A compressible Navier-Stokes code for turbulent flow modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coakley, T. J.
1984-01-01
An implicit, finite volume code for solving two dimensional, compressible turbulent flows is described. Second order upwind differencing of the inviscid terms of the equations is used to enhance stability and accuracy. A diagonal form of the implicit algorithm is used to improve efficiency. Several zero and two equation turbulence models are incorporated to study their impact on overall flow modeling accuracy. Applications to external and internal flows are discussed.
Status and Verification of Edge Plasma Turbulence Code BOUT
Umansky, M V; Xu, X Q; Dudson, B; LoDestro, L L; Myra, J R
2009-01-08
The BOUT code is a detailed numerical model of tokamak edge turbulence based on collisional plasma uid equations. BOUT solves for time evolution of plasma uid variables: plasma density N{sub i}, parallel ion velocity V{sub {parallel}i}, electron temperature T{sub e}, ion temperature T{sub i}, electric potential {phi}, parallel current j{sub {parallel}}, and parallel vector potential A{sub {parallel}}, in realistic 3D divertor tokamak geometry. The current status of the code, physics model, algorithms, and implementation is described. Results of verification testing are presented along with illustrative applications to tokamak edge turbulence.
Interleaved convolutional coding for the turbulent atmospheric optical communication channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Frederic M.; Koh, Yutai T.
1988-09-01
The coding gain of a constraint-length-three, rate one-half convolutional code over a long clear-air atmospheric direct-detection optical communication channel using binary pulse-position modulation signaling was directly measured as a function of interleaving delay for both hard- and soft-decision Viterbi decoding. Maximum coding gains theoretically possible for this code with perfect interleaving and physically unrealizable perfect-measurement decoding were about 7 dB under conditions of weak clear-air turbulence, and 11 dB at moderate turbulence levels. The time scale of the fading (memory) of the channel was directly measured to be tens to hundreds of milliseconds, depending on turbulence levels. Interleaving delays of 5 ms between transmission of the first and second channel bits output by the encoder yield coding gains within 1.5 dB of theoretical limits with soft-decision Viterbi decoding. Coding gains of 4-5 dB were observed with only 100 microseconds of interleaving delay. Soft-decision Viterbi decoding always yielded 1-2 dB more coding gain than hard-decision Viterbi decoding.
Status of BOUT fluid turbulence code: improvements and verification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umansky, M. V.; Lodestro, L. L.; Xu, X. Q.
2006-10-01
BOUT is an electromagnetic fluid turbulence code for tokamak edge plasma [1]. BOUT performs time integration of reduced Braginskii plasma fluid equations, using spatial discretization in realistic geometry and employing a standard ODE integration package PVODE. BOUT has been applied to several tokamak experiments and in some cases calculated spectra of turbulent fluctuations compared favorably to experimental data. On the other hand, the desire to understand better the code results and to gain more confidence in it motivated investing effort in rigorous verification of BOUT. Parallel to the testing the code underwent substantial modification, mainly to improve its readability and tractability of physical terms, with some algorithmic improvements as well. In the verification process, a series of linear and nonlinear test problems was applied to BOUT, targeting different subgroups of physical terms. The tests include reproducing basic electrostatic and electromagnetic plasma modes in simplified geometry, axisymmetric benchmarks against the 2D edge code UEDGE in real divertor geometry, and neutral fluid benchmarks against the hydrodynamic code LCPFCT. After completion of the testing, the new version of the code is being applied to actual tokamak edge turbulence problems, and the results will be presented. [1] X. Q. Xu et al., Contr. Plas. Phys., 36,158 (1998). *Work performed for USDOE by Univ. Calif. LLNL under contract W-7405-ENG-48.
Code of ethics and conduct for European nursing.
Sasso, Loredana; Stievano, Alessandro; González Jurado, Máximo; Rocco, Gennaro
2008-11-01
A main identifying factor of professions is professionals' willingness to comply with ethical and professional standards, often defined in a code of ethics and conduct. In a period of intense nursing mobility, if the public are aware that health professionals have committed themselves to the drawing up of a code of ethics and conduct, they will have more trust in the health professional they choose, especially if this person comes from another European Member State. The Code of Ethics and Conduct for European Nursing is a programmatic document for the nursing profession constructed by the FEPI (European Federation of Nursing Regulators) according to Directive 2005/36/EC On recognition of professional qualifications , and Directive 2006/123/EC On services in the internal market, set out by the European Commission. This article describes the construction of the Code and gives an overview of some specific areas of importance. The main text of the Code is reproduced in Appendix 1.
Potential capabilities of Reynolds stress turbulence model in the COMMIX-RSM code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, F. C.; Bottoni, M.
1994-01-01
A Reynolds stress turbulence model has been implemented in the COMMIX code, together with transport equations describing turbulent heat fluxes, variance of temperature fluctuations, and dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy. The model has been verified partially by simulating homogeneous turbulent shear flow, and stable and unstable stratified shear flows with strong buoyancy-suppressing or enhancing turbulence. This article outlines the model, explains the verifications performed thus far, and discusses potential applications of the COMMIX-RSM code in several domains, including, but not limited to, analysis of thermal striping in engineering systems, simulation of turbulence in combustors, and predictions of bubbly and particulate flows.
European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Infections and Cancer.
Villain, Patricia; Gonzalez, Paula; Almonte, Maribel; Franceschi, Silvia; Dillner, Joakim; Anttila, Ahti; Park, Jin Young; De Vuyst, Hugo; Herrero, Rolando
2015-12-01
Of the 2,635,000 new cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) occurring in the European Union (EU) in 2012, it is estimated that approximately 185,000 are related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Chronic infection with these agents can lead to cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, and stomach, respectively. Chronic infection with HCV can also lead to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be of major public health importance in several EU countries and increases cancer risk via HIV-induced immunosuppression. The fourth edition of the European Code Against Cancer presents recommendations on effective and safe preventive interventions in order to reduce the risk of infection-related cancers in EU citizens. Based on current available evidence, the fourth edition recommends that parents ensure the participation of their children in vaccination programs against HBV (for newborns) and HPV (for girls). In the 'Questions and Answers' (Q&As) section about vaccination and infections in the website for the European Code Against Cancer, individuals who are at risk of chronic HBV or HCV are advised to seek medical advice about testing and obtaining treatment when appropriate. Individuals most at risk of HIV are advised to consult their doctor or healthcare provider to access counselling and, if needed, testing and treatment without delay. Information about H. pylori testing and treatment is also provided as testing might currently be offered in some high-risk areas in Europe. The rationale and supporting evidence for the recommendations on vaccination in the European Code Against Cancer, and for the main recommendations on vaccination and infection in the Q&As, are explained in the present review.
European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.
Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo
2015-12-01
In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age
GYSELA, a full-f global gyrokinetic Semi-Lagrangian code for ITG turbulence simulations
Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.
2006-11-30
This work addresses non-linear global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence with the GYSELA code. The particularity of GYSELA code is to use a fixed grid with a Semi-Lagrangian (SL) scheme and this for the entire distribution function. The 4D non-linear drift-kinetic version of the code already showns the interest of such a SL method which exhibits good properties of energy conservation in non-linear regime as well as an accurate description of fine spatial scales. The code has been upgrated to run 5D simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence. Linear benchmarks and non-linear first results prove that semi-lagrangian codes can be a credible alternative for gyrokinetic simulations.
European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.
Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim
2015-12-01
Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace".
European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.
Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle
2015-12-01
Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghoneim, A. F.; Marek, C. J.; Oppenheim, A. K.
1983-01-01
A computer code for calculating the flow field and flame propagation in a turbulent combustion tunnel is described. The model used in the analysis is the random vortex model, which allows the turbulent field to evolve as a fundamental solution to the Navier-Stokes equations without averaging or closure modeling. The program was used to study the flow field in a model combustor, formed by a rearward-facing step in a channel, in terms of the vorticity field, the turbulent shear stresses, the flame contours, and the concentration field. Results for the vorticity field reveal the formation of large-scale eddy structures in the turbulent flow downstream from the step. The concentration field contours indicate that most burning occurred around the outer edges of the large eddies of the shear layer.
Implementation of a kappa-epsilon turbulence model to RPLUS3D code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chitsomboon, Tawit
1992-01-01
The RPLUS3D code has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) project. The code has the ability to solve three dimensional flowfields with finite rate combustion of hydrogen and air. The combustion process of the hydrogen-air system are simulated by an 18 reaction path, 8 species chemical kinetic mechanism. The code uses a Lower-Upper (LU) decomposition numerical algorithm as its basis, making it a very efficient and robust code. Except for the Jacobian matrix for the implicit chemistry source terms, there is no inversion of a matrix even though a fully implicit numerical algorithm is used. A k-epsilon turbulence model has recently been incorporated into the code. Initial validations have been conducted for a flow over a flat plate. Results of the validation studies are shown. Some difficulties in implementing the k-epsilon equations to the code are also discussed.
A code of ethics for European health librarians: the points of departure.
McSeán, T; Tsafrir, J
1995-06-01
Codes of ethics are a classic mark of a profession, and their preparation is an important part of the work expected of a professional organization. EAHIL has recently embarked on drafting a code for European health librarians. This paper explains the background to EAHIL's decision, and reviews existing codes of ethical practice in the fields of both medicine and library and information work.
Assessment of a hybrid finite element and finite volume code for turbulent incompressible flows
Xia, Yidong; Wang, Chuanjin; Luo, Hong; Christon, Mark; Bakosi, Jozsef
2016-02-15
Hydra-TH is a hybrid finite-element/finite-volume incompressible/low-Mach flow simulation code based on the Hydra multiphysics toolkit being developed and used for thermal-hydraulics applications. In the present work, a suite of verification and validation (V&V) test problems for Hydra-TH was defined to meet the design requirements of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). The intent for this test problem suite is to provide baseline comparison data that demonstrates the performance of the Hydra-TH solution methods. The simulation problems vary in complexity from laminar to turbulent flows. A set of RANS and LES turbulence models were used in the simulation of four classical test problems. Numerical results obtained by Hydra-TH agreed well with either the available analytical solution or experimental data, indicating the verified and validated implementation of these turbulence models in Hydra-TH. Where possible, some form of solution verification has been attempted to identify sensitivities in the solution methods, and suggest best practices when using the Hydra-TH code. -- Highlights: •We performed a comprehensive study to verify and validate the turbulence models in Hydra-TH. •Hydra-TH delivers 2nd-order grid convergence for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. •Hydra-TH can accurately simulate the laminar boundary layers. •Hydra-TH can accurately simulate the turbulent boundary layers with RANS turbulence models. •Hydra-TH delivers high-fidelity LES capability for simulating turbulent flows in confined space.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lilley, D. G.; Rhode, D. L.
1982-01-01
A primitive pressure-velocity variable finite difference computer code was developed to predict swirling recirculating inert turbulent flows in axisymmetric combustors in general, and for application to a specific idealized combustion chamber with sudden or gradual expansion. The technique involves a staggered grid system for axial and radial velocities, a line relaxation procedure for efficient solution of the equations, a two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model, a stairstep boundary representation of the expansion flow, and realistic accommodation of swirl effects. A user's manual, dealing with the computational problem, showing how the mathematical basis and computational scheme may be translated into a computer program is presented. A flow chart, FORTRAN IV listing, notes about various subroutines and a user's guide are supplied as an aid to prospective users of the code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furno, I.; Avino, F.; Bovet, A.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Gustafson, K.; Iraji, D.; Labit, B.; Loizu, J.; Müller, S. H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podestà, M.; Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.
2015-06-01
The TORPEX basic plasma physics device at the Center for Plasma Physics Research (CRPP) in Lausanne, Switzerland is described. In TORPEX, simple magnetized toroidal configurations, a paradigm for the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL), as well as more complex magnetic geometries of direct relevance for fusion are produced. Plasmas of different gases are created and sustained by microwaves in the electron-cyclotron (EC) frequency range. Full diagnostic access allows for a complete characterization of plasma fluctuations and wave fields throughout the entire plasma volume, opening new avenues to validate numerical codes. We detail recent advances in the understanding of basic aspects of plasma turbulence, including its development from linearly unstable electrostatic modes, the formation of filamentary structures, or blobs, and its influence on the transport of energy, plasma bulk and suprathermal ions. We present a methodology for the validation of plasma turbulence codes, which focuses on quantitative assessment of the agreement between numerical simulations and TORPEX experimental data.
Assessment of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Models in the National Combustion Code (NCC) - Part I
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wey, Thomas Changju; Liu, Nan-suey
2011-01-01
This paper describes the implementations of the linear-eddy model (LEM) and an Eulerian FDF/PDF model in the National Combustion Code (NCC) for the simulation of turbulent combustion. The impacts of these two models, along with the so called laminar chemistry model, are then illustrated via the preliminary results from two combustion systems: a nine-element gas fueled combustor and a single-element liquid fueled combustor.
Computation of Supersonic Jet Mixing Noise Using PARC Code With a kappa-epsilon Turbulence Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khavaran, A.; Kim, C. M.
1999-01-01
A number of modifications have been proposed in order to improve the jet noise prediction capabilities of the MGB code. This code which was developed at General Electric, employees the concept of acoustic analogy for the prediction of turbulent mixing noise. The source convection and also refraction of sound due to the shrouding effect of the mean flow are accounted for by incorporating the high frequency solution to Lilley's equation for cylindrical jets (Balsa and Mani). The broadband shock-associated noise is estimated using Harper-Bourne and Fisher's shock noise theory. The proposed modifications are aimed at improving the aerodynamic predictions (source/spectrum computations) and allowing for the non- axisymmetric effects in the jet plume and nozzle geometry (sound/flow interaction). In addition, recent advances in shock noise prediction as proposed by Tam can be employed to predict the shock-associated noise as an addition to the jet mixing noise when the flow is not perfectly expanded. Here we concentrate on the aerodynamic predictions using the PARC code with a k-E turbulence model and the ensuing turbulent mixing noise. The geometry under consideration is an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle at its design operating conditions. Aerodynamic and acoustic computations are compared with data as well as predictions due to the original MGB model using Reichardt's aerodynamic theory.
Implementation of the Baldwin-Barth turbulence model into the ZETA code and its diagnosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Low, Scott L.
1993-06-01
The Baldwin-Barth turbulence model was implemented into Zeta, a time-accurate, zonal, integro-differential code for incompressible laminar and turbulent flows. The implementation procedure is patterned after the model subroutine in ARC2D. The results of ZETA with the Baldwin-Barth turbulence model were compared with experimental data, with ZETA using Baldwin-Lomax model, and with ARC2D using the Baldwin-Barth model. The Baldwin-Barth model subroutine was tested by inputting an ARC2D velocity solution of an NACA-0012 airfoil at R(sub e) = 3.9 x 10(exp 6) and alpha = 5 deg. The resultant turbulent viscosity and Reynolds stresses compared favorably with the original data. For the same grid having grid points inside the laminar sublayer, which is necessary due to the one-equation nature of the model, ZETA however predicts early separation. It was found that the current ZETA has problem with such a fine grid. Further work is in progress to solve this problem.
Evaluation of turbulence models in the PARC code for transonic diffuser flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, N. J.; Drummond, J. E.; Leonard, B. P.
1994-01-01
Flows through a transonic diffuser were investigated with the PARC code using five turbulence models to determine the effects of turbulence model selection on flow prediction. Three of the turbulence models were algebraic models: Thomas (the standard algebraic turbulence model in PARC), Baldwin-Lomax, and Modified Mixing Length-Thomas (MMLT). The other two models were the low Reynolds number k-epsilon models of Chien and Speziale. Three diffuser flows, referred to as the no-shock, weak-shock, and strong-shock cases, were calculated with each model to conduct the evaluation. Pressure distributions, velocity profiles, locations of shocks, and maximum Mach numbers in the duct were the flow quantities compared. Overall, the Chien k-epsilon model was the most accurate of the five models when considering results obtained for all three cases. However, the MMLT model provided solutions as accurate as the Chien model for the no-shock and the weak-shock cases, at a substantially lower computational cost (measured in CPU time required to obtain converged solutions). The strong shock flow, which included a region of shock-induced flow separation, was only predicted well by the two k-epsilon models.
Assessment of a hybrid finite element and finite volume code for turbulent incompressible flows
Xia, Yidong; Wang, Chuanjin; Luo, Hong; ...
2015-12-15
Hydra-TH is a hybrid finite-element/finite-volume incompressible/low-Mach flow simulation code based on the Hydra multiphysics toolkit being developed and used for thermal-hydraulics applications. In the present work, a suite of verification and validation (V&V) test problems for Hydra-TH was defined to meet the design requirements of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). The intent for this test problem suite is to provide baseline comparison data that demonstrates the performance of the Hydra-TH solution methods. The simulation problems vary in complexity from laminar to turbulent flows. A set of RANS and LES turbulence models were used in themore » simulation of four classical test problems. Numerical results obtained by Hydra-TH agreed well with either the available analytical solution or experimental data, indicating the verified and validated implementation of these turbulence models in Hydra-TH. Where possible, we have attempted some form of solution verification to identify sensitivities in the solution methods, and to suggest best practices when using the Hydra-TH code.« less
Assessment of a hybrid finite element and finite volume code for turbulent incompressible flows
Xia, Yidong; Wang, Chuanjin; Luo, Hong; Christon, Mark; Bakosi, Jozsef
2015-12-15
Hydra-TH is a hybrid finite-element/finite-volume incompressible/low-Mach flow simulation code based on the Hydra multiphysics toolkit being developed and used for thermal-hydraulics applications. In the present work, a suite of verification and validation (V&V) test problems for Hydra-TH was defined to meet the design requirements of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). The intent for this test problem suite is to provide baseline comparison data that demonstrates the performance of the Hydra-TH solution methods. The simulation problems vary in complexity from laminar to turbulent flows. A set of RANS and LES turbulence models were used in the simulation of four classical test problems. Numerical results obtained by Hydra-TH agreed well with either the available analytical solution or experimental data, indicating the verified and validated implementation of these turbulence models in Hydra-TH. Where possible, we have attempted some form of solution verification to identify sensitivities in the solution methods, and to suggest best practices when using the Hydra-TH code.
Assessment of a hybrid finite element and finite volume code for turbulent incompressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Yidong; Wang, Chuanjin; Luo, Hong; Christon, Mark; Bakosi, Jozsef
2016-02-01
Hydra-TH is a hybrid finite-element/finite-volume incompressible/low-Mach flow simulation code based on the Hydra multiphysics toolkit being developed and used for thermal-hydraulics applications. In the present work, a suite of verification and validation (V&V) test problems for Hydra-TH was defined to meet the design requirements of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). The intent for this test problem suite is to provide baseline comparison data that demonstrates the performance of the Hydra-TH solution methods. The simulation problems vary in complexity from laminar to turbulent flows. A set of RANS and LES turbulence models were used in the simulation of four classical test problems. Numerical results obtained by Hydra-TH agreed well with either the available analytical solution or experimental data, indicating the verified and validated implementation of these turbulence models in Hydra-TH. Where possible, some form of solution verification has been attempted to identify sensitivities in the solution methods, and suggest best practices when using the Hydra-TH code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walowit, Jed A.; Shapiro, Wilbur
2005-01-01
The SPIRALI code predicts the performance characteristics of incompressible cylindrical and face seals with or without the inclusion of spiral grooves. Performance characteristics include load capacity (for face seals), leakage flow, power requirements and dynamic characteristics in the form of stiffness, damping and apparent mass coefficients in 4 degrees of freedom for cylindrical seals and 3 degrees of freedom for face seals. These performance characteristics are computed as functions of seal and groove geometry, load or film thickness, running and disturbance speeds, fluid viscosity, and boundary pressures. A derivation of the equations governing the performance of turbulent, incompressible, spiral groove cylindrical and face seals along with a description of their solution is given. The computer codes are described, including an input description, sample cases, and comparisons with results of other codes.
ETG turbulence simulation of tokamak edge plasmas via 3+1 gyrofluid code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xi, P. W.; Xu, X. Q.; Dimits, A.; Umansky, M.; Joseph, I.; Kim, S. S.
2012-10-01
To study ETG driven turbulence at H-mode pedestal, which is important for the magnetic reconnection of ELM dynamics via ETG-MHD interaction, a 3+1 gyrofluid code is developed under BOUT++ framework. Four evolving quantities are density, parallel velocity, parallel pressure and perpendicular pressure for electron and adiabatic ion is used. Gyro-average is done by utilizing Pad'e approximation and parallel Landau closure for Landau damping is implemented by using a newly developed non-Fourier method. By calculating the ETG mode growth rate and real frequency for the ETG cyclone equilibrium, our code is benchmarked with gyrokinetic codes. We also calculated the electron heat transport level at turbulence saturation phase for both cyclone case and H-mode pedestal. Because the pedestal width is typically ten times larger than ETG simulation domain, the three different region of pedestal, i.e. pedestal top, peak gradient region and pedestal bottom, are simulated separately. The dramatic difference on magnetic shear and temperature length scale of these three regions lead to different ETG linear and nonlinear behaviors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walowit, Jed A.
1994-01-01
A viewgraph presentation is made showing the capabilities of the computer code SPIRALI. Overall capabilities of SPIRALI include: computes rotor dynamic coefficients, flow, and power loss for cylindrical and face seals; treats turbulent, laminar, Couette, and Poiseuille dominated flows; fluid inertia effects are included; rotor dynamic coefficients in three (face) or four (cylindrical) degrees of freedom; includes effects of spiral grooves; user definable transverse film geometry including circular steps and grooves; independent user definable friction factor models for rotor and stator; and user definable loss coefficients for sudden expansions and contractions.
On the LDPC-coded OAM modulation for communication over atmospheric turbulence channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Anguita, Jaime; Vasic, Bane
2011-09-01
We study communication over atmospheric turbulence channels based on LDPC-coded, multidimensional OAM signal constellations. Multidimensional signal constellation is obtained as the Cartesian product of one-dimensional signal constellation X={(i-1)d, i=1,2,...,M} (where d is the Euclidean distance between neighboring signal constellation points and M is the number of amplitude levels) as XN={(x1, x2,...,xN)|xi is from X, for every i}. This scheme represents an energy efficient alternative, since log2(M N) bits/symbol can be transmitted. We describe two possible implementations of N-dimensional OAM modulator and demodulator: (1) volume holograms based, and (2) multimode fibers (MMFs) based. We evaluate the performance of this scheme by determining conditional symbol probability density functions (PDFs) from numerical propagation data. Two cases of practical interest are studied: (i) when conditional PDFs are known on the receiver side, and (ii) when conditional PDFs are not known and Gaussian approximation is used instead. We show that in case (ii) an early error floor occurs because of inaccurate PDF assumption, which is caused by OAM crosstalk introduced by the atmospheric turbulence. We also show that the OAM modulation is more sensitive to atmospheric turbulence as the number of dimensions increases. Finally, we evaluate the BER performance for different amplitude levels and different number of OAM dimensions.
Assessment of Turbulent Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction Computations Using the OVERFLOW Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A. B.; Lillard, R. P.; Schwing, A. M.; Blaisdell, G> A.; Lyrintzis, A. S.
2007-01-01
The performance of two popular turbulence models, the Spalart-Allmaras model and Menter s SST model, and one relatively new model, Olsen & Coakley s Lag model, are evaluated using the OVERFLOWcode. Turbulent shock-boundary layer interaction predictions are evaluated with three different experimental datasets: a series of 2D compression ramps at Mach 2.87, a series of 2D compression ramps at Mach 2.94, and an axisymmetric coneflare at Mach 11. The experimental datasets include flows with no separation, moderate separation, and significant separation, and use several different experimental measurement techniques (including laser doppler velocimetry (LDV), pitot-probe measurement, inclined hot-wire probe measurement, preston tube skin friction measurement, and surface pressure measurement). Additionally, the OVERFLOW solutions are compared to the solutions of a second CFD code, DPLR. The predictions for weak shock-boundary layer interactions are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. For strong shock-boundary layer interactions, all of the turbulence models overpredict the separation size and fail to predict the correct skin friction recovery distribution. In most cases, surface pressure predictions show too much upstream influence, however including the tunnel side-wall boundary layers in the computation improves the separation predictions.
Verification and Validation of the k-kL Turbulence Model in FUN3D and CFL3D Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2015-01-01
The implementation of the k-kL turbulence model using multiple computational uid dy- namics (CFD) codes is reported herein. The k-kL model is a two-equation turbulence model based on Abdol-Hamid's closure and Menter's modi cation to Rotta's two-equation model. Rotta shows that a reliable transport equation can be formed from the turbulent length scale L, and the turbulent kinetic energy k. Rotta's equation is well suited for term-by-term mod- eling and displays useful features compared to other two-equation models. An important di erence is that this formulation leads to the inclusion of higher-order velocity derivatives in the source terms of the scale equations. This can enhance the ability of the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers to simulate unsteady ows. The present report documents the formulation of the model as implemented in the CFD codes Fun3D and CFL3D. Methodology, veri cation and validation examples are shown. Attached and sepa- rated ow cases are documented and compared with experimental data. The results show generally very good comparisons with canonical and experimental data, as well as matching results code-to-code. The results from this formulation are similar or better than results using the SST turbulence model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, A.; Graeves, R. A.
1980-01-01
A user's guide for a computer code 'COLTS' (Coupled Laminar and Turbulent Solutions) is provided which calculates the laminar and turbulent hypersonic flows with radiation and coupled ablation injection past a Jovian entry probe. Time-dependent viscous-shock-layer equations are used to describe the flow field. These equations are solved by an explicit, two-step, time-asymptotic finite-difference method. Eddy viscosity in the turbulent flow is approximated by a two-layer model. In all, 19 chemical species are used to describe the injection of carbon-phenolic ablator in the hydrogen-helium gas mixture. The equilibrium composition of the mixture is determined by a free-energy minimization technique. A detailed frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient for various species is considered to obtain the radiative flux. The code is written for a CDC-CYBER-203 computer and is capable of providing solutions for ablated probe shapes also.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, A.; Graeves, R. A.
1980-06-01
A user's guide for a computer code 'COLTS' (Coupled Laminar and Turbulent Solutions) is provided which calculates the laminar and turbulent hypersonic flows with radiation and coupled ablation injection past a Jovian entry probe. Time-dependent viscous-shock-layer equations are used to describe the flow field. These equations are solved by an explicit, two-step, time-asymptotic finite-difference method. Eddy viscosity in the turbulent flow is approximated by a two-layer model. In all, 19 chemical species are used to describe the injection of carbon-phenolic ablator in the hydrogen-helium gas mixture. The equilibrium composition of the mixture is determined by a free-energy minimization technique. A detailed frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient for various species is considered to obtain the radiative flux. The code is written for a CDC-CYBER-203 computer and is capable of providing solutions for ablated probe shapes also.
Lopes, Ana M; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana
2013-10-01
European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) is characterised by high mortality of European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and mountain hares (Lepus timidus). European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and the closely related rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) comprise the genus Lagovirus, family Caliciviridae. In contrast to RHDV, which is well studied, with more than 30 complete genome sequences available, the only complete genome sequence available for EBHSV was obtained from a strain isolated in 1989 in France. EBHS was originally diagnosed in Sweden in 1980. Here, we report the complete coding sequences of two EBHSV strains isolated from European brown hares that died with liver lesions characteristic of EBHS in Sweden in 1982. These sequences represent the oldest complete coding sequences of EBHSV isolated from the original area of virus diagnosis. The genomic organisation is similar to that of the published French sequence. Comparison with this sequence revealed several nucleotide substitutions, corresponding to 6 % divergence. At the amino acid level, the Swedish strains are 2 % different from the French strain. Most amino acid substitutions were located within the major capsid protein VP60, but when considering the amino acid sequence length of each protein, VP10 is the protein with the highest percentage of amino acid differences. The same result was obtained when Swedish strains were compared. This evolutionary pattern has not been described previously for members of the genus Lagovirus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, Uriel
1996-01-01
Written five centuries after the first studies of Leonardo da Vinci and half a century after A.N. Kolmogorov's first attempt to predict the properties of flow, this textbook presents a modern account of turbulence, one of the greatest challenges in physics. "Fully developed turbulence" is ubiquitous in both cosmic and natural environments, in engineering applications and in everyday life. Elementary presentations of dynamical systems ideas, probabilistic methods (including the theory of large deviations) and fractal geometry make this a self-contained textbook. This is the first book on turbulence to use modern ideas from chaos and symmetry breaking. The book will appeal to first-year graduate students in mathematics, physics, astrophysics, geosciences and engineering, as well as professional scientists and engineers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A. B.; Lillard, R. P.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Lyrintizis, A. S.
2006-01-01
The capability of the OVERFLOW code to accurately compute high-speed turbulent boundary layers and turbulent shock-boundary layer interactions is being evaluated. Configurations being investigated include a Mach 2.87 flat plate to compare experimental velocity profiles and boundary layer growth, a Mach 6 flat plate to compare experimental surface heat transfer,a direct numerical simulation (DNS) at Mach 2.25 for turbulent quantities, and several Mach 3 compression ramps to compare computations of shock-boundary layer interactions to experimental laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) data and hot-wire data. The present paper describes outlines the study and presents preliminary results for two of the flat plate cases and two small-angle compression corner test cases.
European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.
Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold
2015-12-01
This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuter, K.; Jenko, F.; Forest, C. B.; Bayliss, R. A.
2008-08-01
A parallel implementation of a nonlinear pseudo-spectral MHD code for the simulation of turbulent dynamos in spherical geometry is reported. It employs a dual domain decomposition technique in both real and spectral space. It is shown that this method shows nearly ideal scaling going up to 128 CPUs on Beowulf-type clusters with fast interconnect. Furthermore, the potential of exploiting single precision arithmetic on standard x86 processors is examined. It is pointed out that the MHD code thereby achieves a maximum speedup of 1.7, whereas the validity of the computations is still granted. The combination of both measures will allow for the direct numerical simulation of highly turbulent cases ( 1500
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Befrui, Bizhan A.
1995-01-01
This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: STAR-CD computational features; STAR-CD turbulence models; common features of industrial complex flows; industry-specific CFD development requirements; applications and experiences of industrial complex flows, including flow in rotating disc cavities, diffusion hole film cooling, internal blade cooling, and external car aerodynamics; and conclusions on turbulence modeling needs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Low, Scott L.
1993-01-01
The Baldwin-Barth turbulence model was implemented into Zeta, a time-accurate, zonal, integro-differential code for incompressible laminar and turbulent flows. The implementation procedure is patterned after the model subroutine in ARC2D. The results of ZETA with the Baldwin-Barth turbulence model were compared with experimental data, with ZETA using Baldwin-Lomax model, and with ARC2D using the Baldwin-Barth model. The Baldwin-Barth model subroutine was tested by inputting an ARC2D velocity solution of an NACA-0012 airfoil at R(sub e) = 3.9 x 10(exp 6) and alpha = 5 deg. The resultant turbulent viscosity and Reynolds stresses compared favorably with the original data. For the same grid having grid points inside the laminar sublayer, which is necessary due to the one-equation nature of the model, ZETA however predicts early separation. It was found that the current ZETA has problem with such a fine grid. Further work is in progress to solve this problem.
European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.
Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim
2015-12-01
The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events.
European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Obesity, body fatness and cancer.
Anderson, Annie S; Key, Timothy J; Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle
2015-12-01
It is estimated that over half the population of the European Union (EU) is overweight or obese due to an imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake; this is related to an obesogenic environment of sociocultural, economic and marketing challenges to the control of body weight. Excess body fat is associated with nine cancer sites - oesophagus, colorectum, gall bladder, pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney and prostate (advanced) - and 4-38% of these cancers (depending on site and gender) can be attributed to overweight/obesity status. Metabolic alterations which accompany excess body weight are accompanied by increased levels of inflammation, insulin, oestrogens and other hormonal factors. There are some indications that intentional weight loss is associated with reduced cancer incidence (notably in postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancers). Excess body weight is also a risk factor for several other diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, and is related to higher risk of premature death. In reviewing the current evidence related to excess body fat and cancer, the European Code against Cancer Nutrition Working Group has developed the following recommendation: 'Take action to be a healthy body weight'.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
1992-01-01
The implementation and validation of the Chien low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model in the two dimensional axisymmetric version Proteus, a compressible Navier-Stokes computer code, are presented. The set of k-epsilon equations are solved by marching in time using a coupled alternating direction implicit (ADI) solution procedure with generalized first or second order time differencing. To validate Proteus and the k-epsilon turbulence model, laminar and turbulent computations were done for several benchmark test cases: incompressible fully developed 2-D channel flow; fully developed axisymmetric pipe flow; boundary layer flow over a flat plate; and turbulent Sajben subsonic transonic diffuser flows. Proteus results from these test cases showed good agreement with analytical results and experimental data. Detailed comparisons of both mean flow and turbulent quantities showed that the Chien k-epsilon turbulence model given good results over a wider range of turbulent flow than the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in the Proteus code with no significant CPU time penalty for more complicated flow cases.
The physics and technology basis entering European system code studies for DEMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wenninger, R.; Kembleton, R.; Bachmann, C.; Biel, W.; Bolzonella, T.; Ciattaglia, S.; Cismondi, F.; Coleman, M.; Donné, A. J. H.; Eich, T.; Fable, E.; Federici, G.; Franke, T.; Lux, H.; Maviglia, F.; Meszaros, B.; Pütterich, T.; Saarelma, S.; Snickers, A.; Villone, F.; Vincenzi, P.; Wolff, D.; Zohm, H.
2017-01-01
A large scale program to develop a conceptual design for a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) has been initiated in Europe. Central elements are the baseline design points, which are developed by system codes. The assessment of the credibility of these design points is often hampered by missing information. The main physics and technology content of the central European system codes have been published (Kovari et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 3054-69, 2016 Fusion Eng. Des. 104 9-20, Reux et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 073011). In addition, this publication discusses key input parameters for the pulsed and conservative design option \\tt{EU DEMO1 2015} and provides justifications for the parameter choices. In this context several DEMO physics gaps are identified, which need to be addressed in the future to reduce the uncertainty in predicting the performance of the device. Also the sensitivities of net electric power and pulse duration to variations of the input parameters are investigated. The most extreme sensitivity is found for the elongation ( Δ {κ95}=10 % corresponds to Δ {{P}\\text{el,\\text{net}}}=125 % ).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Vatsa, Veer N.
1993-01-01
Four turbulence models are described and evaluated for transonic flows using the upwind code CFL3D and the central-difference code TLNS3D. In particular, the effects of recent modifications to the half-equation model of Johnson-King are explored in detail, and different versions of the model are compared. This model can obtain good results for both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) separated flows. The one-equation models of Baldwin-Barth and Spalart-Allmaras perform well for separated airfoil flows, but can predict the shock too far forward at the outboard stations of a separated wing. The equilibrium model of Baldwin-Lomax predicts the shock location too far aft for both 2D and 3D separated flows, as expected. In general, all models perform well for attached or mildly separated flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Vatsa, Veer N.
1993-01-01
Four turbulence models are described and evaluated for transonic flows using the upwind code CFL3D and the central-difference code TLNS3D. In particular, the effects of recent modifications to the half-equation model of Johnson-King are explored in detail, and different versions of the model are compared. This model can obtain good results for both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) separated flows. The one-equation models of Baldwin-Barth and Spalart-Allmaras perform well for separated airfoil flows, but can predict the shock too far forward at the outboard stations of a separated wing. The equilibrium model of Baldwin-Lomax predicts the shock location too far aft for both 2D and 3D separated flows, as expected. In general, all models perform well for attached or mildly separated flows.
Implementation and Validation of the Chien k-epsilon Turbulence Model in the Wind Navier-Stokes Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoder, Dennis A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.
1999-01-01
The two equation k-epsilon turbulence model of Chien has been implemented in the WIND Navier-Stokes flow solver. Details of the numerical solution algorithm, initialization procedure, and stability enhancements are described. Results obtained with this version of the model are compared with those from the Chien k-epsilon model in the NPARC Navier-Stokes code and from the WIND SST model for three validation cases: the incompressible flow over a smooth flat plate, the incompressible flow over a backward facing step, and the shock-induced flow separation inside a transonic diffuser. The k-epsilon model results indicate that the WIND model functions very similarly to that in NPARC, though the WIND code appears to he slightly more accurate in the treatment of the near-wall region. Comparisons of the k-epsilon model results with those from the SST model were less definitive, as each model exhibited strengths and weaknesses for each particular case.
Simulation of Ionospheric E-Region Plasma Turbulence with a Massively Parallel Hybrid PIC/Fluid Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, M.; Oppenheim, M. M.; Dimant, Y. S.
2015-12-01
The Farley-Buneman (FB) and gradient drift (GD) instabilities are plasma instabilities that occur at roughly 100 km in the equatorial E-region ionosphere. They develop when ion-neutral collisions dominate ion motion while electron motion is affected by both electron-neutral collisions and the background magnetic field. GD drift waves grow when the background density gradient and electric field are aligned; FB waves grow when the background electric field causes electrons to E × B drift with a speed slightly larger than the ion acoustic speed. Theory predicts that FB and GD turbulence should develop in the same plasma volume when GD waves create a perturbation electric field that exceeds the threshold value for FB turbulence. However, ionospheric radars, which regularly observe meter-scale irregularities associated with FB turbulence, must infer kilometer-scale GD dynamics rather than observe them directly. Numerical simulations have been unable to simultaneously resolve GD and FB structure. We present results from a parallelized hybrid simulation that uses a particle-in-cell (PIC) method for ions while modeling electrons as an inertialess, quasi-neutral fluid. This approach allows us to reach length scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers with sub-meter resolution, but requires solving a large linear system derived from an elliptic PDE that depends on plasma density, ion flux, and electron parameters. We solve the resultant linear system at each time step via the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computing (PETSc). We compare results of simulated FB turbulence from this model to results from a thoroughly tested PIC code and describe progress toward the first simultaneous simulations of FB and GD instabilities. This model has immediate applications to radar observations of the E-region ionosphere, as well as potential applications to the F-region ionosphere and the chromosphere of the Sun.
European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Physical activity and cancer.
Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Anderson, Annie S; Scoccianti, Chiara; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Timothy J; Norat, Teresa; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle
2015-12-01
Physical activity is a complex, multidimensional behavior, the precise measurement of which is challenging in free-living individuals. Nonetheless, representative survey data show that 35% of the European adult population is physically inactive. Inadequate levels of physical activity are disconcerting given substantial epidemiologic evidence showing that physical activity is associated with decreased risks of colon, endometrial, and breast cancers. For example, insufficient physical activity levels are thought to cause 9% of breast cancer cases and 10% of colon cancer cases in Europe. By comparison, the evidence for a beneficial effect of physical activity is less consistent for cancers of the lung, pancreas, ovary, prostate, kidney, and stomach. The biologic pathways underlying the association between physical activity and cancer risk are incompletely defined, but potential etiologic pathways include insulin resistance, growth factors, adipocytokines, steroid hormones, and immune function. In recent years, sedentary behavior has emerged as a potential independent determinant of cancer risk. In cancer survivors, physical activity has shown positive effects on body composition, physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety, and self-esteem. Physical activity may also carry benefits regarding cancer survival, but more evidence linking increased physical activity to prolonged cancer survival is needed. Future studies using new technologies - such as accelerometers and e-tools - will contribute to improved assessments of physical activity. Such advancements in physical activity measurement will help clarify the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk and survival. Taking the overall existing evidence into account, the fourth edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people be physically active in everyday life and limit the time spent sitting.
European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.
Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim
2015-12-01
People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions."
McMurray, Janet; Zerah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael; Koeller, Ursula; Blaton, Victor; Tzatchev, Kamen; Charilaou, Charis; Racek, Jaroslav; Johnsen, Anders; Tomberg, Karel; Harmoinen, Aimo; Baum, Hannsjörg; Rizos, Demetrios; Kappelmayer, Janos; O'Mullane, John; Nubile, Giuseppe; Pupure, Silvija; Kucinskiene, Zita; Opp, Matthias; Huisman, Wim; Solnica, Bogdan; Reguengo, Henrique; Grigore, Camelia; Spanár, Július; Strakl, Greta; Queralto, Josep; Wallinder, Hans; Schuff-Werner, Peter
2009-01-01
In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 10 years, more than 2000 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). A Code of Conduct was adopted in 2003 and a revised and updated version, taking account particularly of the guidelines of the Conseil Européen des Professions Libérales (CEPLIS) of which EFCC is a member, is presented in this article. The revised version was approved by the EC4 Register Commission and by the EFCC Executive Board in Paris on 6 November, 2008.
European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.
McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim
2015-12-01
Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk.
European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.
Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim
2015-12-01
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds."
Ricci, Paolo; Theiler, C.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.
2009-05-15
The methodology for plasma-turbulence code validation is discussed, with focus on the quantities to use for the simulation-experiment comparison, i.e., the validation observables, and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. The considered validation observables are deduced from Langmuir probe measurements and are ordered into a primacy hierarchy, according to the number of model assumptions and to the combinations of measurements needed to form each of them. The lowest levels of the primacy hierarchy correspond to observables that require the lowest number of model assumptions and measurement combinations, such as the statistical and spectral properties of the ion saturation current time trace, while at the highest levels, quantities such as particle transport are considered. The comparison of the observables at the lowest levels in the hierarchy is more stringent than at the highest levels. Examples of the use of the proposed observables are applied to a specific TORPEX plasma configuration characterized by interchange-driven turbulence.
Validation of Turbulence Models for the Beggar Code in Unsteady Flows
2005-03-01
the operation of Beggar and Magdi Rizk and Alex Dobrinski for their insight into the the Beggar code. I would like to thank LtCol Raymond Maple for his...1995-1691. June 1995. 30. Rizk, Magdi , et al. “Beggar - A Store Separation Predictive Tool.” AIAA 32nd Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit . Number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.
1980-01-01
A user's guide is provided for a computer code which calculates the laminar and turbulent hypersonic flows about blunt axisymmetric bodies, such as spherically blunted cones, hyperboloids, etc., at zero and small angles of attack. The code is written in STAR FORTRAN language for the CDC-STAR-100 computer. Time-dependent, viscous-shock-layer-type equations are used to describe the flow field. These equations are solved by an explicit, two-step, time asymptotic, finite-difference method. For the turbulent flow, a two-layer, eddy-viscosity model is used. The code provides complete flow-field properties including shock location, surface pressure distribution, surface heating rates, and skin-friction coefficients. This report contains descriptions of the input and output, the listing of the program, and a sample flow-field solution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walowit, Jed A.; Shapiro, Wibur
2005-01-01
This is the source listing of the computer code SPIRALI which predicts the performance characteristics of incompressible cylindrical and face seals with or without the inclusion of spiral grooves. Performance characteristics include load capacity (for face seals), leakage flow, power requirements and dynamic characteristics in the form of stiffness, damping and apparent mass coefficients in 4 degrees of freedom for cylindrical seals and 3 degrees of freedom for face seals. These performance characteristics are computed as functions of seal and groove geometry, load or film thickness, running and disturbance speeds, fluid viscosity, and boundary pressures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Mike; Landreman, Matt; Mandell, Noah; Dorland, William
2016-10-01
GryfX is a delta-f code that evolves the gyrofluid set of equations using sophisticated nonlinear closures, with the option to evolve zonal flows (ky =0) kinetically. Since fluid models require less memory to store than a kinetic model, GryfX is ideally suited and thus written to run on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), yielding about a 1,200 times performance advantage over GS2. Here we present the first stellarator simulations using GryfX. Results compare linear growth rates of the Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) mode between GryfX and the gyrokinetic code, GS2, using stellarator geometries from the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and Wendelstein 7-X (W7X). Strong agreement of <10% for maximum growth rates is observed between GS2 and GryfX for temperature gradients away from marginal stability for both NCSX and W7X geometries. Nonlinear stellarator results using GS2/GryfX are also presented.
Simulation of Turbulent Combustion Fields of Shock-Dispersed Aluminum Using the AMR Code
Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B
2006-11-02
We present a Model for simulating experiments of combustion in Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. The SDF charge consisted of a 0.5-g spherical PETN booster, surrounded by 1-g of fuel powder (flake Aluminum). Detonation of the booster charge creates a high-temperature, high-pressure source (PETN detonation products gases) that both disperses the fuel and heats it. Combustion ensues when the fuel mixes with air. The gas phase is governed by the gas-dynamic conservation laws, while the particle phase obeys the continuum mechanics laws for heterogeneous media. The two phases exchange mass, momentum and energy according to inter-phase interaction terms. The kinetics model used an empirical particle burn relation. The thermodynamic model considers the air, fuel and booster products to be of frozen composition, while the Al combustion products are assumed to be in equilibrium. The thermodynamic states were calculated by the Cheetah code; resulting state points were fit with analytic functions suitable for numerical simulations. Numerical simulations of combustion of an Aluminum SDF charge in a 6.4-liter chamber were performed. Computed pressure histories agree with measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marandet, Y.; Nace, N.; Valentinuzzi, M.; Tamain, P.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Genesio, P.; Mellet, N.
2016-11-01
Plasma material interactions on the first wall of future tokamaks such as ITER and DEMO are likely to play an important role, because of turbulent radial transport. The latter results to a large extent from the radial propagation of plasma filaments through a tenuous background. In such a situation, mean field descriptions (on which transport codes rely) become questionable. First wall sputtering is of particular interest, especially in a full W machine, since it has been shown experimentally that first wall sources control core contamination. In ITER, beryllium sources will be one of the important actors in determining the fuel retention level through codeposition. In this work, we study the effect of turbulent fluctuations on mean sputtering yields and fluxes, relying on a new version of the TOKAM-2D code which includes ion temperature fluctuations. We show that fluctuations enhance sputtering at sub-threshold impact energies, by more than an order of magnitude when fluctuation levels are of order unity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, Jorge E.
1995-01-01
The objective of this work is to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models which account for the effects of compressibility into the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code and to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into 3-D CFD codes for engineering applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Lakshmanan, B.; Carlson, John R.
1995-01-01
A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver was used to determine how accurately computations can predict local and average skin friction coefficients for attached and separated flows for simple experimental geometries. Algebraic and transport equation closures were used to model turbulence. To simulate anisotropic turbulence, the standard two-equation turbulence model was modified by adding nonlinear terms. The effects of both grid density and the turbulence model on the computed flow fields were also investigated and compared with available experimental data for subsonic and supersonic free-stream conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey
2008-01-01
This paper describes an approach which aims at bridging the gap between the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach and the traditional large eddy simulation (LES) approach. It has the characteristics of the very large eddy simulation (VLES) and we call this approach the partially-resolved numerical simulation (PRNS). Systematic simulations using the National Combustion Code (NCC) have been carried out for fully developed turbulent pipe flows at different Reynolds numbers to evaluate the PRNS approach. Also presented are the sample results of two demonstration cases: nonreacting flow in a single injector flame tube and reacting flow in a Lean Direct Injection (LDI) hydrogen combustor.
