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Sample records for european union relations

  1. [European Union fight against smoking related activitiy].

    PubMed

    Calvete Oliva, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed at providing information concerning the provisions adopted by the European Union on both a compulsory and non-compulsory basis for its member States related in one way or another to the fight against smoking. To this end, a review is made of all of the provisions published in the Official Journal of the European Union as of the first published in 1986 up to March 2005, commenting upon the aspects of each provision having to do with the subject stated above.

  2. Compensation of research-related injuries in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Avilds, Miguelangel Ramiro

    2014-12-01

    The planned reform of the Clinical Trials Directive has re-opened the debate over how to implement and interpret research-related injuries regulation. In the European Union (EU), clinical trials are currently regulated by Directive 2001/20/EC, which establishes the provision of mandatory insurance before clinical trials commence but is silent on the system of liability. The proposed new Regulation will impact biomedical research assurance in all EU Member States because it points to insurance costs as being one of the causes of the fall in the number of clinical trials carried out in the EU. Despite the adoption of a risk-balance approach, the proposed new Regulation does not include a no-fault compensation system to protect subjects participating in clinical trials. An adequate protection of the rights and wellbeing of trial subjects would require not only mandatory insurance for clinical trials but also a no-fault compensation system. The new regulation should include a general clause requiring mandatory insurance and establishing liability insurance based on no-fault compensation; an exception clause, enabling the performance of clinical trials without insurance in the case of low-risk interventions or non-commercial clinical trials; and an exclusion clause, excluding compensation when there is no causal connection between injuries and clinical trial.

  3. European Union Regulations.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has been a leader in the development of both guidance and regulations to ensure food safety throughout the member states. Because of the free movement of food commodities among the countries that belong to the European Union, there is a great need to assure high quality monitoring of both imported food and member state products. The procedures and methods required need to be practical, state-of-the art, and harmonised. The European Commission has developed a network of laboratories and scientific studies to meet this goal. This chapter describes the current Regulations, Directives and Decisions of the European Commission that protect the food supply throughout Europe. Because imported food needs to comply with the EU requirements, and the need to have common compliance throughout the member states, the developed system could be a worldwide template for monitoring the food supply. In addition, the integral role of chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry is described.

  4. Models of risk assessments for biologicals or related products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Moos, M

    1995-12-01

    In the context of veterinary biologicals, environmental risk assessment means the evaluation of the risk to human health and the environment (which includes plants and animals) connected with the release of such products. The following categories or types of veterinary biologicals can be distinguished: non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMOs) (inactivated/live) GMOs (inactivated/live) carrier products related products (e.g. non-specific "inducers'). Suitable models used in risk assessment for these products should aim to identify all possible adverse effects. A good working model should lead, at least, to a qualitative judgement on the environmental risk of the biological product (e.g. negligible, low, medium, severe, unacceptable). Quantifiable outcomes are rare; therefore, the producer of a biological product and the European control authorities should accept only models which are based on testable points and which are relevant to the type of product and its instructions for use. In view of animal welfare aspects, models working without animals should be preferred. In recent years, some of these methods have been integrated into safety tests described in European Union Directives and in monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia. By reviewing vaccine/registration problems (e.g. Aujeszky's disease live vaccine for pigs, and vaccinia-vectored rabies vaccine), several models used in risk assessment are demonstrated and discussed.

  5. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  6. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  7. Legislation relating to nutraceuticals in the European Union with a particular focus on botanical-sourced products.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Om P; Berry Ottaway, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or food ingredients that have defined physiological effects. They do not easily fall into the legal categories of food or drug and often inhabit a grey area between the two. These products in general terms cover health promotion, "optimal nutrition" the concept of enhanced performance--both physically and mentally--and reduction of disease risk factors. In this paper the focus is mainly on legislation governing botanical-sourced nutraceuticals in the European Union (EU). Nutraceutical concept in general has been defined. Different pieces of legislation influencing botanical nutraceuticals are described. The issue of the borderline between food and drug is discussed. The regulatory status of botanical nutraceuticals as food supplement, food ingredient, functional and fortified food, novel foods and foods for particular nutritional use in the diversified, complex and ever-changing European regulatory environment is described. Botanical nutraceuticals present additional problems because of their complex nature and composition particularly with respect to the quality aspects, which in turn affect safety parameters and overall efficacy of the products. Quality issues relating to botanical sources, growth conditions, end products, their specifications and other technical criteria are highlighted. Guiding principles to be observed for conducting in vitro, in vivo studies in animals and their impact on clinical safety data are discussed. Finally, health claims, their types and criteria of substantiation in light of ongoing discussions with regard to the EU frame work of regulation on nutrition and health claims and role of process for the assessment of scientific support for claims (PASSCLAIM) initiative is discussed. The concept of grading of evidence to substantiate different claims and to establish standards, which should not be revoked or reversed by emerging science at a later stage has been considered. These issues are crucial and are being

  8. [The zig-zagging legislative policies of the European Union in relation to transgenic products].

