for induction of anesthesia (time to loss of righting reflex) decreased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing concentration: means of 27.5, 16.8, and 5.7 min for 10, 20, and 50 microl/L, respectively. Heart rate after 15 min of anesthesia was significantly lower (P = 0.006) for concentrations of 20 and 50 microl/L compared to 10 microl/L. At the lowest concentration (10 microl/L), anesthesia was light. Recovery times were significantly delayed (P < 0.001) for 50 microl/L, approximately double those for the lower concentrations. Spontaneous movements began at 56.9, 51.4, and 119 min for 10, 20, and 50 microl/L Aqui-S, respectively. Although Aqui-S did anesthetize tadpoles at all three concentrations, with 20 microl/L being the most suitable, additional longer-term toxicity testing is required prior to its adoption as an anesthetic agent for this species. Anesthesia, isoeugenol, Litoria ewingii, southern brown tree frog, tadpoles.

  15. Within-population variation in ejaculate characteristics in a prolonged breeder, Peron's tree frog, Litoria peronii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Craig D. H.; Uller, Tobias; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2008-11-01

    Sperm number is often a good predictor of success in sperm competition; however, it has become increasingly clear that, for some species, variation in probability of paternity cannot be explained by sperm number alone. Intraspecific variation in ejaculate characteristics, such as the number of viable sperm and sperm longevity, may play an equally important role in determining fertilization success. Here, we assess variation among ejaculates in three factors that may contribute to fertilization success (number of sperm per ejaculate, viability, and longevity), in a population of Peron’s tree frog ( Litoria peronii). We detected large variation among males in the number of sperm per ejaculate and the proportion of viable sperm within ejaculates, which could not be explained by variation in either male size or body condition. However, the proportion of viable sperm released by males increased over the season. Finally, we assessed sperm longevity (proportion viable sperm determined using a dual-fluorochrome vital dye) at two different temperatures. At 23°C, on average, 75% of sperm remained viable after 2 h, but there were significant differences amongst males with the percentage of viable sperm ranging from 43% to 95%. For sperm incubated at 4°C, ejaculates varied fivefold in sperm longevity with some males having 50% viable sperm after 5 days. Our data suggest that ejaculate characteristics (sperm number, viability, and longevity) vary widely in Peron’s tree frog and may therefore play an important role in determining siring success both in the presence and absence of sperm competition. We discuss the results in relation to selection on ejaculate traits via natural and sexual selection in this and other amphibians.

  16. Divergent responses of exposed and naive Pacific tree frog tadpoles to invasive predatory crayfish.

    PubMed

    Pease, Katherine M; Wayne, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Invasive predators can devastate native species and ecosystems. However, native species may be able to coexist with invasive predators through a variety of mechanisms, such as changes in morphology or behavior due to a plastic response or selection on fixed anti-predator traits. We examined whether exposed and naive populations of Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Pseudacris regilla) display divergent morphological and behavioral traits in response to the invasive predatory red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Tadpoles were collected from three study streams with and three without crayfish, in the Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California. We analyzed tadpole morphology and tested anti-predator behavior and survival in the laboratory. Tadpoles from streams with crayfish had shallower, narrower tails than tadpoles from streams without crayfish. Tadpoles from streams with and without crayfish were less active after exposure to crayfish chemical cues. The divergent morphology of naive and exposed tadpoles is consistent with tadpoles exhibiting a plastic response to crayfish or undergoing selection from crayfish predation. In laboratory predation experiments, we found no difference in survival between tadpoles from streams with and without crayfish but tadpoles that survived predation had deeper tail muscles than those that were killed or injured. Our results suggest that deeper tails are advantageous in the presence of crayfish, yet tadpoles from crayfish streams had shallower tails than those from crayfish-free streams. Shallower tails may have an alternative unmeasured advantage or there may be a physiological constraint to developing deeper tails in the wild. These results highlight the ability of a native frog to respond to an invasive predatory crayfish, potentially allowing for coexistence.

  17. Pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis to brown tree frogs (Litoria ewingii).

    PubMed

    Schadich, Ermin; Cole, Anthony L J

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial dermatosepticemia, a systemic infectious bacterial disease of frogs, can be caused by several opportunistic gram-negative bacterial species including Aeromonas hydrophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia liquifaciens. Here we determined the pathogenicity of 3 bacterial species (Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis) associated with an outbreak of fatal dermatosepticemia in New Zealand Litoria ewingii frogs. A bath challenge method was used to expose test frogs to individual bacterial species (2 x 10(7) cfu/mL in pond water); control frogs were exposed to uninfected pond water. None of the control frogs or those exposed to A. hydrophila or P. mirabilis showed any morbidity or mortality. Morbidity and mortality was 40% among frogs exposed to K. pneumonia, and the organism was reisolated from the hearts, spleens, and livers of affected animals.

  18. Seasonal metabolic changes in a year-round reproductively active subtropical tree-frog (Hypsiboas prasinus).

    PubMed

    Kiss, Ana Carolina I; de Carvalho, José Eduardo; Navas, Carlos A; Gomes, Fernando R

    2009-02-01

    Although seasonal metabolic variation in ectothermic tetrapods has been investigated primarily in the context of species showing some level of metabolic depression during winter, but several species of anurans maintain their activity patterns throughout the year in tropical and subtropical areas. The tree-frog Hypsiboas prasinus occurs in the subtropical Atlantic Forest and remains reproductively active during winter, at temperatures below 10 degrees C. We compared males calling in summer and winter, and found that males of H. prasinus exhibit seasonal adjustments in metabolic and morphometric variables. Individuals calling during winter were larger and showed higher resting metabolic rates than those calling during summer. Calling rates were not affected by season. Winter animals showed lower liver and heart activity level of citrate synthase (CS), partially compensated by larger liver mass. Winter individuals also showed higher activity of pyruvate kinase (PK) and lower activity of CS in trunk muscles, and higher activity of CS in leg muscles. Winter metabolic adjustments seem to be achieved by both compensatory mechanisms to the lower environmental temperature and a seasonally oriented aerobic depression of several organs. The impact of seasonal metabolic changes on calling performance and the capacity of subtropical anurans for metabolic thermal acclimatization are also discussed.

  19. A new species of tree frog genus Rhacophorus from Sumatra, Indonesia Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Hamidy, Amir; Kurniati, Hellen

    2015-04-14

    A small-sized tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected from three different localities on Sumatra Island, Indonesia. Rhacophorus indonesiensis sp. nov. is divergent from all other Rhacophorus species genetically and morphologically. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of: the presence of black spots on the ventral surfaces of the hand and foot webbing, an absence of vomerine teeth, a venter with a white kite-shaped marking, raised white spots on the dorsum or on the head, and a reddish brown dorsum with irregular dark brown blotches and distinct black dots. With the addition of this new species, fifteen species of Rhacophorus are now known from Sumatra, the highest number of species of this genus in the Sundaland region. However, with the increasing conversion of forest to oil palm cultivation or mining, the possibility of the extinction of newly described or as yet undiscovered species is of great concern.

  20. Identification and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class IIB alleles from three species of European ranid frogs

    PubMed Central

    A. Marosi, Béla; M. Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen; V. Ghira, Ioan; Sos, Tibor; Popescu, Octavian

    2014-01-01

    Immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are among the most polymorphic genes in the vertebrate genome. Due to their polymorphic nature, they are often used to assess the adaptive genetic variability of natural populations. This study describes the first molecular characterization of 13 partial MHC class IIB sequences from three European ranid frogs. The utility of previously published primers was expanded by using them to successfully amplify eight exon 2 alleles from Rana arvalis.We also designed a novel primer set that successfully amplified exon 2 from Pelophylax kurtmuelleri. Pelophylax lessonae was also designed as part of this study. Results indicate the presence of one or two class IIB loci in these three species. In R. arvalis, significant evidence of positive selection acting on MHC antigen binding sites was found. Many European ranid populations are experiencing disease-related declines; the newly developed primers can, therefore, be used for further population analyses of native frogs. PMID:27843985

  1. When the going gets rough – studying the effect of surface roughness on the adhesive abilities of tree frogs

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Niall; Endlein, Thomas; Pham, Jonathan T; Riehle, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    Tree frogs need to adhere to surfaces of various roughnesses in their natural habitats; these include bark, leaves and rocks. Rough surfaces can alter the effectiveness of their toe pads, due to factors such as a change of real contact area and abrasion of the pad epithelium. Here, we tested the effect of surface roughness on the attachment abilities of the tree frog Litoria caerulea. This was done by testing shear and adhesive forces on artificial surfaces with controlled roughness, both on single toe pads and whole animal scales. It was shown that frogs can stick 2–3 times better on small scale roughnesses (3–6 µm asperities), producing higher adhesive and frictional forces, but relatively poorly on the larger scale roughnesses tested (58.5–562.5 µm asperities). Our experiments suggested that, on such surfaces, the pads secrete insufficient fluid to fill the space under the pad, leaving air pockets that would significantly reduce the Laplace pressure component of capillarity. Therefore, we measured how well the adhesive toe pad would conform to spherical asperities of known sizes using interference reflection microscopy. Based on experiments where the conformation of the pad to individual asperities was examined microscopically, our calculations indicate that the pad epithelium has a low elastic modulus, making it highly deformable. PMID:28144558

  2. When the going gets rough - studying the effect of surface roughness on the adhesive abilities of tree frogs.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Niall; Endlein, Thomas; Pham, Jonathan T; Riehle, Mathis; Barnes, W Jon P

    2016-01-01

    Tree frogs need to adhere to surfaces of various roughnesses in their natural habitats; these include bark, leaves and rocks. Rough surfaces can alter the effectiveness of their toe pads, due to factors such as a change of real contact area and abrasion of the pad epithelium. Here, we tested the effect of surface roughness on the attachment abilities of the tree frog Litoria caerulea. This was done by testing shear and adhesive forces on artificial surfaces with controlled roughness, both on single toe pads and whole animal scales. It was shown that frogs can stick 2-3 times better on small scale roughnesses (3-6 µm asperities), producing higher adhesive and frictional forces, but relatively poorly on the larger scale roughnesses tested (58.5-562.5 µm asperities). Our experiments suggested that, on such surfaces, the pads secrete insufficient fluid to fill the space under the pad, leaving air pockets that would significantly reduce the Laplace pressure component of capillarity. Therefore, we measured how well the adhesive toe pad would conform to spherical asperities of known sizes using interference reflection microscopy. Based on experiments where the conformation of the pad to individual asperities was examined microscopically, our calculations indicate that the pad epithelium has a low elastic modulus, making it highly deformable.

  3. Human-assisted invasions of pacific islands by litoria frogs: a case study of the bleating tree frog on Lord Howe Island.

    PubMed

    Plenderleith, T Lynette; Smith, Katie L; Donnellan, Stephen C; Reina, Richard D; Chapple, David G

    2015-01-01

    There are substantial differences among taxonomic groups in their capacity to reach remote oceanic islands via long-distance overwater dispersal from mainland regions. Due to their permeable skin and intolerance of saltwater, amphibians generally require human-assisted dispersal to reach oceanic islands. Several Litoria frog species have been introduced to remote islands throughout the Pacific Ocean region. Lord Howe Island (LHI) is an oceanic island that lies approximately 600 km east of the Australian mainland and has a diverse, endemic biota. The bleating tree frog (Litoria dentata) is native to mainland eastern Australia, but was accidentally introduced to LHI in the 1990s, yet its ecology and potential impact on LHI has remained unstudied. We used a mitochondrial phylogeographical approach to determine that L. dentata was introduced from the Ballina region in northeastern New South Wales. The founding population was likely accidentally introduced with cargo shipped from the mainland. We also completed the first detailed investigation of the distribution, ecology and habitat use of L. dentata on LHI. The species is widespread on LHI and is prevalent in human habitat, cattle pasture and undisturbed forest. We discuss the potential impact of introduced Litoria species on Pacific islands and outline what biosecurity protocols could be implemented to prevent the introduction of further amphibian species to the ecologically sensitive oceanic area.

  4. Human-Assisted Invasions of Pacific Islands by Litoria Frogs: A Case Study of the Bleating Tree Frog on Lord Howe Island

    PubMed Central

    Plenderleith, T. Lynette; Smith, Katie L.; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Reina, Richard D.; Chapple, David G.

    2015-01-01

    There are substantial differences among taxonomic groups in their capacity to reach remote oceanic islands via long-distance overwater dispersal from mainland regions. Due to their permeable skin and intolerance of saltwater, amphibians generally require human-assisted dispersal to reach oceanic islands. Several Litoria frog species have been introduced to remote islands throughout the Pacific Ocean region. Lord Howe Island (LHI) is an oceanic island that lies approximately 600 km east of the Australian mainland and has a diverse, endemic biota. The bleating tree frog (Litoria dentata) is native to mainland eastern Australia, but was accidentally introduced to LHI in the 1990s, yet its ecology and potential impact on LHI has remained unstudied. We used a mitochondrial phylogeographical approach to determine that L. dentata was introduced from the Ballina region in northeastern New South Wales. The founding population was likely accidentally introduced with cargo shipped from the mainland. We also completed the first detailed investigation of the distribution, ecology and habitat use of L. dentata on LHI. The species is widespread on LHI and is prevalent in human habitat, cattle pasture and undisturbed forest. We discuss the potential impact of introduced Litoria species on Pacific islands and outline what biosecurity protocols could be implemented to prevent the introduction of further amphibian species to the ecologically sensitive oceanic area. PMID:25962141

  5. Central angiotensin II stimulates cutaneous water intake behavior via an angiotensin II type-1 receptor pathway in the Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Sho; Konno, Norifumi; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2010-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates oral water intake by causing thirst in all terrestrial vertebrates except anurans. Anuran amphibians do not drink orally but absorb water osmotically through ventral skin. In this study, we examined the role of Ang II on the regulation of water-absorption behavior in the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica). In fully hydrated frogs, intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intralymphatic sac (ILS) injection of Ang II significantly extended the residence time of water in a dose-dependent manner. Ang II-dependent water uptake was inhibited by ICV pretreatment with an angiotensin II type-1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist but not a type-2 (AT(2)) receptor antagonist. These results suggest that Ang II stimulates water-absorption behavior in the tree frog via an AT(1)-like but not AT(2)-like receptor. We then cloned and characterized cDNA of the tree frog AT(1) receptor from the brain. The tree frog AT(1) receptor cDNA encodes a 361 amino acid residue protein, which is 87% identical to the toad (Bufo marinus) AT(1) receptor and exhibits the functional characteristics of an Ang II receptor. AT(1) receptor mRNAs were found to be present in a number of tissues including brain (especially in the diencephalon), lung, large intestine, kidney and ventral pelvic skin. When tree frogs were exposed to dehydrating conditions, AT(1) receptor mRNA significantly increased in the diencephalon and the rhombencephalon. These data suggest that central Ang II may control water intake behavior via an AT(1) receptor on the diencephalon and rhombencephalon in anuran amphibians and may have implications for water consumption in vertebrates.

  6. Population-specific effects of developmental temperature on body condition and jumping performance of a widespread European frog.

    PubMed

    Drakulić, Sanja; Feldhaar, Heike; Lisičić, Duje; Mioč, Mia; Cizelj, Ivan; Seiler, Michael; Spatz, Theresa; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-05-01

    All physiological processes of ectotherms depend on environmental temperature. Thus, adaptation of physiological mechanisms to the thermal environments is important for achieving optimal performance and fitness. The European Common Frog, Rana temporaria, is widely distributed across different thermal habitats. This makes it an exceptional model for studying the adaptations to different thermal conditions. We raised tadpoles from Germany and Croatia at two constant temperature treatments (15°C, 20°C), and under natural temperature fluctuations (in outdoor treatments), and tested how different developmental temperatures affected developmental traits, that is, length of larval development, morphometrics, and body condition, as well as jumping performance of metamorphs. Our results revealed population-specific differences in developmental time, body condition, and jumping performance. Croatian frogs developed faster in all treatments, were heavier, in better body condition, and had longer hind limbs and better jumping abilities than German metamorphs. The populations further differed in thermal sensitivity of jumping performance. While metamorphs from Croatia increased their jumping performance with higher temperatures, German metamorphs reached their performance maximum at lower temperatures. These population-specific differences in common environments indicate local genetic adaptation, with southern populations being better adapted to higher temperatures than those from north of the Alps.

  7. Development and growth of long bones in European water frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae), with remarks on age determination.

    PubMed

    Rozenblut, Beata; Ogielska, Maria

    2005-09-01

    Differentiation and development of long bones were studied in European water frogs: Rana lessonae, R. ridibunda, and R. esculenta. The study included premetamorphic larvae (Gosner Stage 40) to frogs that were 5 years old. Femora, metatarsal bones, and proximal phalanges of the hindlimb exhibit the same pattern of periosteal bone differentiation and the same pattern of growth. Longitudinal and radial growth of these bones was studied by examination of the diaphyses and epiphyses, particularly where the edge of periosteal bone is inserted into the epiphysis. The periosteum seems to be responsible for both longitudinal and radial growth. Investigation of the formation, length, and arrangement of lines of arrested growth reveals that the first line is present only in the middle 25-35% of the length of the diaphysis of an adult bone; therefore, only the central portion of the diaphysis should be used for age estimation in skeletochronological studies. Comparison of the shapes and histological structures of epiphyses in the femur, metatarsal bones, and phalanges revealed that epiphyseal cartilages are composed of an inner and outer part. The inner metaphyseal cartilage has distinct zones and plugs the end of the periosteal bone cylinder; its role in longitudinal growth is questioned. The outer epiphyseal cartilage is composed of articular cartilages proper, in addition to lateral articular cartilages. Differences in the symmetry of the lateral articular cartilages of distal epiphyses of the femur and toes may reflect adaptations to different kinds of movements at the knee and in the foot.

  8. Indo-European languages tree by Levenshtein distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serva, M.; Petroni, F.

    2008-03-01

    The evolution of languages closely resembles the evolution of haploid organisms. This similarity has been recently exploited (Gray R. D. and Atkinson Q. D., Nature, 426 (2003) 435; Gray R. D. and Jordan F. M., Nature, 405 (2000) 1052) to construct language trees. The key point is the definition of a distance among all pairs of languages which is the analogous of a genetic distance. Many methods have been proposed to define these distances; one of these, used by glottochronology, computes the distance from the percentage of shared "cognates". Cognates are words inferred to have a common historical origin, and subjective judgment plays a relevant role in the identification process. Here we push closer the analogy with evolutionary biology and we introduce a genetic distance among language pairs by considering a renormalized Levenshtein distance among words with same meaning and averaging on all words contained in a Swadesh list (Swadesh M., Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 96 (1952) 452). The subjectivity of process is consistently reduced and the reproducibility is highly facilitated. We test our method against the Indo-European group considering fifty different languages and the two hundred words of the Swadesh list for any of them. We find out a tree which closely resembles the one published in Gray and Atkinson (2003), with some significant differences.

  9. Molecular cloning of an anuran V(2) type [Arg(8)] vasotocin receptor and mesotocin receptor: functional characterization and tissue expression in the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica).

    PubMed

    Kohno, Satomi; Kamishima, Yoshihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2003-07-01

    In most amphibians, [Arg(8)] vasotocin (VT) has an antidiuretic effect that is coupled to the activation of adenylate cyclase. In contrast, mesotocin (MT) has a diuretic effect and acts via the inositol phosphate/calcium signaling pathway in amphibians. To further clarify the mechanisms of VT and MT activation, we report the molecular cloning of a VT receptor (VTR) and a MT receptor (MTR) from the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica. Tree frog VTR or MTR cDNA encoded 363 or 389 amino acids, and their amino acid sequences revealed close similarity to the mammalian vasopressin V(2) (51-52% identity) or toad MT (94% identity) receptors, respectively. Using CHO-K1 cells transfected with tree frog VTR, we observed elevated concentrations of intracellular cAMP following exposure of the cells to VT or other neurohypophysial hormones, whereas the cells transfected with MTR did not exhibit altered cAMP concentrations. The cells transfected with VTR exhibited the following efficiency for cAMP accumulation: VT = hydrin 1 > or = vasopressin > or = hydrin 2 > MT = oxytocin > isotocin. VTR or MTR mRNA exhibits a single 2.2- or 5.5-kb transcription band, respectively, and both are expressed in various tissues. VTR mRNA is clearly expressed in brain, heart, kidney, pelvic patch of skin, and urinary bladder, whereas brain, fat body, heart, kidney, and urinary bladder express MTR mRNA. Specifically, VTR mRNA in the pelvic patch or MTR mRNA in the dorsal skin is present at elevated levels in the skin. Characteristic distribution of VTR and MTR on osmoregulating organs indicates the ligands for these receptors would mediate a variety of functions. Further, the distribution of VTR in the skin would make the regional difference on cutaneous water absorption in response to VT in the Japanese tree frog.

  10. A striking new species of phytotelm-breeding tree frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Dau, Vinh Quang; Hoang, Huy Duc; Cao, Trung Tien

    2014-04-02

    We describe a distinctive new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is distinguished from all other rhacophorids in Indochina by a combination of (1) medium body size (adult males 38.9-41.6 mm; adult female 36.3 mm), (2) dorsum brown diurnally and yellow nocturnally, (3) venter pink, (4) tympanum and supratympanic fold indistinct (5) iris dark gold with a dense, relatively uniformly distributed network of black reticulations, (6) dorsum with distinctive white conical tubercles in males, and (7) eggs deposited on wall of a phyptotelm. The new species is known from montane bamboo and montane evergreen forest in Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province, between ~1845-2160 m elevation.

  11. A simplified molecular method for distinguishing among species and ploidy levels in European water frogs (Pelophylax).

    PubMed

    Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Höer, Manuela; Ogielska, Maria; Christiansen, Ditte G; Dziewulska-Szwajkowska, Daria; Czernicka, Elżbieta; Vences, Miguel

    2012-09-01

    Western Palearctic water frogs in the genus Pelophylax are a set of morphologically similar anuran species that form hybridogenetic complexes. Fully reliable identification of species and especially of hybrid ploidy depends on karyological and molecular methods. In central Europe, native water frog populations consist of the Pelophylax esculentus complex, that is, P. lessonae (LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and the hybrid form P. esculentus that can have different karyotypes (RL, LLR and RRL). We developed existing molecular methods further and propose a simple PCR method based on size-differences in the length of the serum albumin intron-1 and the RanaCR1, a non-LTR retrotransposon of the chicken repeat (CR) family. This PCR yields taxon-specific banding patterns that can easily be screened by standard agarose gel electrophoresis and correctly identify species in all of the 160 samples that had been identified to karyotype with other methods. To distinguish ploidy levels in LR, LLR and RRL specimens, we used the ratio of the peak heights of the larger (ridibundus specific) to the smaller (lessonae specific) bands of fluorescently labelled PCR products resolved on a capillary DNA sequencer and obtained a correct assignment of the karyotype in 93% of cases. Our new method will cut down time and expenses drastically for a reliable identification of water frogs of the P. esculentus complex and potentially for identification of other hybridogenetic complexes and/or taxa, and it even serves as a good indicator of the ploidy status of hybrid individuals.

  12. Kunitzins: Prototypes of a new class of protease inhibitor from the skin secretions of European and Asian frogs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaole; Wang, He; Shen, Yue; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2016-08-19

    Amphibian skin secretions contain biologically-active compounds, such as anti-microbial peptides and trypsin inhibitors, which are used by biomedical researchers as a source of potential novel drug leads or pharmacological agents. Here, we report the application of a recently developed technique within our laboratory to "shotgun" clone the cDNAs encoding two novel but structurally-related peptides from the lyophilised skin secretions of one species of European frog, Rana esculenta and one species of Chinese frog, Odorrana schmackeri. Bioanalysis of the peptides established the structure of a 17-mer with an N-terminal Ala (A) residue and a C-terminal Cys (C) residue with a single disulphide bridge between Cys 12 and 17, which is a canonical Kunitz-type protease inhibitor motif (-CKAAFC-). Due to the presence of this structural attribute, these peptides were named kunitzin-RE (AAKIILNPKFRCKAAFC) and kunitzin-OS (AVNIPFKVHLRCKAAFC). Synthetic replicates of these two novel peptides were found to display a potent inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli but were ineffective at inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at concentrations up to 160 μM, and both showed little haemolytic activity at concentrations up to 120 μM. Subsequently, kunitzin-RE and kunitzin-OS were found to be a potent inhibitor of trypsin with a Ki of 5.56 μM and 7.56 μM that represent prototypes of a novel class of highly-attenuated amphibian skin protease inhibitor. Substitution of Lys-13, the predicted residue occupying the P1 position within the inhibitory loop, with Phe (F) resulted in decrease in trypsin inhibitor effectiveness and antimicrobial activity against Esherichia coli, but exhibits a potential inhibition activity against chymotrypsin.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Hyla regilla) from the California Sierra Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Angermann, Jeffrey E; Fellers, Gary M; Matsumura, Fumio

    2002-10-01

    Pacific tree frog (Hyla regilla) tadpoles were collected throughout the Sierra Nevada mountain range, California, USA, in 1996 and 1997 and analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene. Whole-tadpole sigma PCB levels ranged from 244 ng/g (wet wt) at lower elevations on the western slope to 1.6 ng/g high on the eastern slope, whereas sigma toxaphene levels ranged from 15.6 to 1.5 ng/g. Linear regression of PCB and toxaphene residue levels versus elevation indicated a significant relationship, with an r2 value of 0.33 for PCB and 0.45 for toxaphene indicating a significant elevation effect on PCB and toxaphene bioaccumulation in Sierra Nevada H. regilla. Tadpole samples from sites in east-facing versus west-facing drainage basins showed significant differences in PCB and toxaphene residue levels, suggesting the possibility of a rain-shadow effect in the long-range atmospheric transport of these contaminants to the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Hyla regilla) from the California Sierra Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermann, Jeffrey E.; Fellers, Gary M.; Matsumura, Fumio

    2002-01-01

    Pacific tree frog (Hyla regilla) tadpoles were collected throughout the Sierra Nevada mountain range, California, USA, in 1996 and 1997 and analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene. Whole-tadpole Σ PCB levels ranged from 244 ng/g (wet wt) at lower elevations on the western slope to 1.6 ng/g high on the eastern slope, whereas Σ toxaphene levels ranged from 15.6 to 1.5 ng/g. Linear regression of PCB and toxaphene residue levels versus elevation indicated a significant relationship, with an r2 value of 0.33 for PCB and 0.45 for toxaphene indicating a significant elevation effect on PCB and toxaphene bioaccumulation in Sierra Nevada H. regilla. Tadpole samples from sites in east-facing versus west-facing drainage basins showed significant differences in PCB and toxaphene residue levels, suggesting the possibility of a rain-shadow effect in the long-range atmospheric transport of these contaminants to the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

  15. Impact of Plant Cover on Fitness and Behavioural Traits of Captive Red-Eyed Tree Frogs (Agalychnis callidryas)

    PubMed Central

    Preziosi, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of ex situ conservation programmes as highlighted in the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, there are few empirical studies that examine the influence of captive conditions on the fitness of amphibians, even for basic components of enclosure design such as cover provision. Maintaining the fitness of captive amphibian populations is essential to the success of ex situ conservation projects. Here we examined the impact of plant cover on measures of fitness and behaviour in captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas). We found significant effects of plant provision on body size, growth rates and cutaneous bacterial communities that together demonstrate a compelling fitness benefit from cover provision. We also demonstrate a strong behavioural preference for planted rather than non-planted areas. We also assessed the impact of plant provision on the abiotic environment in the enclosure as a potential driver of these behavioural and fitness effects. Together this data provides valuable information regarding enclosure design for a non-model amphibian species and has implications for amphibian populations maintained in captivity for conservation breeding programmes and research. PMID:24740289

  16. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marcía N; Henderson, W Matthew; Glinski, Donna A; Purucker, S Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environmental matrices throughout the United States. In surface waters, it has been found at concentrations from 0.04-2859μg/L and thus presents a likely exposure scenario for non-target species such as amphibians. Studies have examined the effect of atrazine on the metamorphic parameters of amphibians, however, the data are often contradictory. Gosner stage 22-24 tadpoles were exposed to 0 (control), 10, 50, 250 or 1250μg/L of atrazine for 48h. Endogenous polar metabolites were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses of the acquired spectra with machine learning classification models demonstrated identifiable changes in the metabolomic profiles between exposed and control tadpoles. Support vector machine models with recursive feature elimination created a more efficient, non-parametric data analysis and increased interpretability of metabolomic profiles. Biochemical fluxes observed in the exposed groups of both A. americanus and H. versicolor displayed perturbations in a number of classes of biological macromolecules including fatty acids, amino acids, purine nucleosides, pyrimidines, and mono- and di-saccharides. Metabolomic pathway analyses are consistent with findings of other studies demonstrating disruption of amino acid and energy metabolism from atrazine exposure to non-target species.

  17. Impact of plant cover on fitness and behavioural traits of captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas).

    PubMed

    Michaels, Christopher J; Antwis, Rachael E; Preziosi, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of ex situ conservation programmes as highlighted in the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, there are few empirical studies that examine the influence of captive conditions on the fitness of amphibians, even for basic components of enclosure design such as cover provision. Maintaining the fitness of captive amphibian populations is essential to the success of ex situ conservation projects. Here we examined the impact of plant cover on measures of fitness and behaviour in captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas). We found significant effects of plant provision on body size, growth rates and cutaneous bacterial communities that together demonstrate a compelling fitness benefit from cover provision. We also demonstrate a strong behavioural preference for planted rather than non-planted areas. We also assessed the impact of plant provision on the abiotic environment in the enclosure as a potential driver of these behavioural and fitness effects. Together this data provides valuable information regarding enclosure design for a non-model amphibian species and has implications for amphibian populations maintained in captivity for conservation breeding programmes and research.

  18. Vitamin A values of wild-caught Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and marine toads (Rhinella marina) in whole body, liver, and serum.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kathleen E; Fleming, Greg; Terrell, Scott; Smith, Dustin; Ridgley, Frank; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-12-01

    Recent issues surrounding captive amphibians are often nutritionally related problems, such as hypovitaminosis A. Although supplementation of frogs with vitamin A is a topic of investigation, the underlying issue is understanding vitamin A metabolism in amphibian species. To develop a range of "normal" vitamin A concentrations for captive amphibians, baseline vitamin A concentrations must be established in wild amphibian species. In this study, two species, Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis; n = 59) and marine toads (Rhinella marina; n = 20) were collected from the wild as part of an invasive species control program at Zoo Miami, Miami, Florida. Serum, liver, and whole body samples were analyzed for vitamin A content. The Cuban tree frogs showed higher concentrations on average of vitamin A in serum (82.8 ppb), liver (248.3 IU/g), and whole body (5474.7 IU/kg) samples compared with marine toads (60.1 ppb; 105.3 IU/g; 940.7 IU/kg, respectively), but differences were not significant (P = 0.22). What can be considered "normal" values of vitamin A concentrations across different amphibian species requires further investigation. Although all amphibians collected in this study appeared healthy, a larger sample size of animals, with known health histories and diets, may provide stronger evidence of normal expectations.

  19. Comparative Postembryonic Skeletal Ontogeny in Two Sister Lineages of Old World Tree Frogs (Rhacophoridae: Taruga, Polypedates)

    PubMed Central

    Senevirathne, Gayani; Kerney, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Rhacophoridae, a family of morphologically cryptic frogs, with many genetically distinct evolutionary lineages, is understudied with respect to skeletal morphology, life history traits and skeletal ontogeny. Here we analyze two species each from two sister lineages, Taruga and Polypedates, and compare their postembryonic skeletal ontogeny, larval chondrocrania and adult osteology in the context of a well-resolved phylogeny. We further compare these ontogenetic traits with the direct-developing Pseudophilautus silus. For each species, we differentially stained a nearly complete developmental series of tadpoles from early postembryonic stages through metamorphosis to determine the intraspecific and interspecific differences of cranial and postcranial bones. Chondrocrania of the four species differ in 1) size; 2) presence/absence of anterolateral and posterior process; and 3) shape of the suprarostral cartilages. Interspecific variation of ossification sequences is limited during early stages, but conspicuous during later development. Early cranial ossification is typical of other anuran larvae, where the frontoparietal, exoccipital and parasphenoid ossify first. The ossification sequences of the cranial bones vary considerably within the four species. Both species of Taruga show a faster cranial ossification rate than Polypedates. Seven cranial bones form when larvae near metamorphic climax. Ossification of all 18 cranial bones is initiated by larval Gosner stage 46 in T. eques. However, some cranial bone formation is not initiated until after metamorphosis in the other three species. Postcranial sequence does not vary significantly. The comparison of adult osteology highlights two characters, which have not been previously recorded: presence/absence of the parieto-squamosal plates and bifurcated base of the omosternum. This study will provide a starting point for comparative analyses of rhacophorid skeletal ontogeny and facilitate the study of the evolution of

  20. Comparative Postembryonic Skeletal Ontogeny in Two Sister Lineages of Old World Tree Frogs (Rhacophoridae: Taruga, Polypedates).

    PubMed

    Senevirathne, Gayani; Kerney, Ryan; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2017-01-01

    Rhacophoridae, a family of morphologically cryptic frogs, with many genetically distinct evolutionary lineages, is understudied with respect to skeletal morphology, life history traits and skeletal ontogeny. Here we analyze two species each from two sister lineages, Taruga and Polypedates, and compare their postembryonic skeletal ontogeny, larval chondrocrania and adult osteology in the context of a well-resolved phylogeny. We further compare these ontogenetic traits with the direct-developing Pseudophilautus silus. For each species, we differentially stained a nearly complete developmental series of tadpoles from early postembryonic stages through metamorphosis to determine the intraspecific and interspecific differences of cranial and postcranial bones. Chondrocrania of the four species differ in 1) size; 2) presence/absence of anterolateral and posterior process; and 3) shape of the suprarostral cartilages. Interspecific variation of ossification sequences is limited during early stages, but conspicuous during later development. Early cranial ossification is typical of other anuran larvae, where the frontoparietal, exoccipital and parasphenoid ossify first. The ossification sequences of the cranial bones vary considerably within the four species. Both species of Taruga show a faster cranial ossification rate than Polypedates. Seven cranial bones form when larvae near metamorphic climax. Ossification of all 18 cranial bones is initiated by larval Gosner stage 46 in T. eques. However, some cranial bone formation is not initiated until after metamorphosis in the other three species. Postcranial sequence does not vary significantly. The comparison of adult osteology highlights two characters, which have not been previously recorded: presence/absence of the parieto-squamosal plates and bifurcated base of the omosternum. This study will provide a starting point for comparative analyses of rhacophorid skeletal ontogeny and facilitate the study of the evolution of

  1. Fungal disease incidence along tree diversity gradients depends on latitude in European forests.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diem; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Guyot, Virginie; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Valladares, Fernando; Stenlid, Jan; Boberg, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    European forests host a diversity of tree species that are increasingly threatened by fungal pathogens, which may have cascading consequences for forest ecosystems and their functioning. Previous experimental studies suggest that foliar and root pathogen abundance and disease severity decrease with increasing tree species diversity, but evidences from natural forests are rare. Here, we tested whether foliar fungal disease incidence was negatively affected by tree species diversity in different forest types across Europe. We measured the foliar fungal disease incidence on 16 different tree species in 209 plots in six European countries, representing a forest-type gradient from the Mediterranean to boreal forests. Forest plots of single species (monoculture plots) and those with different combinations of two to five tree species (mixed species plots) were compared. Specifically, we analyzed the influence of tree species richness, functional type (conifer vs. broadleaved) and phylogenetic diversity on overall fungal disease incidence. The effect of tree species richness on disease incidence varied with latitude and functional type. Disease incidence tended to increase with tree diversity, in particular in northern latitudes. Disease incidence decreased with tree species richness in conifers, but not in broadleaved trees. However, for specific damage symptoms, no tree species richness effects were observed. Although the patterns were weak, susceptibility of forests to disease appears to depend on the forest site and tree type.

  2. Tests with VHR images for the identification of olive trees and other fruit trees in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Josiane; Soille, Pierre; Mueller, Rick

    2004-10-01

    In the context of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) there is a strong interest of the European Commission for counting and individually locating fruit trees. An automatic counting algorithm developed by the JRC (OLICOUNT) was used in the past for olive trees only, on 1m black and white orthophotos but with limits in case of young trees or irregular groves. This study investigates the improvement of fruit tree identification using VHR images on a large set of data in three test sites, one in Creta (Greece; one in the south-east of France with a majority of olive trees and associated fruit trees, and the last one in Florida on citrus trees. OLICOUNT was compared with two other automatic tree counting, applications, one using the CRISP software on citrus trees and the other completely automatic based on regional minima (morphological image analysis). Additional investigation was undertaken to refine the methods. This paper describes the automatic methods and presents the results derived from the tests.

  3. Effects of water contamination on site selection by amphibians: experiences from an arena approach with European frogs and newts.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Norman; Lötters, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    Pesticide residues in breeding ponds can cause avoidance by at least some amphibian species. So far, outdoor experiments have been performed only with artificial pools in areas where the focus species usually occur and new colonization has been observed. Results of this kind of study are potentially influenced by natural disturbances and therefore are of limited comparability. We used an easily manufactured and standardizable arena approach, in which animals in reproductive condition for some hours had a choice among pools with different concentrations of a contaminant. Because there has been much debate on the potential environmental impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides, we investigated the impact of glyphosate isopropylamine salt (GLY-IS), Roundup LB PLUS (RU-LB-PLUS), and glyphosate's main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on individual residence time in water. The following European amphibian species were tested: Common frog (Rana temporaria), Palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus), and Alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris). The residence time in water was not significantly affected by concentrations below or slightly above the European Environmental Quality Standards for AMPA or the German "worst-case" expected environmental concentrations for GLY-IS and RU-LB-PLUS. Occasionally, microclimatic cofactors (nightly minimum ground temperature, water temperature) apparently influenced the residence time. The major drawback of such quick behavior studies is that results can only be transferred to perception and avoidance of contaminated water but not easily to site selection by amphibians. For example, testing oviposition site selection requires more natural water bodies and more time. Hence, to develop a standard procedure in risk assessment, an intermediate design between an arena approach, as presented here, and previously performed field studies should be tested.

  4. High levels of diversity uncovered in a widespread nominal taxon: continental phylogeography of the neotropical tree frog Dendropsophus minutus.

    PubMed

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J; Orrico, Victor G D; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J R; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F B; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered.

  5. Bacteria May Cope Differently from Similar Membrane Damage Caused by the Australian Tree Frog Antimicrobial Peptide Maculatin 1.1*

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Marc-Antoine; Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Weber, Daniel; Separovic, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Maculatin 1.1 (Mac1) is an antimicrobial peptide from the skin of Australian tree frogs and is known to possess selectivity toward Gram-positive bacteria. Although Mac1 has membrane disrupting activity, it is not known how Mac1 selectively targets Gram-positive over Gram-negative bacteria. The interaction of Mac1 with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and human red blood cells (hRBC) and with their mimetic model membranes is here reported. The peptide showed a 16-fold greater growth inhibition activity against S. aureus (4 μm) than against E. coli (64 μm) and an intermediate cytotoxicity against hRBC (30 μm). Surprisingly, Sytox Green uptake monitored by flow cytometry showed that Mac1 compromised both bacterial membranes with similar efficiency at ∼20-fold lower concentration than the reported minimum inhibition concentration against S. aureus. Mac1 also reduced the negative potential of S. aureus and E. coli membrane with similar efficacy. Furthermore, liposomes mimicking the cell membrane of S. aureus (POPG/TOCL) and E. coli (POPE/POPG) were lysed at similar concentrations, whereas hRBC-like vesicles (POPC/SM/Chol) remained mostly intact in the presence of Mac1. Remarkably, when POPG/TOCL and POPE/POPG liposomes were co-incubated, Mac1 did not induce leakage from POPE/POPG liposomes, suggesting a preference toward POPG/TOCL membranes that was supported by surface plasma resonance assays. Interestingly, circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a similar helical conformation in the presence of the anionic liposomes but not the hRBC mimics. Overall, the study showed that Mac1 disrupts bacterial membranes in a similar fashion before cell death events and would preferentially target S. aureus over E. coli or hRBC membranes. PMID:26100634

  6. Ultrastructure and physical properties of an adhesive surface, the toe pad epithelium of the tree frog, Litoria caerulea White

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Ingo; Barnes, W. Jon P.; Smith, Joanna M.; Baumgartner, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Summary Knowledge of both surface structure and physical properties such as stiffness and elasticity are essential to understanding any adhesive system. In this study of an adhesion surface in the tree frog, Litoria caerulea White, a variety of techniques including atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the microstructure and properties of an epithelium that adheres through wet adhesion. Litoria toe pads consist of a hexagonal array of flat-topped epithelial cells, separated by mucus-filled channels. Under an atomic force microscope, this `flat' surface is highly structured at the nanoscale, consisting of a tightly packed array of columnar nanopillars (described as hemidesmosomes by previous authors), 326±84 nm in diameter, each of which possesses a central dimple 8±4 nm in depth. In fixed tissue (transmission electron microscopy), the nanopillars are approximately as tall as they are broad. At the gross anatomical level, larger toe pads may be subdivided into medial and lateral parts by two large grooves. Although the whole toe pad is soft and easily deformable, the epithelium itself has an effective elastic modulus equivalent to silicon rubber (mean Eeff=14.4±20.9 MPa; median Eeff=5.7 MPa), as measured by the atomic force microscope in nanoindentation mode. The functions of these structures are discussed in terms of maximising adhesive and frictional forces by conforming closely to surface irregularities at different length scales and maintaining an extremely thin fluid layer between pad and substrate. The biomimetic implications of these findings are reviewed. PMID:19112133

  7. High Levels of Diversity Uncovered in a Widespread Nominal Taxon: Continental Phylogeography of the Neotropical Tree Frog Dendropsophus minutus

    PubMed Central

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J.; Orrico, Victor G. D.; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S.; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P.; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J. M.; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J. Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F. B.; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered. PMID:25208078

  8. Is tree species diversity or tree species identity the most important driver of European forest soil carbon stocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Muhie Dawud, Seid; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Finér, Leena; Domisch, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Land management includes the selection of specific tree species and tree species mixtures for European forests. Studies of functional species diversity effects have reported positive effects for aboveground carbon (C) sequestration, but the question remains whether higher soil C stocks could also result from belowground niche differentiation including more efficient root exploitation of soils. We studied topsoil C stocks in tree species diversity gradients established within the FunDivEurope project to explore biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in six European forest types in Finland, Poland, Germany, Romania, Spain and Italy. In the Polish forest type we extended the sampling to also include subsoils. We found consistent but modest effects of species diversity on total soil C stocks (forest floor and 0-20 cm) across the six European forest types. Carbon stocks in the forest floor alone and in the combined forest floor and mineral soil layers increased with increasing tree species diversity. In contrast, there was a strong effect of species identity (broadleaf vs. conifer) and its interaction with site-related factors. Within the Polish forest type we sampled soils down to 40 cm and found that species identity was again the main factor explaining total soil C stock. However, species diversity increased soil C stocks in deeper soil layers (20-40 cm), while species identity influenced C stocks significantly within forest floors and the 0-10 cm layer. Root biomass increased with diversity in 30-40 cm depth, and a positive relationship between C stocks and root biomass in the 30-40 cm layer suggested that belowground niche complementarity could be a driving mechanism for higher root carbon input and in turn a deeper distribution of C in diverse forests. We conclude that total C stocks are mainly driven by tree species identity. However, modest positive diversity effects were detected at the European scale, and stronger positive effects on subsoil C stocks

  9. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of European ash trees.

    PubMed

    Sollars, Elizabeth S A; Harper, Andrea L; Kelly, Laura J; Sambles, Christine M; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H; Swarbreck, David; Kaithakottil, Gemy; Cooper, Endymion D; Uauy, Cristobal; Havlickova, Lenka; Worswick, Gemma; Studholme, David J; Zohren, Jasmin; Salmon, Deborah L; Clavijo, Bernardo J; Li, Yi; He, Zhesi; Fellgett, Alison; McKinney, Lea Vig; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Douglas, Gerry C; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Downie, J Allan; Boshier, David; Lee, Steve; Clark, Jo; Grant, Murray; Bancroft, Ian; Caccamo, Mario; Buggs, Richard J A

    2017-01-12

    Ash trees (genus Fraxinus, family Oleaceae) are widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but are being devastated in Europe by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, causing ash dieback, and in North America by the herbivorous beetle Agrilus planipennis. Here we sequence the genome of a low-heterozygosity Fraxinus excelsior tree from Gloucestershire, UK, annotating 38,852 protein-coding genes of which 25% appear ash specific when compared with the genomes of ten other plant species. Analyses of paralogous genes suggest a whole-genome duplication shared with olive (Olea europaea, Oleaceae). We also re-sequence 37 F. excelsior trees from Europe, finding evidence for apparent long-term decline in effective population size. Using our reference sequence, we re-analyse association transcriptomic data, yielding improved markers for reduced susceptibility to ash dieback. Surveys of these markers in British populations suggest that reduced susceptibility to ash dieback may be more widespread in Great Britain than in Denmark. We also present evidence that susceptibility of trees to H. fraxineus is associated with their iridoid glycoside levels. This rapid, integrated, multidisciplinary research response to an emerging health threat in a non-model organism opens the way for mitigation of the epidemic.

  10. Ameliorative effects of sodium chloride on acute copper toxicity among Cope's gray tree frog (Hyla chrysoscelis) and green frog (Rana clamitans) embryos.

    PubMed

    Brown, Maria G; Dobbs, Emily K; Snodgrass, Joel W; Ownby, David R

    2012-04-01

    Urban stormwater runoff is composed of a mixture of components, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, deicing agents, and many others. The fate of these chemicals is often in stormwater detention ponds that are used by amphibians for breeding. Among aquatic organisms, the toxic mechanism for many metals involves interference with active Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake. Addition of cations has been shown to reduce the toxicity of metals among some aquatic organisms through competitive inhibition, but no studies have investigated the interaction between NaCl and Cu among amphibian embryos and larvae. To determine the degree to which NaCl may ameliorate the toxicity of Cu to amphibian embryos and larvae, the authors exposed Hyla chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrogs) and Rana (Lithobates) clamitans (green frogs) to seven levels of Cu and NaCl in fully factorial experiments. When exposure was in artificial hard water, Cu was highly toxic to both species (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 44.7 µg/L and 162.6 µg/L for H. chrysoscelis and R. clamitans, respectively). However, approximately 500 mg/L of NaCl eliminated Cu toxicity over the range of Cu concentrations used in the experiments (maximum 150 µg Cu/L for H. chrysoscelis and 325 µg Cu/L for R. clamitans). The current results suggest that NaCl is likely responsible for the toxic effects of NaCl and metal mixtures that might be typical of runoff from road surfaces in northern latitudes.

  11. Effects of water vapor density on cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss and body temperature in green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea).

    PubMed

    Wygoda, Mark L; Kersten, Constance A

    2013-01-01

    Increased cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (Rc) in tree frogs results in decreased water loss rate and increased body temperature. We examined sensitivity of Rc to water vapor density (WVD) in Hyla cinerea by exposing individual frogs and agar models to four different WVD environments and measuring cutaneous evaporative water loss rate and body temperature simultaneously using a gravimetric wind tunnel measuring system. We found that water loss rate varied inversely and body temperature directly with WVD but that models were affected to a greater extent than were animals. Mean Rc was significantly different between the highest WVD environment and each of the three drier environments but did not differ among the drier environments, indicating that Rc initially increases and then reaches a plateau in response to decreasing WVD. Rc was equivalent when calculated using either WVD difference or WVD deficit as the driving force for evaporation. We also directly observed secretions from cutaneous glands while measuring body temperature and tested secretions and skin samples for the presence of lipids. We found that irregular transient body temperature depressions observed during wind tunnel trials occur due to evaporative cooling from intermittent skin secretions containing lipids, although we were unable to identify lipid-secreting glands.

  12. Fitting a Structured Juvenile-Adult Model for Green Tree Frogs to Population Estimates from Capture-Mark-Recapture Field Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackleh, A.S.; Carter, J.; Deng, K.; Huang, Q.; Pal, N.; Yang, X.

    2012-01-01

    We derive point and interval estimates for an urban population of green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) from capture-mark-recapture field data obtained during the years 2006-2009. We present an infinite-dimensional least-squares approach which compares a mathematical population model to the statistical population estimates obtained from the field data. The model is composed of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations describing the dynamics of the amphibian population where individuals are divided into juveniles (tadpoles) and adults (frogs). To solve the least-squares problem, an explicit finite difference approximation is developed. Convergence results for the computed parameters are presented. Parameter estimates for the vital rates of juveniles and adults are obtained, and standard deviations for these estimates are computed. Numerical results for the model sensitivity with respect to these parameters are given. Finally, the above-mentioned parameter estimates are used to illustrate the long-time behavior of the population under investigation. ?? 2011 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  13. Contrasting egg recognition between European and Asian populations of tree sparrows (Passer montanus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders P

    2016-04-01

    Although many biological phenotypes are generally regarded as consistent across the distributional range of a species, some traits such as egg discrimination behavior have been shown to display extensive intraspecific variation as a response to selection from brood parasitism. We investigated the egg recognition ability in an Asian population of tree sparrows (Passer montanus), and we compared that with the ability to recognize and reject intraspecific foreign eggs in a population in Europe. Extensive artificial parasitism with model eggs and real eggs of eight sympatric birds that vary in background color and markings revealed that egg recognition capacity is completely absent in this Asian population of tree sparrows. This result contrasts with previous studies in European populations showing extensive ability for discriminating between own and foreign eggs. Different evolutionary equilibria or differences in the risk of conspecific parasitism may account for differences in egg discrimination ability between European and Asian populations of tree sparrows.