1991-10-01
and complexity of thermochemistry . Accordingly a practical viewpoint is required to meet near-term work required for use in advanced CFD codes...teachers the opportunity to learn/explore/ teach turbulence issues. While such a product could be an invaluable eductaional tool (university), it also
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iannetti, Anthony C.; Moder, Jeffery P.
2010-01-01
Developing physics-based tools to aid in reducing harmful combustion emissions, like Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Unburnt Hydrocarbons (UHC s), and Sulfur Dioxides (SOx), is an important goal of aeronautics research at NASA. As part of that effort, NASA Glenn Research Center is performing a detailed assessment and validation of an in-house combustion CFD code known as the National Combustion Code (NCC) for turbulent reacting flows. To assess the current capabilities of NCC for simulating turbulent reacting flows with liquid jet fuel injection, a set of Single Swirler Lean Direct Injection (LDI) experiments performed at the University of Cincinnati was chosen as an initial validation data set. This Jet-A/air combustion experiment operates at a lean equivalence ratio of 0.75 at atmospheric pressure and has a 4 percent static pressure drop across the swirler. Detailed comparisons of NCC predictions for gas temperature and gaseous emissions (CO and NOx) against this experiment are considered in a previous work. The current paper is focused on detailed comparisons of the spray characteristics (radial profiles of drop size distribution and at several radial rakes) from NCC simulations against the experimental data. Comparisons against experimental data show that the use of the correlation for primary spray break-up implemented by Raju in the NCC produces most realistic results, but this result needs to be improved. Given the single or ten step chemical kinetics models, use of a spray size correlation gives similar, acceptable results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dartevelle, S.
2006-12-01
Large-scale volcanic eruptions are inherently hazardous events, hence cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurements; hence, volcanic explosive phenomenology is inadequately constrained in terms of initial and inflow conditions. Consequently, little to no real-time data exist to Verify and Validate computer codes developed to model these geophysical events as a whole. However, code Verification and Validation remains a necessary step, particularly when volcanologists use numerical data for mitigation of volcanic hazards as more often performed nowadays. The Verification and Validation (V&V) process formally assesses the level of 'credibility' of numerical results produced within a range of specific applications. The first step, Verification, is 'the process of determining that a model implementation accurately represents the conceptual description of the model', which requires either exact analytical solutions or highly accurate simplified experimental data. The second step, Validation, is 'the process of determining the degree to which a model is an accurate representation of the real world', which requires complex experimental data of the 'real world' physics. The Verification step is rather simple to formally achieve, while, in the 'real world' explosive volcanism context, the second step, Validation, is about impossible. Hence, instead of validating computer code against the whole large-scale unconstrained volcanic phenomenology, we rather suggest to focus on the key physics which control these volcanic clouds, viz., momentum-driven supersonic jets and multiphase turbulence. We propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple but well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent these two key-phenomenology separately. Herewith, we use GMFIX (Geophysical Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange, v1.62), a set of multiphase- CFD FORTRAN codes, which have been recently redeveloped to meet the strict
Implementation and Validation of a Laminar-to-Turbulent Transition Model in the Wind-US Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denissen, Nicholas A.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.
2008-01-01
A bypass transition model has been implemented in the Wind-US Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The model is based on the Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model and was built starting from a previous SST-based transition model. Several modifications were made to enable (1) consistent solutions regardless of flow field initialization procedure and (2) fully turbulent flow beyond the transition region. This model is intended for flows where bypass transition, in which the transition process is dominated by large freestream disturbances, is the key transition mechanism as opposed to transition dictated by modal growth. Validation of the new transition model is performed for flows ranging from incompressible to hypersonic conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khallaf, Haitham S.; Garrido-Balsells, José M.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Sampei, Seiichi
2015-12-01
The performance of multiple-input multiple-output free space optical (MIMO-FSO) communication systems, that adopt multipulse pulse position modulation (MPPM) techniques, is analyzed. Both exact and approximate symbol-error rates (SERs) are derived for both cases of uncorrelated and correlated channels. The effects of background noise, receiver shot-noise, and atmospheric turbulence are taken into consideration in our analysis. The random fluctuations of the received optical irradiance, produced by the atmospheric turbulence, is modeled by the widely used gamma-gamma statistical distribution. Uncorrelated MIMO channels are modeled by the α-μ distribution. A closed-form expression for the probability density function of the optical received irradiance is derived for the case of correlated MIMO channels. Using our analytical expressions, the degradation of the system performance with the increment of the correlation coefficients between MIMO channels is corroborated.
Abu-Almaalie, Zina; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bhatnagar, Manav R; Le-Minh, Hoa; Aslam, Nauman; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Lee, It Ee
2016-11-20
Physical layer network coding (PNC) improves the throughput in wireless networks by enabling two nodes to exchange information using a minimum number of time slots. The PNC technique is proposed for two-way relay channel free space optical (TWR-FSO) communications with the aim of maximizing the utilization of network resources. The multipair TWR-FSO is considered in this paper, where a single antenna on each pair seeks to communicate via a common receiver aperture at the relay. Therefore, chip interleaving is adopted as a technique to separate the different transmitted signals at the relay node to perform PNC mapping. Accordingly, this scheme relies on the iterative multiuser technique for detection of users at the receiver. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is examined under the combined influences of atmospheric loss, turbulence-induced channel fading, and pointing errors (PEs). By adopting the joint PNC mapping with interleaving and multiuser detection techniques, the BER results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a significant performance improvement against the degrading effects of turbulences and PEs. It is also demonstrated that a larger number of simultaneous users can be supported with this new scheme in establishing a communication link between multiple pairs of nodes in two time slots, thereby improving the channel capacity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shapiro, Wilbur
1996-01-01
This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homann, Holger; Dreher, Jürgen; Grauer, Rainer
2007-10-01
In this paper we investigate the impact of the floating-point precision and interpolation scheme on the results of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulence by pseudo-spectral codes. Three different types of floating-point precision configurations show no differences in the statistical results. This implies that single precision computations allow for increased Reynolds numbers due to the reduced amount of memory needed. The interpolation scheme for obtaining velocity values at particle positions has a noticeable impact on the Lagrangian acceleration statistics. A tri-cubic scheme results in a slightly broader acceleration probability density function than a tri-linear scheme. Furthermore the scaling behavior obtained by the cubic interpolation scheme exhibits a tendency towards a slightly increased degree of intermittency compared to the linear one.
Olfson, Emily; Saccone, Nancy L.; Johnson, Eric O.; Chen, Li-Shiun; Culverhouse, Robert; Doheny, Kimberly; Foltz, Steven M.; Fox, Louis; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Hartz, Sarah; Hetrick, Kurt; Laurie, Cathy C.; Marosy, Beth; Amin, Najaf; Arnett, Donna; Barr, R. Graham; Bartz, Traci M.; Bertelsen, Sarah; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Brown, Michael R.; Chasman, Daniel I.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fox, Ervin R.; Franceschini, Nora; Franco, Oscar H.; Grove, Megan L.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hofman, Albert; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rao, D.C.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rice, Kenneth; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Schick, Ursula M.; Schwander, Karen; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vojinovic, Dina; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Ware, Erin B.; Wilson, Gregory; Yao, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Rice, John; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura J.
2015-01-01
The common nonsynonymous variant rs16969968 in the α5 nicotinic receptor subunit gene (CHRNA5) is the strongest genetic risk factor for nicotine dependence in European Americans and contributes to risk in African Americans. To comprehensively examine whether other CHRNA5 coding variation influences nicotine dependence risk, we performed targeted sequencing on 1582 nicotine dependent cases (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score≥4) and 1238 non-dependent controls, with independent replication of common and low frequency variants using 12 studies with exome chip data. Nicotine dependence was examined using logistic regression with individual common variants (MAF≥0.05), aggregate low frequency variants (0.05>MAF≥0.005), and aggregate rare variants (MAF<0.005). Meta-analysis of primary results was performed with replication studies containing 12 174 heavy and 11 290 light smokers. Next-generation sequencing with 180X coverage identified 24 nonsynonymous variants and 2 frameshift deletions in CHRNA5, including 9 novel variants in the 2820 subjects. Meta-analysis confirmed the risk effect of the only common variant (rs16969968, European ancestry: OR=1.3, p=3.5×10−11; African ancestry: OR=1.3, p=0.01) and demonstrated that 3 low frequency variants contributed an independent risk (aggregate term, European ancestry: OR=1.3, p=0.005; African ancestry: OR=1.4, p=0.0006). The remaining 22 rare coding variants were associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence in the European American primary sample (OR=12.9, p=0.01) and in the same risk direction in African Americans (OR=1.5, p=0.37). Our results indicate that common, low frequency and rare CHRNA5 coding variants are independently associated with nicotine dependence risk. These newly identified variants likely influence risk for smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer. PMID:26239294
Olfson, E; Saccone, N L; Johnson, E O; Chen, L-S; Culverhouse, R; Doheny, K; Foltz, S M; Fox, L; Gogarten, S M; Hartz, S; Hetrick, K; Laurie, C C; Marosy, B; Amin, N; Arnett, D; Barr, R G; Bartz, T M; Bertelsen, S; Borecki, I B; Brown, M R; Chasman, D I; van Duijn, C M; Feitosa, M F; Fox, E R; Franceschini, N; Franco, O H; Grove, M L; Guo, X; Hofman, A; Kardia, S L R; Morrison, A C; Musani, S K; Psaty, B M; Rao, D C; Reiner, A P; Rice, K; Ridker, P M; Rose, L M; Schick, U M; Schwander, K; Uitterlinden, A G; Vojinovic, D; Wang, J-C; Ware, E B; Wilson, G; Yao, J; Zhao, W; Breslau, N; Hatsukami, D; Stitzel, J A; Rice, J; Goate, A; Bierut, L J
2016-05-01
The common nonsynonymous variant rs16969968 in the α5 nicotinic receptor subunit gene (CHRNA5) is the strongest genetic risk factor for nicotine dependence in European Americans and contributes to risk in African Americans. To comprehensively examine whether other CHRNA5 coding variation influences nicotine dependence risk, we performed targeted sequencing on 1582 nicotine-dependent cases (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score⩾4) and 1238 non-dependent controls, with independent replication of common and low frequency variants using 12 studies with exome chip data. Nicotine dependence was examined using logistic regression with individual common variants (minor allele frequency (MAF)⩾0.05), aggregate low frequency variants (0.05>MAF⩾0.005) and aggregate rare variants (MAF<0.005). Meta-analysis of primary results was performed with replication studies containing 12 174 heavy and 11 290 light smokers. Next-generation sequencing with 180 × coverage identified 24 nonsynonymous variants and 2 frameshift deletions in CHRNA5, including 9 novel variants in the 2820 subjects. Meta-analysis confirmed the risk effect of the only common variant (rs16969968, European ancestry: odds ratio (OR)=1.3, P=3.5 × 10(-11); African ancestry: OR=1.3, P=0.01) and demonstrated that three low frequency variants contributed an independent risk (aggregate term, European ancestry: OR=1.3, P=0.005; African ancestry: OR=1.4, P=0.0006). The remaining 22 rare coding variants were associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence in the European American primary sample (OR=12.9, P=0.01) and in the same risk direction in African Americans (OR=1.5, P=0.37). Our results indicate that common, low frequency and rare CHRNA5 coding variants are independently associated with nicotine dependence risk. These newly identified variants likely influence the risk for smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer.
Confined Turbulent Swirling Recirculating Flow Predictions. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abujelala, M. T.
1984-01-01
Turbulent swirling flow, the STARPIC computer code, turbulence modeling of turbulent flows, the k-xi turbulence model and extensions, turbulence parameters deduction from swirling confined flow measurements, extension of the k-xi to confined swirling recirculating flows, and general predictions for confined turbulent swirling flow are discussed.
Janssen, Fanny; Kunst, Anton E.
2004-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how often coding changes between and within revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) complicate the description of long-term trends in cause-specific mortality. METHODS: Data on cause-specific mortality between 1950 and 1999 for men and women aged 60 and older were obtained from Denmark, England and Wales, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Data were obtained by five-year age groups. We constructed a concordance table using three-digit ICD codes. In addition we evaluated the occurrence of mortality discontinuities by visually inspecting cause-specific trends and country-specific background information. Evaluation was also based on quantification of the discontinuities using a Poisson regression model (including period splines). We compared the observed trends in cause-specific mortality with the trends after adjustment for the discontinuities caused by changes to coding. FINDINGS: In 45 out of 416 (10.8 %) instances of ICD revisions to cause-specific mortality codes, significant discontinuities that were regarded as being due to ICD revisions remained. The revisions from ICD-6 and ICD-7 to ICD-8 and a wide range of causes of death, with the exception of the specific cancers, were especially affected. Incidental changes in coding rules were also important causes of discontinuities in trends in cause-specific mortality, especially in England and Wales, Finland and Sweden. Adjusting for these discontinuities can lead to significant changes in trends, although these primarily affect only limited periods of time. CONCLUSION: Despite using a carefully constructed concordance table based on three-digit ICD codes, mortality discontinuities arising as a result of coding changes (both between and within revisions) can lead to substantial changes in long-term trends in cause-specific mortality. Coding changes should therefore be evaluated by researchers and, where necessary, controlled for. PMID:15654404
Funke, Claudia; Soehn, Anne S; Tomiuk, Juergen; Riess, Olaf; Berg, Daniela
2009-04-01
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions (Lewy bodies). Iron, which is elevated in the substantia nigra of PD patients, seems to be of pivotal importance, because of its capacity to enhance the amplification of reactive oxygen species. As iron enters and exits the brain via transport proteins in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), these proteins may represent candidates for a genetic susceptibility to PD. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one important efflux pump in the BBB. There is evidence that the function of P-gp is impaired in PD patients. In the current study we examined ten coding single nucleotide polymorphisms in the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) encoding P-gp to assess whether certain genotypes are associated with PD. However, genotyping of 300 PD patients and 302 healthy controls did not reveal a significant association between coding MDR1 gene polymorphisms and PD.
Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.; Benjamin, R.A.; Cho, J.; Leitner, S.N.
2005-09-28
Turbulent mixing layers have been proposed to explain observations of line ratios of highly ionized elements in the interstellar medium. We present preliminary results of numerical simulations of turbulent mixing layers in a magnetized medium. We developed a MHD code with radiative cooling. The magnetic field is expected to be a controlling factor by suppressing instabilities that lead to the turbulent mixing. Our results suggest that the difference in turbulent mixing in the unmagnetized case as compared to the case of a weak magnetic field, {beta} = Pgas/Pmag {approx} 10, is insignificant. With a more thorough exploration of parameter space, this work will provide more reliable diagnostics of turbulent mixing layers than those available today.
Tokamak edge Er studies by turbulence and divertor simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, Y.; Coster, D.; Scott, B.
2002-11-01
Numerical coupling of the divertor code B2(B. J. Braams, Next European Torus Technical Report 68 (1987).) and the turbulence code DALF(B. D. Scott, Phys. Fluids B 4), 2468 (1992). is pursued. Within this model, space and time dependent transport coefficients (D and i) respond to the dynamics of drift wave turbulence. The Braginskii transport model of the B2 code incorporates guiding-center plasma drifts self-consistently and generate Er shear in the presence of steep pressure gradients. This Braginskii type Er can enter the turbulence model as a background E × B shear flow which suppresses the radial flux together with Reynolds stress induced electric fields. As an example of L-H transition, influx at the core boundary is controlled to produce steepening of the edge gradients. ( Y.Hamada et al.), in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (IAEA-F1-CN-69/PD, 1998) reveals heat pulse induced L-H transitions after sawtooth events.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandler, C. L.
1987-01-01
In order to forecast turbulence, one needs to have an understanding of the cause of turbulence. Therefore, an attempt is made to show the atmospheric structure that often results when aircraft encounter moderate or greater turbulence. The analysis is based on thousands of hours of observations of flights over the past 39 years of aviation meteorology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Csaki, Andras; Piazza, Marie; Truhetz, Heimo; Machulskaya, Ekaterina
2016-04-01
One of the biggest challenge in regional climate models is the proper use of parameterizations. Especially when resolutions increase some of the physical processes become (partially) resolved by the model dynamics and hence parameterizations can be switched off. One of the goal of this study is to investigate the relation between deep and shallow convection and the role of turbulence in COSMO-CLM. In the framework of the project Non-Hydrostatic Climate Modeling II (NHCM-2; www.nhcm-2.eu), funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF; project number P24758-N29), sensitivity experiments with the COSMO-CLM version 5.0, using the usual TKE and TKESV (Turbulent Kinetic Energy Scalar Variances) scheme, recently developed at the German Weather Service; DWD) turbulence scheme and the Tiedke scheme with shallow-convection on/off, are performed. These experiments, driven by analysis fields of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the ECMWF, are run with 3 km horizontal grid spacing and 60 vertical levels ("convection permitting" resolution) over the greater Alpine region. The model output is compared to analysis fields (near surface) of the Austrian nowcasting system INCA (1 km grid spacing) and analysis fields (2D and 3D) of the Swiss forecast model COSMO-7 (7 km grid spacing). In addition to a basic evaluation (temperature and precipitation), cloud over, total radiation, moisture, and vertical wind speed are also considered. First results indicate that using the Tiedke scheme in this resolution leads to a lack of the precipitation in summer afternoon, because of unrealistic high cloud production. Shallow convection avoids this and leads to a more realistic diurnal cycle in summer precipitation. Further results (including TKSVE) will be shown.
Visualization of Turbulence with OpenGL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avril, A.; Makowski, M. A.; Umansky, M.; Kalling, R.; Schissel, D. P.
2009-11-01
Turbulence is an all-pervasive phenomenon in plasmas. The edge turbulence is of particular interest for the containment of plasmas during fusion processes. It is simulated with BOUT, a 4D (3 spatial + time coordinates) edge turbulence simulation code that is typical of modern codes in many ways. While predictive, the 4D outputs of these codes are difficult to visualize. In an effort to better understand the macroscopic trends of edge turbulence in toroidal plasmas, we are developing routines to render the BOUT output, using the OpenGL framework in C^++. These routines will allow us to follow the evolution of isosurfaces through time, and we anticipate gaining insight into the nonlinear dynamics of turbulence as a result. Additionally, these routines could potentially be used to visualize the output of other modeling codes.
Combustion chamber analysis code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.
1993-01-01
A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.
Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport
H.E. Mynick, N.Pomphrey, and P. Xanthopoulos
2010-05-27
Up to now, the term "transport-optimized" stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-01-01
interaction. Furthermore, the steady state distribution of energy again follows a Kolmogorov scaling law; in this case the ripple energy is distributed according to 1/k (sup 7/4). Again, in parallel with vortex turbulence ripple turbulence exhibits intermittency. The problem of ripple turbulence presents an experimental opportunity to generate data in a controlled, benchmarked system. In particular the surface of a sphere is an ideal environment to study ripple turbulence. Waves run around the sphere and interact with each other, and the effect of walls is eliminated. In microgravity this state can be realized for over 2 decades of frequency. Wave turbulence is a physically relevant problem in its own right. It has been studied on the surface of liquid hydrogen and its application to Alfven waves in space is a source of debate. Of course, application of wave turbulence perspectives to ocean waves has been a major success. The experiment which we plan to run in microgravity is conceptually straightforward. Ripples are excited on the surface of a spherical drop of fluid and then their amplitude is recorded with appropriate photography. A key challenge is posed by the need to stably position a 10cm diameter sphere of water in microgravity. Two methods are being developed. Orbitec is using controlled puffs of air from at least 6 independent directions to provided the positioning force. This approach has actually succeeded to position and stabilize a 4cm sphere during a KC 135 segment. Guigne International is using the radiation pressure of high frequency sound. These transducers have been organized into a device in the shape of a dodecahedron. This apparatus 'SPACE DRUMS' has already been approved for use for combustion synthesis experiments on the International Space Station. A key opportunity presented by the ripple turbulence data is its use in driving the development of codes to simulate its properties.
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-11-01
interaction. Furthermore, the steady state distribution of energy again follows a Kolmogorov scaling law; in this case the ripple energy is distributed according to 1/k 7/4. Again, in parallel with vortex turbulence ripple turbulence exhibits intermittency. The problem of ripple turbulence presents an experimental opportunity to generate data in a controlled, benchmarked system. In particular the surface of a sphere is an ideal environment to study ripple turbulence. Waves run around the sphere and interact with each other, and the effect of walls is eliminated. In microgravity this state can be realized for over 2 decades of frequency. Wave turbulence is a physically relevant problem in its own right. It has been studied on the surface of liquid hydrogen and its application to Alfven waves in space is a source of debate. Of course, application of wave turbulence perspectives to ocean waves has been a major success. The experiment which we plan to run in microgravity is conceptually straightforward. Ripples are excited on the surface of a spherical drop of fluid and then their amplitude is recorded with appropriate photography. A key challenge is posed by the need to stably position a 10cm diameter sphere of water in microgravity. Two methods are being developed. Orbitec is using controlled puffs of air from at least 6 independent directions to provided the positioning force. This approach has actually succeeded to position and stabilize a 4cm sphere during a KC 135 segment. Guigne International is using the radiation pressure of high frequency sound. These transducers have been organized into a device in the shape of a dodecahedron. This apparatus 'SPACE DRUMS' has already been approved for use for combustion synthesis experiments on the International Space Station. A key opportunity presented by the ripple turbulence data is its use in driving the development of codes to simulate its properties.
Iocco, Fabio; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples
2007-09-28
We present preliminary results of 2-D simulations of the effects of turbulence in the mixing of Pair Instability Supenovae. We make use of the FLASH code to evolve initial 1-D models of post-bounce PISNe and seed turbulence in form of velocity perturbations. We identify the energetic and spatial scale for the turbulence to have mixing effects on the metal shells inside the star. Under the conditions we examine, we observe some mixing but the onion structure of the metal distribution is not disrupted.
Overview of turbulence model development and applications at Rocketdyne
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadid, A. H.; Lynch, E. D.; Sindir, Munir M.
1995-03-01
This viewgraph presentation discusses turbulence modeling requirements, development philosophy, and approach; two major areas of concentration (high speed and low speed turbulence modeling); high speed turbulence modeling; compressibility effects; turbulence models adapted to USA code; M = 9.2 flat plate flow; Mach 7.05 flow over axisymmetric flare; Mach 8.6 flow over cold wall edge; low speed turbulence modeling; turbulence models being assessed; turbulence model deck structure and integration with Navier-Stokes solver; nonlinear algebraic-stress model; rotation modified k-epsilon model; and Reynolds stress model.
Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos
2006-10-27
FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.
Turbulence Modeling Verification and Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2014-01-01
steps in the process. Verification insures that the CFD code is solving the equations as intended (no errors in the implementation). This is typically done either through the method of manufactured solutions (MMS) or through careful step-by-step comparisons with other verified codes. After the verification step is concluded, validation is performed to document the ability of the turbulence model to represent different types of flow physics. Validation can involve a large number of test case comparisons with experiments, theory, or DNS. Organized workshops have proved to be valuable resources for the turbulence modeling community in its pursuit of turbulence modeling verification and validation. Workshop contributors using different CFD codes run the same cases, often according to strict guidelines, and compare results. Through these comparisons, it is often possible to (1) identify codes that have likely implementation errors, and (2) gain insight into the capabilities and shortcomings of different turbulence models to predict the flow physics associated with particular types of flows. These are valuable lessons because they help bring consistency to CFD codes by encouraging the correction of faulty programming and facilitating the adoption of better models. They also sometimes point to specific areas needed for improvement in the models. In this paper, several recent workshops are summarized primarily from the point of view of turbulence modeling verification and validation. Furthermore, the NASA Langley Turbulence Modeling Resource website is described. The purpose of this site is to provide a central location where RANS turbulence models are documented, and test cases, grids, and data are provided. The goal of this paper is to provide an abbreviated survey of turbulence modeling verification and validation efforts, summarize some of the outcomes, and give some ideas for future endeavors in this area.
Turbulence modeling for hypersonic flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, Jorge E.
1992-01-01
The objective of the present work is to develop, verify, and incorporate two equation turbulence models which account for the effect of compressibility at high speeds into a three dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code and to provide documented model descriptions and numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) codes. A summary of accomplishments is listed: (1) Four codes have been tested and evaluated against a flat plate boundary layer flow and an external supersonic flow; (2) a code named RANS was chosen because of its speed, accuracy, and versatility; (3) the code was extended from thin boundary layer to full Navier-Stokes; (4) the K-omega two equation turbulence model has been implemented into the base code; (5) a 24 degree laminar compression corner flow has been simulated and compared to other numerical simulations; and (6) work is in progress in writing the numerical method of the base code including the turbulence model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsubota, Makoto
2008-11-01
The present article reviews the recent developments in the physics of quantum turbulence. Quantum turbulence (QT) was discovered in superfluid 4He in the 1950s, and the research has tended toward a new direction since the mid 90s. The similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence have become an important area of research. QT is comprised of quantized vortices that are definite topological defects, being expected to yield a model of turbulence that is much simpler than the classical model. The general introduction of the issue and a brief review on classical turbulence are followed by a description of the dynamics of quantized vortices. Then, we discuss the energy spectrum of QT at very low temperatures. At low wavenumbers, the energy is transferred through the Richardson cascade of quantized vortices, and the spectrum obeys the Kolmogorov law, which is the most important statistical law in turbulence; this classical region shows the similarity to conventional turbulence. At higher wavenumbers, the energy is transferred by the Kelvin-wave cascade on each vortex. This quantum regime depends strongly on the nature of each quantized vortex. The possible dissipation mechanism is discussed. Finally, important new experimental studies, which include investigations into temperature-dependent transition to QT, dissipation at very low temperatures, QT created by vibrating structures, and visualization of QT, are reviewed. The present article concludes with a brief look at QT in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanratty, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarenko, Sergey
2015-07-01
Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, R. (Editor); Rumsey, C. L. (Editor); Salas, M. D. (Editor); Thomas, J. L. (Editor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Advances in turbulence modeling are needed in order to calculate high Reynolds number flows near the onset of separation and beyond. To this end, the participants in this workshop made the following recommendations. (1) A national/international database and standards for turbulence modeling assessment should be established. Existing experimental data sets should be reviewed and categorized. Advantage should be taken of other efforts already under-way, such as that of the European Research Community on Flow, Turbulence, and Combustion (ERCOFTAC) consortium. Carefully selected "unit" experiments will be needed, as well as advances in instrumentation, to fill the gaps in existing datasets. A high priority should be given to document existing turbulence model capabilities in a standard form, including numerical implementation issues such as grid quality and resolution. (2) NASA should support long-term research on Algebraic Stress Models and Reynolds Stress Models. The emphasis should be placed on improving the length-scale equation, since it is the least understood and is a key component of two-equation and higher models. Second priority should be given to the development of improved near-wall models. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) would provide valuable guidance in developing and validating new Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models. Although not the focus of this workshop, DNS, LES, and hybrid methods currently represent viable approaches for analysis on a limited basis. Therefore, although computer limitations require the use of RANS methods for realistic configurations at high Reynolds number in the foreseeable future, a balanced effort in turbulence modeling development, validation, and implementation should include these approaches as well.
Turbulence modeling for hypersonic flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, Jorge E.
1993-01-01
The objective of the proposed work is to continue to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models, which account for the effects of compressibility at high speeds, into a three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code. Additionally, we plan to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into the NASP CFD codes.
Turbulent optimization of toroidal configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mynick, H.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Faber, B.; Lucia, M.; Rorvig, M.; Talmadge, J. N.
2014-09-01
Recent progress in ‘turbulent optimization’ of toroidal configurations is described, using a method recently developed for evolving such configurations to ones having reduced turbulent transport. The method uses the GENE gyrokinetic code to compute the radial heat flux Qgk, and the STELLOPT optimization code with a theory-based ‘proxy’ figure of merit Qpr to stand in for Qgk for computational speed. Improved expressions for Qpr have been developed, involving further geometric quantities beyond those in the original proxy, which can also be used as ‘control knobs’ to reduce Qgk. Use of a global search algorithm has led to the discovery of turbulent-optimized configurations not found by the standard, local algorithm usually employed, as has use of a mapping capability which STELLOPT has been extended to provide, of figures of merit over the search space.
Turbulent Mixing Chemistry in Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, D.; Wiebe, D.
2006-11-01
A gas-grain chemical model with surface reaction and 1D/2D turbulent mixing is available for protoplanetary disks and molecular clouds. Current version is based on the updated UMIST'95 database with gas-grain interactions (accretion, desorption, photoevaporation, etc.) and modified rate equation approach to surface chemistry (see also abstract for the static chemistry code).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Turbulence in unsteady flow at high frequencies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Gary D.
1990-01-01
Turbulent flows subjected to oscillations of the mean flow were simulated using a large-eddy simulation computer code for flow in a channel. The objective of the simulations was to provide better understanding of the effects of time-dependent disturbances on the turbulence of a boundary layer and of the underlying physical phenomena regarding the basic interaction between the turbulence and external disturbances. The results confirmed that turbulence is sensitive to certain ranges of frequencies of disturbances. However, no direct connection was found between the frequency of imposed disturbances and the characteristic 'burst' frequency of turbulence. New insight into the nature of turbulence at high frequencies was found. Viscous phenomena near solid walls were found to be the dominant influence for high-frequency perturbations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skrbek, L.
2011-12-01
We review physical properties of quantum fluids He II and 3He-B, where quantum turbulence (QT) has been studied experimentally. Basic properties of QT in these working fluids are discussed within the phenomenological two-fluid model introduced by Landau. We consider counterflows in which the normal and superfluid components flow against each other, as well as co-flows in which the direction of the two fluids is the same. We pay special attention to the important case of zero temperature limit, where QT represents an interesting and probably the simplest prototype of three-dimensional turbulence in fluids. Experimental techniques to explore QT such as second sound attenuation, Andreev reflection, NMR, ion propagation are briefly introduced and results of various experiments on so-called Vinen QT and Kolmogorov QT both in He II and 3He are discussed, emphasizing similarities and differences between classical and quantum turbulence.
Turbulence in Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.
Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.
1993-12-01
Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.
2014-01-01
Background Genetic modifiers are important clues for the identification of therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases. Huntington disease (HD) is one of the most common autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative diseases. The clinical symptoms include motor abnormalities, cognitive decline and behavioral disturbances. Symptom onset is typically between 40 and 50 years of age, but can vary by several decades in extreme cases and this is in part determined by modifying genetic factors. The metabolic master regulator PGC-1α, coded by the PPARGC1A gene, coordinates cellular respiration and was shown to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases, including HD. Methods Using a candidate gene approach we analyzed a large European cohort (n = 1706) from the REGISTRY study for associations between PPARGC1A genotype and age at onset (AO) in HD. Results We report that a coding variant (rs3736265) in PPARGC1A is associated with an earlier motor AO in men but not women carrying the HD mutation. Conclusions These results further strengthen the evidence for a role of PGC-1α in HD and unexpectedly suggest a gender effect. PMID:24383721
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gökgöz, Türkay; Ozulu, Murat; Erdoǧan, Mustafa; Seyrek, Kemal
2016-04-01
From the view of integrated river basin management, basin/sub-basin boundaries should be determined and encoded systematically with sufficient accuracy and precision. Today basin/sub-basin boundaries are mostly derived from digital elevation models (DEM) in geographic information systems (GIS). The accuracy and precision of the basin/sub-basin boundaries depend primarily on the accuracy and resolution of the DEMs. In this regard, in Turkey, a survey was made for the first time within the scope of this project to identify current situation, problems and needs in General Directorates of State Hydraulic Works, Water Management, Forestry, Meteorology, Combating Desertification and Erosion, which are the major institutions with responsibility and authority. Another factor that determines the accuracy and precision of basin/sub-basin boundaries is the flow accumulation threshold value to be determined at a certain stage according to a specific methodology in deriving the basin/sub-basin boundaries from DEM. Generally, in Turkey, either the default value given by GIS tool is used directly without any geomorphological, hydrological and cartographic bases or it is determined by trial and error. Although there is a system of catchments and rivers network at 1:250,000 scale and a proper method has already been developed on systematic coding of the basin by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, it is stated that a new system of catchments, rivers network and coding at larger scale (i.e. 1:25,000) is needed. In short, the basin/sub-basin boundaries and codes are not available currently at the required accuracy and precision for the fulfilment of the obligations described in European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD). In this case, it is clear that there is not yet any methodology to obtain such products. However, a series of projects should be completed such that the basin/sub-basin boundaries and codes are the fundamental data infrastructure. This task
Characterization of optical turbulence in a jet engine exhaust with Shack-Hartmenn wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deron, R.; Mendez, F.
2008-10-01
Airborne laser countermeasure applications (DIRCM) are hampered by the turbulence of jet engine exhaust. The effects of this source of perturbation on optical propagation have still to be documented and analyzed in order to get a better insight into the different mechanisms of the plume perturbations and also to validate CFD/LES codes. For that purpose, wave front sensing has been used as a non-intrusive optical technique to provide unsteady and turbulent optical measurements through a plume of a jet engine installed at a fixed point on the ground. The experiment has been implemented in October 2007 along with other optical measuring techniques at Volvo Aero Corporation (Trollhättan, Sweden). This study is part of a European research programme dealing with DIRCM issues. The Shack- Hartmann (SH) wave front sensing technique was employed. It consisted of 64 x 64 lenslets coupled to a 1024x1024 pixel Dalsa CCD sensor working at a sampling rate of 40 Hz. A 15 ns pulsed laser synchronized with the SH sensor enabled "freezing" turbulence in each SH image. The ability of the technique to substract a reference permitted a simple calibration procedure to ensure accurate and reliable measurements despite vibration environment. Instantaneous phases are reconstructed using Fourier techniques so as to obtain a better spatial resolution against turbulent effects. Under any given plume condition, overall tilt aberration prevails. Phase power spectra derived from phase statistics are drawn according to the plume main axis and to normal axis. They compare favorably well to the decaying Kolmogorov power law on a useful high spatial frequency range. Averaged phases are also decomposed into Zernike polynomials to analyze optical mode behavior according to engine status and to plume abscissa. With overall tilt removed, turbulent DSP's amplitude drops by a factor of 30 to 40 and mean aberrations by a factor of 10 from an abscissa 1 meter to another 3.5 meters away from the engine
Test code for the assessment and improvement of Reynolds stress models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, M. W.; Viegas, J. R.; Vandromme, D.; Minh, H. HA
1987-01-01
An existing two-dimensional, compressible flow, Navier-Stokes computer code, containing a full Reynolds stress turbulence model, was adapted for use as a test bed for assessing and improving turbulence models based on turbulence simulation experiments. To date, the results of using the code in comparison with simulated channel flow and over an oscillating flat plate have shown that the turbulence model used in the code needs improvement for these flows. It is also shown that direct simulation of turbulent flows over a range of Reynolds numbers are needed to guide subsequent improvement of turbulence models.
Turbulent mix experiments and simulations
Dimonte, G.; Schneider, M.; Frerking, C.E.
1995-08-01
Hydrodynamic instabilities produce material mixing that can significantly degrade weapons performance. We investigate the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in the turbulent regime in two experimental venues. RM experiments are conducted on the Nova laser with strong radiatively driven shocks (Mach > 20) in planar, two fluid targets. Interfacial perturbations are imposed with single sinusoidal modes to test linear theory and with three dimensional (3D) random modes to produce turbulent mix. RT experiments are conducted on a new facility, the Linear Electric Motor (LEM), in which macroscopic fluids are accelerated with arbitrary temporal profiles. This allows detailed diagnosis of the turbulence over a wide range of conditions. The Nova experiments study the high compression regime whereas the LEM experiments are incompressible. The results are compared to hydrodynamic simulations with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian code (CALE). The goal is to develop and test engineering models of mix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühnen, Jakob; Hof, Björn
2015-11-01
We show that a simple modification of the velocity profile in a pipe can lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and the flow fully relaminarises. The annihilation of turbulence is achieved by a steady manipulation of the streamwise velocity component alone, greatly reducing control efforts. Several different control techniques are presented: one with a local modification of the flow profile by means of a stationary obstacle, one employing a nozzle injecting fluid through a small gap at the pipe wall and one with a moving wall, where a part of the pipe is shifted in the streamwise direction. All control techniques act on the flow such that the streamwise velocity profile becomes more flat and turbulence gradually grows faint and disappears. In a smooth straight pipe the flow remains laminar downstream of the control. Hence a reduction in skin friction by a factor of 8 and more can be accomplished. Stereoscopic PIV-measurements and movies of the development of the flow during relaminarisation are presented.
Quasisteady turbulence driven by runaway electrons
Muschietti, L.; Appert, K.; Vaclavik, J.
1982-07-01
The evolution of the turbulence driven by runaway electrons has been followed by means of a computer code based on the quasilinear equations. The evolution is not characterized by periodic relaxations as claimed in previous works but ends in a quasisteady turbulent, yet very persistent state, accessible from different initial conditions. This discrepancy is clarified as being due to the excessive stiffness of the moment equations used to demonstrate the relaxations. Moreover, a theory is developed to interpret the quasisteady state found.
2014-12-01
density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes. iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the most common. Many civilian systems use low density parity check (LDPC) FEC codes, and the Navy is planning to use LDPC for some future systems...other forward error correction methods: a turbo code, a low density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes
TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proll, J. H. E.; Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Faber, B. J.
2016-01-01
With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is addressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X (Beidler et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 148) and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT (Spong et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 711) code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stellarator experiment HSX (Anderson et al 1995 Fusion Technol. 27 273) is presented for which a reduction of the linear growth rates is achieved over a broad range of the operational parameter space. As an important consequence of this property, the turbulent heat flux levels are reduced compared with the initial configuration.
Boundary Plasma Turbulence Simulations for Tokamaks
Xu, X; Umansky, M; Dudson, B; Snyder, P
2008-05-15
The boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT models tokamak boundary-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density (ni), electron and ion temperature (T{sub e}; T{sub i}) and parallel momenta. The BOUT code solves for the plasma fluid equations in a three dimensional (3D) toroidal segment (or a toroidal wedge), including the region somewhat inside the separatrix and extending into the scrape-off layer; the private flux region is also included. In this paper, a description is given of the sophisticated physical models, innovative numerical algorithms, and modern software design used to simulate edge-plasmas in magnetic fusion energy devices. The BOUT code's unique capabilities and functionality are exemplified via simulations of the impact of plasma density on tokamak edge turbulence and blob dynamics.
Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence
E. A. Belli; Hammett, G. W.; Dorland, W.
2008-08-01
The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ^{-1.5} or κ^{-2.0}, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.
WEI, J.
2006-06-26
In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.
Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository
Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven
2006-10-24
In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.
Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion
Pope, S.B.
1992-10-02
Progress was made on the following: Development of two-variable ([xi] - y) thermochemistry suitable for DNS (direct numerical simulation) studies; determination of laminar flame properties based on this thermochemistry; determination of the parameter range that can be accessed by DNS with good resolution; implementation of the thermochemistry in the DNS code; performance of exploratory simulations, and the development of techniques of relating Eulerian DNS data to turbulent combustion theories; implementation of the DNS code on parallel and distributed computers, and the study of relative molecular motion in turbulence.
Clinical coding. Code breakers.
Mathieson, Steve
2005-02-24
--The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.
Aspects of Turbulent / Non-Turbulent Interfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bisset, D. K.; Hunt, J. C. R.; Rogers, M. M.; Koen, Dennis (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
A distinct boundary between turbulent and non-turbulent regions in a fluid of otherwise constant properties is found in many laboratory and engineering turbulent flows, including jets, mixing layers, boundary layers and wakes. Generally, the flow has mean shear in at least one direction within t he turbulent zone, but the non-turbulent zones have no shear (adjacent laminar shear is a different case, e.g. transition in a boundary layer). There may be purely passive differences between the turbulent and non-turbulent zones, e.g. small variations in temperature or scalar concentration, for which turbulent mixing is an important issue. The boundary has several major characteristics of interest for the present study. Firstly, the boundary advances into the non-turbulent fluid, or in other words, nonturbulent fluid is entrained. Secondly, the change in turbulence properties across the boundary is remarkably abrupt; strong turbulent motions come close to the nonturbulent fluid, promoting entrainment. Thirdly, the boundary is irregular with a continually changing convoluted shape, which produces statistical intermittency. Its shape is contorted at all scales of the turbulent motion.
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, Carl H.
2010-12-01
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begin with big bang turbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and Planck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretions on a spinning pair release 42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent combustion. Negative viscous stresses and negative turbulence stresses work against gravity, extracting mass-energy and space-time from the vacuum. Turbulence mixes cooling temperatures until strong-force viscous stresses freeze out turbulent mixing patterns as the first fossil turbulence. Cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies show big bang turbulence fossils along with fossils of weak plasma turbulence triggered as plasma photon-viscous forces permitting gravitational fragmentation on supercluster to galaxy mass scales. Turbulent morphologies and viscous-turbulent lengths appear as linear gas-protogalaxy-clusters in the Hubble ultra-deep field at z~7. Protogalaxies fragment into Jeans mass clumps of primordial-gas planets at decoupling: the dark matter of galaxies. Shortly after the plasma-to-gas transition, planet mergers produce stars that explode on overfeeding to fertilize and distribute the first life.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor
Transport Analysis of Edge Turbulence in Tore Supra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Roscoe; Benkadda, Sadruddin; Beyer, Peter; Garbet, Xavier
1999-11-01
Simulations of 3D resistive ballooning turbulence in Tore Supra have been carried out(Pl Beyer et. al., Plasma Physics Controlled Fusion, 1999). Test particle analysis of transport in this turbulence is investigated using a guiding center Monte Carlo code(R. B. White, Phys Fluids B, 845 (1900). Particular emphasis is using a flux driven case which shows avalanche like transport.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
George, Albert R.
1996-01-01
In the present research, tilt rotor aeroacoustics have been studied experimentally and computationally. Experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. To date, these flow measurements are the only ones in existence for a hovering tilt rotor. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3) basic configuration changes (increasing the rotor/rotor spacing, reducing the rotor plane/wing clearance, operating the rotors out of phase). Also, an approximation to Sikorsky's Variable Diameter Tilt Rotor (VDTR) configuration was tested, and some flow measurements were made on a semi-span configuration of the model. Acoustic predictions were made using LOWSON.M, a Mathematica code. This hover prediction code, from HOVER.FOR, used blade element theory for the aerodynamics, and Prandtl's Vortex theory to model the wake, along with empirical formulas for the effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, and stall. Aerodynamic models were developed from 7-hole pressure probe measurements of the mean velocity into the model rotors. LOWSON.M modeled a rotor blade as a single force and source/sink combination separated in the chordwise direction, at an
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venaille, Antoine; Nadeau, Louis-Philippe; Vallis, Geoffrey
2014-12-01
We investigate the non-linear equilibration of a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow in a channel with an initial eastward baroclinically unstable jet in the upper layer, paying particular attention to the role of bottom friction. In the limit of low bottom friction, classical theory of geostrophic turbulence predicts an inverse cascade of kinetic energy in the horizontal with condensation at the domain scale and barotropization in the vertical. By contrast, in the limit of large bottom friction, the flow is dominated by ribbons of high kinetic energy in the upper layer. These ribbons correspond to meandering jets separating regions of homogenized potential vorticity. We interpret these results by taking advantage of the peculiar conservation laws satisfied by this system: the dynamics can be recast in such a way that the initial eastward jet in the upper layer appears as an initial source of potential vorticity levels in the upper layer. The initial baroclinic instability leads to a turbulent flow that stirs this potential vorticity field while conserving the global distribution of potential vorticity levels. Statistical mechanical theory of the 1 1/2 layer quasi-geostrophic model predicts the formation of two regions of homogenized potential vorticity separated by a minimal interface. We explain that cascade phenomenology leads to the same result. We then show that the dynamics of the ribbons results from a competition between a tendency to reach the equilibrium state and baroclinic instability that induces meanders of the interface. These meanders intermittently break and induce potential vorticity mixing, but the interface remains sharp throughout the flow evolution. We show that for some parameter regimes, the ribbons act as a mixing barrier which prevents relaxation toward equilibrium, favouring the emergence of multiple zonal (eastward) jets.
Telescope Adaptive Optics Code
Phillion, D.
2005-07-28
The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST
Large Eddy Simulations and Turbulence Modeling for Film Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acharya, Sumanta
1999-01-01
The objective of the research is to perform Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for film cooling process, and to evaluate and improve advanced forms of the two equation turbulence models for turbine blade surface flow analysis. The DNS/LES were used to resolve the large eddies within the flow field near the coolant jet location. The work involved code development and applications of the codes developed to the film cooling problems. Five different codes were developed and utilized to perform this research. This report presented a summary of the development of the codes and their applications to analyze the turbulence properties at locations near coolant injection holes.
Gyrokinetic Turbulence Simulations for Stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merz, F.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Gorler, T.; Jenko, F.; Mikkelsen, D.
2007-11-01
While there is an abundance of publications on plasma microturbulence in tokamaks, not much is presently known about its character in nonaxisymmetric devices. The present work constitutes the first attempt to investigate turbulent transport in modern stellarators, using the gyrokinetic turbulence code Gene and realistic magnetic equilibria. First, linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) and trapped electron modes are presented for the optimized stellarator Wendelstein 7-X which is currently under construction at Greifswald, Germany. The newly developed code Tracer -- based on field line tracing -- is employed to extract the required geometric information from the MHD equilibria [Phys. Plasmas 13, 092301 (2006)]. Extensive linear studies reveal substantial differences with respect to axisymmetric geometry [Phys. Plasmas 14, 042501 (2007)]. Nonlinear ITG simulations are also presented [Phys. Rev. Lett., in print]. Several fundamental features are discussed, including the role of zonal flows for turbulence saturation, the resulting flux-gradient relationship and the co-existence of ITG modes with trapped ion modes in the saturated state. Similar studies will be presented for the stellarator experiment NCSX at PPPL with the aim to comprehend the effects of quasi-axisymmetric geometry on the properties - both linear and nonlinear - of various microinstabilities.
European Science Notes Information Bulletin.