    PubMed

    Martín Uranga, Amelia

    2003-01-01

    The author analyses the E.U. legislative policies related to transgenic products from the 80s until nowadays, she stops in Directive 2001/18/Ce and its conversion into national law. She explains how the regulatory frame is after the recent approval of the newest rules about tracking and labelling genetically modified organisms (OMG). She also studies communitary jurisprudence about this subject according to the legislation, concretely sentence 9 September 2003 in the affair C-236/01 about commercialisation of two lines of transgenic corn. Finally she points out how legislative policies have influenced the creation and development of biotechnological enterprises.

  9. [The zig-zagging legislative policies of the European Union in relation to transgenic products].

    PubMed

    Martín Uranga, Amelia

    2003-01-01

    The author analyses the E.U. legislative policies related to transgenic products from the 80s until nowadays, she stops in Directive 2001/18/Ce and its conversion into national law. She explains how the regulatory frame is after the recent approval of the newest rules about tracking and labelling genetically modified organisms (OMG). She also studies communitary jurisprudence about this subject according to the legislation, concretely sentence 9 September 2003 in the affair C-236/01 about commercialisation of two lines of transgenic corn. Finally she points out how legislative policies have influenced the creation and development of biotechnological enterprises. PMID:15032103

  10. The Western European Union Satellite Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasani, Bhupendra; Mara, Simon

    1993-06-01

    In January 1993, the FALCON consortium of 13 European companies, led by Cray Systems, won the contract to supply a turnkey satellite image processing facility to the Western European Union. The project started immediately and will be installed at WEU's Data Centre in Torrejon near Madrid in December 1993. This paper discusses the development of an idea for a Regional Satellite Monitoring Agency (RSMA) which will be realized in December 1993 when the Centre becomes fully operational.

  11. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  12. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy. PMID:21487236

  13. [European Union funds and clinical toxicology].

    PubMed

    Wiszniewiecka, Monika; Cejrowski, Daniel; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Since 2014 we are heading the third programming period of help from European Union (EU). The new budget will run until 2020. From common resources of EU, 106 billion euro will reach Poland, of which about 82.3 billion to cohesion policy, levelling differences of regional development. Clinical toxicology centres will be able to apply for funding under the allocation for the health service. Polish health service very actively benefited from EU funds in previous programming periods, between 2004-2006, and 2007-2013. Thanks to grants from the EU, a large number of health centres were built or renovated. Unfortunately the needs of hospitals, which were underinvested for many years, exceeded available funds according to UE programmes. Except investment projects, also projects training of health professionals were executed. In the current programming period European Union will still support projects aimed at health service. Clinical toxicology centres should have a try of using this period to fulfil their plans.

  14. [Women and tobacco in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Sasco, A; Salvador, T; Villalbí, J R

    1999-01-01

    Over the last decades, the prevalence of smoking in the European Union has followed different trends by sex. While the prevalence has declined for men, it has increased or is stable for women. In some countries where these changes took place earlier, the prevalence of smoking is now higher among women than among men. This document provides quantitative data for these trends in the European Union, with special reference to the situation in Spain. In 1995 there were 60 million men and 42 million women smokers in the European Union. Up to 48% of female smokers used light cigarettes, that is 20 million women. There are documents from the tobacco industry showing that the goal of the promotion of light cigarettes is to reassure their clients and to keep as smokers those concerned about their health who are considering the possibility of quitting. There is evidence confirming that this policy is successful, and that the misconceptions of smokers about light cigarettes deter them from quitting. There is evidence on the role of smoking in weight control. Women are more concerned than men about their weight, and for young women body image is very relevant. Young girls often have the perception that they are overweight. Although fear of being overweight is more common than actual overweight, the evidence suggests that being afraid of gaining weight plays a role in keeping women as smokers, and that young girls begin smoking taking into consideration weight issues. The advice on how to maintain weight should be included in any smoking cessation program for women. Any preventive action for teen age smokers should include weight control issues.

  15. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  16. Public funding for research on antibacterial resistance in the JPIAMR countries, the European Commission, and related European Union agencies: a systematic observational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ruth; Zoubiane, Ghada; Walsh, Desmond; Ward, Rebecca; Goossens, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Antibacterial resistant infections are rising continuously, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. With no new antibiotic classes entering the market and the possibility of returning to the pre-antibiotic era, the Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR) was established to address this problem. We aimed to quantify the scale and scope of publicly funded antibacterial resistance research across JPIAMR countries and at the European Union (EU) level to identify gaps and future opportunities. Methods We did a systematic observational analysis examining antibacterial resistance research funding. Databases of funding organisations across 19 countries and at EU level were systematically searched for publicly funded antibacterial resistance research from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2013. We categorised studies on the basis of the JPIAMR strategic research agenda's six priority topics (therapeutics, diagnostics, surveillance, transmission, environment, and interventions) and did an observational analysis. Only research funded by public funding bodies was collected and no private organisations were contacted for their investments. Projects in basic, applied, and clinical research, including epidemiological, public health, and veterinary research and trials were identified using keyword searches by organisations, and inclusion criteria were based on the JPIAMR strategic research agenda's six priority topics, using project titles and abstracts as filters. Findings We identified 1243 antibacterial resistance research projects, with a total public investment of €1·3 billion across 19 countries and at EU level, including public investment in the Innovative Medicines Initiative. Of the total amount invested in antibacterial resistance research across the time period, €646·6 million (49·5%) was invested at the national level and €659·2 million (50·5%) at the EU level. When projects were classified under the six