  14. The response of European tree species to drought: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irschick, C.; Mayr, S.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2012-04-01

    Here we provide first results of a meta-analysis of the response of European tree species to drought. A literature search was conducted in order to collect available studies of the response of the gas exchange of European tree species to either natural or imposed water shortage. The resulting publications were screened and parameters at organ (e.g. leaf or shoot), individual (i.e. tree) and ecosystem scale were transferred to a data base. Here we present preliminary results from queries of the data base aiming at identifying differences in the drought response between species that may have implications for forest productivity and composition under likely future warmer and drier conditions.

  15. Optional Endoreplication and Selective Elimination of Parental Genomes during Oogenesis in Diploid and Triploid Hybrid European Water Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Dedukh, Dmitry; Litvinchuk, Spartak; Rosanov, Juriy; Mazepa, Glib; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Shabanov, Dmitry; Krasikova, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Incompatibilities between parental genomes decrease viability of interspecific hybrids; however, deviations from canonical gametogenesis such as genome endoreplication and elimination can rescue hybrid organisms. To evaluate frequency and regularity of genome elimination and endoreplication during gametogenesis in hybrid animals with different ploidy, we examined genome composition in oocytes of di- and triploid hybrid frogs of the Pelophylax esculentus complex. Obtained results allowed us to suggest that during oogenesis the endoreplication involves all genomes occurring before the selective genome elimination. We accepted the hypothesis that only elimination of one copied genome occurs premeiotically in most of triploid hybrid females. At the same time, we rejected the hypothesis stating that the genome of parental species hybrid frogs co-exist with is always eliminated during oogenesis in diploid hybrids. Diploid hybrid frogs demonstrate an enlarged frequency of deviations in oogenesis comparatively to triploid hybrids. Typical for hybrid frogs deviations in gametogenesis increase variability of produced gametes and provide a mechanism for appearance of different forms of hybrids. PMID:25894314

  16. Optional Endoreplication and Selective Elimination of Parental Genomes during Oogenesis in Diploid and Triploid Hybrid European Water Frogs.

    PubMed

    Dedukh, Dmitry; Litvinchuk, Spartak; Rosanov, Juriy; Mazepa, Glib; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Shabanov, Dmitry; Krasikova, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Incompatibilities between parental genomes decrease viability of interspecific hybrids; however, deviations from canonical gametogenesis such as genome endoreplication and elimination can rescue hybrid organisms. To evaluate frequency and regularity of genome elimination and endoreplication during gametogenesis in hybrid animals with different ploidy, we examined genome composition in oocytes of di- and triploid hybrid frogs of the Pelophylax esculentus complex. Obtained results allowed us to suggest that during oogenesis the endoreplication involves all genomes occurring before the selective genome elimination. We accepted the hypothesis that only elimination of one copied genome occurs premeiotically in most of triploid hybrid females. At the same time, we rejected the hypothesis stating that the genome of parental species hybrid frogs co-exist with is always eliminated during oogenesis in diploid hybrids. Diploid hybrid frogs demonstrate an enlarged frequency of deviations in oogenesis comparatively to triploid hybrids. Typical for hybrid frogs deviations in gametogenesis increase variability of produced gametes and provide a mechanism for appearance of different forms of hybrids.

  17. Elucidating the Life History and Ecological Aspects of Allodero hylae (Annelida: Clitellata: Naididae), A Parasitic Oligochaete of Invasive Cuban Tree Frogs in Florida.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jessee M; Childress, Jasmine N; Iakovidis, Triantafilos J; Langford, Gabriel J

    2015-06-01

    Given their ubiquitous nature, it is surprising that more oligochaete annelid worms (Annelida: Clitellata) have not adopted an endoparasitic lifestyle. Exceptions, however, are the understudied members of the genus Dero (Allodero) that parasitize the ureters of tree frogs and toads. This study experimentally explores the life cycle and host specificity of Allodero hylae, the worm's use of chemical cues in host searching, and its seasonal prevalence and abundance over a year-long collection period on the Florida Southern College campus. A total of 2,005 A. hylae was collected from the ureter, urinary bladder, or expressed urine of wild Osteopilus septentrionalis ; a significant positive correlation was found between host snout-vent length and parasite intensity for female but not male hosts. Monthly prevalence of A. hylae reached a peak of 58% in April, but never dropped below 20% in any month; mean abundance peaked March-May, whereas few worms were recovered in December and January. Confirming a parasitic lifestyle, wild-collected hosts with intense infections, typically >40 worms, showed obvious dilatation of the ureter wall, and some young-of-the-year O. septentrionalis exposed to A. hylae in the laboratory were killed by the apparent rupture of the host's ureter. The worm has a direct life cycle: worms expelled in the host's urine are capable of locating and re-infecting other hosts within aquatic microhabitats such as bromeliad tanks, and worms can survive for weeks in a free-living environment, even undergoing a morphological change. Further, chemotaxis assays found a positive response to a tree frog attractant for worms recently removed from hosts. Overall, this study provides the first multifaceted investigation on the life history and ecology of any Allodero spp., which offers new insights into an understudied endoparasitic oligochaete.

  18. New flux based dose-response relationships for ozone for European forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Büker, P; Feng, Z; Uddling, J; Briolat, A; Alonso, R; Braun, S; Elvira, S; Gerosa, G; Karlsson, P E; Le Thiec, D; Marzuoli, R; Mills, G; Oksanen, E; Wieser, G; Wilkinson, M; Emberson, L D

    2015-11-01

    To derive O3 dose-response relationships (DRR) for five European forest trees species and broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf tree plant functional types (PFTs), phytotoxic O3 doses (PODy) were related to biomass reductions. PODy was calculated using a stomatal flux model with a range of cut-off thresholds (y) indicative of varying detoxification capacities. Linear regression analysis showed that DRR for PFT and individual tree species differed in their robustness. A simplified parameterisation of the flux model was tested and showed that for most non-Mediterranean tree species, this simplified model led to similarly robust DRR as compared to a species- and climate region-specific parameterisation. Experimentally induced soil water stress was not found to substantially reduce PODy, mainly due to the short duration of soil water stress periods. This study validates the stomatal O3 flux concept and represents a step forward in predicting O3 damage to forests in a spatially and temporally varying climate.

  19. One Tree to Link Them All: A Phylogenetic Dataset for the European Tetrapoda

    PubMed Central

    Roquet, Cristina; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Since the ever-increasing availability of phylogenetic informative data, the last decade has seen an upsurge of ecological studies incorporating information on evolutionary relationships among species. However, detailed species-level phylogenies are still lacking for many large groups and regions, which are necessary for comprehensive large-scale eco-phylogenetic analyses. Here, we provide a dataset of 100 dated phylogenetic trees for all European tetrapods based on a mixture of supermatrix and supertree approaches. Phylogenetic inference was performed separately for each of the main Tetrapoda groups of Europe except mammals (i.e. amphibians, birds, squamates and turtles) by means of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of supermatrix applying a tree constraint at the family (amphibians and squamates) or order (birds and turtles) levels based on consensus knowledge. For each group, we inferred 100 ML trees to be able to provide a phylogenetic dataset that accounts for phylogenetic uncertainty, and assessed node support with bootstrap analyses. Each tree was dated using penalized-likelihood and fossil calibration. The trees obtained were well-supported by existing knowledge and previous phylogenetic studies. For mammals, we modified the most complete supertree dataset available on the literature to include a recent update of the Carnivora clade. As a final step, we merged the phylogenetic trees of all groups to obtain a set of 100 phylogenetic trees for all European Tetrapoda species for which data was available (91%). We provide this phylogenetic dataset (100 chronograms) for the purpose of comparative analyses, macro-ecological or community ecology studies aiming to incorporate phylogenetic information while accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty. PMID:25685620

  20. Patterns of drought tolerance in major European temperate forest trees: climatic drivers and levels of variability.

    PubMed

    Zang, Christian; Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Dittmar, Christoph; Rothe, Andreas; Menzel, Annette

    2014-12-01

    The future performance of native tree species under climate change conditions is frequently discussed, since increasingly severe and more frequent drought events are expected to become a major risk for forest ecosystems. To improve our understanding of the drought tolerance of the three common European temperate forest tree species Norway spruce, silver fir and common beech, we tested the influence of climate and tree-specific traits on the inter and intrasite variability in drought responses of these species. Basal area increment data from a large tree-ring network in Southern Germany and Alpine Austria along a climatic cline from warm-dry to cool-wet conditions were used to calculate indices of tolerance to drought events and their variability at the level of individual trees and populations. General patterns of tolerance indicated a high vulnerability of Norway spruce in comparison to fir and beech and a strong influence of bioclimatic conditions on drought response for all species. On the level of individual trees, low-growth rates prior to drought events, high competitive status and low age favored resilience in growth response to drought. Consequently, drought events led to heterogeneous and variable response patterns in forests stands. These findings may support the idea of deliberately using spontaneous selection and adaption effects as a passive strategy of forest management under climate change conditions, especially a strong directional selection for more tolerant individuals when frequency and intensity of summer droughts will increase in the course of global climate change.

  1. Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, T; Breuste, J; Mitrovic, M; Pavlovic, P; Tsigaridas, K

    2011-12-01

    Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution.

  2. A new species of small tree frog, genus Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from the eastern Amazon lowlands of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Ron, Santiago R

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of the hylid frog genus Dendropsophus from Amazonian Ecuador. The new species, Dendropsophus shiwiarum sp. nov., appears to be part of the D. microcephalus species group. Dendropsophus shiwiarum differs from its congeners by a combination of: (1) tympanic membrane non-differentiated and annulus evident only ventrally, (2) disc of Finger III and Toe IV with pointed tip, (3) dorsal surfaces of digital discs with a conical tubercle as result of projection of distal phalanx, and (4) small size (SVL < 19 mm). The new species is morphologically most similar to Dendropsophus riveroi. Examination of the type material of the latter suggests that some Ecuadorian populations reported as D. riveroi were misidentified and in fact belong to D. shiwiarum sp. nov.

  3. Site-adapted admixed tree species reduce drought susceptibility of mature European beech.

    PubMed

    Metz, Jérôme; Annighöfer, Peter; Schall, Peter; Zimmermann, Jorma; Kahl, Tiemo; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Ammer, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Some forest-related studies on possible effects of climate change conclude that growth potential of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) might be impaired by the predicted increase in future serious drought events during the growing season. Other recent research suggests that not only multiyear increment rates but also growth resistance and recovery of beech during, respectively, after dry years may differ between pure and mixed stands. Thus, we combined dendrochronological investigations and wood stable isotope measurements to further investigate the impact of neighborhood diversity on long-term performance, short-term drought response and soil water availability of European beech in three major geographic regions of Germany. During the last four decades, target trees whose competitive neighborhood consisted of co-occurring species exhibited a superior growth performance compared to beeches in pure stands of the same investigation area. This general pattern was also found in exceptional dry years. Although the summer droughts of 1976 and 2003 predominantly caused stronger relative growth declines if target trees were exposed to interspecific competition, with few exceptions they still formed wider annual rings than beeches growing in close-by monocultures. Within the same study region, recovery of standardized beech target tree radial growth was consistently slower in monospecific stands than in the neighborhood of other competitor species. These findings suggest an improved water availability of beech in mixtures what is in line with the results of the stable isotope analysis. Apparently, the magnitude of competitive complementarity determines the growth response of target beech trees in mixtures. Our investigation strongly suggest that the sensitivity of European beech to environmental constrains depends on neighborhood identity. Therefore, the systematic formation of mixed stands tends to be an appropriate silvicultural measure to mitigate the effects of global

  4. Conserving the functional and phylogenetic trees of life of European tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Maiorano, Luigi; Mazel, Florent; Guilhaumon, François; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Lavergne, Sébastien; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Mouillot, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are pivotal tools for biodiversity conservation on the Earth. Europe has had an extensive protection system since Natura 2000 areas were created in parallel with traditional parks and reserves. However, the extent to which this system covers not only taxonomic diversity but also other biodiversity facets, such as evolutionary history and functional diversity, has never been evaluated. Using high-resolution distribution data of all European tetrapods together with dated molecular phylogenies and detailed trait information, we first tested whether the existing European protection system effectively covers all species and in particular, those with the highest evolutionary or functional distinctiveness. We then tested the ability of PAs to protect the entire tetrapod phylogenetic and functional trees of life by mapping species' target achievements along the internal branches of these two trees. We found that the current system is adequately representative in terms of the evolutionary history of amphibians while it fails for the rest. However, the most functionally distinct species were better represented than they would be under random conservation efforts. These results imply better protection of the tetrapod functional tree of life, which could help to ensure long-term functioning of the ecosystem, potentially at the expense of conserving evolutionary history. PMID:25561666

  5. Interactive effects of pesticide mixtures, predators, and environmental regimes on the toxicity of two pesticides to red-eyed tree frog larvae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura A; Welch, Bill; Whitfield, Steven M

    2013-10-01

    Global amphibian declines have many corroborative causes, and the use of pesticides in agriculture is a likely contributor. In places with high pesticide usage, such as Costa Rica, agrochemical pesticides may interact with other factors to contribute to rapid species losses. Classical ecotoxicological studies rarely address the effects of a pesticide in combination with other stressors. The present study investigated the synergistic roles of 2 pesticides (chlorothalonil and endosulfan), predator stress, and environmental regimes (controlled laboratory environments versus ambient conditions) on the survival of red-eyed tree frog larvae (Agalychnis callidryas). No synergistic effects of pesticide mixtures or predator stress were found on the toxicity of either chlorothalonil or endosulfan. Both pesticides, however, were considerably more toxic under realistic ambient temperature regimes than in a climate-controlled laboratory. Overall, endosulfan displayed the highest toxicity to tadpoles, although chlorothalonil was also highly toxic. The median lethal concentration estimated to kill 50% of a tested population (LC50) for endosulfan treatments under ambient temperatures was less than one-half of that for laboratory treatments (3.26 µg/L and 8.39 µg/L, respectively). Studies commonly performed in stable temperature-controlled laboratories may significantly underestimate toxicity compared with more realistic environmental regimes. Furthermore, global climatic changes are leading to warmer and more variable climates and may increase impacts of pesticides on amphibians.

  6. Archipelago colonization by ecologically dissimilar amphibians: evaluating the expectation of common evolutionary history of geographical diffusion in co-distributed rainforest tree frogs in islands of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paulette; Su, Yong-Chao; Siler, Cameron D; Barley, Anthony J; Sanguila, Marites B; Diesmos, Arvin C; Brown, Rafe M

    2014-03-01

    Widespread, co-distributed species with limited relative dispersal abilities represent compelling focal taxa for comparative phylogeography. Forest vertebrates in island archipelagos often exhibit pronounced population structure resulting from limited dispersal abilities or capacity to overcome marine barriers to dispersal. The exceptionally diverse Old World tree frogs of the family Rhacophoridae have colonized the forested island archipelagos of Southeast Asia on multiple occasions, entering the islands of Indonesia and the Philippines via a "stepping stone" mode of dispersal along elongate island chains, separated by a series of marine channels. Here we evaluate the prediction that two tightly co-distributed Philippine rhacophorids colonized the archipelago during concomitant timescales and in the same, linear, "island-hopping" progression. We use a new multilocus dataset, utilize dense genetic sampling from the eastern arc of the Philippines, and we take a model-based phylogeographic approach to examining the two species for similar topological patterns of diversification, genetic structure, and timescales of diversification. Our results support some common mechanistic predictions (a general south-to-north polarity of colonization) but not others (timescale for colonization and manner and degree of lineage diversification), suggesting differing biogeographic scenarios of geographical diffusion through the archipelago and unique and idiosyncratic ecological capacities and evolutionary histories of each species.

  7. Molecular patterns of introgression in a classic hybrid zone between the Australian tree frogs, Litoria ewingii and L. paraewingi: evidence of a tension zone.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katie L; Hale, Joshua M; Kearney, Michael R; Austin, Jeremy J; Melville, Jane

    2013-04-01

    Hybrid zones provide a rare opportunity to explore the processes involved in reproductive isolation and speciation. The southern hybrid zone between the southeastern Australian tree frogs Litoria ewingii and L. paraewingi has been comprehensively studied over the last 40 years, primarily using reproductive compatibility experiments and male advertisement calls. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and eight nuclear microsatellite markers to characterize this hybrid zone along a historically studied transect and to test various dispersal-dependent and dispersal-independent hybrid zone models. The species are genetically distinct and the level of hybridization within the contact zone is low, with the majority of admixed individuals representing later-generation hybrids. Based on previous experimental genetic compatibility studies, we predicted that hybrids with L. paraewingi mtDNA would be more frequent than hybrids with L. ewingii mtDNA. Surprisingly, a greater proportion of the identified hybrids had L. ewingii mtDNA. Geographical cline analyses showed a sharp transition in allele frequencies across the transect, and both the mtDNA and microsatellite data showed concordant cline centres, but were best supported by a model that allowed width to vary. Overall, the L. ewingii-L. paraewingi hybrid zone is best characterized as a tension zone, due to the narrow cline width, concordant genetic clines and low levels of hybridization.

  8. The European functional tree of bird life in the face of global change.

    PubMed

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Psomas, Achilleas; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lavergne, Sébastien; Pearman, Peter B; Renaud, Julien; Zupan, Laure; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized joint impact of climate and land cover change on facets of biodiversity and their associated functions, risk assessments have primarily evaluated impacts on species ranges and richness. Here we quantify the sensitivity of the functional structure of European avian assemblages to changes in both regional climate and land cover. We combine species range forecasts with functional-trait information. We show that species sensitivity to environmental change is randomly distributed across the functional tree of the European avifauna and that functionally unique species are not disproportionately threatened by 2080. However, projected species range changes will modify the mean species richness and functional diversity of bird diets and feeding behaviours. This will unequally affect the spatial structure of functional diversity, leading to homogenization across Europe. Therefore, global changes may alter the functional structure of species assemblages in the future in ways that need to be accounted for in conservation planning.

  9. The European functional tree of bird life in the face of global change

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Psomas, Achilleas; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lavergne, Sébastien; Pearman, Peter B.; Renaud, Julien; Zupan, Laure; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized joint impact of climate and land cover change on facets of biodiversity and their associated functions, risk assessments have primarily evaluated impacts on species ranges and richness. Here we quantify the sensitivity of the functional structure of European avian assemblages to changes in both regional climate and land cover. We combine species range forecasts with functional trait information. We show that species sensitivity to environmental change is randomly distributed across the functional tree of the European avifauna and that functionally unique species are not disproportionately threatened by 2080. However, projected species range changes will modify the mean species richness and functional diversity of bird diets and feeding behaviours. This will unequally affect the spatial structure of functional diversity, leading to homogenization across Europe. Therefore, global changes may alter the functional structure of species assemblages in the future in ways that need to be accounted for in conservation planning. PMID:24452245

  10. Population and life-stage-specific effects of two herbicide formulations on the aquatic development of European common frogs (Rana temporaria).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Norman; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan; Viertel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination is suggested to contribute to amphibian population declines. However, the effects of a contaminant on a particular amphibian species can differ among populations. The authors investigated the toxic effects of 2 herbicide formulations on different populations and on representative developmental stages of the European common frog (Rana temporaria). Larvae from forest populations were more sensitive to a commonly used glyphosate-based herbicide compared with individuals from agrarian land. Median lethal concentrations correlated with measured glyphosate levels in the breeding ponds, which may be a sign of evolved tolerances. The reverse result was observed for a less commonly used cycloxydim-based herbicide. Effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide were stronger for earlier larval stages compared with later larval stages. Hence, applications in early spring (when early larvae are present in breeding ponds) pose greater risk concerning acute toxic effects on R. temporaria. With regard to late larval stages, short exposure (96 h) of prometamorphic larvae prolonged time to metamorphosis, but only at the highest test concentration that did not significantly induce mortality. This could be due to impairment of the thyroid axis. Notably, nearly all test concentrations of the 2 herbicides provoked growth retardation. Further research on how evolved or induced tolerances are acquired, actual contamination levels of amphibian habitats, and potential endocrine effects of glyphosate-based herbicides is necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:190-200. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Evolutionary history and population genetic structure of the endemic tree frog Hyla tsinlingensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) inferred from mitochondrial gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Yu; Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Xiao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    The influence of topography and Pleistocenic climatic fluctuations on the population genetic structure of amphibians in the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains of China is poorly investigated. Hyla tsinlingensis is a tree frog endemic to the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains, with a restricted and patchy distribution that is currently shrinking. We speculated on the evolutionary history of amphibians in this region by studying the population genetic structure of H. tsinlingensis. Using a total of 212 samples, 32 haplotypes and four haplogroups were found in the present study. Population genetic structure showed significant differentiation (F(ST)) between most populations of H. tsinlingensis in the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that most of the observed genetic variation occurs between the two regions (the Tsinling and Dabieshan Mountains). Mantel tests indicated that the genetic divergence was induced through isolation by distance. Using Monmonier's maximum difference algorithm to predict the genetic barrier, two putative barriers in gene flow that separate lineages of H. tsinlingensis were identified. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests found a sudden population expansion in all haplogroups except the Tsinling population and total population. This population expansion was identified between 0.5 Myr to 0.1 Myr (Quaternary) by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP). Divergence dating indicated the divergence time between the Tsinling population and Dabieshan population to be 3.26 MYA (Pliocene). In conclusion, the topography of the Tsinling and Dabieshan Mountains exerts a significant impact on the population genetic structure of H. tsinlingensis, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary affected the distribution of H. tsinlingensis.

  12. Disparity in elevational shifts of European trees in response to recent climate warming.

    PubMed

    Rabasa, Sonia G; Granda, Elena; Benavides, Raquel; Kunstler, Georges; Espelta, Josep M; Ogaya, Romá; Peñuelas, Josep; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Gil, Wojciech; Grodzki, Wojciech; Ambrozy, Slawomir; Bergh, Johan; Hódar, José A; Zamora, Regino; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Predicting climate-driven changes in plant distribution is crucial for biodiversity conservation and management under recent climate change. Climate warming is expected to induce movement of species upslope and towards higher latitudes. However, the mechanisms and physiological processes behind the altitudinal and latitudinal distribution range of a tree species are complex and depend on each tree species features and vary over ontogenetic stages. We investigated the altitudinal distribution differences between juvenile and adult individuals of seven major European tree species along elevational transects covering a wide latitudinal range from southern Spain (37°N) to northern Sweden (67°N). By comparing juvenile and adult distributions (shifts on the optimum position and the range limits) we assessed the response of species to present climate conditions in relation to previous conditions that prevailed when adults were established. Mean temperature increased by 0.86 °C on average at our sites during the last decade compared with previous 30-year period. Only one of the species studied, Abies alba, matched the expected predictions under the observed warming, with a maximum abundance of juveniles at higher altitudes than adults. Three species, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris, showed an opposite pattern while for other three species, such as Quercus ilex, Acer pseudoplatanus and Q. petraea, we were no able to detect changes in distribution. These findings are in contrast with theoretical predictions and show that tree responses to climate change are complex and are obscured not only by other environmental factors but also by internal processes related to ontogeny and demography.

  13. A classification and regression tree model of controls on dissolved inorganic nitrogen leaching from European forests.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, James J; Futter, Martyn N; Dise, Nancy B

    2008-11-01

    Often, there is a non-linear relationship between atmospheric dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) input and DIN leaching that is poorly captured by existing models. We present the first application of the non-parametric classification and regression tree approach to evaluate the key environmental drivers controlling DIN leaching from European forests. DIN leaching was classified as low (<3), medium (3-15) or high (>15kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) at 215 sites across Europe. The analysis identified throughfall NO(3)(-) deposition, acid deposition, hydrology, soil type, the carbon content of the soil, and the legacy of historic N deposition as the dominant drivers of DIN leaching for these forests. Ninety four percent of sites were successfully classified into the appropriate leaching category. This approach shows promise for understanding complex ecosystem responses to a wide range of anthropogenic stressors as well as an improved method for identifying risk and targeting pollution mitigation strategies in forest ecosystems.

  14. Bat and bird diversity along independent gradients of latitude and tree composition in European forests.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Yohan M; Barbaro, Luc; Barnagaud, Jean-Yves; Ampoorter, Evy; Nezan, Julien; Verheyen, Kris; Jactel, Hervé

    2016-10-01

    Species assemblages are shaped by local and continental-scale processes that are seldom investigated together, due to the lack of surveys along independent gradients of latitude and habitat types. Our study investigated changes in the effects of forest composition and structure on bat and bird diversity across Europe. We compared the taxonomic and functional diversity of bat and bird assemblages in 209 mature forest plots spread along gradients of forest composition and vertical structure, replicated in 6 regions spanning from the Mediterranean to the boreal biomes. Species richness and functional evenness of both bat and bird communities were affected by the interactions between latitude and forest composition and structure. Bat and bird species richness increased with broadleaved tree cover in temperate and especially in boreal regions but not in the Mediterranean where they increased with conifer abundance. Bat species richness was lower in forests with smaller trees and denser understorey only in northern regions. Bird species richness was not affected by forest structure. Bird functional evenness increased in younger and denser forests. Bat functional evenness was also influenced by interactions between latitude and understorey structure, increasing in temperate forests but decreasing in the Mediterranean. Covariation between bat and bird abundances also shifted across Europe, from negative in southern forests to positive in northern forests. Our results suggest that community assembly processes in bats and birds of European forests are predominantly driven by abundance and accessibility of feeding resources, i.e., insect prey, and their changes across both forest types and latitudes.

  15. Signal strength and climate calibration of a European tree-ring isotope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treydte, K.; Frank, D.; Esper, J.; Andreu, L.; Bednarz, Z.; Berninger, F.; Boettger, T.; D'Alessandro, C. M.; Etien, N.; Filot, M.; Grabner, M.; Guillemin, M. T.; Gutierrez, E.; Haupt, M.; Helle, G.; Hilasvuori, E.; Jungner, H.; Kalela-Brundin, M.; Krapiec, M.; Leuenberger, M.; Loader, N. J.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Pazdur, A.; Pawelczyk, S.; Pierre, M.; Planells, O.; Pukiene, R.; Reynolds-Henne, C. E.; Rinne, K. T.; Saracino, A.; Saurer, M.; Sonninen, E.; Stievenard, M.; Switsur, V. R.; Szczepanek, M.; Szychowska-Krapiec, E.; Todaro, L.; Waterhouse, J. S.; Weigl, M.; Schleser, G. H.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first European network of tree ring δ 13C and δ 18O, containing 23 sites from Finland to Morocco. Common climate signals are found over broad climatic-ecological ranges. In temperate regions we find positive correlations with summer maximum temperatures and negative correlations with summer precipitation and Palmer Drought Severity Indices (PDSI) with no obvious species-specific differences. Regional δ 13C and δ 18O chronologies share high common variance in year-to-year variations. Long-term variations, however, exhibit differences that may reflect spatial variability in environmental forcings, age trends and/or plant physiological responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) and climate field correlations enable the identification of four sub-regions in the δ 18O network - northern and eastern Central Europe, Scandinavia and the western Mediterranean. Regional patterns in the δ 13C network are less clear and are timescale dependent. Our results indicate that future reconstruction efforts should concentrate on δ 18O data in the identified European regions.

  16. FROGS report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FROGS Reports present information on current research relevant to felsic magmatism, including commentaries on problems of current interest. Please contact Calvin Miller, Geology, 6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235; tel. 615-322-2986 about your own research, conferences, and ideas for stimulating commentaries.

  17. Fantastic Frogs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kym

    2002-01-01

    Number rhymes can be used in many exciting and different ways to support the early learning goals for mathematics. The rhyme "five little speckled frogs" provides the theme for this display, which was set up in Lewisham's professional development center. It provides a range of ideas which would help develop young children's mathematical learning…

  18. Hepatic carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) I and urea contents in the hylid tree frog, Litoria caerulea: transition from CPS III to CPS I.

    PubMed

    Ip, Yuen K; Loong, Ai M; Chng, You R; Hiong, Kum C; Chew, Shit F

    2012-12-01

    The complete cDNA sequence of CPS I obtained from the liver of the hylid tree frog, Litoria caerulea, consisted of 4,485 bp which coded for 1,495 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 163.7 kDa. The deduced CPS I consisted of a mitochondrial targeting sequence of 33 amino acid residues, a glutaminase amidotransferase component spanning from tyrosine 95 to leucine 425, and a methylglyoxal synthetase-like component spanning from valine 441 to lysine 1566. It also comprised two cysteine residues (cysteine 1360 and cysteine 1370) that are characteristic of N-acetyl-L-glutamate dependency. Similar to the CPS I of Rana catesbeiana and Cps III of lungfishes and teleosts, it contained the Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad (cysteine 304, histidine 388 and glutamate 390). All Cps III contain methionine 305 and glutamine 308, which are essential for the Cys-His-Glu triad to react with glutamine, but the CPS I of R. catesbeiana contains lysine 305 and glutamate 308, and therefore cannot effectively utilize glutamine as a substrate. However, the CPS I of L. caerulea, unlike that of R. catesbeiana, contained besides glutamate 308, methionine 305 instead of lysine 305, and thus represented a transitional form between Cps III and CPS I. Indeed, CPS I of L. caerulea could utilize glutamine or NH₄⁺ as a substrate in vitro, but the activity obtained with glutamine + NH₄⁺ reflected that obtained with NH₄⁺ alone. Furthermore, only <5 % of the glutamine synthetase activity was present in the hepatic mitochondria, indicating that CPS I of L. caerulea did not have an effective supply of glutamine in vivo. Hence, our results confirmed that the evolution of CPS I from Cps III occurred in amphibians. Since L. caerulea contained high levels of urea in its muscle and liver, which increased significantly in response to desiccation, its CPS I had the dual functions of detoxifying ammonia to urea and producing urea to reduce evaporative water loss.

  19. Temperature Range Shifts for Three European Tree Species over the Last 10,000 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cheddadi, Rachid; Araújo, Miguel B.; Maiorano, Luigi; Edwards, Mary; Guisan, Antoine; Carré, Matthieu; Chevalier, Manuel; Pearman, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified the degree to which the relationship between the geographic distribution of three major European tree species, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies and January temperature (Tjan) has remained stable over the past 10,000 years. We used an extended data-set of fossil pollen records over Europe to reconstruct spatial variation in Tjan values for each 1000-year time slice between 10,000 and 3000 years BP (before present). We evaluated the relationships between the occurrences of the three species at each time slice and the spatially interpolated Tjan values, and compared these to their modern temperature ranges. Our results reveal that F. sylvatica and P. abies experienced Tjan ranges during the Holocene that differ from those of the present, while A. alba occurred over a Tjan range that is comparable to its modern one. Our data suggest the need for re-evaluation of the assumption of stable climate tolerances at a scale of several thousand years. The temperature range instability in our observed data independently validates similar results based exclusively on modeled Holocene temperatures. Our study complements previous studies that used modeled data by identifying variation in frequencies of occurrence of populations within the limits of suitable climate. However, substantial changes that were observed in the realized thermal niches over the Holocene tend to suggest that predicting future species distributions should not solely be based on modern realized niches, and needs to account for the past variation in the climate variables that drive species ranges. PMID:27826308

  20. Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Takayuki; Mizuno, Akifumi; Tsukamoto, Takanori; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Saito, Norihiko; Sato, Shigeyoshi; Kikuchi, Shigemi; Uzuki, Tsuneyasu; Azegami, Koji; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    Bacteria were isolated from black lesions on shoots of European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) in an orchard in Japan. Previous characterization of this novel pathogen by phenotypic and genotypic methods suggested that it should belong to the genus Erwinia but might not correspond to either Erwinia amylovora or Erwinia pyrifoliae. Here, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it could not be assigned to any recognized species of the genus Erwinia. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the bacterial strains represented a novel species. The DNA G+C contents, the fatty acid profile and phenotypic characteristics resembled those previously reported for members of the genus Erwinia. On the basis of these and previous results, the pathogen represents a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov. (type strain: YPPS 951(T) = LMG 25843(T) = NCPPB 4475(T)) is proposed.

  1. Planting sentinel European trees in eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders.

    PubMed

    Roques, Alain; Fan, Jian-Ting; Courtial, Béatrice; Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Yart, Annie; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Denux, Olivier; Kenis, Marc; Baker, Richard; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall) of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus) and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens) were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China), and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major difficulty. This

  2. Diseases of frogs and toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    (Rana pipiens). Other interesting diseases could have been presented, such as a wart-like virus infection of Japanese newts and a group of protistan parasites, referred to as Dermocystidium and Dermomycoides, in European frogs and toads. The reader is referred to Green (2001) for a review of these diseases. Amphibians have a rich diversity of helminthic parasites (Poynton and Whitaker, 2001). In general, most cestodes, trematodes and nematodes of amphibians are innocuous and not linked to specific clinical signs ('symptoms') or mortalities. An important major exception to this generalization is the trematode, Ribeiroia, which has been linked to numerous and bizarre malformations of frogs, toads and salamanders (Johnson et al., 1999, Johnson et al., 2001, Schotthoefer et al., 2003). Two genera of trematodal parasites are discussed in this chapter: Ribeiroia because they cause malformations and Clinostomum because they are large and produce visible lumps in the skin. For a review of amphibian helminths, the reader is referred to the text by Flynn (1973).

  3. Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  4. Naturally occurring fluorescence in frogs.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Carlos; Brunetti, Andrés E; Pedron, Federico N; Carnevale Neto, Fausto; Estrin, Darío A; Bari, Sara E; Chemes, Lucía B; Peporine Lopes, Norberto; Lagorio, María G; Faivovich, Julián

    2017-04-04

    Fluorescence, the absorption of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation reemitted at longer wavelengths, has been suggested to play several biological roles in metazoans. This phenomenon is uncommon in tetrapods, being restricted mostly to parrots and marine turtles. We report fluorescence in amphibians, in the tree frog Hypsiboas punctatus, showing that fluorescence in living frogs is produced by a combination of lymph and glandular emission, with pigmentary cell filtering in the skin. The chemical origin of fluorescence was traced to a class of fluorescent compounds derived from dihydroisoquinolinone, here named hyloins. We show that fluorescence contributes 18-29% of the total emerging light under twilight and nocturnal scenarios, largely enhancing brightness of the individuals and matching the sensitivity of night vision in amphibians. These results introduce an unprecedented source of pigmentation in amphibians and highlight the potential relevance of fluorescence in visual perception in terrestrial environments.

  5. Planting Sentinel European Trees in Eastern Asia as a Novel Method to Identify Potential Insect Pest Invaders

    PubMed Central

    Roques, Alain; Fan, Jian-ting; Courtial, Béatrice; Zhang, Yan-zhuo; Yart, Annie; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Denux, Olivier; Kenis, Marc; Baker, Richard; Sun, Jiang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall) of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus) and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens) were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China), and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major difficulty. This

  6. Frog eat frog: exploring variables influencing anurophagy

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Giovanni; de Villiers, F. André; Mokhatla, Mohlamatsane M.; Davies, Sarah J.; Edwards, Shelley; Altwegg, Res

    2015-01-01

    Background. Frogs are generalist predators of a wide range of typically small prey items. But descriptions of dietary items regularly include other anurans, such that frogs are considered to be among the most important of anuran predators. However, the only existing hypothesis for the inclusion of anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs postulates that it happens more often in bigger frogs. Moreover, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. Methods. We reviewed the literature on frog diet in order to test the size hypothesis and determine whether there are other putative explanations for anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs. In addition to size, we recorded the habitat, the number of other sympatric anuran species, and whether or not the population was invasive. We controlled for taxonomic bias by including the superfamily in our analysis. Results. Around one fifth of the 355 records included anurans as dietary items of populations studied, suggesting that frogs eating anurans is not unusual. Our data showed a clear taxonomic bias with ranids and pipids having a higher proportion of anuran prey than other superfamilies. Accounting for this taxonomic bias, we found that size in addition to being invasive, local anuran diversity, and habitat produced a model that best fitted our data. Large invasive frogs that live in forests with high anuran diversity are most likely to have a higher proportion of anurans in their diet. Conclusions. We confirm the validity of the size hypothesis for anurophagy, but show that there are additional significant variables. The circumstances under which frogs eat frogs are likely to be complex, but our data may help to alert conservationists to the possible dangers of invading frogs entering areas with threatened anuran species. PMID:26336644

  7. Tree species diversity affects decomposition through modified micro-environmental conditions across European forests.

    PubMed

    Joly, François-Xavier; Milcu, Alexandru; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Jean, Loreline-Katia; Bussotti, Filippo; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Müller, Sandra; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Vesterdal, Lars; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2017-02-09

    Different tree species influence litter decomposition directly through species-specific litter traits, and indirectly through distinct modifications of the local decomposition environment. Whether these indirect effects on decomposition are influenced by tree species diversity is presently not clear. We addressed this question by studying the decomposition of two common substrates, cellulose paper and wood sticks, in a total of 209 forest stands of varying tree species diversity across six major forest types at the scale of Europe. Tree species richness showed a weak but positive correlation with the decomposition of cellulose but not with that of wood. Surprisingly, macroclimate had only a minor effect on cellulose decomposition and no effect on wood decomposition despite the wide range in climatic conditions among sites from Mediterranean to boreal forests. Instead, forest canopy density and stand-specific litter traits affected the decomposition of both substrates, with a particularly clear negative effect of the proportion of evergreen tree litter. Our study suggests that species richness and composition of tree canopies modify decomposition indirectly through changes in microenvironmental conditions. These canopy-induced differences in the local decomposition environment control decomposition to a greater extent than continental-scale differences in macroclimatic conditions.

  8. Sticking under wet conditions: the remarkable attachment abilities of the torrent frog, Staurois guttatus.

    PubMed

    Endlein, Thomas; Barnes, W Jon P; Samuel, Diana S; Crawford, Niall A; Biaw, Ang Bee; Grafe, Ulmar

    2013-01-01

    Tree frogs climb smooth surfaces utilising capillary forces arising from an air-fluid interface around their toe pads, whereas torrent frogs are able to climb in wet environments near waterfalls where the integrity of the meniscus is at risk. This study compares the adhesive capabilities of a torrent frog to a tree frog, investigating possible adaptations for adhesion under wet conditions. We challenged both frog species to cling to a platform which could be tilted from the horizontal to an upside-down orientation, testing the frogs on different levels of roughness and water flow. On dry, smooth surfaces, both frog species stayed attached to overhanging slopes equally well. In contrast, under both low and high flow rate conditions, the torrent frogs performed significantly better, even adhering under conditions where their toe pads were submerged in water, abolishing the meniscus that underlies capillarity. Using a transparent platform where areas of contact are illuminated, we measured the contact area of frogs during platform rotation under dry conditions. Both frog species not only used the contact area of their pads to adhere, but also large parts of their belly and thigh skin. In the tree frogs, the belly and thighs often detached on steeper slopes, whereas the torrent frogs increased the use of these areas as the slope angle increased. Probing small areas of the different skin parts with a force transducer revealed that forces declined significantly in wet conditions, with only minor differences between the frog species. The superior abilities of the torrent frogs were thus due to the large contact area they used on steep, overhanging surfaces. SEM images revealed slightly elongated cells in the periphery of the toe pads in the torrent frogs, with straightened channels in between them which could facilitate drainage of excess fluid underneath the pad.

  9. Far from Naturalness: How Much Does Spatial Ecological Structure of European Tree Assemblages Depart from Potential Natural Vegetation?

    PubMed Central

    Strona, Giovanni; Mauri, Achille; Veech, Joseph A.; Seufert, Günther; San-Miguel Ayanz, Jesus; Fattorini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Contemporaneous plant communities may retain a mark of past disturbances in their ecological patterns. However, unraveling the history of disturbance on natural systems at a large scale is often unfeasible, due to the complexity of the factors involved and lack of historical data. Here we aim at demonstrating how comparing observed spatial structure of tree assemblages with that expected in a hypothetical, undisturbed scenario can shed light on how natural European forests are. Borrowing an analytical approach developed in the field of network analysis, we assessed how much the observed ecological patterns of nestedness (i.e. positive co-occurrence), segregation (i.e. negative co-occurrence), and modularity in tree assemblages deviate from randomness, and from those projected by Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV) geobotanical expert assessments. We found clear evidence that European forests are far from a natural condition, showing only moderate signals (especially at higher latitudes) of the ecological spatial structure typical of undisturbed vegetation (i.e. nestedness). Our results highlight how taking into account spatial structure along with diversity can be a fundamental tool to address this problem and assess the degree of naturalness in species assemblages. PMID:28005931

  10. Does testosterone affect foraging behavior in male frogs?

    PubMed

    Desprat, Julia L; Mondy, Nathalie; Lengagne, Thierry

    2017-02-19

    During the breeding season, males often produce costly and extravagant displays or physical ornaments to attract females. Numerous studies have established that testosterone could directly influence the expression of certain sexual signals. However, few of these studies have focused on the indirect role that testosterone could play in modulating prey detection and visual performance to improve the foraging ability of males and hence their acquisition of nutritional resource. In the present study, we experimentally modified the testosterone levels of European tree frog males (Hyla arborea), staying in the natural range previously measured in the field, and we investigated the effect of testosterone on the foraging ability of individuals. Foraging capacities were measured on males placed in an arena with a virtual cricket moving on a computer screen. Our results demonstrated a significant effect of testosterone on the hunting behavior of H. arborea. We observed that testosterone reduced the orientation latency to virtual prey for supplemented males compared to controls. In addition, testosterone significantly increased the attack promptness of male frogs. Finally, our experiment did not demonstrate any impact of testosterone on male attack success.

  11. Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-11-01

    An algebraic formalism, developed with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space-times.

  12. Use of the European preliminary criteria, the Breiman-classification tree and the American-European criteria for diagnosis of primary Sjögren's Syndrome in daily practice: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Langegger, C; Wenger, M; Duftner, C; Dejaco, C; Baldissera, I; Moncayo, R; Schirmer, M

    2007-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the use of the European preliminary criteria, the Breiman-classification tree and the American-European criteria for diagnosis of primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) in daily practice. A retrospective analysis of 17 consecutive patients with pSS (European criteria) was performed evaluating the application of the Schirmer test, semiquantitative sialoscintigraphy, immunologic tests, including rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies, Sjögren's syndrome autoantibodies (SS-A, SS-B) and lip biopsy. Out of the 17 patients with pSS according to the European criteria, 15 patients fulfilled the classification tree (=88.2%), and 4 patients fulfilled the American-European criteria (=23.5%, P = 0.001). In the four patients fulfilling the American-European criteria, a positive result of the sialoscintigraphy was not crucial for the diagnosis according to these criteria. In conclusion, the American-European criteria are more stringent than the European preliminary criteria. We assume the role of sialoscintigraphy to be reduced when applying the American-European criteria.

  13. Diverging shrub and tree growth from the Polar to the Mediterranean biomes across the European continent.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Elena; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Gazol, Antonio; Granda, Elena; Shetti, Rohan; Wilmking, Martin; Moiseev, Pavel; Pividori, Mario; Carrer, Marco

    2016-11-25

    Climate warming is expected to enhance productivity and growth of woody plants, particularly in temperature-limited environments at the northernmost or uppermost limits of their distribution. However, this warming is spatially uneven and temporally variable, and the rise in temperatures differently affects biomes and growth forms. Here, applying a dendroecological approach with generalized additive mixed models, we analysed how the growth of shrubby junipers and coexisting trees (larch and pine species) responds to rising temperatures along a 5000-km latitudinal range including sites from the Polar, Alpine to the Mediterranean biomes. We hypothesize that, being more coupled to ground microclimate, junipers will be less influenced by atmospheric conditions and will less respond to the post-1950 climate warming than coexisting standing trees. Unexpectedly, shrub and tree growth forms revealed divergent growth trends in all the three biomes, with juniper performing better than trees at Mediterranean than at Polar and Alpine sites. The post-1980s decline of tree growth in Mediterranean sites might be induced by drought stress amplified by climate warming and did not affect junipers. We conclude that different but coexisting long-living growth forms can respond differently to the same climate factor and that, even in temperature-limited area, other drivers like the duration of snow cover might locally play a fundamental role on woody plants growth across Europe.

  14. Severe winter rings of oak trees ( Quercus robur L.) from Central European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, B. F.

    2013-11-01

    Oak trees were sampled in a flood plain forest in the valley of the Zapadnaya Dvina (Daugava) river (Tver region, Russia). Annual rings of the time period from 1826 to 2010 were studied. Anatomically distinct rings with a stripe of small-sized cells in the innermost part and narrow earlywood vessels located in three to four rows occurred in 1861, 1862, 1929, 1940, 1942, 1956 and 1979. Deviations of earlywood development were associated with the drop of winter temperature below -42 °C. The percentage of severe winter ring (SWR) occurrence depends upon tree age and decreases from 75.6 % in younger specimens (under 41 years old at the time of the severe winter) to 27.1 % in middle-aged ones (from 41 to 80 years) to 3.5 % in trees older than 80 years. Described anatomical features can be used in the reconstruction of severe winter frequency in the past.

  15. Species-Level Para- and Polyphyly in DNA Barcode Gene Trees: Strong Operational Bias in European Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Mutanen, Marko; Kivelä, Sami M.; Vos, Rutger A.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hausmann, Axel; Huemer, Peter; Dincă, Vlad; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Vila, Roger; Aarvik, Leif; Decaëns, Thibaud; Efetov, Konstantin A.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Johnsen, Arild; Karsholt, Ole; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Segerer, Andreas; Tarmann, Gerhard; Zahiri, Reza; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of DNA data is revolutionizing all fields of systematic research. DNA barcode sequences, now available for millions of specimens and several hundred thousand species, are increasingly used in algorithmic species delimitations. This is complicated by occasional incongruences between species and gene genealogies, as indicated by situations where conspecific individuals do not form a monophyletic cluster in a gene tree. In two previous reviews, non-monophyly has been reported as being common in mitochondrial DNA gene trees. We developed a novel web service “Monophylizer” to detect non-monophyly in phylogenetic trees and used it to ascertain the incidence of species non-monophyly in COI (a.k.a. cox1) barcode sequence data from 4977 species and 41,583 specimens of European Lepidoptera, the largest data set of DNA barcodes analyzed from this regard. Particular attention was paid to accurate species identification to ensure data integrity. We investigated the effects of tree-building method, sampling effort, and other methodological issues, all of which can influence estimates of non-monophyly. We found a 12% incidence of non-monophyly, a value significantly lower than that observed in previous studies. Neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods yielded almost equal numbers of non-monophyletic species, but 24.1% of these cases of non-monophyly were only found by one of these methods. Non-monophyletic species tend to show either low genetic distances to their nearest neighbors or exceptionally high levels of intraspecific variability. Cases of polyphyly in COI trees arising as a result of deep intraspecific divergence are negligible, as the detected cases reflected misidentifications or methodological errors. Taking into consideration variation in sampling effort, we estimate that the true incidence of non-monophyly is ∼23%, but with operational factors still being included. Within the operational factors, we separately assessed the

  16. Species-Level Para- and Polyphyly in DNA Barcode Gene Trees: Strong Operational Bias in European Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Mutanen, Marko; Kivelä, Sami M; Vos, Rutger A; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hausmann, Axel; Huemer, Peter; Dincă, Vlad; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Vila, Roger; Aarvik, Leif; Decaëns, Thibaud; Efetov, Konstantin A; Hebert, Paul D N; Johnsen, Arild; Karsholt, Ole; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Segerer, Andreas; Tarmann, Gerhard; Zahiri, Reza; Godfray, H Charles J

    2016-11-01

    The proliferation of DNA data is revolutionizing all fields of systematic research. DNA barcode sequences, now available for millions of specimens and several hundred thousand species, are increasingly used in algorithmic species delimitations. This is complicated by occasional incongruences between species and gene genealogies, as indicated by situations where conspecific individuals do not form a monophyletic cluster in a gene tree. In two previous reviews, non-monophyly has been reported as being common in mitochondrial DNA gene trees. We developed a novel web service "Monophylizer" to detect non-monophyly in phylogenetic trees and used it to ascertain the incidence of species non-monophyly in COI (a.k.a. cox1) barcode sequence data from 4977 species and 41,583 specimens of European Lepidoptera, the largest data set of DNA barcodes analyzed from this regard. Particular attention was paid to accurate species identification to ensure data integrity. We investigated the effects of tree-building method, sampling effort, and other methodological issues, all of which can influence estimates of non-monophyly. We found a 12% incidence of non-monophyly, a value significantly lower than that observed in previous studies. Neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods yielded almost equal numbers of non-monophyletic species, but 24.1% of these cases of non-monophyly were only found by one of these methods. Non-monophyletic species tend to show either low genetic distances to their nearest neighbors or exceptionally high levels of intraspecific variability. Cases of polyphyly in COI trees arising as a result of deep intraspecific divergence are negligible, as the detected cases reflected misidentifications or methodological errors. Taking into consideration variation in sampling effort, we estimate that the true incidence of non-monophyly is ∼23%, but with operational factors still being included. Within the operational factors, we separately assessed the

  17. The status of Leptopelis barbouri Ahl, 1929 and eleven other nomina of the current tree-frog genus Leptopelis (Arthroleptidae) described from East Africa, with a redescription of Leptopelis grandiceps Ahl, 1929.

    PubMed

    Gvoždík, Václav; Tillack, Frank; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2014-04-28

    An investigation of name-bearing types and other relevant type specimens of twelve nominal Leptopelis taxa described from or distributed in the Eastern Arc Mountains in East Africa was carried out. Our aim was to clarify their status and where necessary revise respective nomina. We suggest several nomenclatural and taxonomic actions: 1) Leptopelis barbouri Ahl, 1929 is transferred to the synonymy of Leptopelis flavomaculatus (Günther, 1864) as a junior subjective synonym; 2) Leptopelis grandiceps Ahl, 1929 is resurrected from the synonymy of Leptopelis uluguruensis Barbour & Loveridge, 1928 as a valid species conforming to the tree frogs which have been known as 'L. barbouri' and a lectotype is designated; 3) Leptopelis usambarae Ahl, 1929 is transferred from the synonymy of L. uluguruensis Barbour & Loveridge, 1928 to the synonymy of L. grandiceps Ahl, 1929 as a subjective synonym; 4) a lectotype of Leptopelis amaniensis Ahl, 1929 (synonym of L. uluguruensis), Hylambates johnstoni Boulenger, 1897 (synonym of L. flavomaculatus) and Leptopelis signifer Ahl, 1929 (synonym of L. vermiculatus) is designated to stabilize identity of the nomina; and 5) the type locality of Leptopelis martiensseni Ahl, 1929 and Leptopelis tanganus Ahl, 1929 is corrected.