1992-12-01
Third European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like, and Related Coatings .................. 427 M. N. Yoder, L. Kabacoff, J. E. Butler, K Doverspike, J...tions on the functionf will yield results on the the correlation E(dj[n], dk[m]) depends on H, j, k , analysis and synthesis operators. m, n and the number...structure of fully developed turbulence in the ho- goes like this: Define the functions ,•j..(x) = j , k (x) mogeneous and inhomogeneous, incompressible
Density distributions of outflow-driven turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraghan, Anthony; Kim, Jongsoo; Yoon, Suk-Jin
2013-05-01
Protostellar jets and outflows are signatures of star formation and promising mechanisms for driving supersonic turbulence in molecular clouds. We quantify outflow-driven turbulence through three-dimensional numerical simulations using an isothermal version of the robust total variation diminishing code. We drive turbulence in real space using a simplified spherical outflow model, analyse the data through density probability distribution functions (PDFs), and investigate the core formation rate per free-fall time (CFRff). The real-space turbulence-driving method produces a negatively skewed density PDF possessing an enhanced tail on the low-density side. It deviates from the log-normal distributions typically obtained from Fourier-space turbulence driving at low densities, but can provide a good fit at high densities, particularly in terms of mass-weighted rather than volume-weighted density PDF. Due to this fact, we suggest that the CFRff determined from a Fourier-driven turbulence model could be comparable to that of our particular real-space-driving model, which has a ratio of solenoidal to compressional components from the resulting turbulence velocity fields of ˜0.6.
Hot Jupiter Radii: A Turbulent History
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youdin, Andrew N.; Komacek, Thaddeus D.
2014-11-01
Many hot Jupiters, i.e. giant exoplanets with short orbital periods, are bloated, with radii that greatly exceed those of colder gas giants. In models that neglect atmospheric motion, the enhanced irradiation of hot Jupiters is insufficient to explain their large radii. However uneven surface irradiation drives atmospheric circulation. These atmospheric motions deposit heat at deeper layers than irradiation alone, and can explain their large radii. The specific dissipation mechanism for atmospheric circulation can involve a turbulent cascade and/or the driving of electric currents that undergo Ohmic dissipation. The “Mechanical Greenhouse” model (Youdin & Mitchell, 2010) showed that turbulence in hot Jupiter atmospheres does mechanical work against the stable stratification of upper radiative zones, thereby driving a heat flux deeper into the interior. This poster will describe the first efforts to include this turbulent heat flux in planetary structure models. The goal is to understand the effects of turbulent mixing on hot Jupiter radius evolution. To perform these calculations we modify the publicly available stellar structure code MESA. We show how the effects of turbulence can be included in MESA — and understood physically — as an effective dissipation profile. We compare the radius evolution of hot Jupiters for different dissipation prescriptions, including our turbulent mixing model and others from the literature. We find that turbulent mixing is an energetically efficient way to explain the bloated radii of hot Jupiters.
Studying Turbulence Using Numerical Simulation Databases, 2. Proceedings of the 1988 Summer Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1988-01-01
The focus of the program was on the use of direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow for study of turbulence physics and modeling. A special interest was placed on turbulent mixing layers. The required data for these investigations were generated from four newly developed codes for simulation of time and spatially developing incompressible and compressible mixing layers. Also of interest were the structure of wall bounded turbulent and transitional flows, evaluation of diagnostic techniques for detection of organized motions, energy transfer in isotropic turbulence, optical propagation through turbulent media, and detailed analysis of the interaction of vortical structures.
Turbulence studies in Tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry
Xu, X.Q.
1998-10-14
Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT [1] and the linearized shooting code BAL[2] to study turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant, resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the ExB drift speed, ion diamagnetism and finite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters.
Turbulence Modeling for Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lillard, Randolph P.
2011-01-01
Accurate aerodynamic computational predictions are essential for the safety of space vehicles, but these computations are of limited accuracy when large pressure gradients are present in the flow. The goal of the current project is to improve the state of compressible turbulence modeling for high speed flows with shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLI). Emphasis will be placed on models that can accurately predict the separated region caused by the SWTBLI. These flows are classified as nonequilibrium boundary layers because of the very large and variable adverse pressure gradients caused by the shock waves. The lag model was designed to model these nonequilibrium flows by incorporating history effects. Standard one- and two-equation models (Spalart Allmaras and SST) and the lag model will be run and compared to a new lag model. This new model, the Reynolds stress tensor lag model (lagRST), will be assessed against multiple wind tunnel tests and correlations. The basis of the lag and lagRST models are to preserve the accuracy of the standard turbulence models in equilibrium turbulence, when the Reynolds stresses are linearly related to the mean strain rates, but create a lag between mean strain rate effects and turbulence when nonequilibrium effects become important, such as in large pressure gradients. The affect this lag has on the results for SWBLI and massively separated flows will be determined. These computations will be done with a modified version of the OVERFLOW code. This code solves the RANS equations on overset grids. It was used for this study for its ability to input very complex geometries into the flow solver, such as the Space Shuttle in the full stack configuration. The model was successfully implemented within two versions of the OVERFLOW code. Results show a substantial improvement over the baseline models for transonic separated flows. The results are mixed for the SWBLI assessed. Separation predictions are not as good as the
Gyrokinetic studies of stellarator turbulent transport via Gene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A. H.
2009-05-01
We study the turbulence and turbulent transport in stellarators (and tokamaks), via analysis of simulation results from the 3D gyrokinetic code Gene with particular emphasis on the configuration-dependence of turbulence characteristics. Present day stellarator designs seek to optimize stellarator neoclassical transport. With the advent of simulation codes like Gene, one can now seek to characterize and then optimize designs for TOTAL transport. The comparison between different configurations in stellarator parameter space is of 2 types, global and local. Global comparisons look at changes in plasma performance (eg, levels of turbulent fluxes and zonal flows, dependence of these on plasma gradients) between very different designs (eg, a QA versus a QI/QO design). Local comparisons look at the changes in performance between slight variants of the same design. Both aid in gaining insight into which geometric features (curvature, local and global shear, etc) are important in determining the turbulent characteristics. P. Xanthopoulos, F. Jenko, Phys.Plasmas 13, 092301 (2006).
Overview of the TurbSim Stochastic Inflow Turbulence Simulator: Version 1.10
Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.
2006-09-01
The Turbsim stochastic inflow turbulence code was developed to provide a numerical simulation of a full-field flow that contains coherent turbulence structures that reflect the proper spatiotemporal turbulent velocity field relationships seen in instabilities associated with nocturnal boundary layer flows. This report provides the user with an overview of how the TurbSim code has been developed and some of the theory behind that development.
Performance Analysis of FSO Communication Using Different Coding Schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Nidhi; Prakash, Siddi Jai; Kaushal, Hemani; Jain, V. K.; Kar, Subrat
2011-10-01
A major impairment in Free Space Optical (FSO) links is the turbulence induced fading which severely degrades the link performance. To mitigate turbulence induced fading and, therefore, to improve the error rate performance, error control coding schemes can be used. In this paper, we investigate the bit error performance of FSO links with different coding techniques over log normal atmospheric turbulence fading channels. The modulation scheme considered is BPSK. On the basis of computed results using Monte Carlo simulation, a comparative study of uncoded and coded systems is made.
Turbulence dissipation challenge: particle-in-cell simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.; Omelchenko, Y.; Germaschewski, K.
2015-12-01
We discuss application of three particle in cell (PIC) codes to the problems relevant to turbulence dissipation challenge. VPIC is a fully kinetic code extensively used to study a variety of diverse problems ranging from laboratory plasmas to astrophysics. PSC is a flexible fully kinetic code offering a variety of algorithms that can be advantageous to turbulence simulations, including high order particle shapes, dynamic load balancing, and ability to efficiently run on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Finally, HYPERS is a novel hybrid (kinetic ions+fluid electrons) code, which utilizes asynchronous time advance and a number of other advanced algorithms. We present examples drawn both from large-scale turbulence simulations and from the test problems outlined by the turbulence dissipation challenge. Special attention is paid to such issues as the small-scale intermittency of inertial range turbulence, mode content of the sub-proton range of scales, the formation of electron-scale current sheets and the role of magnetic reconnection, as well as numerical challenges of applying PIC codes to simulations of astrophysical turbulence.
Turbulent Flow Computations in Ejectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gogoi, A.; Siddesha, H.
2010-09-01
The paper presents computations in ejectors using in-house code NUMBERS. Computations are carried out in a 2D ejector and in a cylindrical ejector. Computations on the cylindrical ejector are done for various nozzle pressure ratios. The ejector flow is dominated by complex mixing of primary and secondary jets. The Spalart-Allmaras and Menter SST turbulence models are used. The results with the Menter SST model are superior to Spalart-Allmaras model at higher nozzle pressure ratios for the cylindrical ejector.
Near Wall Turbulence: an experimental view
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanislas, Michel
2016-11-01
The aim of this presentation is to summarize the understanding of the near wall turbulence phenomena obtained at Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille using both hot wire anemometry and PIV. A wind tunnel was built in 1993 specifically designed for these two measurement techniques and aimed at large Reynolds numbers. Several experiments were performed since then in the frame of different PhDs and European projects, all aimed at evidencing turbulence organization in this region. These have fully benefited of the extraordinary development of PIV in that time frame, which has allowed entering visually and quantitatively inside the complex spatial and temporal structure of near wall turbulence. The presentation will try to emphasize the benefit of this approach in terms of understanding and modelling, illustrated by some representative results obtained. M. Stanislas particularly acknowledges the financial support of Region Nord Pas de Calais, unmissing during 25 years.
A simplified Reynolds stress model for unsteady turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fan, Sixin; Lakshminarayana, Budugur
1993-01-01
A simplified Reynolds stress model has been developed for the prediction of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. By assuming that the net transport of Reynolds stresses is locally proportional to the net transport of the turbulent kinetic energy, the time dependent full Reynolds stress model is reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations. These equations contain only time derivatives and can be readily integrated in a time dependent boundary layer or Navier-Stokes code. The turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate needed for the model are obtained by solving the k-epsilon equations. This simplified Reynolds stress turbulence model (SRSM) does not use the eddy viscosity assumption, which may not be valid for unsteady turbulent flows. The anisotropy of both the steady and the unsteady turbulent normal stresses can be captured by the SRSM model. Through proper damping of the shear stresses, the present model can be used in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers. This model has been validated against data for steady and unsteady turbulent boundary layers, including periodic turbulent boundary layers subjected to a mean adverse pressure gradient. For the cases tested, the predicted unsteady velocity and turbulent stress components agree well with the experimental data. Comparison between the predictions from the SRSM model and a k-epsilon model is also presented.
Resnik, Barry I
2009-01-01
It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.
Differential kinetic dynamics and heating of ions in the turbulent solar wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Stabile, S.; Pezzi, O.; Servidio, S.; De Marco, R.; Marcucci, F.; Bruno, R.; Lavraud, B.; De Keyser, J.; Consolini, G.; Brienza, D.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Retinò, A.; Vaivads, A.; Salatti, M.; Veltri, P.
2016-12-01
The solar wind plasma is a fully ionized and turbulent gas ejected by the outer layers of the solar corona at very high speed, mainly composed by protons and electrons, with a small percentage of helium nuclei and a significantly lower abundance of heavier ions. Since particle collisions are practically negligible, the solar wind is typically not in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. Such a complex system must be described through self-consistent and fully nonlinear models, taking into account its multi-species composition and turbulence. We use a kinetic hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical code to reproduce the turbulent energy cascade down to ion kinetic scales, in typical conditions of the uncontaminated solar wind plasma, with the aim of exploring the differential kinetic dynamics of the dominant ion species, namely protons and alpha particles. We show that the response of different species to the fluctuating electromagnetic fields is different. In particular, a significant differential heating of alphas with respect to protons is observed. Interestingly, the preferential heating process occurs in spatial regions nearby the peaks of ion vorticity and where strong deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium are recovered. Moreover, by feeding a simulator of a top-hat ion spectrometer with the output of the kinetic simulations, we show that measurements by such spectrometer planned on board the Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR mission), a candidate for the next M4 space mission of the European Space Agency, can provide detailed three-dimensional ion velocity distributions, highlighting important non-Maxwellian features. These results support the idea that future space missions will allow a deeper understanding of the physics of the interplanetary medium.
Introduction to quantum turbulence
Barenghi, Carlo F.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2014-01-01
The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870
Modeling Compressed Turbulence
Israel, Daniel M.
2012-07-13
From ICE to ICF, the effect of mean compression or expansion is important for predicting the state of the turbulence. When developing combustion models, we would like to know the mix state of the reacting species. This involves density and concentration fluctuations. To date, research has focused on the effect of compression on the turbulent kinetic energy. The current work provides constraints to help development and calibration for models of species mixing effects in compressed turbulence. The Cambon, et al., re-scaling has been extended to buoyancy driven turbulence, including the fluctuating density, concentration, and temperature equations. The new scalings give us helpful constraints for developing and validating RANS turbulence models.
Sepri, P. )
1987-05-01
The wake region of a turbulent boundary layer is demonstrated to exhibit simple exponential behavior at elevated levels of free-stream turbulence (FST). As a predictive tool, the computer code STANCOOL has been modified to include FST effects in heated turbulent boundary layers. Preliminary comparisons with experimental data indicate improvements in computational capabiity, although futher development of the code is required. From these comparisons, three new results are offered: (1) At elevated levels of FST, several statistical profiles in the boundary layer wake region decay exponentially into the free stream; (2) {ovr v{prime}T{prime}} decays at half the rate of the mean velocity and temperature; (3) analytical expressions are provided for {ovr u{prime}v{prime}} and {ovr v{prime}T{prime}} in this case.
Turbulent Spots Inside the Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skarda, Jinhie; Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Lozano-Duran, Adrian; Wallace, James; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2016-11-01
We present evidence that the buffer region of the canonical turbulent boundary layer is populated by locally generated turbulent spots, which cause strong indentations on the near-wall low-momentum streaks. This evidence is obtained from a spatially-developing direct numerical simulation carrying the inlet Blasius boundary layer through a bypass transition to the turbulent boundary layer state over a moderate Reynolds number range. The turbulent spots are structurally analogous to their transitional counter-parts but without any direct causality connection. High-pass filtered time-history records are used to calculate the period of turbulent spot detection and this period is compared to the boundary layer bursting period reported in hot-wire experiments. The sensitivity of the results to parameters such as the high pass filter frequency and the amplitude discriminator level is examined. The characteristics of these turbulent spots are also quantified using a spatial connectivity based conditional sampling technique. This evidence seems to be at odds with the notion that the buffer region is dominated by quasi-streamwise vortices, and contributes to the potential unification of the studies on near-wall turbulent boundary layer dynamics.
Boundary-Layer Code For Supersonic Combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinckney, S. Z.; Walton, J. T.
1994-01-01
HUD is integral computer code based on Spaulding-Chi method for predicting development of boundary layers in laminar, transitional, and turbulent regions of flows on two-dimensional or axisymmetric bodies. Approximates nonequilibrium velocity profiles as well as local surface friction in presence of pressure gradient. Predicts transfer of heat in turbulent boundary layer in presence of high axial presure gradient. Provides for pressure gradients both normal and lateral to surfaces. Also used to estimate requirements for cooling scramjet engines. Because of this capability, HUD program incorporated into several scramjet-cycle-performance-analysis codes, including SCRAM (ARC-12338) and SRGULL (LEW-15093). Written in FORTRAN 77.
Turbulence, Turbulence Control, and Drag Reduction.
1987-08-01
Onsager (1945) and Weizs~cker (1948). has made remarkable strides in advancing our understanding of turbulent flows. It is this description of turbulent...tujrbuilce Inl thle lar to thle Intermiittenit trans’ition to turbulence lus.t ,iedipen itlik. N\\N.tern onI the other. O pen0 * ~ ~ h 1 ~ kdinition10 po...Some Studies of Non-Simple Pipe Flows K R SREENIVASAN 2.AR’ .\\ variety o phenooena occrs ’.5’, ,sTecla’., f we stray,’ away from straight circ- lar i es a
Gyrokinetic simulations of ETG Turbulence*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nevins, William
2005-10-01
Recent gyrokinetic simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence [1,2] produced different results despite similar plasma parameters. Ref.[1] differs from Ref.[2] in that [1] eliminates magnetically trapped particles ( r/R=0 ), while [2] retains magnetically trapped particles ( r/R 0.18 ). Differences between [1] and [2] have been attributed to insufficient phase-space resolution and novel physics associated with toroidicity and/or global simulations[2]. We have reproduced the results reported in [2] using a flux-tube, particle-in-cell (PIC) code, PG3EQ[3], thereby eliminating global effects as the cause of the discrepancy. We observe late-time decay of ETG turbulence and the steady-state heat transport in agreement with [2], and show this results from discrete particle noise. Discrete particle noise is a numerical artifact, so both the PG3EQ simulations reported here and those reported in Ref.[2] have little to say about steady-state ETG turbulence and the associated anomalous electron heat transport. Our attempts to benchmark PIC and continuum[4] codes at the plasma parameters used in Ref.[2] produced very large, intermittent transport. We will present an alternate benchmark point for ETG turbulence, where several codes reproduce the same transport levels. Parameter scans about this new benchmark point will be used to investigate the parameter dependence of ETG transport and to elucidate saturation mechanisms proposed in Refs.[1,2] and elsewhere[5-7].*In collaboration with A. Dimits (LLNL), J. Candy, C. Estrada-Mila (GA), W. Dorland (U of MD), F. Jenko, T. Dannert (Max-Planck Institut), and G. Hammett (PPPL). Work at LLNL performed for US DOE under Contract W7405-ENG-48.[1] F. Jenko and W. Dorland, PRL 89, 225001 (2002).[2] Z. Lin et al, 2004 Sherwood Mtg.; 2004 TTF Mtg.; Fusion Energy 2004 (IAEA, Vienna, 2005); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (November, 2004); 2005 TTF Mtg.; 2005 Sherwood Mtg.; Z. Lin, et al, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056125 (2005). [3] A.M. Dimits
Turbulence modeling in supersonic combusting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chitsomboon, Tawit
1991-01-01
To support the National Aerospace Plane project, the RPLUS3D CFD code has been developed at NASA Lewis. The code has the ability to solve three-dimensional flowfields with finite rate combustion of hydrogen and air. The combustion processes of the hydrogen-air system are simulated by an 18-reaction path, 8-species chemical kinetic mechanism. The code uses a Lower-Upper (LU) decomposition numerical algorithm as its basis, making it a very efficient and robust code. Except for the Jacobian matrix for the implicit chemistry source terms, there is no inversion of a matrix even though it uses a fully implicit numerical algorithm. A k-epsilon (two equation) turbulence model is incorporated into the RPLUS3D code.
T.S. Hahm; Z. Lin; P.H. Diamond; G. Rewoldt; W.X. Wang; S. Ethier; O. Gurcan; W.W. Lee; W.M. Tang
2004-12-21
An integrated program of gyrokinetic particle simulation and theory has been developed to investigate several outstanding issues in both turbulence and neoclassical physics. Gyrokinetic particle simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence spreading using the GTC code and its related dynamical model have been extended to the case with radially increasing ion temperature gradient, to study the inward spreading of edge turbulence toward the core. Due to turbulence spreading from the edge, the turbulence intensity in the core region is significantly enhanced over the value obtained from simulations of the core region only. Even when the core gradient is within the Dimits shift regime (i.e., self-generated zonal flows reduce the transport to a negligible value), a significant level of turbulence and transport is observed in the core due to spreading from the edge. The scaling of the turbulent front propagation speed is closer to the prediction from our nonlinear diffusion model than one based on linear toroidal coupling. A calculation of ion poloidal rotation in the presence of sharp density and toroidal angular rotation frequency gradients from the GTC-Neo particle simulation code shows that the results are significantly different from the conventional neoclassical theory predictions. An energy conserving set of a fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to edge turbulence, is being derived via the phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method. Our generalized ordering takes the ion poloidal gyroradius to be on the order of the radial electric field gradient length.
Seals Flow Code Development 1993
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, Anita D. (Compiler); Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler)
1994-01-01
Seals Workshop of 1993 code releases include SPIRALI for spiral grooved cylindrical and face seal configurations; IFACE for face seals with pockets, steps, tapers, turbulence, and cavitation; GFACE for gas face seals with 'lift pad' configurations; and SCISEAL, a CFD code for research and design of seals of cylindrical configuration. GUI (graphical user interface) and code usage was discussed with hands on usage of the codes, discussions, comparisons, and industry feedback. Other highlights for the Seals Workshop-93 include environmental and customer driven seal requirements; 'what's coming'; and brush seal developments including flow visualization, numerical analysis, bench testing, T-700 engine testing, tribological pairing and ceramic configurations, and cryogenic and hot gas facility brush seal results. Also discussed are seals for hypersonic engines and dynamic results for spiral groove and smooth annular seals.
Kubilius, Jonas
2014-01-01
Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.
Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Algorithms for Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vahala, George; Yepez, Jeffrey; Soe, Min; Vahala, Linda; Keating, Brian; Carter, Jonathan
2007-11-01
For turbulent flows in non-trivial geometry, the scaling of CFD codes (now necessarily non-pseudo spectral) quickly saturate with the number of PEs. By projecting into a lattice kinetic phase space, the turbulent dynamics are simpler and much easier to solve since the underlying kinetic equation has only local algebraic nonlinearities in the macroscopic variables with simple linear kinetic advection. To achieve arbitrary high Reynolds number, a discrete H-theorem constraint is imposed on the collision operator resulting in an entropic lattice Boltzmann (ELB) algorithm that is unconditionally stable and scales almost perfectly with PE's on any supercomputer architecture. At this mesoscopic level, there are various kinetic lattices (ELB-27, ELB-19, ELB-15) which will recover the Navier-Stokes equation to leading order in the Chapman-Enskog asymptotics. We comment on the morphology of turbulence and its correlation to the rate of change of enstrophy as well as simulations on 1600^3 grids.
Turbulence and modeling in transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.; Viegas, John R.
1989-01-01
A review is made of the performance of a variety of turbulence models in the evaluation of a particular well documented transonic flow. This is done to supplement a previous attempt to calibrate and verify transonic airfoil codes by including many more turbulence models than used in the earlier work and applying the calculations to an experiment that did not suffer from uncertainties in angle of attack and was free of wind tunnel interference. It is found from this work, as well as in the earlier study, that the Johnson-King turbulence model is superior for transonic flows over simple aerodynamic surfaces, including moderate separation. It is also shown that some field equation models with wall function boundary conditions can be competitive with it.
Toward the Theory of Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas
Boldyrev, Stanislav
2013-07-26
The goal of the project was to develop a theory of turbulence in magnetized plasmas at large scales, that is, scales larger than the characteristic plasma microscales (ion gyroscale, ion inertial scale, etc.). Collisions of counter-propagating Alfven packets govern the turbulent cascade of energy toward small scales. It has been established that such an energy cascade is intrinsically anisotropic, in that it predominantly supplies energy to the modes with mostly field-perpendicular wave numbers. The resulting energy spectrum of MHD turbulence, and the structure of the fluctuations were studied both analytically and numerically. A new parallel numerical code was developed for simulating reduced MHD equations driven by an external force. The numerical setting was proposed, where the spectral properties of the force could be varied in order to simulate either strong or weak turbulent regimes. It has been found both analytically and numerically that weak MHD turbulence spontaneously generates a “condensate”, that is, concentration of magnetic and kinetic energy at small k{sub {parallel}}. A related topic that was addressed in the project is turbulent dynamo action, that is, generation of magnetic field in a turbulent flow. We were specifically concentrated on the generation of large-scale magnetic field compared to the scales of the turbulent velocity field. We investigate magnetic field amplification in a turbulent velocity field with nonzero helicity, in the framework of the kinematic Kazantsev-Kraichnan model.
Investigation of turbulent transport in an axisymmetric sudden expansion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gould, Richard D.; Stevenson, Warren H.; Thompson, H. Doyle
1990-01-01
Simultaneous two-component laser velocimeter measurements were made in the incompressible turbulent flowfield following an axisymmetric sudden expansion. Mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, and triple products were measured and are presented at axial positions ranging from x/H = 0.2-14. A balance of the turbulent kinetic energy in the flow was performed. The production, convection, and diffusion of turbulent kinetic energy were computed directly from the experimental data using central differencing. A specially designed correction lens was employed to correct for optical aberrations introduced by the circular tube. This lens system allowed the accurate simultaneous measurement of axial and radial velocities in the test section. The experimental measurements were compared to predictions generated by a code that employed the k-epsilon turbulence model. Agreement was good for mean axial velocities, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent shear stresses. However, the modeled turbulent normal stresses where in poor agreement with the measured values. The modeled diffusion of turbulent kinetic energy was underpredicted in the region between the shear layer and the centerline of the flow giving lower values of turbulent kinetic energy downstream of the potential core than measured.
Inlet Turbulence and Length Scale Measurements in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thurman, Douglas; Flegel, Ashlie; Giel, Paul
2014-01-01
Constant temperature hotwire anemometry data were acquired to determine the inlet turbulence conditions of a transonic turbine blade linear cascade. Flow conditions and angles were investigated that corresponded to the take-off and cruise conditions of the Variable Speed Power Turbine (VSPT) project and to an Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) scaled rotor blade tip section. Mean and turbulent flowfield measurements including intensity, length scale, turbulence decay, and power spectra were determined for high and low turbulence intensity flows at various Reynolds numbers and spanwise locations. The experimental data will be useful for establishing the inlet boundary conditions needed to validate turbulence models in CFD codes.
Turbulence generation by waves
Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S.
1995-12-31
The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.
Kerstein, A.R.
1996-12-31
One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.
Advanced Turbulence Modeling Concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing
2005-01-01
The ZCET program developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is to study hydrogen/air injection concepts for aircraft gas turbine engines that meet conventional gas turbine performance levels and provide low levels of harmful NOx emissions. A CFD study for ZCET program has been successfully carried out. It uses the most recently enhanced National combustion code (NCC) to perform CFD simulations for two configurations of hydrogen fuel injectors (GRC- and Sandia-injector). The results can be used to assist experimental studies to provide quick mixing, low emission and high performance fuel injector designs. The work started with the configuration of the single-hole injector. The computational models were taken from the experimental designs. For example, the GRC single-hole injector consists of one air tube (0.78 inches long and 0.265 inches in diameter) and two hydrogen tubes (0.3 inches long and 0.0226 inches in diameter opposed at 180 degree). The hydrogen tubes are located 0.3 inches upstream from the exit of the air element (the inlet location for the combustor). To do the simulation, the single-hole injector is connected to a combustor model (8.16 inches long and 0.5 inches in diameter). The inlet conditions for air and hydrogen elements are defined according to actual experimental designs. Two crossing jets of hydrogen/air are simulated in detail in the injector. The cold flow, reacting flow, flame temperature, combustor pressure and possible flashback phenomena are studied. Two grid resolutions of the numerical model have been adopted. The first computational grid contains 0.52 million elements, the second one contains over 1.3 million elements. The CFD results have shown only about 5% difference between the two grid resolutions. Therefore, the CFD result obtained from the model of 1.3-million grid resolution can be considered as a grid independent numerical solution. Turbulence models built in NCC are consolidated and well tested. They can handle both coarse and
Optimal Controller for Turbulent Flow Over an Airfoil
2006-05-17
and multiple-output ( MIMO ) setting. This is an issue since turbulent flow is a distributed system and some standard techniques developed for lumped...directions follow. 7.1 Flow Simulation An efficient computational code for the simulation of turbulent separated flow utilizing massively parallel...LES interface 84 for massively separated flows, especially those whose separation point is set by geometry, than for wall-bounded channel flows
CFD Code Development for Combustor Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norris, Andrew
2003-01-01
During the lifetime of this grant, work has been performed in the areas of model development, code development, code validation and code application. For model development, this has included the PDF combustion module, chemical kinetics based on thermodynamics, neural network storage of chemical kinetics, ILDM chemical kinetics and assumed PDF work. Many of these models were then implemented in the code, and in addition many improvements were made to the code, including the addition of new chemistry integrators, property evaluation schemes, new chemistry models and turbulence-chemistry interaction methodology. Validation of all new models and code improvements were also performed, while application of the code to the ZCET program and also the NPSS GEW combustor program were also performed. Several important items remain under development, including the NOx post processing, assumed PDF model development and chemical kinetic development. It is expected that this work will continue under the new grant.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.
1990-01-01
Some of the astrophysical scenarios in which turbulence plays an important role are discussed in view of the comparative advantages of currently available models of turbulence phenomena; attention is given to a specific model that has undergone continuous refinement since 1985. The desideratum in this inquiry is a turbulence model which incorporates the best features of an a priori deterministic model, as well as a redundant set of results from full numerical simulations for a wide variety of turbulent flows; there should also be a simplification of the former, and an enlargement of the complexities of the latter.
Tactical missile turbulence problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickson, Richard E.
1987-01-01
Of particular interest is atmospheric turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, since this affects both the launch and terminal phase of flight, and the total flight for direct fire systems. Brief discussions are presented on rocket artillery boost wind problems, mean wind correction, turbulent boost wind correction, the Dynamically Aimed Free Flight Rocket (DAFFR) wind filter, the DAFFR test, and rocket wake turbulence problems. It is concluded that many of the turbulence problems of rockets and missiles are common to those of aircraft, such as structural loading and control system design. However, these problems have not been solved at this time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jejjala, Vishnu; Minic, Djordje; Ng, Y. Jack; Tze, Chia-Hsiung
We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.
Optical turbulence forecast: ready for an operational application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masciadri, E.; Lascaux, F.; Turchi, A.; Fini, L.
2017-04-01
One of the main goals of the feasibility study MOSE (MOdelling ESO Sites) is to evaluate the performances of a method conceived to forecast the optical turbulence (OT) above the European Southern Observatory (ESO) sites of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) in Chile. The method implied the use of a dedicated code conceived for the OT called ASTRO-MESO-NH. In this paper, we present results we obtained at conclusion of this project concerning the performances of this method in forecasting the most relevant parameters related to the OT (CN^2, seeing ε, isoplanatic angle θ0 and wavefront coherence time τ0). Numerical predictions related to a very rich statistical sample of nights uniformly distributed along a solar year and belonging to different years have been compared to observations, and different statistical operators have been analysed such as the classical bias, root-mean-squared error, σ and more sophisticated statistical operators derived by the contingency tables that are able to quantify the score of success of a predictive method such as the percentage of correct detection (PC) and the probability to detect a parameter within a specific range of values (POD). The main conclusions of the study tell us that the ASTRO-MESO-NH model provides performances that are already very good to definitely guarantee a not negligible positive impact on the service mode of top-class telescopes and ELTs. A demonstrator for an automatic and operational version of the ASTRO-MESO-NH model will be soon implemented on the sites of VLT and E-ELT.
Free energy balance in gyrokinetic turbulence
Banon Navarro, A.; Morel, P.; Albrecht-Marc, M.; Carati, D.; Merz, F.; Goerler, T.; Jenko, F.
2011-09-15
Free energy plays an important role in gyrokinetic theory, since it is known to be a nonlinear invariant. Its evolution equations are derived and analyzed for the case of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence, using the formalism adopted in the Gene code. In particular, the ion temperature gradient drive, the collisional dissipation as well as entropy/electrostatic energy transfer channels represented by linear curvature and parallel terms are analyzed in detail.
Turbulent Radiation Effects in HSCT Combustor Rich Zone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Robert J.; Vranos, Alexander; Yu, Weiduo
1998-01-01
A joint UTRC-University of Connecticut theoretical program was based on describing coupled soot formation and radiation in turbulent flows using stretched flamelet theory. This effort was involved with using the model jet fuel kinetics mechanism to predict soot growth in flamelets at elevated pressure, to incorporate an efficient model for turbulent thermal radiation into a discrete transfer radiation code, and to couple die soot growth, flowfield, and radiation algorithm. The soot calculations used a recently developed opposed jet code which couples the dynamical equations of size-class dependent particle growth with complex chemistry. Several of the tasks represent technical firsts; among these are the prediction of soot from a detailed jet fuel kinetics mechanism, the inclusion of pressure effects in the soot particle growth equations, and the inclusion of the efficient turbulent radiation algorithm in a combustor code.
Kubilius, Jonas
2014-01-01
Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedro, J. B.; Báez Vidal, A.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Pérez Segarra, C. D.; Oliva, A.
2016-09-01
The objective of the present work is to validate the compressible Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) models implemented in the in house parallel unstructured CFD code TermoFluids. Our research team has implemented and tested several LES models over the past years for the incompressible regimen. In order to be able to solve complex turbulent compressible flows, the models are revisited and modified if necessary. In addition, the performance of the implemented hybrid advection scheme is an issue of interest for the numerical simulation of turbulent compressible flows. The models are tested in the well known turbulent channel flow problem at different compressible regimens.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, David
1988-01-01
Three areas of study in MHD turbulence are considered. These are the turbulent relaxation of the toroidal Z pinch, density fluctuations in MHD fluids, and MHD cellular automata. A Boolean computer game that updates a cellular representation in parallel and that has macroscopic averages converging to solutions of the two-dimensional MHD equations is discussed.
Boundary layer integral matrix procedure code modifications and verifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, R. M.; Morse, H. L.
1974-01-01
A summary of modifications to Aerotherm's Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMP) code is presented. These modifications represent a preliminary effort to make BLIMP compatible with other JANNAF codes and to adjust the code for specific application to rocket nozzle flows. Results of the initial verification of the code for prediction of rocket nozzle type flows are discussed. For those cases in which measured free stream flow conditions were used as input to the code, the boundary layer predictions and measurements are in excellent agreement. In two cases, with free stream flow conditions calculated by another JANNAF code (TDK) for use as input to BLIMP, the predictions and the data were in fair agreement for one case and in poor agreement for the other case. The poor agreement is believed to result from failure of the turbulent model in BLIMP to account for laminarization of a turbulent flow. Recommendations for further code modifications and improvements are also presented.
PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert
2008-10-01
(continuous DNS/LES/RANS, Molecular dynamics, Monte-Carlo, predictive modeling) New Experimental Diagnostics (novel methods for flow visualization and control, high-tech) The First International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' was organized by the following members of the Organizing Committee: Snezhana I Abarzhi (chairperson, Chicago, USA) Malcolm J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) Sergei I Anisimov (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) Serge Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) Donald Q Lamb (The University of Chicago, USA) Katsunobu Nishihara (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) Bruce A Remington (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) Robert Rosner (Argonne National Laboratory, USA) Katepalli R Sreenivasan (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy) Alexander L Velikovich (Naval Research Laboratory, USA) The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Conference Sponsors: National Science Foundation (NSF), USA (Divisions and Programs Directors: Drs A G Detwiler, L M Jameson, E L Lomon, P E Phelan, G A Prentice, J A Raper, W Schultz, P R Westmoreland; PI: Dr S I Abarzhi) Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), USA (Program Director: Dr J D Schmisseur; PI: Dr S I Abarzhi) European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD) of the AFOSR, UK (Program Chief: Dr S Surampudi; PI: Dr S I Abarzhi) International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy (Centre's Director: Dr K R Sreenivasan) The University of Chicago and The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), USA (Laboratory's Director: Dr R Rosner) Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), France (Directeur de Recherche: Dr S Gauthier) Department of Energy, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), USA (Program manager: Dr R J Hanrahan; Group Leader: Dr M J Andrew) The DOE ASC Alliance Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, The University of Chicago, USA (Center's Director: Dr D Q Lamb
Samanta, Devranjan; Dubief, Yves; Holzner, Markus; Schäfer, Christof; Morozov, Alexander N.; Wagner, Christian; Hof, Björn
2013-01-01
Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature, yet even for the case of ordinary Newtonian fluids like water, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited. Many liquids of practical importance are more complicated (e.g., blood, polymer melts, paints), however; they exhibit elastic as well as viscous characteristics, and the relation between stress and strain is nonlinear. We demonstrate here for a model system of such complex fluids that at high shear rates, turbulence is not simply modified as previously believed but is suppressed and replaced by a different type of disordered motion, elasto-inertial turbulence. Elasto-inertial turbulence is found to occur at much lower Reynolds numbers than Newtonian turbulence, and the dynamical properties differ significantly. The friction scaling observed coincides with the so-called “maximum drag reduction” asymptote, which is exhibited by a wide range of viscoelastic fluids. PMID:23757498
Studies of compressible shear flows and turbulent drag reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.
1981-01-01
Compressible shear flows and drag reduction were examined and three methods are addressed: (1) the analytical and numerical aspects of conformal mapping were summarized and a new method for computation of these maps is presented; (2) the computer code SPECFD for solution of the three dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow on the CYBER 203 computer is described; (3) results of two equation turbulence modeling of turbulent flow over wavy walls are presented. A modified Jones-Launder model is used in two dimensional spectral code for flow in general wavy geometries.
Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion. Progress report
Pope, S.B.
1992-10-02
Progress was made on the following: Development of two-variable ({xi} - y) thermochemistry suitable for DNS (direct numerical simulation) studies; determination of laminar flame properties based on this thermochemistry; determination of the parameter range that can be accessed by DNS with good resolution; implementation of the thermochemistry in the DNS code; performance of exploratory simulations, and the development of techniques of relating Eulerian DNS data to turbulent combustion theories; implementation of the DNS code on parallel and distributed computers, and the study of relative molecular motion in turbulence.
Three-dimensional Spectral Simulations of Anelastic Turbulent Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penev, Kaloyan; Barranco, Joseph; Sasselov, Dimitar
2011-06-01
We have adapted the anelastic spectral code of Barranco & Marcus to simulate a turbulent convective layer with the intention of studying the effectiveness of turbulent eddies in dissipating external shear (e.g., tides). We derive the anelastic equations, show the time integration scheme we use to evolve these equations, and present the tests we ran to confirm that our code does what we expect. Further, we apply a perturbative approach to find an approximate scaling of the effective eddy viscosity with frequency and find that it is in general agreement with an estimate obtained by applying the same procedure to a realistic simulation of the upper layers of the solar convective zone.
Studies of compressible shear flows and turbulent drag reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orszag, S. A.
1981-04-01
Compressible shear flows and drag reduction were examined and three methods are addressed: (1) the analytical and numerical aspects of conformal mapping were summarized and a new method for computation of these maps is presented; (2) the computer code SPECFD for solution of the three dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow on the CYBER 203 computer is described; (3) results of two equation turbulence modeling of turbulent flow over wavy walls are presented. A modified Jones-Launder model is used in two dimensional spectral code for flow in general wavy geometries.
Development and application of the GIM code for the Cyber 203 computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stainaker, J. F.; Robinson, M. A.; Rawlinson, E. G.; Anderson, P. G.; Mayne, A. W.; Spradley, L. W.
1982-01-01
The GIM computer code for fluid dynamics research was developed. Enhancement of the computer code, implicit algorithm development, turbulence model implementation, chemistry model development, interactive input module coding and wing/body flowfield computation are described. The GIM quasi-parabolic code development was completed, and the code used to compute a number of example cases. Turbulence models, algebraic and differential equations, were added to the basic viscous code. An equilibrium reacting chemistry model and implicit finite difference scheme were also added. Development was completed on the interactive module for generating the input data for GIM. Solutions for inviscid hypersonic flow over a wing/body configuration are also presented.
Llinas’ Phase Reset Mechanism Delays the Onset of Chaos in Shark and Dolphin Wall Turbulence
2014-02-10
McKenna). The technical reviewer for this report was James L. Dick (Code 8514). The primary author gratefully acknowledges productive discussions...submarines. Evidence points to organization in turbulence production , despite the apparent randomness and lack of a unified theory. Here, the...chaos of turbulence. To remove the apparent randomness, the turbulence production cycles are split into pre- and post-breakdown regions, both during
Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD
1998-05-08
Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the
Geometry dependence of stellarator turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A. H.
2009-11-01
Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST [F. Jenko, W. Dorland, M. Kotschenreuther, and B. N. Rogers, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000); P. Xanthopoulos, W. A. Cooper, F. Jenko, Yu. Turkin, A. Runov, and J. Geiger, Phys. Plasmas 16, 082303 (2009)], we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the two-dimensional structure of the microturbulence over that surface and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrödinger-like equation governing linear drift modes.
Development of relaxation turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, C. M.
1976-01-01
Relaxation turbulence models have been intensively studied. The complete time dependent mass averaged Navier-Stokes equations have been solved for flow into a two dimensional compression corner. A new numerical scheme has been incorporated into the developed computed code with an attendant order of magnitude reduction in computation time. Computed solutions are compared with experimental measurements of Law for supersonic flow. Details of the relaxation process have been studied; several different relaxation models, including different relaxation processes and varying relaxation length, are tested and compared. Then a parametric study has been conducted in which both Reynolds number and wedge angle are varied. To assess effects of Reynolds number and wedge angle, the parametric study includes the comparison of computed separation location and upstream extent of pressure rise; numerical results are also compared with the measurements of surface pressure, skin friction and mean velocity field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nedospasov, A. V.
1992-12-01
Edge turbulence is of decisive importance for the distribution of particle and energy fluxes to the walls of tokamaks. Despite the availability of extensive experimental data on the turbulence properties, its nature still remains a subject for discussion. This paper contains a review of the most recent theoretical and experimental studies in the field, including mainly the studies to which Wootton (A.J. Wooton, J. Nucl. Mater. 176 & 177 (1990) 77) referred to most in his review at PSI-9 and those published later. The available theoretical models of edge turbulence with volume dissipation due to collisions fail to fully interpret the entire combination of experimental facts. In the scrape-off layer of a tokamak the dissipation prevails due to the flow of current through potential shifts near the surface of limiters of divertor plates. The different origins of turbulence at the edge and in the core plasma due to such dissipation are discussed in this paper. Recent data on the electron temperature fluctuations enabled one to evaluate the electric probe measurements of turbulent flows of particles and heat critically. The latest data on the suppression of turbulence in the case of L-H transitions are given. In doing so, the possibility of exciting current instabilities in biasing experiments (rather than only to the suppression of existing turbulence) is given some attention. Possible objectives of further studies are also discussed.
Ecke, R.; Li, Ning; Chen, Shiyi; Liu, Yuanming
1996-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project was a study of turbulence in fluids that are subject to different body forces and to external temperature gradients. Our focus was on the recent theoretical prediction that the Kolomogorov picture of turbulence may need to be modified for turbulent flows driven by buoyancy and subject to body forces such as rotational accelerations. Models arising from this research are important in global climate modeling, in turbulent transport problems, and in the fundamental understanding of fluid turbulence. Experimentally, we use (1) precision measurements of heat transport and local temperature; (2) flow visualization using digitally- enhanced optical shadowgraphs, particle-image velocimetry, thermochromic liquid-crystal imaging, laser-doppler velocimetry, and photochromic dye imaging; and (3) advanced image- processing techniques. Our numerical simulations employ standard spectral and novel lattice Boltzmann algorithms implemented on parallel Connection Machine computers to simulate turbulent fluid flow. In laboratory experiments on incompressible fluids, we measure probability distribution functions and two-point spatial correlations of temperature T and velocity V (both T-T and V-T correlations) and determine scaling relations for global heat transport with Rayleigh number. We also explore the mechanism for turbulence in thermal convection and the stability of the thermal boundary layer.
Modeling turbulent flame propagation
Ashurst, W.T.
1994-08-01
Laser diagnostics and flow simulation techniques axe now providing information that if available fifty years ago, would have allowed Damkoehler to show how turbulence generates flame area. In the absence of this information, many turbulent flame speed models have been created, most based on Kolmogorov concepts which ignore the turbulence vortical structure, Over the last twenty years, the vorticity structure in mixing layers and jets has been shown to determine the entrainment and mixing behavior and these effects need to be duplicated by combustion models. Turbulence simulations reveal the intense vorticity structure as filaments and simulations of passive flamelet propagation show how this vorticity Creates flame area and defines the shape of the expected chemical reaction surface. Understanding how volume expansion interacts with flow structure should improve experimental methods for determining turbulent flame speed. Since the last decade has given us such powerful new tools to create and see turbulent combustion microscopic behavior, it seems that a solution of turbulent combustion within the next decade would not be surprising in the hindsight of 2004.
Classical Vs. Superfluid Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roche, P.-E.
2008-11-01
Thanks to a zero-viscosity, superfluids offer a unique testing ground for hydrodynamic models, in particular for turbulence ones. In Kolmogorov's turbulence model, viscosity is well known to damp the kinetic energy of the smallest eddies, and thus to introduce a cut-off at one end of the turbulent cascade. Significant differences between this ``classical'' turbulence and the turbulence of a superfluid are therefore expected, but --surprisingly- most experiments rather evidenced strong similarities. We will give an overview of a set of experiments designed to compare in details the classical versus superfluid turbulences, up to a record mass flow of superfluid (700g/s of He @ 1.6K). Then, we will focus on some unexpected vorticity measurements, which can be interpreted assuming that the superfluid vortices are passively advected by the largest scales of the flow, in contrast with the ``classical'' turbulence counterpart. Numerical simulations -based on regular DNS- will be presented to complete this interpretation. In collaboration with C. Barenghi, University of Newcastle; B. Castaing and E. Levèque, ENSL, Lyon; S. David, IEF, CNRS, Orsay; B. Rousset, SBT/CEA, Grenoble; and P. Tabeling, H. Willaime MMN, ESPCI, Paris.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.
1986-01-01
A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
A three-dimensional turbulent heat transfer analysis for advanced tubular rocket thrust chambers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kacynski, Kenneth J.
1990-01-01
Heat transfer was analyzed in the throat region of a plug and spool rocket engine for both smooth and corrugated walls. A three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes code was used for the analysis. The turbulence model in the code was modified to handle turbulence suppression in the crevice region of the corrugated wall. The overall heat transfer at the throat for the corrugated wall was 34 percent higher than it was for the smooth wall for comparable rocket flow conditions.
Gyrokinetic simulations of turbulent transport: size scaling and chaotic behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villard, L.; Bottino, A.; Brunner, S.; Casati, A.; Chowdhury, J.; Dannert, T.; Ganesh, R.; Garbet, X.; Görler, T.; Grandgirard, V.; Hatzky, R.; Idomura, Y.; Jenko, F.; Jolliet, S.; Khosh Aghdam, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Latu, G.; McMillan, B. F.; Merz, F.; Sarazin, Y.; Tran, T. M.; Vernay, T.
2010-12-01
Important steps towards the understanding of turbulent transport have been made with the development of the gyrokinetic framework for describing turbulence and with the emergence of numerical codes able to solve the set of gyrokinetic equations. This paper presents some of the main recent advances in gyrokinetic theory and computing of turbulence. Solving 5D gyrokinetic equations for each species requires state-of-the-art high performance computing techniques involving massively parallel computers and parallel scalable algorithms. The various numerical schemes that have been explored until now, Lagrangian, Eulerian and semi-Lagrangian, each have their advantages and drawbacks. A past controversy regarding the finite size effect (finite ρ*) in ITG turbulence has now been resolved. It has triggered an intensive benchmarking effort and careful examination of the convergence properties of the different numerical approaches. Now, both Eulerian and Lagrangian global codes are shown to agree and to converge to the flux-tube result in the ρ* → 0 limit. It is found, however, that an appropriate treatment of geometrical terms is necessary: inconsistent approximations that are sometimes used can lead to important discrepancies. Turbulent processes are characterized by a chaotic behaviour, often accompanied by bursts and avalanches. Performing ensemble averages of statistically independent simulations, starting from different initial conditions, is presented as a way to assess the intrinsic variability of turbulent fluxes and obtain reliable estimates of the standard deviation. Further developments concerning non-adiabatic electron dynamics around mode-rational surfaces and electromagnetic effects are discussed.