  17. European Union vaccine research--an overview.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Jürgen; Olesen, Ole F; Bray, Jeremy; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2011-09-01

    Recent developments in vaccine research provide new momentum for an important area in health innovation. Particularly interesting are novel DNA vaccine approaches, many of which are already under clinical investigation. The Framework Programmes of the European Union play an important role in supporting collaborative efforts in vaccine research to develop new and better vaccines and bring them to the market. With a timely strategic reorientation towards a sustainable investment in innovation, the current seventh Framework Programme will help to bring large industry and small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) on board and foster partnership between stakeholders. As the first human DNA vaccines progresses through the development pipeline, more and more questions revolve around licensing and regulation and appropriate guidelines are being developed.

  18. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  19. Languages and Institutions in the European Union. Mercator Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz, Manuel

    This paper situates languages in the framework of European construction, analyzing problems resulting from the definition of languages' official status in the European Union (EU) juridical system. It explains that the process of European construction is historically defined by means of two distinct features (it is an open process, and at the same…

  20. The revision of the air quality legislation in the european union related to ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Amann, M; Lutz, M

    2000-11-01

    Complying with the obligation in the current ozone directive, the European Commission came forward in 1999 with a strategy to combat tropospheric ozone together with a proposed revision of the air quality legislation for this pollutant. As a daughter legislation under the 1996 Framework Directive on Air Quality, the proposed ozone daughter directive defines for the first time (interim) air quality targets for ozone to be attained by 2010, complemented by long-term objectives for ozone based on the guideline values of the World Health Organisation. It also sets out enhanced requirements for monitoring and assessment of ozone concentrations, as well as minimum criteria for appropriate information of the public about the measured air pollution. In the past, abatement strategies against air pollution consisted of concrete obligations for controlling emissions derived solely on the basis of technical and economic aspects, covering specific types of installations or activities, thus with no direct quantitative relationship to the level of air pollution let alone to its effects. In compensating this deficit, the Commission presented, as a complement to the existing sectoral legislation, a proposal for a directive on national emission ceilings (NEC) which quantifies emission targets for every Member State to bring its total precursor emissions by 2010 down to levels being considered as necessary to achieve everywhere on a regional scale the air quality targets set in the ozone daughter directive. As the core element of the ozone abatement strategy, the national ceilings for emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), ammonia (NH(3)) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were derived from a cost-effectiveness analysis integrating information on economic, technical, physical and biological aspects of ozone pollution and abatement. This integrated assessment considers the potential and costs for further emission control in the various economic sectors in the

  1. The revision of the air quality legislation in the european union related to ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Amann, M; Lutz, M

    2000-11-01

    Complying with the obligation in the current ozone directive, the European Commission came forward in 1999 with a strategy to combat tropospheric ozone together with a proposed revision of the air quality legislation for this pollutant. As a daughter legislation under the 1996 Framework Directive on Air Quality, the proposed ozone daughter directive defines for the first time (interim) air quality targets for ozone to be attained by 2010, complemented by long-term objectives for ozone based on the guideline values of the World Health Organisation. It also sets out enhanced requirements for monitoring and assessment of ozone concentrations, as well as minimum criteria for appropriate information of the public about the measured air pollution. In the past, abatement strategies against air pollution consisted of concrete obligations for controlling emissions derived solely on the basis of technical and economic aspects, covering specific types of installations or activities, thus with no direct quantitative relationship to the level of air pollution let alone to its effects. In compensating this deficit, the Commission presented, as a complement to the existing sectoral legislation, a proposal for a directive on national emission ceilings (NEC) which quantifies emission targets for every Member State to bring its total precursor emissions by 2010 down to levels being considered as necessary to achieve everywhere on a regional scale the air quality targets set in the ozone daughter directive. As the core element of the ozone abatement strategy, the national ceilings for emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), ammonia (NH(3)) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were derived from a cost-effectiveness analysis integrating information on economic, technical, physical and biological aspects of ozone pollution and abatement. This integrated assessment considers the potential and costs for further emission control in the various economic sectors in the

  2. Migration-related tuberculosis: epidemiology and characteristics of tuberculosis cases originating outside the European Union and European Economic Area, 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    Migrants arriving from high tuberculosis (TB)-incidence countries may pose a significant challenge to TB control programmes in the host country. TB surveillance data for 2007-2013 submitted to the European Surveillance System were analysed. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin and reporting country. The contribution of migrant TB cases to the TB epidemiology in EU/EEA countries was analysed. Migrant TB cases accounted for 17.4% (n = 92,039) of all TB cases reported in the EU/EEA in 2007-2013, continuously increasing from 13.6% in 2007 to 21.8% in 2013. Of 91,925 migrant cases with known country of origin, 29.3% were from the Eastern Mediterranean, 23.0% from south-east Asia, 21.4% from Africa, 13.4% from the World Health Organization European Region (excluding EU/EEA), and 12.9% from other regions. Of 46,499 migrant cases with known drug-susceptibility test results, 2.9% had multidrug-resistant TB, mainly (51.7%) originating from the European Region. The increasing contribution of TB in migrants from outside the EU/EEA to the TB burden in the EU/EEA is mainly due to a decrease in native TB cases. Especially in countries with a high proportion of TB cases in non-EU/EEA migrants, targeted prevention and control initiatives may be needed to progress towards TB elimination.