  18. Development and Application of an eDNA Method to Detect the Critically Endangered Trinidad Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliad Phytotelmata

    PubMed Central

    Brozio, Sarah; Manson, Chloe; Gourevitch, Eleanor; Burns, Thomas J.; Greener, Mark S.; Downie, J. Roger

    2017-01-01

    The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to monitor rare and elusive species has great potential for conservation biology. Traditional surveying methods can be time-consuming, labour-intensive, subject to error or can be invasive and potentially damaging to habitat. The Trinidad golden treefrog (Phytotriades auratus) is one such species that would benefit from such an approach. This species inhabits the giant bromeliad (Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora) on two peaks on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Traditional survey methods for this species have required the destruction of the giant bromeliad, which is the only known habitat of this frog. Here we described the development of an eDNA PCR-based assay that uses water drawn from the water-filled phytotelmata of the giant bromeliad along with the use of a synthetic DNA positive control that can be easily amplified in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The assay can detect to a DNA concentration of 1.4ng. Sampling of 142 bromeliads using this method revealed 9% were positive for P. auratus DNA. These data suggest that eDNA methods also have great potential for revealing the presence of elusive species in arboreal habitats. PMID:28199338

  19. Severe winter rings of oak trees (Quercus robur L.) from Central European Russia.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, B F

    2013-11-01

    Oak trees were sampled in a flood plain forest in the valley of the Zapadnaya Dvina (Daugava) river (Tver region, Russia). Annual rings of the time period from 1826 to 2010 were studied. Anatomically distinct rings with a stripe of small-sized cells in the innermost part and narrow earlywood vessels located in three to four rows occurred in 1861, 1862, 1929, 1940, 1942, 1956 and 1979. Deviations of earlywood development were associated with the drop of winter temperature below -42 °C. The percentage of severe winter ring (SWR) occurrence depends upon tree age and decreases from 75.6 % in younger specimens (under 41 years old at the time of the severe winter) to 27.1 % in middle-aged ones (from 41 to 80 years) to 3.5 % in trees older than 80 years. Described anatomical features can be used in the reconstruction of severe winter frequency in the past.

  20. Alterations in the nitrogen dynamics of European beech trees infested by the woolly beech aphid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, D. F.; Michalzik, B.

    2012-12-01

    Insects are a major stressor in wooded ecosystems, triggering profound changes in the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and net primary productivity of infested forests. The influence of woolly beech aphids (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on nitrogen cycling via throughfall, stemflow, and litter leachates is not well understood. Employing a combination of field sampling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we examined and compared the alterations and partitioning of nitrogen (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) between control (uninfested) and infested trees. Preliminary results suggest that the amount of nitrogen routed to the soil is much lower in throughfall and stemflow of infested trees than control trees. Preliminary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the abaxial surface of sample leaves have demonstrated that the surface microbiology and nitrogen chemistry of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves are notably different. These observations suggest that the aphids alter the phyllosphere ecology to such an extent that they trigger nitrogen uptake by microbes on the leaf surface in the presence of easily available carbon from aphid excretions (i.e., honeydew). A better understanding of nitrogen cycling in stressed forests would advance theories of nitrogen cycling.

  1. Effects of European land use on contemporary tree-climate relationships in the northeastern United States: Implications for predictive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goring, S. J.; Cogbill, C. V.; Dawson, A.; Hooten, M.; McLachlan, J. S.; Mladenoff, D. J.; Paciorek, C. J.; Ruid, M.; Tipton, J.; Williams, J. W.; Record, S.; Matthes, J. H.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the climatic controls on tree species distributions is based on contemporary observational datasets. For example, forest inventory analysis (FIA) and other spatial datasets are used to build correlative models of climate suitability for plant taxa for use in environmental niche models. More complex dynamic models rely on species interactions, physiological processes, and competition, among other processes, that are also parameterized against contemporary data. However, as much as a quarter of the forested region in the upper Midwestern United States may be considered novel relative to pre-settlement baselines (Goring et al. submitted). Hence, modern surveys or even long-term datasets may represent only a portion of the ecological or climate space taxa might occupy. Using gridded datasets of pre-settlement vegetation for the northeastern United States from Town Propritor Suveys and the Public Land Survey, we examine the effects of European land-use conversion - logging, agricultural conversion and re-establishment - on climate-vegetation relationships. We show that in regions where land-use change is climatically biased, such as conversion to agriculture along the prairie-forest boundary, impacts on the realized climatic niches for various tree taxa can be significant. Improving predicted distributions of taxa is critical for planning and mitigating the effects of widespread shifts in forest composition resulting from climate change. Using pre-settlement data can improve our understanding of the potential niches occupied by major forest taxa, improving the predictive abilities of environmental niche and mechanistic models.

  2. Summer rainfall variability in European Mediterranean mountains from the sixteenth to the twentieth century reconstructed from tree rings.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Labourdette, D; Génova, M; Schmitz, M F; Urrutia, R; Pineda, F D

    2014-09-01

    Since the end of the last glacial period, European Mediterranean mountains have provided shelter for numerous species of Eurosiberian and Boreal origin. Many of these species, surviving at the southern limit of their range in Europe and surrounded by Mediterranean ones, are relatively intolerant to summer drought and are in grave danger of loss, as a result of increasingly long and frequent droughts in this region. This is the case of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii) which are found on Central Iberian Peninsula at the edge of their natural range. We used a tree ring network of these two species to reconstruct past variations in summer rainfall. The reconstruction, based upon a tree ring composite chronology of the species, dates back to 1570 (adjusted R(2) = 0.49, P < 0.000001) and captures interannual to decadal scale variability in summer precipitation. We studied the spatial representativeness of the rainfall patterns and described the occurrence rate of extremes of this precipitation. To identify associations between macroclimatic factors and tree radial growth, we employed a principal component analysis to calculate the resultant of the relationship between the growth data of both species, using this resultant as a dependent variable of a multiple regression whose independent variables are monthly mean temperature and precipitation from the average records. Spatial correlation patterns between instrumental precipitation datasets for southern Europe and reconstructed values for the 1950-1992 period indicate that the reconstruction captures the regional signal of drought variability in the study region (the origin of this precipitation is convective: thermal low pressure zones induced in the inland northeastern areas of the Iberian Peninsula). There is a clear increase in the recurrence of extreme dry events as from the beginning of twentieth century and an abrupt change to drier conditions. There

  3. Summer rainfall variability in European Mediterranean mountains from the sixteenth to the twentieth century reconstructed from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, D.; Génova, M.; Schmitz, M. F.; Urrutia, R.; Pineda, F. D.

    2014-09-01

    Since the end of the last glacial period, European Mediterranean mountains have provided shelter for numerous species of Eurosiberian and Boreal origin. Many of these species, surviving at the southern limit of their range in Europe and surrounded by Mediterranean ones, are relatively intolerant to summer drought and are in grave danger of loss, as a result of increasingly long and frequent droughts in this region. This is the case of the Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and the Austrian pine ( Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii) which are found on Central Iberian Peninsula at the edge of their natural range. We used a tree ring network of these two species to reconstruct past variations in summer rainfall. The reconstruction, based upon a tree ring composite chronology of the species, dates back to 1570 (adjusted R 2 = 0.49, P < 0.000001) and captures interannual to decadal scale variability in summer precipitation. We studied the spatial representativeness of the rainfall patterns and described the occurrence rate of extremes of this precipitation. To identify associations between macroclimatic factors and tree radial growth, we employed a principal component analysis to calculate the resultant of the relationship between the growth data of both species, using this resultant as a dependent variable of a multiple regression whose independent variables are monthly mean temperature and precipitation from the average records. Spatial correlation patterns between instrumental precipitation datasets for southern Europe and reconstructed values for the 1950-1992 period indicate that the reconstruction captures the regional signal of drought variability in the study region (the origin of this precipitation is convective: thermal low pressure zones induced in the inland northeastern areas of the Iberian Peninsula). There is a clear increase in the recurrence of extreme dry events as from the beginning of twentieth century and an abrupt change to drier conditions. There appears to

  4. Chloroplast DNA diversity of the dioecious European tree Ilex aquifolium L. (English holly).

    PubMed

    Rendell, S; Ennos, R A

    2003-10-01

    Variation in the chloroplast genome of Ilex aquifolium (English holly), a dioecious evergreen tree native to south, west and central Europe, was analysed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) and microsatellites. Differentiation between populations was high (GST = 0.595) and evidence for phylogeographical structure was detected (NST = 0.697, significantly higher than GST). Two chloroplast lineages were inferred originating from putative glacial refugia in southern Europe (Iberia, Italy and possibly the Balkans). The GST value was higher than reported for endozoochorous hermaphrodite species and for anemochorous dioecious species investigated over a similar geographical scale. It appears that dioecy has contributed to strong differentiation between refugia and that this has been maintained following postglacial recolonization as a result of limited seed flow. Palynological records for I. aquifolium are poor, thus these results give an important insight into patterns of glacial isolation and postglacial recolonization of this species.

  5. Physiological minimum temperatures for root growth in seven common European broad-leaved tree species.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Gabriela; Lenz, Armando; Körner, Christian; Hoch, Günter

    2014-03-01

    Temperature is the most important factor driving the cold edge distribution limit of temperate trees. Here, we identified the minimum temperatures for root growth in seven broad-leaved tree species, compared them with the species' natural elevational limits and identified morphological changes in roots produced near their physiological cold limit. Seedlings were exposed to a vertical soil-temperature gradient from 20 to 2 °C along the rooting zone for 18 weeks. In all species, the bulk of roots was produced at temperatures above 5 °C. However, the absolute minimum temperatures for root growth differed among species between 2.3 and 4.2 °C, with those species that reach their natural distribution limits at higher elevations also tending to have lower thermal limits for root tissue formation. In all investigated species, the roots produced at temperatures close to the thermal limit were pale, thick, unbranched and of reduced mechanical strength. Across species, the specific root length (m g(-1) root) was reduced by, on average, 60% at temperatures below 7 °C. A significant correlation of minimum temperatures for root growth with the natural high elevation limits of the investigated species indicates species-specific thermal requirements for basic physiological processes. Although these limits are not necessarily directly causative for the upper distribution limit of a species, they seem to belong to a syndrome of adaptive processes for life at low temperatures. The anatomical changes at the cold limit likely hint at the mechanisms impeding meristematic activity at low temperatures.

  6. Yet More Frogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Extending a recent paper by Derek Holton, we show how to represent the algorithm for the Frog Problem diagrammatically. This diagrammatic representation suggests a simpler proof of the symmetrical case (equal numbers of frogs of each colour) by allowing the even and odd cases to be treated together. It also provides a proof in the asymmetrical…

  7. Yet more frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2011-06-01

    Extending a recent paper by Derek Holton, we show how to represent the algorithm for the Frog Problem diagrammatically. This diagrammatic representation suggests a simpler proof of the symmetrical case (equal numbers of frogs of each colour) by allowing the even and odd cases to be treated together. It also provides a proof in the asymmetrical case (unequal numbers of frogs) as an extension of the symmetrical case. The issue of whether frogs of a given colour should be allowed to move in either direction is discussed. While it is possible to restrict to the case of movement in a single direction, results for bi-directional movement can be obtained by making the correspondence between the algorithm and its diagrammatic representation more concrete. The Frog Problem then becomes a form of constrained shortest path problem around the diagram, and from this point of view optimality of the algorithm becomes much clearer.

  8. Functional Resilience against Climate-Driven Extinctions - Comparing the Functional Diversity of European and North American Tree Floras.

    PubMed

    Liebergesell, Mario; Reu, Björn; Stahl, Ulrike; Freiberg, Martin; Welk, Erik; Kattge, Jens; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Peñuelas, Josep; Wirth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Future global change scenarios predict a dramatic loss of biodiversity for many regions in the world, potentially reducing the resistance and resilience of ecosystem functions. Once before, during Plio-Pleistocene glaciations, harsher climatic conditions in Europe as compared to North America led to a more depauperate tree flora. Here we hypothesize that this climate driven species loss has also reduced functional diversity in Europe as compared to North America. We used variation in 26 traits for 154 North American and 66 European tree species and grid-based co-occurrences derived from distribution maps to compare functional diversity patterns of the two continents. First, we identified similar regions with respect to contemporary climate in the temperate zone of North America and Europe. Second, we compared the functional diversity of both continents and for the climatically similar sub-regions using the functional dispersion-index (FDis) and the functional richness index (FRic). Third, we accounted in these comparisons for grid-scale differences in species richness, and, fourth, investigated the associated trait spaces using dimensionality reduction. For gymnosperms we find similar functional diversity on both continents, whereas for angiosperms functional diversity is significantly greater in Europe than in North America. These results are consistent across different scales, for climatically similar regions and considering species richness patterns. We decomposed these differences in trait space occupation into differences in functional diversity vs. differences in functional identity. We show that climate-driven species loss on a continental scale might be decoupled from or at least not linearly related to changes in functional diversity. This might be important when analyzing the effects of climate-driven biodiversity change on ecosystem functioning.

  9. Functional Resilience against Climate-Driven Extinctions – Comparing the Functional Diversity of European and North American Tree Floras

    PubMed Central

    Liebergesell, Mario; Stahl, Ulrike; Freiberg, Martin; Welk, Erik; Kattge, Jens; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Future global change scenarios predict a dramatic loss of biodiversity for many regions in the world, potentially reducing the resistance and resilience of ecosystem functions. Once before, during Plio-Pleistocene glaciations, harsher climatic conditions in Europe as compared to North America led to a more depauperate tree flora. Here we hypothesize that this climate driven species loss has also reduced functional diversity in Europe as compared to North America. We used variation in 26 traits for 154 North American and 66 European tree species and grid-based co-occurrences derived from distribution maps to compare functional diversity patterns of the two continents. First, we identified similar regions with respect to contemporary climate in the temperate zone of North America and Europe. Second, we compared the functional diversity of both continents and for the climatically similar sub-regions using the functional dispersion-index (FDis) and the functional richness index (FRic). Third, we accounted in these comparisons for grid-scale differences in species richness, and, fourth, investigated the associated trait spaces using dimensionality reduction. For gymnosperms we find similar functional diversity on both continents, whereas for angiosperms functional diversity is significantly greater in Europe than in North America. These results are consistent across different scales, for climatically similar regions and considering species richness patterns. We decomposed these differences in trait space occupation into differences in functional diversity vs. differences in functional identity. We show that climate-driven species loss on a continental scale might be decoupled from or at least not linearly related to changes in functional diversity. This might be important when analyzing the effects of climate-driven biodiversity change on ecosystem functioning. PMID:26848836

  10. Assessment of the antibacterial activity of tea tree oil using the European EN 1276 and EN 12054 standard suspension tests.

    PubMed

    Messager, S; Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    2005-02-01

    The activity of tea tree oil (TTO) and TTO-containing products was investigated according to the EN 1276 and EN 12054 European suspension methods. The activity of different concentrations of TTO, a hygienic skin wash (HSW), an alcoholic hygienic skin wash (AHSW) and an alcoholic hand rub (AHR) was investigated. These formulations were assessed in perfect conditions with the EN 12054 test, and in perfect conditions as well as in the presence of interfering substances with the EN 1276 test, against Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. With the latter test, the activity of the same formulations without TTO was also assessed as a control. With the EN 1276 test, the AHR achieved a >10(5)-fold reduction against all four test organisms within a 1-min contact time. The AHSW achieved a >or=10(5)-fold reduction against A. baumannii after a 1-min contact time and against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa after a 5-min contact time. The efficacy of TTO appeared to be dependent on the formulation and the concentration tested, the concentration of interfering substances and, lastly, the organism tested. Nevertheless, 5% TTO achieved a >10(4)-fold reduction in P. aeruginosa cell numbers after a 5-min contact time in perfect conditions. TTO (5%) in 0.001% Tween 80 was significantly more active against E. coli and P. aeruginosa than against S. aureus and A. baumannii. With the EN 12054 test, after a 1-min contact time, 5% TTO in 0.001% Tween 80 and the AHSW achieved a >10(4)-fold reduction in E. coli and A. baumannii cell numbers, respectively, and the AHR achieved a >4 log10 reduction against all organisms tested. The formulations used in this study are now being tested using a novel ex vivo method as well as the in vivo European standard handwashing method EN 1499.

  11. Landing on branches in the frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Bijma, Nienke N; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kleinteich, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) are famous for their saltatory or hopping locomotion, which is related to numerous anatomical specialisations that are characteristic for the group. However, while the biomechanics of take-off in frogs have been studied in detail, much less is known on how frogs land after a jump. Besides terrestrial and aquatic species, several lineages of frogs adopted an arboreal lifestyle and especially the biomechanics of landing on challenging, small, and unpredictable substrates, such as leaves or branches, are virtually unknown. Here we studied the landing kinematics of the arboreal frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Hylidae) on a wooden stick that was used to mimic a small tree branch. We observed two different landing behaviours: (1) landing on the abdomen and (2) attachment with the toes of either the forelimb or the hindlimb. In the latter case, the frogs performed a cartwheel around the stick, while they were only attached by their adhesive toe pads. We estimated the forces that act on the toes during this behaviour to be up to fourteen times the body weight of the animals. This behaviour demonstrates the remarkable adhesive capabilities of the toe pads and the body control of the frogs.

  12. Complex and transitive synchronization in a frustrated system of calling frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Ikkyu; Takeda, Ryu; Mizumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takuma; Takahashi, Toru; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-03-01

    This letter reports synchronization phenomena and mathematical modeling on a frustrated system of living beings, or Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica). While an isolated male Japanese tree frog calls nearly periodically, he can hear sounds including calls of other males. Therefore, the spontaneous calling behavior of interacting males can be understood as a system of coupled oscillators. We construct a simple but biologically reasonable model based on the experimental results of two frogs, extend the model to a system of three frogs, and theoretically predict the occurrence of rich synchronization phenomena, such as triphase synchronization and 1:2 antiphase synchronization. In addition, we experimentally verify the theoretical prediction by ethological experiments on the calling behavior of three frogs and time series analysis on recorded sound data. Note that the calling behavior of three male Japanese tree frogs is frustrated because almost perfect antiphase synchronization is robustly observed in a system of two male frogs. Thus, nonlinear dynamics of the three-frogs system should be far from trivial.

  13. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Fred; Campbell, Earl W.; Allison, Allen; Pratt, Thane K.

    1999-01-01

    As an oceanic archipelago isolated from continental source areas, Hawaii lacks native terrestrial reptiles and amphibians, Polynesians apparently introduced seven gecko and skink species after discovering the islands approximately 1500 years ago, and another 15 reptiles and five frogs have been introduced in the last century and a half (McKeown 1996). The Polynesian introductions are probably inadvertent because the species involved are known stowaway dispersers (Gibbons 1985; Dye and Steadman 1990), In contrast, most of the herpetological introductions since European contact with Hawaii have been intentional. Several frog species were released for biocontrol of insects (e.g., Dendrobates auratus, Bufo marinus, Rana rugosa, Bryan 1932; Oliver and Shaw 1953), and most of the remaining species are released or escaped pets (e.g., Phelsuma spp., Chamaeleo jacksonii, Iguana iguana, McKeown 1996), Government-approved releases have not occurred for many years, but the rate of establishment of new species has increased in the past few decades because of the importation and subsequent release of pets.

  14. Extending glacial refugia for a European tree: genetic markers show that Iberian populations of white elm are native relicts and not introductions

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Venturas, M; Hollingsworth, P M; Squirrell, J; Collada, C; Stone, G N; Gil, L

    2014-01-01

    Conservation policies usually focus on in situ protection of native populations, a priority that requires accurate assessment of population status. Distinction between native and introduced status can be particularly difficult (and at the same time, is most important) for species whose natural habitat has become both rare and highly fragmented. Here, we address the status of the white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas), a European riparian tree species whose populations have been fragmented by human activity and is protected wherever it is considered native. Small populations of this species are located in Iberia, where they are unprotected because they are considered introductions due to their rarity. However, Iberia and neighbouring regions in southwestern France have been shown to support discrete glacial refuge populations of many European trees, and the possibility remains that Iberian white elms are native relicts. We used chloroplast RFLPs and nuclear microsatellites to establish the relationship between populations in Iberia and the Central European core distribution. Bayesian approaches revealed significant spatial structure across populations. Those in Iberia and southwestern France shared alleles absent from Central Europe, and showed spatial population structure within Iberia common in recognized native taxa. Iberian populations show a demographic signature of ancient population bottlenecks, while those in Central European show a signature of recent population bottlenecks. These patterns are not consistent with historical introduction of white elm to Iberia, and instead strongly support native status, arguing for immediate implementation of conservation measures for white elm populations in Spain and contiguous areas of southern France. PMID:24022495

  15. Adaptive traits to fluvial systems of native tree European black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) population in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Todaro, Luigi; Rita, Angelo; Villani, Paolo; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saracino, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on the morphological and biomechanical traits developed by the European black poplar (Populus nigra) to cope with the hydraulic force and prolonged submersion periods during floods. Two riverine environments of the Cilento sub-region (Southern Italy) have been selected for this experimental study. The two sites have the same climatic and hydrological regimes. The first site is located along the Ripiti stream, characterized by a braided channel with longitudinal and transverse bars and eroding banks. The second site is located along the Badolato stream, an entrenched meandering riffle/pool channel, with low gradients and high width/depth. P. nigra mixed with Salix alba and along the Badolato stream also Platanus orientalis, is the dominant wooden riparian vegetation in both sites. Cuttings from adult P. nigra trees originated by seeds were collected and planted in the 'Azienda Sperimentale Regionale Improsta' (Eboli-Salerno, Campania region). The experimental plantation was managed according to a multi-stem short rotation coppice with low external energy input and high disturbance regime generated by a 3 years rotation coppicing. The two sample stool sets exhibit statistically similar morphological traits, but different values of Young elasticity module of the shoots. A functional evaluation of the biomechanical differences was performed by measuring the bending of the individual stems under the hypothesis of complete submergence within a flow of different mean velocities, using a numerical model that predicts the bending of woody vegetation beams allowing for large deflections. The results suggest that plants with the same gene pool but coming from morphologically different riverine environments, may reflect different dominant biomechanical properties, which might be relevant for designing local sustainable management and restoration plans of rivers and riparian systems.

  16. Larix decidua δ(18)O tree-ring cellulose mainly reflects the isotopic signature of winter snow in a high-altitude glacial valley of the European Alps.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Giovanni; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Cherubini, Paolo; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Maugeri, Maurizio; Stenni, Barbara; Fusco, Stella; Maggi, Valter; Pelfini, Manuela

    2017-02-01

    We analyzed the chronologies of cellulose stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) and tree-ring widths from European larch (Larix decidua) in a high-altitude site (2190ma.s.l.) at the bottom of a glacial valley in the Italian Alps, and investigated their dependence on monthly meteorological variables and δ(18)O precipitation values. The δ(18)O of tree-ring cellulose appears to be strongly driven by the δ(18)O of winter snowfall (November to March), which suggests that larch trees mostly use the snow-melt water of the previous winter during the growing season. This water, which also comes from the slope streams and from the underground flow of nearby steep slopes, infiltrates the soil in the valley bottom. The tree-ring cellulose δ(18)O values were also found to be influenced by the August precipitation δ(18)O and mean temperature. The associated regression model shows that the δ(18)O chronology from the tree rings explains up to 34% of the variance in the winter precipitation δ(18)O record, demonstrating the potential for reconstructing the δ(18)O isotopic composition of past winter precipitation in the study region. Unlike most other tree-ring studies that focus on growing season signals, in our study the summer signal was small and the winter signal dominant due to the special conditions of the glacial valley. Site topography, geomorphology and soil characteristics in particular influence the stable isotope signal in tree-ring cellulose.

  17. Jan Swammerdam's frogs

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Having discussed insect metamorphosis at length, Jan Swammerdam's Bybel der Natuure (1679/1737) reached its climax with a substantial description of the generation and muscular activity of frogs. This paper explores the rhetorical role of frogs in Swammerdam's ‘great work’, showing how they were the Archimedean point from which he aimed to reorder all of creation—from insects to humans—within one glorious, God-ordained natural history and philosophy. Swammerdam linked insects to frogs through a demonstration that all underwent epigenesis; and frogs were then linked to humans through a demonstration of their identical muscular activity. The success of Swammerdam's strategy required a theological reconstruction of the frog, traditionally an ungodly creature, such that trustworthy knowledge could be obtained from its body. Perhaps surprisingly, this act of theological cleansing is shown to be somewhat prefigured in the distinctly non-experimental natural history of Edward Topsell (1608). The paper also examines Swammerdam's interactions with the mystic Antoinette Bourignon, and his challenges in reconciling a spirituality of meletetics with a material epistemology in natural philosophy. Differences are revealed between the natural analogies given by Swammerdam in his published and unpublished writings, undermining to a certain extent the triumphal insect–frog–human rhetorical structure of the Bybel.

  18. Gravitational infusion of ethylenediurea (EDU) into trunks protected adult European ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior L.) from foliar ozone injury.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, E; Manning, W J; Spaziani, F; Tagliaferro, F

    2007-02-01

    Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior L.), known to be sensitive or insensitive to ozone, determined by presence or absence of foliar symptoms in previous years, were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion on six occasions at 21-day intervals in summer 2005 at Turin, Italy. At the end of the season, foliar ozone injury on EDU-treated trees was not complete, but was greatly and significantly reduced when compared to results from trees infused with water. Significant symptom reduction occurred at any crown level in the treated trees suggesting that EDU protected whole crowns. Gravitational infusion of EDU resulted in protection from ozone injury for ozone-sensitive ash trees. The amount of EDU needed to provide protection is assumed to be in the range 13-26 mg m(-2) leaf.

  19. The influence of volcanic eruptions on growth of central European lowland trees in NE-Germany during the last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, Hagen; Heinrich, Ingo; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Helle, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Large and mainly tropical volcanic eruptions can have significant effects on the Earth's climate system, likely resulting in decreased summer and increased winter temperature means, as well as enhanced fractions of diffuse light lasting for one to several years after the eruptive outbreak. It has been argued that due to scattering by volcanic sulfur aerosol the more diffuse light fraction can be particularly beneficial for tree growth and more generally for ecosystems biomass productivity. However, other observations suggest decreasing tree-ring width because of the cooler conditions following large eruptions, with overall stronger fingerprints expected towards higher altitudes and higher latitudes where tree growth is mainly temperature-limited. Since tree growth in lowland temperate climate zones is dominated by various climate quantities rather than temperature alone. Thus it has been hypothesized that tree growth within the temperate zones of the mid-latitudes may not suffer from lower temperatures per se, but rather profits from increased rates of diffuse light, in tandem with reduced evapotranspiration and subsequently enhanced soil moisture availability. Most studies so far have concentrated on the impact of volcanic eruptions on trees growing outside the temperate climate zones. This study aims at trees in temperate zones where tree growth is less temperature limited. Therefore, a comprehensive database with 1128 samples of millennium-long tree-ring chronologies of Quercus robur L. and Pinus sylvestris L. based on heterogenous archaeological material originating from three different lowland sites (Greifswald, Eberswalde and Saxony) in eastern Germany was used to test whether tree growth suffered or profited from the globally changed conditions after large volcanic eruptions. The growth relationships were tested against 49 individual large volcanic eruptions from the last Millennium. High-resolution ice core records of sulfate measurements calibrated against

  20. Frogs without polliwogs: evolution of anuran direct development.

    PubMed

    Callery, E M; Fang, H; Elinson, R P

    2001-03-01

    Direct development is the assumption of the adult morphology without progression through an intervening, morphologically distinct, free-living larval phase. We discuss the ecological factors contributing to the evolution of this derived life-history strategy in frogs, and the developmental modifications that facilitate such an unusual mode of embryogenesis. Studies on the Puerto Rican tree frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, have identified several such modifications, including developmental adaptations for dealing with increased egg size, and loss of tadpole structures. Surprisingly, this direct developer still undergoes a thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis, which occurs before hatching. We suggest how the ancestral biphasic developmental pattern may have been rearranged during the evolution of direct development.

  1. Impact of tree cutting on water-soluble organic compounds in podzolic soils of the European North-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapteva, Elena; Bondarenko, Natalia; Shamrikova, Elena; Kubik, Olesya; Punegov, Vasili

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WOCs) and their single components, i.e. low-molecular organic acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates, attain a great deal of attention among soil scientists. WOCs are an important component of soil organic matter (SOM) and form as a results of different biological and chemical processes in soils. These processes are mainly responsible for formation and development of soils in aboveground ecosystems. The purpose of the work was identifying qualitative and quantitative composition of low-molecular organic substances which form in podzolic loamy soils against natural reforestation after spruce forest cutting. The studies were conducted on the territory of the European North-East of Russia, in the middle taiga subzone (Komi Republic, Ust-Kulom region). The study materials were soil of undisturbed bilberry spruce forest (Sample Plot 1 (SP1)) and soils of different-aged tree stands where cutting activities took place in winter 2001/2002 (SP2) and 1969/1970 (SP3). Description of soils and vegetation cover on the plots is given in [1]. Low-molecular organic compounds in soil water extracts were identified by the method of gas chromatography mass-spectrometry [2, 3]. Finally, reforestationafterspruceforestcutting was found to be accompanied by different changes in soil chemical composition. In contrast with soils under undisturbed spruce forest, organic soil horizons under different-aged cuts decreased in organic carbon reserves and production of low-molecular organic compounds, changed in soil acidity. Within the soil series of SP1→SP2→SP3, the highest content of WOCs was identified for undisturbed spruce forest (738 mg kg-1 soil). In soils of coniferous-deciduous forests on SP1 and SP3, WOC content was 294 and 441 mg kg-1 soil, correspondingly. Soils at cuts decreased in concentration of any water-soluble low-molecular SOM components as low-molecular acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Structure of low-molecular WOCs in the study podzolic

  2. Evolution of serum albumin intron-1 is shaped by a 5′ truncated non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon in western Palearctic water frogs (Neobatrachia)

    PubMed Central

    Plötner, Jörg; Köhler, Frank; Uzzell, Thomas; Beerli, Peter; Schreiber, Robert; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Hotz, Hansjürg

    2009-01-01

    A 5′ truncated non-LTR CR1-like retrotransposon, named RanaCR1, was identified in the serum albumin intron-1 (SAI-1) of at least seven species of western Palearctic water frogs (WPWF). Based on sequence similarity of the carboxy-terminal region (CTR) of ORF2 and the highly conserved 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR), RanaCR1-like elements occur also in the genome of Xenopus tropicalis and Rana temporaria. Unlike other CR1 elements, RanaCR1 contains a CA microsatellite in its 3′ UTR. The low nucleotide diversity of the 3′ UTR compared to the CTR and to SAI-1 suggests that this region still plays a role in WPWF, either as a structure-stabilizing element, or within a species-specific transcriptional network. Length variation of water frog SAI-1 sequences is caused by deletions that extend in some cases beyond the 5′ or 3′ ends of RanaCR1, probably a result of selection for structural and functional stability of the primary transcript. The impact of RanaCR1 on SAI-1 evolution is also indicated by the significant negative correlation between the length of both SAI-1 and RanaCR1 and the percentage GC content of RanaCR1. Both SAI-1 and RanaCR1 sequences support the sister group relationship of R. perezi and R. saharica, which are placed in the phylogenetic tree at a basal position, the sister clade to other water frog taxa. It also supports the monophyly of the R. lessonae group; of Anatolian water frogs (R. cf. bedriagae), which are not conspecific with R. bedriagae; and of the European ridibunda group. Within the ridibunda clade, Greek frogs are clearly separated, supporting the hypothesis that Balkan water frogs represent a distinct species. Frogs from Atyrau (Kazakhstan), the type locality of R. ridibunda, were heterozygous for a ridibunda and a cf. bedriagae specific allele. PMID:19665056

  3. Tree ring isotopes of beech and spruce in response to short-term climate variability across Central European sites: Common and contrasting physiological mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigt, Rosemarie; Klesse, Stefan; Treydte, Kerstin; Frank, David; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

    2016-04-01

    The combined study of tree-ring width and stable C and O isotopes provides insight in the coherences between carbon allocation during stem growth and the preceding conditions of gas exchange and formation of photosynthates as all influenced by environmental variation. In this large-scale study comprising 10 sites across a range of climate gradients (temperature, precipitation) throughout Central Europe, we investigated tree-rings in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. The sampling design included larger and smaller trees. The short-term, i.e. year-to-year, variability in the isotope time series over 100 yrs was analyzed in relation to tree-ring growth and climate variation. The generally strong correlation between the year-to-year differences in δ13C (corrected for the atmospheric shift due to 13C-depleted CO2 from fossil combustion) and δ18O across most sites emphasized the role of stomatal conductance in controlling leaf gas exchange. However, the correlation between both isotopes decreased during some periods. At several sites this reduction in correlation was particularly pronounced during recent decades. This suggests a decoupling between stomatal and photosynthetic responses to environmental conditions on the one hand, and carbon allocation to stem tissue on the other hand. Variability in the isotopic ratio largely responded to summer climate, but was weakly correlated to annual stem growth. In contrast, climate sensitivity of radial growth in both species was rather site-dependent, and was strongest at the driest (in terms of soil water capacity) site. We will also present results of isotope responses with respect to extreme climate events. Understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms controlling the short-term variation in tree-ring signals will help to assess and more precisely constrain the possible range of growth performance of these ecologically and economically important tree species under future climate

  4. It's a Frog's Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2003-01-01

    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  5. Tree Size Inequality Reduces Forest Productivity: An Analysis Combining Inventory Data for Ten European Species and a Light Competition Model.

    PubMed

    Bourdier, Thomas; Cordonnier, Thomas; Kunstler, Georges; Piedallu, Christian; Lagarrigues, Guillaume; Courbaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plant structural diversity is usually considered as beneficial for ecosystem functioning. For instance, numerous studies have reported positive species diversity-productivity relationships in plant communities. However, other aspects of structural diversity such as individual size inequality have been far less investigated. In forests, tree size inequality impacts directly tree growth and asymmetric competition, but consequences on forest productivity are still indeterminate. In addition, the effect of tree size inequality on productivity is likely to vary with species shade-tolerance, a key ecological characteristic controlling asymmetric competition and light resource acquisition. Using plot data from the French National Geographic Agency, we studied the response of stand productivity to size inequality for ten forest species differing in shade tolerance. We fitted a basal area stand production model that included abiotic factors, stand density, stand development stage and a tree size inequality index. Then, using a forest dynamics model we explored whether mechanisms of light interception and light use efficiency could explain the tree size inequality effect observed for three of the ten species studied. Size inequality negatively affected basal area increment for seven out of the ten species investigated. However, this effect was not related to the shade tolerance of these species. According to the model simulations, the negative tree size inequality effect could result both from reduced total stand light interception and reduced light use efficiency. Our results demonstrate that negative relationships between size inequality and productivity may be the rule in tree populations. The lack of effect of shade tolerance indicates compensatory mechanisms between effect on light availability and response to light availability. Such a pattern deserves further investigations for mixed forests where complementarity effects between species are involved. When studying the

  6. Tree Size Inequality Reduces Forest Productivity: An Analysis Combining Inventory Data for Ten European Species and a Light Competition Model

    PubMed Central

    Bourdier, Thomas; Cordonnier, Thomas; Kunstler, Georges; Piedallu, Christian; Lagarrigues, Guillaume; Courbaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plant structural diversity is usually considered as beneficial for ecosystem functioning. For instance, numerous studies have reported positive species diversity-productivity relationships in plant communities. However, other aspects of structural diversity such as individual size inequality have been far less investigated. In forests, tree size inequality impacts directly tree growth and asymmetric competition, but consequences on forest productivity are still indeterminate. In addition, the effect of tree size inequality on productivity is likely to vary with species shade-tolerance, a key ecological characteristic controlling asymmetric competition and light resource acquisition. Using plot data from the French National Geographic Agency, we studied the response of stand productivity to size inequality for ten forest species differing in shade tolerance. We fitted a basal area stand production model that included abiotic factors, stand density, stand development stage and a tree size inequality index. Then, using a forest dynamics model we explored whether mechanisms of light interception and light use efficiency could explain the tree size inequality effect observed for three of the ten species studied. Size inequality negatively affected basal area increment for seven out of the ten species investigated. However, this effect was not related to the shade tolerance of these species. According to the model simulations, the negative tree size inequality effect could result both from reduced total stand light interception and reduced light use efficiency. Our results demonstrate that negative relationships between size inequality and productivity may be the rule in tree populations. The lack of effect of shade tolerance indicates compensatory mechanisms between effect on light availability and response to light availability. Such a pattern deserves further investigations for mixed forests where complementarity effects between species are involved. When studying the

  7. Effectiveness of hand-cleansing formulations containing tea tree oil assessed ex vivo on human skin and in vivo with volunteers using European standard EN 1499.

    PubMed

    Messager, S; Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    2005-03-01

    The efficacy of formulations containing tea tree oil (TTO) has been assessed in vitro in previous studies. Products that passed the European suspension test guidelines were investigated further in this study, in vivo with volunteers using the European handwashing method (EN 1499) and ex vivo using freshly excised human skin samples. The activity of 5% TTO in 0.001% Tween 80, in a hygienic skin wash (HSW) and in an alcoholic hygienic skin wash (AHSW) was investigated and compared with that of a non-medicated soft soap (SS, control). These formulations were assessed against Escherichia coli K12 as recommended by the European standard. In-vivo results showed that 5% TTO in Tween 80 and the AHSW were significantly more active than the SS after 1 min of handwashing. When assessed ex vivo, these two products were also significantly more active than the reference soap after 1 min of rubbing. Both methods showed that 5% TTO in Tween 80 was generally, although not always, more active than a handwash formulation, and that the AHSW was generally more active than the HSW, although this difference was not significant. The formulations tested, as well as the SS, were more active when assessed in vivo than ex-vivo against E. coli, although only the SS and the HSW were significantly more active in vivo. There appeared to be a pattern in the comparison between ex vivo and in vivo results. The antiseptics tested were, on average, 1.28+/-0.06 times more active when assessed in-vivo than when assessed ex vivo. Nevertheless, the main outcome of the European handwashing method is for the formulation tested to be significantly more active than the SS; both 5% TTO in Tween 80 and the AHSW achieved this both in-vivo and ex-vivo. TTO in Tween 80 and in formulations met the European in-vivo method requirements.

  8. Long-term exposure to twice-ambient ozone (O3) affects carbon sink strength, allocation and stem growth in adult central European forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, T. E.; Matyssek, R.

    2009-12-01

    Amongst air pollutants, ground-level ozone (O3) is potentially the most detrimental to vegetation. Spreading globally, enhanced O3 levels are predicted to increase, in particular, in rapidly developing countries and, thus, O3 must now be considered in climate change scenarios and post-Kyoto policies. Here, we present an appraisal of a unique 8-year free-air O3 fumigation experiment on adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Noway spruce (Picea abies), ecologically and economically important, late-succession tree species in Central Europe. For the first time, whole-plant canopies of naturally grown, 60 to 70 years old forest trees were exposed to twice-ambient O3 levels for a total of eight years. Throughout the study period, enhanced O3 uptake in the elevated O3 treatment affected net C fixation and distinctly weakened the whole-stem growth in beech. In contrast, adult spruce at the same site did not display decline in stem biomass development. Those findings corroborate species-specific sensitivities to O3 reported from previous chamber studies on juvenile beech and spruce trees. Carbon allocation of adult trees, as a mechanistical basis of growth processes, was investigated through stable isotope tracer experiments using 13C depleted CO2 at the canopy level. To this end, a novel free-air CO2 exposure system, named tubeFACE, was developed, which employed micro-porous PVC tubes hanging through the canopy of adult trees. In a 19-day 13CO2/12CO2 labeling experiment, CO2 with a δ13C of -46.9 ‰ was continuously released into the canopy to increase [CO2] by 100 µmol mol-1, resulting in a reduction in δ13C of about 8 ‰. Subsequently, C allocation to respiratory pools of various tree organs was studied. Similar to the reduced stem growth in beech, elevated O3 significantly reduced allocation of labeled C to stem respiration, whereas in spruce such a reduction was not found. Hence, our study underlines the need to understand O3 risks by species, so that modeling

  9. The dynamic of the annual carbon allocation to wood in European tree species is consistent with a combined source-sink limitation of growth: implications for modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemot, J.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Dufrene, E.; Francois, C.; Soudani, K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Delpierre, N.

    2015-05-01

    The extent to which wood growth is limited by carbon (C) supply (i.e. source control) or by cambial activity (i.e. sink control) will strongly determine the responses of trees to global changes. Nevertheless, the physiological processes that are responsible for limiting forest growth are still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the key determinants of the annual C allocation to wood along large soil and climate regional gradients over France. The study was conducted for five tree species representative of the main European forest biomes (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Quercus ilex, Quercus robur and Picea abies). The drivers of stand biomass growth were assessed on both inter-site and inter-annual scales. Our data set comprised field measurements performed at 49 sites (931 site-years) that included biometric measurements and a variety of stand characteristics (e.g. soil water holding capacity, leaf area index). It was complemented with process-based simulations when possible explanatory variables could not be directly measured (e.g. annual and seasonal tree C balance, bioclimatic water stress indices). Specifically, the relative influences of tree C balance (source control), direct environmental control (water and temperature controls of sink activity) and allocation adjustments related to age, past climate conditions, competition intensity and soil nutrient availability on growth were quantified. The inter-site variability in the stand C allocation to wood was predominantly driven by age-related decline. The direct effects of temperature and water stress on sink activity (i.e. effects independent from their effects on the C supply) exerted a strong influence on the annual stand wood growth in all of the species considered, including deciduous temperate species. The lagged effect of the past environmental conditions (e.g. the previous year's water stress and low C uptake) significantly affected the annual C allocation to wood. The C supply

  10. Differentiation of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in European fruit trees by PCR using specific primers derived from the sequence of a chromosomal fragment of the apple proliferation MLO.

    PubMed

    Jarausch, W; Saillard, C; Dosba, F; Bové, J M

    1994-08-01

    A 1.8-kb chromosomal DNA fragment of the mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) associated with apple proliferation was sequenced. Three putative open reading frames were observed on this fragment. The protein encoded by open reading frame 2 shows significant homologies with bacterial nitroreductases. From the nucleotide sequence four primer pairs for PCR were chosen to specifically amplify DNA from MLOs associated with European diseases of fruit trees. Primer pairs specific for (i) Malus-affecting MLOs, (ii) Malus- and Prunus-affecting MLOs, and (iii) Malus-, Prunus-, and Pyrus-affecting MLOs were obtained. Restriction enzyme analysis of the amplification products revealed restriction fragment length polymorphisms between Malus-, Prunus, and Pyrus-affecting MLOs as well as between different isolates of the apple proliferation MLO. No amplification with either primer pair could be obtained with DNA from 12 different MLOs experimentally maintained in periwinkle.

  11. Teams Explore the Whole Frog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cessna, Clair E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the content and organization of a laboratory session in which student teams work on the organs, tissues, and parasites of a pithed frog. The procedure maximizes participation by every student, makes possible the fullest use of each frog, and permits a rather broad study in a limited time. (JR)

  12. Long-term temporal changes in central European tree phenology (1946-2010) confirm the recent extension of growing seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolářová, Eva; Nekovář, Jiří; Adamík, Peter

    2014-10-01

    One of the ways to assess the impacts of climate change on plants is analysing their long-term phenological data. We studied phenological records of 18 common tree species and their 8 phenological phases, spanning 65 years (1946-2010) and covering the area of the Czech Republic. For each species and phenophase, we assessed the changes in its annual means (for detecting shifts in the timing of the event) and standard deviations (for detecting changes in duration of the phenophases). The prevailing pattern across tree species was that since around the year 1976, there has been a consistent advancement of the onset of spring phenophases (leaf unfolding and flowering) and subsequent acceleration of fruit ripening, and a delay of autumn phenophases (leaf colouring and leaf falling). The most considerable shifts in the timing of spring phenophases were displayed by early-successional short-lived tree species. The most pronounced temporal shifts were found for the beginning of seed ripening in conifers with an advancement in this phenophase of up to 2.2 days year-1 in Scots Pine ( Pinus sylvestris). With regards to the change in duration of the phenophases, no consistent patterns were revealed. The growing season has extended on average by 23.8 days during the last 35 years. The most considerable prolongation was found in Pedunculate Oak ( Quercus robur): 31.6 days (1976-2010). Extended growing season lengths do have the potential to increase growth and seed productivity, but unequal shifts among species might alter competitive relationships within ecosystems.

  13. Long-term temporal changes in central European tree phenology (1946-2010) confirm the recent extension of growing seasons.

    PubMed

    Kolářová, Eva; Nekovář, Jiří; Adamík, Peter

    2014-10-01

    One of the ways to assess the impacts of climate change on plants is analysing their long-term phenological data. We studied phenological records of 18 common tree species and their 8 phenological phases, spanning 65 years (1946-2010) and covering the area of the Czech Republic. For each species and phenophase, we assessed the changes in its annual means (for detecting shifts in the timing of the event) and standard deviations (for detecting changes in duration of the phenophases). The prevailing pattern across tree species was that since around the year 1976, there has been a consistent advancement of the onset of spring phenophases (leaf unfolding and flowering) and subsequent acceleration of fruit ripening, and a delay of autumn phenophases (leaf colouring and leaf falling). The most considerable shifts in the timing of spring phenophases were displayed by early-successional short-lived tree species. The most pronounced temporal shifts were found for the beginning of seed ripening in conifers with an advancement in this phenophase of up to 2.2 days year⁻¹ in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris). With regards to the change in duration of the phenophases, no consistent patterns were revealed. The growing season has extended on average by 23.8 days during the last 35 years. The most considerable prolongation was found in Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur): 31.6 days (1976-2010). Extended growing season lengths do have the potential to increase growth and seed productivity, but unequal shifts among species might alter competitive relationships within ecosystems.

  14. Lithobates sylvaticus (wood frog)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam

    2017-01-01

    A single specimen found southwest of Hattiesburg in Timberton (31.270391oN, 89.327675oW; WGS 84). 23 July 2015. Gary, Kat, and Ron Lukens. Verifi ed by Kenneth Krysko, Florida Museum of Natural History (UF-Herpetology 176455). This species has never been recorded from the state of Mississippi before (Dodd 2013. Frogs of the United States and Canada – Volume 2. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 982 pp.). According to Dodd (2013), the closest population is located in east central Alabama, approximately 400 km to the northeast, as documented by Davis and Folkerts (1986. Brimleyana 12:29-50).

  15. The use of airborne hyperspectral data for tree species classification in a species-rich Central European forest area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Ronny; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian; Doktor, Daniel; Vohland, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The success of remote sensing approaches to assess tree species diversity in a heterogeneously mixed forest stand depends on the availability of both appropriate data and suitable classification algorithms. To separate the high number of in total ten broadleaf tree species in a small structured floodplain forest, the Leipzig Riverside Forest, we introduce a majority based classification approach for Discriminant Analysis based on Partial Least Squares (PLS-DA), which was tested against Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The classifier performance was tested on different sets of airborne hyperspectral image data (AISA DUAL) that were acquired on single dates in August and September and also stacked to a composite product. Shadowed gaps and shadowed crown parts were eliminated via spectral mixture analysis (SMA) prior to the pixel-based classification. Training and validation sets were defined spectrally with the conditioned Latin hypercube method as a stratified random sampling procedure. In the validation, PLS-DA consistently outperformed the RF and SVM approaches on all datasets. The additional use of spectral variable selection (CARS, "competitive adaptive reweighted sampling") combined with PLS-DA further improved classification accuracies. Up to 78.4% overall accuracy was achieved for the stacked dataset. The image recorded in August provided slightly higher accuracies than the September image, regardless of the applied classifier.

  16. Landscape resistance to frog movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Desrochers, A.

    2005-01-01

    An animal's capacity to recolonize a patch depends on at least two components: its ability to detect the patch and its ability to reach it. However, the disruption of such processes by anthropic disturbances could explain low animal abundance patterns observed by many investigators in certain landscapes. Through field experiments, we compared the orientation and homing success of northern green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota Rafinesque, 1820) and northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens Schreber, 1782) translocated across disturbed or undisturbed surfaces. We also monitored the path selected by individuals when presented with a choice between a short distance over a disturbed surface and a longer, undisturbed route. Finally, we measured the water loss and behaviour of frogs on substrates resulting from anthropogenic disturbances and a control. When presented with a choice, 72% of the frogs avoided disturbed surfaces. Although able to orient towards the pond of capture when translocated on disturbed surfaces, frogs had a lower probability of homing successfully to the pond than when translocated at a similar distance on an undisturbed surface. Frogs lost the most water on substrates associated with disturbance and in the absence of cover. Our data illustrate that anthropically disturbed areas devoid of cover, such as mined peatlands and agricultural fields, disrupt the ability of frogs to reach habitat patches and are likely explanations to their reduced abundance patterns in such environments. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  17. Some preliminary results of climatic studies based on European tree-ring and vine quality time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrong, W.; Schönwiese, C.-D.