Characterization of a liquid-filled turbulence simulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Christopher C.; Zhang, Yimin; Plett, Mark L.; Polak-Dingels, Penelope; Barbier, Pierre R.; Rush, David W.
1998-10-01
The development of high performance line-of-sight optical communication links through the turbulent atmosphere is facilitated by laboratory tests of schemes involving adaptive optics, beam tracking, modulation and coding, aperture averaging, fading statistics, and transmitter/receiver diversity. A water-filled turbulence tube has been implemented to simulate, in some respects, the effects produced on a laser beam when it propagates several kilometers through the air. This tube is being used to investigate on a laboratory scale: aperture averaging, fluctuation statistics, optical path difference, high data rate modulation, and various coding schemes. The liquid- filled turbulence tube causes fluctuations on a slower time scale than does the atmosphere. At low turbulence levels it produces log-normal fluctuation statistics, causes tip-tilt errors similar to those previously observed for atmospheric paths, and has already allowed evaluation of aperture averaging and fade statistics. It also allows the testing of various technological schemes to deal with atmospheric turbulence effects without any specific assumptions, such as weak Kolmogorov turbulence, being built into the model.
Large Scale Turbulent Structures in Supersonic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, Ram Mohan; Lundgren, Thomas S.
1997-01-01
, turbulent stresses, etc. which will aid in turbulence modeling. This report will be presented in two chapters. The first chapter describes some work on the linear stability of a supersonic round jet and the implications of this for the jet noise problem. The second chapter is an extensive discussion of numerical work using the spectral method which we use to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations to study turbulent jet flows. The method uses Fourier expansions in the azimuthal and streamwise direction and a 1-D B-spline basis representation in the radial direction. The B-spline basis is locally supported and this ensures block diagonal matrix equations which can be solved in O(N) steps. This is a modification of a boundary layer code developed by Robert Moser. A very accurate highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a turbulent jet flow is produced.
Large Scale Turbulent Structures in Supersonic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, Ram Mohan; Lundgren, Thomas S.
1997-01-01
velocities, turbulent stresses, etc. which will aid in turbulence modeling. This report will be presented in two chapters. The first chapter describes some work on the linear stability of a supersonic round jet and the implications of this for the jet noise problem. The second chapter is an extensive discussion of numerical work using the spectral method which we use to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations to study turbulent jet flows. The method uses Fourier expansions in the azimuthal and streamwise direction and a 1-D B-spline basis representation in the radial direction. The B-spline basis is locally supported and this ensures block diagonal matrix equations which can be solved in O(N) steps. This is a modification of a boundary layer code developed by Robert Moser. A very accurate highly resolved DNS of a turbulent jet flow is produced.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien
2013-01-01
This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…
Time and space analysis of turbulence of gravity surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mordant, Nicolas; Aubourg, Quentin; Viboud, Samuel; Sommeria, Joel
2016-11-01
Wave turbulence is a statistical state made of a very large number of nonlinearly interacting waves. The Weak Turbulence Theory was developed to describe such a situation in the weakly nonlinear regime. Although, oceanic data tend to be compatible with the theory, laboratory data fail to fulfill the theoretical predictions. A space-time resolved measurement of the waves have proven to be especially fruitful to identify the mechanism at play in turbulence of gravity-capillary waves. We developed an image processing algorithm to measure the motion of the surface of water with both space and time resolution. We first seed the surface with slightly buoyant polystyrene particles and use 3 cameras to reconstruct the surface. Our stereoscopic algorithm is coupled to PIV so that to obtain both the surface deformation and the velocity of the water surface. Such a coupling is shown to improve the sensitivity of the measurement by one order of magnitude. We use this technique to probe the existence of weakly nonlinear turbulence excited by two small wedge wavemakers in a 13-m diameter wave flume. We observe a truly weakly nonlinear regime of isotropic wave turbulence. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement No 647018-WATU).
Turbulent flow through screens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, R. D.
1984-01-01
A detailed experimental investigation has been carried out on the effects of different types of screens on turbulent flow, in particular turbulent boundary layers. The effect of a screen on a turbulent boundary layer is to give it a 'new lease of life'. The boundary layer turbulence is reorganized and the thickness reduced, thus making it less susceptible to separation. The aerodynamic properties of plastic screens are found to differ significantly from those of the conventional metal screens, evidently because of differences in the weaving properties. The 'overshoot' in mean velocity profile near the boudnary layer edge is shown to be a result of the effect of screen inclination on pressure drop coefficient. A more accurate formulation for the deflection coefficient of a screen is also proposed.
Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaohua
2017-01-01
Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes–LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa L.; Plouraboué, Franck
2015-09-01
Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small-scale turbulence arising where viscous effects are dominant. We report the first observation of universal enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k-3 power-law decay of a velocity field power spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in 2D turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures of a size that provides an integral scale of turbulence. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-2D turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interactions and alignment, a state of active matter that we call "swarming liquid crystal." We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation.
Grid Convergence for Turbulent Flows(Invited)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Schwoppe, Axel
2015-01-01
A detailed grid convergence study has been conducted to establish accurate reference solutions corresponding to the one-equation linear eddy-viscosity Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for two dimensional turbulent flows around the NACA 0012 airfoil and a flat plate. The study involved three widely used codes, CFL3D (NASA), FUN3D (NASA), and TAU (DLR), and families of uniformly refined structured grids that differ in the grid density patterns. Solutions computed by different codes on different grid families appear to converge to the same continuous limit, but exhibit different convergence characteristics. The grid resolution in the vicinity of geometric singularities, such as a sharp trailing edge, is found to be the major factor affecting accuracy and convergence of discrete solutions, more prominent than differences in discretization schemes and/or grid elements. The results reported for these relatively simple turbulent flows demonstrate that CFL3D, FUN3D, and TAU solutions are very accurate on the finest grids used in the study, but even those grids are not sufficient to conclusively establish an asymptotic convergence order.
Non-Equilibrium Effects on Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Pilbum
Understanding non-equilibrium effects of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers is essential in order to build cost efficient and reliable hypersonic vehicles. It is well known that non-equilibrium effects on the boundary layers are notable, but our understanding of the effects are limited. The overall goal of this study is to improve the understanding of non-equilibrium effects on hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. A new code has been developed for direct numerical simulations of spatially developing hypersonic turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with finite-rate reactions. A fifth-order hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme with a low dissipation finite-difference scheme is utilized in order to capture stiff gradients while resolving small motions in turbulent boundary layers. The code has been validated by qualitative and quantitative comparisons of two different simulations of a non-equilibrium flow and a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer. With the validated code, direct numerical simulations of four different hypersonic turbulent boundary layers, perfect gas and non-equilibrium flows of pure oxygen and nitrogen, have been performed. In order to rule out uncertainties in comparisons, the same inlet conditions are imposed for each species, and then mean and turbulence statistics as well as near-wall turbulence structures are compared at a downstream location. Based on those comparisons, it is shown that there is no direct energy exchanges between internal and turbulent kinetic energies due to thermal and chemical non-equilibrium processes in the flow field. Instead, these non-equilibria affect turbulent boundary layers by changing the temperature without changing the main characteristics of near-wall turbulence structures. This change in the temperature induces the changes in the density and viscosity and the mean flow fields are then adjusted to satisfy the conservation laws. The perturbation fields are modified according to
Bhagwat, Basdeo; Dickison, Virginia; Ding, Xinlun; Walker, Melanie; Bernardy, Michael; Bouthillier, Michel; Creelman, Alexa; DeYoung, Robyn; Li, Yinzi; Nie, Xianzhou; Wang, Aiming; Xiang, Yu; Sanfaçon, Hélène
2016-06-01
In this study, we report the genome sequence of five isolates of strawberry mottle virus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales) from strawberry field samples with decline symptoms collected in Eastern Canada. The Canadian isolates differed from the previously characterized European isolate 1134 in that they had a longer RNA2, resulting in a 239-amino-acid extension of the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Sequence analysis suggests that reassortment and recombination occurred among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Canadian isolates are diverse, grouping in two separate branches along with isolates from Europe and the Americas.
Improved numerical methods for turbulent viscous recirculating flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turan, A.
1985-01-01
The hybrid-upwind finite difference schemes employed in generally available combustor codes possess excessive numerical diffusion errors which preclude accurate quantative calculations. The present study has as its primary objective the identification and assessment of an improved solution algorithm as well as discretization schemes applicable to analysis of turbulent viscous recirculating flows. The assessment is carried out primarily in two dimensional/axisymetric geometries with a view to identifying an appropriate technique to be incorporated in a three-dimensional code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsubota, Makoto
2014-02-01
This paper reviews briefly the recent important developments in the physics of quantum turbulence (QT) in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). After giving the basics of quantum hydrodynamics, we discuss energy spectrum, QT created by vibrating structures, and visualization among the topics on superfluid helium. For atomic BECs we review three-dimensional QT, two-component BECs, and spin turbulence in spinor BECs. The last part is devoted to some perspectives of this issue.
Verification of the proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.
1991-01-01
The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for 2-D/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal, and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent developing pipe flows, and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations, and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, initial conditions, grid size, and grid packing is given for each case.
Verification of the Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for flat plate and pipe flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conley, Julianne M.; Zeman, Patrick L.
1991-01-01
The Proteus Navier-Stokes Code is evaluated for two-dimensional/axisymmetric, viscous, incompressible, internal and external flows. The particular cases to be discussed are laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate, laminar and turbulent dveloping pipe flows and turbulent pipe flow with swirl. Results are compared with exact solutions, empirical correlations and experimental data. A detailed description of the code set-up, including boundary conditions, intitial conditions, grid size and grid packing is given for each case.
Perturbing turbulence beyond collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühnen, Jakob; Scarselli, Davide; Hof, Björn; Nonlinear Dynamics; Turbulence Group Team
2016-11-01
Wall-bounded turbulent flows are considered to be in principle stable against perturbations and persist as long as the Reynolds number is sufficiently high. We show for the example of pipe flow that a specific perturbation of the turbulent flow field disrupts the genesis of new turbulence at the wall. This leads to an immediate collapse of the turbulent flow and causes complete relaminarisation further downstream. The annihilation of turbulence is effected by a steady manipulation of the streamwise velocity component only, greatly simplifying control efforts which usually require knowledge of the highly complex three dimensional and time dependent velocity fields. We present several different control schemes from laboratory experiments which achieve the required perturbation of the flow for total relaminarisation. Transient growth, a linear amplification mechanism measuring the efficiency of eddies in redistributing shear that quantifies the maximum perturbation energy amplification achievable over a finite time in a linearized framework, is shown to set a clear-cut threshold below which turbulence is impeded in its formation and thus permanently annihilated.
Anisotropic Particles in Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voth, Greg A.; Soldati, Alfredo
2017-01-01
Anisotropic particles are common in many industrial and natural turbulent flows. When these particles are small and neutrally buoyant, they follow Lagrangian trajectories while exhibiting rich orientational dynamics from the coupling of their rotation to the velocity gradients of the turbulence field. This system has proven to be a fascinating application of the fundamental properties of velocity gradients in turbulence. When particles are not neutrally buoyant, they experience preferential concentration and very different preferential alignment than neutrally buoyant tracer particles. A vast proportion of the parameter range of anisotropic particles in turbulence is still unexplored, with most existing research focusing on the simple foundational cases of axisymmetric ellipsoids at low concentrations in homogeneous isotropic turbulence and in turbulent channel flow. Numerical simulations and experiments have recently developed a fairly comprehensive picture of alignment and rotation in these cases, and they provide an essential foundation for addressing more complex problems of practical importance. Macroscopic effects of nonspherical particle dynamics include preferential concentration in coherent structures and drag reduction by fiber suspensions. We review the models used to describe nonspherical particle motion, along with numerical and experimental methods for measuring particle dynamics.
Characterizing glottal jet turbulence.
Alipour, Fariborz; Scherer, Ronald C
2006-02-01
Air pressure associated with airflow from the lungs drives the vocal folds into oscillation and allows the air to exit the glottis as a turbulent jet, even though laminar flow may enter the glottis from the trachea. The separation of the turbulence from the deterministic portion of the glottal jet was investigated in the excised canine larynx model. The present study is methodological in that the main goal was to examine three methods of obtaining reasonable representations of both the deterministic signal and the residual turbulence portion: (a) smoothing, (b) wavelet denoising, and (c) ensemble averaging. Ensemble averaging resulted in a deterministic signal that disregarded gross cyclic alterations while exaggerating the turbulence intensity. Wavelet denoising can perform an excellent analysis and synthesis of the glottal velocity, but was problematic in determining which levels of analysis to choose to represent both the deterministic and turbulence appropriately. Smoothing appeared to be the most appropriate for phonation velocities because it preserved gross cyclic variations important to perturbations and modulations, while extracting turbulence at what appears to be reasonable levels.
A model for reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.
1984-01-01
To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a model is presented on the effects of chemical reaction rates in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The model results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-rate equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the model into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the model was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the model and for additional comparisons with experimental data.
Numerical prediction of turbulent oscillating flow and associated heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koehler, W. J.; Patankar, S. V.; Ibele, W. E.
1991-01-01
A crucial point for further development of engines is the optimization of its heat exchangers which operate under oscillatory flow conditions. It has been found that the most important thermodynamic uncertainties in the Stirling engine designs for space power are in the heat transfer between gas and metal in all engine components and in the pressure drop across the heat exchanger components. So far, performance codes cannot predict the power output of a Stirling engine reasonably enough if used for a wide variety of engines. Thus, there is a strong need for better performance codes. However, a performance code is not concerned with the details of the flow. This information must be provided externally. While analytical relationships exist for laminar oscillating flow, there has been hardly any information about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow, which could be introduced into the performance codes. In 1986, a survey by Seume and Simon revealed that most Stirling engine heat exchangers operate in the transitional and turbulent regime. Consequently, research has since focused on the unresolved issue of transitional and turbulent oscillating flow and heat transfer. Since 1988, the University of Minnesota oscillating flow facility has obtained experimental data about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow. However, since the experiments in this field are extremely difficult, lengthy, and expensive, it is advantageous to numerically simulate the flow and heat transfer accurately from first principles. Work done at the University of Minnesota on the development of such a numerical simulation is summarized.
Reference Solutions for Benchmark Turbulent Flows in Three Dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Pandya, Mohagna J.; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2016-01-01
A grid convergence study is performed to establish benchmark solutions for turbulent flows in three dimensions (3D) in support of turbulence-model verification campaign at the Turbulence Modeling Resource (TMR) website. The three benchmark cases are subsonic flows around a 3D bump and a hemisphere-cylinder configuration and a supersonic internal flow through a square duct. Reference solutions are computed for Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model using a linear eddy-viscosity model for the external flows and a nonlinear eddy-viscosity model based on a quadratic constitutive relation for the internal flow. The study involves three widely-used practical computational fluid dynamics codes developed and supported at NASA Langley Research Center: FUN3D, USM3D, and CFL3D. Reference steady-state solutions computed with these three codes on families of consistently refined grids are presented. Grid-to-grid and code-to-code variations are described in detail.
Liquid rocket combustor computer code development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, P. Y.
1985-01-01
The Advanced Rocket Injector/Combustor Code (ARICC) that has been developed to model the complete chemical/fluid/thermal processes occurring inside rocket combustion chambers are highlighted. The code, derived from the CONCHAS-SPRAY code originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory incorporates powerful features such as the ability to model complex injector combustion chamber geometries, Lagrangian tracking of droplets, full chemical equilibrium and kinetic reactions for multiple species, a fractional volume of fluid (VOF) description of liquid jet injection in addition to the gaseous phase fluid dynamics, and turbulent mass, energy, and momentum transport. Atomization and droplet dynamic models from earlier generation codes are transplated into the present code. Currently, ARICC is specialized for liquid oxygen/hydrogen propellants, although other fuel/oxidizer pairs can be easily substituted.
CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.; Sieros, G.; Jost, E.; Lutz, T.; Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.; Barakos, G. N.; Colonia, S.; Baldacchino, D.; Baptista, C.; Ferreira, C.
2016-09-01
The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3 × 106 and 15 × 106. The necessary grid resolution, domain size, and iterative convergence criteria to have consistent results are discussed, and suggestions are given for best practice. For the fully turbulent results four out of seven codes provide consistent results. For the laminar-turbulent transitional results only three out of seven provided results, and the agreement is generally lower than for the fully turbulent case.
Numerical solution of two-dimensional turbulent blunt body flows with an impinging shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tannehill, J. C.; Vigneron, Y. C.; Rakich, J. V.
1978-01-01
An implicit finite-difference method has been developed to compute two-dimensional, turbulent, blunt body flows with an impinging shock wave. The full time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with algebraic eddy viscosity and turbulent Prandtl number models employed for shear stress and heat flux. The irregular-shaped bow shock is treated as a discontinuity across which the Rankine-Hugoniot equations are applied. A Type III turbulent shock interference flow field has been computed and the numerical results compare favorably with existing experimental data. In addition, comparisons are made between the present implicit code and a previous explicit code.
Turbulence Modeling: Progress and Future Outlook
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, Joseph G.; Huang, George P.
1996-01-01
Progress in the development of the hierarchy of turbulence models for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes used in aerodynamic applications is reviewed. Steady progress is demonstrated, but transfer of the modeling technology has not kept pace with the development and demands of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. An examination of the process of model development leads to recommendations for a mid-course correction involving close coordination between modelers, CFD developers, and application engineers. In instances where the old process is changed and cooperation enhanced, timely transfer is realized. A turbulence modeling information database is proposed to refine the process and open it to greater participation among modeling and CFD practitioners.
Turbulent group reaction model of spray dryer
Ma, H.K.; Huang, H.S.; Chiu, H.H.
1987-01-01
A turbulent group reaction model consisting of several sub-models was developed for the prediction of SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency in spray dryers. Mathematical models are developed on the basis of Eulerian-type turbulent Navier-Stokes equations for both gas and condensed phases with interphase transport considerations. The group reaction number, G, is defined as the ratio of the SO/sub 2/ absorption rate to a reference convective mass flux. This number represents the fraction of SO/sub 2/ absorbed into the lime slurry. The model is incorporated into a computer code which permits the investigation of spray dryer design concepts and operating conditions. Hence, it provides a theoretical basis for spray dryer performance optimization and scale-up. This investigation can be a practical guide to achieve high SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency in a spray dryer.
Goto, Susumu; Vassilicos, J C
2016-11-01
We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5/3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G. I. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 151, 421 (1935)1364-502110.1098/rspa.1935.0158] and A. N. Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 538 (1941)]. Even though the customary theoretical basis for this Taylor-Kolmogorov scaling is a statistically stationary cascade where large-scale energy flux balances dissipation, this is not the case throughout the entire time range of integration in all our DNS runs. The recently discovered dissipation scaling can be reformulated physically as a situation in which the dissipation rates of the small and large scales evolve together. We advance two hypotheses that may form the basis of a theoretical approach to unsteady turbulence cascades in the presence of large-scale coherent structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, Susumu; Vassilicos, J. C.
2016-11-01
We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5 /3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G. I. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 151, 421 (1935), 10.1098/rspa.1935.0158] and A. N. Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 538 (1941)]. Even though the customary theoretical basis for this Taylor-Kolmogorov scaling is a statistically stationary cascade where large-scale energy flux balances dissipation, this is not the case throughout the entire time range of integration in all our DNS runs. The recently discovered dissipation scaling can be reformulated physically as a situation in which the dissipation rates of the small and large scales evolve together. We advance two hypotheses that may form the basis of a theoretical approach to unsteady turbulence cascades in the presence of large-scale coherent structures.
Turbulence Heating ObserveR – satellite mission proposal
Vaivads, A.; Retinò, A.; Soucek, J.; ...
2016-09-22
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Furthermore, energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved.THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence.THOR is amore » single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space – magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind – featuring different kinds of turbulence. We summarize theTHOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the ‘Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)’.THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.« less
Turbulence Heating ObserveR - satellite mission proposal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaivads, A.; Retinò, A.; Soucek, J.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Valentini, F.; Escoubet, C. P.; Alexandrova, O.; André, M.; Bale, S. D.; Balikhin, M.; Burgess, D.; Camporeale, E.; Caprioli, D.; Chen, C. H. K.; Clacey, E.; Cully, C. M.; de Keyser, J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Eriksson, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Graham, D. B.; Haaland, S.; Hoshino, M.; Ji, H.; Karimabadi, H.; Kucharek, H.; Lavraud, B.; Marcucci, F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Moore, T. E.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Nemecek, Z.; Norgren, C.; Opgenoorth, H.; Palmroth, M.; Perrone, D.; Pinçon, J.-L.; Rathsman, P.; Rothkaehl, H.; Sahraoui, F.; Servidio, S.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Vainio, R.; Vörös, Z.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.
2016-10-01
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space - magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind - featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the `Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)'. THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.
Turbulence Heating ObserveR – satellite mission proposal
Vaivads, A.; Retinò, A.; Soucek, J.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Valentini, F.; Escoubet, C. P.; Alexandrova, O.; André, M.; Bale, S. D.; Balikhin, M.; Burgess, D.; Camporeale, E.; Caprioli, D.; Chen, C. H. K.; Clacey, E.; Cully, C. M.; De Keyser, J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Eriksson, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Graham, D. B.; Haaland, S.; Hoshino, M.; Ji, H.; Karimabadi, H.; Kucharek, H.; Lavraud, B.; Marcucci, F.; Moore, T. E.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Nemecek, Z.; Norgren, C.; Opgenoorth, H.; Palmroth, M.; Perrone, D.; Pinçon, J. -L.; Rothkaehl, H.; Sahraoui, F.; Servidio, S.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Vörös, Z.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.
2016-09-22
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Furthermore, energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
1993-01-01
New turbulence modeling options recently implemented for the 3-D version of Proteus, a Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes code, are described. The implemented turbulence models include: the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model, the Baldwin-Barth one-equation model, the Chien k-epsilon model, and the Launder-Sharma k-epsilon model. Features of this turbulence modeling package include: well documented and easy to use turbulence modeling options, uniform integration of turbulence models from different classes, automatic initialization of turbulence variables for calculations using one- or two-equation turbulence models, multiple solid boundaries treatment, and fully vectorized L-U solver for one- and two-equation models. Validation test cases include the incompressible and compressible flat plate turbulent boundary layers, turbulent developing S-duct flow, and glancing shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction. Good agreement is obtained between the computational results and experimental data. Sensitivity of the compressible turbulent solutions with the method of y(sup +) computation, the turbulent length scale correction, and some compressibility corrections are examined in detail. The test cases show that the highly optimized one-and two-equation turbulence models can be used in routine 3-D Navier-Stokes computations with no significant increase in CPU time as compared with the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model.
Characterization of Fuego for laminar and turbulent natural convection heat transfer.
Francis, Nicholas Donald, Jr.
2005-08-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is conducted for internal natural convection heat transfer using the low Mach number code Fuego. The flow conditions under investigation are primarily laminar, transitional, or low-intensity level turbulent flows. In the case of turbulent boundary layers at low-level turbulence or transitional Reynolds numbers, the use of standard wall functions no longer applies, in general, for wall-bounded flows. One must integrate all the way to the wall in order to account for gradients in the dependent variables in the viscous sublayer. Fuego provides two turbulence models in which resolution of the near-wall region is appropriate. These models are the v2-f turbulence model and a Launder-Sharma, low-Reynolds number turbulence model. Two standard geometries are considered: the annulus formed between horizontal concentric cylinders and a square enclosure. Each geometry emphasizes wall shear flow and complexities associated with turbulent or near turbulent boundary layers in contact with a motionless core fluid. Overall, the Fuego simulations for both laminar and turbulent flows compared well to measured data, for both geometries under investigation, and to a widely accepted commercial CFD code (FLUENT).
Computation of eigenfrequencies for equilibrium models including turbulent pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonoi, T.; Belkacem, K.; Dupret, M.-A.; Samadi, R.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Mosser, B.
2017-03-01
Context. The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler have provided a wealth of highly accurate data. However, our inability to properly model the upper-most region of solar-like stars prevents us from making the best of these observations. This problem is called "surface effect" and a key ingredient to solve it is turbulent pressure for the computation of both the equilibrium models and the oscillations. While 3D hydrodynamic simulations help to include properly the turbulent pressure in the equilibrium models, the way this surface effect is included in the computation of stellar oscillations is still subject to uncertainties. Aims: We aim at determining how to properly include the effect of turbulent pressure and its Lagrangian perturbation in the adiabatic computation of the oscillations. We also discuss the validity of the gas-gamma model and reduced gamma model approximations, which have been used to compute adiabatic oscillations of equilibrium models including turbulent pressure. Methods: We use a patched model of the Sun with an inner part constructed by a 1D stellar evolution code (CESTAM) and an outer part by the 3D hydrodynamical code (CO5BOLD). Then, the adiabatic oscillations are computed using the ADIPLS code for the gas-gamma and reduced gamma model approximations and with the MAD code imposing the adiabatic condition on an existing time-dependent convection formalism. Finally, all those results are compared to the observed solar frequencies. Results: We show that the computation of the oscillations using the time-dependent convection formalism in the adiabatic limit improves significantly the agreement with the observed frequencies compared to the gas-gamma and reduced gamma model approximations. Of the components of the perturbation of the turbulent pressure, the perturbation of the density and advection term is found to contribute most to the frequency shift. Conclusions: The turbulent pressure is certainly the dominant factor responsible for the
Turbulence in Natural Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Tirtha
Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be
PREFACE: First Multiflow Summer School on Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Javier
2014-04-01
Multiflow is a research program, funded by the European Research Council, whose goal is to improve our understanding of the multiscale dynamics of turbulence in fluids. Its first Summer School on Turbulence took place at the School of Aeronautics of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid over the months of June and July of 2013, with the goal of providing a meeting place for theoreticians, experimentalists and simulators, in which to develop and test new ideas on turbulence physics and structure. Around forty, mostly young, participants from twenty international groups met for five weeks of collaborative work, primarily using the computational data archived in the receiving institution but, in many cases, also contributing their own. Although the format included a few invited formal seminars and periodic plenary meetings, most of the work took place in small groups that, in many cases, changed their composition during the workshop. The papers in these proceedings reflect the results of the work of those groups which, in many cases, later continued in the form of new collaborations. Participants Further information is available in the PDF
Second Multiflow Summer School on Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Javier
2016-04-01
Multiflow is a research program, funded by the European Research Council, whose goal is to improve our understanding of the multiscale dynamics of turbulence in fluids. Its second Summer School on Turbulence took place at the School of Aeronautics of the Technical University of Madrid from May 25 to June 26, 2015, with the goal of providing a meeting place for theoreticians, experimentalists and simulators, in which to develop and test new ideas on turbulence physics and structure. Around forty, mostly young, participants from twenty international groups met for five weeks of collaborative work, primarily using the computational data archived in the receiving institution but, in many cases, also contributing their own. Although the format included a few invited formal seminars and periodic plenary meetings, most of the work took place in small groups that, in many cases, changed their composition during the workshop. The papers in these proceedings reflect the results of the work of these groups which, in many cases, later continued in the form of new collaborations.
Linearly Forced Isotropic Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lundgren, T. S.
2003-01-01
Stationary isotropic turbulence is often studied numerically by adding a forcing term to the Navier-Stokes equation. This is usually done for the purpose of achieving higher Reynolds number and longer statistics than is possible for isotropic decaying turbulence. It is generally accepted that forcing the Navier-Stokes equation at low wave number does not influence the small scale statistics of the flow provided that there is wide separation between the largest and smallest scales. It will be shown, however, that the spectral width of the forcing has a noticeable effect on inertial range statistics. A case will be made here for using a broader form of forcing in order to compare computed isotropic stationary turbulence with (decaying) grid turbulence. It is shown that using a forcing function which is directly proportional to the velocity has physical meaning and gives results which are closer to both homogeneous and non-homogeneous turbulence. Section 1 presents a four part series of motivations for linear forcing. Section 2 puts linear forcing to a numerical test with a pseudospectral computation.
Hinton, F. L.; Waltz, R. E.
2006-10-15
Expressions for particle and energy fluxes and heating rates due to turbulence are derived. These fluxes and heating rates are identified from moments of an extended drift-kinetic equation for the equilibrium distribution function. These include neoclassical as well as turbulent diffusion and heating. Phase-space conservation is demonstrated, allowing the drift-kinetic equation to be expressed in conservative form. This facilitates taking moments with few approximations, mainly those consistent with drift kinetics for the equilibrium distribution function and the relative smallness of the fluctuations. The turbulent heating is uniquely defined by choosing the standard gyrokinetic definition for the energy flux. With this definition, most of the heating can be expressed in the form of ohmic heating from turbulent parallel and perpendicular current density perturbations. The latter current is identified with grad-B and curvature drifts, plus terms involving magnetic perturbations (which are smaller for low beta). A small contribution to the heating comes from the divergence of an energy flux that is dependent on the finite gyroradius of the ions. The fluxes and heating rates are expressed in a form that can be easily evaluated from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations.
Phenomenology of turbulent convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Mahendra; Chatterjee, Anando; Kumar, Abhishek; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-11-01
We simulate Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in which a fluid is confined between two thermally conducting plates. We report results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of RBC turbulence on 40963 grid, the highest resolution hitherto reported, on 65536 cores of Cray XC40, Shaheen II, at KAUST. The non-dimensional parameters of our simulation are: the Rayleigh number Ra = 1 . 1 ×1011 (the highest ever for a pseudo-spectral simulation) and Prandtl number of unity. We present energy flux diagnostics of shell-to-shell (in wave number space) transfer. Furthermore, noting that convective flows are anisotropic due to buoyancy, we quantify anisotropy by subdividing each wavenumber shell into rings and quantify ring energy spectrum. An outstanding question in convective turbulence is the wavenumber scaling of the energy spectrum. Our pseudo-spectral simulations of turbulent thermal convection coupled with novel energy transfer diagnostics have provided a definitive answer to this question. We conclude that convective turbulence exhibits behavior similar to fluid turbulence, that is, Kolmogorov's k - 5 / 3 spectrum with forward and local energy transfers, along with a nearly isotropic energy distribution. The supercomputer Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
Large-Eddy Simulation Code Developed for Propulsion Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeBonis, James R.
2003-01-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) code was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide more accurate and detailed computational analyses of propulsion flow fields. The accuracy of current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods is limited primarily by their inability to properly account for the turbulent motion present in virtually all propulsion flows. Because the efficiency and performance of a propulsion system are highly dependent on the details of this turbulent motion, it is critical for CFD to accurately model it. The LES code promises to give new CFD simulations an advantage over older methods by directly computing the large turbulent eddies, to correctly predict their effect on a propulsion system. Turbulent motion is a random, unsteady process whose behavior is difficult to predict through computer simulations. Current methods are based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier- Stokes (RANS) analyses that rely on models to represent the effect of turbulence within a flow field. The quality of the results depends on the quality of the model and its applicability to the type of flow field being studied. LES promises to be more accurate because it drastically reduces the amount of modeling necessary. It is the logical step toward improving turbulent flow predictions. In LES, the large-scale dominant turbulent motion is computed directly, leaving only the less significant small turbulent scales to be modeled. As part of the prediction, the LES method generates detailed information on the turbulence itself, providing important information for other applications, such as aeroacoustics. The LES code developed at Glenn for propulsion flow fields is being used to both analyze propulsion system components and test improved LES algorithms (subgrid-scale models, filters, and numerical schemes). The code solves the compressible Favre-filtered Navier- Stokes equations using an explicit fourth-order accurate numerical scheme, it incorporates a compressible form of
Turbulence and fossil turbulence in oceans and lakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, Pak Tao; Gibson, Carl H.
2013-01-01
Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the intertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any of the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Energy cascades of irrotational flows from large scales to small are non-turbulent, even if they supply energy to turbulence. Turbulent flows are rotational and cascade from small scales to large, with feedback. Viscous forces limit the smallest turbulent eddy size to the Kolmogorov scale. In stratified fluids, buoyancy forces limit large vertical overturns to the Ozmidov scale and convert the largest turbulent eddies into a unique class of saturated, non-propagating, internal waves, termed fossil-vorticity-turbulence. These waves have the same energy but different properties and spectral forms than the original turbulence patch. The Gibson (1980, 1986) theory of fossil turbulence applies universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as its growth is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Quantitative hydrodynamic-phase-diagrams (HPDs) from the theory are used to classify microstructure patches according to their hydrodynamic states. When analyzed in HPD space, previously published oceanic datasets showed their dominant microstructure patches are fossilized at large scales in all layers. Laboratory and field measurements suggested phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies by pattern recognition of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times that predict survival-relevant surface layer sea changes. New data collected near a Honolulu waste-water outfall showed the small-to-large evolution of oceanic turbulence microstructure from active to fossil states, and revealed the ability of fossil-density-tubulence patches to absorb, and vertically radiate, internal wave energy, information, and enhanced turbulent
Rutland, Christopher J.
2009-04-26
The Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion (TSTC) project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of the approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring the highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. Under this component of the TSTC program the simulation code named S3D, developed and shared with coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for turbulent liquid fuel spray dynamics. Major accomplishments include improved fundamental understanding of mixing and auto-ignition in multi-phase turbulent reactant mixtures and turbulent fuel injection spray jets.
Simulation of turbulence in the divertor region of tokamak edge plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umansky, M. V.; Rognlien, T. D.; Xu, X. Q.
2005-03-01
Results are presented for turbulence simulations with the fluid edge turbulence code BOUT [X.Q. Xu, R.H. Cohen, Contr. Plas. Phys. 36 (1998) 158]. The present study is focussed on turbulence in the divertor leg region and on the role of the X-point in the structure of turbulence. Results of the present calculations indicate that the ballooning effects are important for the divertor fluctuations. The X-point shear leads to weak correlation of turbulence across the X-point regions, in particular for large toroidal wavenumber. For the saturated amplitudes of the divertor region turbulence it is found that amplitudes of density fluctuations are roughly proportional to the local density of the background plasma. The amplitudes of electron temperature and electric potential fluctuations are roughly proportional to the local electron temperature of the background plasma.
Studying Turbulence Using Numerical Simulation Databases. 5: Proceedings of the 1994 Summer Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
Direct numerical simulation databases were used to study turbulence physics and modeling issues at the fifth Summer Program of the Center for Turbulence Research. The largest group, comprising more than half of the participants, was the Turbulent Reacting Flows and Combustion group. The remaining participants were in three groups: Fundamentals, Modeling & LES, and Rotating Turbulence. For the first time in the CTR Summer Programs, participants included engineers from the U.S. aerospace industry. They were exposed to a variety of problems involving turbulence, and were able to incorporate the models developed at CTR in their company codes. They were exposed to new ideas on turbulence prediction, methods which already appear to have had an impact on their capabilities at their laboratories. Such interactions among the practitioners in the government, academia, and industry are the most meaningful way of transferring technology.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Bacterial turbulence in motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rusconi, Roberto; Smriga, Steven; Stocker, Roman; Secchi, Eleonora; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Piazza, Roberto
2014-11-01
Dense suspensions of motile bacteria exhibit collective dynamics akin to those observed in classic, high Reynolds number turbulence, yet this analogy has remained largely qualitative. Here we present experiments in which a dense suspension of Bacillus subtilis bacteria was flown through narrow microchannels and the velocity statistics of the flowing suspension were accurately quantified with a recently developed velocimetry technique. This revealed a robust intermittency phenomenon, whereby the average velocity profile of the flowing suspension oscillated between a plug-like flow and a parabolic flow. This intermittency is a hallmark of classic turbulence and was associated with the presence of collective structures in the suspension. Furthermore, quantification of the Reynolds stress profile revealed a direct link between the turbulent nature of the suspension and its anomalous viscosity.
Delft3D turbine turbulence module
Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert
2016-04-18
The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.
Mathematical Models Of Turbulence In Transonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.; Viegas, John R.
1989-01-01
Predictions of several models compared with measurements of well-documented flow. Report reviews performances of variety of mathematical models of turbulence in transonic flow. Predictions of models compared with measurements of flow in wind tunnel along outside of cylinder having axisymmetric bump of circular-arc cross section in meridional plane. Review part of continuing effort to calibrate and verify computer codes for prediction of transonic flows about airfoils. Johnson-and-King model proved superior in predicting transonic flow over bumpy cylinder.
CARS system for turbulent flame measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antcliff, R. R.; Jarrett, O., Jr.; Rogers, R. C.
1984-01-01
Simultaneous nitrogen number density and rotational-vibrational temperatures were measured in a turbulent diffusion flame with a Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) instrument. The fuel jet was diluted with nitrogen (20 percent by volume) to allow temperature measurements across the entire jet mixing region. These measurements were compared with fluid dynamics computations. The CARS system incorporated a neodymium YAG laser, an intensified silicon photodiode array detector, and unique dynamic range enhancement methods. Theoretical calculations were based on a parabolic Navier-Stokes computer code. The comparison of these techniques will aid their development in the study of complex flowfields.
Scrape-off layer turbulence theory and simulations
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.
1997-09-04
Significant investigations in the area of scrape-off layer (SOL) turbulence theory and simulations are reviewed. The review begins with description and derivation of the various models investigating specific linear modes as well as a discussion of the region of validity. Special attention is focused on various low-frequency electromagnetic drift-types modes in an x-point divertor geometry, which are generally believed to be relevant under normal operating conditions for current and future large fusion devices. Benchmarks of linear ballooning codes with nonlinear 3D fluid code will be given. The anomalous transport from simulations and mixing length estimates are discussed` and a summary of relevant experimental results as well as empirical values in the transport codes are given. Studies of mechanisms for the L-H transition due to turbulent transport in the SOL and its impact on the the H-mode power threshold are also surveyed.
Joint Agency Turbulence Experiment.
1985-01-21
Time Series of Aircraft Longitudinal Gust Data For Penetration 1 on 1 July 1981 63 C5. Time Series of Turbulence Severity Estimates Derived From 400 m...spectral analysis of aircraft longitudinal gust data is shown in Figure B1. Figure B2 shows a modeled turbulence field. The model displays the expected...centered about Location C o %-. -. °,4 0- S E - oo -12 -4 - to 20 so O so s 7D -U. TIME (sec) Figure C4. Time Series of Aircraft Longitudinal Gust Data
Electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence
Melatos, A.; Jenet, F. A.; Robinson, P. A.
2007-02-15
The first large-scale simulations of continuously driven, two-dimensional electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence are performed, for electron thermal speeds 0.01c{<=}v{<=}0.57c, by integrating the Zakharov equations for coupled Langmuir and transverse (T) waves near the plasma frequency. Turbulence scalings and wave number spectra are calculated, a transition is found from a mix of trapped and free T eigenstates for v{>=}0.1c to just free eigenstates for v{<=}0.1c, and wave energy densities are observed to undergo slow quasiperiodic oscillations.
Turbulence in Reynolds' flashes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerbus, Rory; Liu, Chien-Chia; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2016-11-01
Osborne Reynolds' seminal work from 1883 revealed that the transition from quiescent, laminar flow to a turbulent pipe filled with roiling eddies is mediated by localized flashes of fluctuations. Later work has unveiled many features of these flashes: they proliferate or fade away, maintain their shape or continually expand. The nature of the fluctuations in the flashes, however, has remained mysterious. Here, using measures traditionally attributed to high Reynolds number (Re) flows, we present experimental results on the fluctuations of the flashes. Our results suggest that the transition to turbulence is the low Re limit of the high Re, fully developed flow. Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology.
Multiscale modeling of turbulent channel flow over porous walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yogaraj, Sudhakar; Lacis, Ugis; Bagheri, Shervin
2016-11-01
We perform direct numerical simulations of fully developed turbulent flow through a channel coated with a porous material. The Navier-stokes equations governing the fluid domain and the Darcy equations of the porous medium are coupled using an iterative partitioned scheme. At the interface between the two media, boundary conditions derived using a multiscale homogenization approach are enforced. The main feature of this approach is that the anisotropic micro-structural pore features are directly taken into consideration to derive the constitutive coefficients of the porous media as well as of the interface. The focus of the present work is to study the influence of micro-structure pore geometry on the dynamics of turbulent flows. Detailed turbulence statistics and instantaneous flow field are presented. For comparison, flow through impermeable channel flows are included. Supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant agreement No 708281.
Mazzucato, E.; Smith, D. R.; Bell, R. E.; Kaye, S.; Davis, W.; Hosea, J.; LeBlanc, B; Wilson, J. R.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Yuh, H.; Lee, W.; Park, H.
2008-01-01
Measurements with coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves in plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment indicate the existence of turbulent fluctuations in the range of wave numbers k?e 0:1 0:4, corresponding to a turbulence scale length nearly equal to the collisionless skin depth. Experimental observations and agreement with numerical results from a linear gyrokinetic stability code support the conjecture that the observed turbulence is driven by the electron-temperature gradient.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.
1994-01-01
A two-dimensional computational code, PRLUS2D, which was developed for the reactive propulsive flows of ramjets and scramjets, was validated for two-dimensional shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions. The problem of compression corners at supersonic speeds was solved using the RPLUS2D code. To validate the RPLUS2D code for hypersonic speeds, it was applied to a realistic hypersonic inlet geometry. Both the Baldwin-Lomax and the Chien two-equation turbulence models were used. Computational results showed that the RPLUS2D code compared very well with experimentally obtained data for supersonic compression corner flows, except in the case of large separated flows resulting from the interactions between the shock wave and turbulent boundary layer. The computational results compared well with the experiment results in a hypersonic NASA P8 inlet case, with the Chien two-equation turbulence model performing better than the Baldwin-Lomax model.
Turbulent amplification of magnetic fields in colliding laboratory jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tzeferacos, P.; Meinecke, J.; Bell, A. R.; Doyle, H.; Bingham, R.; Churazov, E. M.; Crowston, R.; Murphy, C. D.; Woolsey, N. C.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; MacDonald, M. J.; Wan, W. C.; Koenig, M.; Pelka, A.; Ravasio, A.; Yurchak, R.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Sakawa, Y.; Park, H.-S.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Lamb, D. Q.; Gregori, G.
2015-11-01
Turbulence and magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the universe. In galaxy clusters, turbulence is believed to amplify seed magnetic fields to values of a few μG, as observed through diffuse radio-synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measurements. In this study we present experiments that emulate such a process in a controlled laboratory environment. Two laser-driven plasma flows collide to mimic the dynamics of a cluster merger. From the measured density fluctuations we infer the development of Kolmogorov-like turbulence. Measurements of the magnetic field show it is amplified by turbulent motions, reaching a non-linear regime that is a precursor to turbulent dynamo. We also present numerical simulations with the FLASH code that model these experiments. The simulations reproduce the measured plasma properties and enable us to disentangle and characterize the complex physical processes that occur in the experiment. This study provides a promising experimental platform to probe magnetic field amplification by turbulence in plasmas, a process thought to occur in many astrophysical phenomena.
GYROKINETIC PARTICLE SIMULATION OF TURBULENT TRANSPORT IN BURNING PLASMAS
Horton, Claude Wendell
2014-06-10
The SciDAC project at the IFS advanced the state of high performance computing for turbulent structures and turbulent transport. The team project with Prof Zhihong Lin [PI] at Univ California Irvine produced new understanding of the turbulent electron transport. The simulations were performed at the Texas Advanced Computer Center TACC and the NERSC facility by Wendell Horton, Lee Leonard and the IFS Graduate Students working in that group. The research included a Validation of the electron turbulent transport code using the data from a steady state university experiment at the University of Columbia in which detailed probe measurements of the turbulence in steady state were used for wide range of temperature gradients to compare with the simulation data. These results were published in a joint paper with Texas graduate student Dr. Xiangrong Fu using the work in his PhD dissertation. X.R. Fu, W. Horton, Y. Xiao, Z. Lin, A.K. Sen and V. Sokolov, “Validation of electron Temperature gradient turbulence in the Columbia Linear Machine, Phys. Plasmas 19, 032303 (2012).
Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henningson, Dan S.; Kim, John
1989-01-01
Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a database obtained from a direct simulation. The spot area is divided into two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. It is found that the flow structures inside the turbulent area have strong resemblance to those found in the fully-developed turbulent channel flow. A suitably defined mean and rms fluctuations as well as the internal shear-layer structures are found to be similar to the turbulent counterpart. In the wave area the inflexional mean spanwise profiles cause a rapid growth of oblique waves, which break down to turbulence. The rms fluctuations and Reynolds stress are found to be higher in that area, and the shear-layer structures are similar to those observed in the secondary instability of two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves.
Fluid simulations of nonlocal dissipative drift-wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, X. Q.; Cohen, R. H.; Crotinger, J. A.; Shestakov, A. I.
1995-03-01
A two-dimensional [2d(x,y)] fluid code has been developed to explore nonlocal dissipative drift-wave turbulence and anomalous transport. In order to obtain steady-state turbulence, the y-averaged fluctuating density
On shear-induced turbulence in rotating stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathis, S.; Palacios, A.; Zahn, J.-P.
2004-10-01
We review various prescriptions which have been proposed for the turbulent transport of matter and angular momentum in differentially rotating stellar radiation zones. A new prescription is presented for the horizontal transport associated with the anisotropic shear turbulence which is produced by the differential rotation in latitude; this ``β-viscosity'' is drawn from torque measurements in the classical Couette-Taylor experiment (Richard & Zahn \\cite{Richard99}, A&A, 347, 734). Its implementation in a stellar evolution code leads to enhanced mixing, as illustrated by models of a rotating main-sequence star of 1.5 solar mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarian, Alex
2003-07-01
HST and FUSE spectra of distant UV-bright sources reveal interstellar absorption lines of high stages of ionization {O VI, C IV, N V, Si IV} arising in many different astrophysical environments such as superbubbles, interstellar chimneys, high-velocity clouds, galaxy halos and cosmic filaments. Turbulence, always present in the magnetized ISM, must mix the hot { 10^6 K} gas with cooler gas within "turbulent mixing layers". Present theory, based on 1D steady-state flows, suggest the line ratios in these layers differ significantly from photoionized gas, radiative shocks, cooling zones, or conduction fronts. These models are use to infer mass and energy fluxes important to understanding the ISM. We propose to develop a suite of 3D time-dependent models that properly calculate turbulent mixing. We will produce synthetic UV absorption lines and optical emission lines directly relevant to HST observations that use GHRS, STIS, and eventually, COS. These models will allow us to explore the sensitivity of the spectral diagnostics to magnetic field strength, turbulence intensity, and relative velocity of the hot and cold gas. We will publish the resulting grid of spectral diagnostics and make them available through the Web.