  3. Migration-related tuberculosis: epidemiology and characteristics of tuberculosis cases originating outside the European Union and European Economic Area, 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    Migrants arriving from high tuberculosis (TB)-incidence countries may pose a significant challenge to TB control programmes in the host country. TB surveillance data for 2007-2013 submitted to the European Surveillance System were analysed. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin and reporting country. The contribution of migrant TB cases to the TB epidemiology in EU/EEA countries was analysed. Migrant TB cases accounted for 17.4% (n = 92,039) of all TB cases reported in the EU/EEA in 2007-2013, continuously increasing from 13.6% in 2007 to 21.8% in 2013. Of 91,925 migrant cases with known country of origin, 29.3% were from the Eastern Mediterranean, 23.0% from south-east Asia, 21.4% from Africa, 13.4% from the World Health Organization European Region (excluding EU/EEA), and 12.9% from other regions. Of 46,499 migrant cases with known drug-susceptibility test results, 2.9% had multidrug-resistant TB, mainly (51.7%) originating from the European Region. The increasing contribution of TB in migrants from outside the EU/EEA to the TB burden in the EU/EEA is mainly due to a decrease in native TB cases. Especially in countries with a high proportion of TB cases in non-EU/EEA migrants, targeted prevention and control initiatives may be needed to progress towards TB elimination. PMID:27039665

  4. Geriatric medicine in the European Union: future scenarios.

    PubMed

    Duursma, S A; Overstall, P W

    2003-06-01

    The differences in training and services in geriatric medicine between European Union member countries raise some questions: what is a geriatrician, what is geriatric medicine, what will be the future development of the specialty and how does it interact with other medical specialties? To find answers to these questions, a questionnaire was sent to a selected group of 122 geriatricians. The response rate was 60%. A description has been given of what is a geriatrician and what is geriatric medicine. Based on data from the literature and the answers of the respondents six future scenarios were designed. The six scenarios are: the 'healthy old people', the 'adapted specialties', the 'general practitioner + additional training', the 'co-ordinator geriatrician', the 'community geriatrician' and the 'hospital geriatrician'. The answers of the respondents gave doubts whether general practitioners are able to provide the full range of services for geriatric patients in the community. A small majority of the respondents opted for a division of the specialty into community geriatric medicine and hospital geriatric medicine. Such a division offers good opportunities to raise the quality of medical services and to reduce age-related treatment limitation. It is expected that some aspects of geriatric medicine will be included in the training of other specialties and some GPs will obtain additional training. The collected data can not be considered as a representation of the ideas of the European Union geriatricians. However, they may contribute to the discussion on the national and European level about the future of the specialty.

  5. Has the European union achieved a single pharmaceutical market?

    PubMed

    Timur, Aysegul; Picone, Gabriel; DeSimone, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores price differences in the European Union (EU) pharmaceutical market, the EU's fifth largest industry. With the aim of enhancing quality of life along with industry competitiveness and R&D capability, many EU directives have been adopted to achieve a single EU-wide pharmaceutical market. Using annual 1994-2003 data on prices of molecules that treat cardiovascular disease, we examine whether drug price dispersion has indeed decreased across five EU countries. Hedonic regressions show that over time, cross-country price differences between Germany and three of the four other EU sample countries, France, Italy and Spain, have declined, with relative prices in all three as well as the fourth country, UK, rising during the period. We interpret this as evidence that the EU has come closer to achieving a single pharmaceutical market in response to increasing European Commission coordination efforts.

  6. Vocation or Vocational? Reviewing European Union Education and Mobility Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Amelia; Summerby-Murray, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role that education plays in European Union (EU) integration. We ask whether efforts which historically have been designed to endow European students with a "knowledge of Europe" in terms of an understanding of culture, politics and sensibility have been circumscribed by, or augmented, by the recently…

  7. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  8. European Union health policy and its implications for national convergence.

    PubMed

    Cucic, S

    2000-06-01

    This paper explores the relevance for health care of European Union (EU) legislation, regulation and policies. Reports, communications and other materials of the European Commission and other relevant European bodies are screened for their implications for health care, primarily on the national health system level. The paper provides a brief overview of EU history and its main institutions, followed by an analysis of health (care)-related provisions in the EU's main legal documents--its treaties. The impact of the EU actions on health protection is considered with regard to both actions in the field of public health and health protection requirements in its policies. In the public health area, information systems that are now being developed are discussed, followed by an outline of health protection requirements in EU policies that can have an impact on health systems. These policies are then analysed using the political factions model. Finally an attempt is made to predict future developments, stressing the need for a far-reaching synchronization of national systems.