    1988-03-01

    In this paper some aspects of palaeonclimatology are discussed. Tree-ring parameters and grape harvest values representing biospheric quantities are used as annual proxy data. They are matched with climatic time series (temperature and precipitation) on a monthly or seasonal data basis to obtain an assessment of the biosphere-climate response. The climatic variables extend from the late summer of each current year back to the spring of each previous year. The maximum annual ring density proved to be controlled mainly by the temperature of late summer, whereas the so-called Hollstein Index contains information on the precipitation of early summer; the vine quality is influenced by temperature and precipitation alike.

  18. Leopard frog and wood frog reproduction in Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Livo, Lauren J.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1988, we recorded reproductive information from populations of ranid frogs in Colorado and Wyoming. Egg masses from five plains and montane populations of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) contained 645-6272 eggs (x̄ = 3045, N = 68 egg masses). In two montane populations of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) numbers of eggs per egg mass varied from 711-1248 (x̄ = 876, N = 15) and probably were equal to total clutch size. Mean hatching success was 90% in egg masses from one R. sylvatica population and ranged from 70% to 99% in R. pipiens egg masses. Rana pipiens egg masses from one location were assigned to three overlapping size distributions, which we believe reflects the underlying age structure of female frogs.

  19. Climatic oscillations triggered post-Messinian speciation of Western Palearctic brown frogs (Amphibia, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Veith, M; Kosuch, J; Vences, M

    2003-02-01

    Oscillating glacial cycles over the past 2.4 million years are proposed to have had a major impact on the diversity of contemporary species communities. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to infer phylogenetic relationships within Western Palearctic brown frogs and to test the influence of Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic changes on their evolution. We sequenced 1976bp of the mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and cytochrome b and of the nuclear rhodopsin gene for all current species and subspecies. Based on an established allozyme clock for Western Palearctic water frogs and substitution rate constancy among water frogs and brown frogs, we calibrated a molecular clock for 1425bp of the 16S and rhodopsin genes. We applied this clock to date speciation events among brown frogs. Western Palearctic brown frogs underwent a basal post-Messinian radiation about 4 million years ago (mya) into five major clades: three monotypic lineages (Rana dalmatina, Rana latastei, Rana graeca), an Anatolian lineage, and a lineage comprising Rana italica, Rana arvalis, and all Iberian taxa. Polytypic lineages radiated further in concordance with the onset of climatic oscillations ca. 3.2, 2.0, and 1.0-0.6 mya, respectively. The dated fossil record corroborates our paleobiogeographic scenario. We conclude that drastic climatic changes followed by successive temperature oscillations "trapped" most brown frog species in their southern European glacial refugia with enough time to speciate. Substantial dispersal was only possible during extensive interglacial periods of a constant subtropical climate.

  20. Warm & wet or warm & dry? - A tree-ring based drought reconstruction from the European lowlands with emphasis on the medieval climate anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharnweber, Tobias; Heinrich, Ingo; van der Maaten, Ernst; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wilmking, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in reconstructing natural drought variability in Europe, such as the 'Old world drought atlas' (Cook et al., 2015), have sharpened our picture of historical hydroclimatic variability. However, our knowledge lacks high spatial resolution, especially for the northern non-arid regions. For example, it is still under debate if the so called medieval climate anomaly (MCA; ~950-1300 AD), a period of warm temperatures comparable to the contemporary warm phase, was likewise accompanied by increased drought occurrence, or, on the contrary, was rather wet (e.g. Kress et al., 2014). Here, we present a new millennial long drought reconstruction based on a unique dataset of tree rings from historical and modern beech wood from the northeastern European lowlands. Beech has a stable and strong regional summer drought signal over the calibration period of instrumental data (r>0.7 with drought index PDSI over 1900-2010) which, in contrast to other species such as oak, is consistent irrespective of the site/soil conditions the trees grew in. It can be assumed that during medieval times beech wood was available locally and not traded long distances. This strongly reduces the possibility that the new reconstruction mixes different signals of the possibly high spatial variability of precipitation. The extremely high replication of our chronology for the period 1000-1300 AD (peak in town foundations in NE-Germany) with more than 600 series enables a direct comparison with the well replicated recent period 1800-2010. In contrast to the results of Kress et al. (2014) for the Swiss Alps, but in accordance with the 'Old world drought atlas', our first results point at a rather dry and warm MCA in NE-Germany. In addition they support the observation that the hydroclimate of the twentieth century was highly variable compared with the last millennium. References Cook ER, Seager R, Kushnir Y, et al. (2015) Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era. Science

  1. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2 × O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2 × O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2 × O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2 × O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2 × O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition.

  2. A Comparison of V-Frog[C] to Physical Frog Dissection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalley, James P.; Piotrowski, Phillip S.; Battaglia, Barbara; Brophy, Keith; Chugh, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effectiveness of virtual frog dissection using V-Frog[C] and physical frog dissection on learning, retention, and affect. Subjects were secondary students enrolled in year-long life science classes in a suburban high school (N=102). Virtual dissections were done with V-Frog[C], a…

  3. To Be or Not to Be...a Frog: The Frog Prince and Shifting Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Lisa Marie

    1997-01-01

    Discusses three modern variations of the classic "Frog Prince" folk tale: "Pondlarker" (Fred Gwynne); "The Frog Prince Continued" (Jon Scieszka); and "The Prince of the Pond" (Donna Jo Napoli). Notes that these variants create a world in which frogs can have values, wisdom, and emotion, and in which frogs can influence the ways of humanity. (RS)

  4. From Source to Sink: Integration and Alteration of Oxygen Isotope Signals during the Transfer from Precipitation to Leaf Water, Leaf Sugars, Twig Phloem Sugars into the Stem Phloem Sugars of Four Mature European Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, N.; Werner, R. A.; Buchmann, N. C.; Kahmen, A.

    2014-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of stem cellulose record physiological and ecohydrological information and are increasingly being used for the reconstruction of past environments. Studies that have investigated the environmental and physiological drivers of δ18O values in tree ring cellulose have typically focused either on the source of the signal, e.g. the leaf and the water therein, or on the sink, e.g. the cellulose in the stem. In contrast, hardly any research has investigated the transfer of the δ18O signal from precipitation, to soil water, xylem water, leaf water, leaf sugars, phloem sugars all the way to cellulose in the tree ring. As such, critical uncertainties remain regarding the seasonal integration and precision by which precipitation and leaf water δ18O signals are recorded in the tree ring cellulose δ18O values. In our talk, we will present a unique three year dataset that shows the seasonal variation of δ18O values in precipitation, soil water, xylem water, leaf water, leaf sugars, twig and stem phloem sugars for four common European tree species, which are growing in a mature temperature Swiss mixed broadleaf/evergreen forest. This dataset allows us to assess, (i) to what degree the substantial seasonal variation in precipitation δ18O values influences the δ18O values of tree ring cellulose and (ii) if physiological and environmental δ18O signals imprinted on the tree's leaf water δ18O values and the assimilates formed therein are altered on their way downstream to the tree stem. The new insight that we provide into the integration and possible alteration of δ18O signals along the leaf-stem pathway will contribute significantly to a better understanding of the environmental and physiological signals that can be obtained from tree ring δ18O chronologies. In addition it will be relevant for the incorporation and parameterization of tree ring isotope models into dynamic global vegetation models.

  5. The Classroom Animal: The Leopard Frog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Describes the natural history of the leopard frog and factors which make it appropriate for short-term study in the classroom. Information on the frog's habits, life cycle, housing, care, and health is included. (DH)

  6. What's the Difference between Frogs and Toads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herrick

    2004-01-01

    The difference between frogs and toads can be determined scientifically but is based in the historic use of the terms frog and toad. These are Old English words for the common frog, "Rana temporaria," and the common toad, "Bufo bufo," both inhabitants of the British Isles. In the process of describing a new anuran species,…

  7. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  8. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  9. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  10. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  11. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  12. Balancing a cline by influx of migrants: a genetic transition in water frogs of eastern Greece.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Hansjürg; Beerli, Peter; Uzzell, Thomas; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Schreiber, Robert; Plötner, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Variation patterns of allozymes and of ND3 haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA reveal a zone of genetic transition among western Palearctic water frogs extending across northeastern Greece and European Turkey. At the western end of the zone, allozymes characteristic of Central European frogs known as Pelophylax ridibundus predominate, whereas at the eastern end, alleles characteristic of western Anatolian water frogs (P. cf. bedriagae) prevail. The ND3 haplotypes reveal 2 major clades, 1 characteristic of Anatolian frogs, the other of European; the European clade itself has distinct eastern and western subclades. Both the 2 major clades and the 2 subclades overlap within the transition zone. Using Bayesian model selection methods, allozyme data suggest considerable immigration into the Nestos River area from eastern and western populations. In contrast, the ND3 data suggest that migration rates are so high among all locations that they form a single panmictic unit; the best model for allozymes is second best for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Nuclear markers (allozymes), which have roughly 4 times as deep a coalescent history as mtDNA data and thus may reflect patterns over a longer time, indicate that eastern and western refugial populations have expanded since deglaciation (in the last 10,000 years) and have met near the Nestos River, whereas the mtDNA with its smaller effective population size has already lost the signal of partitioning into refugia.

  13. FROG: Time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Alasdair

    2014-06-01

    FROG performs time series analysis and display. It provides a simple user interface for astronomers wanting to do time-domain astrophysics but still offers the powerful features found in packages such as PERIOD (ascl:1406.005). FROG includes a number of tools for manipulation of time series. Among other things, the user can combine individual time series, detrend series (multiple methods) and perform basic arithmetic functions. The data can also be exported directly into the TOPCAT (ascl:1101.010) application for further manipulation if needed.

  14. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: “FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations” is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies). FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog. PMID:26244889

  15. FROGS (Friends of Granites) report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Calvin

    This VGP News, which is devoted to petrology, is a good one for noting the existence of FROGS. FROGS is, as the name suggests, an informal organization of people whose research relates in one way or another to granitic rocks. Its purpose has been to promote communication among geoscientists with different perspectives and concerns about felsic plutonism. Initially, a major focus was experimental petrology and integration of field-oriented and lab-oriented viewpoints; now that there is the opportunity to communicate with the Eos readership, an obvious additional goal will be to bring together volcanic and plutonic views of felsic magmatism.FROGS first gathered in late 1982 under the guidance of E-an Zen and Pete Toulmin (both at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Reston, Va.), who saw a need for greater interaction among those interested in granites and for renewed, focused experimental investigations. They produced two newsletters (which were sent out by direct mail) and organized an informal meeting at the Geological Society of America meeting at Indianapolis, Ind., and then turned over the FROG reins to Sue Kieffer (USGS, Flagstaff, Ariz.) and John Clemens (Arizona State University, Tempe). They generated another newsletter, which was directly mailed to a readership that had grown beyond 200.

  16. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology.

    PubMed

    Abinaya, E; Narang, Pankaj; Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: "FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations" is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies). FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog.

  17. Care and Feeding of Frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    "Propellers" are features in Saturn's A ring associated with moonlets that open partial gaps. They exhibit non-Keplerian motion (Tiscareno et al.) the longitude residuals of the best-observed propeller, "Blériot," appear consistent with a sinusoid of period ~4 years. Pan & Chiang proposed that propeller moonlets librate in "frog resonances" with co-orbiting ring material. By analogy with the restricted three-body problem, they treated the co-orbital material as stationary in the rotating frame and neglected non-co-orbital material. Here we use simple numerical experiments to extend the frog model, including feedback due to the gap's motion, and drag associated with the Lindblad disk torques that cause Type I migration. Because the moonlet creates the gap, we expect the gap centroid to track the moonlet, but only after a time delay t delay, the time for a ring particle to travel from conjunction with the moonlet to the end of the gap. We find that frog librations can persist only if t delay exceeds the frog libration period P lib, and if damping from Lindblad torques balances driving from co-orbital torques. If t delay Lt P lib, then the libration amplitude damps to zero. In the case of Blériot, the frog resonance model can reproduce the observed libration period P lib ~= 4 yr. However, our simple feedback prescription suggests that Blériot's t delay ~ 0.01P lib, which is inconsistent with the observed libration amplitude of 260 km. We urge more accurate treatments of feedback to test the assumptions of our toy models.

  18. CARE AND FEEDING OF FROGS

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2012-01-15

    'Propellers' are features in Saturn's A ring associated with moonlets that open partial gaps. They exhibit non-Keplerian motion (Tiscareno et al.); the longitude residuals of the best-observed propeller, 'Bleriot', appear consistent with a sinusoid of period {approx}4 years. Pan and Chiang proposed that propeller moonlets librate in 'frog resonances' with co-orbiting ring material. By analogy with the restricted three-body problem, they treated the co-orbital material as stationary in the rotating frame and neglected non-co-orbital material. Here we use simple numerical experiments to extend the frog model, including feedback due to the gap's motion, and drag associated with the Lindblad disk torques that cause Type I migration. Because the moonlet creates the gap, we expect the gap centroid to track the moonlet, but only after a time delay t{sub delay}, the time for a ring particle to travel from conjunction with the moonlet to the end of the gap. We find that frog librations can persist only if t{sub delay} exceeds the frog libration period P{sub lib}, and if damping from Lindblad torques balances driving from co-orbital torques. If t{sub delay} << Pl{sub ib}, then the libration amplitude damps to zero. In the case of Bleriot, the frog resonance model can reproduce the observed libration period P{sub lib} {approx_equal} 4 yr. However, our simple feedback prescription suggests that Bleriot's t{sub delay} {approx} 0.01P{sub lib}, which is inconsistent with the observed libration amplitude of 260 km. We urge more accurate treatments of feedback to test the assumptions of our toy models.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Collective Frog Choruses Examined by Mathematical Modeling and Field Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Ikkyu; Mizumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takuma; Awano, Hiromitsu; Nagira, Kohei; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports theoretical and experimental studies on spatio-temporal dynamics in the choruses of male Japanese tree frogs. First, we theoretically model their calling times and positions as a system of coupled mobile oscillators. Numerical simulation of the model as well as calculation of the order parameters show that the spatio-temporal dynamics exhibits bistability between two-cluster antisynchronization and wavy antisynchronization, by assuming that the frogs are attracted to the edge of a simple circular breeding site. Second, we change the shape of the breeding site from the circle to rectangles including a straight line, and evaluate the stability of two-cluster and wavy antisynchronization. Numerical simulation shows that two-cluster antisynchronization is more frequently observed than wavy antisynchronization. Finally, we recorded frog choruses at an actual paddy field using our sound-imaging method. Analysis of the video demonstrated a consistent result with the aforementioned simulation: namely, two-cluster antisynchronization was more frequently realized.

  20. Development of the pseudothumb in frogs.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Masayoshi; Iwai, Noriko

    2010-08-23

    Frogs have highly conserved hand and foot morphology, possessing four fingers and five toes. As an exception, two Japanese ranid frog species, the Otton frog Babina subaspera and the dagger frog Babina holsti, possess a unique thumb-like structure (the pseudothumb) in the forelimb, giving an appearance of a total of five fingers on the hand. To obtain insights into the developmental mechanisms that generate this novel character, we investigated the hand morphogenesis of the Otton frog. The unique morphological pattern of the pseudothumb was already established in juveniles. Surprisingly, the bud-like structure, which is similar to the area of inductive activity (e.g. feather buds in birds and the carapacial ridge in turtles), was detected over the site where the future prepollex develops in larvae. By contrast, this bud-like structure was not found in larvae of other ranid species. We discuss possible scenarios that would favour the evolution of this very unusual trait in frogs.

  1. [Comparative sensitivity of liver monoamine oxidases of frog and whitefish to some tricyclic compounds].

    PubMed

    Basova, I N; Iagodina, O V

    2011-01-01

    There is performed a comparative analysis of action of four acridine derivatives and of one xanthene derivative (pyronine G) on activity of liver monoamine oxidase (MAO) of two species of poikilothermal freshwater animals: a representative of amphibians--the common frog Rana temnporaria and a representative of the order Salmonidae--the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus. The studied synthetic hexamerous tricyclic compounds show the irreversible character of inhibition of intermediate potency towards the enzyme from both biological sources. There are obtained qualitative and quantitative differences in the reactional ability and selectivity of action of the studied inhibitors for liver MAO of frog and whitefish. The obtained data of the inhibitory analysis with use of specific substrates are an indirect proof for the existence in liver of the studies frog species of two molecular forms, whereas in the whitefish liver--single molecular MAO form.

  2. A Depolarizing Electrogenic Pump in Frog Muscle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    mw copy AFRRI SR75-20 AUGUST 1975 AFRRI SCIENTIFIC REPORT O ■ to A DEPOLARIZING ELECTROGENIC PUMP IN FROG MUSCLE D. Geduldig D. R...Academy of Sciences - National Research Council. AFRRI SR75-20 August 1975 A DEPOLARIZING ELECTROGENIC PUMP IN FROG MUSCLE D. GEDULDIG* D. R...INTRODUCTION When Na-enriched frog muscles are bathed in Na- and K-free saline, the small amount of potassium which could accumulate outside of the membrane

  3. HARDENING FROG POINTS BY EXPLOSIVE ENERGY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Experiments were made to determine the most efficient method of strain hardening railroad frog points in order to increase their fatigue resistance...Mechanical strain hardening with rolls 40 mm in diameter under a load of 8 tons produced in standard frogs cast from G13L high-manganese steel (AISI...Hadfield steel) a work-hardened surface layer 3-5 mm thick with a hardness of 340 HB. In other experiments, the frogs were hardened by exploding a

  4. Prevalence of skeletal and eye malformations in frogs from north-central United States: estimations based on collections from randomly selected sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoff, P.K.; Johnson, C.M.; Schotthoefer, A.M.; Murphy, J.E.; Lieske, C.; Cole, R.A.; Johnson, L.B.; Beasley, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal malformation rates for several frog species were determined in a set of randomly selected wetlands in the north-central USA over three consecutive years. In 1998, 62 sites yielded 389 metamorphic frogs, nine (2.3%) of which had skeletal or eye malformations. A subset of the original sites was surveyed in the following 2 yr. In 1999, 1,085 metamorphic frogs were collected from 36 sites and 17 (1.6%) had skeletal or eye malformations, while in 2000, examination of 1,131 metamorphs yielded 16 (1.4%) with skeletal or eye malformations. Hindlimb malformations predominated in all three years, but other abnormalities, involving forelimb, eye, and pelvis were also found. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) constituted the majority of collected metamorphs as well as most of the malformed specimens. However, malformations were also noted in mink frogs (R. septentrionalis), wood frogs (R. sylvatica), and gray tree frogs (Hyla spp.). The malformed specimens were found in clustered sites in all three years but the cluster locations were not the same in any year. The malformation rates reported here are higher than the 0.3% rate determined for metamorphic frogs collected from similar sites in Minnesota in the 1960s, and thus, appear to represent an elevation of an earlier baseline malformation rate.

  5. Semi-automated identification of leopard frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Dijana; Edwards, Aaron; Chiasson, John; Chollet, Gérard; Pilliod, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is used to implement a semi-automatic recognition system to identify recaptured northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given. The presented algorithm is shown to provide accurate identification of 209 individual leopard frogs from a total set of 1386 images.

  6. The Ups and Downs of Frogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Janice Schnake; Tamme, Tina

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science activity in which students simulate increases and decreases in frog populations to get a better understanding of different environmental issues affecting animal populations. Includes simulations for both natural frog populations as well as populations affected by human activities. (YDS)

  7. Mechanics of the frog ear

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2010-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the frequency selectivity of these responses. (2) The caudal part of the AP covers the mid-frequency portion of the frog's auditory range. It shares the ability to generate both evoked and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions with the mammalian cochlea and other vertebrate ears. (3) The basilar papilla functions mainly as a single auditory filter. Its simple anatomy and function provide a model system for testing hypotheses concerning emission generation. Group delays of stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) from the basilar papilla are accounted for by assuming that they result from forward and reverse transmission through the middle ear, a mechanical delay due to tectorial membrane filtering and a rapid forward and reverse propagation through the inner ear fluids, with negligible delay. PMID:20149854

  8. What Makes an Inclusive Teacher? Can Fish Climb Trees? Mapping the European Agency Profile of Inclusive Teachers to the English System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, John

    2013-01-01

    This article examines whether or not teachers working in an inherently exclusive education system can in fact be "inclusive teachers". The author draws on work done over the past three years in a pan-European Teacher Education project highly committed to notions of social and educational cohesion and equity, and challenges both fixed and…

  9. FROGS (Friends of Granite) Report Winter 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The purpose of FROGS reports is to disseminate information and stimulate thinking about felsic magmatism granitoids in particular. We publish semiannually, as part of VGP News, brief updates from investigators whose current research concerns felsic magmatism, information about events and publications that are relevant to granitoids, and commentaries on new and controversial themes. FROGS Reports is critically dependent on response from people interested in these topics. Please keep me (Calvin Miller, 6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235) informed about upcoming or recent conferences, major publications, and your own research. Also, please send me your suggestions for topics for pertinent commentaries for FROGS reports (or volunteer to write one yourself!).

  10. Identical skin toxins by convergent molecular adaptation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Kim; Fry, Bryan G; Norman, Janette A; Clynen, Elke; Schoofs, Liliane; Bossuyt, Franky

    2010-01-26

    The Tree of Life is rife with adaptive convergences at all scales and biological levels of complexity. However, natural selection is not likely to result in the independent evolution of identical gene products. Here we report such a striking example of evolutionary convergence in the toxic skin secretions of two distantly related frog lineages. Caeruleins are important decapeptides in pharmacological and clinical research [1] and are commonly believed to represent a single evolutionary class of peptides [2-4]. Instead, our phylogenetic analyses combining transcriptome and genome data reveal that independently evolved precursor genes encode identical caeruleins in Xenopus and Litoria frogs. The former arose by duplication from the cholecystokinin (cck) gene, whereas the latter was derived from the gastrin gene. These hormone genes that are involved in many physiological processes diverged early in vertebrate evolution, after a segmental duplication during the Cambrian period. Besides implicating convergent mutations of the peptide-encoding sequence, recurrent caerulein origins entail parallel shifts of expression from the gut-brain axis to skin secretory glands. These results highlight extreme structural convergence in anciently diverged genes as an evolutionary mechanism through which recurrent adaptation is attained across large phylogenetic distances.

  11. Predator-prey relationships among larval dragonflies, salamanders, and frogs.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J P; Thorp, J H; Jervey, T O

    1980-09-01

    Tadpoles of the barking tree frog, Hyla gratiosa, are abundant in spring and summer in some ponds and Carolina bays on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. To determine how these tadpoles survive in the presence of predaceous salamander larvae, Ambystoma talpoideum, and larvae of an aeshnid dragonfly, Anax junius, we determined fields densities and sizes of the predators and the prey and conducted predation experiments in the laboratory. Tadpoles rapidly grow to a size not captured by Ambystoma, although Anax larvae can capture slightly larger tadpoles. Differing habitat preferences among the tadpoles and the two predator species probably aid in reducing predation pressure. Preliminary work indicates that the tadpoles may have an immobility response to an attack by a predator. In addition, the smallest, most vulnerable tadpoles have a distinctive color pattern which may function to disrupt the body outline and make them indiscernable to predators.

  12. Internal fertilization in an oviparous frog.

    PubMed

    Townsend, D S; Stewart, M M; Pough, F H; Brussard, P F

    1981-04-24

    Eleutherodactylus coqui, an oviparous frog, undergoes internal fertilization. If this mode of fertilization occurs in other species of anurans, interpretations of anuran reproductive strategies based on the assumption of external fertilization must be reviewed.

  13. FROGS Report Friends of Granite Summer 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FROGS Reports present information on current research relevant to felsic magmatism, including commentaries on problems of current interest. Please contact Calvin Miller (6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235) concerning your own research, conferences, and ideas for stimulating commentaries.

  14. Meeting the "Standards" with Vanishing Frogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Cindy B.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Patrick, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Explains methods for introducing high school students to the issue of the declining amphibian population. Plays the game Frogs' Futures following a seminar as an instructional strategy. Describes the game, procedures, and rules. (YDS)

  15. California Red-legged Frog - Stipulated Injunction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.

  16. Evidence that creation of a Pinus radiata plantation in south-eastern Australia has reduced habitat for frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, Kirsten M.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2004-03-01

    Loss and fragmentation of habitat resulting from the clearing of forests for agriculture and urban development threaten the persistence of thousands of species worldwide. The clearing of native forest to plant a monoculture of exotic trees may also reduce and fragment the habitat available for indigenous plants and animals. Metacommunity theory suggests that the species richness of a community in a patch of habitat will increase with patch size but decrease with patch isolation. We investigated whether replacement of native Eucalyptus forest with a plantation of Pinus radiata has reduced and fragmented habitat for frogs, leading to a lower species richness of frog communities in the pine plantation and in small and/or isolated remnant patches of native forest. We surveyed frogs at 60 sites at streams and wetlands in the pine plantation, remnant patches of native forest surrounded by pines, and adjacent areas of contiguous native forest near Tumut in New South Wales, Australia. Only two of eight species of frogs were recorded in the pine plantation, and regression modelling indicated that streams and wetlands in the pines supported fewer frog species than those in remnant patches or the intact native forest. In addition, species richness tended to be higher at wide, shallow swamps and marshes near the headwaters of streams, with herbs, grasses, shrubs, reeds, sedges and rushes in the emergent and fringing vegetation. There was little evidence to suggest that larger eucalypt remnants supported more species of frogs, or that remnants isolated by greater expanses of pines supported fewer species, but we had low power to detect these effects with our data set. Our results support the preservation of all remnants of native forest along drainage lines and around swamps, soaks and bogs, regardless of size. Where new pine plantations are established, for example, on cleared agricultural land, care should be taken to maintain the structural and vegetative characteristics of

  17. Development of the pseudothumb in frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tokita, Masayoshi; Iwai, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Frogs have highly conserved hand and foot morphology, possessing four fingers and five toes. As an exception, two Japanese ranid frog species, the Otton frog Babina subaspera and the dagger frog Babina holsti, possess a unique thumb-like structure (the pseudothumb) in the forelimb, giving an appearance of a total of five fingers on the hand. To obtain insights into the developmental mechanisms that generate this novel character, we investigated the hand morphogenesis of the Otton frog. The unique morphological pattern of the pseudothumb was already established in juveniles. Surprisingly, the bud-like structure, which is similar to the area of inductive activity (e.g. feather buds in birds and the carapacial ridge in turtles), was detected over the site where the future prepollex develops in larvae. By contrast, this bud-like structure was not found in larvae of other ranid species. We discuss possible scenarios that would favour the evolution of this very unusual trait in frogs. PMID:20147308

  18. Sound Generating Mechanism of Frog Shaped Guiros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsuki, Nobuyuki; Morikawa, Koichi

    A frog shaped guiro is a wooden percussion instrument with an open-ended cave. By rubbing dorsal fins like saw blades on a back of the guiro with a wooden stick, the guiro generates the sound like a frog's voice. The exciting force, response acceleration and radiating sound pressure were measured with accelerometers on the stick and guiro and a condenser microphone and then the relation between the impulsively exciting force and sound pressure was revealed. A three-dimensional solid model of the guiro was built by use of an X-ray CT scanner device and a finite element model composed of tetrahedral elements was then obtained. The FEM modal analysis revealed that the frog shaped guiro had four dominant modes of vibration which was characterized by motion of mouth of the guiro such as the yawn mode and grinding teeth mode. The frequency spectrum of the sound pressure radiating from the frog shaped guiro excited by sequential impulsive forces moving along the dorsal fins was theoretically estimated. Since the estimated sound pressure agreed well with the measured one, the sound radiating from the guiro like a frog's voice could be reproduced. It was also revealed that the variation of driving point mobility of the dorsal fins and amplitude of the exciting force affected to generate the sound like a frog's voice.

  19. From Virtual Frog to Frog Island: Design Studies in a Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dev, Parvati; Walker, Decker F.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the efforts of a curriculum development team who set out to create a virtual frog for use in biology education, but instead, after several design studies, developed a virtual world called Frog Island. Argues for incorporating educational design studies into other educational development projects. (CMK)

  20. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: a case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions.

    PubMed

    Emberson, Lisa D; Büker, Patrick; Ashmore, Mike R

    2007-06-01

    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO(3)SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O(3) risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O(3) risk.

  1. Hands-on Science. How Do Polliwogs Become Frogs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1993-01-01

    Describes a miniscience unit on frogs for elementary grades that teaches students about how frogs develop from tadpoles and how frogs need water during their entire life cycle. Students learn such skills as observation, collecting, and recording data. Provides addresses for ordering resources for teachers and students. (SM)

  2. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If...

  3. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If...

  4. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If...

  5. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If...

  6. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If...

  7. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Media reports linking unusual animal behaviour with earthquakes can potentially create false alarms and unnecessary anxiety among people that live in earthquake risk zones. Recently large frog swarms in China and elsewhere have been reported as earthquake precursors in the media. By examining international media reports of frog swarms since 1850 in comparison to earthquake data, it was concluded that frog swarms are naturally occurring dispersal behaviour of juveniles and are not associated with earthquakes. However, the media in seismic risk areas may be more likely to report frog swarms, and more likely to disseminate reports on frog swarms after earthquakes have occurred, leading to an apparent link between frog swarms and earthquakes. Abstract In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by

  8. Pain perception and anaesthesia in research frogs.

    PubMed

    Guénette, Sarah Annie; Giroux, Marie-Chantal; Vachon, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Frogs possess pain receptors and pathways that support processing and perception of noxious stimuli however the level of organization is less well structured compared to mammals. It was long believed that the experience of pain was limited to 'higher' phylums of the animal kingdom. However, it is now commonly accepted that amphibians possess neuro-anatomical pathways conductive of a complete nociceptive experience. Xenopus laevis frogs have been one of the most popular aquatic research models for developmental studies and genetic research. These frogs have been extensively use in research for their eggs, that can be collected following hormonal stimulation either naturally or by surgical intervention. Many anaesthetics have been used in amphibians such as bath solutions of MS-222, benzocaine and eugenol as well as systemic injections of ketamine or tiletamine, barbiturates, propofol and gas administrations of methoxyflurane, halothane and isoflurane. Most of these anaesthetic drugs produce variability in depth and duration of anaesthesia. MS-222 appears to be one of the most reliable anaesthetics. This review will focus on the evidence of pain perception in frogs and will compare the effectiveness and limitations of different anaesthetics used in Xenopus leavis frogs.

  9. Assessing the effects of forecasted climate change on the growing season length of European temperate trees species along an altitudinal gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitasse, Y.; Delpierre, N.; François, C.; Dufrêne, E.; Chuine, I.; Delzon, S.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling the phenology of trees is crucial to assess the impact of climate change on the length of the growing season and the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. A lot of models have been proposed to predict bud burst in the literature, but little has been made to predict leaf senescence and therefore to investigate how growing season length will be modified by climate change. The first aim of this study is to assess through a comparison of phenological models (i) the role of chilling and forcing temperatures on leaf flushing and (ii) the role of autumn temperature and daylength on leaf senescence for six dominant tree species in Europe (4 deciduous and 2 evergreens). We further use the best model for each species to predict shifts in growing season length for the 21st century. Models testing and validation were done for each species on two to three years of phenological observations (flushing and senescence) acquired along a 1500 m altitudinal gradient in the Pyrénées mountains (France). Leaf flushing phenological models were based both on forcing temperature-based (F-models) and on chilling/forcing temperature-based models (CF-models). Leaf senescence phenological models were based on photoperiod-sensitive cold-degree day sums. We showed that most flushing models are able to accurately predict the observed flushing dates for all the species studied. However, the structural difference between F and CF models appears to influence the 21st century predicted trends in leaf flushing, especially for beech. Because global warming could lead to insufficient chilling at the rear edge of species distribution, we therefore recommend considering results from F-models with caution. The prediction of leaf senescence appears more challenging, as the proposed model is better than the null model for only two out of four deciduous species (beech and oak). When used in a prospective analysis under moderate warming (ARPEGE climate model, A1b IPCC scenario) for the 21st

  10. The Propeller and the Frog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    "Propellers" in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the "frog" resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Blériot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ~4 years, similar to the ~3.7 year period over which Blériot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  11. THE PROPELLER AND THE FROG

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2010-10-20

    'Propellers' in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the 'frog' resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bleriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of {approx}4 years, similar to the {approx}3.7 year period over which Bleriot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  12. Multilocus sequence analysis reveals the genetic diversity of European fruit tree phytoplasmas and supports the existence of inter-species recombination.

    PubMed

    Danet, Jean Luc; Balakishiyeva, Gulnara; Cimerman, Agnès; Sauvion, Nicolas; Marie-Jeanne, Véronique; Labonne, Gérard; Lavina, Amparo; Batlle, Assumpcio; Krizanac, Ivana; Skoric, Dijana; Ermacora, Paolo; Serçe, Cigdem Ulubas; Caglayan, Kadriye; Jarausch, Wolfgang; Foissac, Xavier

    2011-02-01

    The genetic diversity of three temperate fruit tree phytoplasmas 'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum', 'Ca. P. mali' and 'Ca. P. pyri' has been established by multilocus sequence analysis. Among the four genetic loci used, the genes imp and aceF distinguished 30 and 24 genotypes, respectively, and showed the highest variability. Percentage of substitution for imp ranged from 50 to 68 % according to species. Percentage of substitution varied between 9 and 12 % for aceF, whereas it was between 5 and 6 % for pnp and secY. In the case of 'Ca P. prunorum' the three most prevalent aceF genotypes were detected in both plants and insect vectors, confirming that the prevalent isolates are propagated by insects. The four isolates known to be hypo-virulent had the same aceF sequence, indicating a possible monophyletic origin. Haplotype network reconstructed by eBURST revealed that among the 34 haplotypes of 'Ca. P. prunorum', the four hypo-virulent isolates also grouped together in the same clade. Genotyping of some Spanish and Azerbaijanese 'Ca. P. pyri' isolates showed that they shared some alleles with 'Ca. P. prunorum', supporting for the first time to our knowledge, the existence of inter-species recombination between these two species.

  13. Visual mate choice in poison frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, K; Symula, R; Clough, M; Cronin, T

    1999-01-01

    We investigated female mate choice on the basis of visual cues in two populations of Dendrobates pumilio, the strawberry poison frog, from the Bocas del Toro Archipelago in Panama, Central America. Mate choice experiments were carried out by presenting subject females of each of two morphs of this species (orange and green) from two different island populations (Nancy Key and Pope Island) with object frogs (one of each morph) under glass at one end of a terrarium. Recorded calls were played simultaneously from behind both object frogs. The experiments were carried out under two light regimes: (i) white light, and (ii) relatively monochromatic filtered blue light. Subject females from each population displayed a significant preference for their own morph under white light, but not under blue light. These results indicate that female D. pumilio use visual cues in mate choice, and suggest that colour may be the visual cue they use. PMID:10649631

  14. FROGS (Friends of Granites) Report, summer 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoreo, J. J.; Wickham, Stephen M.; Miller, Calvin

    This is the second Eos-published FROGS Report. Our purpose is to disseminate information and stimulate thinking concerning felsic magmatism in general and granitoids in particular. We intend to publish semiannually information about events and publications that are relevant to the study of felsic rocks, brief updates on research being done by granitoid researchers, and commentaries on important new and/or controversial themes. FROGS Reports is critically dependent upon response by those with an interest in research on felsic rocks. Please keep me (Calvin Miller, 6028B, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville TN 37235) informed about upcoming or recent conferences, major publications, etc. Also, send me your suggestions for topics for (and/or volunteer to write) pertinent commentaries for FROGS Reports.

  15. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B; Beard, Karen H; Crump, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i) 200 m inside the forest, ii) 50 m inside the forest, iii) at the forest edge, and iv) 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types). By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders) was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm) and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog distributions in

  16. FROGS (Friends of Granites) Report, Fall 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Calvin F.; Lawford, J.

    This is the first official FROGS report in Eos. Our purpose is to disseminate information about the status of felsic igneous petrology, providing information and opinions about research, ideas, and problems that relate especially to granitoids but also, clearly, to felsic volcanic rocks. A major goal has been to bridge the gap between field-based and experimental approaches. For several years, FROGS reports have existed as occasional informal newsletters, but we feel that our purposes will be better served by semiannual publication as a section of the VGP News. A briefer companion report will also be published in The Lattice, the newsletter of the Mineralogical Society of America.

  17. Development of a pathway model to assess the exposure of European pine trees to pine wood nematode via the trade of wood.

    PubMed

    Douma, J C; van der Werf, W; Hemerik, L; Magnusson, C; Robinet, C

    2017-04-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once established, eradication is not practically feasible. Therefore, preventing entry of PWN into new areas is crucial. Entry risk analysis can assist in targeting management to reduce the probability of entry. Assessing the entry of PWN is challenging due to the complexity of the wood trade and the wood processing chain. In this paper, we develop a pathway model that describes the wood trade and wood processing chain to determine the structure of the entry process. We consider entry of PWN through imported coniferous wood from China, a possible origin of Portuguese populations, to Europe. We show that exposure increased over years due to an increase in imports of sawn wood. From 2000 to 2012, Europe received an estimated 84 PWN propagules from China, 88% of which arose from imported sawn wood and 12% from round wood. The region in Portugal where the PWN was first reported is among those with the highest PWN transfer per unit of imported wood due to a high host cover and vector activity. An estimated 62% of PWN is expected to enter in countries where PWN is not expected to cause the wilt of pine trees because of low summer temperatures (e.g., Belgium, Sweden, Norway). In these countries, PWN is not easily detected, and such countries can thus serve as potential reservoirs of PWN. The model identifies ports and regions with high exposure, which helps targeting monitoring and surveillance, even in areas where wilt disease is not expected to occur. In addition, we show that exposure is most efficiently reduced by additional treatments in the country of origin, and/or import wood from PWN-free zones. Pathway modelling assists plant health managers in analyzing risks along the

  18. Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus frog) and Rana sylvatica (wood frog) chytridiomycosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rittman, S.E.; Muths, E.; Green, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a known pathogen of anuran amphibians, and has been correlated with amphibian die-offs worldwide (Daszak et. al. 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5:735-748). In Colorado, B. dendrobatidis has infected Boreal toads (Bufo boreas) (Muths et. al., in review) and has been identified on museum specimens of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) (Carey et. al. 1999. Develop. Comp. Immunol. 23:459-472). We report the first verified case of chytrid fungus in chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in the United States. We collected seven P. triseriata, and two adult and two juvenile R. sylvatica in the Kawuneeche Valley in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) during June 2001. These animals were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) as part of an amphibian health evaluation in RMNP. Chorus frogs were shipped in one container. Wood frog adults and juveniles were shipped in two separate containers. Histological examinations of all chorus frogs and 3 of 4 wood frogs were positive for chytrid fungus infection. The fourth (adult) wood frog was too decomposed for meaningful histology. Histological findings consisted of multifocally mild to diffusely severe infections of the epidermis of the ventrum and hindlimb digital skin. Chytrid thalli were confined to the thickened epidermis (hyperkeratosis), were spherical to oval, and occasional thalli contained characteristic discharge pores or zoospores (Green and Kagarise Sherman 1999. J. Herpetol 35:92-103; Fellers et al. 2001. Copeia 2001:945-953). We cannot confirm that all specimens carried the fungus at collection, because infection may have spread from one individual to all other individuals in each container during transport. Further sampling of amphibians in Kawuneeche Valley is warranted to determine the rate of infection and mortality in these populations.

  19. Do all frogs swim alike? The effect of ecological specialization on swimming kinematics in frogs.

    PubMed

    Robovska-Havelkova, Pavla; Aerts, Peter; Rocek, Zbynek; Prikryl, Tomas; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-10-15

    Frog locomotion has attracted wide scientific interest because of the unusual and derived morphology of the frog pelvic girdle and hind limb. Previous authors have suggested that the design of the frog locomotor system evolved towards a specialized jumping morphology early in the radiation of the group. However, data on locomotion in frogs are biased towards a few groups and most of the ecological and functional diversity remains unexplored. Here, we examine the kinematics of swimming in eight species of frog with different ecologies. We use cineradiography to quantify movements of skeletal elements from the entire appendicular skeleton. Our results show that species with different ecologies do differ in the kinematics of swimming, with the speed of limb extension and especially the kinematics of the midfoot being different. Our results moreover suggest that this is not a phylogenetic effect because species from different clades with similar ecologies converge on the same swimming kinematics. We conclude that it is important to analyze frog locomotion in a broader ecological and evolutionary context if one is to understand the evolutionary origins of this behavior.

  20. A new species of Andean poison frog, Andinobates (Anura: Dendrobatidae), from the northwestern Andes of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Márquez, Roberto; Medina, Ricardo; Mejía-Vargas, Daniel; Kahn, Ted R; Suárez, Gustavo; Mazariegos, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The poison frogs of the Colombian Andes, Pacific lowlands and Panama have been recently recognized as a new, monophyletic and well-supported genus: Andinobates. The species richness and distribution within Andinobates remain poorly understood due to the paucity of geographic, genetic and phenotypic data. Here we use a combination of molecular, bioacoustic and morphometric evidence to describe a new species of Andean poison frog: Andinobates cassidyhornae sp. nov. from the high elevation cloud forests of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental, in the northwestern Andes. The new species is associated to the bombetes group and characterized by a unique combination of ventral and dorsal color patterns. Data on 1119 bp from two mitochondrial markers allowed us to reject the null hypotheses that A. cassidyhornae sp. nov. is part of the phenotypically similar and geographically less distant species: A. opisthomelas, A. virolinensis or A. bombetes. The best available phylogenetic trees and the genetic distance to other Andinobates species further support this decision. Altogether, the advertisement call parameters unambiguously separated A. cassidyhornae sp. nov. calls from the calls of the three closest species. The new species adds to a poorly known and highly endangered genus of poison frogs that requires further studies and urgent conservation measures.

  1. Unusually high genetic diversity in the Bornean Limnonectes kuhlii-like fanged frogs (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Kuraishi, Norihiro; Eto, Koshiro; Hamidy, Amir; Nishikawa, Kanto; Shimada, Tomohiko; Yambun, Paul; Vairappan, Charles Santhanaraju; Hossman, Mohamad Yazid Bin

    2016-09-01

    A fanged frog Limnonectes kuhlii was once thought to be wide-ranging in Southeast Asia, but is now confined to its type locality Java through recent phylogenetic studies, which clarified heterospecific status of non-Javanese populations, and monophyly of Bornean populations. However, large genetic differences among Bornean populations suggest occurrence of cryptic species, which we test using dense geographic sampling. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships among samples of Bornean populations together with their putative relatives from the continental Southeast Asia, using 2517bp sequences of the 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA, and 2367bp sequences of the NCX1, POMC, and RAG1 of nuclear genes. In the mtDNA trees, Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs formed a monophyletic group split into 18 species lineages including L. hikidai, with the deepest phylogenetic split separating L. cintalubang from the remaining species. Almost all of these lineages co-occur geographically, and two to three lineages were found syntopically in each locality. Co-occurrence of more than one lineage may be maintained by differential morphology and microhabitat selection. These syntopic lineages should be regarded as distinct species. Our results clearly indicate that taxonomic revision is urgent to clarify many evolutionary problems of Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Collective Frog Choruses Examined by Mathematical Modeling and Field Observations

    PubMed Central

    Aihara, Ikkyu; Mizumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takuma; Awano, Hiromitsu; Nagira, Kohei; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports theoretical and experimental studies on spatio-temporal dynamics in the choruses of male Japanese tree frogs. First, we theoretically model their calling times and positions as a system of coupled mobile oscillators. Numerical simulation of the model as well as calculation of the order parameters show that the spatio-temporal dynamics exhibits bistability between two-cluster antisynchronization and wavy antisynchronization, by assuming that the frogs are attracted to the edge of a simple circular breeding site. Second, we change the shape of the breeding site from the circle to rectangles including a straight line, and evaluate the stability of two-cluster and wavy antisynchronization. Numerical simulation shows that two-cluster antisynchronization is more frequently observed than wavy antisynchronization. Finally, we recorded frog choruses at an actual paddy field using our sound-imaging method. Analysis of the video demonstrated a consistent result with the aforementioned simulation: namely, two-cluster antisynchronization was more frequently realized. PMID:24463569

  3. Skin ice nucleators and glycerol in the freezing-tolerant frog Litoria ewingii.

    PubMed

    Rexer-Huber, Kalinka M J; Bishop, Phillip J; Wharton, David A

    2011-08-01

    The brown tree frog (Litoria ewingii) is the only known Southern Hemisphere vertebrate that can survive full-body freezing. Freezing challenges living organisms in many ways, with ice formation in the body producing a suite of physical and metabolic stresses which can damage cells and tissues. The present study looked at two mechanisms that address some of these stresses: cryoprotectants and ice nucleating agents (INAs). Skin secretions from L. ewingii were sampled along with microhabitat substrate and tested for the presence of INAs, which help control ice formation in the body. L. ewingii plasma was tested for seasonal and freezing-induced changes in both glucose and glycerol, which may have a cryoprotective role in freezing-tolerant frogs. Glycerol levels increased on freezing and decreased on thawing, while glucose levels did not change on freezing but increased on thawing. This suggests that glycerol may be acting as a cryoprotectant, although levels are low compared to other frogs. A clear seasonal change was seen in INA activity, with greater activity in winter than in summer. While potent INAs came from the microhabitat substrate, this work has shown for the first time that skin secretions also contain active INAs.

  4. Frogs report: Friends of Granite, Winter 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FROGS reports present information on current research relevant to felsic magmatism, including commentaries on problems of current interest. Please contact Calvin Miller (Geology, 6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, tel. 615-322-2986) about your own research, conferences, and ideas for stimulating commentaries.

  5. Frog egg growth, experiment S003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.; Tremor, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the ability of a fertilized frog egg to divide normally and to differentiate and form a normal embryo. This experiment was first attempted on the Gemini 8 mission and was completed only partially because of the early termination of that mission.

  6. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  7. The Concept of Cosmic Tree in Armenian and Iranian Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Cosmic Tree or Tree of Life is a common motif in various world theologies, mythologies, and philosophies. In the present study we focus on Armenian and Iranian Cosmic Tree. In ancient Armenia, the Tree of Life (Կենաց Ծառ) is a religious symbol and is drawn on walls of fortresses and carved on the armour of warriors. According to ancient Armenians the center of the Universe is located at the crown of the tree or the column, which is the closest to the sky. We explore the idea of cosmic tree in the riddles, prayers, medieval rituals and miniatures. In the riddles, the tree mostly symbolizes the celestial phenomena (Sun, Stars, and Heavens), different units of time (years, months, weeks, days, and seasons), the people, Jerusalem, the apostles and Jesus Christ. The branches of the tree were equally divided on the right and left sides of the stem, with each branch having one leaf, and one leaf on the apex of the tree. Servants stood on each side of the tree with one of their hands up as if they are taking care of the tree. In pre-Islamic Persian mythology, the Gaokerena world tree is a large, sacred Haoma tree which bears all seeds. Ahriman created a frog to invade the tree and destroy it, aiming at preventing all trees from growing on the Earth. As a reaction, God (Ahura Mazda) created two kar fish staring at the frog to guard the tree. The concept of world tree in Persian Mythology is very closely related to the concept of the Tree of Life. Another related issue in ancient mythology of Iran is the myth of Mashya and Mashyane, two trees who were the ancestors of all living beings. This myth can be considered as a prototype for the creation myth where living beings are created by Gods (who have human forms). We come to the conclusion that in both cultures, no matter of the present different religions, the perception of Cosmic Tree is interconnected to the life on our planet and served as a metaphor for common descent in the evolutionary sense.

  8. Cloning of interleukin-10 from African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis), with the Finding of IL-19/20 homologue in the IL-10 locus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhitao; Zhang, Qihuan; Wang, Zisheng; Zhao, Weihong; Gao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in immune system. In the present study, the IL-10 gene of African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) was first cloned, and its expression pattern and 3D structure were also analyzed. The frog IL-10 mRNA encoded 172 amino acids which possessed several conserved features found in IL-10s from other species, including five-exon/four-intron genomic structure, conserved four cysteine residues, IL-10 family motif, and six α-helices. Real-time PCR showed that frog IL-10 mRNA was ubiquitous expressed in all examined tissues, highly in some immune related tissues including kidney, spleen, and intestine and lowly in heart, stomach, and liver. The frog IL-10 mRNA was upregulated at 24 h after LPS stimulation, indicating that it plays a part in the host immune response to bacterial infection. Another IL, termed as IL-20, was identified from the frog IL-10 locus, which might be the homologue of mammalian IL-19/20 according to the analysis results of the phylogenetic tree and the sequence identities.