Chemically Reacting Turbulent Flow.
1987-04-14
two stages of gen I tubes equipped with P-47 phosphor screens The detector chosen for the camera was a Reticon RL128S* line detectoI- .,hich consists...the Stud’, of Turbulent Mixing," William M. Pitts, Nuclear Engineering Seminar of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of
Dissipation in unsteady turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bos, Wouter J. T.; Rubinstein, Robert
2017-02-01
Recent experiments and simulations have shown that unsteady turbulent flows display a universal behavior at short and intermediate times, different from classical scaling relations. The origin of these observations is explained using a nonequilibrium correction to Kolmogorov's energy spectrum, and the exact form of the observed universal scaling is derived.
Multilevel turbulence simulations
Tziperman, E.
1994-12-31
The authors propose a novel method for the simulation of turbulent flows, that is motivated by and based on the Multigrid (MG) formalism. The method, called Multilevel Turbulence Simulations (MTS), is potentially more efficient and more accurate than LES. In many physical problems one is interested in the effects of the small scales on the larger ones, or in a typical realization of the flow, and not in the detailed time history of each small scale feature. MTS takes advantage of the fact that the detailed simulation of small scales is not needed at all times, in order to make the calculation significantly more efficient, while accurately accounting for the effects of the small scales on the larger scale of interest. In MTS, models of several resolutions are used to represent the turbulent flow. The model equations in each coarse level incorporate a closure term roughly corresponding to the tau correction in the MG formalism that accounts for the effects of the unresolvable scales on that grid. The finer resolution grids are used only a small portion of the simulation time in order to evaluate the closure terms for the coarser grids, while the coarse resolution grids are then used to accurately and efficiently calculate the evolution of the larger scales. The methods efficiency relative to direct simulations is of the order of the ratio of required integration time to the smallest eddies turnover time, potentially resulting in orders of magnitude improvement for a large class of turbulence problems.
Spirituality in Turbulent Times.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wheatley, Margaret J.
2002-01-01
Discusses the importance of spiritual leadership in turbulent, uncertain times. Describes several spiritual principles--for example, life is cyclical; all life is interconnected. Offers six suggestions for personal health: Start day peacefully, learn to be mindful, slow things down, create own measures, expect surprise, practice gratefulness. (PKP)
Cygankiewicz, Iwona
2013-01-01
Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bass, J; Agostini, L
1955-01-01
The theory of turbulence reached its full growth at the end of the 19th century as a result of the work by Boussinesq and Reynolds. It then underwent a long period of stagnation which ended under the impulse given to it by the development of wind tunnels caused by the needs of aviation. Numerous researchers, attempted to put Reynolds' elementary statistical theory into a more precise form. During the war, some isolated scientists - von Weizsacker and Heisenberg in Germany, Kolmogoroff in Russia, Onsager in the U.S.A. - started a program of research. By a system of assumptions which make it possible to approach the structure of turbulence in well-defined limiting conditions quantitatively, they obtained a certain number of laws on the correlations and the spectrum. Since the late reports have improved the mathematical language of turbulence, it was deemed advisable to start with a detailed account of the mathematical methods applicable to turbulence, inspired at first by the work of the French school, above all for the basic principles, then the work of the foreigners, above all for the theory of the spectrum.
Daytime turbulence profiling for EST and its impact in the solar MCAO system design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marco de la Rosa, J.; Montoya, L.; Collados, M.; Montilla, I.; Vega Reyes, N.
2016-07-01
The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a 4-meter facility to be built in Canary Islands in the near future. Extensive daytime turbulence observation campaigns with the long baseline SHABAR instrument has been carried out in the two candidate sites from 2011 up to the end of 2014. The collected data together with nighttime turbulence data allow the site characterization and the computation of average turbulence profiles. These profiles can be used to feed numerical simulations in order to take important design decisions for the multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) system in the telescope. This paper describes the main tasks developed in this context up to date.
Bernard, P.S.; Wallace, J.M.; Balint, J.L.
1991-12-01
Methods of solving Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent channel flow are given. These numerical solutions utilize either Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions. Computer codes were written and tested and are discussed. Digital image processing of flow visualization video sequences, taken simultaneously with vorticity probe measurements in a turbulent boundary layer, were carried out. 4 figs. (GHH)
Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
This document contains presentations given at Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling held 15-16 Sep. 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the current status and future development of turbulence modeling in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace propulsion systems. Papers cover the following topics: turbulence modeling activities at the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT); heat transfer and turbomachinery flow physics; aerothermochemistry and computational methods for space systems; computational fluid dynamics and the k-epsilon turbulence model; propulsion systems; and inlet, duct, and nozzle flow.
Aircraft Dynamic Modeling in Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunninham, Kevin
2012-01-01
A method for accurately identifying aircraft dynamic models in turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The method uses orthogonal optimized multisine excitation inputs and an analytic method for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic modeling in turbulence. A turbulence metric was developed to accurately characterize the turbulence level using flight measurements. The modeling technique was demonstrated in simulation, then applied to a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft in flight. Comparisons of modeling results obtained in turbulent air to results obtained in smooth air were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.
Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.
1993-01-01
The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.
Turbulence Measurements of Rectangular Nozzles with Bevel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.
2015-01-01
This paper covers particle image velocimetry measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratios 2, 4, and 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously, showed that increasing aspect ratios increased the high frequency noise, especially directed in the polar plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. The measurements presented here have important implications in the modeling of turbulent sources for acoustic analogy theories. While the nonaxisymmetric mean flow from the rectangular nozzles can be studied reliably using computational solutions, the nonaxisymmetry of the turbulent fluctuations, particularly at the level of velocity components, cannot; only measurements such as these can determine the impact of nozzle geometry on acoustic source anisotropy. Additional nozzles were constructed that extended the wide lip on one side of these nozzles to form beveled nozzles. The paper first documents the velocity fields, mean and variance, from the round, rectangular, and beveled rectangular nozzles at high subsonic speeds. A second section introduces measures of the isotropy of the turbulence, such as component ratios and lengthscales, first by showing them for a round jet and then for the rectangular nozzles. From these measures the source models of acoustic analogy codes can be judged or modified to account for these anisotropies.
Angular Momentum Redistribution in Turbulent Compressible Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurlburt, Neal; Brummell, Nicholas; Toomre, Juri
1997-08-01
We consider the dynamics of turbulent compressible convection within a curved local segment of a rotating spherical shell. We aim to understand the disparity between the observed solar differential rotation and previous numerical simulations. The angular extent of the curved domain is limited to a small solid angle in order to exploit fully the available spatial degrees of freedom on current supercomputers and attain the highest possible Reynolds numbers. Here we present simulations with Rayleigh numbers in excess of 10^7, and Prandtl numbers less than 0.1. This computational domain takes the form of a curved, periodic channel in longitude with stress-free sidewalls in latitude and radius. The numerical solutions are obtained using high-order accuracy explicit code. It evaluates spatial derivatives using sixth-order compact finite differences in radius and latitude and psuedospectral methods in longitude and advances the solutions in time using a fourth-order Bulirsch-Stoer integrator. The surface flows form broad, laminar networks which mask the much more turbulent flows of the interior. The dynamics within this turbulent region is controlled by the interactions of a tangled web of strong vortex tubes. These tubes and their interactions redistrubute the angular momentum, generating azimuthal flows with strong shear in both radius and latitude. Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab
Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Flows.
Vedovoto, João M; Serfaty, Ricardo; Da Silveira Neto, Aristeu
2015-01-01
The present work is devoted to the development and implementation of a computational framework to perform numerical simulations of low Mach number turbulent flows over complex geometries. The algorithm under consideration is based on a classical predictor-corrector time integration scheme that employs a projection method for the momentum equations. The domain decomposition strategy is adopted for distributed computing, displaying very satisfactory levels of speed-up and efficiency. The Immersed Boundary Methodology is used to characterize the presence of a complex geometry. Such method demands two separate grids: An Eulerian, where the transport equations are solved with a Finite Volume, second order discretization and a Lagrangian domain, represented by a non-structured shell grid representing the immersed geometry. The in-house code developed was fully verified by the Method of Manufactured Solutions, in both Eulerian and Lagrangian domains. The capabilities of the resulting computational framework are illustrated on four distinct cases: a turbulent jet, the Poiseuille flow, as a matter of validation of the implemented Immersed Boundary methodology, the flow over a sphere covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, and finally, with the intention of demonstrating the applicability of Large Eddy Simulations - LES - in an industrial problem, the turbulent flow inside an industrial fan.
Lattice Boltzmann Representations of MHD Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Soe, Min; Flint, Christopher
2013-10-01
Lattice Botlzmann algorithms are an ideally parallelized method for the solutions of macroscopic nonlinear equations of physics - like resistive MHD. In its simplest LB representation one introduces a scalar distribution for the density-velocity fields and a vector distribution for the magnetic field. An important feature is that gradients of certain macroscopic fields can be represented by local moments of the mesoscopic distribution functions. In particular, div B = 0 can be exactly enforced to machine accuracy, without any divergence cleaning. One of the problems facing the explicit LB code is numerical instabilities. Methods to permit strong turbulence simulations include: (a) moving from a single BGK to multiple collisional relaxation, (b) quasi-equilibria and central moment enhanced LB representations. The LB turbulence modeling of Ansumali et al. to Navier-Stokes turbulence will be extended to MHD in which in its noted that filtering and Chapman-Enskog limits do not commute. In the NS-case, it leads to unique Samgorinsky closure scheme, with definite filter width.
The interaction of high-speed turbulence with flames: Turbulent flame speed
Poludnenko, A.Y.; Oran, E.S.
2011-02-15
Direct numerical simulations of the interaction of a premixed flame with driven, subsonic, homogeneous, isotropic, Kolmogorov-type turbulence in an unconfined system are used to study the mechanisms determining the turbulent flame speed, S{sub T}, in the thin reaction zone regime. High intensity turbulence is considered with the r.m.s. velocity 35 times the laminar flame speed, S{sub L}, resulting in the Damkoehler number Da=0.05. The simulations were performed with Athena-RFX, a massively parallel, fully compressible, high-order, dimensionally unsplit, reactive-flow code. A simplified reaction-diffusion model, based on the one-step Arrhenius kinetics, represents a stoichiometric H{sub 2}-air mixture under the assumption of the Lewis number Le=1. Global properties and the internal structure of the flame were analyzed in an earlier paper, which showed that this system represents turbulent combustion in the thin reaction zone regime. This paper demonstrates that: (1) The flame brush has a complex internal structure, in which the isosurfaces of higher fuel mass fractions are folded on progressively smaller scales. (2) Global properties of the turbulent flame are best represented by the structure of the region of peak reaction rate, which defines the flame surface. (3) In the thin reaction zone regime, S{sub T} is predominantly determined by the increase of the flame surface area, A{sub T}, caused by turbulence. (4) The observed increase of S{sub T} relative to S{sub L} exceeds the corresponding increase of A{sub T} relative to the surface area of the planar laminar flame, on average, by {approx}14%, varying from only a few percent to as high as {approx}30%. (5) This exaggerated response is the result of tight flame packing by turbulence, which causes frequent flame collisions and formation of regions of high flame curvature >or similar 1/{delta}{sub L}, or ''cusps,'' where {delta}{sub L} is the thermal width of the laminar flame. (6) The local flame speed in the cusps
Generalized Wall Function for Complex Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Chen, Kuo-Huey
2000-01-01
A generalized wall function was proposed by Shih et al., (1999). It accounts the effect of pressure gradients on the flow near the wall. Theory shows that the effect of pressure gradients on the flow in the inertial sublayer is very significant and the standard wall function should be replaced by a generalized wall function. Since the theory is also valid for boundary layer flows toward separation, the generalized wall function may be applied to complex turbulent flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation and recirculation. This paper is to verify the generalized wall function with numerical simulations for boundary layer flows with various adverse and favorable pressure gradients, including flows about to separate. Furthermore, a general procedure of implementation of the generalized wall function for National Combustion Code (NCC) is described, it can be applied to both structured and unstructured CFD codes.
Mimicking Natural Laminar to Turbulent Flow Transition: A Systematic CFD Study Using PAB3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
2005-01-01
For applied aerodynamic computations using a general purpose Navier-Stokes code, the common practice of treating laminar to turbulent flow transition over a non-slip surface is somewhat arbitrary by either treating the entire flow as turbulent or forcing the flow to undergo transition at given trip locations in the computational domain. In this study, the possibility of using the PAB3D code, standard k-epsilon turbulence model, and the Girimaji explicit algebraic stresses model to mimic natural laminar to turbulent flow transition was explored. The sensitivity of flow transition with respect to two limiters in the standard k-epsilon turbulence model was examined using a flat plate and a 6:1 aspect ratio prolate spheroid for our computations. For the flat plate, a systematic dependence of transition Reynolds number on background turbulence intensity was found. For the prolate spheroid, the transition patterns in the three-dimensional boundary layer at different flow conditions were sensitive to the free stream turbulence viscosity limit, the reference Reynolds number and the angle of attack, but not to background turbulence intensity below a certain threshold value. The computed results showed encouraging agreements with the experimental measurements at the corresponding geometry and flow conditions.
The impact of peeling-ballooning turbulence on ELMs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xi, Pengwei
2013-10-01
Although the onset of ELMs has possibly been determined by linear peeling-ballooning (P-B) instabilities and, the nonlinear BOUT + + simulations show that nonlinear mode coupling starts before the onset of ELMs, which can lead to finite amplitude peeling-ballooning (P-B) turbulence at the H-mode pedestal and play a crucial role in ELM dynamics in two aspects: (1) since the P-B turbulence can suppress ELM crash, for a given power input, pedestal can keep evolving to a state with larger pedestal pressure and current gradients. Accordingly, the drives of P-B modes also keep increasing. Therefore the onset of ELM is determined by the competition between linear drive and nonlinear mode coupling. We find that only when a single mode can overcome the nonlinear damping to become dominant, an ELM crash is triggered by this mode. This means with the P-B turbulence, the onset of ELM is determined by a nonlinear criterion γ >γc rather than the previous linear criterion γ > 0 , where γc is the critical growth rate which depends on the P-B turbulence. (2) We find that the P-B turbulence can generate enough self-constant hyper-resistivity needed in ELM simulations when electron inertial is included in Ohm's law. This hyper-resistivity represents anomalous current transport and can set the limit of the narrow current layer width resolved in the simulations. Except the P-B turbulence, the impact of other micro-turbulence, such as KBM turbulence, will be presented via a newly developed electro-magnetic Gyro-Landau-Fluid extension of BOUT + + code. Work was performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL LDRD project 12-ERD-022, and also supported by the NSFC under Grant Nos.10935004, 11261140326.
DNSLab: A gateway to turbulent flow simulation in Matlab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuorinen, V.; Keskinen, K.
2016-06-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research is increasingly much focused towards computationally intensive, eddy resolving simulation techniques of turbulent flows such as large-eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS). Here, we present a compact educational software package called DNSLab, tailored for learning partial differential equations of turbulence from the perspective of DNS in Matlab environment. Based on educational experiences and course feedback from tens of engineering post-graduate students and industrial engineers, DNSLab can offer a major gateway to turbulence simulation with minimal prerequisites. Matlab implementation of two common fractional step projection methods is considered: the 2d Fourier pseudo-spectral method, and the 3d finite difference method with 2nd order spatial accuracy. Both methods are based on vectorization in Matlab and the slow for-loops are thus avoided. DNSLab is tested on two basic problems which we have noted to be of high educational value: 2d periodic array of decaying vortices, and 3d turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 180. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is possibly the first to investigate efficiency of a 3d turbulent, wall bounded flow in Matlab. The accuracy and efficiency of DNSLab is compared with a customized OpenFOAM solver called rk4projectionFoam. Based on our experiences and course feedback, the main contribution of DNSLab consists of the following features. (i) The very compact Matlab implementation of present Navier-Stokes solvers provides a gateway to efficient learning of both, physics of turbulent flows, and simulation of turbulence. (ii) Only relatively minor prerequisites on fluid dynamics and numerical methods are required for using DNSLab. (iii) In 2d, interactive results for turbulent flow cases can be obtained. Even for a 3d channel flow, the solver is fast enough for nearly interactive educational use. (iv) DNSLab is made openly available and thus contributing to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)
1996-01-01
This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.
Efficient forward error correction coding for free-space optical communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Meng; Li, Jing; Ricklin, Jennifer C.
2004-10-01
Atmospheric turbulence is known as the major channel impairment for outdoor long-distance free space optical communication. This paper investigates the performance of high-rate fast-speed Reed-Solomon (RS) codes on log-normal fading FSOC channels. The cases where the channel state information is available and unavailable to the decoder are investigated. The impacts of turbulence strength, temporal correlation, interleaver type and size, as well as performance comparison to turbo codes are reported. Through theoretical analysis and extensive computer simulations, it is shown that impressive coding gain can be achieved for RS codes with very little overhead.
International assessment of PCA codes
Neymotin, L.; Lui, C.; Glynn, J.; Archarya, S.
1993-11-01
Over the past three years (1991-1993), an extensive international exercise for intercomparison of a group of six Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) codes was undertaken. The exercise was jointly sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This exercise was a logical continuation of a similar effort undertaken by OECD/NEA/CSNI in 1979-1981. The PCA codes are currently used by different countries for predicting radiological health and economic consequences of severe accidents at nuclear power plants (and certain types of non-reactor nuclear facilities) resulting in releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. The codes participating in the exercise were: ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this inter-code comparison effort, two separate groups performed a similar set of calculations using two of the participating codes, MACCS and COSYMA. Results of the intercode and inter-MACCS comparisons are presented in this paper. The MACCS group included four participants: GREECE: Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR Demokritos; ITALY: ENEL, ENEA/DISP, and ENEA/NUC-RIN; SPAIN: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear; USA: Brookhaven National Laboratory, US NRC and DOE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Retinò, Alessandro
2016-04-01
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent magnetized plasmas. They are found in active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, as well as in the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. Turbulent plasmas are also found in laboratory devices such as e.g. tokamaks. Our comprehension of the plasma Universe is largely based on measurements of electromagnetic radiation such as light or X-rays which originate from particles that are heated and accelerated as a result of energy dissipation in turbulent environments. Therefore it is of key importance to study and understand how plasma is energized by turbulence. Most of the energy dissipation occurs at kinetic scales, where plasma no longer behaves as a fluid and the properties of individual plasma species (electrons, protons and other ions) become important. THOR (Turbulent Heating ObserveR - http://thor.irfu.se/) is a space mission currently in Study Phase as candidate for M-class mission within the Cosmic Vision program of the European Space Agency. The scientific theme of the THOR mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization in space plasmas, which ties in with ESA's Cosmic Vision science. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, are also of high importance. The THOR mission aims to address fundamental questions such as how plasma is heated and particles are accelerated by turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. To reach the goal, a careful design of the THOR spacecraft and its payload is ongoing, together with a strong interaction with numerical simulations. Here we present the science of THOR mission and we discuss implications of THOR observations for space
Satellite sensing of submerged fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, Carl H.
2004-11-01
Surface brightness anomalies from a submerged municipal wastewater outfall trapped by buoyancy in an area 0.1 km^2 are surprisingly detected from space satellites in areas > 200 km^2. How is this possible? Microstructure measurements near the outfall diffuser reveal enhanced turbulence and temperature dissipation rates above the 50 m trapping depth. Near-vertical radiation of internal waves by fossil and zombie turbulence microstructure patches produce wind ripple smoothing with 30-50 m internal wave patterns in surface Fourier brightness anomalies near the outfall. Detections at 10-14 km distances are at 100-220 m bottom boundary layer (BBL) fossil turbulence scales. Advected outfall fossils form zombie turbulence patches in internal wave patterns as they extract energy, vorticity, turbulence and ambient vertical internal wavelength information as their density gradients are tilted by the waves. As the zombies fossilize, patterned energy radiates near-vertically to produce the detected Fourier anomalies. Zombie turbulence patches beam extracted energy in a preferred direction with a special frequency, like energized metastable molecules in a chemical maser. Thus, kilowatts to produce the submerged field of advected fossil outfall turbulence patches are amplified by beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA) into megawatts of turbulence dissipation to affect sea surface brightness on wide surface areas using gigawatts of BBL fossil turbulence wave energy available.
Numerical simulation of turbomachinery flows with advanced turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lakshminarayana, B.; Kunz, R.; Luo, J.; Fan, S.
1992-01-01
A three dimensional full Navier-Stokes (FNS) code is used to simulate complex turbomachinery flows. The code incorporates an explicit multistep scheme and solves a conservative form of the density averaged continuity, momentum, and energy equations. A compressible low Reynolds number form of the k-epsilon turbulence model, and a q-omega model and an algebraic Reynolds stress model have been incorporated in a fully coupled manner to approximate Reynolds stresses. The code is used to predict the viscous flow field in a backswept transonic centrifugal compressor for which laser two focus data is available. The code is also used to simulate the tip clearance flow in a cascade. The code has been extended to include unsteady Euler solutions for predicting the unsteady flow through a cascade due to incoming wakes, simulating rotor-stator interactions.
Simulations of Solar Wind Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Usmanov, A. V.; Roberts, D. A.
2008-01-01
Recently we have restructured our approach to simulating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the solar wind. Previously, we had defined a 'virtual' heliosphere that contained, for example, a tilted rotating current sheet, microstreams, quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations as well as Alfven waves. In this new version of the code, we use the global, time-stationary, WKB Alfven wave-driven solar wind model developed by Usmanov and described in Usmanov and Goldstein [2003] to define the initial state of the system. Consequently, current sheets, and fast and slow streams are computed self-consistently from an inner, photospheric, boundary. To this steady-state configuration, we add fluctuations close to, but above, the surface where the flow become super-Alfvenic. The time-dependent MHD equations are then solved using a semi-discrete third-order Central Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (CWENO) numerical scheme. The computational domain now includes the entire sphere; the geometrical singularity at the poles is removed using the multiple grid approach described in Usmanov [1996]. Wave packets are introduced at the inner boundary such as to satisfy Faraday's Law [Yeh and Dryer, 1985] and their nonlinear evolution are followed in time.
Altitude characteristics of plasma turbulence excited with the Tromso superheater
Djuth, F.T.; Elder, J.H. ); Stubbe, P.; Kohl, H. ); Sulzer, M.P. ); Rietveld, M.T. )
1994-01-01
Langmuir/ion turbulence excited with the upgraded high-power (1.2-GW effective radiated power) HF heating facility at Tromso, Norway, has been recently studied with the European Incoherent Scatter VHF and UHF incoherent scatter radars. In this report the authors focus on the altitudinal development of the turbulence observed at the highest HF power levels available. Quite remarkably, the observed plasma turbulence plunges downward in altitude over timescales of tens of seconds following HF beam turn-on; the bottom altitude is generally reached after [approximately]30 s. This phenomenon has a well-defined HF power threshold. It is most likely caused by changes in the electron density profile brought about by HF heating of the electron gas. If this is the case, then the heat source must be nonlinearly dependent on HF power. Overall, the characteristics of the Tromso turbulence are quite distinctive when compared to similar high-resolution measurements made at Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico. After HF transmissions have been made for tens of seconds at Tromso, billowing altitude structures are often seen, in sharp contrast to layers of turbulence observed at Arecibo. 17 refs., 3 figs.
Wind turbine airfoil investigations in customized turbulent inflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heisselmann, Hendrik; Peinke, Joachim; Hoelling, Michael
2016-11-01
Experimental airfoil characterizations are usually performed in laminar or unsteady periodical flows. Neither of these matches the flow conditions of natural atmospheric flows as experienced by wind turbine blades. In the presented experimental study, an active grid is used to generate turbulent inflow with customized properties, like reduced frequencies or inflow angles. This is used not only to tune flow properties, but also to mimic time series of measured atmospheric wind speeds and inflow angles in the wind tunnel. Experiments were performed on a wind turbine dedicated DU 00-W-212 airfoil to obtain highly resolved force data and chord-wise pressure distributions at Re=500,000 and Re=900,000. Additional to a laminar baseline case, unsteady sinusoidal inflow fluctuations were applied as well as three different turbulent inflows with comparable turbulence intensity, but different inflow angle fluctuations to grasp the impact of inflow characteristics on the airfoil performance. In comparison with the laminar inflow case, the lift peak of the polar is shifted to higher angles of attack in the turbulent flows. While the laminar lift polars show a rather sudden transition to stall, a softer transition with an extended stall region is found for all turbulent cases. The presented work was performed within the project AVATAR and is funded from the European Unions Seventh Program for research, technological development and demonstration under Grand Agreement No FP7-ENERGY-2013-1/n 608396.
PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.
2010-12-01
L Velikovich (Naval Research Laboratory, USA) and the Local Organizing Committee at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy Joseph J Niemela Katepalli R Sreenivasan with the assistance of Suzie Radosic (administrator and assistant, ICTP) Daniil Ilyin (web-master, University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, Chicago, USA) The Conference and the School were sponsored by several Agencies and Institutions in the USA, Europe and Japan. The Organizing Committee of TMB-2009 gratefully acknowledges the support of International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy National Science Foundation (NSF), USA Programs: Plasma Physics; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Computational Mathematics; Applied Mathematics; Fluid Dynamics; Combustion, Fire and Plasma Systems; Cyber-Physical Systems; Computer and Network Systems Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), US Programs: Hypersonics and Turbulence; Flow Control and Aeroelasticity European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD) of the AFOSR, UK Programs: Aeronautical Sciences Department of Energy (DOE), USA, DOE Office of Science US Department of Energy Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), USA Programs: National Ignition Facility; Fusion Energy US Department of Energy Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), USA US Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), USA Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), France Institute for Laser Engineering (ILE), Japan The University of Chicago, USA ASC Alliance Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, USA Photron (Europe) Ltd, UK and thank them for making this event possible. We express our gratitude for the help with the Conference Program to the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee: S I Abarzhi (University of Chicago, USA) Y Aglitskiy (Science Applications International Corporation, USA) H Azechi (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) M J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) S I Anisimov (Landau Institute
Makwana, K. D.; Zhdankin, V.; Li, H.; ...
2015-04-10
We performed simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with a fluid and a kinetic code. The initial condition is an ensemble of long-wavelength, counter-propagating, shear-Alfvén waves, which interact and rapidly generate strong MHD turbulence. The total energy is conserved and the rate of turbulent energy decay is very similar in both codes, although the fluid code has numerical dissipation, whereas the kinetic code has kinetic dissipation. The inertial range power spectrum index is similar in both the codes. The fluid code shows a perpendicular wavenumber spectral slope of k-1.3⊥k⊥-1.3. The kinetic code shows a spectral slope of k-1.5⊥k⊥-1.5 for smallermore » simulation domain, and k-1.3⊥k⊥-1.3 for larger domain. We then estimate that collisionless damping mechanisms in the kinetic code can account for the dissipation of the observed nonlinear energy cascade. Current sheets are geometrically characterized. Their lengths and widths are in good agreement between the two codes. The length scales linearly with the driving scale of the turbulence. In the fluid code, their thickness is determined by the grid resolution as there is no explicit diffusivity. In the kinetic code, their thickness is very close to the skin-depth, irrespective of the grid resolution. Finally, this work shows that kinetic codes can reproduce the MHD inertial range dynamics at large scales, while at the same time capturing important kinetic physics at small scales.« less
Makwana, K. D.; Zhdankin, V.; Li, H.; Daughton, W.; Cattaneo, F.
2015-04-10
We performed simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with a fluid and a kinetic code. The initial condition is an ensemble of long-wavelength, counter-propagating, shear-Alfvén waves, which interact and rapidly generate strong MHD turbulence. The total energy is conserved and the rate of turbulent energy decay is very similar in both codes, although the fluid code has numerical dissipation, whereas the kinetic code has kinetic dissipation. The inertial range power spectrum index is similar in both the codes. The fluid code shows a perpendicular wavenumber spectral slope of k-1.3⊥k⊥-1.3. The kinetic code shows a spectral slope of k-1.5⊥k⊥-1.5 for smaller simulation domain, and k-1.3⊥k⊥-1.3 for larger domain. We then estimate that collisionless damping mechanisms in the kinetic code can account for the dissipation of the observed nonlinear energy cascade. Current sheets are geometrically characterized. Their lengths and widths are in good agreement between the two codes. The length scales linearly with the driving scale of the turbulence. In the fluid code, their thickness is determined by the grid resolution as there is no explicit diffusivity. In the kinetic code, their thickness is very close to the skin-depth, irrespective of the grid resolution. Finally, this work shows that kinetic codes can reproduce the MHD inertial range dynamics at large scales, while at the same time capturing important kinetic physics at small scales.
EVOLUTION OF SHOCKS AND TURBULENCE IN MAJOR CLUSTER MERGERS
Paul, S.; Mannheim, K.; Iapichino, L.; Miniati, F.; Bagchi, J.
2011-01-01
We performed a set of cosmological simulations of major mergers in galaxy clusters, in order to study the evolution of merger shocks and the subsequent injection of turbulence in the post-shock region and in the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The computations have been performed with the grid-based, adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical code Enzo, using a refinement criterion especially designed for refining turbulent flows in the vicinity of shocks. When a major merger event occurs, a substantial amount of turbulence energy is injected in the ICM of the newly formed cluster. Our simulations show that the shock launched after a major merger develops an ellipsoidal shape and gets broken by the interaction with the filamentary cosmic web around the merging cluster. The size of the post-shock region along the direction of shock propagation is of the order of 300 kpc h{sup -1}, and the turbulent velocity dispersion in this region is larger than 100 km s{sup -1}. We performed a scaling analysis of the turbulence energy within our cluster sample. The best fit for the scaling of the turbulence energy with the cluster mass is consistent with M{sup 5/3}, which is also the scaling law for the thermal energy in the self-similar cluster model. This clearly indicates the close relation between virialization and injection of turbulence in the cluster evolution. As for the turbulence in the cluster core, we found that within 2 Gyr after the major merger (the timescale for the shock propagation in the ICM), the ratio of the turbulent to total pressure is larger than 10%, and after about 4 Gyr it is still larger than 5%, a typical value for nearly relaxed clusters. Turbulence at the cluster center is thus sustained for several gigayears, which is substantially longer than typically assumed in the turbulent re-acceleration models, invoked to explain the statistics of observed radio halos. Striking similarities in the morphology and other physical parameters between our simulations
Multiple-scale turbulence modeling of free turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fabris, G.; Harsha, P. T.
1981-01-01
As part of an investigation into the application of turbulence models to the computation of flows in advanced scramjet combustors, the multiple-scale turbulence model has been applied to a variety of flowfield predictions. The model appears to have a potential for improved predictions in a variety of areas relevant to combustor problems. This potential exists because of the partition of the turbulence energy spectrum that is the major feature of the model and which allows the turbulence energy dissipation rate to be out of phase with turbulent energy production. To establish the general reliability of the approach, it has been tested through comparison of predictions with experimental data. An appreciable overall improvement in the generality of the predictions is observed, as compared to those of the basic two-equation turbulence model. A Mach number-related correction is found to be necessary to satisfactorily predict the spreading rate of the supersonic jet and mixing layer.
Modeling Transition to Turbulence using the Turbulent Potential Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Wang; Perot, Blair
2001-11-01
While transition is a very different phenomenon from fully developed turbulence, it is governed, on average, by equations with are mathematically the same as the RANS equations for fully turbulent flow. It is therefore theoretically possible for RANS equation systems to display transition-like behavior a very rapid growth in turbulent kinetic energy levels, skin friction, etc. In this work, the ability of the turbulent potential model to accurately predict laminar to turbulent transition in flat plate boundary layers is examined. The model accurately predicts the entire range of free-stream turbulence levels from strong bypass transition (6natural transition (0.03It shows correct sensitivity to favorable and adverse pressure gradients, as well as acoustic noise levels. Past results indicated the ability of the model to relaminarize the flow. Recent work has focused attention on the model’s ability to predict transition in mixing layers.
Self-Consistent Simulation of Turbulence and Transport in Tokamak Edge Plasmas
Rognlien, T D; Umansky, M V; Xu, X Q; Cohen, R H
2003-09-03
The status of coupling the fluid 3D turbulence code BOUT and the fluid plasma/neutral 2D transport code UEDGE is reported, where both codes simulate the edge region of diverted tokamaks from several cm inside the magnetic separatrix to the far scrape-off layer (SOL), thereby including the magnetic X-point. Because the characteristic time scale of the turbulence is short ({approx} 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4}s) and the profile evolution time scale can be long ({approx} 10{sup -2}-10{sup -1} s owing to recycling), an iterative scheme is used that relaxes the turbulent fluxes passed from BOUT to UEDGE and the profiles from UEDGE to BOUT over many coupling steps. Each code is run on its own characteristic time scale, yielding a statistically averaged steady state. For this initial study, the ion and neutral densities and parallel velocities are evolved, while the temperature profiles are stationary. Here the turbulence code is run in the electrostatic approximation. For this example of self-consistent coupling with strong L-mode-like turbulence, the ion flux to the main-chamber exceeds that to the divertor plates.
Numerical study on the interaction between supercavitation and turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Han; Xiao, Zuoli; Shen, Lian
2016-11-01
Supercavitation uses a bubble of gas inside a liquid large enough to encompass an object travelling through the liquid so that the skin friction on the object can be greatly reduced and high speed can be obtained. In this study, computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the interaction between supercavitation and turbulence. The study builds on an in-house simulation code that uses the coupled level set and volume of fluid method to accurately capture the interface between the water and gas phases. A ventilated disk cavitator is used for the bubble generation, and it is modelled by a sharp interface immersed boundary method. Turbulence in the incoming flow is generated by a grid of small spheres upstream. Based on the simulation data, the influence of turbulence on the supercavitation and the underlying mechanisms are analyzed.
Modeling turbulence in flows with a strong rotational component
Burgess, D.E.; O`Rourke, P.J.
1993-11-01
We consider the effectiveness of various turbulence models in flows with a strong rotational component. To evaluate the models, we implement them into a one-dimensional test code and make comparisons with experimental data for swirling flow in a cylinder. The K - {epsilon} type turbulence models do poorly in predicting the experimental results. However, we find that the incorporation of a Reynolds stress evolution equation gives good agreement with the experimentally measured mean flow. Modeling the pressure-strain correlation tensor correctly is the key for obtaining good results. A combination of Launder`s basic model together with Yakhot`s dissipation rate equation {sup 3} works best in predicting both the mean flow and the turbulence intensity.
Investigation of subgrid models in homogeneous incompressible turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teissedre, C.
1987-08-01
A data base of simulated homogeneous, incompressible turbulence in an anisotropic regime was derived using a direct simulation code on a parallel processing computer. The simulated distributions were used to validate subgrid models of the turbulent viscosity and similitude type (analogy between the near field of the cut-off and the subgrid field). The first type of model accounts for the evolution of turbulent kinetic energy well, while the second type, although it better represents the exact value of stress in the subgrid, seems to present a defect of nondissipation. Tests of a model of perturbation of nonlinear terms were performed in an isotropic situation with large structures. The results show the same kind of nondissipative behavior as for the similitude model.
Energy transfer and dual cascade in kinetic magnetized plasma turbulence.
Plunk, G G; Tatsuno, T
2011-04-22
The question of how nonlinear interactions redistribute the energy of fluctuations across available degrees of freedom is of fundamental importance in the study of turbulence and transport in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas, ranging from space settings to fusion devices. In this Letter, we present a theory for the dual cascade found in such plasmas, which predicts a range of new behavior that distinguishes this cascade from that of neutral fluid turbulence. These phenomena are explained in terms of the constrained nature of spectral transfer in nonlinear gyrokinetics. Accompanying this theory are the first observations of these phenomena, obtained via direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. The basic mechanisms that are found provide a framework for understanding the turbulent energy transfer that couples scales both locally and nonlocally.
Controlled-Turbulence Bioreactors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, David A.; Schwartz, Ray; Trinh, Tinh
1989-01-01
Two versions of bioreactor vessel provide steady supplies of oxygen and nutrients with little turbulence. Suspends cells in environment needed for sustenance and growth, while inflicting less damage from agitation and bubbling than do propeller-stirred reactors. Gentle environments in new reactors well suited to delicate mammalian cells. One reactor kept human kidney cells alive for as long as 11 days. Cells grow on carrier beads suspended in liquid culture medium that fills cylindrical housing. Rotating vanes - inside vessel but outside filter - gently circulates nutrient medium. Vessel stationary; magnetic clutch drives filter cylinder and vanes. Another reactor creates even less turbulence. Oxygen-permeable tubing wrapped around rod extending along central axis. Small external pump feeds oxygen to tubing through rotary coupling, and oxygen diffuses into liquid medium.
Homogeneous quantum electrodynamic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
1992-01-01
The electromagnetic field equations and Dirac equations for oppositely charged wave functions are numerically time-integrated using a spatial Fourier method. The numerical approach used, a spectral transform technique, is based on a continuum representation of physical space. The coupled classical field equations contain a dimensionless parameter which sets the strength of the nonlinear interaction (as the parameter increases, interaction volume decreases). For a parameter value of unity, highly nonlinear behavior in the time-evolution of an individual wave function, analogous to ideal fluid turbulence, is observed. In the truncated Fourier representation which is numerically implemented here, the quantum turbulence is homogeneous but anisotropic and manifests itself in the nonlinear evolution of equilibrium modal spatial spectra for the probability density of each particle and also for the electromagnetic energy density. The results show that nonlinearly interacting fermionic wave functions quickly approach a multi-mode, dynamic equilibrium state, and that this state can be determined by numerical means.
Turbulent nonreacting swirling flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, J. I.
1984-06-01
Numerical results for incompressible confined swirling flows in a model combustor were obtained using the k-epsilon and k-l models of turbulence developed by Ramos (1980, 1981). Calculations were performed for a model combustor consisting of a 3.43-cm diameter inner pipe and a 14.5-cm diameter outer pipe. The outside diameter of the inner pipe is 3.86 cm. It is shown that the k-epsilon model does predict a recirculation zone for both coswirl and counterswirl flow conditions if suitable inlet conditions are used. Both turbulence models predict a nonexistent recirculation zone under coswirl conditions. The calculated mean axial and tangential velocity profiles are compared with the experimental data of Vu and Gouldin (1980).
Measurements of Turbulent Dissipation During the Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment
2013-07-16
Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment 0601153N 73-6604-03-5 Silvia Matt, Weilin Hou, Sarah Woods, Ewa Jarosz, Wesley Goode and Alan Weidemann Naval...of turbulent dissipation during the Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment Silvia Matt 1,2, Weilin Hou 2, Sarah Woods 3, Ewa Jarosz 2, Wesley Goode 2...SPEC Inc., Boulder, CO, USA Corresponding author: Silvia Matt: E-mail: silvia.matt.ctr.de@nrlssc.navy.mil Figure 1. Location of stations during BOTEX
TURBULENT GENERAL MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
Eyink, G. L.
2015-07-10
Plasma flows with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-like turbulent inertial range, such as the solar wind, require a generalization of general magnetic reconnection (GMR) theory. We introduce the slip velocity source vector per unit arclength of field line, the ratio of the curl of the non-ideal electric field in the generalized Ohm’s Law and magnetic field strength. It diverges at magnetic nulls, unifying GMR with null-point reconnection. Only under restrictive assumptions is the slip velocity related to the gradient of quasi-potential (which is the integral of parallel electric field along magnetic field lines). In a turbulent inertial range, the non-ideal field becomes tiny while its curl is large, so that line slippage occurs even while ideal MHD becomes accurate. The resolution is that ideal MHD is valid for a turbulent inertial range only in a weak sense that does not imply magnetic line freezing. The notion of weak solution is explained in terms of renormalization group (RG) type theory. The weak validity of the ideal Ohm’s law in the inertial range is shown via rigorous estimates of the terms in the generalized Ohm’s Law. All non-ideal terms are irrelevant in the RG sense and large-scale reconnection is thus governed solely by ideal dynamics. We discuss the implications for heliospheric reconnection, in particular for deviations from the Parker spiral model. Solar wind observations show that reconnection in a turbulence-broadened heliospheric current sheet, which is consistent with Lazarian–Vishniac theory, leads to slip velocities that cause field lines to lag relative to the spiral model.
Turbulence Environment Characterization
1979-06-01
of ro is consistent with the simultaneous measurement made with the Seeing Monitor. An average turbulent profile developed primarily from microthermal ...data. The operation of the routine meteorological instrumentation, microthermal probes, acoustic sounder, Seeing Monitor and Star Sensor have been...and J. Spencer of RADC gave sub- stantial support and assistance with the microthermal probes, acoustic sounder and PDP-8 software. We acknowledge R
1980-09-01
and 3 times higher than expected from free- jet results. Hill et al., (Reference 6) in work with foun- tain jets impacting fuselage models, detected ...delineate the origins of the turbulent anomalies associated with fountain jets by extending the previous studies. The results are presented herein...jet velocities were detected with a Thermal Systems Inc. Model 1050 dual-channel constant-temperature anemometer equipped with a Thermal Systems Inc
Controllability of flow turbulence.
Guan, Shuguang; Wei, G W; Lai, C-H
2004-06-01
In this paper, we study the controllability of real-world flow turbulence governed by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, using strategies developed in chaos control. A case of control/synchronization of turbulent dynamics is observed when only one component of the velocity field vector is unidirectionally coupled to a target state, while the other component is uncoupled. Unlike previous results, it is shown that the dynamics of the whole velocity field cannot be completely controlled/synchronized to the target, even in the limit of long time and strong coupling strength. It is further revealed that the controlled component of the velocity field can be fully controlled/synchronized to the target, but the other component, which is not directly coupled to the target, can only be partially controlled/synchronized to the target. By extending an auxiliary method to distributed dynamic systems, the partial synchronization of two turbulent orbits in the present study can be categorized in the domain of generalized synchronization of spatiotemporal dynamics.
Magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriquez, P.
1977-01-01
The spectrum of electrostatic plasma waves in the terrestrial magnetosheath was studied using the plasma wave experiment on the IMP-6 satellite. Electrostatic plasma wave turbulence is almost continuously present throughout the magnetosheath with broadband (20 Hz- 70 kHz) r.m.s. field intensities typically 0.01 - 1.0 millivolts/m. Peak intensities of about 1.0 millivolts/m near the electron plasma frequency (30 - 60 kHz) were detected occasionally. The components usually identified in the spectrum of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence include a high frequency ( or = 30 kHz) component peaking at the electron plasma frequency f sub pe, a low frequency component with a broad intensity maximum below the nominal ion plasma frequency f sub pi (approximately f sub pe/43), and a less well defined intermediate component in the range f sub pi f f sub pe. The intensity distribution of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence clearly shows that the low frequency component is associated with the bow shock, suggesting that the ion heating begun at the shock continues into the downstream magnetosheath.
Establishing Consensus Turbulence Statistics for Hot Subsonic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bridges, James; Werner, Mark P.
2010-01-01
Many tasks in fluids engineering require knowledge of the turbulence in jets. There is a strong, although fragmented, literature base for low order statistics, such as jet spread and other meanvelocity field characteristics. Some sources, particularly for low speed cold jets, also provide turbulence intensities that are required for validating Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. There are far fewer sources for jet spectra and for space-time correlations of turbulent velocity required for aeroacoustics applications, although there have been many singular publications with various unique statistics, such as Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, designed to uncover an underlying low-order dynamical description of turbulent jet flow. As the complexity of the statistic increases, the number of flows for which the data has been categorized and assembled decreases, making it difficult to systematically validate prediction codes that require high-level statistics over a broad range of jet flow conditions. For several years, researchers at NASA have worked on developing and validating jet noise prediction codes. One such class of codes, loosely called CFD-based or statistical methods, uses RANS CFD to predict jet mean and turbulent intensities in velocity and temperature. These flow quantities serve as the input to the acoustic source models and flow-sound interaction calculations that yield predictions of far-field jet noise. To develop this capability, a catalog of turbulent jet flows has been created with statistics ranging from mean velocity to space-time correlations of Reynolds stresses. The present document aims to document this catalog and to assess the accuracies of the data, e.g. establish uncertainties for the data. This paper covers the following five tasks: Document acquisition and processing procedures used to create the particle image velocimetry (PIV) datasets. Compare PIV data with hotwire and laser Doppler
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Si, Jiahe Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark D.
2015-07-15
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Implementation and Testing of Turbulence Models for the F18-HARV Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeager, Jessie C.
1998-01-01
This report presents three methods of implementing the Dryden power spectral density model for atmospheric turbulence. Included are the equations which define the three methods and computer source code written in Advanced Continuous Simulation Language to implement the equations. Time-history plots and sample statistics of simulated turbulence results from executing the code in a test program are also presented. Power spectral densities were computed for sample sequences of turbulence and are plotted for comparison with the Dryden spectra. The three model implementations were installed in a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom simulation of the High Alpha Research Vehicle airplane. Aircraft simulation responses to turbulence generated with the three implementations are presented as plots.
Report on a workshop concerning code validation
1996-12-01
The design of wind turbine components is becoming more critical as turbines become lighter and more dynamically active. Computer codes that will reliably predict turbine dynamic response are, therefore, more necessary than before. However, predicting the dynamic response of very slender rotating structures that operate in turbulent winds is not a simple matter. Even so, codes for this purpose have been developed and tested in North America and in Europe, and it is important to disseminate information on this subject. The purpose of this workshop was to allow those involved in the wind energy industry in the US to assess the progress invalidation of the codes most commonly used for structural/aero-elastic wind turbine simulation. The theme of the workshop was, ``How do we know it`s right``? This was the question that participants were encouraged to ask themselves throughout the meeting in order to avoid the temptation of presenting information in a less-than-critical atmosphere. Other questions posed at the meeting are: What is the proof that the codes used can truthfully represent the field data? At what steps were the codes tested against known solutions, or against reliable field data? How should the designer or user validate results? What computer resources are needed? How do codes being used in Europe compare with those used in the US? How does the code used affect industry certification? What can be expected in the future?
User's guide for a personal computer model of turbulence at a wind turbine rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connell, J. R.; Powell, D. C.; Gower, G. L.
1989-08-01
This document is primarily: (1) a user's guide for the personal computer (PC) version of the code for the PNL computational model of the rotationally sampled wind speed (RODASIM11), and (2) a brief guide to the growing literature on the subject of rotationally sampled turbulence, from which the model is derived. The model generates values of turbulence experienced by single points fixed in the rotating frame of reference of an arbitrary wind turbine blade. The character of the turbulence depends on the specification of mean wind speed, the variance of turbulence, the crosswind and along-wind integral scales of turbulence, mean wind shear, and the hub height, radius, and angular speed of rotation of any point at which wind fluctuation is to be calculated.