  9. Gender, Jobs and Working Conditions in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Colette; Burchell, Brendan

    Trends in gender, jobs, and working conditions in the European Union (EU) were examined. In 2000, representative samples of approximately 1,500 workers in each of the EU member states (500 in Luxembourg) were surveyed. To identify trends, the survey findings were compared with those of similar surveys conducted in 1991 and 1996. The comparison…

  10. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  11. Key Data on Vocational Training in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This book provides key quantitative and qualitative data on vocational education and training (VET) in the European Union. Among the topics on which data are provided are the following: demographic trends, educational attainment, and the labor market (aging of the population and labor force, changes in educational attainment over time, impacts of…

  12. European Union Students Studying in English Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian; Rutt, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the pathways, intentions and relevant perceptions of (non-UK) European Union (EU) students entering English higher education. It sought to identify why students wished to obtain an English HE qualification, their attitudes towards the uptake and repayment of tuition fee loans and their future career plans. Drawing on…

  13. The European Union, Education Governance and International Education Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volante, Louis; Ritzen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The European Union--comprising 28 member states with individual sovereignty in the formation and implementation of education policy--has developed research and communication strategies to facilitate the exchange of best practices, gathering and dissemination of education statistics and, perhaps most importantly, advice and support for national…

  14. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. PMID:25963556

  15. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development.

  16. [Interpretation of Guidelines on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices for European Union].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Due to the limitations of pre-authorization clinical trials, the safety information obtained from them is relatively limited. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out pharmacovigilance activities on drugs post-marketing. In order to promote the specific implementation of the new pharmacovigilance regulations, the European medicines agency (EMA) developed the Guideline on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices (GVP), as the new criteria for pharmacovigilance in the European Union (EU). Compared with the previously published, Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance for Medicinal Products for Human Use (2007), the GVP proposed more comprehensive and systematic provisions of pharmacovigilance systems, quality control systems, judgements, pharmacovigilance inspections and audits. In addition, it set more specific and comprehensive requirements on risk management systems, the management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products, periodic safety update reports, post-authorization safety studies, signal management, and so on. Interpreting the basic principles, working mechanisms, key technologies and methods of the GVP provides a useful reference for us to carry out pharmacovigilance (especially regarding safety monitoring of parenterally administered Chinese medicine). PMID:24471312

  17. RAPHAEL: The European Union's (Very) High Temperature Reactor Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fuetterer, Michael A.; Besson, D.; Bogusch, E.; Carluec, B.; Hittner, D.; Verrier, D.; Billot, Ph.; Phelip, M.; Buckthorpe, D.; Casalta, S.; Chauvet, V.; Van Heek, A.; Von Lensa, W.; Pirson, J.; Scheuermann, W.

    2006-07-01

    Since the late 1990, the European Union (EU) was conducting work on High Temperature Reactors (HTR) confirming their high potential in terms of safety (inherent safety features), environmental impact (robust fuel with no significant radioactive release), sustainability (high efficiency, potential suitability for various fuel cycles), and economics (simplifications arising from safety features). In April 2005, the EU Commission has started a new 4-year Integrated Project on Very High Temperature Reactors (RAPHAEL: Reactor for Process Heat And Electricity) as part of its 6{sup th} Framework Programme. The European Commission and the 33 partners from industry, R and D organizations and academia finance the project together. After the successful performance of earlier HTR-related EU projects which included the recovery of some earlier German experience and the re-establishment of strategically important R and D capabilities in Europe, RAPHAEL focuses now on key technologies required for an industrial VHTR deployment, both specific to very high temperature and generic to all types of modular HTR with emphasis on combined process heat and electricity generation. Advanced technologies are explored in order to meet the performance challenges required for a VHTR (900-1000 deg C, up to 200 GWd/tHM). To facilitate the planned sharing of significant parts of RAPHAEL results with the signatories of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) VHTR projects, RAPHAEL is structured in a similar way as the corresponding GIF VHTR projects. (authors)

  18. Sports injuries among children in six European union countries.

    PubMed

    Belechri, M; Petridou, E; Kedikoglou, S; Trichopoulos, D

    2001-01-01

    Since sports participation entails the risk of injuries that account for substantial morbidity and disability, the existence of adequate epidemiological information is essential for the development of sound preventive strategies. In this study, we present data on the occurrence of sports injuries among children in six European countries, namely Austria, Denmark, France, Greece, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. An operational definition for sports injuries was developed, and comparable data from the European Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System, an established injury surveillance system operating in 12 European union countries, were collected from the participating member states, during a 1-year period (1998). Sports injuries were examined in schools, in organised and unorganised settings, and in specific types of sports by demographics and injury descriptive variables. Sports injuries represent a quantitatively important and sufficiently serious problem in European union countries, accounting for an estimated annual number of about a quarter of a million outpatient visits in two of the participating countries, which provide national estimates. It is evident, that sport injuries are not only common but also injuries of considerable severity, since a large fraction represents fractures, while approximately 4% of the total require hospitalisation. Football and basketball among male children are, in declining order, the two sports responsible for the most frequent injuries in the European union countries, whereas gymnastics and volleyball prevail among females. The study indicates the importance of injury surveillance in describing the epidemiology of sports injuries and provides an estimate of the magnitude and the profile of sport injuries that take place annually in European union countries.