  9. Auditory Evoked Potentials from the Frog Eighth Nerve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    ACCESSION NO. Brooks AFB, TX 78235-5301 62202F 7757 01 85 11. TITLE (I nclude Security Classification) (U) Auditory Evoked Potentials from the Frog Eighth...identify by block number) S FIELD jGROUP SUB-GROUP F6 07 Auditory Evoked Potential Eighth Nerve Frog 06 10 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary...and identify by block number) A method for recording evoked potentials from the eighth nerve of frogs using midline and lateral electrodes is described

  10. Diversification of rhacophorid frogs provides evidence for accelerated faunal exchange between India and Eurasia during the Oligocene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia-Tang; Li, Yang; Klaus, Sebastian; Rao, Ding-Qi; Hillis, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of the Indian subcontinent to Eurasia triggered a massive faunal and floral exchange, with Gondwanan taxa entering into Asia and vice versa. The traditional view on the Indian–Asian collision assumes contact of the continental plates during the Early Eocene. Many biogeographic studies rely on this assumption. However, the exact mode and timing of this geological event is still under debate. Here we address, based on an extensive phylogenetic analysis of rhacophorid tree frogs, if there was already a Paleogene biogeographic link between Southeast Asia and India; in which direction faunal exchange occurred between India and Eurasia within the Rhacophoridae; and if the timing of the faunal exchange correlates with one of the recently suggested geological models. Rhacophorid tree frogs showed an early dispersal from India to Asia between 46 and 57 Ma, as reconstructed from the fossil record. During the Middle Eocene, however, faunal exchange ceased, followed by increase of rhacophorid dispersal events between Asia and the Indian subcontinent during the Oligocene that continued until the Middle Miocene. This corroborates recent geological models that argue for a much later final collision between the continental plates. We predict that the Oligocene faunal exchange between the Indian subcontinent and Asia, as shown here for rhacophorid frogs, also applies for other nonvolant organisms with an Indian–Asian distribution, and suggest that previous studies that deal with this faunal interchange should be carefully reinvestigated. PMID:23401521

  11. From frog integument to human skin: dermatological perspectives from frog skin biology.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Iain S; Roubos, Eric W; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Vaudry, Hubert; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Pattwell, David M; Maderson, Paul F A; Paus, Ralf

    2014-08-01

    For over a century, frogs have been studied across various scientific fields, including physiology, embryology, neuroscience, (neuro)endocrinology, ecology, genetics, behavioural science, evolution, drug development, and conservation biology. In some cases, frog skin has proven very successful as a research model, for example aiding in the study of ion transport through tight epithelia, where it has served as a model for the vertebrate distal renal tubule and mammalian epithelia. However, it has rarely been considered in comparative studies involving human skin. Yet, despite certain notable adaptations that have enabled frogs to survive in both aquatic and terrestrial environments, frog skin has many features in common with human skin. Here we present a comprehensive overview of frog (and toad) skin ontogeny, anatomy, cytology, neuroendocrinology and immunology, with special attention to its unique adaptations as well as to its similarities with the mammalian integument, including human skin. We hope to provide a valuable reference point and a source of inspiration for both amphibian investigators and mammalian researchers studying the structural and functional properties of the largest organ of the vertebrate body.

  12. The role of extensional viscosity in frog tongue projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Wagner, Caroline; McKinley, Gareth; Mendelson, Joe; Hu, David

    2014-11-01

    Frogs and other amphibians capture insects through high-speed tongue projection, some achieving tongue accelerations of over fifty times gravity. In this experimental study, we investigate how a frog's sticky saliva enables high-speed prey capture. At the Atlanta zoo, we used high-speed video to film the trajectory of frog tongues during prey capture. We have also designed and built a portable extensional rheometer; by following the capillary-driven thinning in the diameter of a thread of saliva we characterize the relaxation time and extensional viscosity and so infer the adhesive force between the frog tongue and prey.

  13. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  14. Faint Infrared-Excess Field Galaxies: FROGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustakas, L. A.; Davis, M.; Zepf, S. E.; Bunker, A. J.

    Deep near-infrared and optical imaging surveys in the field reveal a curious population of galaxies that are infrared-bright (I-K>4), yet with relatively blue optical colors (V-I<2). Their surface density, several per square arcminute at K>20, is high enough that if placed at z>1 as our models suggest, their space densities are about one-tenth of phi-*. The colors of these ``faint red outlier galaxies'' (fROGs) may derive from exceedingly old underlying stellar populations, a dust-embedded starburst or AGN, or a combination thereof. Determining the nature of these fROGs, and their relation with the I-K>6 ``extremely red objects,'' has implications for our understanding of the processes that give rise to infrared-excess galaxies in general. We report on an ongoing study of several targets with HST & Keck imaging and Keck/LRIS multislit spectroscopy.

  15. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution.

  16. Neuromuscular control of prey capture in frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, K C

    1999-01-01

    While retaining a feeding apparatus that is surprisingly conservative morphologically, frogs as a group exhibit great variability in the biomechanics of tongue protraction during prey capture, which in turn is related to differences in neuromuscular control. In this paper, I address the following three questions. (1) How do frog tongues differ biomechanically? (2) What anatomical and physiological differences are responsible? (3) How is biomechanics related to mechanisms of neuromuscular control? Frog species use three non-exclusive mechanisms to protract their tongues during feeding: (i) mechanical pulling, in which the tongue shortens as its muscles contract during protraction; (ii) inertial elongation, in which the tongue lengthens under inertial and muscular loading; and (iii) hydrostatic elongation, in which the tongue lengthens under constraints imposed by the constant volume of a muscular hydrostat. Major differences among these functional types include (i) the amount and orientation of collagen fibres associated with the tongue muscles and the mechanical properties that this connective tissue confers to the tongue as a whole; and (ii) the transfer of intertia from the opening jaws to the tongue, which probably involves a catch mechanism that increases the acceleration achieved during mouth opening. The mechanisms of tongue protraction differ in the types of neural mechanisms that are used to control tongue movements, particularly in the relative importance of feed-forward versus feedback control, in requirements for precise interjoint coordination, in the size and number of motor units, and in the afferent pathways that are involved in coordinating tongue and jaw movements. Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is finely tuned to the biomechanical constraints and opportunities provided by differences in morphological design among species. PMID:10382226

  17. Hylid frog phylogeny and sampling strategies for speciose clades.

    PubMed

    Wiens, John J; Fetzner, James W; Parkinson, Christopher L; Reeder, Tod W

    2005-10-01

    How should characters and taxa be sampled to resolve efficiently the phylogeny of ancient and highly speciose groups? We addressed this question empirically in the treefrog family Hylidae, which contains > 800 species and may be nonmonophyletic with respect to other anuran families. We sampled 81 species (54 hylids and 27 outgroups) for two mitochondrial genes (12S, ND1), two nuclear genes (POMC, c-myc), and morphology (144 characters) in an attempt to resolve higher-level relationships. We then added 117 taxa to the combined data set, many of which were sampled for only one gene (12S). Despite the relative incompleteness of the majority of taxa, the resulting trees placed all taxa in the expected higher-level clades with strong support, despite some taxa being > 90% incomplete. Furthermore, we found no relationship between the completeness of a taxon and the support (parsimony bootstrap or Bayesian posterior probabilities) for its localized placement on the tree. Separate analysis of the data set with the most taxa (12S) gives a somewhat problematic estimate of higher-level relationships, suggesting that data sets scored only for some taxa (ND1, nuclear genes, morphology) are important in determining the outcome of the combined analysis. The results show that hemiphractine hylids are not closely related to other hylids and should be recognized as a distinct family. They also show that the speciose genus Hyla is polyphyletic, but that its species can be arranged into three monophyletic genera. A new classification of hylid frogs is proposed. Several potentially misleading signals in the morphological data are discussed.

  18. Genetic structure among coastal tailed frog populations at Mount St. Helens is moderated by post-disturbance management.

    PubMed

    Spear, Stephen F; Crisafulli, Charles M; Storfer, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Catastrophic disturbances often provide "natural laboratories" that allow for greater understanding of ecological processes and response of natural populations. The 1980 eruption of the Mount St. Helens volcano in Washington, USA, provided a unique opportunity to test biotic effects of a large-scale stochastic disturbance, as well as the influence of post-disturbance management. Despite severe alteration of nearly 600 km2 of habitat, coastal tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei) were found within a portion of the blast area five years after eruption. We investigated the genetic source of recolonization within the blast area and tested whether post-eruption salvage logging and subsequent tree planting influenced tailed frog movement patterns. Our results support widespread recolonization across the blast area from multiple sources, as all sites are grouped into one genetic cluster. Landscape genetic models suggest that gene flow through the unmanaged portion of the blast area is influenced only by distance between sites and the frost-free period (r2 = 0.74). In contrast, gene flow pathways within the blast area where salvage logging and replanting occurred post-eruption are strongly limited (r2 = 0.83) by the physiologically important variables of heat load and precipitation. These data suggest that the lack of understory and coarse wood (downed and standing dead tree boles) refugia in salvaged areas may leave frogs more susceptible to desiccation and mortality than those frogs moving through the naturally regenerated area. Simulated populations based on the landscape genetic models show an increase in the inbreeding coefficient in the managed area relative to the unmanaged blast area. In sum, we show surprising resilience of an amphibian species to a catastrophic disturbance, and we suggest that, at least for this species, naturally regenerating habitat may better maintain long-term genetic diversity of populations than actively managed habitat.

  19. Predicting the Invasion Potential of a Puerto Rican Frog in Hawaii using MODIS Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisrat, S. A.; White, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Puerto Rican coqui frog (Eleutherodactylus coqui, hereafter coqui), which was introduced into Hawaii accidentally via commercial nurseries, is an aggressive invasive species in Hawaii. The coqui threatens Hawaii's unique ecological communities because it predates upon endemic invertebrates, which comprise the large majority of Hawaii's endemic fauna. Coqui frogs also affect real estate valuations because of their loud mating calls. Despite this widespread problem, the potential coqui range in Hawaii is currently unknown, making control and management efforts difficult. We fitted linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression (LR) via generalized linear models (GLMs), generalized additive models (GAMs), classification trees (CTs), random forests (RF), and support vector machine (SVM) to model the species distribution and map their invasion potential. We used five MODIS satellite imagery-derived biophysical variables as explanatory variables: leaf area index (LAI), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land surface temperature (LST) from three MODIS products: MOD11 (LST), MOD13 (LAI and FPAR), and MOD15 (Vegetation Index) (collection 4). We used 2000-2005 MODIS data from Aqua and Terra satellites to generate monthly climatologies for each biophysical variable. We collected presence/absence data from Puerto Rico and Hawaii using a 1 km grid overlaid over the entire islands of Puerto Rico and the Island of Hawaii by sampling every other pixel of the grid intersecting with the road network. We then used the dataset from Puerto Rico to train the six models while the Hawaii dataset was used as a test set. All six models predicted the invasion potential of coqui frogs in Hawaii with a moderate success with mean Kappa value of 0.31, mean area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics (AUC) of 0.75 and mean classification

  20. Save a Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    1999-10-01

    Starting in September 1925, JCE reproduced pictures of famous chemists or chemistry-related works of art as frontispieces. Often, the Journal included a biography or other article about the picture. The August 1945 frontispiece featured the largest cork oak in the United States. An accompanying article described the goals of the Cork Project to plant cork trees in suitable locations in the U.S., to compensate for uncertain European and African sources during World War II. The final frontispiece appeared in December 1956. To view supplementary material, please refer to JCE Online's supplementary links.

  1. Using a Phototransduction System to Monitor the Isolated Frog Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method of monitoring the movement of an isolated frog heart provides comparable results to those obtained with a force transducer. A commercially available photoresistor is integrated into a Wheatstone bridge circuit, and the output signal is interfaced directly with a recording device. An excised, beating frog heart is…

  2. Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond…

  3. S1 satellite DNA repetitive units display identical structure and overall variability in all Anatolian brown frog taxa.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Orfeo; Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni

    2016-02-01

    S1 satellite DNA from Palearctic brown frogs has a species-specific structure in all European species. We characterized S1 satellite DNA from the Anatolian brown frogs Rana macrocnemis, R. camerani, and R. holtzi in order to define their taxonomic rank and the structure of this satellite in this frog lineage. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested with KpnI, EcoRV, NdeI, NheI, or StuI produced the same pattern of satellite DNA bands. Moreover, quantitative dot blots showed that this satellite DNA accounts for 0.1 % of the genome in all taxa. Analysis of the overall genomic variability of the S1a repeat sequence in specimens from various populations demonstrated that this repetitive unit also has the same size (476 bp), the same most common sequence (MCS) and the same overall variability in all three taxa, and also in R. macrocnemis tavasensis. The S1a repetitive unit presents three deletions of 9, 8 and 1 bp compared to the 494-bp S1a repeat from European frogs. The S1a MCS has three variable positions (sequence WWTK in positions 183-186), due to the presence of two repeat subpopulations with motifs AATG and WWTT in all taxa. Unlike previously analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequences that show considerable variations among these taxa, no difference could be detected in the structure and variability of the S1 satellite repetitive units. This suggests that these taxa should belong to a single species. Our results indicate that this satellite DNA variety probably formed when the Anatolian lineage radiated from common ancestor about 4 mya, and since then has maintained its structure in all four taxa examined.

  4. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  5. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  6. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  7. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  8. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  9. The need for water quality criteria for frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, R; Grue, C E

    1995-01-01

    Amphibians are considered reliable indicators of environmental quality. In the western United States, a general decline of frog populations parallels an apparent worldwide decline. The factors thought to be contributing to declines in frog populations include habitat loss, introduction of exotic species, overexploitation, disease, climate change, and decreasing water quality. With respect to water quality, agroecosystems use 80-90% of the water resources in the western United States, frequently resulting in highly eutrophic conditions. Recent investigations suggest that these eutrophic conditions (elevated pH, water temperature, and un-ionized ammonia) may be associated with frog embryo mortality or malformations. However, water quality criteria for frogs and other amphibians do not currently exist. Here, we briefly review data that support the need to develop water quality parameters for frogs in agroecosystems and other habitats. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. PMID:7607135

  10. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  11. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels. PMID:24921415

  12. Ovarian dysgerminomas in two mountain chicken frogs (Leptodactylus fallax).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Duncan, Ann E; Tabaka, Chris; Garner, Michael M; Dieter, April; Kiupel, Matti

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of ovarian dysgerminomas in two adult female mountain chicken frogs (Leptodactylusfallax) from the same zoological institution. One frog was found dead, and the other frog had been ill for several days with a bloated abdomen and lethargy. On necropsy, large, pale multilobulated masses replaced the left ovary in both frogs, and one frog also had numerous smaller nodules scattered throughout the coelomic viscera. Histologically, these masses were composed of sheets and cords of polyhedral discrete germ cells consistent with the diagnosis of dysgerminoma. Neoplastic cells stained positive with immunohistochemistry for Oct4, which has been reported to detect stem cells including germ cells in a variety of species, including humans. Ovarian tumors are uncommonly encountered in both reptiles and amphibians, and this report is the first report of dysgerminoma in any amphibian species.

  13. Pathogenesis of Frog Virus 3 ( Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) Infection in Wood Frogs ( Rana sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Forzán, M J; Jones, K M; Ariel, E; Whittington, R J; Wood, J; Markham, R J Frederick; Daoust, P-Y

    2017-01-01

    Wood frogs ( Rana sylvatica) are highly susceptible to infection with Frog virus 3 (FV3, Ranavirus, Iridoviridae), a cause of mass mortality in wild populations. To elucidate the pathogenesis of FV3 infection in wood frogs, 40 wild-caught adults were acclimated to captivity, inoculated orally with a fatal dose of 10(4.43) pfu/frog, and euthanized at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 9, and 14 days postinfection (dpi). Mild lesions occurred sporadically in the skin (petechiae) and bone marrow (necrosis) during the first 2 dpi. Severe lesions occurred 1 to 2 weeks postinfection and consisted of necrosis of medullary and extramedullary hematopoietic tissue, lymphoid tissue in spleen and throughout the body, and epithelium of skin, mucosae, and renal tubules. Viral DNA was first detected (polymerase chain reaction) in liver at 4 dpi; by dpi 9 and 14, all viscera tested (liver, kidney, and spleen), skin, and feces were positive. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) first detected viral antigen in small areas devoid of histologic lesions in the oral mucosa, lung, and colon at 4 dpi; by 9 and 14 dpi, IHC labeling of viral antigen associated with necrosis was found in multiple tissues. Based on IHC staining intensity and lesion severity, the skin, oral, and gastrointestinal epithelium and renal tubular epithelium were important sites of viral replication and shedding, suggesting that direct contact (skin) and fecal-oral contamination are effective routes of transmission and that skin tissue, oral, and cloacal swabs may be appropriate antemortem diagnostic samples in late stages of disease (>1 week postinfection) but poor samples to detect infection in clinically healthy frogs.

  14. The origin of modern frogs (Neobatrachia) was accompanied by acceleration in mitochondrial and nuclear substitution rates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the causes underlying heterogeneity of molecular evolutionary rates among lineages is a long-standing and central question in evolutionary biology. Although several earlier studies showed that modern frogs (Neobatrachia) experienced an acceleration of mitochondrial gene substitution rates compared to non-neobatrachian relatives, no further characterization of this phenomenon was attempted. To gain new insights on this topic, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes and nine nuclear loci of one pelobatoid (Pelodytes punctatus) and five neobatrachians, Heleophryne regis (Heleophrynidae), Lechriodus melanopyga (Limnodynastidae), Calyptocephalella gayi (Calyptocephalellidae), Telmatobius bolivianus (Ceratophryidae), and Sooglossus thomasseti (Sooglossidae). These represent major clades not included in previous mitogenomic analyses, and most of them are remarkably species-poor compared to other neobatrachians. Results We reconstructed a fully resolved and robust phylogeny of extant frogs based on the new mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data, and dated major cladogenetic events. The reconstructed tree recovered Heleophryne as sister group to all other neobatrachians, the Australasian Lechriodus and the South American Calyptocephalella formed a clade that was the sister group to Nobleobatrachia, and the Seychellois Sooglossus was recovered as the sister group of Ranoides. We used relative-rate tests and direct comparison of branch lengths from mitochondrial and nuclear-based trees to demonstrate that both mitochondrial and nuclear evolutionary rates are significantly higher in all neobatrachians compared to their non-neobatrachian relatives, and that such rate acceleration started at the origin of Neobatrachia. Conclusions Through the analysis of the selection coefficient (ω) in different branches of the tree, we found compelling evidence of relaxation of purifying selection in neobatrachians, which could (at least in part) explain the

  15. Spontaneous mechanical activity in depolarized frog ventricle

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Spontaneous mechanical activity can be produced in depolarized frog ventricle by bathing the tissue in a solution with low Na, Iow Ca, and high K+. The contractions can be inhibited by depleting the tissue of Ca first, but they are relatively insensitive to changes in either extracellular [Ca++] or [Ca++]/[Na+]2. They are terminated very rapidly by raising [Na+] to 40 mM. Local anesthetics enhance the spontaneous activity in proportion to the concentration of their free base form. These contractions occur relatively rhythmically for several hours. Since the preparation is multicellular, this suggests a mechanism for intercellular communication without change in membrane potential. PMID:822122

  16. Effects of visible implanted elastomer marking on physiological traits of frogs

    PubMed Central

    Antwis, Rachael E.; Purcell, Rebecca; Walker, Susan L.; Fidgett, Andrea L.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians possess innate immune defences, including antimicrobial peptides and symbiotic bacterial communities, that can protect them from infectious diseases, including chytridiomycosis. On-going research is attempting to use amphibian symbiotic bacteria to develop probiotic treatments that can protect hosts from the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Events that cause disruption of symbiotic bacterial communities or deplete peptide stores could increase the susceptibility of individuals to disease and may have implications for amphibians involved in probiotic trials or time course studies that investigate symbiotic bacterial communities. It has previously been shown that passive integrated transponder tagging of frogs causes a rapid (within 24 h) and major proliferation of micro-organisms on the skin. Here, we show that marking of red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas) with visible elastomer has no effect on adrenal response (represented by faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations) or peptide production, although there was evidence of a slightly greater microbial abundance associated with the skin of marked frogs 2 weeks after tagging. The results indicate that visible elastomer may be a preferable marking technique to passive integrated transponder tagging, particularly in the context of probiotic trials or time course studies that investigate symbiotic bacterial communities. More work is required to determine the effects of different marking techniques on physiological responses of amphibians, whether these physiological responses are consistent across host species and whether such ‘non-invasive’ marking methods affect the susceptibility of amphibians to infectious pathogens, such as B. dendrobatidis. PMID:27293663

  17. The weak link: do muscle properties determine locomotor performance in frogs?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas J.; Abbott, Emily M.; Azizi, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    Muscles power movement, yet the conceptual link between muscle performance and locomotor performance is poorly developed. Frog jumping provides an ideal system to probe the relationship between muscle capacity and locomotor performance, because a jump is a single discrete event and mechanical power output is a critical determinant of jump distance. We tested the hypothesis that interspecific variation in jump performance could be explained by variability in available muscle power. We used force plate ergometry to measure power produced during jumping in Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis), leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and cane toads (Bufo marinus). We also measured peak isotonic power output in isolated plantaris muscles for each species. As expected, jump performance varied widely. Osteopilus septentrionalis developed peak power outputs of 1047.0 ± 119.7 W kg−1 hindlimb muscle mass, about five times that of B. marinus (198.5 ± 54.5 W kg−1). Values for R. pipiens were intermediate (543.9 ± 96.2 W kg−1). These differences in jump power were not matched by differences in available muscle power, which were 312.7 ± 28.9, 321.8 ± 48.5 and 262.8 ± 23.2 W kg−1 muscle mass for O. septentrionalis, R. pipiens and B. marinus, respectively. The lack of correlation between available muscle power and jump power suggests that non-muscular mechanisms (e.g. elastic energy storage) can obscure the link between muscle mechanical performance and locomotor performance. PMID:21502120

  18. Peatlands and green frogs: A relationship regulated by acidity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of site acidification on amphibian populations have been thoroughly addressed in the last decades. However, amphibians in naturally acidic environments, such as peatlands facing pressure from the peat mining industry, have received little attention. Through two field studies and an experiment, I assessed the use of bog habitats by the green frog (Rana clamitans melanota), a species sensitive to various forestry and peat mining disturbances. First, I compared the occurrence and breeding patterns of frogs in bog and upland ponds. I then evaluated frog movements between forest and bog habitats to determine whether they corresponded to breeding or postbreeding movements. Finally, I investigated, through a field experiment, the value of bogs as rehydrating areas for amphibians by offering living Sphagnum moss and two media associated with uplands (i.e., water with pH ca 6.5 and water-saturated soil) to acutely dehydrated frogs. Green frog reproduction at bog ponds was a rare event, and no net movements occurred between forest and bog habitats. However, acutely dehydrated frogs did not avoid Sphagnum. Results show that although green frogs rarely breed in bogs and do not move en masse between forest and bog habitats, they do not avoid bog substrates for rehydrating, despite their acidity. Thus, bogs offer viable summering habitat to amphibians, which highlights the value of these threatened environments in terrestrial amphibian ecology.

  19. The gastrocoel roof plate in embryos of different frogs.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Santillana-Ortiz, Juan-Diego; del Pino, Eugenia M

    2012-02-01

    The morphology of the gastrocoel roof plate and the presence of cilia in this structure were examined in embryos of four species of frogs. Embryos of Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae) and Engystomops randi (Leiuperidae) develop rapidly, provide comparison for the analysis of gastrocoel roof plate development in the slow-developing embryos of Epipedobates machalilla (Dendrobatidae) and Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae). Embryos of the analyzed frogs develop from eggs of different sizes, and display different reproductive and developmental strategies. In particular, dorsal convergence and extension and archenteron elongation begin during gastrulation in embryos of rapidly developing frogs, as in Xenopus laevis. In contrast, cells that involute during gastrulation are stored in the large circumblastoporal collar that develops around the closed blastopore in embryos of slow-developing frogs. Dorsal convergence and extension only start after blastopore closure in slow-developing frog embryos. However, in the neurulae, a gastrocoel roof plate develops, despite the accumulation of superficial mesodermal cells in the circumblastoporal collar. Embryos of all four species develop a ciliated gastrocoel roof plate at the beginning of neurulation. Accordingly, fluid-flow across the gastrocoel roof plate is likely the mechanism of left-right asymmetry patterning in these frogs, as in X. laevis and other vertebrates. A ciliated gastrocoel roof plate, with a likely origin as superficial mesoderm, is conserved in frogs belonging to four different families and with different modes of gastrulation.

  20. Audubon Tree Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

  1. The wood frog (Rana sylvatica): a technical conservation assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Rittmann, S.; Irwin, J.; Keinath, D.; Scherer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Overall, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) is ranked G5, secure through most of its range (NatureServe Explorer 2002). However, it is more vulnerable in some states within the USDA Forest Service Region 2: S3 (vulnerable) in Colorado, S2 (imperiled) in Wyoming, and S1 (critically imperiled in South Dakota (NatureServe Explorer 2002); there are no records for wood frogs in Kansas or Nebraska. Primary threats to wood frog populations are habitat fragmentation (loss of area, edge effects, and isolation) and habitat loss due to anthropogenic causes (e.g., wetland draining, grazing) and natural changes as habitat succession occurs. Wood frogs are most conspicuous at breeding sites early in the spring, when snow and ice are often still present at pond margins. They tolerate frezzing and hibernate terrestrially in shallow depressions, under leaf litter, grasses, logs, or rocks (Bagdonas 1968, Bellis 1961a); there are no reports of aquatic hibernation for this species (Licht 1991, Pinder et al. 1992). Wood frogs require semi-permanent and temporary pools of natural origin and adjacent wet meadows, and landscape alterations that shorten the hydroperiod of ponds can result in catastrophic tadpole mortality. Plant communities utilized by wood frogs in the Rocky Mountains are hydric to mesic and include sedge and grass meadows, willow hummocks, aspen groves, lodgepole pine forests, and woodlands with leaf litter and/or herbaceous understory (Maslin 1947, Bellis 1961a, Roberts and Lewin 1979, Haynes and Aird 1981). Wood frogs are likely to disperse into surrounding marsh and woodlands soon after oviposition (Heatwole 1961, Haynes and Aird 1981). In the arly fall, wood frogs begin to seek hibernacula at or just below the ground surface, generally in upland forest habitat (Regosin et al. 2003). Licht (1991) demonstrated shelter-seeking behavior at 1.5 [degrees] C. Once they have concealed themselves for hibernation, wood frogs are very difficult to detecta?|

  2. Small pet aquarium frogs as a source of Salmonella.

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, K H; Trust, T J; Lior, H

    1977-01-01

    Salmonellae were isolated from 21% of the samples of freshwater aquarium frogs tested and from 25% of the samples of aquarium water containing these frogs. The salmonellae were Salmonella arizonae, S. bovis-morbificans, S. hadar, S. saint-paul, S. typhimurium, and S. worthington. These isolations were made over a period of 9 months and from three different cities. This association of salmonellae with frogs may contribute to cases of human salmonellosis since other aquarium species have already been shown to contribute to such cases. PMID:879765

  3. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil’s Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Beard, Karen H.; Crump, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil’s Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i) 200 m inside the forest, ii) 50 m inside the forest, iii) at the forest edge, and iv) 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types). By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders) was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm) and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog distributions in

  4. Microfungi in Drinking Water: The Role of the Frog Litoria caerulea

    PubMed Central

    Sammon, Noel B.; Harrower, Keith M.; Fabbro, Larelle D.; Reed, Rob H.

    2010-01-01

    Microfungi were recovered from all parts of a municipal water distribution system in sub-tropical Australia even though virtually no colony-forming units were recovered from the treated water as it left the treatment plant. A study was then undertaken to determine the potential sources of the microfungal population in the distribution system. Observation of frogs (Litoria caerulea) using the internal infrastructure of a reservoir as diurnal sleeping places, together with observation of visible microfungal growth on their faecal pellets, led to an investigation of the possible involvement of this animal. Old faecal pellets were collected and sporulating fungal colonies growing on their surfaces were identified. Fresh faecal pellets were collected and analysed for microfungal content, and skin swabs were analysed for yeasts. It was found that the faeces and skin of L. caerulea carried large numbers of yeasts as well as spores of various filamentous fungal genera. While there are many possible sources of microfungal contamination of municipal drinking water supplies, this study has revealed that the Australian green tree frog L. caerulea is one of the important sources of filamentous microfungi and yeasts in water storage reservoirs in sub-tropical Australia where the animal is endemic. PMID:20948957

  5. Biosensor, ELISA, and frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX) analysis of water associated with frog malformations in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, Eric A. E.; Erb, Judith L.; Downward, James G.; Priuska, Eric M.; Wittliff, James L.; Feng, Wenke; Magner, Joseph; Larsen, Gerald L.

    2001-03-01

    Between 1995 and 1997 over 62% of the counties in Minnesota reported the presence of malformed frogs. While most sites have recently shown a decline in malformed frog populations, one site in northeastern Minnesota with no prior history of containing malformed frogs was recently discovered to contain > 67% malformed Rana pipiens (northern leopard frogs). As part of an effort to study the presence of hormonally active agents in fresh water sources, water samples were collected from lakes in Minnesota containing malformed frogs and analyzed for the presence of hormonally active compounds using a novel evanescent field fluorometric biosensor and the frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX) bioassay. The waveguide based biosensor developed by ThreeFold Sensors (TFS biosensor, Ann Arbor, MI) detects the presence of estrogenic compounds capable of interacting with free human ER-a and by inhibiting binding to an immobilized estrogen. The FETAX bioassay is a developmental assay, which measures teratogenicity, mortality, and inhibition of growth during the first 96 hours of organogenesis and thereby provides a universal screen for endocrine disruptors. TFS biosensor and FETAX screening of the water samples suggest a relationship between estrogenic activity, mineral supplementation, and the occurrence of malformed frogs.

  6. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  7. Tree harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Short rotation intensive culture tree plantations have been a major part of biomass energy concepts since the beginning. One aspect receiving less attention than it deserves is harvesting. This article describes an method of harvesting somewhere between agricultural mowing machines and huge feller-bunchers of the pulpwood and lumber industries.

  8. The Homing Frog: High Homing Performance in a Territorial Dendrobatid Frog Allobates femoralis (Dendrobatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pašukonis, Andrius; Ringler, Max; Brandl, Hanja B; Mangione, Rosanna; Ringler, Eva; Hödl, Walter; Tregenza, T

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobatidae (dart-poison frogs) exhibit some of the most complex spatial behaviors among amphibians, such as territoriality and tadpole transport from terrestrial clutches to widely distributed deposition sites. In species that exhibit long-term territoriality, high homing performance after tadpole transport can be assumed, but experimental evidence is lacking, and the underlying orientation mechanisms are unknown. We conducted a field translocation experiment to test whether male Allobates femoralis, a dendrobatid frog with paternal extra-territorial tadpole transport, are capable of homing after experimental removal, as well as to quantify homing success and speed. Translocated individuals showed a very high homing success for distances up to 200 m and successfully returned from up to 400 m. We discuss the potential orientation mechanisms involved and selective forces that could have shaped this strong homing ability. PMID:25104869

  9. Tagging Frogs with Passive Integrated Transponders Causes Disruption of the Cutaneous Bacterial Community and Proliferation of Opportunistic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gerardo; Fidgett, Andrea L.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacterial communities play a key role in protecting amphibians from infectious diseases including chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Events that lead to the disruption of the bacterial community may have implications for the susceptibility of amphibians to such diseases. Amphibians are often marked both in the wild and in captivity for a variety of reasons, and although existing literature indicates that marking techniques have few negative effects, the response of cutaneous microbial communities has not yet been investigated. Here we determine the effects of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging on culturable cutaneous microbial communities of captive Morelet's tree frogs (Agalychnis moreletii) and assess the isolated bacterial strains for anti-B. dendrobatidis activity in vitro. We find that PIT tagging causes a major disruption to the bacterial community associated with the skin of frogs (∼12-fold increase in abundance), as well as a concurrent proliferation in resident fungi (up to ∼200-fold increase). Handling also caused a disruption the bacterial community, although to a lesser extent than PIT tagging. However, the effects of both tagging and handling were temporary, and after 2 weeks, the bacterial communities were similar to their original compositions. We also identify two bacterial strains that inhibit B. dendrobatidis, one of which increased in abundance on PIT-tagged frogs at 1 day postmarking, while the other was unaffected. These results show that PIT tagging has previously unobserved consequences for cutaneous microbial communities of frogs and may be particularly relevant for studies that intend to use PIT tagging to identify individuals involved in trials to develop probiotic treatments. PMID:24878599

  10. The phylogenetic position and diversity of the enigmatic mongrel frog Nothophryne Poynton, 1963 (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela B; Conradie, Werner; Siu-Ting, Karen; Tolley, Krystal A; Channing, Alan; Cunningham, Michael; Farooq, Harith M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2016-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the African mongrel frog genus Nothophryne are poorly understood. We provide the first molecular assessment of the phylogenetic position of, and diversity within, this monotypic genus from across its range-the Afromontane regions of Malawi and Mozambique. Our analysis using a two-tiered phylogenetic approach allowed us to place the genus in Pyxicephalidae. Within the family, Nothophryne grouped with Tomopterna, a hypothesis judged significantly better than alternative hypotheses proposed based on morphology. Our analyses of populations across the range of Nothophryne suggest the presence of several cryptic species, at least one species per mountain. Formal recognition of these species is pending but there is a major conservation concern for these narrowly distributed populations in an area impacted by major habitat change. The phylogenetic tree of pyxicephalids is used to examine evolution of life history, ancestral habitat, and biogeography of this group.

  11. Phylogeography of the fanged dicroglossine frog, Limnonectes fujianensis (Anura, Ranidae), in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Chou, Wen-Hao

    2011-04-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of Taiwanese fanged dicroglossine frog, Limnonectes fujianensis (Anura, Ranidae), was conducted to examine its genetic diversification using sequence data from a portion of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences. We collected genetic data from 200 individuals at 23 localities in Taiwan and three localities in China. A neighbor-joining tree of 39 haplotypes revealed two clades in Taiwan and a clade in China, each showing restricted geographical distribution. The pattern of geographical divergence suggests a single invasion into Taiwan. Divergence times between clades were inferred using molecular clock tests. The population relationship of L. fujianensis between Taiwan and mainland China, and the phylogenetic relationships with its congeners, e.g., L. bannaensis, L. fragilis and L. kuhlii, were obtained and discussed.

  12. Games With a Purpose: Frog and the Lily Pads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawicki, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a game involving poly spots, frog bean bags, and a basket that can be used to assess locomotor activities, e.g., hopping and throwing, while also developing teamwork strategies and mathematical abilities.

  13. Frog: The fast & realistic OpenGL event displayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quertenmont, Loïc

    2010-04-01

    FROG [1] [2] is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy physics experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (< 3 MB) and fast (browsing time ~ 20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OpenGL[3] and Glut [4] libraries. Moreover, Frog does not require installation of heavy third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of Frog version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally the application of FROG for physic experiment/environement, such as Gastof, CMS, ILD, Delphes will be presented for illustration.

  14. Frog tongue surface microstructures: functional and evolutionary patterns

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-01-01

    Summary Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) use adhesive tongues to capture fast moving, elusive prey. For this, the tongues are moved quickly and adhere instantaneously to various prey surfaces. Recently, the functional morphology of frog tongues was discussed in context of their adhesive performance. It was suggested that the interaction between the tongue surface and the mucus coating is important for generating strong pull-off forces. However, despite the general notions about its importance for a successful contact with the prey, little is known about the surface structure of frog tongues. Previous studies focused almost exclusively on species within the Ranidae and Bufonidae, neglecting the wide diversity of frogs. Here we examined the tongue surface in nine different frog species, comprising eight different taxa, i.e., the Alytidae, Bombinatoridae, Megophryidae, Hylidae, Ceratophryidae, Ranidae, Bufonidae, and Dendrobatidae. In all species examined herein, we found fungiform and filiform papillae on the tongue surface. Further, we observed a high degree of variation among tongues in different frogs. These differences can be seen in the size and shape of the papillae, in the fine-structures on the papillae, as well as in the three-dimensional organization of subsurface tissues. Notably, the fine-structures on the filiform papillae in frogs comprise hair-like protrusions (Megophryidae and Ranidae), microridges (Bufonidae and Dendrobatidae), or can be irregularly shaped or absent as observed in the remaining taxa examined herein. Some of this variation might be related to different degrees of adhesive performance and may point to differences in the spectra of prey items between frog taxa. PMID:27547606

  15. Stronger transferability but lower variability in transcriptomic- than in anonymous microsatellites: evidence from Hylid frogs.

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Brelsford, Alan; Béziers, Paul; Perrin, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    A simple way to quickly optimize microsatellites in nonmodel organisms is to reuse loci available in closely related taxa; however, this approach can be limited by the stochastic and low cross-amplification success experienced in some groups (e.g. amphibians). An efficient alternative is to develop loci from transcriptome sequences. Transcriptomic microsatellites have been found to vary in their levels of cross-species amplification and variability, but this has to date never been tested in amphibians. Here, we compare the patterns of cross-amplification and levels of polymorphism of 18 published anonymous microsatellites isolated from genomic DNA vs. 17 loci derived from a transcriptome, across nine species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea and Hyla cinerea group). We established a clear negative relationship between divergence time and amplification success, which was much steeper for anonymous than transcriptomic markers, with half-lives (time at which 50% of the markers still amplify) of 1.1 and 37 My, respectively. Transcriptomic markers are significantly less polymorphic than anonymous loci, but remain variable across diverged taxa. We conclude that the exploitation of amphibian transcriptomes for developing microsatellites seems an optimal approach for multispecies surveys (e.g. analyses of hybrid zones, comparative linkage mapping), whereas anonymous microsatellites may be more informative for fine-scale analyses of intraspecific variation. Moreover, our results confirm the pattern that microsatellite cross-amplification is greatly variable among amphibians and should be assessed independently within target lineages. Finally, we provide a bank of microsatellites for Palaearctic tree frogs (so far only available for H. arborea), which will be useful for conservation and evolutionary studies in this radiation.

  16. Graded Activation in Frog Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Costantin, L. L.; Taylor, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    The membrane potential of frog single muscle fibers in solutions containing tetrodotoxin was controlled with a two-electrode voltage clamp. Local contractions elicited by 100-ms square steps of depolarization were observed microscopically and recorded on cinefilm. The absence of myofibrillar folding with shortening to striation spacings below 1.95 µm served as a criterion for activation of the entire fiber cross section. With depolarizing steps of increasing magnitude, shortening occurred first in the most superficial myofibrils and spread inward to involve axial myofibrils as the depolarization was increased. In contractions in which the entire fiber cross section shortened actively, both the extent of shortening and the velocity of shortening at a given striation spacing could be graded by varying the magnitude of the depolarization step. The results provide evidence that the degree of activation of individual myofibrils can be graded with membrane depolarization. PMID:4540418

  17. Frog tongue acts as muscle-powered adhesive tape

    PubMed Central

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2015-01-01

    Frogs are well known to capture fast-moving prey by flicking their sticky tongues out of the mouth. This tongue projection behaviour happens extremely fast which makes frog tongues a biological high-speed adhesive system. The processes at the interface between tongue and prey, and thus the mechanism of adhesion, however, are completely unknown. Here, we captured the contact mechanics of frog tongues by filming tongue adhesion at 2000 frames per second through an illuminated glass. We found that the tongue rolls over the target during attachment. However, during the pulling phase, the tongue retractor muscle acts perpendicular to the target surface and thus prevents peeling during tongue retraction. When the tongue detaches, mucus fibrils form between the tongue and the target. Fibrils commonly occur in pressure-sensitive adhesives, and thus frog tongues might be a biological analogue to these engineered materials. The fibrils in frog tongues are related to the presence of microscopic papillae on the surface. Together with a layer of nanoscale fibres underneath the tongue epithelium, these surface papillae will make the tongue adaptable to asperities. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we are able to integrate anatomy and function to explain the processes during adhesion in frog tongues. PMID:26473054

  18. Cutaneous acariasis in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

    PubMed

    Ford, Timothy R; Dillehay, Dirck L; Mook, Deborah M

    2004-12-01

    Increased mortality was observed in a single colony of 50 Xenopus laevis. The frogs were used as oocyte donors in developmental biology studies. Necropsy findings included dermal erythema and petechiation consistent with red leg syndrome; dermal ulcerations and white, filamentous growths on the skin were consistent with Saprolegnia sp. Microscopic evaluation of the skin and fungus revealed an astigmatid mite similar to those of the genus Rhizoglyphus. The mite was also found in the water and the biological filter of the tanks housing the frogs. This mite is considered not to be a parasite of X. laevis; instead, it feeds off moss, fungi, and detritus. Subsequent evaluation of the sphagnum moss used for shipping the frogs from the supplier revealed the same mite in the moss. Our hypothesis is that the mite was introduced into the tank with the shipment of new frogs in sphagnum moss. The mites lived within the biological filter, and were only found after the growth of Saprolegnia sp. attracted the mites to the frogs. Laboratory animal care and veterinary personnel should consider non-pathogenic species of mites in the differential diagnosis of acariasis in Xenopus frogs.

  19. Distribution, structure and projections of the frog intracardiac neurons.

    PubMed

    Batulevicius, Darius; Skripkiene, Gertruda; Batuleviciene, Vaida; Skripka, Valdas; Dabuzinskiene, Anita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2012-05-21

    Histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase was used to determine the distribution of intracardiac neurons in the frog Rana temporaria. Seventy-nine intracardiac neurons from 13 frogs were labelled iontophoretically by the intracellular markers Alexa Fluor 568 and Lucifer Yellow CH to determine their structure and projections. Total neuronal number per frog heart was (Mean ± SE) 1374 ± 56. Largest collections of neurons were found in the interatrial septum (46%), atrioventricular junction (25%) and venal sinus (12%). Among the intracellularly labelled neurons, we found the cells of unipolar (71%), multipolar (20%) and bipolar (9%) types. Multiple processes originated from the neuron soma, hillock and proximal axon. These processes projected onto adjacent neuron somata and cardiac muscle fibers within the interatrial septum. Average total length of the processes from proximal axon was 348 ± 50 μm. Average total length of processes from soma and hillock was less, 118 ± 27 μm and 109 ± 24 μm, respectively. The somata of 59% of neurons had bubble- or flake-shaped extensions. Most neurons from the major nerves in the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the ventricle. In contrast, most neurons from the ventral part of the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the atria. Our findings contradict to a view that the frog intracardiac ganglia contain only non-dendritic neurons of the unipolar type. We conclude that the frog intracardiac neurons are structurally complex and diverse. This diversity may account for the complicated integrative functions of the frog intrinsic cardiac ganglia.

  20. Limb malformations and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Sower, S A; Reed, K L; Babbitt, K J

    2000-01-01

    Declines in amphibian populations, and amphibians with gross malformations, have prompted concern regarding the biological status of many anuran species. A survey of bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, and green frogs, Rana clamitans, conducted in central and southern New Hampshire showed malformed frogs at 81% of the sites sampled (13 of 16 sites). Brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the synthesis of androgens and estradiol, hormones essential to reproductive processes, were measured from limb-malformed and normal (no limb malformation) frogs. Normal frogs had significantly higher concentrations (nearly 3-fold) of in vitro produced androgens and of brain GnRH than malformed frogs. Because most malformations are thought to occur during development, we propose that environmental factors or endocrine-disrupting chemicals that may cause developmental abnormalities also act during early development to ultimately cause abnormally reduced GnRH and androgen production in adult frogs. The consequences of reduced GnRH and androgens on anuran reproductive behavior and population dynamics are unknown but certainly may be profound and warrant further research. PMID:11102301

  1. Technical Tree Climbing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Peter

    Tree climbing offers a safe, inexpensive adventure sport that can be performed almost anywhere. Using standard procedures practiced in tree surgery or rock climbing, almost any tree can be climbed. Tree climbing provides challenge and adventure as well as a vigorous upper-body workout. Tree Climbers International classifies trees using a system…

  2. Exotic trees.

    PubMed

    Burda, Z; Erdmann, J; Petersson, B; Wattenberg, M

    2003-02-01

    We discuss the scaling properties of free branched polymers. The scaling behavior of the model is classified by the Hausdorff dimensions for the internal geometry, d(L) and d(H), and for the external one, D(L) and D(H). The dimensions d(H) and D(H) characterize the behavior for long distances, while d(L) and D(L) for short distances. We show that the internal Hausdorff dimension is d(L)=2 for generic and scale-free trees, contrary to d(H), which is known to be equal to 2 for generic trees and to vary between 2 and infinity for scale-free trees. We show that the external Hausdorff dimension D(H) is directly related to the internal one as D(H)=alphad(H), where alpha is the stability index of the embedding weights for the nearest-vertex interactions. The index is alpha=2 for weights from the Gaussian domain of attraction and 0

  3. Frog Foam Nest Protein Diversity and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hissa, Denise Cavalcante; Bezerra, Walderly Melgaço; Freitas, Cléverson Diniz Teixeira De; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Lopes, José Luiz De Souza; Beltramini, Leila Maria; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Cascon, Paulo; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel

    2016-08-01

    Some amphibian species have developed a breeding strategy in which they deposit their eggs in stable foam nests to protect their eggs and larvae. The frog foam nests are rich in proteins (ranaspumin), especially surfactant proteins, involved in the production of the foam nest. Despite the ecological importance of the foam nests for evolution and species conservation, the biochemical composition, the long-term stability and even the origin of the components are still not completely understood. Recently we showed that Lv-RSN-1, a 23.5-kDa surfactant protein isolated from the nest of the frog Leptodacylus vastus, presents a structural conformation distinct from any protein structures yet reported. So, in the current study we aimed to reveal the protein composition of the foam nest of L. vastus and further characterize the Lv-RSN-1. Proteomic analysis showed the foam nest contains more than 100 of proteins, and that Lv-RSN-1 comprises 45% of the total proteins, suggesting a key role in the nest construction and stability. We demonstrated by Western blotting that Lv-RSN-1 is mainly produced only by the female in the pars convoluta dilata, which highlights the importance of the female preservation for conservation of species that depend on the production of foam nests in the early stages of development. Overall, our results showed the foam nest of L. vastus is composed of a great diversity of proteins and that besides Lv-RSN-1, the main protein in the foam, other proteins must have a coadjuvant role in building and stability of the nest.

  4. One step forward: contrasting the effects of Toe clipping and PIT tagging on frog survival and recapture probability.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Murilo; Corrêa, Décio T; Filho, Sérgio S; Oliveira, Thiago A L; Doherty, Paul F; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2014-04-01

    Amphibians have been declining worldwide and the comprehension of the threats that they face could be improved by using mark-recapture models to estimate vital rates of natural populations. Recently, the consequences of marking amphibians have been under discussion and the effects of toe clipping on survival are debatable, although it is still the most common technique for individually identifying amphibians. The passive integrated transponder (PIT tag) is an alternative technique, but comparisons among marking techniques in free-ranging populations are still lacking. We compared these two marking techniques using mark-recapture models to estimate apparent survival and recapture probability of a neotropical population of the blacksmith tree frog, Hypsiboas faber. We tested the effects of marking technique and number of toe pads removed while controlling for sex. Survival was similar among groups, although slightly decreased from individuals with one toe pad removed, to individuals with two and three toe pads removed, and finally to PIT-tagged individuals. No sex differences were detected. Recapture probability slightly increased with the number of toe pads removed and was the lowest for PIT-tagged individuals. Sex was an important predictor for recapture probability, with males being nearly five times more likely to be recaptured. Potential negative effects of both techniques may include reduced locomotion and high stress levels. We recommend the use of covariates in models to better understand the effects of marking techniques on frogs. Accounting for the effect of the technique on the results should be considered, because most techniques may reduce survival. Based on our results, but also on logistical and cost issues associated with PIT tagging, we suggest the use of toe clipping with anurans like the blacksmith tree frog.

  5. One step forward: contrasting the effects of Toe clipping and PIT tagging on frog survival and recapture probability

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Murilo; Corrêa, Décio T; Filho, Sérgio S; Oliveira, Thiago A L; Doherty, Paul F; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians have been declining worldwide and the comprehension of the threats that they face could be improved by using mark–recapture models to estimate vital rates of natural populations. Recently, the consequences of marking amphibians have been under discussion and the effects of toe clipping on survival are debatable, although it is still the most common technique for individually identifying amphibians. The passive integrated transponder (PIT tag) is an alternative technique, but comparisons among marking techniques in free-ranging populations are still lacking. We compared these two marking techniques using mark–recapture models to estimate apparent survival and recapture probability of a neotropical population of the blacksmith tree frog, Hypsiboas faber. We tested the effects of marking technique and number of toe pads removed while controlling for sex. Survival was similar among groups, although slightly decreased from individuals with one toe pad removed, to individuals with two and three toe pads removed, and finally to PIT-tagged individuals. No sex differences were detected. Recapture probability slightly increased with the number of toe pads removed and was the lowest for PIT-tagged individuals. Sex was an important predictor for recapture probability, with males being nearly five times more likely to be recaptured. Potential negative effects of both techniques may include reduced locomotion and high stress levels. We recommend the use of covariates in models to better understand the effects of marking techniques on frogs. Accounting for the effect of the technique on the results should be considered, because most techniques may reduce survival. Based on our results, but also on logistical and cost issues associated with PIT tagging, we suggest the use of toe clipping with anurans like the blacksmith tree frog. PMID:24834342

  6. Experiment for Development of Simple Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Concrete Canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi; Park, Myeong Soo

    Three prototype escape countermeasures for frogs that can be easily installed in U-shaped canals with widths of 30-50 cm and depths of 30-50 cm were experimentally produced because frogs cannot escape from agricultural canals with deep concrete walls after falling into the canal. The differences of effectiveness of the 3 prototypes in places for the countermeasures (1 and 2) and flow conditions (dry and water running) were investigated for 2 frog species (Tokyo Daruma Pond Frog and Japanese Brown Frog). The brown frogs escaped from the canals more easily than the pond frogs. The brown frogs escaped regardless of their body size, but the small pond frogs escaped more easily than the large pond frogs. The prototype with slopes beside both canal walls and a net spread across the center line of the canal enabled frogs to escape from the canal more easily than the prototypes with only slopes or nets beside both canal walls. Increasing the number of places for the countermeasures enhanced frog escape. The differences in frog escape between dry canals and canals with water running were not significant. Therefore, the prototypes were confirmed sufficient as escape countermeasures that is inexpensive and can be easily placed in and removed from agricultural canals.

  7. What Makes a Tree a Tree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on trees, focusing on the parts of trees and how they differ from other plants; (2) eight activities; and (3) ready-to-copy pages dealing with tree identification and tree rings. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  8. Predation by Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) on Western toads (Bufo boreas) in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Hayes, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toads of the genus Bufo co-occur with true frogs (family Ranidae) throughout their North American ranges. Yet, Bufo are rarely reported as prey for ranid frogs, perhaps due to dermal toxins that afford them protection from some predators. We report field observations from four different localities demonstrating that Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) readily consume juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) at breeding sites in Oregon. Unpalatability thought to deter predators of selected taxa and feeding mode may not protect juvenile stages of western toads from adult Oregon spotted frogs. Activity of juvenile western toads can elicit ambush behavior by Oregon spotted frog adults. Our review of published literature suggests that regular consumption of toadlets sets Oregon spotted frogs apart from most North American ranid frogs. Importance of the trophic context of juvenile western toads as a seasonally important resource to Oregon spotted frogs needs critical investigation.