Implicit Large-Eddy Simulations of Zero-Pressure Gradient, Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekhar, Susheel; Mansour, Nagi N.
2015-01-01
A set of direct simulations of zero-pressure gradient, turbulent boundary layer flows are conducted using various span widths (62-630 wall units), to document their influence on the generated turbulence. The FDL3DI code that solves compressible Navier-Stokes equations using high-order compact-difference scheme and filter, with the standard recycling/rescaling method of turbulence generation, is used. Results are analyzed at two different Re values (500 and 1,400), and compared with spectral DNS data. They show that a minimum span width is required for the mere initiation of numerical turbulence. Narrower domains ((is) less than 100 w.u.) result in relaminarization. Wider spans ((is) greater than 600 w.u.) are required for the turbulent statistics to match reference DNS. The upper-wall boundary condition for this setup spawns marginal deviations in the mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles, particularly in the buffer region.
User's guide for a personal computer model of turbulence at a wind turbine rotor
Connell, J.R.; Powell, D.C.; Gower, G.L.
1989-08-01
This document is primarily (1) a user's guide for the personal computer (PC) version of the code for the PNL computational model of the rotationally sampled wind speed (RODASIM11) and (2) a brief guide to the growing literature on the subject of rotationally sampled turbulence, from which the model is derived. The model generates values of turbulence experienced by single points fixed in the rotating frame of reference of an arbitrary wind turbine blade. The character of the turbulence depends on the specification of mean wind speed, the variance of turbulence, the crosswind and along-wind integral scales of turbulence, mean wind shear, and the hub height, radius, and angular speed of rotation of any point at which wind fluctuation is to be calculated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.
Shalchi, A.
2013-09-01
We explore perpendicular diffusion based on the unified nonlinear transport theory. We derive simple analytical forms for the perpendicular mean free path and investigate the influence of different model spectra. We show that for cases where the field line random walk is normal diffusive, the perpendicular diffusion coefficient consists of only two transport regimes. Details of the spectral shape are less important, especially those of the inertial range. Only the macroscopic properties of the turbulence spectrum control the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. Simple formulae for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient are derived which can easily be implemented in solar modulation or shock acceleration codes.
Dynamic multiscaling in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Sahoo, Ganapati; Pandit, Rahul
2016-11-01
We present a study of the multiscaling of time-dependent velocity and magnetic-field structure functions in homogeneous, isotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in three dimensions. We generalize the formalism that has been developed for analogous studies of time-dependent structure functions in fluid turbulence to MHD. By carrying out detailed numerical studies of such time-dependent structure functions in a shell model for three-dimensional MHD turbulence, we obtain both equal-time and dynamic scaling exponents.
Turbulent wakes of fractal objects.
Staicu, Adrian; Mazzi, Biagio; Vassilicos, J C; van de Water, Willem
2003-06-01
Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are studied within inertial and dissipative range scales in an attempt to relate changes in their self-similar behavior to the scaling of the fractal objects.
Predicting two-dimensional turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerbus, R. T.; Goldburg, W. I.
2015-04-01
Prediction is a fundamental objective of science. It is more difficult for chaotic and complex systems like turbulence. Here we use information theory to quantify spatial prediction using experimental data from a turbulent soap film. At high Reynolds number, Re, where a cascade exists, turbulence becomes easier to predict as the inertial range broadens. The development of a cascade at low Re is also detected.
Implicit solution of three-dimensional internal turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michelassi, V.; Liou, M.-S.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Martelli, F.
1991-01-01
The scalar form of the approximate factorization method was used to develop a new code for the solution of three dimensional internal laminar and turbulent compressible flows. The Navier-Stokes equations in their Reynolds-averaged form were iterated in time until a steady solution was reached. Evidence was given to the implicit and explicit artificial damping schemes that proved to be particularly efficient in speeding up convergence and enhancing the algorithm robustness. A conservative treatment of these terms at the domain boundaries was proposed in order to avoid undesired mass and/or momentum artificial fluxes. Turbulence effects were accounted for by the zero-equation Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and the q-omega two-equation model. The flow in a developing S-duct was then solved in the laminar regime in a Reynolds number (Re) of 790 and in the turbulent regime at Re equals 40,000 by using the Baldwin-Lomax model. The Stanitz elbow was then solved by using an invicid version of the same code at M sub inlet equals 0.4. Grid dependence and convergence rate were investigated, showing that for this solver the implicit damping scheme may play a critical role for convergence characteristics. The same flow at Re equals 2.5 times 10(exp 6) was solved with the Baldwin-Lomax and the q-omega models. Both approaches show satisfactory agreement with experiments, although the q-omega model was slightly more accurate.
Kinetic particle simulation of turbulence in an FRC geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fulton, Daniel; Lau, Calvin; Holod, Ihor; Lin, Zhihong; Dettrick, Sean; Binderbauer, Michl; Tajima, Toshiki
2014-10-01
Core turbulence in a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) is studied using the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code with modified equilibrium geometry. The code solves the gyrokinetic equation for ions and the drift kinetic equation for electrons. The simulation region is an annulus which excludes plasma near the O-point to avoid breakdown of the gyrokinetic dynamics of ions. The C-2 FRC equilibrium is introduced to study similar conditions as found in the C-2 experiments, where the core is found to be relatively quiescent. In simulation, we find the C-2 plasma is stable to ion temperature gradient instabilities using realistic experimental parameters, consistent with experimental results obtained in C-2. When temperature and density gradients are enhanced beyond typical C-2 parameters, we observe a class of instabilities that appear as flute-like drift modes. These results shed light on a possible reason why transport temperature scaling in the C-2 core is radically different from that of typical turbulent transport scaling such as the Bohm-like regime. Progress is also reported on simulations of scrape off layer turbulence and electron driven turbulence.
VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PROPAGATING TURBULENT RELATIVISTIC JETS
Pollack, Maxwell; Pauls, David; Wiita, Paul J.
2016-03-20
We use the Athena hydrodynamics code to model propagating two-dimensional relativistic jets as approximations to the growth of radio-loud active galactic nuclei for various input jet velocities and jet-to-ambient matter density ratios. Using results from these simulations we estimate the changing synchrotron emission by summing the fluxes from a vertical strip of zones behind the reconfinement shock, which is nearly stationary, and from which a substantial portion of the flux variability should arise. We explore a wide range of timescales by considering two light curves from each simulation; one uses a relativistic turbulence code with bulk velocities taken from our simulations as input, while the other uses the bulk velocity data to compute fluctuations caused by variations in the Doppler boosting due to changes in the direction and the speed of the flow through all zones in the strip. We then calculate power spectral densities (PSDs) from the light curves for both turbulent and bulk velocity origins for variability. The range of the power-law slopes of the PSDs for the turbulence induced variations is −1.8 to −2.3, while for the bulk velocity produced variations this range is −2.1 to −2.9; these are in agreement with most observations. When superimposed, these power spectra span a very large range in frequency (about five decades), with the turbulent fluctuations yielding most of the shorter timescale variations and the bulk flow changes dominating the longer periods.
High-resolution simulations of forced compressible isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jagannathan, Shriram; Donzis, Diego
2011-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of compressible turbulent flows are several times more expensive than their incompressible counterparts. Therefore, using large computing resources efficiently is even more pressing when studying compressible turbulence. A highly scalable code is presented which is used to perform simulations aimed at understanding fundamental turbulent processes. The code, which is based on a 2D domain decomposition, is shown to scale well up to 128k cores. To attain a statistically stationary state a new scheme is developed which involves large-scale stochastic forcing (solenoidal or dilatational) and a procedure to keep mean internal energy constant. The resulting flows show characteristics consistent with results in the literature. The attainable Reynolds and turbulent Mach numbers for given computational resources depend on the number of grid points and the degree to which the smallest scales are resolved that are given by Kolmogorov scales. A systematic comparison of simulations at different resolutions suggests that the resolution needed depends on the particular statistic being considered. The resulting database is used to investigate small-scale universality, the scaling of spectra of velocity, density and temperature fields, structure functions and the trends towards high-Reynolds number asymptotes. Differences with incompressible results are highlighted.
Computation of supersonic turbulent flow past a spinning cone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agarwal, R. K.
1982-01-01
Computational results are presented for supersonic laminar and turbulent flow past a pointed cone at angle of attack obtained with a parabolic Navier-Stokes marching code. The code takes into account the asymmetries in the flowfield resulting from spinning motion and computes the asymmetric shock shape, crossflow and streamwise shear, heat transfer, crossflow separation, and vortex structure. The Magnus force and moments are also computed. Comparisons are made with other analyses based on boundary-layer equations. For certain laminar flow conditions, an anomaly is discovered in the displacement thickness contribution to the Magnus force when compared with boundary-layer results. For turbulent flow, at small angles of attack, good agreement is obtained with the experimental data and other theoretical results.
Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.
Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R
2016-02-01
Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.
The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…
Turbulent Distortion of Condensate Accretion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hazoume, R.; Orou Chabi, J.; Johnson, J. A., III
1997-01-01
When a simple model for the relationship between the density-temperature fluctuation correlation and mean values is used, we determine that the rate of change of turbulent intensity can influence directly the accretion rate of droplets. Considerable interest exists in the accretion rate for condensates in nonequilibrium flow with icing and the potential role which reactant accretion can play in nonequilibrium exothermic reactant processes. Turbulence is thought to play an important role in such flows. It has already been experimentally determined that turbulence influences the sizes of droplets in the heterogeneous nucleation of supersaturated vapors. This paper addresses the issue of the possible influence of turbulence on the accretion rate of droplets.
The Calern atmospheric turbulence station
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed
2016-07-01
From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.
Critical exponents of Nikolaevskii turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Dan
2005-02-01
We study the spatial power spectra of Nikolaevskii turbulence in one-dimensional space. First, we show that the energy distribution in wave-number space is extensive in nature. Then, we demonstrate that, when varying a particular parameter, the spectrum becomes qualitatively indistinguishable from that of Kuramoto-Sivashinsky turbulence. Next, we derive the critical exponents of turbulent fluctuations. Finally, we argue that in some previous studies, parameter values for which this type of turbulence does not appear were mistakenly considered, and we resolve inconsistencies obtained in previous studies.
Fluid turbulence - Deterministic or statistical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Sin-I.
The deterministic view of turbulence suggests that the classical theory of fluid turbulence may be treating the wrong entity. The paper explores the physical implications of such an abstract mathematical result, and provides a constructive computational demonstration of the deterministic and the wave nature of fluid turbulence. The associated pressure disturbance for restoring solenoidal velocity is the primary agent, and its reflection from solid surface(s) the dominant mechanism of turbulence production. Statistical properties and their modeling must address to the statistics of the uncertainties of initial boundary data of the ensemble.
Reusable State Machine Code Generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.
2010-12-01
The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.
Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.
Seligmann, Hervé
2015-03-01
Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints.
The numerical analysis of a turbulent compressible jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debonis, James Raymond
2000-10-01
A numerical method to simulate high Reynolds number jet flows was formulated and applied to gain a better understanding of the flow physics. Large-eddy simulation was chosen as the most promising approach to model the turbulent structures due to its compromise between accuracy and computational expense. The filtered Navier-Stokes equations were developed including a total energy form of the energy equation. Sub-grid scale models for the momentum and energy equations were adapted from compressible forms of Smagorinsky's original model. The effect of using disparate temporal and spatial accuracy in a numerical scheme was discovered through one-dimensional model problems and a new uniformly fourth-order accurate numerical method was developed. Results from two and three dimensional validation exercises show that the code accurately reproduces both viscous and inviscid flows. Numerous axisymmetric jet simulations were performed to investigate the effect of grid resolution, numerical scheme, exit boundary conditions and sub-grid scale modeling on the solution and the results were used to guide the three-dimensional calculations. Three-dimensional calculations of a Mach 1.4 jet showed that this LES simulation accurately captures the physics of the turbulent flow. The agreement with experimental data relatively good and is much better than results in the current literature. Turbulent intensities indicate that the turbulent structures at this level of modeling are not isotropic and this information could lend itself to the development of improved sub-grid scale models for LES and turbulence models for RANS simulations. A two point correlation technique was used to quantify the turbulent structures. Two point space correlations were used to obtain a measure of the integral length scale, which proved to be approximately ½Dj. Two point space-time correlations were used to obtain the convection velocity for the turbulent structures. This velocity ranged from 0.57 to 0.71 Uj.
Turbulence model form uncertainty quantification in OpenFOAM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Zengrong; Zeoli, Stéphanie; Bricteux, Laurent; Gorlé, Catherine; CFD; UQ Team; Fluids-Machines Team
2015-11-01
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations with a two-equation linear eddy-viscosity turbulence model remain a commonly used computational technique for engineering design and analysis of turbulent flows. The accuracy of the results is however limited by the inability of the turbulence model to correctly predict the complex flow features relevant to engineering applications. To enable supporting critical design decisions based on these imperfect model results it is essential to quantify the uncertainty related to the turbulence model form and define confidence levels for the results. The objective of this study is the implementation and validation of a previously developed approach for quantifying the uncertainty in RANS predictions of a turbulent flow in the open source code OpenFOAM. The methodology is based on two steps: 1. calculate a marker to determine where in the flow the model is plausibly inaccurate, and 2. perturb the modeled Reynolds stresses in the momentum equations. The perturbations are defined in terms of the decomposed Reynolds stress tensor, i.e., the tensor magnitude and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the normalized anisotropy tensor. Results for a square duct and the flow over a wavy wall will be presented for validation of the implementation.
CFD code evaluation for internal flow modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, T. J.
1990-01-01
Research on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code evaluation with emphasis on supercomputing in reacting flows is discussed. Advantages of unstructured grids, multigrids, adaptive methods, improved flow solvers, vector processing, parallel processing, and reduction of memory requirements are discussed. As examples, researchers include applications of supercomputing to reacting flow Navier-Stokes equations including shock waves and turbulence and combustion instability problems associated with solid and liquid propellants. Evaluation of codes developed by other organizations are not included. Instead, the basic criteria for accuracy and efficiency have been established, and some applications on rocket combustion have been made. Research toward an ultimate goal, the most accurate and efficient CFD code, is in progress and will continue for years to come.
Some Basic Laws of Isotropic Turbulent Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loitsianskii, L. G.
1945-01-01
An Investigation is made of the diffusion of artificially produced turbulence behind screens or other turbulence producers. The method is based on the author's concept of disturbance moment as a certain theoretically well-founded measure of turbulent disturbances.
Compliant Material Coating Response to a Turbulent Boundary Layer,
1982-05-01
this we apply the Ash code model Honte Carlo pres- sure simulations.13 We consider a flat plate, with zero pressure gradient immersed immediately...litude and circular frequency, respectively. Both sets of calculations were made for zero immersion depth ocean surface (Z • 0) motion. The äolid...when subjected to ran- dom turbulent loads. The non-linear frequency dependence of the shear modulus for one of the materials, " plastisol " (PVC) is
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2009-01-01
In current practice, it is often difficult to draw firm conclusions about turbulence model accuracy when performing multi-code CFD studies ostensibly using the same model because of inconsistencies in model formulation or implementation in different codes. This paper describes an effort to improve the consistency, verification, and validation of turbulence models within the aerospace community through a website database of verification and validation cases. Some of the variants of two widely-used turbulence models are described, and two independent computer codes (one structured and one unstructured) are used in conjunction with two specific versions of these models to demonstrate consistency with grid refinement for several representative problems. Naming conventions, implementation consistency, and thorough grid resolution studies are key factors necessary for success.
Turbulent and Mesoscale Flow in Stable Conditions
2007-11-02
turbulence. The upside-down regime is generally temporary as downward transport of turbulence energy leads to full coupling with the ground surface. This...advection of turbulent patches explain about 25% of the variance of the turbulence energy at the main tower. This advective influence does not include...near the surface because of either horizontal advection or downward propagation of the turbulent events. Evaluation of the turbulence energy budget
Turbulence modeling and experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shabbir, Aamir
1992-01-01
The best way of verifying turbulence is to do a direct comparison between the various terms and their models. The success of this approach depends upon the availability of the data for the exact correlations (both experimental and DNS). The other approach involves numerically solving the differential equations and then comparing the results with the data. The results of such a computation will depend upon the accuracy of all the modeled terms and constants. Because of this it is sometimes difficult to find the cause of a poor performance by a model. However, such a calculation is still meaningful in other ways as it shows how a complete Reynolds stress model performs. Thirteen homogeneous flows are numerically computed using the second order closure models. We concentrate only on those models which use a linear (or quasi-linear) model for the rapid term. This, therefore, includes the Launder, Reece and Rodi (LRR) model; the isotropization of production (IP) model; and the Speziale, Sarkar, and Gatski (SSG) model. Which of the three models performs better is examined along with what are their weaknesses, if any. The other work reported deal with the experimental balances of the second moment equations for a buoyant plume. Despite the tremendous amount of activity toward the second order closure modeling of turbulence, very little experimental information is available about the budgets of the second moment equations. Part of the problem stems from our inability to measure the pressure correlations. However, if everything else appearing in these equations is known from the experiment, pressure correlations can be obtained as the closing terms. This is the closest we can come to in obtaining these terms from experiment, and despite the measurement errors which might be present in such balances, the resulting information will be extremely useful for the turbulence modelers. The purpose of this part of the work was to provide such balances of the Reynolds stress and heat
High Reynolds Number Turbulence
2007-03-27
wall relation of McKeon et al. (2005), and the results for the smallest sandgrain roughness used by Nikuradse (1933). 3 57xI03 "eI : uhp - 2 8 1 6 8 x l 0...Reynolds Number Turbulent Pipe Flow," ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Washington, D.C., November 16-21, 2003... Engineering Sciences, Vol. 365 (1852) pp. 699-714, 2007. 14 ’Pipe flow roughness Allen, J.J., Shockling, M.A. and Smits, A.J. "Effects of a machined rough
Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew
2014-05-01
of scales. The method involving the multi-fractal dimension measurements is much more elaborated and seems to have a better theoretical justification in the sense that it is possible that different concentrations showing different fractal dimensions may be due to different levels of intermittency (and thus different spectra, which are not generally in equilibrium as dscribed by[9,10]. Using topological descriptors we can establish now a theoretical baseline pattern for the turbulence behaviour that is reflected in the different structures (volume fraction, velocity, vorticity, helicity) we can thus obtain a classification relating D3 and the integral of the different fractal dimensions D2 for different levels of scalar (volume fraction reaction intensity or temperature). [5,8,11] Vorticity evolution is more smooth and quite different than that of volume fraction or density and these seem also different for the RT and RM instability driven mixing showing a wider range of even higher mixing efficiencies 0- 0.66 Thanks to European Union project ERBIC15-CT96-0111 Multi-scale complex fluid flows and interfacial phenomena (PITN-GA-2008-214919). ERCOFTAC and GenCat. grant 2001SGR00221. [1] Mahjoub O.B., Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. (2000) Hyerarchy flux in nonhomogeneous flows in Turbulent diffusion in the environment Eds. Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. 249-260. . [2] Dalziel, S. B.,(1994) Perturbations and coherent flow in Rayleigh-Taylor instability: in 4th International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, ed. P. F. Linden, D. L. Youngs, & S. B. Dalziel; 32-41. [3] Linden, P. F., Redondo, J. M., and Youngs, D. (1994) Molecular mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor instability, J. Fluid Mech. 265, 97-124 [4] Vindel, J.M., Yague, C. and Redondo, J.M. Nuovo Cimento (2008) 31, [5]Redondo J.M. (1993) Fractal models of density interfaces. Wavelets, Fractals and Fourier transforms. (Eds.) M. Farge, J.C.R. Hunt and J.C. Vassilicos. 353-370. IMA number 43, Clarendon Press
The pros and cons of code validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bobbitt, Percy J.
1988-01-01
Computational and wind tunnel error sources are examined and quantified using specific calculations of experimental data, and a substantial comparison of theoretical and experimental results, or a code validation, is discussed. Wind tunnel error sources considered include wall interference, sting effects, Reynolds number effects, flow quality and transition, and instrumentation such as strain gage balances, electronically scanned pressure systems, hot film gages, hot wire anemometers, and laser velocimeters. Computational error sources include math model equation sets, the solution algorithm, artificial viscosity/dissipation, boundary conditions, the uniqueness of solutions, grid resolution, turbulence modeling, and Reynolds number effects. It is concluded that, although improvements in theory are being made more quickly than in experiments, wind tunnel research has the advantage of the more realistic transition process of a right turbulence model in a free-transition test.
Magnetized Turbulent Dynamo in Protogalaxies
Leonid Malyshkin; Russell M. Kulsrud
2002-01-28
The prevailing theory for the origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they have been amplified to their present values by the turbulent dynamo inductive action in the protogalactic and galactic medium. Up to now, in calculation of the turbulent dynamo, it has been customary to assume that there is no back reaction of the magnetic field on the turbulence, as long as the magnetic energy is less than the turbulent kinetic energy. This assumption leads to the kinematic dynamo theory. However, the applicability of this theory to protogalaxies is rather limited. The reason is that in protogalaxies the temperature is very high, and the viscosity is dominated by magnetized ions. As the magnetic field strength grows in time, the ion cyclotron time becomes shorter than the ion collision time, and the plasma becomes strongly magnetized. As a result, the ion viscosity becomes the Braginskii viscosity. Thus, in protogalaxies the back reaction sets in much earlier, at field strengths much lower than those which correspond to field-turbulence energy equipartition, and the turbulent dynamo becomes what we call the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In this paper we lay the theoretical groundwork for the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In particular, we predict that the magnetic energy growth rate in the magnetized dynamo theory is up to ten times larger than that in the kinematic dynamo theory. We also briefly discuss how the Braginskii viscosity can aid the development of the inverse cascade of magnetic energy after the energy equipartition is reached.
Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shabbir, A. (Compiler); Shih, T.-H. (Compiler); Povinelli, L. A. (Compiler)
1994-01-01
The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the current status and future development of turbulence modeling in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace propulsion systems. Various turbulence models have been developed and applied to different turbulent flows over the past several decades and it is becoming more and more urgent to assess their performance in various complex situations. In order to help users in selecting and implementing appropriate models in their engineering calculations, it is important to identify the capabilities as well as the deficiencies of these models. This also benefits turbulence modelers by permitting them to further improve upon the existing models. This workshop was designed for exchanging ideas and enhancing collaboration between different groups in the Lewis community who are using turbulence models in propulsion related CFD. In this respect this workshop will help the Lewis goal of excelling in propulsion related research. This meeting had seven sessions for presentations and one panel discussion over a period of two days. Each presentation session was assigned to one or two branches (or groups) to present their turbulence related research work. Each group was asked to address at least the following points: current status of turbulence model applications and developments in the research; progress and existing problems; and requests about turbulence modeling. The panel discussion session was designed for organizing committee members to answer management and technical questions from the audience and to make concluding remarks.
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.
PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion
2008-11-30
extend methodologies for the modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion. Probability density function (PDF) calculations were performed of piloted...were developed to implement the combined methodology of large-eddy simulation (LES) and filtered density function (FDF). Second-order schemes were...was to advance and extend methodologies for the modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion. Probability density function (PDF) calculations were
Recent Results of Turbulence Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prandtl, L
1933-01-01
The first sections of this report deal with two prominent questions, namely the origin of turbulence and the characteristics of turbulent currents. In the third section conclusions are drawn for the flow along a rough wall, whereby an important relation for the velocity distribution is revealed. The principles are also applied to straight rough and smooth tubes.
Airborne Turbulence Warning System Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bogue, Rod
2003-01-01
This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a system by which aircraft pilots will be warned of turbulence. This networked system of in situ sensors will be mounted on various aircraft all of which are linked through a ground based parabolic antenna. As its end result, this system will attempt to reduce the number of accidents arising from turbulence.
Scaling in Supersonic Isothermal Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kritsuk, A. G.; Wagner, R.; Norman, M. L.
2015-10-01
An exact relation for third-order structure functions in isothermal compressible turbulence (Galtier & Banerjee 2011) is verified using numerical data from a simulation at Mach 6. The analysis supports a Kolmogorov-like cascade phenomenology and yields a reduced version of the relation for high Mach number turbulence.
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and the Geodynamo
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
2016-01-01
Recent research results concerning forced, dissipative, rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence will be discussed. In particular, we present new results from long-time Fourier method (periodic box) simulations in which forcing contains varying amounts of magnetic and kinetic helicity. Numerical results indicate that if MHD turbulence is forced so as to produce a state of relatively constant energy, then the largest-scale components are dominant and quasistationary, and in fact, have an effective dipole moment vector that aligns closely with the rotation axis. The relationship of this work to established results in ideal MHD turbulence, as well as to models of MHD turbulence in a spherical shell will also be presented. These results appear to be very pertinent to understanding the Geodynamo and the origin of its dominant dipole component. Our conclusion is that MHD turbulence, per se, may well contain the origin of the Earth's dipole magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Jinping; Ji, Xiaoling
2014-05-01
By using the four-dimensional (4D) computer code of the time-dependent propagation of laser beams through atmospheric turbulence, the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the energy focusability of Gaussian beams with spherical aberration is studied in detail, where the mean-squared beam width, the power in the bucket (PIB), the β parameter and the energy Strehl ratio are taken as the characteristic parameters. It is shown that turbulence results in beam spreading, and the effect of spherical aberration on the beam spreading decreases due to turbulence. Gaussian beams with negative spherical aberration are more affected by turbulence than those with positive spherical aberration. For the negative spherical aberration case, the focus position moves to the source plane due to turbulence. It is mentioned that the influence of turbulence on the energy focusability defined by a certain energy (i.e. PIB = 63%) is very heavy when the negative spherical aberration is very heavy. On the other hand, the influence of turbulence on the energy focusability defined by the energy within a given bucket radius (i.e. mean-squared beam width) is heaviest when a certain negative spherical aberration coefficient is adopted.
Power-law wrinkling turbulence-flame interaction model for astrophysical flames
Jackson, Aaron P.; Townsley, Dean M.; Calder, Alan C.
2014-04-01
We extend a model for turbulence-flame interactions (TFI) to consider astrophysical flames with a particular focus on combustion in Type Ia supernovae. The inertial range of the turbulent cascade is nearly always under-resolved in simulations of astrophysical flows, requiring the use of a model in order to quantify the effects of subgrid-scale wrinkling of the flame surface. We provide implementation details to extend a well-tested TFI model to low-Prandtl number flames for use in the compressible hydrodynamics code FLASH. A local, instantaneous measure of the turbulent velocity is calibrated for FLASH and verification tests are performed. Particular care is taken to consider the relation between the subgrid rms turbulent velocity and the turbulent flame speed, especially for high-intensity turbulence where the turbulent flame speed is not expected to scale with the turbulent velocity. Finally, we explore the impact of different TFI models in full-star, three-dimensional simulations of Type Ia supernovae.
Pencil: Finite-difference Code for Compressible Hydrodynamic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandenburg, Axel; Dobler, Wolfgang
2010-10-01
The Pencil code is a high-order finite-difference code for compressible hydrodynamic flows with magnetic fields. It is highly modular and can easily be adapted to different types of problems. The code runs efficiently under MPI on massively parallel shared- or distributed-memory computers, like e.g. large Beowulf clusters. The Pencil code is primarily designed to deal with weakly compressible turbulent flows. To achieve good parallelization, explicit (as opposed to compact) finite differences are used. Typical scientific targets include driven MHD turbulence in a periodic box, convection in a slab with non-periodic upper and lower boundaries, a convective star embedded in a fully nonperiodic box, accretion disc turbulence in the shearing sheet approximation, self-gravity, non-local radiation transfer, dust particle evolution with feedback on the gas, etc. A range of artificial viscosity and diffusion schemes can be invoked to deal with supersonic flows. For direct simulations regular viscosity and diffusion is being used. The code is written in well-commented Fortran90.
Theory of hydromagnetic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, D.
1983-01-01
The present state of MHD turbulence theory as a possible solar wind research tool is surveyed. The theory is statistical, and does not make statements about individual events. The ensembles considered typically have individual realizations which differ qualitatively, unlike equilibrium statistical mechanics. Most of the theory deals with highly symmetric situations; most of these symmetries have yet to be tested in the solar wind. The applicability of MHD itself to solar wind parameters is highly questionable; yet it has no competitors, as a potentially comprehensive dynamical description. The purpose of solar wind research require sharper articulation. If they are to understand radial turbulent plasma flows from spheres, laboratory experiments and numerical solution of equations of motion may be cheap alternative to spacecraft. If "real life" information is demanded, multiple spacecraft with variable separation may be necessary to go further. The principal emphasis in the theory so far has been on spectral behavior for spatial covariances in wave number space. There is no respectable theory of these for highly anisotropic situations. A rather slow development of theory acts as a brake on justifiable measurement, at this point.
Applications of continuous and orthogonal wavelet transforms to MHD and plasma turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farge, Marie; Schneider, Kai
2016-10-01
Wavelet analysis and compression tools are presented and different applications to study MHD and plasma turbulence are illustrated. We use the continuous and the orthogonal wavelet transform to develop several statistical diagnostics based on the wavelet coefficients. We show how to extract coherent structures out of fully developed turbulent flows using wavelet-based denoising and describe multiscale numerical simulation schemes using wavelets. Several examples for analyzing, compressing and computing one, two and three dimensional turbulent MHD or plasma flows are presented. Details can be found in M. Farge and K. Schneider. Wavelet transforms and their applications to MHD and plasma turbulence: A review. Support by the French Research Federation for Fusion Studies within the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) is thankfully acknowledged.
ON THE ANISOTROPIC NATURE OF MRI-DRIVEN TURBULENCE IN ASTROPHYSICAL DISKS
Murphy, Gareth C.; Pessah, Martin E. E-mail: mpessah@nbi.dk
2015-04-01
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is thought to play an important role in enabling accretion in sufficiently ionized astrophysical disks. The rate at which MRI-driven turbulence transports angular momentum is intimately related to both the strength of the amplitudes of the fluctuations on various scales and the degree of anisotropy of the underlying turbulence. This has motivated several studies to characterize the distribution of turbulent power in spectral space. In this paper we investigate the anisotropic nature of MRI-driven turbulence using a pseudo-spectral code and introduce novel ways for providing a robust characterization of the underlying turbulence. We study the growth of the MRI and the subsequent transition to turbulence via parasitic instabilities, identifying their potential signature in the late linear stage. We show that the general flow properties vary in a quasi-periodic way on timescales comparable to ∼10 inverse angular frequencies, motivating the temporal analysis of its anisotropy. We introduce a 3D tensor invariant analysis to quantify and classify the evolution of the anisotropy of the turbulent flow. This analysis shows a continuous high level of anisotropy, with brief sporadic transitions toward two- and three-component isotropic turbulent flow. This temporal-dependent anisotropy renders standard shell averaging especially when used simultaneously with long temporal averages, inadequate for characterizing MRI-driven turbulence. We propose an alternative way to extract spectral information from the turbulent magnetized flow, whose anisotropic character depends strongly on time. This consists of stacking 1D Fourier spectra along three orthogonal directions that exhibit maximum anisotropy in Fourier space. The resulting averaged spectra show that the power along each of the three independent directions differs by several orders of magnitude over most scales, except the largest ones. Our results suggest that a first
Accumulate repeat accumulate codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung
2004-01-01
In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.
A Three-Dimensional Turbulent Heat Transfer Analysis for Advanced Tubular Rocket Thrust Chambers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kacynski, Kenneth J.
1990-01-01
Heat transfer was analyzed in the throat region of a plug and spool rocket engine for both smooth and corrugated walls. A three-dimensional, Navier-Strokes code was used for the analysis. The turbulence model in the code was modified to handle turbulence suppression in the crevice region of the corrugated wall. Circumferential variations in the wall heat transfer was predicted for the corrugated wall. The overall heat transfer at the throat of the corrugated wall was 34 percent higher than it was for the smooth wall for comparable rocket flow conditions.
Implementation of a two-equation k-omega turbulence model in NPARC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoder, Dennis A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Orkwis, Paul D.
1996-01-01
The implementation of a two-equation k-omega turbulence model into the NPARC flow solver is described. Motivation for the selection of this model is given, major code modifications are outlined, new imputs to the code are described, and results are presented for several validation cases: an incompressible flow over a smooth flat plate, a subsonic diffuser flow, and a shock-induced separated flow. Comparison of results with the k-epsilon model indicate that the k-omega model predicts simple flows equally well whereas, for adverse pressure gradient flows, the k-omega model outperforms the other turbulence models in NPARC.
Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Michael W.
1997-01-01
In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.
Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu
1996-01-01
In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.
Aerosol kinetic code "AERFORM": Model, validation and simulation results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gainullin, K. G.; Golubev, A. I.; Petrov, A. M.; Piskunov, V. N.
2016-06-01
The aerosol kinetic code "AERFORM" is modified to simulate droplet and ice particle formation in mixed clouds. The splitting method is used to calculate condensation and coagulation simultaneously. The method is calibrated with analytic solutions of kinetic equations. Condensation kinetic model is based on cloud particle growth equation, mass and heat balance equations. The coagulation kinetic model includes Brownian, turbulent and precipitation effects. The real values are used for condensation and coagulation growth of water droplets and ice particles. The model and the simulation results for two full-scale cloud experiments are presented. The simulation model and code may be used autonomously or as an element of another code.
Naval weapons center plume radar frequency interference code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearce, B. E.; McCullough, R. W.
1982-10-01
A description of the Naval Weapons Center Plume Radar Frequency Interference Code (PRFIC) is given. The methods used to predict the attenuation and phase shifts contributed by the mean plume flowfield, and the scattering and Doppler shift due to turbulent fluctuations, are defined. Examples of the predictions of the plume RF interference using the flowfield predictions of a modified JANNAF Standard Plume Flowfield code are given. The capabilities and limitations of PRFIC are listed and improvements are proposed. A code user's manual and software description are included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
1993-01-01
New turbulence modeling options recently implemented for the 3D version of Proteus, a Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes code, are described. The implemented turbulence models include: the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model, the Baldwin-Barth one-equation model, the Chien k-epsilon model, and the Launder-Sharma k-epsilon model. Features of this turbulence modeling package include: well documented and easy to use turbulence modeling options, uniform integration of turbulence models from different classes, automatic initialization of turbulence variables for calculations using one- or two-equation turbulence models, multiple solid boundaries treatment, and fully vectorized L-U solver for one- and two-equation models. Good agreements are obtained between the computational results and experimental data. Sensitivity of the compressible turbulent solutions with the method of y(+) computation, the turbulent length scale correction, and some compressibility corrections are examined in detail. Test cases show that the highly optimized one- and two-equation turbulence models can be used in routine 3D Navier-Stokes computations with no significant increase in CPU time as compared with the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model.
Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soulopoulos, N.; Kerl, J.; Sponfeldner, T.; Beyrau, F.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Vassilicos, J. C.
2013-12-01
A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent flame stabilized by a rod. The study compares the flame behaviour with a fractal grid to the behaviour when a standard square mesh grid with the same effective mesh size and solidity as the fractal grid is used. The isothermal gas flow turbulence characteristics, including mean flow velocity and rms of velocity fluctuations and Taylor length, were evaluated from hot-wire measurements. The behaviour of the flames was assessed with direct chemiluminescence emission from the flame and high-speed OH-laser-induced fluorescence. The characteristics of the two flames are considered in terms of turbulent flame thickness, local flame curvature and turbulent flame speed. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry and at the same distance downstream of the location of the grid, fractal-grid-generated turbulence leads to a more turbulent flame with enhanced burning rate and increased flame surface area.
Turbulent Fluid Motion 6: Turbulence, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Deterministic Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, Robert G.
1996-01-01
Several turbulent and nonturbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are obtained. The unaveraged equations are used numerically in conjunction with tools and concepts from nonlinear dynamics, including time series, phase portraits, Poincare sections, Liapunov exponents, power spectra, and strange attractors. Initially neighboring solutions for a low-Reynolds-number fully developed turbulence are compared. The turbulence is sustained by a nonrandom time-independent external force. The solutions, on the average, separate exponentially with time, having a positive Liapunov exponent. Thus, the turbulence is characterized as chaotic. In a search for solutions which contrast with the turbulent ones, the Reynolds number (or strength of the forcing) is reduced. Several qualitatively different flows are noted. These are, respectively, fully chaotic, complex periodic, weakly chaotic, simple periodic, and fixed-point. Of these, we classify only the fully chaotic flows as turbulent. Those flows have both a positive Liapunov exponent and Poincare sections without pattern. By contrast, the weakly chaotic flows, although having positive Liapunov exponents, have some pattern in their Poincare sections. The fixed-point and periodic flows are nonturbulent, since turbulence, as generally understood, is both time-dependent and aperiodic.
A turbulent inflow model based on velocity modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huyer, Stephen A.; Beal, David
2007-11-01
This article presents a novel turbulent inflow model based on modulation of the velocity field for use with time-domain propulsor calculations. Given an experimental mean and rms turbulent inflow, a model can be constructed by modulating the velocity field over a range of frequencies. Assuming the turbulence is homogeneous, the inflow can be constructed as a Fourier series where the frequencies can also be modulated to smooth the broadband output. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the model, experimental inflow velocity data were acquired for an upstream stator, downstream rotor configuration mounted on an undersea vehicle afterbody. Two main sources of turbulence originated from the vorticity shed from the stator wakes and the boundary layer vorticity produced on the hull body. Three-dimensional, unsteady velocity data were acquired using hot-wire anemometry and reduced to provide mean and rms velocity values. Time-series data were processed to provide velocity power spectra used to calibrate the model. Simulations were performed using a modified version of the propulsor unsteady flow code capable of computing fully turbulent inflows. This solver models the propulsor blade as a vortex lattice and sheds the vorticity into the wake to solve the unsteady potential flow. The no-flux boundary conditions are satisfied at the lattice control points and the resulting unsteady circulation is a function of the instantaneous inflow velocity field over the blade. Vorticity is shed into the wake to account for the full time history of the inflow velocity field. To demonstrate the full effectiveness of the model, computed surface pressure data were exported to a code to compute the far-field radiated noise (both tonal and broadband). Simulated data were compared with experimentally obtained noise data with favorable results. Applications of this methodology in the incompressible flow domain include broadband analysis of propulsor-radiated noise on undersea vehicles and
Study of edge turbulence in dimensionally similar laboratory plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stroth, Ulrich
2003-10-01
In recent years, the numerical simulation of turbulence has made considerable progress. Predictions are made for large plasma volumes taking into account realistic magnetic geometries. Because of diagnostic limitations, in fusion plasmas the means of experimental testing of the models are rather limited. Toroidal low-temperature plasmas offer the possibility for detailed comparisons between experiment and simulation. Due to the reduced plasma parameters, the relevant quantities can be measured in the entire plasma. At the same time, the relevant non-dimensional parameters can be comparable to those in the edge of fusion plasmas. This presentation reports on results from the torsatron TJ-K [1,2] operated with a low-temperature plasma. The data are compared with simulations using the drift-Alfven-wave code DALF3 [3]. Langmuir probe arrays with 64 tips are used to measure the spatial structure of the turbulence. The same analyses techniques are applied to experimental and numerical data. The measured properties of spectra and probability density functions are reproduced by the code. Although the plasma in experiment and simulation does not exhibit critical pressure gradients, the radial transport fluctuations are strongly intermittent in both cases. Using Hydrogen, Helium and Argon as working gases, the scale parameter ρs could be varied by more than a factor of ten. As predicted by theory, the size of the turbulent eddies increases with ρ_s. The measured cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations are small, indicating the importance of the drift-wave dynamics for the turbulence in toroidal plasmas. The wave number spectra decay with an exponent of -3 as one would expect for the enstrophy cascade in 2D turbulence. [1] N. Krause et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 73, 3474 (2002) [2] C. Lechte et al., New J. of Physics 4, 34 (2002) [3] B. Scott, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 39, 1635 (1997)
Global simulations of plasma turbulence in laboratory plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Jolliet, S.; Loizu, J.; Mosetto, A.; Rogers, B. N.; Theiler, C.
2012-04-01
The Global Braginskii Solver (GBS) code has been developed in the last few years to simulate plasma turbulence in laboratory plasmas [1]. By solving the drift-reduced Braginkii equation in magnetic configurations of increasing complexity, from linear devices to the Simple Magnetized Toroidal (SMT) configuration, GBS performs non-linear self-consistent global three-dimensional simulations of the plasma dynamics, as the result of the interplay among the plasma source, the turbulent transport, and the plasma losses at the vessel. This gradual approach has allowed gaining a deep understanding of the turbulence dynamics, by identifying the instabilities responsible for driving plasma turbulence and to estimate the turbulence saturation amplitude. In particular, simulation results have pointed out the need of global simulations to correctly represent the dynamics of laboratory plasmas, as well as the importance of not separating fluctuations and equilibrium quantities. A code validation development project has been conducted side by side with the GBS development [2]. Such validation project has lead to the establishment of a rigorous methodology to carry out experiment-simulation comparison, and has allowed quantifying precisely the level of agreement between the GBS results and the experimental data from the TORPEX experiment at CRPP. [1] P. Ricci, B.N. Rogers, S. Brunner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 225002 (2008); P. Ricci and B. N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 145001 (2010); B. N. Rogers and P. Ricci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 225002 (2010); B. Li et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 056406 (2011). [2] P. Ricci et al, Phys. Plasmas 16, 055703 (2009); P. Ricci et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032109 (2011).
Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio
2007-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.
Turbulence modeling for non-equilibrium flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, P. A.
1995-01-01
The work performed during this year has involved further assessment and extension of the k-epsilon-v(exp 2) model, and initiation of work on scalar transport. The latter is introduced by the contribution of Y. Shabany to this volume. Flexible, computationally tractable models are needed for engineering CFD. As computational technology has progressed, the ability and need to use elaborate turbulence closure models has increased. The objective of our work is to explore and develop new analytical frameworks that might extend the applicability of the modeling techniques. In past years the development of a method for near-wall modeling was described. The method has been implemented into a CFD code and its viability has been demonstrated by various test cases. Further tests are reported herein. Non-equilibrium near-wall models are needed for some heat transfer applications. Scalar transport seems generally to be more sensitive to non-equilibrium effects than is momentum transport. For some applications turbulence anisotropy plays a role and an estimate of the full Reynolds stress tensor is needed. We have begun work on scalar transport per se, but in this brief I will only report on an extension of the k-epsilon-v(exp 2) model to predict the Reynolds stress tensor.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rahn, Erwin
1984-01-01
Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)
Manually operated coded switch
Barnette, Jon H.
1978-01-01
The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.
Transonic Turbulent Flow Predictions With Two-Equation Turbulence Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1996-01-01
Solutions of the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two well-documented transonic turbulent flows are compared in detail with existing experimental data. While the boundary layer in the first case remains attached, a region of extensive flow separation has been observed in the second case. Two recently developed k-epsilon, two-equation, eddy-viscosity models are used to model the turbulence field. These models satisfy the realizability constraints of the Reynolds stresses. Comparisons with the measurements are made for the wall pressure distribution, the mean streamwise velocity profiles, and turbulent quantities. Reasonably good agreement is obtained with the experimental data.
Directional change of particles in dissipative drift-wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadoch, Benjamin; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Schneider, Kai
2016-10-01
We analyze the statistical properties of Lagrangian particle transport in dissipative drift-wave turbulence modeled by the Hasegawa-Wakatani system. The angle between subsequent particle displacement increments is evaluated as a function of the timelag and thus multi-scale geometric statistics can be performed. The evolution of the mean angle with the time lag is studied and the probability density function of the directional change are analyzed for the different flow regimes. By varying the adiabaticity parameter the flow regime can be modified from the hydrodynamic limit to a geostrophic limit, including the quasi adiabatic regime which has some relevance for edge turbulence of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. Support by the French Research Federation for Fusion Studies within the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) is thankfully acknowledged.
Algebraic Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norris, Andrew T.
2012-01-01
The results of a series of Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) and Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) simulations are compared to each other over a wide range of operating conditions. It is found that the PaSR results can be simulated by a PSR solution with just an adjusted chemical reaction rate. A simple expression has been developed that gives the required change in reaction rate for a PSR solution to simulate the PaSR results. This expression is the basis of a simple turbulence-chemistry interaction model. The interaction model that has been developed is intended for use with simple one-step global reaction mechanisms and for steady-state flow simulations. Due to the simplicity of the model there is very little additional computational cost in adding it to existing CFD codes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark
2012-01-01
A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)
2008-01-01
An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.
Turbulence, Spontaneous Stochasticity and Climate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyink, Gregory
Turbulence is well-recognized as important in the physics of climate. Turbulent mixing plays a crucial role in the global ocean circulation. Turbulence also provides a natural source of variability, which bedevils our ability to predict climate. I shall review here a recently discovered turbulence phenomenon, called ``spontaneous stochasticity'', which makes classical dynamical systems as intrinsically random as quantum mechanics. Turbulent dissipation and mixing of scalars (passive or active) is now understood to require Lagrangian spontaneous stochasticity, which can be expressed by an exact ``fluctuation-dissipation relation'' for scalar turbulence (joint work with Theo Drivas). Path-integral methods such as developed for quantum mechanics become necessary to the description. There can also be Eulerian spontaneous stochasticity of the flow fields themselves, which is intimately related to the work of Kraichnan and Leith on unpredictability of turbulent flows. This leads to problems similar to those encountered in quantum field theory. To quantify uncertainty in forecasts (or hindcasts), we can borrow from quantum field-theory the concept of ``effective actions'', which characterize climate averages by a variational principle and variances by functional derivatives. I discuss some work with Tom Haine (JHU) and Santha Akella (NASA-Goddard) to make this a practical predictive tool. More ambitious application of the effective action is possible using Rayleigh-Ritz schemes.
Quantitative vortex models of turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullin, D. I.
2001-11-01
This presentation will review attempts to develop models of turbulence, based on compact vortex elements, that can be used both to obtain quantitative estimates of various statistical properties of turbulent fine scales and also to formulate subgrid-transport models for large-eddy simulation (LES). Attention will be focused on a class of stretched-vortex models. Following a brief review of prior work, recent studies of vortex-based modeling of the small-scale behavior of a passive scalar will be discussed. The large-wavenumber spectrum of a passive scalar undergoing mixing by the velocity field of a stretched-spiral vortex will be shown to consist of the sum of two classical power laws, a k-1 Batchelor spectrum for wavenumbers up to the inverse Batchelor scale, and a k-5/3 Obukov-Corrsin spectrum for wavenumbers less than the inverse Kolmogorov scale (joint work with T.S. Lundgren). We will then focus on the use of stretched vortices as the basic subgrid structure in subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling for LES of turbulent flows. An SGS stress model and a vortex-based scalar-flux model for the LES of flows with turbulent mixing will be outlined. Application of these models to the LES of decaying turbulence, channel flow, the mixing of a passive scalar by homogeneous turbulence in the presence of a mean scalar gradient, and to the LES of compressible turbulence will be described.