  19. Medical interpreting and the law in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Mary

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, the Danish government announced that from June that year it would no longer cover the costs of medical interpreters for patients who had been living in Denmark for more than seven years. The Dutch Ministry of Health followed with an even more draconian approach; from 1 January 2012, the cost of translation and interpreting would no longer be covered by the state. These two announcements led to widespread concern about whether or not there is a legal foundation for interpreter provision in healthcare. This article considers United Nations treaties, conventions from the Council of Europe and European Union law. European Union member states have been slow to sign up to international agreements to protect the rights of migrant workers. The European Union itself has only recently moved into the area of discrimination and it is unclear if the Race Directive covers language. As a result, access to interpreters in healthcare, where it exists, is dependent on national anti-discrimination legislation or on positive action taken at national or local level rather than on European or international law. PMID:22908525

  20. Future directions in the European union for veterinary education as related to food-producing animals, with special reference to Greece.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, Spyridon C; Alexopoulos, Constantinos; Tassis, Panayiotis D; Tzika, Eleni D; Kritas, Spyridon K; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2004-01-01

    During the past 50 years, procedures for raising food-producing animals have changed. Intensification of food production was necessary to keep prices low and to fulfill market demands for the continuously increasing worldwide population. Intensification of farming procedures produced many new problems, some of which had a considerable impact on public opinion about how animals are raised and how food of animal origin is produced and preserved. "Man made diseases" of animals such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE); contamination of foods with dioxins either through contamination of animal feeds or from the environment; and increased microbial resistance to drugs used for treatment, for prophylaxis of animals from infectious agents, and for growth promotion are some well-known hazards of intensified farming. Veterinarians working on food-producing animals are faced with an increased demand for foods of high quality and safety in developed countries, and higher quantities in the rest of the world. These qualitative and quantitative changes indicate that they must adjust to these new conditions. They will be most successful if their education is adjusted to meet the challenges that the public has created for them through new concepts of the production of food of animal origin. One such concept is the production of foods under fully certified procedures from the farm to the consumer's table. Food safety measures protecting public health will better be achieved if the education of the future veterinarian includes the principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) starting at farm level. This article provides some market-driven ideas in this direction for European Union (EU) countries, including Greece.

  1. University degrees consistent with agricultural production in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigones, Alicia; del Cerro, Jesus; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Benedicto, Susana; García, Jose Luis

    2013-04-01

    Degrees clearly oriented to rural and agricultural engineering are distinguished from the rest of the engineering areas by the need to involve the biological phenomena of engineering calculations. These degrees, which include subjects such as crop production, biotechnology and physics, among others, have evolved tremendously over the last ten years, implanting new curricula and introducing new specialties such as those dedicated to the environment or rural development, thereby adapting new social, economic and environmental aspects of each country. Currently being finalized to implement new titles in most Spanish universities, and in rest of Europe, following the guidelines set by Bologna. The process of elaboration of these degrees is complicated precisely because of the great variety of areas and subjects involved in these degrees. In this paper we study, for several countries of the European Union, the core subjects of the university degrees of agricultural engineering and the correlations between the core contents and the importance of the related uses of the soil in the different sectors of crop production (arable crops, horticulture, fruit growing, gardening, etc.) as well as other socio-economic criteria. The objective is to detect if the design of the core content is consistent in each country with the importance of the related socio-economic sector. Key-words: curriculum, crop production, agricultural engineer.

  2. Voluntary health insurance in the European Union: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.

  3. Archives, Libraries and Museums as Communicators of Memory in the European Union Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzuch, Zinaida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Explores the approach to communication of memory in archives, libraries and museums in European Union research projects in 2000-2005. The main objectives were: to identify predominant aspects of heritage communication; to determine whether and how heritage communication was related to memory; to establish patterns of participation in…

  4. The Involvement of the European Union in Career Guidance Policy: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Sultana, Ronald G.; McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    The history of the involvement of the European Union in the development of policy related to career guidance is analysed in terms of three broad periods. In the first two of these, interventions were confined to pilot projects, exchanges and placements, study visits and studies/surveys, with particular attention to young people; whereas the period…

  5. Final report of coordination and cooperation with the European Union on embankment failure analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been an emphasis in the European Union (EU) community on the investigation of extreme flood processes and the uncertainties related to these processes. Over a 3-year period, the EU and the U.S. dam safety community (1) coordinated their efforts and collected information needed to integrate...

  6. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement.

    PubMed

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people. PMID:27299902

  7. A COMPREHENSIVE FRACTURE PREVENTION STRATEGY IN OLDER ADULTS: THE EUROPEAN UNION GERIATRIC MEDICINE SOCIETY (EUGMS) STATEMENT

    PubMed Central

    BLAIN, H.; MASUD, T.; DARGENT-MOLINA, P.; MARTIN, F.C.; ROSENDAHL, E.; VAN DER VELDE, N.; BOUSQUET, J.; BENETOS, A.; COOPER, C.; KANIS, J.A.; REGINSTER, J.Y.; RIZZOLI, R.; CORTET, B.; BARBAGALLO, M.; DREINHÖFER, K.E.; VELLAS, B.; MAGGI, S.; STRANDBERG, T.