  9. How to Comply with Requirements to Protect California Red-legged Frog from Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes buffer areas around certain habitats of the California red-legged frog, and limits on use of certain pesticides within those habitats and buffer zones to protect the red-legged frog from certain pesticides.

  10. Resurrecting an Extinct Species: Archival DNA, Taxonomy, and Conservation of the Vegas Valley Leopard Frog

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suggestions that the extinct Vegas Valley leopard frog (Rana fisheri = Lithobates fisheri) may have been synonymous with one of several declining species has complicated recovery planning for imperiled leopard frogs in southwestern North America. To address this concern, we recon...

  11. Panamanian frog species host unique skin bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Belden, Lisa K.; Hughey, Myra C.; Rebollar, Eria A.; Umile, Thomas P.; Loftus, Stephen C.; Burzynski, Elizabeth A.; Minbiole, Kevin P. C.; House, Leanna L.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Becker, Matthew H.; Walke, Jenifer B.; Medina, Daniel; Ibáñez, Roberto; Harris, Reid N.

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates, including amphibians, host diverse symbiotic microbes that contribute to host disease resistance. Globally, and especially in montane tropical systems, many amphibian species are threatened by a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), that causes a lethal skin disease. Bd therefore may be a strong selective agent on the diversity and function of the microbial communities inhabiting amphibian skin. In Panamá, amphibian population declines and the spread of Bd have been tracked. In 2012, we completed a field survey in Panamá to examine frog skin microbiota in the context of Bd infection. We focused on three frog species and collected two skin swabs per frog from a total of 136 frogs across four sites that varied from west to east in the time since Bd arrival. One swab was used to assess bacterial community structure using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and to determine Bd infection status, and one was used to assess metabolite diversity, as the bacterial production of anti-fungal metabolites is an important disease resistance function. The skin microbiota of the three Panamanian frog species differed in OTU (operational taxonomic unit, ~bacterial species) community composition and metabolite profiles, although the pattern was less strong for the metabolites. Comparisons between frog skin bacterial communities from Panamá and the US suggest broad similarities at the phylum level, but key differences at lower taxonomic levels. In our field survey in Panamá, across all four sites, only 35 individuals (~26%) were Bd infected. There was no clustering of OTUs or metabolite profiles based on Bd infection status and no clear pattern of west-east changes in OTUs or metabolite profiles across the four sites. Overall, our field survey data suggest that different bacterial communities might be producing broadly similar sets of metabolites across frog hosts and sites. Community structure and function may not be as tightly coupled in these skin symbiont

  12. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9

  13. Cystic urolithiasis in captive waxy monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sauvagii).

    PubMed

    Archibald, Kate E; Minter, Larry J; Dombrowski, Daniel S; O'Brien, Jodi L; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2015-03-01

    The waxy monkey frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) is an arboreal amphibian native to arid regions of South America, and it has developed behavioral and physiologic adaptations to permit survival in dry environments. These adaptations include a uricotelic nitrogen metabolism and unique cutaneous lipid excretions to prevent evaporative water loss. Uroliths are a rare finding in amphibians. Six adult, presumed wild-caught waxy monkey frogs housed in a museum animal collection were diagnosed with cystic urolithiasis over a 7-yr period, and a single animal was diagnosed with four recurrent cases. Six cases were identified incidentally at routine physical or postmortem examination and four cases were identified during veterinary evaluation for coelomic distension, lethargy, anorexia, and increased soaking behavior. Calculi were surgically removed from three frogs via cystotomy, and a single frog underwent three cystotomies and two cloacotomies for recurrent urolithiasis. Two frogs died within the 24-hr postoperative period. Two representative calculi from a single frog were submitted for component analysis and found to consist of 100% ammonium urate. In the present report, cystic calculi are proposed to be the result of a high-protein diet based on a single invertebrate source, coupled with uricotelism, dehydration, increased cutaneous water loss, body temperature fluctuations facilitating supersaturation of urine, and subsequent accumulation and precipitation of urogenous wastes within the urinary bladder. Surgical cystotomy represents a short-term treatment strategy for this condition. Preventative measures, such as supplying a diversified and balanced diet in addition to environmental manipulation aimed at promoting adequate hydration, are anticipated to be more-rewarding management tools for cystic urolithiasis in the waxy monkey frog.

  14. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9

  15. EU Regulations Impede Market Introduction of GM Forest Trees.

    PubMed

    Custers, René; Bartsch, Detlef; Fladung, Matthias; Nilsson, Ove; Pilate, Gilles; Sweet, Jeremy; Boerjan, Wout

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology can greatly improve the efficiency of forest tree breeding for the production of biomass, energy, and materials. However, EU regulations impede the market introduction of genetically modified (GM) trees so their socioeconomic and environmental benefits are not realized. European policy makers should concentrate on a science-based regulatory process.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis (Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Hofman, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Osikowski, Artur; Szymura, Jacek M

    2016-05-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis, a water frog species endemic to the island of Crete. The genome sequence was 17,829 bp in size, and the gene order and contents were identical to those of previously reported mitochondrial genomes of other water frog species. This is the first complete mitogenome (i.e. including control region) described for western Palaearctic water frogs.

  17. Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinensis) Infection in a Wild-Caught Frog, Chad

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Christopher A.; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Yabsley, Michael J.; Ouakou, Philippe Tchindebet; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    A third-stage (infective) larva of Dracunculus medinensis, the causative agent of Guinea worm disease, was recovered from a wild-caught Phrynobatrachus francisci frog in Chad. Although green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) have been experimentally infected with D. medinensis worms, our findings prove that frogs can serve as natural paratenic hosts. PMID:27560598

  18. Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinensis) Infection in a Wild-Caught Frog, Chad.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Mark L; Cleveland, Christopher A; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Yabsley, Michael J; Ouakou, Philippe Tchindebet; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-11-01

    A third-stage (infective) larva of Dracunculus medinensis, the causative agent of Guinea worm disease, was recovered from a wild-caught Phrynobatrachus francisci frog in Chad. Although green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) have been experimentally infected with D. medinensis worms, our findings prove that frogs can serve as natural paratenic hosts.

  19. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...

  20. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...

  1. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...

  2. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...

  3. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  4. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  5. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  6. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  7. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  8. The Funeral of Froggy the Frog: The Child as Dramatist, Designer, and Realist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    One sunny afternoon, six-year-old Zachary and his friend John Michael, four and a half, discovered a dead frog in a bag of clay in the garage. Zachary proposed, "Let's have a funeral for the frog." This is how the funeral drama of Froggy the Frog began. This article describes the play experiences of Zachary and John Michael as designers,…

  9. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...

  10. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  11. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Fábio P; Zina, Juliana; Haddad, Célio F B

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids), we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  12. Marsh frogs, Pelophylax ridibundus, determine migratory direction by magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Shakhparonov, Vladimir V; Ogurtsov, Sergei V

    2017-01-01

    Orientation by magnetic cues appears to be adaptive during animal migrations. Whereas the magnetic orientation in birds, mammals, and urodele amphibians is being investigated intensively, the data about anurans are still scarce. This study tests whether marsh frogs could determine migratory direction between the breeding pond and the wintering site by magnetic cues in the laboratory. Adult frogs (N = 32) were individually tested in the T-maze 127 cm long inside the three-axis Helmholtz coil system (diameter 3 m). The arms of the maze were positioned parallel to the natural migratory route of this population when measured in accordance with magnetic field. The frogs were tested under two-motivational conditions mediated by temperature/light regime: the breeding migratory state and the wintering state. The frogs' choice in a T-maze was evident only when analyzed in accordance with the direction of the magnetic field: they moved along the migratory route to the breeding pond and followed the reversion of the horizontal component of the magnetic field. This preference has been detected in both sexes only in the breeding migratory state. This suggests that adult ranid frogs can obtain directional information from the Earth's magnetic field as was shown earlier in urodeles and anuran larvae.

  13. Drainage ditches facilitate frog movements in a hostile landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Ditches are common in landscapes influenced by agricultural, forestry, and peat mining activities, and their value as corridors remains unassessed. Pond-breeding amphibians can encounter hostile environments when moving between breeding, summering, or hibernation sites, and are likely to benefit from the presence of ditches in the landscape. Within a system consisting of ditch networks in bogs mined for peat in eastern New Brunswick, Canada, I quantified the breeding, survival, and movements of green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota) in drainage ditches and also surveyed peat fields. Frogs rarely ventured on peat fields and most individuals frequented drainage ditches containing water, particularly in late summer. Though frogs did not breed in ditches, their survival rate in ditches was high (88%). Ditches did not hinder frog movements, as frogs moved independently of the current. Results indicate that drainage ditches containing water enable some movements between habitats isolated by peat mining, in contrast to peat surfaces, and suggest they function as amphibian movement corridors. Thus, such drainage ditches may mitigate the effects of peat extraction on amphibian populations. At the very least, these structures provide an alternative to hostile peat surfaces. This study highlights that small-scale corridors are potentially valuable in population dynamics. ?? Springer 2005.

  14. Tourism and the Conservation of Critically Endangered Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Clare; Simpkins, Clay; Castley, J. Guy; Buckley, Ralf C.

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas are critical for the conservation of many threatened species. Despite this, many protected areas are acutely underfunded, which reduces their effectiveness significantly. Tourism is one mechanism to promote and fund conservation in protected areas, but there are few studies analyzing its tangible conservation outcomes for threatened species. This study uses the 415 IUCN critically endangered frog species to evaluate the contribution of protected area tourism revenue to conservation. Contributions were calculated for each species as the proportion of geographic range inside protected areas multiplied by the proportion of protected area revenues derived from tourism. Geographic ranges were determined from IUCN Extent of Occurrence maps. Almost 60% (239) of critically endangered frog species occur in protected areas. Higher proportions of total range are protected in Nearctic, Australasian and Afrotopical regions. Tourism contributions to protected area budgets ranged from 5–100%. These financial contributions are highest for developing countries in the Afrotropical, Indomalayan and Neotropical regions. Data for both geographic range and budget are available for 201 critically endangered frog species with proportional contributions from tourism to species protection ranging from 0.8–99%. Tourism's financial contributions to critically endangered frog species protection are highest in the Afrotropical region. This study uses a coarse measure but at the global scale it demonstrates that tourism has significant potential to contribute to global frog conservation efforts. PMID:22984440

  15. Tourism and the conservation of critically endangered frogs.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Clare; Simpkins, Clay; Castley, J Guy; Buckley, Ralf C

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas are critical for the conservation of many threatened species. Despite this, many protected areas are acutely underfunded, which reduces their effectiveness significantly. Tourism is one mechanism to promote and fund conservation in protected areas, but there are few studies analyzing its tangible conservation outcomes for threatened species. This study uses the 415 IUCN critically endangered frog species to evaluate the contribution of protected area tourism revenue to conservation. Contributions were calculated for each species as the proportion of geographic range inside protected areas multiplied by the proportion of protected area revenues derived from tourism. Geographic ranges were determined from IUCN Extent of Occurrence maps. Almost 60% (239) of critically endangered frog species occur in protected areas. Higher proportions of total range are protected in Nearctic, Australasian and Afrotopical regions. Tourism contributions to protected area budgets ranged from 5-100%. These financial contributions are highest for developing countries in the Afrotropical, Indomalayan and Neotropical regions. Data for both geographic range and budget are available for 201 critically endangered frog species with proportional contributions from tourism to species protection ranging from 0.8-99%. Tourism's financial contributions to critically endangered frog species protection are highest in the Afrotropical region. This study uses a coarse measure but at the global scale it demonstrates that tourism has significant potential to contribute to global frog conservation efforts.

  16. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Fábio P.; Zina, Juliana; Haddad, Célio F. B.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids), we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity. PMID:26760304

  17. Phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs have been determined by geological processes and climate change in the Late Cenozoic

    PubMed Central

    Akın, Çiğdem; Bilgin, C. Can; Beerli, Peter; Westaway, Rob; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Uzzell, Thomas; Bilgin, Metin; Hotz, Hansjürg; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Plötner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Aim Our aims were to assess the phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs and to estimate divergence times using different geological scenarios. We related divergence times to past geological events and discuss the relevance of our data for the systematics of eastern Mediterranean water frogs. Location The eastern Mediterranean region. Methods Genetic diversity and divergence were calculated using sequences of two protein-coding mitochondrial (mt) genes: ND2 (1038 bp, 119 sequences) and ND3 (340 bp, 612 sequences). Divergence times were estimated in a Bayesian framework under four geological scenarios representing alternative possible geological histories for the eastern Mediterranean. We then compared the different scenarios using Bayes factors and additional geological data. Results Extensive genetic diversity in mtDNA divides eastern Mediterranean water frogs into six main haplogroups (MHG). Three MHGs were identified on the Anatolian mainland; the most widespread MHG with the highest diversity is distributed from western Anatolia to the northern shore of the Caspian Sea, including the type locality of Pelophylax ridibundus. The other two Anatolian MHGs are restricted to south-eastern Turkey, occupying localities west and east of the Amanos mountain range. One of the remaining three MHGs is restricted to Cyprus; a second to the Levant; the third was found in the distribution area of European lake frogs (P. ridibundus group), including the Balkans. Main conclusions Based on geological evidence and estimates of genetic divergence we hypothesize that the water frogs of Cyprus have been isolated from the Anatolian mainland populations since the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), i.e. since c. 5.5-5.3 Ma, while our divergence time estimates indicate that the isolation of Crete from the mainland populations (Peloponnese, Anatolia) most likely pre-dates the MSC. The observed rates of divergence imply a time window of c

  18. Phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs have been determined by geological processes and climate change in the Late Cenozoic.

    PubMed

    Akın, Ciğdem; Bilgin, C Can; Beerli, Peter; Westaway, Rob; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Uzzell, Thomas; Bilgin, Metin; Hotz, Hansjürg; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Plötner, Jörg

    2010-11-01

    AIM: Our aims were to assess the phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs and to estimate divergence times using different geological scenarios. We related divergence times to past geological events and discuss the relevance of our data for the systematics of eastern Mediterranean water frogs. LOCATION: The eastern Mediterranean region. METHODS: Genetic diversity and divergence were calculated using sequences of two protein-coding mitochondrial (mt) genes: ND2 (1038 bp, 119 sequences) and ND3 (340 bp, 612 sequences). Divergence times were estimated in a Bayesian framework under four geological scenarios representing alternative possible geological histories for the eastern Mediterranean. We then compared the different scenarios using Bayes factors and additional geological data. RESULTS: Extensive genetic diversity in mtDNA divides eastern Mediterranean water frogs into six main haplogroups (MHG). Three MHGs were identified on the Anatolian mainland; the most widespread MHG with the highest diversity is distributed from western Anatolia to the northern shore of the Caspian Sea, including the type locality of Pelophylax ridibundus. The other two Anatolian MHGs are restricted to south-eastern Turkey, occupying localities west and east of the Amanos mountain range. One of the remaining three MHGs is restricted to Cyprus; a second to the Levant; the third was found in the distribution area of European lake frogs (P. ridibundus group), including the Balkans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Based on geological evidence and estimates of genetic divergence we hypothesize that the water frogs of Cyprus have been isolated from the Anatolian mainland populations since the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), i.e. since c. 5.5-5.3 Ma, while our divergence time estimates indicate that the isolation of Crete from the mainland populations (Peloponnese, Anatolia) most likely pre-dates the MSC. The observed rates of divergence imply a time window

  19. Potassium selectivity of frog gastric luminal membrane.

    PubMed

    Kasbekar, D K

    1986-06-01

    Transmural potential difference (PD) and resistance (R) changes after luminal or serosal instillation of K+ were determined under various conditions in chambered preparations of frog gastric mucosae. Potassium selectivity of the luminal membrane is indicated by the rapid reversal of the inverted PD of mucosae bathed in NaCl-free, choline sulfate (Ch2SO4)-Ringer on the serosal side and unbuffered hypertonic Ch2SO4 solution on the luminal side on luminal K+ instillation. The delta PD responses are significantly attenuated, however, in histamine-stimulated mucosae bathed in hypotonic or in burimamide-inhibited mucosae bathed in hyper- and hypotonic luminal media, which suggests that the K+ selectivity of the luminal membrane resides largely in the tubular cell apical membrane. Imposing a serosal-to-luminal transmucosal K+ gradient in both histamine-stimulated and omeprazole-inhibited mucosae also reversed the normal orientation of PD but not in those inhibited with burimamide. In the latter, the PD inversion was attenuated but maintained its normal orientation. These data suggest that burimamide, but not omeprazole, acts by blocking luminal membrane K+ conductance. The inverted PD in mucosae bathed in Cl-free media may thus be due partially or fully to K+ diffusion driven by the cell-to-lumen K+ gradient via the luminal K+ conductance pathway. These findings have implications for the controversy surrounding the postulated electrogenicity of the gastric proton pump.

  20. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2011-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linearity. Linear dominance across the group is stable for about 2 weeks; rank is dynamic. Males engage in physical interactions (clasping) while paired but clasping and vocal rank are not correlated. Playbacks of advertisement calls suppress calling and calls from high- and low-ranking males are equally effective. Thus, auditory cues alone suffice to suppress vocal behavior. Playback intensities equivalent to a nearby male advertising effectively suppress calling while low-intensity playbacks are either ineffective or stimulate vocal behavior. X. laevis advertisement calls are biphasic, composed of alternating fast and slow click trills. Approximately half the males tested are more vocally suppressed by all slow than by all fast trills; thus, these males can distinguish between the two phases. The fully aquatic family Pipidae diverged from terrestrial ancestors approximately 170 mya. Vocal suppression in the X. laevis mating system may represent the translation of an ancient anuran social strategy to underwater life. PMID:21442049

  1. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in three species of wild frogs on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Forzán, M J; Vanderstichel, R; Hogan, N S; Teather, K; Wood, J

    2010-09-02

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has resulted in the decline or extinction of approximately 200 frog species worldwide. It has been reported throughout much of North America, but its presence on Prince Edward Island (PEI), on the eastern coast of Canada, was unknown. To determine the presence and prevalence of Bd on PEI, skin swabs were collected from 115 frogs from 18 separate sites across the province during the summer of 2009. The swabs were tested through single round end-point PCR for the presence of Bd DNA. Thirty-one frogs were positive, including 25/93 (27%) green frogs Lithobates (Rana) clamitans, 5/20 (25%) northern leopard frogs L. (R.) pipiens, and 1/2 (50%) wood frogs L. sylvaticus (formerly R. sylvatica); 12 of the 18 (67%) sites had at least 1 positive frog. The overall prevalence of Bd infection was estimated at 26.9% (7.2-46.7%, 95% CI). Prevalence amongst green frogs and leopard frogs was similar, but green frogs had a stronger PCR signal when compared to leopard frogs, regardless of age (p < 0.001) and body length (p = 0.476). Amongst green frogs, juveniles were more frequently positive than adults (p = 0.001). Green frogs may be the most reliable species to sample when looking for Bd in eastern North America. The 1 wood frog positive for Bd was found dead from chytridiomycosis; none of the other frogs that were positive for Bd by PCR showed any obvious signs of illness. Further monitoring will be required to determine what effect Bd infection has on amphibian population health on PEI.

  2. Sensory afferent segregation in three-eared frogs resemble the dominance columns observed in three-eyed frogs

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Karen L.; Houston, Douglas W.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The formation of proper sensory afferent connections during development is essential for brain function. Activity-based competition is believed to drive ocular dominance columns (ODC) in mammals and in experimentally-generated three-eyed frogs. ODC formation is thus a compromise of activity differences between two eyes and similar molecular cues. To gauge the generality of graphical map formation in the brain, we investigated the inner ear projection, known for its well-defined and early segregation of afferents from vestibular and auditory endorgans. In analogy to three eyed-frogs, we generated three-eared frogs to assess to what extent vestibular afferents from two adjacent ears could segregate. Donor ears were transplanted either in the native orientation or rotated by 90 degrees. These manipulations should result in either similar or different induced activity between both ears, respectively. Three-eared frogs with normal orientation showed normal swimming whereas those with a rotated third ear showed aberrant behaviors. Projection studies revealed that only afferents from the rotated ears segregated from those from the native ear within the vestibular nucleus, resembling the ocular dominance columns formed in three-eyed frogs. Vestibular segregation suggests that mechanisms comparable to those operating in the ODC formation of the visual system may act on vestibular projection refinements. PMID:25661240

  3. Prevalence and intensity of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in water frogs and brown frogs in natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura.

  4. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  5. Myxosporean parasites in Australian frogs: Importance, implications and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Phalen, David N.; Šlapeta, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Myxosporean parasites have been identified in amphibians around the world yet very little is known about their diversity, biology and host impact. Several species of Australian frogs have recently been shown to be affected by myxosporidiosis caused by two new Cystodiscus species. In this manuscript, we review what is known about the myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus australis and Cystodiscus axonis that produce myxospores in gallbladders of Australian frogs and Myxobolus fallax and Myxobolus hylae that produce spores in gonads and the potential impact of these parasites on the conservation of Australian frogs. By doing so, we aim to highlight the importance of amphibian myxosporean parasites, suggest directions for future research and argue that the lessons learned about these parasites in Australia are directly transferable to amphibians around the world. PMID:24533318

  6. Cytonuclear discordance and historical demography of two brown frogs, Rana tagoi and R. sakuraii (Amphibia: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies of mitochondrial genomic variation reveal that the Japanese brown frog Rana tagoi comprises a complex of cryptic species lineages, and that R. sakuraii arose from within this complex. Neither species forms a monophyletic group on the mitochondrial haplotype tree, precluding a simple explanation for the evolutionary origins of R. sakuraii. We present a more complete sampling of mitochondrial haplotypic variation (from the ND1 and 16S genes) plus DNA sequence variation for five nuclear loci (from the genes encoding NCX1, NFIA, POMC, SLC8A3, and TYR) to resolve the evolutionary histories of these species. We test hypotheses of population assignment (STRUCTURE) and isolation-with-migration (IM) using the more slowly evolving nuclear markers. These demographic analyses of nuclear genetic variation confirm species-level distinctness and integrity of R. sakuraii despite its apparent polyphyly on the mitochondrial haplotype tree. Divergence-time estimates from both the mitochondrial haplotypes and nuclear genomic markers suggest that R. sakuraii originated approximately one million years ago, and that incomplete sorting of mitochondrial haplotype lineages best explains non-monophyly of R. sakuraii mitochondrial haplotypes. Cytonuclear discordance elsewhere in R. tagoi reveals a case of mitochondrial introgression between two species lineages on Honshu. The earliest phylogenetic divergence within this species group occurred approximately four million years ago, followed by cladogenetic events in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene yielding 10-13 extant species lineages, including R. sakuraii as one of the youngest.

  7. Training Tree Transducers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    trees (similar to the role played by the finite- state acceptor FSA for strings). We describe the version (equivalent to TSG ( Schabes , 1990)) where...strictly contained in tree sets of tree adjoining gram- mars (Joshi and Schabes , 1997). 4 Extended-LHS Tree Transducers (xR) Section 1 informally described...changes without modifying the training procedure, as long as we stick to tree automata. 10 Related Work Tree substitution grammars or TSG ( Schabes , 1990

  8. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  9. Host Defense Peptides from Asian Frogs as Potential Clinical Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineeth T.V.; Holthausen, David; Jacob, Joshy; George, Sanil

    2015-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are currently major focal points of medical research as infectious microbes are gaining resistance to existing drugs. They are effective against multi-drug resistant pathogens due to their unique primary target, biological membranes, and their peculiar mode of action. Even though HDPs from 60 Asian frog species belonging to 15 genera have been characterized, research into these peptides is at a very early stage. The purpose of this review is to showcase the status of peptide research in Asia. Here we provide a summary of HDPs from Asian frogs. PMID:27025618

  10. Detritus Quality and Locality Determines Survival and Mass, but Not Export, of Wood Frogs at Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Milanovich, Joseph R; Barrett, Kyle; Crawford, John A

    2016-01-01

    Single-site experiments have demonstrated detritus quality in wetlands can have strongly negative, neutral, and even positive influences on wildlife. However, an examination of the influence of detritus quality across several regions is lacking and can provide information on whether impacts from variation in detritus quality are consistent across species with wide ranges. To address this gap in regional studies we examined effects of emergent and allochthonous detritus of different nutrient qualities on amphibians and assessed a mechanism that may contribute to potential impacts. We used aquatic mesocosms to raise wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) from two regions of the United States with whole plants from purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), leaf litter from native hardwood trees, and a mixture of both. We examined several metrics of amphibian fitness and life history, including survival, number of days to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. Further, we quantified whether the effects of detritus type could translate to variation in anuran biomass or standing stock of nitrogen or phosphorus export. Our results show detritus with high nutrient quality (purple loosestrife) negatively influenced survival of wood frogs, but increased size of metamorphic individuals in two different regions of the United States. Despite the decrease in survival, the increase in size of post-metamorphic anurans raised with high quality detritus resulted in anuran biomass and standing stock of N and P export being similar across treatments at both locations. These results further demonstrate the role of plant quality in shaping wetland ecosystem dynamics, and represent the first demonstration that effects are consistent within species across ecoregional boundaries.

  11. First line of defence: the role of sloughing in the regulation of cutaneous microbes in frogs

    PubMed Central

    Cramp, Rebecca L.; McPhee, Rebecca K.; Meyer, Edward A.; Ohmer, Michel E.; Franklin, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian populations worldwide are currently experiencing unprecedented declines due to the combined effects of emerging infectious disease and climate change. The skin is the first line of defence in preventing establishment of pathogens and associated infections. Although amphibians undergo regular sloughing of the outer layer of the skin, the potential for regular sloughing to play a role in influencing cutaneous microbial populations and pathogens has been largely overlooked. In the present study, we assessed the effect of skin sloughing on cultivable cutaneous bacterial abundance in the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea). We also examined the effects of temperature and hydric environment on sloughing frequency and microbial re-establishment rates. Our data showed that cultivable cutaneous bacterial abundance was significantly reduced by sloughing events, and frogs kept at ‘summer’ temperatures (23–33°C) sloughed almost twice as frequently as those maintained at ‘winter’ temperatures (13–23°C). No effect of hydric environment on sloughing frequency was observed, but we did find that sloughing in L. caerulea appeared to be linked to ambient light cycles. Examination of the effect of sloughing on microbial recolonization indicated that at cool temperatures, an extended intermoult interval allowed microbial abundance to reach higher levels than at warmer ‘summer’ temperatures (when the intermoult interval was significantly reduced). Our data suggest that sloughing may significantly influence the establishment and/or maintenance of cutaneous bacterial populations (pathogenic, mutualistic and/or commensal) and this, in turn, may be affected by environmental factors, such as ambient light and temperature. These findings are likely to be important for our understanding of the ecology of skin-based pathogens, such as the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. PMID:27293633

  12. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  13. Detritus Quality and Locality Determines Survival and Mass, but Not Export, of Wood Frogs at Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Milanovich, Joseph R.; Barrett, Kyle; Crawford, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Single-site experiments have demonstrated detritus quality in wetlands can have strongly negative, neutral, and even positive influences on wildlife. However, an examination of the influence of detritus quality across several regions is lacking and can provide information on whether impacts from variation in detritus quality are consistent across species with wide ranges. To address this gap in regional studies we examined effects of emergent and allochthonous detritus of different nutrient qualities on amphibians and assessed a mechanism that may contribute to potential impacts. We used aquatic mesocosms to raise wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) from two regions of the United States with whole plants from purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), leaf litter from native hardwood trees, and a mixture of both. We examined several metrics of amphibian fitness and life history, including survival, number of days to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. Further, we quantified whether the effects of detritus type could translate to variation in anuran biomass or standing stock of nitrogen or phosphorus export. Our results show detritus with high nutrient quality (purple loosestrife) negatively influenced survival of wood frogs, but increased size of metamorphic individuals in two different regions of the United States. Despite the decrease in survival, the increase in size of post-metamorphic anurans raised with high quality detritus resulted in anuran biomass and standing stock of N and P export being similar across treatments at both locations. These results further demonstrate the role of plant quality in shaping wetland ecosystem dynamics, and represent the first demonstration that effects are consistent within species across ecoregional boundaries. PMID:27824915

  14. Ant and Mite Diversity Drives Toxin Variation in the Little Devil Poison Frog.

    PubMed

    McGugan, Jenna R; Byrd, Gary D; Roland, Alexandre B; Caty, Stephanie N; Kabir, Nisha; Tapia, Elicio E; Trauger, Sunia A; Coloma, Luis A; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2016-06-01

    Poison frogs sequester chemical defenses from arthropod prey, although the details of how arthropod diversity contributes to variation in poison frog toxins remains unclear. We characterized skin alkaloid profiles in the Little Devil poison frog, Oophaga sylvatica (Dendrobatidae), across three populations in northwestern Ecuador. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified histrionicotoxins, 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines, decahydroquinolines, and lehmizidines as the primary alkaloid toxins in these O. sylvatica populations. Frog skin alkaloid composition varied along a geographical gradient following population distribution in a principal component analysis. We also characterized diversity in arthropods isolated from frog stomach contents and confirmed that O. sylvatica specialize on ants and mites. To test the hypothesis that poison frog toxin variability reflects species and chemical diversity in arthropod prey, we (1) used sequencing of cytochrome oxidase 1 to identify individual prey specimens, and (2) used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to chemically profile consumed ants and mites. We identified 45 ants and 9 mites in frog stomachs, including several undescribed species. We also showed that chemical profiles of consumed ants and mites cluster by frog population, suggesting different frog populations have access to chemically distinct prey. Finally, by comparing chemical profiles of frog skin and isolated prey items, we traced the arthropod source of four poison frog alkaloids, including 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines and a lehmizidine alkaloid. Together, the data show that toxin variability in O. sylvatica reflects chemical diversity in arthropod prey.

  15. Divergence among barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Sullivan, Brian K.; Malone, John H.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).

  16. The Maluti Mystery revisited: Taxonomy of African River Frogs (Pyxicephalidae, Amietia) on the Drakensberg Mountains in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Channing, Alan

    2015-02-27

    The taxonomy of two similar frogs from the top of the Drakensberg escarpment, the Maluti River Frog and the Phofung River Frog is not settled. I examine the relevant types and type descriptions, and discover a number of errors in the literature. Some of the recent taxonomic changes were found to be unsupported. The Maluti River Frog is assigned to Amietia vertebralis (Hewitt, 1927), and the Phofung River Frog to Amietia hymenopus (Boulenger, 1920).

  17. The first see-through frog created by breeding: description, inheritance patterns, and dermal chromatophore structure.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Masayuki; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Igawa, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furukawa, Yukari; Sano, Naomi; Fujii, Tamotsu; Yoshizaki, Norio

    2016-04-15

    We have succeeded in creating see-through frogs from natural color mutants of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, which usually possesses an ochre or brown back; this coloration enables the organs, blood vessels, and eggs to be observed through the skin without performing dissection. We crossed two kinds of recessive color mutant (black-eyed and gray-eyed) frogs through artificial insemination, and F2 offspring produced frogs whose skin is translucent throughout the life cycle. Three kinds of dermal chromatophores--xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores--are observed in a layered arrangement in the skin of wild-type frogs, but few chromatophores were present in the skin of the see-through frogs. The translucent skin enables observation of organ growth and cancer formation and progression in the animal, which can be monitored over its entire life without the need for dissection. See-through frogs thus provide a useful animal model for environmental, medical, and biological research.

  18. Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) tadpoles and adult frogs mount distinct interferon responses to the Frog Virus 3 ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Emily S; Yaparla, Amulya; Koubourli, Daphne V; Grayfer, Leon

    2017-03-01

    Infections of amphibians by Frog Virus 3 (FV3) and other ranavirus genus members are significantly contributing to the amphibian declines, yet much remains unknown regarding amphibian antiviral immunity. Notably, amphibians represent an important step in the evolution of antiviral interferon (IFN) cytokines as they are amongst the first vertebrates to possess both type I and type III IFNs. Accordingly, we examined the roles of type I and III IFNs in the skin of FV3-challenged amphibian Xenopus laevis) tadpoles and adult frogs. Interestingly, FV3-infected tadpoles mounted type III IFN responses, whereas adult frogs relied on type I IFN immunity. Subcutaneous administration of type I or type III IFNs offered short-term protection of tadpoles against FV3 and these type I and type III IFNs induced the expression of distinct antiviral genes in the tadpole skin. Moreover, subcutaneous injection of tadpoles with type III IFN significantly extended their survival and reduced FV3 dissemination.

  19. Take time to smell the frogs: vocal sac glands of reed frogs (Anura: Hyperoliidae) contain species-specific chemical cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Poth, Dennis; Peram, Pardha Saradhi; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel; Knudsen, Jette; Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Walzl, Manfred; Hödl, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Males of all reed frog species (Anura: Hyperoliidae) have a prominent, often colourful, gular patch on their vocal sac, which is particularly conspicuous once the vocal sac is inflated. Although the presence, shape, and form of the gular patch are well-known diagnostic characters for these frogs, its function remains unknown. By integrating biochemical and histological methods, we found strong evidence that the gular patch is a gland producing volatile compounds, which might be emitted while calling. Volatile compounds were confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the gular glands in 11 species of the hyperoliid genera Afrixalus, Heterixalus, Hyperolius, and Phlyctimantis. Comparing the gular gland contents of 17 specimens of four sympatric Hyperolius species yielded a large variety of 65 compounds in species-specific combinations. We suggest that reed frogs might use a complex combination of at least acoustic and chemical signals in species recognition and mate choice. PMID:24277973

  20. Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, M.A.; Dezzani, R.; Pilliod, D.S.; Storfer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Explaining functional connectivity among occupied habitats is crucial for understanding metapopulation dynamics and species ecology. Landscape genetics has primarily focused on elucidating how ecological features between observations influence gene flow. Functional connectivity, however, may be the result of both these between-site (landscape resistance) landscape characteristics and at-site (patch quality) landscape processes that can be captured using network based models. We test hypotheses of functional connectivity that include both between-site and at-site landscape processes in metapopulations of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) by employing a novel justification of gravity models for landscape genetics (eight microsatellite loci, 37 sites, n = 441). Primarily used in transportation and economic geography, gravity models are a unique approach as flow (e.g. gene flow) is explained as a function of three basic components: distance between sites, production/attraction (e.g. at-site landscape process) and resistance (e.g. between-site landscape process). The study system contains a network of nutrient poor high mountain lakes where we hypothesized a short growing season and complex topography between sites limit R. luteiventris gene flow. In addition, we hypothesized production of offspring is limited by breeding site characteristics such as the introduction of predatory fish and inherent site productivity. We found that R. luteiventris connectivity was negatively correlated with distance between sites, presence of predatory fish (at-site) and topographic complexity (between-site). Conversely, site productivity (as measured by heat load index, at-site) and growing season (as measured by frost-free period between-sites) were positively correlated with gene flow. The negative effect of predation and positive effect of site productivity, in concert with bottleneck tests, support the presence of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, gravity models provide a

  1. Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Melanie A; Dezzani, R; Pilliod, D S; Storfer, A

    2010-09-01

    Explaining functional connectivity among occupied habitats is crucial for understanding metapopulation dynamics and species ecology. Landscape genetics has primarily focused on elucidating how ecological features between observations influence gene flow. Functional connectivity, however, may be the result of both these between-site (landscape resistance) landscape characteristics and at-site (patch quality) landscape processes that can be captured using network based models. We test hypotheses of functional connectivity that include both between-site and at-site landscape processes in metapopulations of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) by employing a novel justification of gravity models for landscape genetics (eight microsatellite loci, 37 sites, n = 441). Primarily used in transportation and economic geography, gravity models are a unique approach as flow (e.g. gene flow) is explained as a function of three basic components: distance between sites, production/attraction (e.g. at-site landscape process) and resistance (e.g. between-site landscape process). The study system contains a network of nutrient poor high mountain lakes where we hypothesized a short growing season and complex topography between sites limit R. luteiventris gene flow. In addition, we hypothesized production of offspring is limited by breeding site characteristics such as the introduction of predatory fish and inherent site productivity. We found that R. luteiventris connectivity was negatively correlated with distance between sites, presence of predatory fish (at-site) and topographic complexity (between-site). Conversely, site productivity (as measured by heat load index, at-site) and growing season (as measured by frost-free period between-sites) were positively correlated with gene flow. The negative effect of predation and positive effect of site productivity, in concert with bottleneck tests, support the presence of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, gravity models provide a

  2. Autophagy in frog visual cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Remé, C E; Knop, M

    1980-05-01

    Isolated frog retinas were incubated in a medium free of serum and amino acids under dim white incandescent light of 20 lux/m2. After 1, 2, 6, and 9 hr of incubation, six retinas at each time point were fixed for electron microscopic investigation. Histochemical staining of acid phosphatase was performed in control and experimental tissues. Autophagic vacuoles in visual cell inner segments were counted and compared with the incidence of vacuoles in control tissues. The ratio of newly formed: old autophagic vacuoles was assessed in incubated retinas, and the number of autophagic vacuoles per rod cell and per cone cell was evaluated. The results indicated that the number of autophagic vacuoles was significantly increased from 1 to 9 hr of incubation, the ratio of newly formed: old autophagic vacuoles was constant over this period, and the amount of autophagy occurring in rods and cones was similar. In a second group of experiments, retinas were incubated under the same conditions but at two different levels of illumination. One series of retinas was incubated in dim red incandescent light of 5 lux/m2, the other series was incubated at bright white fluorescent light of 300 lux/m2. The total numbers of autophagic vacuoles showed a consistent elevation of 20% in bright white light material as compared wot dim red light material. Autophagic vacuoles per cone were significantly higher in retinas incubated in white light than in retinas incubated in red light. Autophagic vacuoles per rod were about equal in both groups. Our observations indicated that visual cells contain an intracellular mechanism of degradation, which is increased under changed metabolic conditions and modified as a function of different levels of illumination.

  3. A forty-three year museum study of northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) abnormalities in Arkansas: upward trends and distributions.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Malcolm L; Trauth, Stanley E

    2003-07-01

    The northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) is a resident of streams, rivers, and wetlands of eastern North America. We documented abnormalities in A. crepitans housed in the Arkansas State University Museum of Zoology Herpetology Collection. Abnormality frequency increased from 1957 to 2000 (chi 2 = 43.76, df = 3, P < 0.001). From 1957 through 1979 only 3.33% of specimens were unusual. This rate was 6.87% during the 1990s, and in 2000 it was 8.48%. High frequencies of abnormalities were identified in the following Ozark highland counties: Sharp, Lawrence, and Randolph. We observed 104 abnormalities among 1,464 frogs (7.10%). The differential abnormality frequencies observed between the Arkansas lowlands and highlands are striking. The Ozarks had significantly higher frequencies of abnormalities than other Arkansas regions (chi 2 = 59.76, df = 4, P < 0.001). The Ouachita Mountains had significantly higher frequencies than the Gulf Coastal Plain, Delta, or Arkansas River Valley (chi 2 = 13.172, df = 3, P < 0.01). There was no difference in abnormality frequency between the Gulf Coastal Plain, Delta, and Arkansas River Valley (chi 2 = 0.422, df = 2, P > 0.70). Proposed hypotheses for distributions include: 1) A. crepitans might possess naturally high abnormality levels, and land use practices of the Delta may reduce this variability; 2) an unknown xenobiotic may be in Ozark streams causing increased numbers of abnormalities; 3) the museum's collection effort may be skewed; 4) Delta habitat might be more favorable for green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) allowing this species to drive out A. crepitans through competition; here, abnormal metamorphs are not detected because they are even less competitive than normal individuals.

  4. A Novel Reproductive Mode in Frogs: A New Species of Fanged Frog with Internal Fertilization and Birth of Tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Djoko T.; Evans, Ben J.; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of fanged frog (Limnonectes larvaepartus) that is unique among anurans in having both internal fertilization and birth of tadpoles. The new species is endemic to Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. This is the fourth valid species of Limnonectes described from Sulawesi despite that the radiation includes at least 15 species and possibly many more. Fewer than a dozen of the 6455 species of frogs in the world are known to have internal fertilization, and of these, all but the new species either deposit fertilized eggs or give birth to froglets. PMID:25551466

  5. Rangewide phylogeography and landscape genetics of the Western U.S. endemic frog Rana boylii (Ranidae): Implications for the conservation of frogs and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, A.J.; Spinks, P.Q.; Fellers, G.M.; Shaffer, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data are increasingly being used in conservation planning for declining species. We sampled both the ecological and distributional limits of the foothill yellow-legged frog, Rana boylii to characterize mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in this declining, riverine amphibian. We evaluated 1525 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b and ND2 fragments for 77 individuals from 34 localities using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. We constructed gene trees using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, and quantified genetic variance (using AMOVA and partial Mantel tests) within and among hydrologic regions and river basins. Several moderately supported, geographically-cohesive mtDNA clades were recovered for R. boylii. While genetic variation was low among populations in the largest, most inclusive clade, samples from localities at the edges of the geographic range demonstrated substantial genetic divergence from each other and from more central populations. Hydrologic regions and river basins, which represent likely dispersal corridors for R. boylii, accounted for significant levels of genetic variation. These results suggest that both rivers and larger hydrologic and geographic regions should be used in conservation planning for R. boylii. ?? 2010 US Government.

  6. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    PubMed

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  7. Tree Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Peter R.

    2004-09-01

    Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

  8. Morphological studies of the toe pads of the rock frog, Staurois parvus (family: Ranidae) and their relevance to the development of new biomimetically inspired reversible adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Drotlef, Dirk M.; Appel, Esther; Peisker, Henrik; Dening, Kirstin; del Campo, Aránzazu; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Barnes, W. Jon. P.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of the toe epithelium of the rock frog, Staurois parvus (Family Ranidae), was investigated using a variety of microscopical techniques. The toe pad epithelium is stratified (four to five cell layers), the apical parts of the cells of the outermost layer being separated by fluid-filled channels. The surface of these cells is covered by a dense array of nanopillars, which also cover the surface of subarticular tubercles and unspecialized ventral epithelium of the toes, but not the dorsal epithelium. The apical portions of the outer two layers contain fibrils that originate from the nanopillars and are oriented approximately normal to the surface. This structure is similar to the pad structure of tree frogs of the families Hylidae and Rhacophoridae, indicating evolutionary convergence and a common evolutionary design for reversible attachment in climbing frogs. The main adaptation to the torrent habitat seems to be the straightness of the channels crossing the toe pad, which will assist in drainage of excess water. The presence of nanopillar arrays on all ventral surfaces of the toes resembles that on clingfish suckers and may be a specific adaptation for underwater adhesion and friction. The relevance of these findings to the development of new biomimetically inspired reversible adhesives is discussed. PMID:25657830

  9. The Needs of Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

  10. Helminths of the two mountain frogs, banded frog, Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886 and Uludağ frog Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Anura: Ranidae), collected from the Antalya province.

    PubMed

    Düşen, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two mountain frogs (Rana camerani and Rana macrocnemis) were collected in the Antalya Province in south-western Turkey during 2001 and 2002 and were examined for helminths. Out of 15 Rana camerani, 10 (66.7%) were infected with 1 or more helminths and out of 20 Rana macrocnemis, 17 (85%) were infected with 1 or more helminths. The helminth fauna of Rana camerani included 4 species of which were 3 trematode species (Haplometra cylindracea, Pleurogenoides medians, Opisthioglyphe rastellus), and 1 nematode species (Cosmocerca ornata). The helminth fauna of Rana macrocnemis included 3 species with 1 trematode species (H. cylindracea), 1 nematode species (C. ornata), and 1 acanthocephalan species (Acanthocephalus ranae). H. cylindracea and C. ornata were observed in both of the mountain frogs.

  11. Research on moving object detection based on frog's eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hongwei; Li, Dongguang; Zhang, Xinyuan

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of object's information processing mechanism with frog's eyes, this paper discussed a bionic detection technology which suitable for object's information processing based on frog's vision. First, the bionics detection theory by imitating frog vision is established, it is an parallel processing mechanism which including pick-up and pretreatment of object's information, parallel separating of digital image, parallel processing, and information synthesis. The computer vision detection system is described to detect moving objects which has special color, special shape, the experiment indicates that it can scheme out the detecting result in the certain interfered background can be detected. A moving objects detection electro-model by imitating biologic vision based on frog's eyes is established, the video simulative signal is digital firstly in this system, then the digital signal is parallel separated by FPGA. IN the parallel processing, the video information can be caught, processed and displayed in the same time, the information fusion is taken by DSP HPI ports, in order to transmit the data which processed by DSP. This system can watch the bigger visual field and get higher image resolution than ordinary monitor systems. In summary, simulative experiments for edge detection of moving object with canny algorithm based on this system indicate that this system can detect the edge of moving objects in real time, the feasibility of bionic model was fully demonstrated in the engineering system, and it laid a solid foundation for the future study of detection technology by imitating biologic vision.

  12. AIRBORNE PESTICIDES AND POPULATION DECLINES OF A CALIFORNIA ALPINE FROG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distribution and temporal variation of ...

  13. Pouch brooding marsupial frogs transfer nutrients to developing embryos.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Marsupial frogs have a unique reproductive mode in which females carry eggs enclosed in a sealed dorsal brood pouch. While most anurans are considered to be oviparous with lecithotrophic eggs, the extensively vascularized membrane of the brood pouch in marsupial frogs suggests potential opportunities for nutrient transfer. We tested for matrotrophy in the live-bearing Gastrotheca excubitor (Hemiphractidae), through feeding insects labelled with a (13)C-fatty acid and a (15)N-amino acid to brooding marsupial frogs. We observed significant increases of δ(13)C and δ(15)N in both maternal pouch tissues and embryos, suggesting nutrient transfer. Embryo dry mass also increased with developmental stage, providing further direct evidence for matrotrophy. These results suggest that in addition to gas exchange, the vascularized brood pouch membrane of G. excubitor also enables maternal nutrient transfer. This finding revealed a suspected but untested trait in the evolution of parental care in marsupial frogs, in contrast to previous work on Gastrotheca species that release tadpoles, and suggests greater complexity in reproductive and provisioning modes than previously thought.

  14. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations

    PubMed Central

    Roznik, Elizabeth A.; Sapsford, Sarah J.; Pike, David A.; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11–28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence. PMID:26294048

  15. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations.

    PubMed

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-08-21

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11-28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence.

  16. Author! Author! Creator of Frog and Toad: Arnold Lobel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Arnold Lobel, perhaps best known for giving the world Frog and Toad. Arnold Lobel was born in Los Angeles, California, on May 22, 1933, and was raised by his grandparents in New York. He loved checking out books from the library when he was a little boy and sharing with his classmates the stories…

  17. WEAKLY SYNCHRYRONIZED SUBPOPULATION DYNAMICS IN WISCONSIN FROGS AND TOADS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial synchrony in population dynamics is a topic of increasing interest in basic and applied ecology. We used data from 18 years of frog and toad calling surveys conducted throughout Wisconsin to determine the level of intraspecific synchrony among survey sites, and the relat...

  18. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... outer edge of a wheel tread shall not contact the gage side of a spring wing rail. (b) The toe of each wing rail shall be solidly tamped and fully and tightly bolted. (c) Each frog with a bolt hole defect... the wing rail against the point rail. (e) The clearance between the holddown housing and the...

  19. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... outer edge of a wheel tread shall not contact the gage side of a spring wing rail. (b) The toe of each wing rail shall be solidly tamped and fully and tightly bolted. (c) Each frog with a bolt hole defect... the wing rail against the point rail. (e) The clearance between the holddown housing and the...

  20. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... outer edge of a wheel tread shall not contact the gage side of a spring wing rail. (b) The toe of each wing rail shall be solidly tamped and fully and tightly bolted. (c) Each frog with a bolt hole defect... the wing rail against the point rail. (e) The clearance between the holddown housing and the...

  1. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... outer edge of a wheel tread shall not contact the gage side of a spring wing rail. (b) The toe of each wing rail shall be solidly tamped and fully and tightly bolted. (c) Each frog with a bolt hole defect... the wing rail against the point rail. (e) The clearance between the holddown housing and the...

  2. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... outer edge of a wheel tread shall not contact the gage side of a spring wing rail. (b) The toe of each wing rail shall be solidly tamped and fully and tightly bolted. (c) Each frog with a bolt hole defect... the wing rail against the point rail. (e) The clearance between the holddown housing and the...

  3. Antimicrobial peptides from the skins of North American frogs.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    North America is home to anuran species belonging to the families Bufonidae, Eleutherodactylidae, Hylidae, Leiopelmatidae, Ranidae, and Scaphiopodidae but antimicrobial peptides have been identified only in skin secretions and/or skin extracts of frogs belonging to the Leiopelmatidae ("tailed frogs") and Ranidae ("true frogs"). Eight structurally-related cationic alpha-helical peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, termed ascaphins, have been isolated from specimens of Ascaphus truei (Leiopelmatidae) occupying a coastal range. Characterization of orthologous antimicrobial peptides from Ascaphus specimens occupying an inland range supports the proposal that this population should be regarded as a separate species A. montanus. Ascaphin-8 shows potential for development into a therapeutically valuable anti-infective agent. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-1, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, palustrin-1, palustrin-2, ranacyclin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2, and temporin families have been isolated from North American ranids. It is proposed that "ranalexins" represent brevinin-1 peptides that have undergone a four amino acid residue internal deletion. Current taxonomic recommendations divide North American frogs from the family Ranidae into two genera: Lithobates and Rana. Cladistic analysis based upon the amino acid sequences of the brevinin-1 peptides provides strong support for this assignment.

  4. 27. 'Frogs' which match up the rail lines on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. 'Frogs' which match up the rail lines on the tower and the movable span as the bridge closes. North span facing south. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Pesticides and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured ...