Turbulence modeling for separated flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, Paul A.
1994-01-01
Two projects are described in this report. The first involves assessing turbulence models in separated flow. The second addresses the anomalous behavior of certain turbulence models in stagnation point flow. The primary motivation for developing turbulent transport models is to provide tools for computing non-equilibrium, or complex, turbulent flows. Simple flows can be analyzed using data correlations or algebraic eddy viscosities, but in more complicated flows such as a massively separated boundary layer, a more elaborate level of modeling is required. It is widely believed that at least a two-equation transport model is required in such cases. The transport equations determine the evolution of suitable velocity and time-scales of the turbulence. The present study included assessment of second-moment closures in several separated flows, including sharp edge separation; smooth wall, pressure driven separation; and unsteady vortex shedding. Flows with mean swirl are of interest for their role in enhancing mixing both by turbulent and mean motion. The swirl can have a stabilizing effect on the turbulence. An axi-symmetric extension to the INS-2D computer program was written adding the capability of computing swirling flow. High swirl can produce vortex breakdown on the centerline of the jet and it occurs in various combustors.
Transport Barriers and Turbulent Equipartition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volker, Naulin; Jonas, Nycander; Juul, Rasmussen Jens
2000-10-01
Turbulent equipartition and the formation and dynamics of transport barriers in the form of zonal flows are investigated. We consider pressure gradient driven flute modes in an inhomogeneous magnetic field with curvature. Numerical solutions of the model equations on a bounded domain with sources and sinks show that the turbulent fluctuations introduce an equipartition of the relevant Lagrangian invariants by effective mixing. The time averaged equilibrium density and temperature approach the profiles n ~ B and T ~ B^2/3 predicted by turbulent equipartition. However, below a critical aspect ration alpha = L_y/Lx = 3.8 large scale poloidal flows are found to develop. These so-called zonal flows quench the turbulence locally and form barriers for the turbulence flux. These barriers move on the timescale of diffusion. As the turbulence is quenched the Reynoldsstress driving the flows ceases. The transport barrier is then temporarily destroyed, triggering a large transport event. The formation and dynamics of the transport barrier and the related intermittent turbulent flux are investigated.
Numerical methods for turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, James C., Jr.
1988-01-01
It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.
Direct simulation of compressible wall-bounded turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coleman, Gary N.
1993-01-01
When analyzing many turbulent flows, the effects of compressibility can be neglected. Even some relatively high-speed flows, such as boundary layers generated by a supersonic aircraft, produce turbulent statistics that are similar to those found for the incompressible case. There are other situations, however, in which the non-zero divergence of the turbulence leads to behavior that is fundamentally different from that found at constant density. Examples include flows created by internal combustion engines, hypersonic flight, and supersonic combustion. It is with instances such as these that this project is concerned. In particular, we are interested in the effects of compressibility on turbulence near a smooth solid constant temperature surface; our primary objective is an increased physical understanding that can be used to improve turbulence models of wall-bounded compressible flows. With this in mind, we have begun a direct numerical simulation (DNS) study of turbulence in a plane channel. Because all of the relevant spatial and temporal scales are to be resolved, the simulations require no subgrid scale parameterization. The DNS code developed by Buell to study compressible plane Couette flow was modified to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in the plane channel. The channel was chosen over the Couette flow for two reasons: (1) to avoid using the very large streamwise domains needed to adequately capture the large Couette vortical structures; and (2) to make use of previous experience by considering the compressible version of a well established case and isolate finite Mach number effects by comparing to the incompressible channel.
Navier-Stokes Simulation of Homogeneous Turbulence on the CYBER 205
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, C. T.; Ferziger, J. H.; Chapman, D. R.; Rogallo, R. S.
1984-01-01
A computer code which solves the Navier-Stokes equations for three dimensional, time-dependent, homogenous turbulence has been written for the CYBER 205. The code has options for both 64-bit and 32-bit arithmetic. With 32-bit computation, mesh sizes up to 64 (3) are contained within core of a 2 million 64-bit word memory. Computer speed timing runs were made for various vector lengths up to 6144. With this code, speeds a little over 100 Mflops have been achieved on a 2-pipe CYBER 205. Several problems encountered in the coding are discussed.
Sudden Viscous Dissipation of Compressing Turbulence
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2016-03-11
Here we report compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.
Structure of wind-shear turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trevino, G.; Laituri, T. R.
1989-01-01
The statistical characteristics of wind shear turbulence are modelled. Isotropic turbulence serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in wind shear. The question of turbulence scales in wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density.
Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.
Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S
2015-08-01
The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.
Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence.
Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M; Gula, Jonathan
2015-04-21
Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1-100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air-sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1-10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below.
Bumblebee Flight in Heavy Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engels, T.; Kolomenskiy, D.; Schneider, K.; Lehmann, F.-O.; Sesterhenn, J.
2016-01-01
High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments, or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.
Turbulent reconnection and its implications
Lazarian, A.; Eyink, G.; Vishniac, E.; Kowal, G.
2015-01-01
Magnetic reconnection is a process of magnetic field topology change, which is one of the most fundamental processes happening in magnetized plasmas. In most astrophysical environments, the Reynolds numbers corresponding to plasma flows are large and therefore the transition to turbulence is inevitable. This turbulence, which can be pre-existing or driven by magnetic reconnection itself, must be taken into account for any theory of magnetic reconnection that attempts to describe the process in the aforementioned environments. This necessity is obvious as three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations show the transition to the turbulence state of initially laminar reconnecting magnetic fields. We discuss ideas of how turbulence can modify reconnection with the focus on the Lazarian & Vishniac (Lazarian & Vishniac 1999 Astrophys. J. 517, 700–718 ()) reconnection model. We present numerical evidence supporting the model and demonstrate that it is closely connected to the experimentally proven concept of Richardson dispersion/diffusion as well as to more recent advances in understanding of the Lagrangian dynamics of magnetized fluids. We point out that the generalized Ohm's law that accounts for turbulent motion predicts the subdominance of the microphysical plasma effects for reconnection for realistically turbulent media. We show that one of the most dramatic consequences of turbulence is the violation of the generally accepted notion of magnetic flux freezing. This notion is a cornerstone of most theories dealing with magnetized plasmas, and therefore its change induces fundamental shifts in accepted paradigms, for instance, turbulent reconnection entails reconnection diffusion process that is essential for understanding star formation. We argue that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the process of tearing reconnection should transfer to turbulent reconnection. We discuss flares that are predicted by turbulent reconnection and relate this process to
Outer scale of atmospheric turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukin, Vladimir P.
2005-10-01
In the early 70's, the scientists in Italy (A.Consortini, M.Bertolotti, L.Ronchi), USA (R.Buser, Ochs, S.Clifford) and USSR (V.Pokasov, V.Lukin) almost simultaneously discovered the phenomenon of deviation from the power law and the effect of saturation for the structure phase function. During a period of 35 years we have performed successively the investigations of the effect of low-frequency spectral range of atmospheric turbulence on the optical characteristics. The influence of the turbulence models as well as a outer scale of turbulence on the characteristics of telescopes and systems of laser beam formations has been determined too.
Calculation of Turbulent Expansion Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tollmien, Walter
1945-01-01
On the basis of certain formulas recently established by L. Prandtl for the turbulent interchange of momentum in stationary flows, various cases of "free turbulence" - that is, of flows without boundary walls - are treated in the present report. Prandtl puts the apparent shearing stress introduced by the turbulent momentum interchange. This present report deals first with the mixing of an air stream of uniform velocity with the adjacent still air, than with the expansion or diffusion of an air jet in the surrounding air space.
Turbulent reconnection and its implications.
Lazarian, A; Eyink, G; Vishniac, E; Kowal, G
2015-05-13
Magnetic reconnection is a process of magnetic field topology change, which is one of the most fundamental processes happening in magnetized plasmas. In most astrophysical environments, the Reynolds numbers corresponding to plasma flows are large and therefore the transition to turbulence is inevitable. This turbulence, which can be pre-existing or driven by magnetic reconnection itself, must be taken into account for any theory of magnetic reconnection that attempts to describe the process in the aforementioned environments. This necessity is obvious as three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations show the transition to the turbulence state of initially laminar reconnecting magnetic fields. We discuss ideas of how turbulence can modify reconnection with the focus on the Lazarian & Vishniac (Lazarian & Vishniac 1999 Astrophys. J. 517, 700-718 (doi:10.1086/307233)) reconnection model. We present numerical evidence supporting the model and demonstrate that it is closely connected to the experimentally proven concept of Richardson dispersion/diffusion as well as to more recent advances in understanding of the Lagrangian dynamics of magnetized fluids. We point out that the generalized Ohm's law that accounts for turbulent motion predicts the subdominance of the microphysical plasma effects for reconnection for realistically turbulent media. We show that one of the most dramatic consequences of turbulence is the violation of the generally accepted notion of magnetic flux freezing. This notion is a cornerstone of most theories dealing with magnetized plasmas, and therefore its change induces fundamental shifts in accepted paradigms, for instance, turbulent reconnection entails reconnection diffusion process that is essential for understanding star formation. We argue that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the process of tearing reconnection should transfer to turbulent reconnection. We discuss flares that are predicted by turbulent reconnection and relate
Turbulent Mixing of Multiphase Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Y.-N.; Ferziger, J.; Ham, F. E.; Herrmann, M.
2003-01-01
Thus we conduct numerical simulations of multiphase fluids stirred by two-dimensional turbulence to assess the possibility of self-similar drop size distribution in turbulence. In our turbulence simulations, we also explore the non-diffusive limit, where molecular mobility for the interface is vanishing. Special care is needed to transport the non-diffusive interface. Numerically, we use the particle level set method to evolve the interface. Instead of using the usual methods to calculate the surface tension force from the level set function, we reconstruct the interface based on phase- field modeling, and calculate the continuum surface tension forcing from the reconstructed interface.
Lewis inverse design code (LINDES): Users manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanz, Jose M.
1987-01-01
The method of complex characteristics and hodograph transformation for the design of shockless airfoils was introduced by Bauer, Garabedian, and Korn and has been extended by the author to design subcritical and supercritical cascades with high solidities and large inlet angles. This new capability was achieved by introducing a new conformal mapping of the hodograph domain onto an ellipse and expanding the solution in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. A new computer code, the NASA Lewis inverse design code, was developed based on this idea. This new design code is an efficient method for the design of airfoils in cascade. In particular, the design of subcritical cascades of airfoils is a very fast, robust, and versatile process. The inverse design code can be made to interact with a turbulent boundary layer calculation to obtain airfoils with no separated flows at the design condition. This report is intended to serve as a users manual for this design code. Material previously reported by the author is included here for completeness and quick access to the user. The manual contains a description of the method followed by a discussion of the design procedure and examples. The input parameters necessary to run the code are then described and their default values given. Output listings corresponding to six different blade shapes designed with the code are given, as well as the necessary input data to reproduce the computer runs. The examples have been chosen to show that a wide range of applications can be covered with the code, ranging from supercritical propeller sections to wind tunnel turning vanes that can operate with a large inlet flow angle range.
Compound cooling flow turbulator for turbine component
Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J
2014-11-25
Multi-scale turbulation features, including first turbulators (46, 48) on a cooling surface (44), and smaller turbulators (52, 54, 58, 62) on the first turbulators. The first turbulators may be formed between larger turbulators (50). The first turbulators may be alternating ridges (46) and valleys (48). The smaller turbulators may be concave surface features such as dimples (62) and grooves (54), and/or convex surface features such as bumps (58) and smaller ridges (52). An embodiment with convex turbulators (52, 58) in the valleys (48) and concave turbulators (54, 62) on the ridges (46) increases the cooling surface area, reduces boundary layer separation, avoids coolant shadowing and stagnation, and reduces component mass.
[Biobanks European infrastructure].
Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej
2016-01-01
Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.
Implementation and Validation of the BHR Turbulence Model in the FLAG Hydrocode
Denissen, Nicholas A.; Fung, Jimmy; Reisner, Jon M.; Andrews, Malcolm J.
2012-08-29
The BHR-2 turbulence model, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for variable density and compressible flows, is implemented in an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrocode, FLAG. The BHR-2 formulation is discussed, with emphasis on its connection to multi-component flow formulations that underlie FLAG's treatment of multi-species flow. One-dimensional and two-dimensional validation tests are performed and compared to experiment and Eulerian simulations. Turbulence is an often studied and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, and modeling its effects is essential in many practical applications. Specifically the behavior of turbulence in the presence of strong density gradients and compressibility is of fundamental importance in applications ranging from Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) [1], supernovae [2], and atmospheric flows. The BHR closure approach [3] seeks to model the physical processes at work in variable density turbulence including Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) [4], Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) [5], and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) [6], driven turbulence. The effectiveness of the BHR-2 implementation has been demonstrated for variable density mixing in the KH, RT, and RM cases in an Eulerian framework [7]. The primary motivation of the present work is to implement the BHR-2 turbulence model in the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics code FLAG. The goal is not only to demonstrate results in agreement with previous Eulerian calculations, but also document behavior that arises from the underlying differences in code philosophy.
Assessment of CFD Hypersonic Turbulent Heating Rates for Space Shuttle Orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.; Oliver, A. Brandon
2011-01-01
Turbulent CFD codes are assessed for the prediction of convective heat transfer rates at turbulent, hypersonic conditions. Algebraic turbulence models are used within the DPLR and LAURA CFD codes. The benchmark heat transfer rates are derived from thermocouple measurements of the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery windward tiles during the STS-119 and STS-128 entries. The thermocouples were located underneath the reaction-cured glass coating on the thermal protection tiles. Boundary layer transition flight experiments conducted during both of those entries promoted turbulent flow at unusually high Mach numbers, with the present analysis considering Mach 10{15. Similar prior comparisons of CFD predictions directly to the flight temperature measurements were unsatisfactory, showing diverging trends between prediction and measurement for Mach numbers greater than 11. In the prior work, surface temperatures and convective heat transfer rates had been assumed to be in radiative equilibrium. The present work employs a one-dimensional time-accurate conduction analysis to relate measured temperatures to surface heat transfer rates, removing heat soak lag from the flight data, in order to better assess the predictive accuracy of the numerical models. The turbulent CFD shows good agreement for turbulent fuselage flow up to Mach 13. But on the wing in the wake of the boundary layer trip, the inclusion of tile conduction effects does not explain the prior observed discrepancy in trends between simulation and experiment; the flight heat transfer measurements are roughly constant over Mach 11-15, versus an increasing trend with Mach number from the CFD.
Efficient entropy coding for scalable video coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Woong Il; Yang, Jungyoup; Jeon, Byeungwoo
2005-10-01
The standardization for the scalable extension of H.264 has called for additional functionality based on H.264 standard to support the combined spatio-temporal and SNR scalability. For the entropy coding of H.264 scalable extension, Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) scheme is considered so far. In this paper, we present a new context modeling scheme by using inter layer correlation between the syntax elements. As a result, it improves coding efficiency of entropy coding in H.264 scalable extension. In simulation results of applying the proposed scheme to encoding the syntax element mb_type, it is shown that improvement in coding efficiency of the proposed method is up to 16% in terms of bit saving due to estimation of more adequate probability model.
Measurements of turbulent dissipation during the Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Woods, Sarah; Jarosz, Ewa; Goode, Wesley; Weidemann, Alan
2013-06-01
The Bahamas Optical Turbulence Experiment (BOTEX) was conducted in the summer of 2011 to investigate the impact of turbulence on underwater optical imaging. Underwater optical properties can be affected by turbulence in the water, due to localized changes in the index of refraction. We discuss measurements of current velocity and temperature, made with a Nortek Vector Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and PME Conductivity- Temperature (CT) probe, as well as observations made with a Rockland Oceanographic Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP). The instruments were deployed in close proximity in the field and in the context of measurements of optical target clarity. Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKED) and temperature dissipation (TD) rates are calculated from the ADV/CT measurements and compared to TKED and TD estimated from the data collected with the VMP. The results show reasonable agreement between the two methods; differences are attributed to turbulence patchiness and intermittence, as well as sampling challenges. The study also highlights the importance of collecting concurrent data on temperature, current velocity, and current shear to assess the turbulence impact on underwater optical properties.
Solar system plasma Turbulence: Observations, inteRmittency and Multifractals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Echim, Marius M.
2016-04-01
The FP7 project STORM is funded by the European Commission to "add value to existing data bases through a more comprehensive interpretation". STORM targets plasma and magnetic field databases collected in the solar wind (Ulysses and also some planetary missions), planetary magnetospheres (Venus Express, Cluster, a few orbits from Cassini), cometary magnetosheaths (e.g. Haley from Giotto observations). The project applies the same package of analysis methods on geomagnetic field observations from ground and on derived indices (e.g. AE, AL, AU, SYM-H). The analysis strategy adopted in STORM is built on the principle of increasing complexity, from lower (like, e.g., the Power Spectral Density - PSD) to higher order analyses (the Probability Distribution Functions - PDFs, Structure Functions - SFs, Fractals and Multifractals - MFs). Therefore STORM targets not only the spectral behavior of turbulent fluctuations but also their topology and scale behavior inferred from advanced mathematical algorithms and geometrical-like analogs. STORM started in January 2013 and ended in December 2015. We will report on a selection of scientific and technical achievements and will highlight: (1) the radial evolution of solar wind turbulence and intermittency based on Ulysses data with some contributions from Venus Express and Cluster; (2) comparative study of fast and slow wind turbulence and intermittency at solar minimum; (3) comparative study of the planetary response (Venus and Earth magnetosheaths) to turbulent solar wind; (4) the critical behavior of geomagnetic fluctuations and indices; (5) an integrated library for non-linear analysis of time series that includes all the approaches adopted in STORM to investigate solar system plasma turbulence. STORM delivers an unprecedented volume of analysed data for turbulence. The project made indeed a systematic survey, orbit by orbit, of data available from ESA repositories and Principal Investigators and provides results ordered as a
Stochastic differential equations and turbulent dispersion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, P. A.
1983-01-01
Aspects of the theory of continuous stochastic processes that seem to contribute to an understanding of turbulent dispersion are introduced and the theory and philosophy of modelling turbulent transport is emphasized. Examples of eddy diffusion examined include shear dispersion, the surface layer, and channel flow. Modeling dispersion with finite-time scale is considered including the Langevin model for homogeneous turbulence, dispersion in nonhomogeneous turbulence, and the asymptotic behavior of the Langevin model for nonhomogeneous turbulence.
Ricci, P. Riva, F.; Theiler, C.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Halpern, F. D.; Loizu, J.
2015-05-15
In the present work, a Verification and Validation procedure is presented and applied showing, through a practical example, how it can contribute to advancing our physics understanding of plasma turbulence. Bridging the gap between plasma physics and other scientific domains, in particular, the computational fluid dynamics community, a rigorous methodology for the verification of a plasma simulation code is presented, based on the method of manufactured solutions. This methodology assesses that the model equations are correctly solved, within the order of accuracy of the numerical scheme. The technique to carry out a solution verification is described to provide a rigorous estimate of the uncertainty affecting the numerical results. A methodology for plasma turbulence code validation is also discussed, focusing on quantitative assessment of the agreement between experiments and simulations. The Verification and Validation methodology is then applied to the study of plasma turbulence in the basic plasma physics experiment TORPEX [Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)], considering both two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations carried out with the GBS code [Ricci et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 124047 (2012)]. The validation procedure allows progress in the understanding of the turbulent dynamics in TORPEX, by pinpointing the presence of a turbulent regime transition, due to the competition between the resistive and ideal interchange instabilities.
Two-dimensional MHD generator model. [GEN code
Geyer, H. K.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Doss, E. D.
1980-09-01
A steady state, two-dimensional MHD generator code, GEN, is presented. The code solves the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, using a Von Mises transformation and a local linearization of the equations. By splitting the source terms into a part proportional to the axial pressure gradient and a part independent of the gradient, the pressure distribution along the channel is easily obtained to satisfy various criteria. Thus, the code can run effectively in both design modes, where the channel geometry is determined, and analysis modes, where the geometry is previously known. The code also employs a mixing length concept for turbulent flows, Cebeci and Chang's wall roughness model, and an extension of that model to the effective thermal diffusities. Results on code validation, as well as comparisons of skin friction and Stanton number calculations with experimental results, are presented.
Benchmarking Of Improved DPAC Transient Deflagration Analysis Code
Laurinat, James E.; Hensel, Steve J.
2013-03-21
The transient deflagration code DPAC (Deflagration Pressure Analysis Code) has been upgraded for use in modeling hydrogen deflagration transients. The upgraded code is benchmarked using data from vented hydrogen deflagration tests conducted at the HYDRO-SC Test Facility at the University of Pisa. DPAC originally was written to calculate peak deflagration pressures for deflagrations in radioactive waste storage tanks and process facilities at the Savannah River Site. Upgrades include the addition of a laminar flame speed correlation for hydrogen deflagrations and a mechanistic model for turbulent flame propagation, incorporation of inertial effects during venting, and inclusion of the effect of water vapor condensation on vessel walls. In addition, DPAC has been coupled with CEA, a NASA combustion chemistry code. The deflagration tests are modeled as end-to-end deflagrations. The improved DPAC code successfully predicts both the peak pressures during the deflagration tests and the times at which the pressure peaks.
Study of Nonlinear Interaction and Turbulence of Alfven Waves in LAPD Experiments
Boldyrev, Stanislav; Perez, Jean Carlos
2013-11-29
The complete project had two major goals — investigate MHD turbulence generated by counterpropagating Alfven modes, and study such processes in the LAPD device. In order to study MHD turbulence in numerical simulations, two codes have been used: full MHD, and reduced MHD developed specialy for this project. Quantitative numerical results are obtained through high-resolution simulations of strong MHD turbulence, performed through the 2010 DOE INCITE allocation. We addressed the questions of the spectrum of turbulence, its universality, and the value of the so-called Kolmogorov constant (the normalization coefficient of the spectrum). In these simulations we measured with unprecedented accuracy the energy spectra of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. We also studied the so-called residual energy, that is, the difference between kinetic and magnetic energies in turbulent fluctuations. In our analytic work we explained generation of residual energy in weak MHD turbulence, in the process of random collisions of counterpropagating Alfven waves. We then generalized these results for the case of strong MHD turbulence. The developed model explained generation of residual energy is strong MHD turbulence, and verified the results in numerical simulations. We then analyzed the imbalanced case, where more Alfven waves propagate in one direction. We found that spectral properties of the residual energy are similar for both balanced and imbalanced cases. We then compared strong MHD turbulence observed in the solar wind with turbulence generated in numerical simulations. Nonlinear interaction of Alfv´en waves has been studied in the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD). We have simulated the collision of the Alfven modes in the settings close to the experiment. We have created a train of wave packets with the apltitudes closed to those observed n the experiment, and allowed them to collide. We then saw the generation of the second harmonic, resembling that observed in the
Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations
Zhong, Xiaolin
2012-12-13
In this report, we present the research efforts made by our group at UCLA in the SciDAC project Simulations of turbulent flows with strong shocks and density variations. We use shock-fitting methodologies as an alternative to shock-capturing schemes for the problems where a well defined shock is present. In past five years, we have focused on development of high-order shock-fitting Navier-Stokes solvers for perfect gas flow and thermochemical non-equilibrium flow and simulation of shock-turbulence interaction physics for very strong shocks. Such simulation has not been possible before because the limitation of conventional shock capturing methods. The limitation of shock Mach number is removed by using our high-order shock-fitting scheme. With the help of DOE and TeraGrid/XSEDE super computing resources, we have obtained new results which show new trends of turbulence statistics behind the shock which were not known before. Moreover, we are also developing tools to consider multi-species non-equilibrium flows. The main results are in three areas: (1) development of high-order shock-fitting scheme for perfect gas flow, (2) Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of interaction of realistic turbulence with moderate to very strong shocks using super computing resources, and (3) development and implementation of models for computation of mutli-species non-quilibrium flows with shock-fitting codes.
Turbulent-driven intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Michael; Parra, Felix; Lee, Jungpyo; Belli, Emily; Nave, Filomena; White, Anne
2013-10-01
Tokamak plasmas are routinely observed to rotate even in the absence of an externally applied torque. This ``intrinsic'' rotation exhibits several robust features, including rotation reversals with varying plasma density and current and rotation peaking at the transition from low confinement to high confinement regimes. Conservation of toroidal angular momentum dictates that the intrinsic rotation is determined by momentum redistribution within the plasma, which is dominated by turbulent transport. The turbulent momentum transport, and thus the intrinsic rotation profile, is driven by formally small effects that are usually neglected. We present a gyrokinetic theory that makes use of the smallness of the poloidal to total magnetic field ratio to self-consistently include the dominant effects driving intrinsic turbulent momentum transport in tokamaks. These effects (including slow radial profile variation, slow poloidal turbulence variation, and diamagnetic corrections to the equilibrium Maxwellian) have now been implemented in the local, delta-f gyrokinetic code GS2. We describe important features of the numerical implementation and show numerical results on intrinsic momentum transport that are qualitatively consistent with experimental rotation reversals.
Implementation of SLODAR atmospheric turbulence profiling to the ARGOS system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzoni, Tommaso; Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Esposito, Simone
2014-08-01
ARGOS is the Ground Layer Adaptive Optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope, it uses three Laser Guide Stars at 12 km altitude, generated by Rayleigh backscattered light of pulsed Nd:YAG lasers at 532nm. The wavefront distortion in the Ground Layer is measured by three Shack-Hartmann WFS, sampling with 15×15 subaperture the three LGS arranged on a single CCD with 8×8px per square subaperture. The SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) is a method used to measure the turbulence profiles. Cross correlation of wavefronts gradient from multiple stars is used to estimate the relative strengths of turbulent layers at different altitudes. In the ARGOS case the LGS are arranged on a triangle inscribed in a 2 arcmin radius circle, so we expect an effective slopes correlation up to 5km altitude. We present here the results of a study aimed to implement the SLODAR method on ARGOS performed with the idl-based simulation code used to characterize the ARGOS performance. Simulation implements the atmospheric turbulence on different layers with variable strength, altitude and wind speed. The algorithm performance are evaluated comparing the input turbulence with the cross-correlation of the SH slopes acquired in open loop.
Full wave simulations of microwave interactions with turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Matthew; Vann, Roddy; Leddy, Jarrod; Koehn, Alf; University of York; IPP Garching Collaboration; University of York; Culham Microwave Group Team
2016-10-01
The interaction between electromagnetic radiation and plasma perturbations in the case that the radiation wavelength is comparable to the size of the perturbations is not a fully-understood problem. Yet the use of microwaves in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas is widespread for heating, current drive and both passive and active diagnostics, including in regimes for which there exist microwave length-scale plasma perturbations. We present simulation results using the full-wave cold plasma finite difference time domain codes EMIT-3D and IPF-FDMC developed independently at York and Stuttgart, respectively. First we present a novel systematic study of the scattering of microwaves through turbulence: we quantified the relationship between the normalised turbulent correlation length and the scattered power. Additionally we found a quadratic relationship between the scattered wave power and the turbulence amplitude. We go on to present results to model the Doppler back-scattering of a broad microwave beam from a moving turbulent slab. This second problem is particularly important for interpreting data from the Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic currently installed on NSTX-U.
An experimental study of wave coupling in gravity surface wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubourg, Quentin; Sommeria, Joel; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas
2016-11-01
Weak turbulence is a theoretical framework aimed at describing wave turbulence (in the weakly nonlinear limit) i.e. a statistical state involving a large number of nonlinearly coupled waves. For gravity waves at the surface of water, it provides a phenomenology that may describe the formation of the spectrum of the ocean surface. Analytical predictions of the spectra are made based on the fact that energy transfer occurs through 4-wave coupling. By using an advanced stereoscopic imaging technique, we measure in time the deformation of the water surface. We obtain a state of wave turbulence by using two small wedge wavemakers in a 13-m diameter wavetank. We then use high order correlator (bi- and tri-coherence) in order to get evidence of the active wave coupling present in our system as used successfully for gravity-capillary wave turbulence. At odds with the weak turbulence theory we observe 3-wave interaction involving 2 quasi linear wave and a bound wave whose frequency lies on the first harmonics of the linear dispersion relation. We do not observe 4-wave coupling within the accuracy of our measurement. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 647018-WATU).
Passive adaptive imaging through turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tofsted, David
2016-05-01
Standard methods for improved imaging system performance under degrading optical turbulence conditions typically involve active adaptive techniques or post-capture image processing. Here, passive adaptive methods are considered where active sources are disallowed, a priori. Theoretical analyses of short-exposure turbulence impacts indicate that varying aperture sizes experience different degrees of turbulence impacts. Smaller apertures often outperform larger aperture systems as turbulence strength increases. This suggests a controllable aperture system is advantageous. In addition, sub-aperture sampling of a set of training images permits the system to sense tilts in different sub-aperture regions through image acquisition and image cross-correlation calculations. A four sub-aperture pattern supports corrections involving five realizable operating modes (beyond tip and tilt) for removing aberrations over an annular pattern. Progress to date will be discussed regarding development and field trials of a prototype system.
Premixed autoignition in compressible turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konduri, Aditya; Kolla, Hemanth; Krisman, Alexander; Chen, Jacqueline
2016-11-01
Prediction of chemical ignition delay in an autoignition process is critical in combustion systems like compression ignition engines and gas turbines. Often, ignition delay times measured in simple homogeneous experiments or homogeneous calculations are not representative of actual autoignition processes in complex turbulent flows. This is due the presence of turbulent mixing which results in fluctuations in thermodynamic properties as well as chemical composition. In the present study the effect of fluctuations of thermodynamic variables on the ignition delay is quantified with direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence. A premixed syngas-air mixture is used to remove the effects of inhomogeneity in the chemical composition. Preliminary results show a significant spatial variation in the ignition delay time. We analyze the topology of autoignition kernels and identify the influence of extreme events resulting from compressibility and intermittency. The dependence of ignition delay time on Reynolds and turbulent Mach numbers is also quantified. Supported by Basic Energy Sciences, Dept of Energy, United States.
Simulation of turbulent wall pressure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ash, R. L.
1976-01-01
A computer program has been developed to simulate the transient wall pressure field produced by a low speed fully turbulent boundary layer. The theoretical basis for the simulation has been discussed and preliminary results from a pressure simulation are presented.
Mathematical representations of turbulent mixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farmer, R. C.; Audeh, B.
1973-01-01
A basic description is given of the mathematical tools and models which are presently used to represent turbulent, free shear layers. Recommendations are included for ways in which current modeling techniques can be improved.
Workshop on Engineering Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Povinelli, Louis A. (Editor); Liou, W. W. (Editor); Shabbir, A. (Editor); Shih, T.-H. (Editor)
1992-01-01
Discussed here is the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion. For each level of computation, there are a few turbulence models which represent the state-of-the-art for that level. However, it is important to know their capabilities as well as their deficiencies in order to help engineers select and implement the appropriate models in their real world engineering calculations. This will also help turbulence modelers perceive the future directions for improving turbulence models. The focus is on one-point closure models (i.e., from algebraic models to higher order moment closure schemes and partial differential equation methods) which can be applied to CFD computations. However, other schemes helpful in developing one-point closure models, are also discussed.
Structure and modeling of turbulence
Novikov, E.A.
1995-12-31
The {open_quotes}vortex strings{close_quotes} scale l{sub s} {approximately} LRe{sup -3/10} (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES).
Incompressible Rayleigh–Taylor Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boffetta, Guido; Mazzino, Andrea
2017-01-01
Basic fluid equations are the main ingredient in the development of theories of Rayleigh–Taylor buoyancy-induced instability. Turbulence arises in the late stage of the instability evolution as a result of the proliferation of active scales of motion. Fluctuations are maintained by the unceasing conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy. Although the dynamics of turbulent fluctuations is ruled by the same equations controlling the Rayleigh–Taylor instability, here only phenomenological theories are currently available. The present review provides an overview of the most relevant (and often contrasting) theoretical approaches to Rayleigh–Taylor turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidence for their support. Although the focus is mainly on the classical Boussinesq Rayleigh–Taylor turbulence of miscible fluids, the review extends to other fluid systems with viscoelastic behavior, affected by rotation of the reference frame, and, finally, in the presence of reactions.
Rotating Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boffetta, G.; Mazzino, A.; Musacchio, S.
2016-09-01
The turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor system in a rotating reference frame is investigated by direct numerical simulations within the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. On the basis of theoretical arguments, supported by our simulations, we show that the Rossby number decreases in time, and therefore the Coriolis force becomes more important as the system evolves and produces many effects on Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence. We find that rotation reduces the intensity of turbulent velocity fluctuations and therefore the growth rate of the temperature mixing layer. Moreover, in the presence of rotation the conversion of potential energy into turbulent kinetic energy is found to be less effective, and the efficiency of the heat transfer is reduced. Finally, during the evolution of the mixing layer we observe the development of a cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry.
Energy transfer in compressible turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bataille, Francoise; Zhou, YE; Bertoglio, Jean-Pierre
1995-01-01
This letter investigates the compressible energy transfer process. We extend a methodology developed originally for incompressible turbulence and use databases from numerical simulations of a weak compressible turbulence based on Eddy-Damped-Quasi-Normal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure. In order to analyze the compressible mode directly, the well known Helmholtz decomposition is used. While the compressible component has very little influence on the solenoidal part, we found that almost all of the compressible turbulence energy is received from its solenoidal counterpart. We focus on the most fundamental building block of the energy transfer process, the triadic interactions. This analysis leads us to conclude that, at low turbulent Mach number, the compressible energy transfer process is dominated by a local radiative transfer (absorption) in both inertial and energy containing ranges.
Decay of capillary wave turbulence.
Deike, Luc; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric
2012-06-01
We report on the observation of freely decaying capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid. The capillary wave turbulence spectrum decay is found to be self-similar in time with the same power law exponent as the one found in the stationary regime, in agreement with weak turbulence predictions. The amplitude of all Fourier modes are found to decrease exponentially with time at the same damping rate. The longest wavelengths involved in the system are shown to be damped by a viscous surface boundary layer. These long waves play the role of an energy source during the decay that sustains nonlinear interactions to keep capillary waves in a wave turbulent state.
Turbulent Shear and Internal Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munroe, James; Sutherland, Bruce
2008-11-01
A series of experiments is presented that model the generation of non-hydrostatic internal gravity waves in upper ocean by the forcing of wind driven turbulent eddies in the surface mixed layer. A turbulent shear layer is forced by a conveyor belt with affixed flat plates near the surface of a stratified fluid and downward propagating internal waves are generated. The turbulence in the shear layer is characterized using particle image velocimetry to measure the kinetic energy as well as length and time scales. The internal waves are measured using synthetic schlieren to determine the amplitudes, frequencies, momentum fluxes, and the energy of the generated waves. The fraction of energy that leaks from the mixed layer to the internal wave field is presented. Consistent with other studies, it is found that the frequencies of internal waves generated by turbulence are an approximate constant fraction of the buoyancy frequency. Implications to internal waves propagating into the deep ocean will be discussed.
Realtime capable first principle based modelling of tokamak turbulent transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Citrin, Jonathan; Breton, Sarah; Felici, Federico; Imbeaux, Frederic; Redondo, Juan; Aniel, Thierry; Artaud, Jean-Francois; Baiocchi, Benedetta; Bourdelle, Clarisse; Camenen, Yann; Garcia, Jeronimo
2015-11-01
Transport in the tokamak core is dominated by turbulence driven by plasma microinstabilities. When calculating turbulent fluxes, maintaining both a first-principle-based model and computational tractability is a strong constraint. We present a pathway to circumvent this constraint by emulating quasilinear gyrokinetic transport code output through a nonlinear regression using multilayer perceptron neural networks. This recovers the original code output, while accelerating the computing time by five orders of magnitude, allowing realtime applications. A proof-of-principle is presented based on the QuaLiKiz quasilinear transport model, using a training set of five input dimensions, relevant for ITG turbulence. The model is implemented in the RAPTOR real-time capable tokamak simulator, and simulates a 300s ITER discharge in 10s. Progress in generalizing the emulation to include 12 input dimensions is presented. This opens up new possibilities for interpretation of present-day experiments, scenario preparation and open-loop optimization, realtime controller design, realtime discharge supervision, and closed-loop trajectory optimization.
On turbulence in dilatant dispersions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumert, Helmut Z.; Wessling, Bernhard
2016-07-01
This paper presents a new theory on the behaviour of shear-thickening (dilatant) fluids under turbulent conditions. The structure of a dilatant colloidal fluid in turbulent motion may be characterized by (at least) four characteristic length scales: (i) the ‘statistically largest’ turbulent scale, {λ }0, labeling the begin of the inertial part of the wavenumber spectrum; (ii) the energy-containing scale, { L }; (iii) Kolmogorov’s micro-scale, {λ }{ K }, related with the size of the smallest vortices existing for a given kinematic viscosity and forcing; (iv) the inner (‘colloidal’) micro-scale, {λ }i, typically representing a major stable material property of the colloidal fluid. In particular, for small ratios r={λ }i/{λ }{ K }∼ { O }(1), various interactions between colloidal structures and smallest turbulent eddies can be expected. In the present paper we discuss particularly that for ρ ={λ }0/{λ }{ K }\\to { O }(1) turbulence (in the narrow, inertial sense) is strangled and chaotic but less mixing fluid motions remain. We start from a new stochastic, micro-mechanical turbulence theory without empirical parameters valid for inviscid fluids as seen in publications by Baumert in 2013 and 2015. It predicts e.g. von Karman’s constant correctly as 1/\\sqrt{2 π }=0.399. In its generalized version for non-zero viscosity and shear-thickening behavior presented in this contribution, it predicts two solution branches for the steady state: The first characterizes a family of states with swift (inertial) turbulent mixing and small {λ }{ K }, potentially approaching {λ }i. The second branch characterizes a state family with ρ \\to { O }(1) and thus strangled turbulence, ρ ≈ { O }(1). Stability properties and a potential dynamic commuting between the two solution branches had to be left for future research.
Turbulence modeling for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.
1977-01-01
Material prepared for a course on Applications and Fundamentals of Turbulence given at the University of Tennessee Space Institute, January 10 and 11, 1977, is presented. A complete concept of turbulence modeling is described, and examples of progess for its use in computational aerodynimics are given. Modeling concepts, experiments, and computations using the concepts are reviewed in a manner that provides an up-to-date statement on the status of this problem for compressible flows.
An introduction to quantum turbulence.
Vinen, W F
2008-08-28
This paper provides a brief introduction to quantum turbulence in simple superfluids, in which the required rotational motion in the superfluid component is due entirely to the topological defects that are identified as quantized vortices. Particular emphasis is placed on the basic dynamical behaviour of the quantized vortices and on turbulent decay mechanisms at a very low temperature. There are possible analogies with the behaviour of cosmic strings.
Atmospheric Turbulence Research at DFVLR
1988-07-01
the chairmanship of Dr G.Coupry. Ce rapport fournit une synthese des travaux effecues au DFVLR sur Ia turbulence atmospherique , avec une description des...Turbulent trarsport in the convective bundary layer. Proc. EUPASAP Sympos. on Aircraft Measurements in Relation to Air pollution , Garmscd, -.- 9. Sept...convective boundayr layer structure for usne in pollution dispersion model . J. Climate App1. Meteorol., 25, 1609-1624. Wygaard. J.C., 1986-: Measrment
Shell models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plunian, Franck; Stepanov, Rodion; Frick, Peter
2013-02-01
Shell models of hydrodynamic turbulence originated in the seventies. Their main aim was to describe the statistics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in spectral space, using a simple set of ordinary differential equations. In the eighties, shell models of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence emerged based on the same principles as their hydrodynamic counter-part but also incorporating interactions between magnetic and velocity fields. In recent years, significant improvements have been made such as the inclusion of non-local interactions and appropriate definitions for helicities. Though shell models cannot account for the spatial complexity of MHD turbulence, their dynamics are not over simplified and do reflect those of real MHD turbulence including intermittency or chaotic reversals of large-scale modes. Furthermore, these models use realistic values for dimensionless parameters (high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers, low or high magnetic Prandtl number) allowing extended inertial range and accurate dissipation rate. Using modern computers it is difficult to attain an inertial range of three decades with direct numerical simulations, whereas eight are possible using shell models. In this review we set up a general mathematical framework allowing the description of any MHD shell model. The variety of the latter, with their advantages and weaknesses, is introduced. Finally we consider a number of applications, dealing with free-decaying MHD turbulence, dynamo action, Alfvén waves and the Hall effect.
Comparison of heat transfer measurements with computations for turbulent flow around a 180 deg bend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Besserman, D. L.; Tanrikut, S.
1992-10-01
Detailed heat transfer measurements for all four walls of a 180-deg 1:1 aspect ratio duct are reported. Experiments using a transient heat transfer technique with liquid crystal thermography were conducted for turbulent flow over a Reynolds number range of 12,500-50,000. Computational results using a Navier-Stokes code are also presented to complement the experiments. Two near-wall shear-stress treatments are evaluated in conjunction with k-epsilon formulation of turbulence to assess their ability to predict high local gradients in heat transfer. Results show that heat transfer on the convex and concave walls is a manifestation of the complex flow field created by the 180-deg bend. For the flat walls, the streamwise average Nusselt number increases approximately two times the fully developed turbulent flow value. The numerical predictions with the two-layer wall integration k-epsilon turbulence model show very good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.
1988-01-01
The paper presents a multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method. Consideration is given to a class of turbulent boundary layer flows and of separated and/or swirling elliptic turbulent flows. For the separated and/or swirling turbulent flows, the present turbulence model yielded significantly improved computational results over those obtained with the standard k-epsilon turbulence model.
European auxiliary propulsion, 1972
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holcomb, L. B.
1972-01-01
The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.
Subgrid Scale Modeling in Solar Convection Simulations Using the ASH Code
2003-12-01
UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014789 TITLE: Subgrid Scale Modeling in Solar Convection Simulations...ADP014788 thru ADP014827 UNCLASSIFIED Center for Turbulence Research 15 Annual Research Briefs 2003 Subgrid scale modeling in solar convection simulations...using the ASH code By Y.-N. Young, M. Miescht and N. N. Mansour 1. Motivation and objectives The turbulent solar convection zone has remained one of
Turbulent transport in 2D collisionless guide field reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, P. A.; Büchner, J.; Kilian, P.
2017-02-01
Transport in hot and dilute, i.e., collisionless, astrophysical and space, plasmas is called "anomalous." This transport is due to the interaction between the particles and the self-generated turbulence by their collective interactions. The anomalous transport has very different and not well known properties compared to the transport due to binary collisions, dominant in colder and denser plasmas. Because of its relevance for astrophysical and space plasmas, we explore the excitation of turbulence in current sheets prone to component- or guide-field reconnection, a process not well understood yet. This configuration is typical for stellar coronae, and it is created in the laboratory for which a 2.5D geometry applies. In our analysis, in addition to the immediate vicinity of the X-line, we also include regions outside and near the separatrices. We analyze the anomalous transport properties by using 2.5D Particle-in-Cell code simulations. We split off the mean slow variation (in contrast to the fast turbulent fluctuations) of the macroscopic observables and determine the main transport terms of the generalized Ohm's law. We verify our findings by comparing with the independently determined slowing-down rate of the macroscopic currents (due to a net momentum transfer from particles to waves) and with the transport terms obtained by the first order correlations of the turbulent fluctuations. We find that the turbulence is most intense in the "low density" separatrix region of guide-field reconnection. It is excited by streaming instabilities, is mainly electrostatic and "patchy" in space, and so is the associated anomalous transport. Parts of the energy exchange between turbulence and particles are reversible and quasi-periodic. The remaining irreversible anomalous resistivity can be parametrized by an effective collision rate ranging from the local ion-cyclotron to the lower-hybrid frequency. The contributions to the parallel and the perpendicular (to the magnetic
MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS
Joseph Katz and Omar Knio
2007-01-10
The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundtang Petersen, Erik
2013-04-01
The New European Wind Atlas 1. European wind resource assessment through a ERA-NET Plus project 1.1 The new EU Atlas The Commission decided earlier this year to issue an ERA-NET Plus call for the creation and publication of a new EU wind atlas. The atlas will cover Member states as well as Member states' exclusive economic zones, both onshore and offshore. It involved the launch of a single joint call for proposals by promoters of national and/or regional programmes, thereby allowing a more efficient use of existing financial resources. Therefore the funding scheme is that of ERA-NET Plus which implies that at least 5 MS shall commit at least 1 million Euros each and the Commission tops up with on third of the MS contribution. Basically it is the MS research programmes that will execute the project but an important part of the project is to create "open project development platforms" with associated protocols allowing a wider range of scientists worldwide to contribute. The project has a duration of 5 years. The decision on the new wind atlas was taken after several years of work by the European Wind Energy Technology Platform and the European Energy Research Alliances' Joint programme for Wind Energy. 2. Structure of the project The project will be structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel: 2.1 Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form, which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database. The database will at a minimum include: Wind resources and their associated uncertainty; Extreme wind; Turbulence characteristics; Adverse weather conditions; Predictability for short term prediction; Guidelines. 2.2 Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made public available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and relevant data at several heights and a horizontal
Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry
Hong G. Im; Arnaud Trouve; Christopher J. Rutland; Jacqueline H. Chen
2009-02-02
The TSTC project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of our approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. The code named S3D, developed and shared with Chen and coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for spray dynamics, combustion, and pollutant formation processes in turbulent combustion. Major accomplishments include improved characteristic boundary conditions, fundamental studies of auto-ignition in turbulent stratified reactant mixtures, flame-wall interaction, and turbulent flame extinction by water spray. The overarching scientific issue in our recent investigations is to characterize criticality phenomena (ignition/extinction) in turbulent combustion, thereby developing unified criteria to identify ignition and extinction conditions. The computational development under TSTC has enabled the recent large-scale 3D turbulent combustion simulations conducted at Sandia National Laboratories.
Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry
Im, Hong G; Trouve, Arnaud; Rutland, Christopher J; Chen, Jacqueline H
2012-08-13
The TSTC project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of our approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. The code named S3D, developed and shared with Chen and coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for spray dynamics, combustion, and pollutant formation processes in turbulent combustion. Major accomplishments include improved characteristic boundary conditions, fundamental studies of auto-ignition in turbulent stratified reactant mixtures, flame-wall interaction, and turbulent flame extinction by water spray. The overarching scientific issue in our recent investigations is to characterize criticality phenomena (ignition/extinction) in turbulent combustion, thereby developing unified criteria to identify ignition and extinction conditions. The computational development under TSTC has enabled the recent large-scale 3D turbulent combustion simulations conducted at Sandia National Laboratories.