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people. PMID:27273355

  8. Animal traceability across national frontiers in the European Union.

    PubMed

    McGrann, J; Wiseman, H

    2001-08-01

    The authors identify the fundamental requirements of a new information infrastructure for transnational animal tracking and tracing systems for use within the European Union. Relevant data for individual animals should include identification, movement history and health records. This must be maintained and available within each Member State, and should be available to other Member States on demand. A prerequisite for effective traceability is a system of unique and secure identification based on tamper-proof/tamper-evident identifiers linked directly to a database. An effective transnational traceability system requires an information infrastructure that will support the following: accuracy of information, completeness of information, common standards for interpreting data relating to animals and fast response to tracking and tracing requests. Information technology has advanced rapidly in the period since the existing animal movement control systems for Europe were first developed in the mid-1980s. The authors discuss the opportunity to use new technologies to enhance the existing systems. In particular, extensible markup language (XML) can be used to address many of the problems with data standards and interchanges in the existing infrastructure.

  9. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Le Manach, Frédéric; Chaboud, Christian; Copeland, Duncan; Cury, Philippe; Gascuel, Didier; Kleisner, Kristin M; Standing, André; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

  10. [Teaching and training in geriatric medicine in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Duursma, S

    2005-04-01

    In 1993 about 20% of the population in the 15 'old' member countries of the European Union (EU) was over 60 years of age and this percentage will increase to more than 25% in 2020. These developments play a key role for the investments in education and training to meet societies needs for health care services. In 2002 about 25% of the medical students in the 'old' EU did not receive any education in geriatric medicine. A question is who will provide the services for older people in related areas, like social care, community care, acute care in the hospitals, long-term care, permanent care and care for psychiatric patients? Geriatric medicine has been recognized as an independent specialty in 8 of the 15 member countries of the 'old' EU. In all EU member states the governments are autonomous regarding all aspects of health care services, including the recognition of specialties and specialist training programmes. A two years training in internal medicine has been recommended in the EU, followed by another four years of training in geriatric medicine. The specialist training has a hospital oriented character, however, it includes also community care and other institutionalised care like nursing homes. The curriculum should contain: biological, social, psychological and medical aspects of common diseases and disturbances in older people. A problem in many EU countries is the shortage of well trained researchers and leading persons for academic positions for geriatric medicine. In a number of countries chairs at the universities remain vacant for long periods of time or even disappear. Good services in the health care for older people need a high quality curriculum and training programme.

  11. European Union pharmacovigilance capabilities: potential for the new legislation

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, Amy; Kouvelas, Dimitrios; Lungu, Calin; Pirozynski, Michal; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Aislaitner, George

    2015-01-01

    European Directives and Regulations introduced between late 2010 and 2012 have substantially overhauled pharmacovigilance processes across the European Union (EU). In this review, the implementation of the pharmacovigilance legislative framework by EU regulators is examined with the aim of mapping Directive 2010/84/EU and Regulation EC No. 1235/2010 against their aspired objectives of strengthening and rationalizing pharmacovigilance in the EU. A comprehensive review of the current state of affairs of the progress made by EU regulators is presented in this paper. Our review shows that intense efforts by regulators and industry to fulfil legislative obligations have resulted in major positive shifts in pharmacovigilance. Harmonized decision making, transparency in decision processes with patient involvement, information accessibility to the public, patient adverse drug reaction reporting, efforts in communication and enhanced cooperation between member states to maximize resource utilization and minimize duplication of efforts are observed. PMID:26301067

  12. Crisis in the United Nations, NATO and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    The unilateralist policies of the United States administration have raised the question of how the international system should operate. It is suggested that the administration is dismissive of institutions such as the United Nations, the International Criminal Court and the Kyoto Protocol because they do not permit the US to follow its desire to be the world's unchallenged economic, political and military force. It is proposed that the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe should be responsible for European security in place of NATO. The European Union should not attempt to compete militarily with the US, but could act as a counterweight by adopting sustainable economic policies and political reforms. The United Nations must be democratized and international security enhanced by dealing with poverty and inequality. An emerging global public opinion may provide the political will for this to be achieved. PMID:14703126

  13. Crisis in the United Nations, NATO and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    The unilateralist policies of the United States administration have raised the question of how the international system should operate. It is suggested that the administration is dismissive of institutions such as the United Nations, the International Criminal Court and the Kyoto Protocol because they do not permit the US to follow its desire to be the world's unchallenged economic, political and military force. It is proposed that the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe should be responsible for European security in place of NATO. The European Union should not attempt to compete militarily with the US, but could act as a counterweight by adopting sustainable economic policies and political reforms. The United Nations must be democratized and international security enhanced by dealing with poverty and inequality. An emerging global public opinion may provide the political will for this to be achieved.

  14. The European Union Integrated Political Crisis Response Arrangements: Improving the European Union's Major Crisis Response Coordination Capacities.