  6. How Can We Tell if Frogs Jump Further?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Gordon B.; Tom, Brian D. M.

    2011-01-01

    How effective is training frogs to jump? This is perhaps the most frequent question in biology that is subjected to statistical analysis: does a treatment make a difference? One can examine whether there is indeed a training effect, by first assuming the opposite. That is, the authors assume that training has no effect on the mean distance jumped.…

  7. Larval morphology and complex vocal repertoire of Rhacophorus helenae (Anura: Rhacophoridae), a rare flying frog from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vassilieva, Anna B; Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Poyarkov, Nikolay A Jr

    2016-06-24

    We present new data on the distribution, reproduction, larval morphology and vocalization of Rhacophorus helenae (Rhacophoridae), a narrowly distributed frog from southern Vietnam. Two new populations of R. helenae were discovered during field surveys in the lowland monsoon forests in Dong Nai and Ba Ria-Vung Tau provinces in 2010-2013. Spawning was observed in May 2013. Egg clutches containing small (2.3±0.1 mm) unpigmented eggs were embedded in a foam nest and suspended high on trees above temporary ponds. The tadpoles of R. helenae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling Rhacophorus larvae with a moderate tail length and a labial tooth row formula of 5(2-5)/3. Postmetamorphic juveniles differed from adult frogs in the features of their coloration and less developed webbing. The complex vocal repertoire of R. helenae included five types of tonal, wideband and pulsed calls and several transitional signal types differentiated by frequency and amplitude parameters. Calls were uttered as singular signals (pulsed calls) or within non-stereotyped series of variable duration (other call types). The complex structure of the advertisement call markedly distinguishes R. helenae from other members of the Rhacophorus reinwardtii species complex.

  8. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Orville; Zug, Kathryn A

    2005-09-01

    Tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in many over-the-counter healthcare and cosmetic products. With the explosion of the natural and alternative medicine industry, more and more people are using products containing tea tree oil. This article reviews basic information about tea tree oil and contact allergy, including sources of tea tree oil, chemical composition, potential cross reactions, reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis, allergenic compounds in tea tree oil, practical patch testing information, and preventive measures.

  9. Habitat use and spatial structure of a barking frog (Eleutherodactylus augusti) population in southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, C.S.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking Frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are the northernmost ranging member of the large tropical family Leptodactylidae. We investigated the ecology of this saxicolous species at the northern edge of its range in a canyon in southern Arizona. We captured 54 frogs on discontinuous rock outcrops; eight of nine females and 39 of 45 males were on limestone outcrops. The remaining frogs were closer to limestone outcrops by more than 200 m than would be expected if they were distributed randomly with respect to limestone formations. Seven of 10 frogs radio-tracked had core home ranges (50% fixed kernel) from 94 to 100% on limestone; the other three frogs did not have any part of their home range on limestone outcrops. During five years of mark-recapture efforts, no frogs were found on a different outcrop from the one where they were originally captured; no radio-tracked frogs moved between outcrops during the breeding season. We estimated that four to 20 Barking Frogs occupied each outcrop; these groups probably are connected primarily by juvenile dispersal. As an organism living at the edge of its range, Barking Frogs in Arizona may rely heavily on extensive underground areas such as those found in limestone to protect them from a physiologically challenging environment. To manage for the persistence of Barking Frogs in southern Arizona, we must identify and protect habitat patches and movement pathways among them.

  10. Fundamental Experiment to Determine Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Agricultural Canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi

    Frogs often drown in agricultural canals with deep concrete walls, which are installed commonly in paddy fields after land improvement projects in Japan, because they cannot escape after falling into the canal. Therefore, countermeasures that enable frogs to escape from canals are required in some rural areas. An experimental canal with partially sloped walls was used as an escape countermeasure to investigate the preferable angle of slope for the walls, water depth and flow velocity that enables Tokyo Daruma Pond Frogs (Rana porosa porosa), which have no adhesive discs, to easily escape. Walls with slopes of 30-45 degrees allowed 50-60% of frogs to escape from the experimental canals, frogs especially easily climbed the 30 degree sloped walls. When the water depth was 5 cm or flow velocity was greater than 20 cm/s, approximately 80% of the frogs moved downstream and reached the sloped walls because the frogs' toes did not reach the bottom of the canal. However, if the depth was 2 cm and the flow velocity was 5 cm/s, only 4% of the frogs climbed the sloped walls because they could move freely. The frogs appeared to not be good at long-distance swimming and could not remain a long-time under running water. Therefore, walls sloped less than 30 degrees and control of both water depth and flow velocity appears important for enabling frogs to easily escape from canals.

  11. Cryoprotectant Production in Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frogs Is Augmented by Multiple Freeze-Thaw Cycles.

    PubMed

    Larson, Don J; Barnes, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Ice nucleation across the skin of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) rapidly induces endogenous production of glucose, a cryoprotectant necessary for freeze tolerance. In laboratory studies of freeze tolerance, wood frogs are cooled slowly, often at -0.05°C h(-1), to facilitate high cryoprotectant production and survival. Under natural conditions in Alaska, however, wood frogs accumulate maximal tissue glucose concentrations while cooling at much faster rates, -0.35° to -1.6°C h(-1), and in addition undergo multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles before remaining frozen for the winter. We examined whether simulating these ecologically relevant cooling rates and repeated freeze-thaw events in captive wood frogs results in the high glucose concentrations found in naturally frozen wood frogs. We found that over successive freezing and thawing events, glucose concentrations increased stepwise in all measured tissues. Short thawing periods did not result in a statistically significant decline of glucose concentrations. Wood frogs that experienced three freeze-thaw events had fresh weight glucose concentrations that approached values found in tissues of wood frogs frozen in natural conditions. Laboratory wood frogs survive frozen for 2 mo, while wood frogs frozen under natural conditions survive frozen for up to 7 mo at temperatures below -18°C. We hypothesize that repeated freeze-thaw cycles with rapid cooling and warming rates allow for greater survival in Alaskan wood frogs through enhanced cryoprotectant production.

  12. Wood frog adaptations to overwintering in Alaska: new limits to freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Larson, Don J; Middle, Luke; Vu, Henry; Zhang, Wenhui; Serianni, Anthony S; Duman, John; Barnes, Brian M

    2014-06-15

    We investigated the ecological physiology and behavior of free-living wood frogs [Lithobates (Rana) sylvaticus] overwintering in Interior Alaska by tracking animals into natural hibernacula, recording microclimate, and determining frog survival in spring. We measured cryoprotectant (glucose) concentrations and identified the presence of antifreeze glycolipids in tissues from subsamples of naturally freezing frogs. We also recorded the behavior of wood frogs preparing to freeze in artificial hibernacula, and tissue glucose concentrations in captive wood frogs frozen in the laboratory to -2.5°C. Wood frogs in natural hibernacula remained frozen for 193 ± 11 consecutive days and experienced average (October-May) temperatures of -6.3°C and average minimum temperatures of -14.6 ± 2.8°C (range -8.9 to -18.1°C) with 100% survival (N=18). Mean glucose concentrations were 13-fold higher in muscle, 10-fold higher in heart and 3.3-fold higher in liver in naturally freezing compared with laboratory frozen frogs. Antifreeze glycolipid was present in extracts from muscle and internal organs, but not skin, of frozen frogs. Wood frogs in Interior Alaska survive freezing to extreme limits and durations compared with those described in animals collected in southern Canada or the Midwestern United States. We hypothesize that this enhancement of freeze tolerance in Alaskan wood frogs is due to higher cryoprotectant levels that are produced by repeated freezing and thawing cycles experienced under natural conditions during early autumn.

  13. The Population Decline and Extinction of Darwin’s Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Azat, Claudio; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Andrés; Collen, Ben; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Veloso, Alberto; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Darwin’s frogs (Rhinoderma darwinii and R. rufum) are two species of mouth-brooding frogs from Chile and Argentina. Here, we present evidence on the extent of declines, current distribution and conservation status of Rhinoderma spp.; including information on abundance, habitat and threats to extant Darwin’s frog populations. All known archived Rhinoderma specimens were examined in museums in North America, Europe and South America. Extensive surveys were carried out throughout the historical ranges of R. rufum and R. darwinii from 2008 to 2012. Literature review and location data of 2,244 archived specimens were used to develop historical distribution maps for Rhinoderma spp. Based on records of sightings, optimal linear estimation was used to estimate whether R. rufum can be considered extinct. No extant R. rufum was found and our modelling inferred that this species became extinct in 1982 (95% CI, 1980–2000). Rhinoderma darwinii was found in 36 sites. All populations were within native forest and abundance was highest in Chiloé Island, when compared with Coast, Andes and South populations. Estimated population size and density (five populations) averaged 33.2 frogs/population (range, 10.2–56.3) and 14.9 frogs/100 m2 (range, 5.3–74.1), respectively. Our results provide further evidence that R. rufum is extinct and indicate that R. darwinii has declined to a much greater degree than previously recognised. Although this species can still be found across a large part of its historical range, remaining populations are small and severely fragmented. Conservation efforts for R. darwinii should be stepped up and the species re-classified as Endangered. PMID:23776705

  14. Elimination of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis by Archey's frog Leiopelma archeyi.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Phillip J; Speare, Rick; Poulter, Russell; Butler, Margi; Speare, Benjamin J; Hyatt, Alex; Olsen, Veronica; Haigh, Amanda

    2009-03-09

    Archey's frog Leiopelma archeyi is a critically endangered New Zealand endemic species. The discovery of the emerging infectious disease, chytridiomycosis, in wild populations of this frog raised concern that this disease may drive the species to extinction. Twelve wild-caught Archey's frogs naturally infected with the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis were monitored in captivity by observing clinical signs, measuring weight gain, and performing repeated PCR tests. Eight frogs were treated with topical chloramphenicol, without PCR results being available, for B. dendrobatidis at the day of entry of the frog into the trial. Eleven of the 12 frogs (92%) cleared their infection within 3 mo of capture, even though they were held at 15 degrees C and in high humidity, conditions that are ideal for the survival and propagation of B. dendrobatidis. B. dendrobatidis in the remaining frog tested positive for the fungus was eliminated after treatment with topical chloramphenicol. None of the 8 frogs exposed to chloramphenicol showed any acute adverse reactions. Archey's frog appears to have a low level of susceptibility to the clinical effects of chytridiomycosis. Individual frogs can eliminate B. dendrobatidis and Archey's frog can apparently be treated with topical chloramphenicol with no acute adverse reactions. However, the small number of specimens treated here requires that more extensive testing be done to confirm the safety of chloramphenicol. The significance of the amphibian chytrid fungus for wild populations of Archey's frog needs to be determined by a longitudinal study in an infected wild population to correlate the presence of B. dendrobatidis in individual frogs. Such a study should occur over a period of at least 3 yr with clinical assessment and monitoring of survival, growth and body condition parameters.

  15. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 on green frog (Rana clamitans) and leopard frog (Rana pipiens) hatching success, development, and metamorphosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenshield, M.L.; Jofre, M.B.; Karasov, W.H.

    1999-11-01

    Although increasing evidence links plana chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), to decreases in survival and reproduction of fish, mammals, and birds near Green Bay, Wisconsin, and the Great Lakes, USA, relatively little is known of their bioaccumulation or of their possible effects in amphibians. The authors exposed embryos and larvae of two ranid species commonly occurring in the Green Bay ecosystem, the green frog (Rana clamitans) and the leopard frog (Rana pipiens), to PCB 126, a model coplanar PCB compound. Nominal concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 50 {micro}g/L, and exposure lasted through metamorphosis. Tissue concentrations of PCB 126 in tadpoles that did not metamorphose by the end of the experiment ranged from 1.2 to 9,600 ng/g wet mass. No significant mortality of embryos occurred before hatching; however, survival of larvae was significantly reduced at the highest concentration for both species. Few deformities were observed, but the incidence of edema was significantly higher in tadpoles exposed to 50 {micro}g/L. Swimming speed and growth of tadpoles was also significantly reduced in this treatment. The percent of tadpoles that reached metamorphosis was significantly lower in green frogs at the highest concentration, and no leopard frogs survived past day 47 of the experiment in this treatment. At high concentrations, PCB 126 affected both ranid species; however, sublethal effects were not apparent for the parameters the authors measured at concentrations that occur in water in the Green Bay ecosystem.

  16. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

  17. Up in the Tree – The Overlooked Richness of Bryophytes and Lichens in Tree Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Boch, Steffen; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Blaser, Stefan; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments. PMID:24358373

  18. Up in the tree--the overlooked richness of bryophytes and lichens in tree crowns.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Blaser, Stefan; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments.

  19. Detecting Coppice Legacies from Tree Growth

    PubMed Central

    Müllerová, Jana; Pejcha, Vít; Altman, Jan; Plener, Tomáš; Dörner, Petr; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    In coppice-with-standards, once a common type of management in Central European lowland forests, selected trees (standards) were left to grow mature among the regularly harvested coppice stools to obtain construction wood. After the underwood was harvested, the forest canopy opened rapidly, giving standard trees an opportunity to benefit from reduced competition. Although this silvicultural system virtually disappeared after WWII, historical management cycles can still be traced in the tree-rings of remaining standards. Our research aims at answering the question whether tree-ring series of standard trees can be used to reconstruct past management practices. The study was carried out on 117 oak standard trees from five sites situated in formerly coppiced calcareous oak-hornbeam and acidophilous oak forests in the Bohemian Karst Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic. The evaluation was based on the analysis of growth releases representing the response of the standards to coppicing events, and comparison to the archival records of coppice events. Our results showed that coppicing events can be successfully detected by tree-ring analysis, although there are some limitations. Altogether 241 releases were identified (49% of major releases). Large number of releases could be related to historical records, with the major ones giving better results. The overall probability of correct detection (positive predictive power) was 58%, ranging from 50 to 67%, probability for major releases was 78%, ranging from 63 to 100% for different sites. The ability of individual trees to mirror past coppice events was significantly affected by competition from neighboring trees (their number and the sum of distance-weighted basal areas). A dendro-ecological approach to the study of forest management history can serve as an input for current attempts of coppice reintroduction and for conservation purposes. PMID:26784583

  20. Detecting Coppice Legacies from Tree Growth.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Jana; Pejcha, Vít; Altman, Jan; Plener, Tomáš; Dörner, Petr; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    In coppice-with-standards, once a common type of management in Central European lowland forests, selected trees (standards) were left to grow mature among the regularly harvested coppice stools to obtain construction wood. After the underwood was harvested, the forest canopy opened rapidly, giving standard trees an opportunity to benefit from reduced competition. Although this silvicultural system virtually disappeared after WWII, historical management cycles can still be traced in the tree-rings of remaining standards. Our research aims at answering the question whether tree-ring series of standard trees can be used to reconstruct past management practices. The study was carried out on 117 oak standard trees from five sites situated in formerly coppiced calcareous oak-hornbeam and acidophilous oak forests in the Bohemian Karst Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic. The evaluation was based on the analysis of growth releases representing the response of the standards to coppicing events, and comparison to the archival records of coppice events. Our results showed that coppicing events can be successfully detected by tree-ring analysis, although there are some limitations. Altogether 241 releases were identified (49% of major releases). Large number of releases could be related to historical records, with the major ones giving better results. The overall probability of correct detection (positive predictive power) was 58%, ranging from 50 to 67%, probability for major releases was 78%, ranging from 63 to 100% for different sites. The ability of individual trees to mirror past coppice events was significantly affected by competition from neighboring trees (their number and the sum of distance-weighted basal areas). A dendro-ecological approach to the study of forest management history can serve as an input for current attempts of coppice reintroduction and for conservation purposes.

  1. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels. PMID:25857262

  2. Parathion accumulation in cricket frogs and its effect on American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; de Chacin, H.; Pattee, O.H.; Lamont, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    Adult cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) were held individually for 96 h in static systems containing initial concentrations of either 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ppm parathion in 10 ml water. Mortality of cricket frogs was directly related to the parathion concentration in the water. Frogs from the 1.0- and 10-ppm groups accumulated 0.08 and 4.6 ppm parathion, respectively. One of four American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed frogs from the 10-ppm group died from organophosphate poisoning less than 3 h after consuming five frogs. Mortality did not occur in kestrels fed frogs from the other treatment groups, which represented more environmentally realistic levels of exposure.

  3. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-10

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  4. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  5. Fault-Tree Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  6. Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

    PubMed Central

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

  7. Novel features of an inducible defense system in larval tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis).

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jonathan L

    2006-03-01

    Organisms in aquatic ecosystems must often tolerate variable environmental conditions, including an uncertain risk of predation. Individuals that can maintain plastic defenses against predation will increase their survival when predators are present, but will not incur the costs of these defenses when the risk of predation is low and the defense is not induced. Larvae of the pond-breeding anuran Hyla chrysoscelis develop a conspicuous phenotype in the presence of predators consisting of a brightly colored tail and a deeper tail fin. In this study, I attempted to identify the source of the chemical signal that induces this defensive morphology in this species. I tested whether metabolites alone, originating from the prey but passing through the predator, were able to induce the same morphological response as the combination of alarm signals released directly by attacked conspecifics, and metabolites. I used morphometric and tail conspicuousness data to assess tadpole response to the perceived risk of predation by larval odonate predators (Anax junius). I also tested whether this inducing cue could be recognized across species by measuring the morphological response of H. chrysoscelis tadpoles exposed to cues emitted when tadpoles of a closely related genus (Pseudacris crucifer) were consumed. Tadpoles exhibited a clean graded response of both overall shape and tail morphology in response to all cues, corresponding to their relative reliability as indicators of a risk of predation. H. chrysoscelis tadpoles were also able to respond to cues emitted when tadpoles of a closely related genus were consumed by predators. These results illustrate that tadpoles of this species are able to respond to metabolites alone without alarm signals, and that interspecific chemical communication is a primary mechanism for predator avoidance in this inducible defense system.

  8. Population estimates of Hyla cinerea (Schneider) (Green Tree frog) in an urban environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pham, L.; Boudreaux, S.; Karhbet, S.; Price, B.; Ackleh, A.S.; Carter, J.; Pal, N.

    2007-01-01

    Hyla cinerea (Green Treefrog) is a common wetlands species in the southeastern US. To better understand its population dynamics, we followed a relatively isolated population of Green Treefrogs from June 2004 through October 2004 at a federal office complex in Lafayette, LA. Weekly, Green Treefrogs were caught, measured, marked with VIE tags, and released. The data were used to estimate population size. The time frame was split into two periods: before and after August 17, 2004. Before August 17, 2004, the average estimated population size was 143, and after August 24, 2005, this value jumped to 446, an increase possibly due to tadpoles metamorphosing into adults.

  9. Epidermal Laser Stimulation of Action Potentials in the Frog Sciatic Nerve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Laser Stimulation of Action Potentials in the Frog Sciatic Nerve Nichole M. Jindra Robert J. Thomas Human Effectiveness Directorate Directed...in the Frog Sciatic Nerve 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) .Nichole M. Jindra, Robert J. Thomas, Douglas N...Alan Rice 14. ABSTRACT Measurements of laser stimulated action potentials in the sciatic nerve of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were made using

  10. Itraconazole treatment reduces Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and increases overwinter field survival in juvenile Cascades frogs.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Bennett M; Pope, Karen L; Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-01-15

    The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth.

  11. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ICE IN FROZEN TISSUES OF FROGS AND MICE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and digit free of ice at all temperatures are the stratum corneum in both the frog and the mouse, the stratum compactum in the frog and the fibrous...sheath of the mouse tendon. (4) The epidermis is almost entirely free of ice in frog skin at -1C and in mouse skin at -2C. (5) When ice is formed, the...horizontal connective tissue of the dermis. (6) Ice is present in the tendon of the frog at -5C and -3C, and in that of the mouse at -5C. With excised

  12. Evolution of tree nutrition.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots.

  13. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  14. The rediscovered Hula painted frog is a living fossil.

    PubMed

    Biton, Rebecca; Geffen, Eli; Vences, Miguel; Cohen, Orly; Bailon, Salvador; Rabinovich, Rivka; Malka, Yoram; Oron, Talya; Boistel, Renaud; Brumfeld, Vlad; Gafny, Sarig

    2013-01-01

    Amphibian declines are seen as an indicator of the onset of a sixth mass extinction of life on earth. Because of a combination of factors such as habitat destruction, emerging pathogens and pollutants, over 156 amphibian species have not been seen for several decades, and 34 of these were listed as extinct by 2004. Here we report the rediscovery of the Hula painted frog, the first amphibian to have been declared extinct. We provide evidence that not only has this species survived undetected in its type locality for almost 60 years but also that it is a surviving member of an otherwise extinct genus of alytid frogs, Latonia, known only as fossils from Oligocene to Pleistocene in Europe. The survival of this living fossil is a striking example of resilience to severe habitat degradation during the past century by an amphibian.

  15. Old World frog and bird vocalizations contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narins, Peter M.; Feng, Albert S.; Lin, Wenyu; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette; Suthers, Roderick A.; Xu, Chunhe

    2004-02-01

    Several groups of mammals such as bats, dolphins and whales are known to produce ultrasonic signals which are used for navigation and hunting by means of echolocation, as well as for communication. In contrast, frogs and birds produce sounds during night- and day-time hours that are audible to humans; their sounds are so pervasive that together with those of insects, they are considered the primary sounds of nature. Here we show that an Old World frog (Amolops tormotus) and an oscine songbird (Abroscopus albogularis) living near noisy streams reliably produce acoustic signals that contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics. Our findings provide the first evidence that anurans and passerines are capable of generating tonal ultrasonic call components and should stimulate the quest for additional ultrasonic species.

  16. Monitoring frog communities: An application of machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.; Watson, G.; Grigg, G.; McCallum, H.

    1996-12-31

    Automatic recognition of animal vocalizations would be a valuable tool for a variety of biological research and environmental monitoring applications. We report the development of a software system which can recognize the vocalizations of 22 species of frogs which occur in an area of northern Australia. This software system will be used in unattended operation to monitor the effect on frog populations of the introduced Cane Toad. The system is based around classification of local peaks in the spectrogram of the audio signal using Quinlan`s machine learning system, C4.5. Unreliable identifications of peaks are aggregated together using a hierarchical structure of segments based on the typical temporal vocalization species` patterns. This produces robust system performance.

  17. Vocal acrobatics in a Chinese frog, Amolops tormotus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Albert; Narins, Peter; Xu, Chun-He

    2002-06-01

    Although amphibians are highly vocal, they generally emit only a limited number of acoustic communication signals. We report here the extraordinarily rich vocal repertoire of Amolops tormotus, a ranid species in China. These frogs produce countless vocalizations, some of which share features of birdsong or primate calls, e.g., ultrasonic frequency components, multiple upward and downward FM sweeps, and sudden onset and offset of selective harmonic components within a call note. Frame-by-frame video analysis of the frog's calling behavior suggests the presence of two pairs of vocal sacs that may contribute to the remarkable call-note complexity in this species. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0335-x.

  18. The Genome of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M.; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L.; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S.; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C.; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M.; Mead, Paul E.; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V.; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Richardson, Paul M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2009-10-01

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes over 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1,700 human disease genes. Over a million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like other tetrapods, the genome contains gene deserts enriched for conserved non-coding elements. The genome exhibits remarkable shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  19. Illumination Under Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2002-08-19

    This paper is a survey of the author's work on illumination and shadows under trees, including the effects of sky illumination, sun penumbras, scattering in a misty atmosphere below the trees, and multiple scattering and transmission between leaves. It also describes a hierarchical image-based rendering method for trees.

  20. The Wish Tree Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  1. Diary of a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srulowitz, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity to develop students' skills of observation and recordkeeping by studying the growth of a tree's leaves during the spring. Children monitor the growth of 11 tress over a 2-month period, draw pictures of the tree at different stages of growth, and write diaries of the tree's growth. (MDH)

  2. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  3. Winter Birch Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  4. Comovements in government bond markets: A minimum spanning tree analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Claire G.; Lucey, Brian M.; Boscia, Marian W.

    2010-11-01

    The concept of a minimum spanning tree (MST) is used to study patterns of comovements for a set of twenty government bond market indices for developed North American, European, and Asian countries. We show how the MST and its related hierarchical tree evolve over time and describe the dynamic development of market linkages. Over the sample period, 1993-2008, linkages between markets have decreased somewhat. However, a subset of European Union (EU) bond markets does show increasing levels of comovements. The evolution of distinct groups within the Eurozone is also examined. The implications of our findings for portfolio diversification benefits are outlined.

  5. Serotonin metabolism in directly developing frog embryos during paternal care.

    PubMed

    Ten Eyck, Gary R; Ronan, Patrick J; Renner, Kenneth J; Summers, Cliff H

    2005-11-11

    Central serotonin (5-HT) metabolism during embryogenesis and a 3-day post-hatching period was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography in the directly developing frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui. This anuran bypasses the free-swimming larval stage and embryos hatch as miniature frogs in the adult phenotype. During embryogenesis and for a short time immediately after hatching, male E. coqui provide paternal care by brooding and guarding eggs/embryos to prevent desiccation and predation. Serotonin and its catabolite, 5-HIAA, were measured from whole brain during embryogenesis and at 3 days post-hatch to identify critical periods in 5-HT development and to determine the relationship between 5-HT and life history events such as hatching and frog dispersal from the nest site. Serotonergic activity was highest during the early-mid embryonic stages as indicated by the ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT, a general indicator of turnover and metabolism. There were significant increases in tissue concentrations of 5-HT during the latest or terminal embryonic stage, just prior to hatching, and also at 3 days post-hatch, shortly before neonates disperse into the rainforest. These two increases probably represent different functional requirements during development. The first may occur as a result of the surge of development in the 5-HT system during late embryogenesis that occurs in E. coqui and the second may be from the increase demand in sensory and motor neural development required before dispersal from the nest site.

  6. Nitric oxide modulates the frog heart ventricle morphodynamics.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Raffaele; Gattuso, Alfonsina; Guerrieri, Antonio; Mannarino, Cinzia; Amelio, Daniela; Tota, Bruno

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate in the avascular heart of the frog Rana esculenta the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on ventricular systolic and diastolic functions by using a novel image analysis technique. The external volume variations of the whole ventricle were monitored during the heart cycle by video acquisition(visible light) and analysed by an appropriately developed software with a specific formula for irregular convex solids. The system, which measures the rate of volume changes and the ejection fraction, directly determined the volumetric behaviour of the working frog heart after stimulation or inhibition of NOS-NOcGMP pathway. End-diastolic volume (EDVext), end-systolic volume (ESVext), contraction and relaxation velocities (dV/dtsys and dV/dtdia, respectively), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF), were measured before and after perfusion with NOS substrate (L-arginine), NO donor (SIN-1), cGMP analogue (8-Br-cGMP),NOS inhibitors (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, L-NMMA; L-N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-ornithine, L-NIO; 7-Nitroindazole,7-NI) and guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (ODQ). The results showed that NO reduces ventricular systolicfunction improving diastolic filling, while NOS inhibition increases contractility impairing ventricular filling capacity. The presence of activated eNOS (p-eNOS) was morphologically documented, further supporting that the mechanical activity of the ventricular pump in frog is influenced by a tonic release of NOS-generated NO.

  7. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation.

  8. Frogs model man: In vivo thyroid hormone signaling during development.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Laurent M; Buchholz, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling comprises TH transport across cell membranes, metabolism by deiodinases, and molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. Proper TH signaling is essential for normal perinatal development, most notably for neurogenesis and fetal growth. Knowledge of perinatal TH endocrinology needs improvement to provide better treatments for premature infants and endocrine diseases during gestation and to counteract effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Studies in amphibians have provided major insights to understand in vivo mechanisms of TH signaling. The frog model boasts dramatic TH-dependent changes directly observable in free-living tadpoles with precise and easy experimental control of the TH response at developmental stages comparable to fetal stages in mammals. The hormones, their receptors, molecular mechanisms, and developmental roles of TH signaling are conserved to a high degree in humans and amphibians, such that with respect to developmental TH signaling "frogs are just little people that hop." The frog model is exceptionally illustrative of fundamental molecular mechanisms of in vivo TH action involving TH receptors, transcriptional cofactors, and chromatin remodeling. This review highlights the current need, recent successes, and future prospects using amphibians as a model to elucidate molecular mechanisms and functional roles of TH signaling during post-embryonic development.

  9. RESEARCH NOTE An improved leap-frog rotational algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Marcus

    A new implicit leap-frog algorithm for the integration of rigid body rotational motion is presented. Orientations are represented by quaternions and the algorithm is compared with three existing leap-frog integrators, by solving the classical equations of motion for a (H O) cluster. We find that the present scheme exhibits superior energy conservation properties, especially for integration times of about 10 ps or longer. Contrary to previous algorithms, the present one behaves as a true Verlet integrator, where the degree of energy conservation is independent of the length of the trajectory. The method is similar to the implicit scheme proposed by D. Fincham (1992, Molec. Simulation, 8, 165), with the difference that selfconsistent quaternions, as well as their time derivatives, are obtained by iteration at the mid-timestep instead of after the complete timestep. A slight modification of either the explicit or the implicit leap-frog rotational algorithm in existing molecular dynamics programs may thus lead to significant improvements of energy conservation, as long as this property is not dominated by other sources such as errors due to potential truncation. It is demonstrated that the present algorithm can be used with timesteps as large as 4 fs in water simulations, and still produce stable trajectories of 10 ns duration. 2 20

  10. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs.

    PubMed

    Yahnke, Amy E; Grue, Christian E; Hayes, Marc P; Troiano, Alexandra T

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  11. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  12. 4-aminopyridine-induced contracture in frog ventricle is due to calcium released from intracellular stores.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, A; Subbanna, P K; Arasan, S; Rajapathy, J; Rao, J P; Subramani, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the presence of intracellular calcium store in frog ventricle based on contractures induced by 4-aminopyridine in calcium-free media. Frog-ventricular strips were subjected to field stimulation at 0.2 Hz and the force of contraction was recorded after stabilization. The preparation was then kept quiescent for some time in solutions with different sodium concentrations, containing 0 or 1 mmol/L calcium. Caffeine, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), or tetraethylammonium chloride was then added. Frog skeletal muscle preparations were used as positive controls for the caffeine experiments. Frog ventricular preparations did not develop contractures (sustained contractions) in the presence of caffeine (25 mmol/L), while frog skeletal muscle preparations developed caffeine-induced contractures. However, 4-AP (16 mmol/L) was able to induce contractures in quiescent frog ventricular preparations, even when they were superfused with calcium-free solution. 4-AP contractures in frog ventricle were seen in the presence of nifedipine also. Amplitude of 4-AP evoked contractures in frog ventricle were much larger in low sodium (30 mmol/L) and sodium-free (sodium substituted by lithium) solutions than in normal sodium solution, suggesting that the route of extrusion of the cytosolic calcium (released from intracellular stores by 4-AP) is the sodium calcium exchanger, which gets reversed in low sodium solutions. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) was not able to induce contractures in frog ventricle suggesting that the contracture evoked by 4-AP is not due to its potassium channel blocking effect. In quiescent frog skeletal muscle preparations, caffeine as well as 4-AP induced contractures in calcium-free solutions. We therefore conclude that there is a caffeine-insensitive, 4-AP sensitive intracellular calcium store in the frog ventricle.

  13. Natural levels of abnormalities in the trilling frog (neobactrachus centralis) at the Olympic dam mine

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.L. ); Tyler, M.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Frogs are more susceptible than most vertebrates to environmental contaminants. Unlike amniotes, the frog egg is not protected by a semi-impervious shell, and hence is readily exposed to pollutants. In addition, tadpoles develop in wetlands to which many noxious substances drain from the surrounding landscape. Coupled with this high exposure rate, frogs are also very sensitive to trace elements, some pesticides, heavy metals especially when coupled with exposure to low pH and ionizing radiation. Frogs commonly exhibit discernible deformities following exposure to teratogenic contaminants, and therefore are valuable indicators of the existence of noxious substances in the environment. The abundance and ease of sampling of frogs, along with their sensitivity to environmental contaminants, makes them ideal organisms for environmental monitoring in the Australian arid zone. The study of abnormalities in frogs has become an integral part of the Environmental Management Programme of the Olympic Dam Operations (ODO) copper-uranium-gold-silver mine in northern South Australia. The Trilling Frog (Neobatrachus centralis) is the only frog species which has been recorded at Olympic Dam. It is likely that these frogs, are relatively sedentary, thus enhancing their value as indicator organisms. A pilot survey in 1989 documented frog deformity levels comparable to those found at undisturbed sites in Australia and in other countries. This paper reports on larger study conducted in February and March 1992 when heavy rains provided another opportunity to survey the frog population. The low levels of abnormalities support the conclusion that N. centralis at Olympic Dam does not appear to be accumulating or being influenced by the very low levels of radionuclides present here.

  14. Distributed Contour Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  15. Tree Species Richness Promotes Invertebrate Herbivory on Congeneric Native and Exotic Tree Saplings in a Young Diversity Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Annika; Bauhus, Jürgen; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Nock, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Tree diversity in forests is an important driver of ecological processes including herbivory. Empirical evidence suggests both negative and positive effects of tree diversity on herbivory, which can be, respectively, attributed to associational resistance or associational susceptibility. Tree diversity experiments allow testing for associational effects, but evidence regarding which pattern predominates is mixed. Furthermore, it is unknown if herbivory on tree species of native vs. exotic origin is influenced by changing tree diversity in a similar way, or if exotic tree species escape natural enemies, resulting in lower damage that is unrelated to tree diversity. To address these questions, we established a young tree diversity experiment in temperate southwestern Germany that uses high planting density (49 trees per plot; plot size 13 m2). The species pool consists of six congeneric species pairs of European and North American origin (12 species in total) planted in monocultures and mixtures (1, 2, 4, 6 species). We assessed leaf damage by leaf-chewing insects on more than 5,000 saplings of six broadleaved tree species. Plot-level tree species richness increased leaf damage, which more than doubled from monocultures to six-species mixtures, strongly supporting associational susceptibility. However, leaf damage among congeneric native and exotic species pairs was similar. There were marked differences in patterns of leaf damage across tree genera, and only the genera likely having a predominately generalist herbivore community showed associational susceptibility, irrespective of the geographical origin of a tree species. In conclusion, an increase in tree species richness in young temperate forests may result in associational susceptibility to feeding by generalist herbivores. PMID:27992554

  16. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  17. 76 FR 45602 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow Creek Ranch, San Luis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow... the Federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii), under the Endangered Species Act... California red-legged frog on the property subject to the Agreement (Enrolled Property), which is owned...

  18. iTREE: Long-term variability of tree growth in a changing environment - identifying physiological mechanisms using stable C and O isotopes in tree rings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegwolf, R. T. W.; Buchmann, N.; Frank, D.; Joos, F.; Kahmen, A.; Treydte, K.; Leuenberger, M.; Saurer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Trees play are a critical role in the carbon cycle - their photosynthetic assimilation is one of the largest terrestrial carbon fluxes and their standing biomass represents the largest carbon pool of the terrestrial biosphere. Understanding how tree physiology and growth respond to long-term environmental change is pivotal to predict the magnitude and direction of the terrestrial carbon sink. iTREE is an interdisciplinary research framework to capitalize on synergies among leading dendroclimatologists, plant physiologists, isotope specialists, and global carbon cycle modelers with the objectives of reducing uncertainties related to tree/forest growth in the context of changing natural environments. Cross-cutting themes in our project are tree rings, stable isotopes, and mechanistic modelling. We will (i) establish a European network of tree-ring based isotope time-series to retrodict interannual to long-term tree physiological changes, (ii) conduct laboratory and field experiments to adapt a mechanistic isotope model to derive plant physiological variables from tree-ring isotopes, (iii) implement this model into a dynamic global vegetation model, and perform subsequent model-data validation exercises to refine model representation of plant physiological processes and (iv) attribute long-term variation in tree growth to plant physiological and environmental drivers, and identify how our refined knowledge revises predictions of the coupled carbon-cycle climate system. We will contribute to i) advanced quantifications of long-term variation in tree growth across Central Europe, ii) novel long-term information on key physiological processes that underlie variations in tree growth, and iii) improved carbon cycle models that can be employed to revise predictions of the coupled carbon-cycle climate system. Hence iTREE will significantly contribute towards a seamless understanding of the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to long-term environmental change, and ultimately

  19. Which Way To Jump: Conventional Frog Dissection, CD-Tutorial, or Microworld?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marszalek, Christine S.; Lockard, James

    This study investigated and compared the level of initial and long-term retention of frog internal anatomy among students using an interactive CD tutorial, a desktop microworld, and conventional frog dissection. Students' anxiety toward science was also compared across the three treatment groups and between genders. Additional data on students'…

  20. BIOSENSING TECHNICS FOR HUMAN DETECTION. 1. THE FROG SKIN TRANSDUCER: PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Isolated frog skin used as a transducer whose bioelectrical potential is measured as a function of chemical species and concentration, is shown to...log units. A high degree of variability of response between frog skins, and a lack of data on ultimate sensitivities at usefully low levels for selected substances, are major problems that remain to be examined.

  1. SOME PROPERTIES OF THE AFFERENT PATHWAY IN THE FROG CORNEAL REFLEX,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    evidence on the neurological basis of stimulus specificity. The frog corneal reflex is particularly well suited for this type of study, since the stimulus...conducted on normal adult frogs . The results provide a new basis for study of animals with transplanted sensory tissue. (Author)

  2. Condition-dependent reproductive effort in frogs infected by a widespread pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Roznik, Elizabeth A.; Sapsford, Sarah J.; Pike, David A.; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize the negative effects of an infection on fitness, hosts can respond adaptively by altering their reproductive effort or by adjusting their timing of reproduction. We studied effects of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on the probability of calling in a stream-breeding rainforest frog (Litoria rheocola). In uninfected frogs, calling probability was relatively constant across seasons and body conditions, but in infected frogs, calling probability differed among seasons (lowest in winter, highest in summer) and was strongly and positively related to body condition. Infected frogs in poor condition were up to 40% less likely to call than uninfected frogs, whereas infected frogs in good condition were up to 30% more likely to call than uninfected frogs. Our results suggest that frogs employed a pre-existing, plastic, life-history strategy in response to infection, which may have complex evolutionary implications. If infected males in good condition reproduce at rates equal to or greater than those of uninfected males, selection on factors affecting disease susceptibility may be minimal. However, because reproductive effort in infected males is positively related to body condition, there may be selection on mechanisms that limit the negative effects of infections on hosts. PMID:26063847

  3. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting túngara frogs

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Ximena E.; Pinto, C. Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus), a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.), were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (<1%). This finding suggests this protozoan parasite may be transmitted by frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes. PMID:26977404

  4. Ichthyophonus sp. (Ichthyophonae, Ichthyophonida) infection in a South American amphibian, the hylid frog Hypsiboas pulchellus.

    PubMed

    Borteiro, Claudio; Verdes, José Manuel; Cruz, Juan Carlos; Sabalsagaray, María Jesús; Kolenc, Francisco; Martínez Debat, Claudio; Ubilla, Martín

    2015-04-01

    We report infection by Ichthyophonus sp. in a South American amphibian, the hylid frog Hypsiboas pulchellus in Uruguay. This frog had a large subcutaneous mass over the urostyle and dorsal musculature comprised of parasitic cysts with mild granulomatous inflammation but otherwise appeared healthy.

  5. Population estimates for the Toiyabe population of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), 2004–10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Michael J.; Mellison, Chad; Galvan, Stephanie K.

    2013-01-01

    The Toiyabe population of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris, hereafter "Toiyabe frogs") is a geographically isolated population located in central Nevada (fig. 1). The Toiyabe population is part of the Great Basin Distinct Population Segment of Columbia spotted frogs, and is a candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The cluster of breeding sites in central Nevada represents the southernmost extremity of the Columbia spotted frogs' known range (Funk and others, 2008). Toiyabe frogs are known to occur in seven drainages in Nye County, Nevada: Reese River, Cow Canyon Creek, Ledbetter Canyon Creek, Cloverdale Creek, Stewart Creek, Illinois Creek, and Indian Valley Creek. Most of the Toiyabe frog population resides in the Reese River, Indian Valley Creek, and Cloverdale Creek drainages (fig. 1; Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2003). Approximately 90 percent of the Toiyabe frogs' habitat is on public land. Most of the public land habitat (95 percent) is managed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), while the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages the remainder. Additional Toiyabe frog habitat is under Yomba Shoshone Tribal management and in private ownership (Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2003). The BLM, USFS, Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW), Nevada Natural Heritage Program (NNHP), Nye County, and U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) have monitored the Toiyabe population since 2004 using mark and recapture surveys (Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2004). The USFWS contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to produce population estimates using these data.

  6. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Ximena E; Pinto, C Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus), a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.), were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (<1%). This finding suggests this protozoan parasite may be transmitted by frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes.

  7. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  8. The toxicity of Poison Dart Frog alkaloids against the Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of alkaloids, representing over 20 structural classes, have been identified from the skin of neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). These alkaloids are derived from arthropod prey of the frogs, and are generally are believed to deter vertebrate predators. We developed a method to put ind...

  9. Cryptic or mystic? Glacial tree refugia in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Tzedakis, P C; Emerson, B C; Hewitt, G M

    2013-12-01

    Here, we examine the evidence for tree refugia in northern Europe during the Late Pleniglacial (LPG) interval of maximum tree-range contraction. Our review highlights the often equivocal nature of genetic data and a tendency to overestimate potential tree distributions due to warm climate-model bias, and also reveals a convergence of macrofossil and pollen evidence. What emerges is the absence of temperate trees north of 45°N and a west-east (W-E) asymmetry in boreal tree distribution, with a treeless Western Europe north of 46°N, while restricted boreal populations persisted in Eastern Europe up to 49°N, and higher latitudes east of the Fennoscandian ice-sheet. These results have implications for current thinking on European genetic diversity patterns, species migration capacity, and conservation strategies.

  10. Only skin deep: shared genetic response to the deadly chytrid fungus in susceptible frog species.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Poorten, Thomas J; Settles, Matthew; Murdoch, Gordon K

    2012-07-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are threatened by an emerging infectious pathogen, the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). How can a fungal skin infection kill such a broad range of amphibian hosts? And do different host species have a similar response to Bd infection? Here, we use a genomics approach to understand the genetic response of multiple susceptible frog species to Bd infection. We characterize the transcriptomes of two closely related endangered frog species (Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae) and analyse whole genome expression profiles from frogs in controlled Bd infection experiments. We integrate the Rana results with a comparable data set from a more distantly related susceptible species (Silurana tropicalis). We demonstrate that Bd-infected frogs show massive disruption of skin function and show no evidence of a robust immune response. The genetic response to infection is shared across the focal susceptible species, suggesting a common effect of Bd on susceptible frogs.

  11. Embryogenesis and laboratory maintenance of the foam-nesting túngara frogs, genus Engystomops (= Physalaemus)

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Carvajal, Andrés; Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Venegas-Ferrín, Michael; Almeida-Reinoso, Diego; Lee, Chanjae; Bond, Jennifer; Ryan, Michael J.; Wallingford, John B.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of embryological research on amphibians focuses on just a single genus of frogs, Xenopus. To attain a more comprehensive understanding of amphibian development, experimentation on non-model frogs will be essential. Here, we report on the early development, rearing, and embryological analysis of túngara frogs (genus Engystomops, also called Physaleamus). The frogs Engystomops pustulosus, Engystomops coloradorum and Engystomops randi construct floating foam-nests with small eggs. We define a table of 23 stages for the developmental period in the foam-nest. Embryos were immunostained against Lim1, neural, and somite-specific proteins and the expression pattern of RetinoBlastoma Binding Protein 6 (RBBP6) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Due to their brief life-cycle, frogs belonging to the genus Engystomops are attractive for comparative and genetic studies of development. PMID:19384855

  12. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from minnesota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schotthoefer, A.M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, R.A.; Beasley, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  13. Embryogenesis and laboratory maintenance of the foam-nesting túngara frogs, genus Engystomops (= Physalaemus).

    PubMed

    Romero-Carvajal, Andrés; Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Venegas-Ferrín, Michael; Almeida-Reinoso, Diego; Lee, Chanjae; Bond, Jennifer; Ryan, Michael J; Wallingford, John B; Del Pino, Eugenia M

    2009-06-01

    The vast majority of embryological research on amphibians focuses on just a single genus of frogs, Xenopus. To attain a more comprehensive understanding of amphibian development, experimentation on non-model frogs will be essential. Here, we report on the early development, rearing, and embryological analysis of túngara frogs (genus Engystomops, also called Physalaemus). The frogs Engystomops pustulosus, Engystomops coloradorum, and Engystomops randi construct floating foam-nests with small eggs. We define a table of 23 stages for the developmental period in the foam-nest. Embryos were immunostained against Lim1, neural, and somite-specific proteins and the expression pattern of RetinoBlastoma Binding Protein 6 (RBBP6) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Due to their brief life-cycle, frogs belonging to the genus Engystomops are attractive for comparative and genetic studies of development. Developmental Dynamics 238:1444-1454, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Reproductive strategies of leopard toad and mascarene frog from Giza, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Akef, Mamdouh S A

    2014-01-01

    I examined the reproductive strategies of leopard toad and mascarene frog by studying their annual vitellogenic cycle, monthly changes of masses of ovary, liver and fat bodies as well as egg size and number in two study areas, Abo Roash and El Mansuriya, and in the years 2001, 2005, and 2008-2009, particularly during the final two years of that period. Based on the presence of the mature ova, I found that vitellogenic cycle is continuous in toad, but discontinuous in frog. Further, leopard body reserves allocated more energy to vitellogenesis than did mascarene frog. Hence, fecundity in toad was higher than that in frog, as associated with higher egg number and size. During oviposition, female mascarene retained a small portion of a clutch, whereas toad shed all egg mass at once. Over the study period, both body and reproductive conditions reacted positively in toad, but negatively in frog. Warm temperature and long photoperiod elucidated ovarian development under high relative humidity in frog. In contrast, in toad, low relative humidity may be an environmental cue for the increase in ovarian mass. Thus, higher sexual activities occurred in spring for toad (dry environment), but in moist summer for frog. Ovarian mass and egg number were temperature-dependent in frog, but independent in toad. Relative humidity correlated significantly and negatively to egg size in both populations. It also related inversely to egg number in toad, but not in frog. Hence, eggs of the frog are controlled by both temperature and humidity in summer season. Rainfall had no effect on sexual parameters in both species.

  15. Acoustic Monitoring System for Frog Population Estimation Using In-Situ Progressive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboudan, Adam

    Frog populations are considered excellent bio-indicators and hence the ability to monitor changes in their populations can be very useful for ecological research and environmental monitoring. This thesis presents a new population estimation approach based on the recognition of individual frogs of the same species, namely the Pseudacris Regilla (Pacific Chorus Frog), which does not rely on the availability of prior training data. An in-situ progressive learning algorithm is developed to determine whether an incoming call belongs to a previously detected individual frog or a newly encountered individual frog. A temporal call overlap detector is also presented as a pre-processing tool to eliminate overlapping calls. This is done to prevent the degrading of the learning process. The approach uses Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and multivariate Gaussian models to achieve individual frog recognition. In the first part of this thesis, the MFCC as well as the related linear predictive cepstral coefficients (LPCC) acoustic feature extraction processes are reviewed. The Gaussian mixture models (GMM) are also reviewed as an extension to the classical Gaussian modeling used in the proposed approach. In the second part of this thesis, the proposed frog population estimation system is presented and discussed in detail. The proposed system involves several different components including call segmentation, feature extraction, overlap detection, and the in-situ progressive learning process. In the third part of the thesis, data description and system performance results are provided. The process of synthetically generating test sequences of real frog calls, which are applied to the proposed system for performance analysis, is described. Also, the results of the system performance are presented which show that the system is successful in distinguishing individual frogs, hence capable of providing reasonable estimates of the frog population. The system can readily be

  16. Functional evolution of jumping in frogs: Interspecific differences in take-off and landing.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Stephen M; Montuelle, Stephane J; Schmidt, André; Krause, Cornelia; Naylor, Emily; Essner, Richard L

    2016-03-01

    Ancestral frogs underwent anatomical shifts including elongation of the hindlimbs and pelvis and reduction of the tail and vertebral column that heralded the transition to jumping as a primary mode of locomotion. Jumping has been hypothesized to have evolved in a step-wise fashion with basal frogs taking-off with synchronous hindlimb extension and crash-landing on their bodies, and then their limbs move forward. Subsequently, frogs began to recycle the forelimbs forward earlier in the jump to control landing. Frogs with forelimb landing radiated into many forms, locomotor modes, habitats, and niches with controlled landing thought to improve escape behavior. While the biology of take-off behavior has seen considerable study, interspecific comparisons of take-off and landing behavior are limited. In order to understand the evolution of jumping and controlled landing in frogs, data are needed on the movements of the limbs and body across an array of taxa. Here, we present the first description and comparison of kinematics of the hindlimbs, forelimbs and body during take-off and landing in relation to ground reaction forces in four frog species spanning the frog phylogeny. The goal of this study is to understand what interspecific differences reveal about the evolution of take-off and controlled landing in frogs. We provide the first comparative description of the entire process of jumping in frogs. Statistical comparisons identify both homologous behaviors and significant differences among species that are used to map patterns of trait evolution and generate hypotheses regarding the functional evolution of take-off and landing in frogs.