Studying the interaction mechanisms of the tearing mode and drift-wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, S. D.; Brennan, D. P.; Holland, C.; Izacard, O.
2016-10-01
Understanding the mechanisms through which turbulence and MHD instabilities interact is vital to the success of magnetically confined fusion. Simulating the self-consistent evolution of turbulence and MHD instabilities is a challenging numerical problem due to the disparate scales involved. We use a newly developed code, TURBO, to perform nonlinear simulations of a three-field model which couples the evolution of drift-wave turbulence to Ohm's Law. TURBO evolves the density, vorticity, and magnetic flux in a slab geometry using an equilibrium with prescribed stability properties and turbulent drives. By imposing a propagating boundary condition on the magnetic flux we examine the dependence of an asymmetry in the density flux on the propagation velocity of the boundary condition. We present results showing the influence of the turbulence on the stability of the tearing mode and the energy transport between them via a turbulent resistivity. For the case of a static island in a poloidal flow, results indicate that the energy transport and density flux display a spatial asymmetry in the poloidal direction and are peaked away from the X-point. A recent study of ITG turbulence in the presence of a magnetic island found analogous effects and we discuss the relation to our work. Supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0007851.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe
2002-01-01
Explores the rise in student cheating and evidence that students cheat less often at schools with an honor code. Discusses effective use of such codes and creation of a peer culture that condemns dishonesty. (EV)
Cellulases and coding sequences
Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong
2001-02-20
The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.
Cellulases and coding sequences
Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong
2001-01-01
The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik
2013-01-01
space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…
DIANE multiparticle transport code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.
2014-06-01
DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.
Recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport
Terry, P.W.
1997-09-22
This report contains viewgraphs of recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport. Localized nonlinear structures occur under a variety of circumstances in turbulent, magnetically confined plasmas, arising in both kinetic and fluid descriptions, i.e., in either wave-particle or three-wave coupling interactions. These structures are non wavelike. They cannot be incorporated in the collective wave response, but interact with collective modes through their shielding by the plasma dielectric. These structures are predicted to modify turbulence-driven transport in a way that in consistent with, or in some cases are confirmed by recent experimental observations. In kinetic theory, non wavelike structures are localized perturbations of phase space density. There are two types of structures. Holes are self-trapped, while clumps have a self-potential that is too weak to resist deformation and mixing by ambient potential fluctuations. Clumps remain correlated in turbulence if their spatial extent is smaller than the correlation length of the scattering fields. In magnetic turbulence, clumps travel along stochastic magnetic fields, shielded by the plasma dielectric. A drag on the clump macro-particle is exerted by the shielding, inducing emission into the collective response. The emission in turn damps back on the particle distribution via Landau dampling. The exchange of energy between clumps and particles, as mediated by the collective mode, imposes constraints on transport. For a turbulent spectrum whose mean wavenumber along the equilibrium magnetic field is nonzero, the electron thermal flux is proportional to the ion thermal velocity. Conventional predictions (which account only for collective modes) are larger by the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. Recent measurements are consistent with the small flux. In fluid plasma,s localized coherent structures can occur as intense vortices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Chitsomboon, Tawit; Zhu, Jiang
1994-01-01
This report documents the changes that were made to the two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model in the NPARC (National-PARC) code. The previous model based on the low Reynolds number model of Speziale, was replaced with the low Reynolds number k-epsilon model of Chien. The most significant difference was in the turbulent Prandtl numbers appearing in the diffusion terms of the k and epsilon transport equations. A new inflow boundary condition and stability enhancements were also implemented into the turbulence model within NPARC. The report provides the rationale for making the change to the Chien model, code modifications required, and comparisons of the performances of the new model with the previous k-epsilon model and algebraic models used most often in PARC/NPARC. The comparisons show that the Chien k-epsilon model installed here improves the capability of NPARC to calculate turbulent flows.
Fire Behaviour of Structural Steel - Code vs. Tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrina, Tudor
2016-10-01
This article shows part of the results of a complex research on the behaviour of steel beam-to-column end-plate connections under the fire action. In the paper, a parallel between a computation made with the help of a computer model, based on the prescriptions of the European design code EN 1993 and experimental tests conducted on real scale substructures is presented. The main goal of this work is to find the difference, in terms of strength and mode of failure, between the European design code and the experimental situation in the testing facility.
Visualization of Turbulence-Generated Intrinsic Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feibush, Eliot; Ethier, Stephane; Wang, Weixing; Tang, William
2012-10-01
A new visualization has been developed of the 3D vector field of plasma flow computed by global gyrokinetic simulations using the GTS code. The visualization shows the direction, magnitude, and structure of turbulence-generated intrinsic rotation in a tokamak. Vectors indicate the clockwise and counter-clockwise flows around the torus. Color-coded vectors are drawn at each grid point on the poloidal planes. A color scale was developed to maximize contrast within the most heavily populated range of data while preserving visibility of the global minimum and maximum values. Technical highlights include transferring large amounts of simulation data from NERSC to PPPL using multiple streams, parallel rendering by the VisIt software, and multiple nx client sessions connecting to a persistent server session. Each of the 1,000 time steps is rendered to a high definition image. The images are assembled into an animated movie that is compressed for efficient, high quality playback. A workflow is in place for producing visualizations of new simulations.
Gyrofluid-Gyrokinetic Hybrid Turbulence Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorland, William; Mandell, Noah
2015-11-01
Gyrofluid models of tokamak turbulence are efficient compared to gyrokinetic models, in three senses. First, it is typically easier to develop one's intuition from fluid equations than kinetic equations. Second, because gyrofluid equations are only three-dimensional (instead of 5D or 6D), simulations with gyrofluid models require less memory than kinetic simulations and can therefore more easily fit on highly-optimized computing hardware, such as graphics processors. The third advantage is a result of the first two: one can develop and test ideas quickly with gyrofluid models. The disadvantage of gyrofluid models is their potential lack of physics fidelity. In this poster, we present our attempt to take full advantage of gyrofluid models, without sacrificing physics fidelity. Our approach is encapsulated in the Gryf-X code, which is an implementation of hybrid gyrofluid/gyrokinetic equations. The key improvements that we have brought to bear are: an improved understanding of the cascade of free energy simultaneously in k⊥ and v⊥ an improved model of zonal flow physics; and an implementation of the equations on modern heterogeneous computing platforms, both as a standalone simulation tool and as a component of TRINITY (a transport modeling code for tokamaks).
Direct numerical simulations and modeling of a spatially-evolving turbulent wake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cimbala, John M.
1994-01-01
Understanding of turbulent free shear flows (wakes, jets, and mixing layers) is important, not only for scientific interest, but also because of their appearance in numerous practical applications. Turbulent wakes, in particular, have recently received increased attention by researchers at NASA Langley. The turbulent wake generated by a two-dimensional airfoil has been selected as the test-case for detailed high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. This same wake has also been chosen to enhance NASA's turbulence modeling efforts. Over the past year, the author has completed several wake computations, while visiting NASA through the 1993 and 1994 ASEE summer programs, and also while on sabbatical leave during the 1993-94 academic year. These calculations have included two-equation (K-omega and K-epsilon) models, algebraic stress models (ASM), full Reynolds stress closure models, and direct numerical simulations (DNS). Recently, there has been mutually beneficial collaboration of the experimental and computational efforts. In fact, these projects have been chosen for joint presentation at the NASA Turbulence Peer Review, scheduled for September 1994. DNS calculations are presently underway for a turbulent wake at Re(sub theta) = 1000 and at a Mach number of 0.20. (Theta is the momentum thickness, which remains constant in the wake of a two dimensional body.) These calculations utilize a compressible DNS code written by M. M. Rai of NASA Ames, and modified for the wake by J. Cimbala. The code employs fifth-order accurate upwind-biased finite differencing for the convective terms, fourth-order accurate central differencing for the viscous terms, and an iterative-implicit time-integration scheme. The computational domain for these calculations starts at x/theta = 10, and extends to x/theta = 610. Fully developed turbulent wake profiles, obtained from experimental data from several wake generators, are supplied at the computational inlet, along with
Numerical study of boundary layer interaction with shocks: Method and code validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Nikolaus A.
1994-01-01
A major problem in modeling of turbulent supersonic flows is the correct assessment of viscous-inviscid interaction problems. Of particular interest is the interaction of boundary layers with shocks. Present turbulence models give in most cases unsatisfactory results in the region of rapid distortion and in the separation region (if one is present) in particular with regard to mean flow profiles and turbulence quantities. The objective of the present work is the direct numerical simulation of shock boundary layer interaction. This report summarizes the first phase during which a numerical method suitable for this problem has been developed and a computer code has been written and tested.
Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence
Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M.; Gula, Jonathan
2015-01-01
Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1–100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air–sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1–10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below. PMID:25897832
Multidimensional Potential Burgers Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boritchev, Alexandre
2016-03-01
We consider the multidimensional generalised stochastic Burgers equation in the space-periodic setting: partial {u}/partial t+(nabla f({u}) \\cdot nabla) {u}-ν Δ {u}= nabla η, quad t ≥ 0, {x} in{T}^d=({R}/ {Z})^d, under the assumption that u is a gradient. Here f is strongly convex and satisfies a growth condition, ν is small and positive, while η is a random forcing term, smooth in space and white in time. For solutions u of this equation, we study Sobolev norms of u averaged in time and in ensemble: each of these norms behaves as a given negative power of ν. These results yield sharp upper and lower bounds for natural analogues of quantities characterising the hydrodynamical turbulence, namely the averages of the increments and of the energy spectrum. These quantities behave as a power of the norm of the relevant parameter, which is respectively the separation ℓ in the physical space and the wavenumber k in the Fourier space. Our bounds do not depend on the initial condition and hold uniformly in {ν}. We generalise the results obtained for the one-dimensional case in [10], confirming the physical predictions in [4, 30]. Note that the form of the estimates does not depend on the dimension: the powers of {ν, |{{k}}|, ℓ} are the same in the one- and the multi-dimensional setting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finson, M. L.; Clarke, A. S.; Wu, P. K. S.
1981-01-01
A Reynolds stress model for turbulent boundary layers is used to study surface roughness effects on skin friction and heat transfer. The issues of primary interest are the influence of roughness character (element shape and spacing) and the nature of roughness effects at high Mach numbers. Computations based on the model compare satisfactorily with measurements from experiments involving variations in roughness character, in low speed and modestly supersonic conditions. The more limited data base at hypersonic Mach numbers is also examined with reasonable success, although no quantitative explanation is offered for the reduction of heat transfer with increasing roughness observed by Holden at Me -9.4. The present calculations indicate that the mean velocity is approximately uniform over much of the height range below the tops of the elements, y less than or equal to k. With this constant (roughness velocity,) it is simple to estimate the form drag on the elements. This roughness velocity has been investigated by systematically exercising the present model over ranges of potential parameters. The roughness velocity is found to be primarily a function of the projected element frontal area per unit surface area, thus providing a new and simple method for predicting roughness character effects. The model further suggests that increased boundary layer temperatures should be generated by roughness at high edge Mach numbers, which would tend to reduce skin friction and heat transfer, perhaps below smooth wall levels.
Jones, T.
1993-11-01
This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.
Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.
1986-01-01
Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.
1991-01-01
The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.
1994-01-01
An investigation of the numerical simulation with two-equation turbulence models of a three-dimensional hypersonic intersecting (SWTBL) shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flow is presented. The flows are solved with an efficient implicit upwind flux-difference split Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code. Numerical results are compared with experimental data for a flow at Mach 8.28 and Reynolds number 5.3x10(exp 6) with crossing shock-waves and expansion fans generated by two lateral 15 fins located on top of a cold-wall plate. This experiment belongs to the hypersonic database for modeling validation. Simulations show the development of two primary counter-rotating cross-flow vortices and secondary turbulent structures under the main vortices and in each corner singularity inside the turbulent boundary layer. A significant loss of total pressure is produced by the complex interaction between the main vortices and the uplifted jet stream of the boundary layer. The overall agreement between computational and experimental data is generally good. The turbulence modeling corrections show improvements in the predictions of surface heat transfer distribution and an increase in the strength of the cross-flow vortices. Accurate predictions of the outflow flowfield is found to require accurate modeling of the laminar/turbulent boundary layers on the fin walls.
Hierarchy compensation of non-homogeneous intermittent atmospheric turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Cantalapiedra, Inma R.
2010-05-01
.B., Babiano A. and Redondo J.M. (1998) Structure functions in complex flows. Journal of Flow Turbulence and Combustion. 59, 299-313. Mahjoub O.B., Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. (2000) Self similarity and intermittency in a turbulent non-homogeneous wake. Proceedings of the Eighth European Turbulence Conference. (Eds. Dopazo et al.) CIMNE, Barcelona, 783-786. Mahjoub O.B., Redondo J.M., and R. Alami, (1998) Turbulent Structure Functions in Geophysical Flows, Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 35, 126-127.
Mapping Local Codes to Read Codes.
Bonney, Wilfred; Galloway, James; Hall, Christopher; Ghattas, Mikhail; Tramma, Leandro; Nind, Thomas; Donnelly, Louise; Jefferson, Emily; Doney, Alexander
2017-01-01
Background & Objectives: Legacy laboratory test codes make it difficult to use clinical datasets for meaningful translational research, where populations are followed for disease risk and outcomes over many years. The Health Informatics Centre (HIC) at the University of Dundee hosts continuous biochemistry data from the clinical laboratories in Tayside and Fife dating back as far as 1987. However, the HIC-managed biochemistry dataset is coupled with incoherent sample types and unstandardised legacy local test codes, which increases the complexity of using the dataset for reasonable population health outcomes. The objective of this study was to map the legacy local test codes to the Scottish 5-byte Version 2 Read Codes using biochemistry data extracted from the repository of the Scottish Care Information (SCI) Store.
Spectral analysis of the turbulent mixing of two fluids
Steinkamp, Michael James
1995-01-01
We describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The Technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.
Assessment of Turbulent CFD Against STS-128 Hypersonic Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.; Hyatt, Andrew J.
2010-01-01
Turbulent CFD simulations are compared against surface temperature measurements of the space shuttle orbiter windward tiles at reentry flight conditions. Algebraic turbulence models are used within both the LAURA and DPLR CFD codes. The flight data are from temperature measurements obtained by seven thermocouples during the STS-128 mission (September 2009). The flight data indicate boundary layer transition onset over the Mach number range 13.5{15.5, depending upon the location on the vehicle. But the boundary layer flow appeared to be transitional down through Mach 12, based upon the flight data and CFD trends. At Mach 9 the simulations match the flight data on average within 20 F/11 C, where typical surface temperatures were approximately 1600 F/870 C.
Structure and radiation properties of turbulent diffusion flames
Kounalakis, M. E.
1990-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study of the flame structure and gas band radiation of carbon monoxide/hydrogen/air diffusion flames is described. The results have applications to analysis of the rate of spread of natural fires, design and development of furnaces, determination of radiant heat loads to engine components, development of rocket plume visibility, safe operations of industrial flares, development of material test codes for fire properties and development of fire detectors. The structure of the turbulent flames was studied using the Mie scattering technique to measure single and two-point mixture fraction statistics, and laser Doppler anemometery to measure single-point velocity statistics along the centerline. A stochastic methodology for treating the nonlinear flame radiation fluctuations caused by turbulence/radiation interactions was developed. The methodology was evaluated by comparison with high resolution emission spectroscopy measurements of gas-band radiation.
Solar Polarimetry - from Turbulent Magnetic Fields to Sunspots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleint, Lucia
2016-07-01
Polarimetric measurements are essential to investigate the solar magnetic field. Scattering polarization and the Hanle effect allow us to probe the turbulent magnetic field and the still open questions of its strength and variability. Directed magnetic fields can be detected via the Zeeman effect. To derive their orientation and strength, so-called inversion codes are used, which iteratively modify a model atmosphere and calculate the resulting polarization profiles that are then compared to the observations. While photospheric polarimetry is well-established, chromospheric polarimetry is still in its infancy, especially because it requires a treatment in non-LTE, making it a complex non-linear problem. But some of the most important open questions concern the strength and geometry of the chromospheric magnetic field. In this talk, I will review different polarimetric analysis techniques and recent advances in magnetic field measurements going from the small scales of turbulent magnetic fields to changes of magnetic fields in an active region during flares.
Spectral analysis of the turbulent mixing of two fluids
Steinkamp, M.J.
1996-02-01
The authors describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.
Strongly turbulent stabilization of electron beam-plasma interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freund, H. P.; Haber, I.; Palmadesso, P.; Papadopoulos, K.
1980-01-01
The stabilization of electron beam interactions due to strongly turbulent nonlinearities is studied analytically and numerically for a wide range of plasma parameters. A fluid mode coupling code is described in which the effects of electron and ion Landau damping and linear growth due to the energetic electron beam are included in a phenomenological manner. Stabilization of the instability is found to occur when the amplitudes of the unstable modes exceed the threshold of the oscillating two-stream instability. The coordinate space structure of the turbulent spectrum which results clearly shows that soliton-like structures are formed by this process. Phenomenological models of both the initial stabilization and the asymptotic states are developed. Scaling laws between the beam-plasma growth rate and the fluctuations in the fields and plasma density are found in both cases, and shown to be in good agreement with the results of the simulation.
Comparing turbulence models for flow through a rigid glottal model.
Suh, Jungsoo; Frankel, Steven H
2008-03-01
Flow through a rigid model of the human vocal tract featuring a divergent glottis was numerically modeled using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. A number of different turbulence models, available in a widely used commercial computational fluid dynamics code, were tested to determine their ability to capture various flow features recently observed in laboratory experiments and large eddy simulation studies. The study reveals that results from unsteady simulations employing the k-omega shear stress transport model were in much better agreement with previous measurements and predictions with regard to the ability to predict glottal jet skewing due to the Coanda effect and the intraglottal pressure distribution or related skin friction coefficient, than either steady or unsteady simulations using the Spalart-Allmaras model or any other two-equation turbulence model investigated in this study.
Computation of Turbulent Wake Flows in Variable Pressure Gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duquesne, N.; Carlson, J. R.; Rumsey, C. L.; Gatski, T. B.
1999-01-01
Transport aircraft performance is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of high-lift systems. Developing wakes generated by the airfoil elements are subjected to strong pressure gradients and can thicken very rapidly, limiting maximum lift. This paper focuses on the effects of various pressure gradients on developing symmetric wakes and on the ability of a linear eddy viscosity model and a non-linear explicit algebraic stress model to accurately predict their downstream evolution. In order to reduce the uncertainties arising from numerical issues when assessing the performance of turbulence models, three different numerical codes with the same turbulence models are used. Results are compared to available experimental data to assess the accuracy of the computational results.
Shock-induced turbulent flow in baffle systems
Kuhl, A.L.; Reichenbach, H.
1993-07-01
Experiments are described on shock propagation through 2-D aligned and staggered baffle systems. Flow visualization was provided by shadow and schlieren photography, recorded by the Cranz-Schardin camera. Also single-frame, infinite-fringe, color interferograms were used. Intuition suggests that this is a rather simple 2-D shock diffraction problem. However, flow visualization reveals that the flow rapidly evolved into a complex 3-D turbulent mixing problem. Mushroom-shaped mixing regions blocked the flow into the next baffle orifice. Thus energy was transferred from the directed kinetic energy (induced by the shock) to rotational energy of turbulent mixing, and then dissipated by molecular effects. These processes dramatically dissipate the strength of the shock wave. The experiments provide an excellent test case that could be used to assess the accuracy of computer code calculations of such problems.
COMPARING NUMERICAL METHODS FOR ISOTHERMAL MAGNETIZED SUPERSONIC TURBULENCE
Kritsuk, Alexei G.; Collins, David; Norman, Michael L.; Xu Hao E-mail: dccollins@lanl.gov
2011-08-10
Many astrophysical applications involve magnetized turbulent flows with shock waves. Ab initio star formation simulations require a robust representation of supersonic turbulence in molecular clouds on a wide range of scales imposing stringent demands on the quality of numerical algorithms. We employ simulations of supersonic super-Alfvenic turbulence decay as a benchmark test problem to assess and compare the performance of nine popular astrophysical MHD methods actively used to model star formation. The set of nine codes includes: ENZO, FLASH, KT-MHD, LL-MHD, PLUTO, PPML, RAMSES, STAGGER, and ZEUS. These applications employ a variety of numerical approaches, including both split and unsplit, finite difference and finite volume, divergence preserving and divergence cleaning, a variety of Riemann solvers, and a range of spatial reconstruction and time integration techniques. We present a comprehensive set of statistical measures designed to quantify the effects of numerical dissipation in these MHD solvers. We compare power spectra for basic fields to determine the effective spectral bandwidth of the methods and rank them based on their relative effective Reynolds numbers. We also compare numerical dissipation for solenoidal and dilatational velocity components to check for possible impacts of the numerics on small-scale density statistics. Finally, we discuss the convergence of various characteristics for the turbulence decay test and the impact of various components of numerical schemes on the accuracy of solutions. The nine codes gave qualitatively the same results, implying that they are all performing reasonably well and are useful for scientific applications. We show that the best performing codes employ a consistently high order of accuracy for spatial reconstruction of the evolved fields, transverse gradient interpolation, conservation law update step, and Lorentz force computation. The best results are achieved with divergence-free evolution of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galassi, D.; Tamain, P.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Baudoin, C.; Colin, C.; Fedorczak, N.; Nace, N.; Serre, E.
2017-03-01
The poloidal asymmetries of parallel flows in edge plasmas are investigated by the 3D fluid turbulence code TOKAM3X. A diverted COMPASS-like magnetic equilibrium is used for the simulations. The measurements and simulations of parallel Mach numbers are compared, and exhibit good qualitative agreement. Small-scale turbulent transport is observed to dominate near the low field side midplane, even though it co-exists with significant large-scale cross-field fluxes. Despite the turbulent nature of the plasma in the divertor region, simulations show the low effectiveness of turbulence for the cross-field transport towards the private flux region. Nevertheless, a complex pattern of fluxes associated with the average field components are found to cross the separatrix in the divertor region. Large-scale and small-scale turbulent E× B transport, along with the \
Validation of the NPARC code for nozzle afterbody flows at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Debonis, James R.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Smith, Crawford F.
1995-01-01
The NPARC code, a Reynolds-averaged full Navier-Stokes code, was validated for nozzle afterbody (boatail) flow fields at transonic speeds. The flow fields about three geometries were studied: an axisymmetric nozzle with attached flow; an axisymmetric nozzle with separated flow: and a two-dimensional (rectangular) nozzle with separated flow. Three turbulence models, Baldwin-Lomax, Baldwin-Barth, and Chien k-epsilon, were used to determine the effect of turbulence model selection on the flow field solution. Static pressure distributions on the nozzle surfaces and pitot pressure measurements in the exhaust plume were examined. Results from the NPARC code compared very well with experimental data for all cases. For attached flow fields, the effect of the turbulence models showed no discernable differences. The Baldwin-Barth model yielded better results than either the Chien k-epsilon or the Baldwin-Lomax model for separated flow fields.
Heat transfer and turbulence in a turbulated blade cooling circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abuaf, N.; Kercher, D. M.
1992-06-01
The aero-thermal performance of a typical turbine blade three-pass turbulated cooling circuit geometry was investigated in a 10X plexiglas test model. The model closely duplicated the blade's leading edge, midchord and trailing edge cooling passage geometries. Steady state heat transfer coefficient distributions along the blade pressure side wall (convex surface) of the cooling circuit passages were measured with a thin-foil heater and a liquid crystal temperature sensor assembly. The heat transfer experiments were conducted on rib-roughened channels with staggered turbulators along the convex and concave surfaces of the cooling passages. Mid-channel axial velocity and turbulence intensity measurements were taken by hot wire anemometry at each passage end of the three-pass cooling circuit to characterize and relate the local thermal performance to the turbulence intensity levels. The near-atmospheric experimental data are compared with results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis at the operating internal environment for a 1X rotating model of the blade cooling circuit and other turbulator channel geometry heat transfer data investigations. The comparison between the measurements and analysis is encouraging. Differences with other heat transfer data appear reasonably understood and explainable.
Turbulent transport phenomena in a channel with periodic rib turbulators
Liou, T.M.; Hwang, J.J.; Chen, S.H. )
1992-09-01
Periodic fully developed turbulent flow in a 2D channel with rib turbulators on two opposite walls has been studied numerically and experimentally. In numerical predictions, an algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model is adopted, and a smoothed hybrid central/skew upstream difference scheme is developed. In experiments, the laser-Doppler velocimetry and laser holographic interferometry are employed to measure the local flow and heat transfer characteristics. The results are obtained with the ratio of pitch to rib height 5, 10, 15, and 20, for Reynolds number of 3.3 x 10 exp 4 and are presented in terms of the reattachment length, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles, isotherm patterns, and distributions of local pressure recovery and Nusselt number. A detailed comparison with experimental data shows that the present calculations have an improvement over the previous work in the prediction of periodic ribbed-wall flow and heat transfer. In addition, regions susceptible to hot spots are identified by examining the distributions of the local Nusselt number. Furthermore, the enhancement of mean Nusselt number is documented in terms of relative contributions of the increased turbulence intensity and surface area provided by the ribs. 32 refs.
Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henningson, D. S.; Kim, John; Alfredsson, P. Henrik
1988-01-01
In wall-bounded shear flows the transition to turbulence through localized disturbances goes through a pattern starting with a development of shear layers. The localized normal velocity fluctuations induce normal vorticity through the lift-up effect. These shear layers become unstable to secondary disturbances, and if the amplitudes of the disturbances are large enough, a turbulent spot develops. Investigations of the spot in boundary layers has shown that the turbulent part of the spot is very similar to a fully developed boundary layer. Wygnanski et al. (1976) showed that the mean profile at the center-symmetry plane has a logarithmic region and Johansson et al. (1987) showed that both the higher-order statistics and flow structures in the spot were the same as in the corresponding fully developed flow. In what respects the turbulence inside the Poiseuille spot is similar to fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied. The numerically simulated spot is used, where the characteristics inside the spot are compared to those of the wave packet in the wingtip area. A recent experimental investigation of the velocity field associated with the Poiseuille spot by Klingmann et al. is used for comparison.
Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.
2011-01-01
We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.
The effects of the variations of turbulence parameters on the observable turbulence statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, S. Y.
2016-06-01
In order to study how the statistical properties of the observational quantities of the turbulent molecular cloud models vary with different turbulence parameters, I use the artificially generated random numerical models based on Gaussian fields created by the code PYFC with different values of the 1D density Fourier spectral index βn, the turbulence driving parameter, i.e. the b parameter and the 1D Fourier velocity power spectral index βv. Then I calculate the line profiles of 13CO emission on every sight line. I derive the statistical properties of column density N, line intensity W, peak intensity Tpeak and velocity dispersion Vrms on every sight line. I discover that as βn increases, (1) the standard deviations σln (N/
Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.
1993-11-01
This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.
An Upwind Solver for the National Combustion Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sockol, Peter M.
2011-01-01
An upwind solver is presented for the unstructured grid National Combustion Code (NCC). The compressible Navier-Stokes equations with time-derivative preconditioning and preconditioned flux-difference splitting of the inviscid terms are used. First order derivatives are computed on cell faces and used to evaluate the shear stresses and heat fluxes. A new flux limiter uses these same first order derivatives in the evaluation of left and right states used in the flux-difference splitting. The k-epsilon turbulence equations are solved with the same second-order method. The new solver has been installed in a recent version of NCC and the resulting code has been tested successfully in 2D on two laminar cases with known solutions and one turbulent case with experimental data.
Greg Flach, Frank Smith
2014-05-14
DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.
Defeating the coding monsters.
Colt, Ross
2007-02-01
Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sullivan, T. J.; Ibrahim, M.
1989-01-01
A boundary layer computer code, called TEXSTAN, has been used to simulate external, transitional, fluid flow and heat transfer over the flat plate and circular cylinder. Turbulence modeling was accomplished by using a low-Reynolds number K-epsilon turbulence model. The study was made for free-stream turbulence intensities less than 15 percent. The comparison of the flat plate heat transfer predictions to experimental data showed good agreement, for the location of transition as well as in the heat transfer coefficient. The typical discrepancy in predicting the heat transfer coefficient was less than 5 percent of the measured value.
Roels, Leo; Rahmel, Axel
2011-04-01
This mini-review on European experiences with tackling the problem of organ shortage for transplantation was based on a literature review of predominantly European publications dealing with the issue of organ donation from deceased donors. The authors tried to identify the most significant factors that have demonstrated to impact on donation rates from deceased donors and subsequent transplant successes. These factors include legislative measures (national laws and European Directives), optimization of the donation process, use of expanded criteria donors, innovative preservation and surgical techniques, organizational efforts, and improved allocation algorithms.
The European Spallation Source
Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al
2011-04-20
In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.
European journals on microbiology.
Ronda, C; Vázquez, M
1997-12-01
A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).
Modeling Compressibility Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.
2004-01-01
Man has strived to make objects fly faster, first from subsonic to supersonic and then to hypersonic speeds. Spacecraft and high-speed missiles routinely fly at hypersonic Mach numbers, M greater than 5. In defense applications, aircraft reach hypersonic speeds at high altitude and so may civilian aircraft in the future. Hypersonic flight, while presenting opportunities, has formidable challenges that have spurred vigorous research and development, mainly by NASA and the Air Force in the USA. Although NASP, the premier hypersonic concept of the eighties and early nineties, did not lead to flight demonstration, much basic research and technology development was possible. There is renewed interest in supersonic and hypersonic flight with the HyTech program of the Air Force and the Hyper-X program at NASA being examples of current thrusts in the field. At high-subsonic to supersonic speeds, fluid compressibility becomes increasingly important in the turbulent boundary layers and shear layers associated with the flow around aerospace vehicles. Changes in thermodynamic variables: density, temperature and pressure, interact strongly with the underlying vortical, turbulent flow. The ensuing changes to the flow may be qualitative such as shocks which have no incompressible counterpart, or quantitative such as the reduction of skin friction with Mach number, large heat transfer rates due to viscous heating, and the dramatic reduction of fuel/oxidant mixing at high convective Mach number. The peculiarities of compressible turbulence, so-called compressibility effects, have been reviewed by Fernholz and Finley. Predictions of aerodynamic performance in high-speed applications require accurate computational modeling of these "compressibility effects" on turbulence. During the course of the project we have made fundamental advances in modeling the pressure-strain correlation and developed a code to evaluate alternate turbulence models in the compressible shear layer.
Transient Ejector Analysis (TEA) code user's guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drummond, Colin K.
1993-01-01
A FORTRAN computer program for the semi analytic prediction of unsteady thrust augmenting ejector performance has been developed, based on a theoretical analysis for ejectors. That analysis blends classic self-similar turbulent jet descriptions with control-volume mixing region elements. Division of the ejector into an inlet, diffuser, and mixing region allowed flexibility in the modeling of the physics for each region. In particular, the inlet and diffuser analyses are simplified by a quasi-steady-analysis, justified by the assumption that pressure is the forcing function in those regions. Only the mixing region is assumed to be dominated by viscous effects. The present work provides an overview of the code structure, a description of the required input and output data file formats, and the results for a test case. Since there are limitations to the code for applications outside the bounds of the test case, the user should consider TEA as a research code (not as a production code), designed specifically as an implementation of the proposed ejector theory. Program error flags are discussed, and some diagnostic routines are presented.
Dynamics of Turbulence Suppression in a Helicon Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, Tiffany; Gilmore, Mark
2012-10-01
Experiments are currently being conducted in the the Helicon-Cathode Device (HelCat) at the University of New Mexico. The goal is to the study in detail the transition from a turbulent to a non-turbulent state in the presence of flow shear. HelCat has intrinsic fluctuations that have been identified as drift-waves. Using simple electrode biasing, it has been found that these fluctuations can be completely suppressed. In some extreme cases, a different instability, possibly the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, can be excited. Detailed studies are underway in order to understand the characteristics of each mode, and to elucidate the underlying physics that cause the change between an unstable plasma, and an instability-free plasma. Dynamics being observed include changes in flow profiles, both azimuthal and parallel, as well as changes in potential and temperature gradients. Further understanding is being sought using several computer codes developed at EPFL: a linear stability solver (LSS,footnotetextP. Ricci and B.N. Rogers (2009). Phys Plasmas 16, 062303. a one-dimensional PIC code/sheath solver, ODISEE,footnotetextJ. Loizu, P. Ricci, and C. Theiler (2011). Phys Rev E 83, 016406 and a global, 3D Braginski code, GBS.footnotetextRicci, Rogers (2009) A basic overview of results will be presented.
The Turbulent Life of Phytoplankton
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosal, S.; Rogers, M.; Wray, A.
2000-01-01
Phytoplankton is a generic name for photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer (euphotic zone) of almost all oceans and bodies of freshwater. They are agents for "primary production," the incorporation of carbon from the environment into living organisms, a process that, sustains the aquatic food web. It is estimated that phytoplankton contribute about half of the global primary production, the other half being due to terrestrial plants. By sustaining the aquatic food web and controlling the biogeochemical cycles through primary production, phytoplankton exert a dominant influence on life on earth. Turbulence influences this process in three very important ways. First, essential mineral nutrients are transported from the deeper layers to the euphotic zone through turbulence. Second, turbulence helps to suspend phytoplankton in the euphotic zone since in still water, the phytoplankton, especially the larger species, tend to settle out of the sunlit layers. Third, turbulence transports phytoplankton from the surface to the dark sterile waters, and this is an important mechanism of loss. Thus, stable phytoplankton populations are maintained through a delicate dynamic balance between the processes of turbulence, reproduction, and sinking. The first quantitative model for this was introduced by Riley, Stommel and Bumpus in 1949. This is an attempt to extend their efforts through a combination of analysis and computer simulation in order to better understand the principal qualitative aspects of the physical/biological coupling of this natural system.
PDF turbulence modeling and DNS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, A. T.
1992-01-01
The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in probability density function (pdf). A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models. The effect of Coriolis forces on compressible homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The numerical method used in this study is an eight order compact difference scheme. Contrary to the conclusions reached by previous DNS studies on incompressible isotropic turbulence, the present results show that the Coriolis force increases the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and that anisotropy develops as the Coriolis force increases. The Taylor-Proudman theory does apply since the derivatives in the direction of the rotation axis vanishes rapidly. A closer analysis reveals that the dissipation rate of the incompressible component of the turbulent kinetic energy indeed decreases with a higher rotation rate, consistent with incompressible flow simulations (Bardina), while the dissipation rate of the compressible part increases; the net gain is positive. Inertial waves are observed in the simulation results.
Light propagation through anisotropic turbulence.
Toselli, Italo; Agrawal, Brij; Restaino, Sergio
2011-03-01
A wealth of experimental data has shown that atmospheric turbulence can be anisotropic; in this case, a Kolmogorov spectrum does not describe well the atmospheric turbulence statistics. In this paper, we show a quantitative analysis of anisotropic turbulence by using a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum with an anisotropic coefficient. The spectrum we use does not include the inner and outer scales, it is valid only inside the inertial subrange, and it has a power-law slope that can be different from a Kolmogorov one. Using this power spectrum, in the weak turbulence condition, we analyze the impact of the power-law variations α on the long-term beam spread and scintillation index for several anisotropic coefficient values ς. We consider only horizontal propagation across the turbulence cells, assuming circular symmetry is maintained on the orthogonal plane to the propagation direction. We conclude that the anisotropic coefficient influences both the long-term beam spread and the scintillation index by the factor ς(2-α).
Turbulent character of wind energy.
Milan, Patrick; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim
2013-03-29
Wind turbines generate electricity from turbulent wind. Large fluctuations, and, more importantly, frequent wind gusts cause a highly fluctuating electrical power feed into the grid. Such effects are the hallmark of high-frequency turbulence. Here we show evidence that it is the complex structure of turbulence that dominates the power output for one single wind turbine as well as for an entire wind farm. We illustrate the highly intermittent, peaked nature of wind power fed into the grid. Multifractal scaling is observed, as described initially by Kolmogorov's 1962 theory of turbulence. In parallel, we propose a stochastic model that converts wind speed signals into power output signals with appropriate multifractal statistics. As more and more wind turbines become integrated into our electric grids, a proper understanding of this intermittent power source must be worked out to ensure grid stability in future networks. Thus, our results stress the need for a profound understanding of the physics of turbulence and its impact on wind energy.
A complete model of turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, D. C.; Traci, R. M.
1976-01-01
A set of constitutive equations suitable for a priori computation of turbulent shear flows has been developed. Since no properties of a given turbulent flow need be known in advance in order to obtain a solution, the equations comprise a complete model of turbulence. Perturbation analysis shows that the model predicts a composite five-layer structure for an incompressible turbulent boundary layer, viz, a defect layer, a law-of-the-wall layer, a viscous sublayer, a near-surface roughness layer, and a viscous superlayer at the boundary-layer edge. Analysis of the defect layer demonstrates the key improvement of the model over its predecessor, the Saffman-Wilcox two-equation model of turbulence. Examination of model-predicted sublayer structure yields model-parameter boundary conditions appropriate for surfaces with roughness and mass injection. Results of numerical computations of compressible and incompressible equilibrium boundary layers show that, for such flows, the model is as accurate as mixing-length theory. Applications to transitional boundary layers and to nonequilibrium relaxation of a boundary layer passing from a rough to a smooth surface indicate that the model's applicability extends far beyond that of mixing-length theory's.
Dynamical properties of superfluid turbulence
Lorenson, C.P.
1985-01-01
Despite all the experimental work done in recent years to study superfluid turbulence, the understanding of the dynamical properties of this system is still poor. The author designed a new cryogenic probe to perform a series of experiments to study the dynamical response of the vortex line density in turbulent thermal counterflow. The apparatus uses a small glass flow tube to probe the fluctuations in the line density around the two turbulent states (TI, TII) present in this system. A chemical potential gradiometer is used that measures the chemical potential across the flow tube. This quantity is directly related to the vortex line density. The gradiometer also enabled both the steady state and the dynamical properties of the turbulence to be studied. These experiments have established the existence of fluctuations in the chemical potential in turbulent counterflow. For the first time fluctuations in the dissipation were observed in the TI/TII transition region. The fluctuations are characteristic of broad-band noise showing no evidence of fluctuations at preferred frequency. The TI/TII transition is characterized by a sharp increase in the noise power amplitude and its variation with heat current reveals a complex structure.
Modeling of Turbulent Swirling Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Liou, William; Chen, Kuo-Huey; Liu, Nan-Suey; Lumley, John L.
1997-01-01
Aircraft engine combustors generally involve turbulent swirling flows in order to enhance fuel-air mixing and flame stabilization. It has long been recognized that eddy viscosity turbulence models are unable to appropriately model swirling flows. Therefore, it has been suggested that, for the modeling of these flows, a second order closure scheme should be considered because of its ability in the modeling of rotational and curvature effects. However, this scheme will require solution of many complicated second moment transport equations (six Reynolds stresses plus other scalar fluxes and variances), which is a difficult task for any CFD implementations. Also, this scheme will require a large amount of computer resources for a general combustor swirling flow. This report is devoted to the development of a cubic Reynolds stress-strain model for turbulent swirling flows, and was inspired by the work of Launder's group at UMIST. Using this type of model, one only needs to solve two turbulence equations, one for the turbulent kinetic energy k and the other for the dissipation rate epsilon. The cubic model developed in this report is based on a general Reynolds stress-strain relationship. Two flows have been chosen for model evaluation. One is a fully developed rotating pipe flow, and the other is a more complex flow with swirl and recirculation.
Transit times in turbulent flows.
Pécseli, H L; Trulsen, J
2010-04-01
Statistics of the motion of passively convected point particles in turbulent flows are studied. The database used is obtained by direct numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. We estimate the probability distribution of the transit times of such particles through reference volumes with given forms and sizes. A selected position within the reference volume is moving with the local flow velocity, thus determining the motion of the entire surface. The transit time is defined as the interval between entrance and exit times of surrounding particles convected through the volume by the turbulent motions. Spherical as well as hemispherical surfaces are studied. Scale sizes in the inertial as well as in the viscous subranges of the turbulence are considered. Simple, and seemingly universal, scaling laws are obtained for the probability density of the transit times in terms of the basic properties of the turbulent flow and the geometry. In the present formulation, the results of the analysis are relevant for chemical reactions, but also for understanding details of the feeding rate of micro-organisms in turbulent waters, for instance.
Phytoplankton's motion in turbulent ocean.
Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander
2015-07-01
We study the influence of turbulence on upward motion of phytoplankton. Interaction with the flow is described by the Pedley-Kessler model considering spherical microorganisms. We find a range of parameters when the upward drift is only weakly perturbed or when turbulence completely randomizes the drift direction. When the perturbation is small, the drift is either determined by the local vorticity or is Gaussian. We find a range of parameters where the phytoplankton interaction with the flow can be described consistently as diffusion of orientation in effective potential. By solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation we find exponential steady-state distribution of phytoplankton's propulsion orientation. We further identify the range of parameters where phytoplankton's drift velocity with respect to the flow is determined uniquely by its position. In this case, one can describe phytoplankton's motion by a smooth flow and phytoplankton concentrates on fractal. We find fractal dimensions and demonstrate that phytoplankton forms vertical stripes in space with a nonisotropic pair-correlation function of concentration increased in the vertical direction. The probability density function of the distance between two particles obeys power law with the negative exponent given by the ratio of integrals of the turbulent energy spectrum. We find the regime of strong clustering where the exponent is of order one so that turbulence increases the rate of collisions by a large factor. The predictions hold for Navier-Stokes turbulence and stand for testing.
Turbulent Character of Wind Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milan, Patrick; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim
2013-03-01
Wind turbines generate electricity from turbulent wind. Large fluctuations, and, more importantly, frequent wind gusts cause a highly fluctuating electrical power feed into the grid. Such effects are the hallmark of high-frequency turbulence. Here we show evidence that it is the complex structure of turbulence that dominates the power output for one single wind turbine as well as for an entire wind farm. We illustrate the highly intermittent, peaked nature of wind power fed into the grid. Multifractal scaling is observed, as described initially by Kolmogorov’s 1962 theory of turbulence. In parallel, we propose a stochastic model that converts wind speed signals into power output signals with appropriate multifractal statistics. As more and more wind turbines become integrated into our electric grids, a proper understanding of this intermittent power source must be worked out to ensure grid stability in future networks. Thus, our results stress the need for a profound understanding of the physics of turbulence and its impact on wind energy.
Direct simulation of turbulent combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poinsot, T. J.
1990-01-01
Understanding and modeling of turbulent combustion are key-problems in the computation of numerous practical systems. Because of the lack of analytical theories in this field and of the difficulty of performing precise experiments, direct simulation appears to be one of the most attractive tools to use in addressing this problem. The present work can be split into two parts: (1) Development and validation of a direct simulation method for turbulent combustion; (2) Applications of the method to premixed turbulent combustion problems. The goal of part 1 is to define and to test a numerical method for direct simulation of reacting flows. A high level of confidence should be attached to direct simulation results, and this can only be achieved through extensive validation tests. In part 2, direct simulation is used to address some of the many critical problems related to turbulent combustion. At the present time, I have limited this work to premixed combustion and considered only four basic issues: (1) The effect of pressure waves on flame propagation; (2) The interaction between flame fronts and vortices; (3) The influence of curvature on premixed flame fronts; and (4) The validation of flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion.
Remote Sensing of Turbulence in Natural Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, Carl H.
2010-11-01
It is generally agreed that natural fluids including the atmosphere, ocean, and astrophysical objects are mixed by turbulence against the forces of gravity. However, the basic mechanisms, definition, and even the direction of the turbulence kinetic energy cascade remain controversial. Broadband remote sensing gives strong evidence to resolve such questions. Turbulence is found to be an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Irrotational flows are non-turbulent by definition. Because turbulent vorticity is always produced at the Kolmogorov scale, the direction of the turbulent energy cascade is always from small scales to large. Fossilization of the turbulence occurs at its largest scales. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation of a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. In the ocean, fossil vorticity turbulence internal waves carry bottom turbulence energy to the sea surface by means of beamed zombie turbulence maser action mixing chimneys, a generic process of natural fluids. Spectral analysis of the sea surface brightness from space satellites combined with simultaneous ocean microstructure sea truth reveals the generic mechanism, also supported by recent astrophysical observations http://arxiv.org/abs/1005.2772v4.
Euros, Pounds and Albion at Arms: European Monetary Policy and British Defence in the 21st Century
2004-09-01
full membership of the European Monetary Union (EMU). Membership has profound implications for the development of the European Union (EU) and the...thought the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 111 14. SUBJECT TERMS United Kingdom, Great Britain, European Union ...European Monetary Union , Pound Sterling, Euro, Defence Policy, Defence Industry, Monetary Policy. 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF
Turbulence vertical structure of the boundary layer during the afternoon transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darbieu, Clara; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; Couvreux, Fleur; Durand, Pierre; Pino, David; Patton, Ned; Nilsson, Erik; Blay-Carreras, Estel; Gioli, Beniamino
2015-04-01
The transition from a well-mixed convective boundary layer to a residual layer overlying a stabilized nocturnal layer raises several issues, which remain difficult to address from both modeling and observational perspectives. The well mixed convective boundary layer is mainly forced by buoyancy, with fully developed turbulence. The daily decrease of the surface buoyancy flux leads to the decay of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and a possible change of the structure of the turbulence before it reaches the stable regime, with more anisotropy and intermittency. It is important to better understand these processes, as they can impact on the dispersion of tracers in the atmosphere, and on the development of the nocturnal and daytime boundary layers of the following days. The presented work is based on both observations from the BLLAST (Boundary Layer Later Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) experiment and Large-Eddy Simulation (NCAR LES code). The field campaign took place in summer 2011 in France, on the northern side of the Pyrenean foothills. A well-documented cloud-free weak wind day is considered here to analyze in details the evolution of the turbulence along the day, from midday to sunset. The case study combines observations of the mean structure and of the turbulence. It is the base of a complementary idealized numerical study with a large eddy simulation. From both observations and numerical simulations, the turbulence is described, according to time and height, with the characteristics of the spectral energy density, especially the typical turbulence lengthscales and the sharpness of the transition from energy-containing eddies to the inertial subrange. An analytical model proposed by Kristensen and Lenschow (1988) for homogeneous nonisotropic turbulence is used to approximate the observed and LES-modeled spectra and estimate their characteristics. The study points out the LES ability to reproduce the turbulence evolution throughout the afternoon. Two