  17. Dynamics of testis-ova in a wild population of Japanese pond frogs, Rana nigromaculata.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Sugishima, Tomomi; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies have reported the occurrence of testis-ova in wild frog populations, the origin and trigger of testis-ova differentiation/development remain unclear. A high frequency of testis-ova has been previously reported for wild populations of the Japanese pond frog, Rana nigromaculata (cf. Iwasawa and Asai, '59). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the dynamics of testis-ova in this frog species, including the origin and artificial induction of testis-ova. Testis-ova were observed in both mature frogs and puberty-stage frogs (i.e., 0- and 1-year-old frogs). However, the early stages of testis-ova (~pachytene stage) were mostly observed in puberty-stage male frogs at the onset of spermatogenesis. The early stages of testis-ova were observed in the cysts of early secondary spermatogonia and the single cysts of the primary spermatogonium. This finding indicates that testis-ova differentiation occurs during spermatogonial proliferation and that it is correlated with the initiation of spermatogenesis. We also examined whether estrogen exposure induced testis-ova differentiation and how it is correlated with the progression of spermatogenesis. When 1-year-old frogs were exposed to estradiol-17β during spring (i.e., when spermatogenesis was initiated), testis-ova differentiation was induced in a dose-dependent manner. However, this phenomenon did not occur in 1-year-old frogs during summer, (i.e., when the transition from spermatogonia to spermatocytes mainly occurs). These results present the first evidence that testis-ova of the Japanese pond frog are derived from primary and early secondary spermatogonia, and that estrogen exposure induces testis-ova differentiation accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis.

  18. Quantum decision tree classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Songfeng; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2013-11-01

    We study the quantum version of a decision tree classifier to fill the gap between quantum computation and machine learning. The quantum entropy impurity criterion which is used to determine which node should be split is presented in the paper. By using the quantum fidelity measure between two quantum states, we cluster the training data into subclasses so that the quantum decision tree can manipulate quantum states. We also propose algorithms constructing the quantum decision tree and searching for a target class over the tree for a new quantum object.

  19. Fragmentation of random trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ziya; Ben-Naim, Eli

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the fragmentation of a random recursive tree by repeated removal of nodes, resulting in a forest of disjoint trees. The initial tree is generated by sequentially attaching new nodes to randomly chosen existing nodes until the tree contains N nodes. As nodes are removed, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely a forest. We study the statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest. In the limit N --> ∞ , we find that the system is characterized by a single parameter: the fraction of remaining nodes m. We obtain analytically the size density ϕs of trees of size s, which has a power-law tail ϕs ~s-α , with exponent α = 1 + 1 / m . Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, producing an unusual scaling exponent that increases continuously with time. Furthermore, we investigate the fragment size distribution in a growing tree, where nodes are added as well as removed, and find that the distribution for this case is much narrower.

  20. arb_tree_32

    SciTech Connect

    Bavykin, Sergey; Alferov, Oleg

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to generate probes specific for the group of sequences that belong to a given phylogenetic node. For each node of the input tree, this program selects probes that are positive for all sequences that belong to this node and negative for all that doesn't. The program uses condensed tree for probe representation to save computer memory. As a result of calculation, the program prints lists for each node from the tree. Input file formats: FASTA for sequence database and ARB tree for phylogenetic organization of nodes. Output file format: text file.

  1. Constraints in naming parts of the Tree of Life.

    PubMed

    Hillis, David M

    2007-02-01

    There are now overlapping codes of nomenclature that govern some of the same names of biological taxa. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) uses the non-evolutionary concept of a "type species" to fix the names of animal taxa to particular ranks in the nomenclatural hierarchy. The PhyloCode, in contrast, uses phylogenetic definitions for supraspecific taxa at any hierarchical level within the Tree of Life (without associating the names to particular ranks), but does not deal with the names of species. Thus, biologists who develop classifications of animals need to use both systems of nomenclature, or else operate without formal rules for the names of some taxa (either species or many monophyletic groups). In addition, the ICZN does not permit the unique naming of many taxa that are considered to be between the ranks of genus and species. Hillis and Wilcox [Hillis, D.M., Wilcox, T.P., 2005. Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 34, 299-314] provided recommendations for the classification of New World true frogs that utilized the ICZN to provide names for species, and the PhyloCode to provide names for supraspecific taxa. Nonetheless, they created new taxon names that followed both sets of rules, to avoid conflicting classifications. They also recommended that established names for both species and clades be used whenever possible, to stabilize the names of both species and clades under either set of rules, and to avoid conflicting nomenclatures. Dubois [Dubois, A., 2006. Naming taxa from cladograms: a cautionary tale. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42, 317-330] objected to these principles, and argued that the names provided by Hillis and Wilcox [Hillis, D.M., Wilcox, T.P., 2005. Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 34, 299-314] are unavailable under the ICZN, and that the two nomenclatural systems are incompatible. Here, I argue that he is incorrect in these assertions, and present

  2. Leapfrogging into new territory: How Mascarene ridged frogs diversified across Africa and Madagascar to maintain their ecological niche.

    PubMed

    Zimkus, Breda M; Lawson, Lucinda P; Barej, Michael F; Barratt, Christopher D; Channing, Alan; Dash, Katrina M; Dehling, J Maximilian; Du Preez, Louis; Gehring, Philip-Sebastian; Greenbaum, Eli; Gvoždík, Václav; Harvey, James; Kielgast, Jos; Kusamba, Chifundera; Nagy, Zoltán T; Pabijan, Maciej; Penner, Johannes; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Vences, Miguel; Lötters, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The Mascarene ridged frog, Ptychadena mascareniensis, is a species complex that includes numerous lineages occurring mostly in humid savannas and open forests of mainland Africa, Madagascar, the Seychelles, and the Mascarene Islands. Sampling across this broad distribution presents an opportunity to examine the genetic differentiation within this complex and to investigate how the evolution of bioclimatic niches may have shaped current biogeographic patterns. Using model-based phylogenetic methods and molecular-clock dating, we constructed a time-calibrated molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the group based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome b (cytb) genes and the nuclear RAG1 gene from 173 individuals. Haplotype networks were reconstructed and species boundaries were investigated using three species-delimitation approaches: Bayesian generalized mixed Yule-coalescent model (bGMYC), the Poisson Tree Process model (PTP) and a cluster algorithm (SpeciesIdentifier). Estimates of similarity in bioclimatic niche were calculated from species-distribution models (maxent) and multivariate statistics (Principal Component Analysis, Discriminant Function Analysis). Ancestral-area reconstructions were performed on the phylogeny using probabilistic approaches implemented in BioGeoBEARS. We detected high levels of genetic differentiation yielding ten distinct lineages or operational taxonomic units, and Central Africa was found to be a diversity hotspot for these frogs. Most speciation events took place throughout the Miocene, including "out-of-Africa" overseas dispersal events to Madagascar in the East and to São Tomé in the West. Bioclimatic niche was remarkably well conserved, with most species tolerating similar temperature and rainfall conditions common to the Central African region. The P. mascareniensis complex provides insights into how bioclimatic niche shaped the current biogeographic patterns with niche conservatism being exhibited by the Central African

  3. Hiding in the highlands: evolution of a frog species complex of the genus Ptychadena in the Ethiopian highlands.

    PubMed

    Freilich, Xenia; Tollis, Marc; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    The Ethiopian highlands are a biodiversity hotspot characterized by a high level of endemism, particularly in amphibians. Frogs of the genus Ptychadena have experienced an evolutionary radiation in these highlands. Thus, this group provides an excellent opportunity to study the process of speciation in this important biogeographic area. We sequenced two mitochondrial (16S and COI) and four nuclear (Rag-1, CXCR4, NCX1 and Tyr) genes in a sample of 236 frogs from 49 Ethiopian localities. Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial genes revealed the presence of eight divergent mitochondrial lineages. We uncovered a near perfect concordance between these lineages and genetic clusters based on nuclear sequences. A Bayesian species delimitation analysis confirmed that these eight lineages correspond to eight genetically isolated populations which may represent eight species. Some of these species have already been recognized due to their distinct morphology (P. cooperi, P. nana and P. erlangeri) but we determined that the species P. neumanni is a complex of 5 cryptic species, thus increasing substantially the number of species in this genus and for this country. We resolved the phylogeny of Ethiopian highland Ptychadena using a species tree approach and determined that Ptychadena species group on the phylogeny according to their habitat preference. We propose that the diversity of Ethiopian Ptychadena results from an early phase of specialization to distinct elevations followed by a phase of ecological diversification within each elevational range. We estimated that the early phase of diversification of Ethiopian Ptychadena probably occurred in the late Miocene and the most recent speciation events in the late-Pliocene or Pleistocene.

  4. The birth of aposematism: High phenotypic divergence and low genetic diversity in a young clade of poison frogs.

    PubMed

    Tarvin, Rebecca D; Powell, Emily A; Santos, Juan C; Ron, Santiago R; Cannatella, David C

    2017-01-13

    Rapid radiation coupled with low genetic divergence often hinders species delimitation and phylogeny estimation even if putative species are phenotypically distinct. Some aposematic species, such as poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), have high levels of intraspecific color polymorphism, which can lead to overestimation of species when phenotypic divergence primarily guides species delimitation. We explored this possibility in the youngest origin of aposematism (3-7 MYA) in poison frogs, Epipedobates, by comparing genetic divergence with color and acoustic divergence. We found low genetic divergence (2.6% in the 16S gene) despite substantial differences in color and acoustic signals. While chemical defense is inferred to have evolved in the ancestor of Epipedobates, aposematic coloration evolved at least twice or was lost once in Epipedobates, suggesting that it is evolutionarily labile. We inferred at least one event of introgression between two cryptically colored species with adjacent ranges (E. boulengeri and E. machalilla). We also find evidence for peripheral isolation resulting in phenotypic divergence and potential speciation of the aposematic E. tricolor from the non-aposematic E. machalilla. However, we were unable to estimate a well-supported species tree or delimit species using multispecies coalescent models. We attribute this failure to factors associated with recent speciation including mitochondrial introgression, incomplete lineage sorting, and too few informative molecular characters. We suggest that species delimitation within young aposematic lineages such as Epipedobates will require genome-level molecular studies. We caution against relying solely on DNA barcoding for species delimitation or identification and highlight the value of phenotypic divergence and natural history in delimiting species.

  5. The calcium paradox in isolated frog heart: Ringer revisited.

    PubMed

    Ruigrok, T J; Slade, A M; Poole-Wilson, P A

    1983-12-01

    Restoration of a normal calcium concentration in the perfusate of isolated hearts after a short period of calcium-free perfusion may result in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). We have compared the calcium paradox in rat and frog hearts. Perfusion with zero calcium for 8 min at 37 degrees C predisposed the rat heart to the paradox. After the reintroduction of calcium to the perfusate resting tension rose, developed tension did not recover, ultrastructural changes occurred and enzyme loss was substantial. In the frog heart a calcium paradox did not occur after 8 min of calcium-free perfusion at 23 degrees C. Removal of both potassium and calcium caused a rise in resting tension on reintroduction of control solution, but the rise was only transient and absent if potassium was present during the perfusion with zero calcium. At 37 degrees C no complete calcium paradox occurred after 8 min calcium-free perfusion. Only a small rise in resting tension was apparent, and developed tension partially recovered. A calcium paradox could only be induced in the frog heart after calcium-free perfusion at 37 degrees C for 30 min. Ultrastructural changes were apparent and resting tension rose but even under these conditions the recovery of developed tension was not abolished. Release of creatine kinase was 161 +/- 55 IU/g dry tissue during the 15 min after reintroduction of calcium (n = 5). Calcium-free perfusion for 8 min resulted in a smaller release of creatine kinase over 15 min (39 +/- 11 IU/g dry tissue. n = 5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Surveys for presence of Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa): background information and field methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Clayton, David; Turner, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is the most aquatic of the native frogs in the Pacific Northwest. The common name derives from the pattern of black, ragged-edged spots set against a brown or red ground color on the dorsum of adult frogs. Oregon spotted frogs are generally associated with wetland complexes that have several aquatic habitat types and sizeable coverage of emergent vegetation. Like other ranid frogs native to the Northwest, Oregon spotted frogs breed in spring, larvae transform in summer of their breeding year, and adults tend to be relatively short lived (3-5 yrs). Each life stage (egg, tadpole, juvenile and adult) has characteristics that present challenges for detection. Breeding can be explosive and completed within 1-2 weeks. Egg masses are laid in aggregations, often in a few locations in large areas of potential habitat. Egg masses can develop, hatch, and disintegrate in <2 weeks during warm weather. Tadpoles can be difficult to identify, have low survival, and spend most of their 3-4 months hidden in vegetation or flocculant substrates. Juveniles and adults are often difficult to capture and can spend summers away from breeding areas. Moreover, a substantial portion of extant populations are of limited size (<100 breeding adults), and field densities of all life stages are often low. An understanding of the biology of the species and use of multiple visits are thus important for assessing presence of Oregon spotted frogs. This report is meant to be a resource for USDA Region 6 Forest Service (FS) and OR/WA Bureau of Land Management (BLM) personnel tasked with surveying for the presence of Oregon spotted frogs. Our objective was to summarize information to improve the efficiency of field surveys and increase chances of detection if frogs are present. We include overviews of historical and extant ranges of Oregon spotted frog. We briefly summarize what is known of Oregon spotted frog habitat associations and review aspects of behavior and

  7. FROG: Time Series Analysis for the Web Service Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.

    2005-12-01

    The FROG application is part of the next generation Starlink{http://www.starlink.ac.uk} software work (Draper et al. 2005) and released under the GNU Public License{http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html} (GPL). Written in Java, it has been designed for the Web and Grid Service era as an extensible, pluggable, tool for time series analysis and display. With an integrated SOAP server the packages functionality is exposed to the user for use in their own code, and to be used remotely over the Grid, as part of the Virtual Observatory (VO).

  8. Evolutionary and natural history of the turtle frog, Myobatrachus gouldii, a bizarre myobatrachid frog in the southwestern Australian biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Vertucci, Samantha; Pepper, Mitzy; Edwards, Danielle L.; Roberts, J. Dale; Mitchell, Nicola; Keogh, J. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Southwest Australia (SWA) is a global biodiversity hotspot and a centre of diversity and endemism for the Australo-Papuan myobatrachid frogs. Myobatrachus gouldii (the turtle frog) has a highly derived morphology associated with its forward burrowing behaviour, largely subterranean habit, and unusual mode of reproduction. Its sister genera Metacrinia and Arenophryne have restricted distributions in Western Australia with significant phylogeographic structure, leading to the recent description of a new species in the latter. In contrast, Myobatrachus is distributed widely throughout SWA over multiple climatic zones, but little is known of its population structure, geographic variation in morphology, or reproduction. We generated molecular and morphological data to test for genetic and morphological variation, and to assess whether substrate specialisation in this species may have led to phylogeographic structuring similar to that of other plant and animal taxa in SWA. We assembled sequence data for one mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA loci (3628 base pairs) for 42 turtle frogs sampled throughout their range. Likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed shallow phylogeographic structure in the mtDNA locus (up to 3.3% genetic distance) and little variation in three of the four nDNA loci. The mtDNA haplotype network suggests five geographically allopatric groups, with no shared haplotypes between regions. These geographic patterns are congruent with several other SWA species, with genetic groups restricted to major hydrological divisions, the Swan Coastal Plain, and the Darling Scarp. The geographically structured genetic groups showed no evidence of significant morphological differentiation (242 individuals), and there was little sexual size dimorphism, but subtle differences in reproductive traits suggest more opportunistic breeding in lower rainfall zones. Call data were compared to sister genera Metacrinia and Arenophryne and found to be highly conservative across

  9. Tree nut oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  10. Trees Are Terrific!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including…

  11. CSI for Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Darrin L.; Hanson, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The circles and patterns in a tree's stem tell a story, but that story can be a mystery. Interpreting the story of tree rings provides a way to heighten the natural curiosity of students and help them gain insight into the interaction of elements in the environment. It also represents a wonderful opportunity to incorporate the nature of science.…

  12. The Flame Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Lewis's own experiences living in Indonesia are fertile ground for telling "a ripping good story," one found in "The Flame Tree." He hopes people will enjoy the tale and appreciate the differences of an unfamiliar culture. The excerpt from "The Flame Tree" will reel readers in quickly.

  13. Fragmentation of random trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Z.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N\\to ∞ . We obtain analytically the size density {{φ }s} of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail {{φ }s}˜ {{s}-α } with exponent α =1+\\frac{1}{m}. Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees.

  14. Trees for Mother Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sandy

    1993-01-01

    Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)

  15. Reclamation: what about trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kolar, C.A.; Ashby, W.C.

    1982-07-01

    A five-year research programme was started in 1978 in the Botany Department of Southern Illinois University to evaluate the effect of reclamation practices on tree survival and growth. The project was initiated as a direct result of reports from Illinois and Indiana of tree-planting failures on mined lands reclaimed to current regulation standards.

  16. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  17. Trees in Our Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on how trees have influenced human history and how trees affect people today; (2) four activities dealing with these topics; and (3) a ready-to-copy page related to paper and plastics. Activities include an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  18. Dependency Tree Annotation Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Features 5 Distribution List 12 iv List of Figures Fig. 1 Manually created dependency tree for the sentence, “The little cat ate the pie...with a dependency relation label. Fig. 1 Manually created dependency tree for the sentence, “The little cat ate the pie” The user can easily

  19. Field guide to malformations of frogs and toads, with radiographic interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, Carol U.

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, students found numerous malformed frogs on a field trip to a Minnesota pond. Since that time, reports of malformed frogs have increased dramatically. Malformed frogs have now been reported in 44 states in 38 species of frogs, and 19 species of toads. Estimates as high as 60% of the newly metamorphosed frog populations have had malformations at some ponds (NARCAM, ’99). The wide geographic distribution of malformed frogs and the variety of malformations are a concern to resource managers, research scientists and public health officials. The potential for malformations to serve as a signal of ecosystem disruption, and the affect this potential disruption might have on other organisms that share those ecosystems, has not been resolved. Malformations represent an error that occurred early in development. The event that caused the developmental error is temporally distant from the malformation we see in the fully developed animal. Knowledge of normal developmental principles is necessary to design thoughtful investigations that will define the events involved in abnormal development in wild frog populations.

  20. Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area. PMID:25411379

  1. Adult frogs are sensitive to the predation risks of olfactory communication.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Rowena; Lemckert, Francis L; Banks, Peter B

    2011-06-23

    Olfaction is a common sensory mode of communication in much of the Vertebrata, although its use by adult frogs remains poorly studied. Being part of an open signalling system, odour cues can be exploited by 'eavesdropping' predators that hunt by smell, making association with odour a high-risk behaviour for prey. Here, we show that adult great barred frogs (Mixophes fasciolatus) are highly attracted to odour cues of conspecifics and those of sympatric striped marsh frogs (Limnodynastes peronii). This attraction decreased significantly with the addition of odours of a scent-hunting predator, the red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus), indicating that frogs perceived predation risks from associating with frog odours. Male frogs, however, maintained some attraction to unfamiliar conspecific scents even with predator odours present, suggesting that they perceived benefits of odour communication despite the risk. Our results indicate that adult frogs can identify species and individuals from their odours and assess the associated predation risk, revealing a complexity in olfactory communication previously unknown in adult anurans.

  2. Temperature and evaporative water loss of leaf-sitting frogs: the role of reflection spectra

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Chris; Dickinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The near infrared reflection peak in some frogs has been speculated to be either for enhancing crypticity, or to help them with thermoregulation. The theoretical background for the thermoregulatory processes has been established before, but little consideration has been given to the contribution from the frogs' reflection spectra differences. In this investigation, the reflection spectra from a range of different species of frogs were taken and combined with precise surface area measurements of frogs and an approximation to the mass transfer coefficient of agar frog models. These were then used to simulate the temperature and water evaporation in anurans with and without the near infrared reflective peak. We have shown that the presence of the near infrared reflection peak can contribute significantly to the temperature and evaporative water loss of a frog. The significance of the steady-state temperature differences between frogs with and without the near infrared reflection peak is discussed in a realistic and an extreme scenario. Temperature differences of up to 3.2°C were found, and the rehydration period was increased by up to 16.7%, although this does not reduce the number of rehydration events between dawn and dusk. PMID:27793832

  3. Temperature and evaporative water loss of leaf-sitting frogs: the role of reflection spectra.

    PubMed

    Herrerías-Azcué, Francisco; Blount, Chris; Dickinson, Mark

    2016-12-15

    The near infrared reflection peak in some frogs has been speculated to be either for enhancing crypticity, or to help them with thermoregulation. The theoretical background for the thermoregulatory processes has been established before, but little consideration has been given to the contribution from the frogs' reflection spectra differences. In this investigation, the reflection spectra from a range of different species of frogs were taken and combined with precise surface area measurements of frogs and an approximation to the mass transfer coefficient of agar frog models. These were then used to simulate the temperature and water evaporation in anurans with and without the near infrared reflective peak. We have shown that the presence of the near infrared reflection peak can contribute significantly to the temperature and evaporative water loss of a frog. The significance of the steady-state temperature differences between frogs with and without the near infrared reflection peak is discussed in a realistic and an extreme scenario. Temperature differences of up to 3.2°C were found, and the rehydration period was increased by up to 16.7%, although this does not reduce the number of rehydration events between dawn and dusk.

  4. Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest.

    PubMed

    Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area.

  5. Prevalence of malformed frogs in Kaoping and Tungkang river basins of southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Ji; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Yin

    2010-05-01

    In this study we found many amphibians with bizarre appearances, known as malformations in Pingtung County southern Taiwan. For this investigation we collected frogs inhabiting the Kaoping and Tungkang river watersheds between February 2006 and June 2007. Among the total number of 10,909 normal frogs (i.e., anurans) collected during the investigation period, the Indian rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) account for the greatest number next is the Chinese bullfrog (Rana rugulosa). Of all the 244 captured malformed frogs, the Indian rice frog account for the greatest proportion. These malformed frogs have their main distribution in upstream areas of these two rivers. Our result indicates that the appearance rate of malformed frogs is 1.8% in the upstream reaches of the Kaoping River and 2.6%, and 0.8%, respectively in the upstream and midstream reaches of the Tungkang river. The most-commonly-found malformation is the lack of palms, followed by the lack of appendages, exostosis, and a malformed appendicular. It is, therefore, reasonable to speculate that the causes for the malformation may be related to the increased organic pollutants and agricultural chemicals used in the upstream reaches of these two rivers.

  6. Leopard frog PCB levels and evaluation of EROD as a biomarker in Green Bay ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    The induction of mixed function oxidases has been shown to be a promising biomarker in many taxa of wildlife, though not yet tested for amphibians. The three hypotheses tested in this study were (1) activities of hepatic EROD of leopard frog (Rana pipiens) are induced following exposure to planar chlorinated PCBs, (2) tissue PCB residue levels of leopard frogs are positively correlated with their wetland sediment PCB levels, and (3) EROD activities are positively correlated with tissue PCB concentrations and sediment PCB. In the laboratory, EROD was increased 2--3 times seven days after i.p. injection with PCB 126 at doses {ge} 2.3 ppm (wet mass basis). Leopard frogs from seven sites along the Lower Fox River and Green Bay in 1994--1995 were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and total PCB levels in carcasses. Tissue PCB levels ranged from 3 to 152 ppb (including coplanar congeners) and were highest from sites with higher sediment PCB. EROD activity in frogs collected in August--September was not significantly correlated with frog body mass and was similar among sites with one exception. There was no significant correlation between EROD activity and tissue PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB levels compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory. The authors conclude that EROD activity is not a sensitive biomarker of PCB exposure in leopard frogs in this ecosystem.

  7. Landing in basal frogs: evidence of saltational patterns in the evolution of anuran locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essner, Richard L.; Suffian, Daniel J.; Bishop, Phillip J.; Reilly, Stephen M.

    2010-10-01

    All frogs are assumed to jump in a similar manner by rapidly extending hindlimbs during the propulsive phase and rotating the limbs forward during flight in order to land forelimbs first. However, studies of jumping behavior are lacking in the most primitive living frogs of the family Leiopelmatidae. These semi-aquatic or terrestrial anurans retain a suite of plesiomorphic morphological features and are unique in using an asynchronous (trot-like) rather than synchronous “frog-kick” swimming gait of other frogs. We compared jumping behavior in leiopelmatids to more derived frogs and found that leiopelmatids maintain extended hindlimbs throughout flight and landing phases and do not land on adducted forelimbs. These “belly-flop” landings limit the ability for repeated jumps and are consistent with a riparian origin of jumping in frogs. The unique behavior of leiopelmatids shows that frogs evolved jumping before they perfected landing. Moreover, an inability to rapidly cycle the limbs may provide a functional explanation for the absence of synchronous swimming in leiopelmatids.

  8. Chasing maximal performance: a cautionary tale from the celebrated jumping frogs of Calaveras County.

    PubMed

    Astley, H C; Abbott, E M; Azizi, E; Marsh, R L; Roberts, T J

    2013-11-01

    Maximal performance is an essential metric for understanding many aspects of an organism's biology, but it can be difficult to determine because a measured maximum may reflect only a peak level of effort, not a physiological limit. We used a unique opportunity provided by a frog jumping contest to evaluate the validity of existing laboratory estimates of maximum jumping performance in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). We recorded video of 3124 bullfrog jumps over the course of the 4-day contest at the Calaveras County Jumping Frog Jubilee, and determined jump distance from these images and a calibration of the jump arena. Frogs were divided into two groups: 'rental' frogs collected by fair organizers and jumped by the general public, and frogs collected and jumped by experienced, 'professional' teams. A total of 58% of recorded jumps surpassed the maximum jump distance in the literature (1.295 m), and the longest jump was 2.2 m. Compared with rental frogs, professionally jumped frogs jumped farther, and the distribution of jump distances for this group was skewed towards long jumps. Calculated muscular work, historical records and the skewed distribution of jump distances all suggest that the longest jumps represent the true performance limit for this species. Using resampling, we estimated the probability of observing a given jump distance for various sample sizes, showing that large sample sizes are required to detect rare maximal jumps. These results show the importance of sample size, animal motivation and physiological conditions for accurate maximal performance estimates.

  9. Project Learning Tree (Corporate Propaganda Tree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Mike

    This document contains a critical analysis of Project Learning Tree (PLT). PLT was developed and distributed in the mid-1970s. It consists of 2 activity guides, one for grades K-6 with 89 activities and another for grades 7-12 with 88 activities. The program also provides free workshops for teachers and others. The analysis of PLT includes the…

  10. Female Túngara Frogs do not Experience the Continuity Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, Alexander T.; Ryan, Michael J.; Bernal, Ximena E.; Rand, A. Stanley; Bee, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    In humans and some non-human vertebrates, a sound containing brief silent gaps can be rendered perceptually continuous by inserting noise into the gaps. This so-called ‘continuity illusion’ arises from a phenomenon known as ‘auditory induction’ and results in the perception of complete auditory objects despite fragmentary or incomplete acoustic information. Previous studies of auditory induction in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor and H. chrysoscelis) have demonstrated an absence of this phenomenon. These treefrog species produce pulsatile (non-continuous) vocalizations, whereas studies of auditory induction in other taxa, including humans, often present continuous sounds (e.g., frequency-modulated sweeps). This study investigated the continuity illusion in a frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) with an advertisement vocalization that is naturally continuous and thus similar to the tonal sweeps used in human psychophysical studies of auditory induction. In a series of playback experiments, female subjects were presented with sets of stimuli that included complete calls, calls with silent gaps, and calls with silent gaps filled with noise. The results failed to provide evidence of auditory induction. Current evidence, therefore, suggests that mammals and birds experience auditory induction, but frogs may not. This emerging pattern of taxonomic differences is considered in light of potential methodological, neurophysiological, and functional explanations. PMID:26692450

  11. Phenotypic integration emerges from aposematism and scale in poison frogs

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Juan C.; Cannatella, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Complex phenotypes can be modeled as networks of component traits connected by genetic, developmental, or functional interactions. Aposematism, which has evolved multiple times in poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), links a warning signal to a chemical defense against predators. Other traits are involved in this complex phenotype. Most aposematic poison frogs are ant specialists, from which they sequester defensive alkaloids. We found that aposematic species have greater aerobic capacity, also related to diet specialization. To characterize the aposematic trait network more fully, we analyzed phylogenetic correlations among its hypothesized components: conspicuousness, chemical defense, diet specialization, body mass, active and resting metabolic rates, and aerobic scope. Conspicuous coloration was correlated with all components except resting metabolism. Structural equation modeling on the basis of trait correlations recovered “aposematism” as one of two latent variables in an integrated phenotypic network, the other being scaling with body mass and physiology (“scale”). Chemical defense and diet specialization were uniquely tied to aposematism whereas conspicuousness was related to scale. The phylogenetic distribution of the aposematic syndrome suggests two scenarios for its evolution: (i) chemical defense and conspicuousness preceded greater aerobic capacity, which supports the increased resource-gathering abilities required of ant–mite diet specialization; and (ii) assuming that prey are patchy, diet specialization and greater aerobic capacity evolved in tandem, and both traits subsequently facilitated the evolution of aposematism. PMID:21444790

  12. PVC Pipe Samplers for Hylid Frogs: A Cautionary Note

    SciTech Connect

    MARTIN, FLOYD

    2004-04-07

    When such is available, many hylid frogs use artificial refugia, and this trait is frequently used as a basis for sampling populations of these frogs. Artificial refugia are any manmade objects that the animals may use for shelter (e.g. bird houses, bamboo stakes, lengths of pipe, etc.). By choosing refugia that the animals will readily enter and from which they may be easily removed, sampling can be directed toward particular species or size classes. Several variables have been considered when examining bias in sampling using these refugia. Among these variables are inside diameter of the pipes, pipe length, associated vegetation and height above ground. Our observations were not intended as an evaluation of polyvinyl chloride pipe traps as a sampling technique but rather were part of a study examining invertebrate and amphibian faunas associated with slope wetlands. Slope wetlands are wetlands formed where soil contours favor outcropping of water to the surface to form pools or channels often connected to streams. Despite the apparently small amount of appropriate data in this study, there are few enough quantified or semi-quantified data on this topic to be worth a cautionary note.

  13. The genetic structure of a relict population of wood frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scherer, Rick; Muths, Erin; Noon, Barry; Oyler-McCance, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and the associated reduction in connectivity between habitat patches are commonly cited causes of genetic differentiation and reduced genetic variation in animal populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in a relict population of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvatica) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, where recent disturbances have altered hydrologic processes and fragmented amphibian habitat. We also estimated migration rates among subpopulations, tested for a pattern of isolation-by-distance, and looked for evidence of a recent population bottleneck. The results from the clustering algorithm in Program STRUCTURE indicated the population is partitioned into two genetic clusters (subpopulations), and this result was further supported by factorial component analysis. In addition, an estimate of FST (FST = 0.0675, P value \\0.0001) supported the genetic differentiation of the two clusters. Estimates of migration rates among the two subpopulations were low, as were estimates of genetic variability. Conservation of the population of wood frogs may be improved by increasing the spatial distribution of the population and improving gene flow between the subpopulations. Construction or restoration of wetlands in the landscape between the clusters has the potential to address each of these objectives.

  14. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure.

  15. Manipulating the fragile X mental retardation proteins in the frog.

    PubMed

    Huot, Marc-Etienne; Bisson, Nicolas; Moss, Thomas; Khandjian, Edouard W

    2012-01-01

    The frog is a model of choice to study gene function during early development, since a large number of eggs are easily obtained and rapidly develop external to the mother. This makes it a highly flexible model system in which direct tests of gene function can be investigated by microinjecting RNA antisense reagents. Two members of the Fragile X Related (FXR) gene family, namely xFmr1 and xFxr1 have been identified in Xenopus. While the tissue distribution of their products was found to be identical to that in mammals, the pattern of isoform expression is less complex. Translational silencing of the xFmr1 and xFxr1 mRNAs by microinjection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) induced dramatic morphological alterations, revealing tissue-specific requirements for each protein during development and in maintaining the steady state levels of a range of transcripts in these tissues. The power and versatility of the frog model is that the MO-induced phenotypes can be rescued by microinjection of the corresponding MO-insensitive mRNAs. Most importantly, this animal model allows one rapidly to determine whether any member of the FXR family can compensate for the absence of another, an approach that cannot be performed in other animal models.

  16. Decreased winter severity increases viability of a montane frog population

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Maxell, Bryce A.

    2010-01-01

    Many proximate causes of global amphibian declines have been well documented, but the role that climate change has played and will play in this crisis remains ambiguous for many species. Breeding phenology and disease outbreaks have been associated with warming temperatures, but, to date, few studies have evaluated effects of climate change on individual vital rates and subsequent population dynamics of amphibians. We evaluated relationships among local climate variables, annual survival and fecundity, and population growth rates from a 9-year demographic study of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana. We documented an increase in survival and breeding probability as severity of winter decreased. Therefore, a warming climate with less severe winters is likely to promote population viability in this montane frog population. More generally, amphibians and other ectotherms inhabiting alpine or boreal habitats at or near their thermal ecological limits may benefit from the milder winters provided by a warming climate as long as suitable habitats remain intact. A more thorough understanding of how climate change is expected to benefit or harm amphibian populations at different latitudes and elevations is essential for determining the best strategies to conserve viable populations and allow for gene flow and shifts in geographic range. PMID:20421473

  17. Effects of host species and life stage on the helminth communities of sympatric northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in the Sheyenne National Grasslands, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Newman, Robert A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2013-08-01

    We studied helminth communities in sympatric populations of leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and assessed the effects of host species and life stage on helminth community composition and helminth species richness. We examined 328 amphibians including 218 northern leopard frogs and 110 wood frogs collected between April and August of 2009 and 2010 in the Sheyenne National Grasslands of southeastern North Dakota. Echinostomatid metacercariae were the most common helminths found, with the highest prevalence in metamorphic wood frogs. Host species significantly influenced helminth community composition, and host life stage significantly influenced the component community composition of leopard frogs. In these sympatric populations, leopard frogs were common hosts for adult trematodes whereas wood frogs exhibited a higher prevalence of nematodes with direct life cycles. Metamorphic frogs were commonly infected with echinostomatid metacercariae and other larval trematodes whereas juvenile and adult frogs were most-frequently infected with directly transmitted nematodes and trophically transmitted trematodes. Accordingly, helminth species richness increased with the developmental life stage of the host.

  18. Cell proliferation and death in the brain of active and hibernating frogs

    PubMed Central

    Cerri, Silvia; Bottiroli, Giovanni; Bottone, Maria Grazia; Barni, Sergio; Bernocchi, Graziella

    2009-01-01

    ‘Binomial’ cell proliferation and cell death have been studied in only a few non-mammalian vertebrates, such as fish. We thought it of interest to map cell proliferation/apoptosis in the brain of the frog (Rana esculenta L.) as this animal species undergoes, during the annual cycle, physiological events that could be associated with central nervous system damage. Therefore, we compared the active period and the deep underground hibernation of the frog. Using western blot analysis for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), we revealed a positive 36 kDa band in all samples and found higher optical density values in the hibernating frogs than in active frogs. In both active and hibernating frogs, we found regional differences in PCNA-immunoreactive cells and terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labelling apoptotic cells in the ventricular zones and parenchyma areas of the main encephalon subdivisions. During the active period of the frogs, the highest concentration of PCNA-immunoreactive cells was found in the ventricle dorsal zone of the cerebral hemispheres but only some of the cells were apoptotic. By contrast, the tectal and cerebellar ventricular zones had a small or medium amount of PCNA-immunoreactive cells, respectively, and a higher number of apoptotic cells. During hibernation, an increased PCNA-immunoreactive cell number was observed in both the brain ventricles and parenchyma compared with active frogs. This increase was primarily evident in the lateral ventricles, a region known to be a proliferation ‘hot spot’. Although differences existed among the brain areas, a general increase of apoptotic cell death was found in hibernating frogs, with the highest number of apoptotic cells being detected in the parenchyma of the cerebral hemispheres and optic tectum. In particular, the increased number of apoptotic cells in the hibernating frogs compared with active frogs in the parenchyma of these brain areas occurred when cell proliferation was higher in

  19. Frequency-Selective Response of the Tectorial Membrane in the Frog Basilar Papilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoffelen, R. L. M.; Segenhout, J. M.; van Dijk, P.

    2009-02-01

    The frog's basilar papilla is a useful study object for cochlear mechanics, because of it's relatively simple anatomy and functionality. We investigated the displacement amplitudes of the basilar papilla's tectorial membrane in response to stimulation of the oval window at various frequencies within the auditory range of the Northern leopard frog. From our measurement data we find that the tectorial membrane exhibits a frequency selective response. The peak response was found to occur at 1500Hz in correspondence with known data for the response of auditory nerve fibers from the organ. From these data we conclude that mechanical tuning contributes significantly to the frequency selectivity of the frog's basilar papilla

  20. Inter- and intra-specific genetic divergence of Asian tiger frogs (genus Hoplobatrachus), with special reference to the population structure of H. tigerinus in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Nasrin; Igawa, Takeshi; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Hasan, Mahmudul; Alam, Mohammad Shafiqul; Komaki, Shohei; Kawamura, Kensuke; Khan, Md Mukhlesur Rahman; Sumida, Masayuki

    2017-03-17

    The five frog species of the genus Hoplobatrachus are widely distributed in Asia and Africa, with Asia being considered the genus' origin. However, the evolutionary relationships of Asian Hoplobatrachus species remain ambiguous. Additionally, genetic diversity and fundamental differentiation processes within species have not been studied. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analysis on Asian Hoplobatrachus frogs and population genetic analysis on H. tigerinus in Bangladesh using the mitochondrial CYTB gene and 21 microsatellite markers. The resultant phylogenetic tree revealed monophyly in each species, notwithstanding the involvement of cryptic species in H. chinensis and H. tigerinus, which are evident from the higher genetic divergence between populations. Bayesian inference of population structure revealed genetic divergence between western and eastern H. tigerinus populations in Bangladesh, suggesting restricted gene flow caused by barriers posed by major rivers. However, genetic distances among populations were generally low. A discrete population is located in the low riverine delta region, which likely reflects long-distance dispersal. These results strongly suggest that the environment specific to this river system has maintained the population structure of H. tigerinus in this region.

  1. Annual cycles of urinary reproductive steroid concentrations in wild and captive endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Christi, Ketan S; Morley, Craig G; Cockrem, John F

    2010-03-01

    Annual cycles of reproductive steroid metabolites were measured in urine collected from free-living and captive tropical endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana) a terrestrial breeding. Free-living frogs were sampled on Viwa Island, Fiji and captive frogs were maintained in an outdoor enclosure in Suva, Fiji. Urinary estrone, progesterone and testosterone metabolite concentrations increased in male and female frogs after hCG challenges, with clear peaks in steroid concentrations 2 or 3 days after the challenges. There were annual cycles of testosterone metabolites in wild and captive males, and of estrone and progesterone metabolites in wild and captive females. Peaks of steroid concentrations in the wet season corresponded with periods of mating and egg laying in females in December and January. Steroid concentrations declined in January and February when maximum egg sizes in females were also declining. Body weights of wild male and vitellogenic female frogs showed annual cycles. Body weights of non-vitellogenic female frogs varied significantly between months, although there was no clear pattern of annual changes. Body weights of the 3 captive male frogs and 4 captive female frogs were similar to those of the wild frogs. Estrone metabolites were 80% successful in identifying non-vitellogenic females from males. The results suggest that the Fijian ground frog is a seasonal breeder with an annual gonadal cycle, and this species is likely to be photoperiodic. Urinary steroid measurements can provide useful information on reproductive cycles in endangered amphibians.

  2. Oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, proton conductance and reactive oxygen species production of liver mitochondria correlates with body mass in frogs.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Damien; Salin, Karine; Dumet, Adeline; Romestaing, Caroline; Rey, Benjamin; Voituron, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Body size is a central biological parameter affecting most biological processes (especially energetics) and the mitochondrion is a key organelle controlling metabolism and is also the cell's main source of chemical energy. However, the link between body size and mitochondrial function is still unclear, especially in ectotherms. In this study, we investigated several parameters of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of three closely related species of frog (the common frog Rana temporaria, the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus and the bull frog Lithobates catesbeiana). These particular species were chosen because of their differences in adult body mass. We found that mitochondrial coupling efficiency was markedly increased with animal size, which led to a higher ATP production (+70%) in the larger frogs (L. catesbeiana) compared with the smaller frogs (R. temporaria). This was essentially driven by a strong negative dependence of mitochondrial proton conductance on body mass. Liver mitochondria from the larger frogs (L. catesbeiana) displayed 50% of the proton conductance of mitochondria from the smaller frogs (R. temporaria). Contrary to our prediction, the low mitochondrial proton conductance measured in L. catesbeiana was not associated with higher reactive oxygen species production. Instead, liver mitochondria from the larger individuals produced significantly lower levels of radical oxygen species than those from the smaller frogs. Collectively, the data show that key bioenergetics parameters of mitochondria (proton leak, ATP production efficiency and radical oxygen species production) are correlated with body mass in frogs. This research expands our understanding of the relationship between mitochondrial function and the evolution of allometric scaling in ectotherms.

  3. The cocoon of the fossorial frog Cyclorana australis functions primarily as a barrier to water exchange with the substrate.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stephen J; Christian, Keith A; Tracy, Christopher R

    2010-01-01

    Studies of evaporative water loss using streams of dry air in the laboratory have demonstrated reduced rates in various taxa of cocooned frogs. However, because the cocoon is formed in subterranean burrows with humid microclimates and no air flow, loss of water by evaporation is likely to be negligible. In contrast, although potentially important, the influence of the cocoon on water exchange with the soil surface has not been characterized. In dry soils, there is a sizable water potential gradient between the frog and the soil; hence, we hypothesized that cocoons would play a role in reducing liquid water loss to dry substrates. Individuals of the burrowing frog Cyclorana australis (Hylidae: Pelodryadinae) were induced to form cocoons in the laboratory. On semisolid agar-solute substrates across a range of water potentials, the hygroscopic cocoon absorbed small but similar amounts of moisture. With the cocoon removed, the frogs gained or lost water, depending on the direction of the frog-substrate water potential difference. Plasma osmolality of cocooned frogs was significantly higher than in hydrated frogs. Because cocooned frogs did not exchange significant amounts of water at either high (wet) or low (dry) substrate water potentials, we conclude that the cocoon of fossorial frogs acts as a physical barrier that breaks the continuity between frog and substrate. We contend that the primary function of the cocoon is to prevent liquid water loss to drying clay and loam soils, rather than to prevent subterranean evaporative water loss.

  4. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-07-07

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog    (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes.

  5. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  6. Lazy decision trees

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.H.; Yun, Yeogirl; Kohavi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Lazy learning algorithms, exemplified by nearest-neighbor algorithms, do not induce a concise hypothesis from a given training set; the inductive process is delayed until a test instance is given. Algorithms for constructing decision trees, such as C4.5, ID3, and CART create a single {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} decision tree during the training phase, and this tree is then used to classify test instances. The tests at the nodes of the constructed tree are good on average, but there may be better tests for classifying a specific instance. We propose a lazy decision tree algorithm-LazyDT-that conceptually constructs the {open_quotes}best{close_quote} decision tree for each test instance. In practice, only a path needs to be constructed, and a caching scheme makes the algorithm fast. The algorithm is robust with respect to missing values without resorting to the complicated methods usually seen in induction of decision trees. Experiments on real and artificial problems are presented.

  7. Effects of predatory fish on survival and behavior of larval gopher frogs (Rana capito) and Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, D.R.; Gunzburger, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, are habitat generalists occurring in virtually all freshwater habitats within their geographic range, whereas Gopher Frogs, Rana capito, typically breed in ponds that do not normally contain fish. To evaluate the potential for predation by fish to influence the distribution of these species, we conducted a randomized factorial experiment. We examined the survival rate and behavior of tadpoles when exposed to Warmouth Sunfish, Lepomis gulosus, Banded Sunfish, Enneacanthus obesus, and Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We also conducted a choice experiment to examine the survival rate of the two species of tadpoles when a predator is given a choice of both species simultaneously. Lepomis gulosus consumed the most tadpoles and ate significantly more tadpoles of R. capito than R. sphenocephala. Gambusia holbrooki injured the most tadpoles, especially R. capito. Enneacanthus obesus did not have an effect on behavior or survival of either anuran species. Tadpoles of both anurans increased hiding when in the presence of L. gulosus and G. holbrooki, but a greater proportion of R. capito hid than did R. sphenocephala. Our results suggest that R. capito are more vulnerable to predation by fish than are R. sphenocephala. The introduction of fish may play a role in population declines of certain anurans breeding in normally fish-free wetlands, and even small fish, such as mosquitofish, may have significant negative effects on the tadpoles of R. capito. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study or Amphibians and Reptiles.

  8. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  9. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  10. Evolutionary tree reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Bob

    1990-01-01

    It is described how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be applied to the problem of DNA and protein evolutionary tree reconstruction. If there is a set of mutations that transform a common ancestor into a set of the known sequences, and this description is shorter than the information to encode the known sequences directly, then strong evidence for an evolutionary relationship has been found. A heuristic algorithm is described that searches for the simplest tree (smallest MDL) that finds close to optimal trees on the test data. Various ways of extending the MDL theory to more complex evolutionary relationships are discussed.

  11. Effect of alpha-tomatine and tomatidine on membrane potential of frog embryos and active transport of ions in frog skin.

    PubMed

    Blankemeyer, J T; White, J B; Stringer, B K; Friedman, M

    1997-07-01

    alpha-Tomatine, a glycoside in which four carbohydrate residues are attached to the 3-OH group of the aglycone tomatidine, occurs naturally in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The glycoalkaloid is reported to be involved in host-plant resistance against phytopathogens and to have a variety of pharmacological and toxicological properties in animals and humans. As part of an effort designed to establish the mechanism of action of glycoalkaloids in cells, frog embryos and frog skin were exposed to varying concentrations of alpha-tomatine and tomatidine. alpha-Tomatine increased the fluorescence-measured membrane permeability of frog embryos by about 600% compared with control values; the corresponding value for tomatidine was about 150%. alpha-Tomatine also diminished sodium-active transport in frog skin by about 16% compared with control values, as estimated from the change in the interstitial short-circuit current. Tomatidine had no effect on frog skin. As these findings complement similar results with glycoalkaloids from potatoes and eggplants, the fundamental mechanism governing their action both against fungi, insects and other phytopathogens and in animal and human cells may be disruption of cell membranes and changes in ion fluxes and interstitial currents of the membranes. The described methodologies should make it possible to define the relative potencies of both adverse and beneficial effects of glycoalkaloids and metabolites in cell membranes without the use of animals.

  12. Trees of trees: an approach to comparing multiple alternative phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Nye, Tom M W

    2008-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis very commonly produces several alternative trees for a given fixed set of taxa. For example, different sets of orthologous genes may be analyzed, or the analysis may sample from a distribution of probable trees. This article describes an approach to comparing and visualizing multiple alternative phylogenies via the idea of a "tree of trees" or "meta-tree." A meta-tree clusters phylogenies with similar topologies together in the same way that a phylogeny clusters species with similar DNA sequences. Leaf nodes on a meta-tree correspond to the original set of phylogenies given by some analysis, whereas interior nodes correspond to certain consensus topologies. The construction of meta-trees is motivated by analogy with construction of a most parsimonious tree for DNA data, but instead of using DNA letters, in a meta-tree the characters are partitions or splits of the set of taxa. An efficient algorithm for meta-tree construction is described that makes use of a known relationship between the majority consensus and parsimony in terms of gain and loss of splits. To illustrate these ideas meta-trees are constructed for two datasets: a set of gene trees for species of yeast and trees from a bootstrap analysis of a set of gene trees in ray-finned fish. A software tool for constructing meta-trees and comparing alternative phylogenies is available online, and the source code can be obtained from the author.

  13. Adaptive Grouping Cloud Model Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for Solving Continuous Optimization Problems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haorui; Yi, Fengyan; Yang, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) easily falls into local optimum when it solves multioptimum function optimization problem, which impacts the accuracy and convergence speed. Therefore this paper presents grouped SFLA for solving continuous optimization problems combined with the excellent characteristics of cloud model transformation between qualitative and quantitative research. The algorithm divides the definition domain into several groups and gives each group a set of frogs. Frogs of each region search in their memeplex, and in the search process the algorithm uses the “elite strategy” to update the location information of existing elite frogs through cloud model algorithm. This method narrows the searching space and it can effectively improve the situation of a local optimum; thus convergence speed and accuracy can be significantly improved. The results of computer simulation confirm this conclusion. PMID:26819584

  14. Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand.

  15. Phase Reconstruction from FROG Using Genetic Algorithms[Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating

    SciTech Connect

    Omenetto, F.G.; Nicholson, J.W.; Funk, D.J.; Taylor, A.J.

    1999-04-12

    The authors describe a new technique for obtaining the phase and electric field from FROG measurements using genetic algorithms. Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) has gained prominence as a technique for characterizing ultrashort pulses. FROG consists of a spectrally resolved autocorrelation of the pulse to be measured. Typically a combination of iterative algorithms is used, applying constraints from experimental data, and alternating between the time and frequency domain, in order to retrieve an optical pulse. The authors have developed a new approach to retrieving the intensity and phase from FROG data using a genetic algorithm (GA). A GA is a general parallel search technique that operates on a population of potential solutions simultaneously. Operators in a genetic algorithm, such as crossover, selection, and mutation are based on ideas taken from evolution.

  16. Adaptive Grouping Cloud Model Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for Solving Continuous Optimization Problems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haorui; Yi, Fengyan; Yang, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) easily falls into local optimum when it solves multioptimum function optimization problem, which impacts the accuracy and convergence speed. Therefore this paper presents grouped SFLA for solving continuous optimization problems combined with the excellent characteristics of cloud model transformation between qualitative and quantitative research. The algorithm divides the definition domain into several groups and gives each group a set of frogs. Frogs of each region search in their memeplex, and in the search process the algorithm uses the "elite strategy" to update the location information of existing elite frogs through cloud model algorithm. This method narrows the searching space and it can effectively improve the situation of a local optimum; thus convergence speed and accuracy can be significantly improved. The results of computer simulation confirm this conclusion.

  17. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-08-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.

  18. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  19. Leonardo's Tree Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Suzanne K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)

  20. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.