    PubMed

    de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo; Atienza-Macías, Elena; Armaza, Emilio Armaza

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the European Union (EU) has progressively assumed more and more of a primary role in crisis response coordination. The EU Integrated Political Crisis Response arrangements (IPCR) were recently approved to facilitate this task. These new agreements, which substitute for the Crisis Coordination Agreements, will add more flexibility to crisis response mechanisms in the EU. They will also strengthen cooperation between the different relevant agents in a major crisis situation and create new useful tools, such as the Integrated Situational Awareness and Analysis. Their real performance still needs to be fully tested, but some weakness can already be foreseen. This article provides a deep analysis of this new legislation.

  15. Biopesticides--towards increased consumer safety in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Katarzyna; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Łyczewska, Monika; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of new food safety regulations in the European Union has resulted in the withdrawal of many synthetic active substances used in plant protection products, in light of their potential or actual harmful effect on human and animal health, as well as on the environment. Alternatives to these compounds are being developed - naturally occurring pesticides, also referred to as biopesticides. The use of biopesticides in crop protection leads to decreased levels of pesticide residues in foods, and as a result to lower risk levels for the consumer. Biologically active agents defined as biopesticides are varied, and therefore application of the same environmental and consumer safety criteria to all of them is impossible. This presents serious complications in the approval of these pesticides as active plant protection products and in their registration. It needs to be stressed that, in the registration procedure of the European Union, biopesticides are subject to the same regulations as synthetic active substances. This situation has resulted in the need to introduce numerous new provisions in the legislation, as well as the preparation of new guidelines facilitating the registration of biopesticides. These activities aim to promote naturally originating pesticides.

  16. Biopesticides--towards increased consumer safety in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Katarzyna; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Łyczewska, Monika; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of new food safety regulations in the European Union has resulted in the withdrawal of many synthetic active substances used in plant protection products, in light of their potential or actual harmful effect on human and animal health, as well as on the environment. Alternatives to these compounds are being developed - naturally occurring pesticides, also referred to as biopesticides. The use of biopesticides in crop protection leads to decreased levels of pesticide residues in foods, and as a result to lower risk levels for the consumer. Biologically active agents defined as biopesticides are varied, and therefore application of the same environmental and consumer safety criteria to all of them is impossible. This presents serious complications in the approval of these pesticides as active plant protection products and in their registration. It needs to be stressed that, in the registration procedure of the European Union, biopesticides are subject to the same regulations as synthetic active substances. This situation has resulted in the need to introduce numerous new provisions in the legislation, as well as the preparation of new guidelines facilitating the registration of biopesticides. These activities aim to promote naturally originating pesticides. PMID:24831175

  17. Mapping communicable disease control in the European union.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Heather A; Jones, David K; Greer, Scott L

    2012-12-01

    Understanding both the current performance of communicable disease control in Europe and the scale of the differences among systems is crucial to understanding its present performance and possible Europeanization. We attempt to identify the structure of authority in communicable disease control in each European Union (EU) member state. The primary sources of information were the competent bodies list posted on the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control website and the Health in Transition reports produced by the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Three key patterns emerge to answer the question of who does what. First, the landscape is full and crowded, with many actors involved. Second, the landscape is highly fragmented, with many organizations performing overlapping functions in each country. Third, regional patterns describe which types of organizations are assigned which functions. These full, fragmented, and regionally disparate systems show no signs of constituting a shared model. As a result, if there is an EU model of communicable disease control today, it is at most an aspiration. PMID:22899840

  18. Public health research systems in the European union

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Strengthening health research is an important objective for international health organisations, but there has been less attention to support for health research in Europe. We describe the public-health (population and organisational level) research systems in the 27 European Union countries. Methods We developed a typology for describing health research structures based on funding streams and strategies. We drew data from internet sources and asked country informants to review these for consistency and completeness. The structures were described as organograms and narratives in country profiles for each of the 27 EU member states. National public-health research structures included public and independent funding organisations, 'mixed' institutions (which receive funds, and both use and allocate them) and provider institutions. Results Most health research is funded through ministries of science or science councils (and sometimes foundations), while parliaments and regions may also contribute. National institutes of public health are usually funded by ministries of health. Many national research organisations both determine research programmes and undertake health research, but there is a move towards public-health sciences within the universities, and a transition from internal grants to competitive funding. Of 27 national research strategies, 17 referred to health and 11 to public health themes. Although all countries had strategies for public health itself, we found little coherence in public-health research programmes. The European Commission has country contact points for both EU research and health programmes, but they do not coordinate with national health-research programmes. Conclusions Public-health research is broadly distributed across programmes in EU countries. Better understanding of research structures, programmes and results would improve recognition for public health in Europe, and contribute to practice. EU ministries of health should

  19. [Physician assessment of aptitude for driving in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Lentaigne de Logivière, Xavier; Jardé, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2015-09-01

    Road safety is for several years a major public health issue, given the number of casualties and annual deaths caused by road accidents in France or Europe. European directives of 2006 and 2009 were aimed harmonized community practices for the conduct, including medically. We studied the laws in force in each of the 28 countries of the European Union to make an inventory of the organization on this subject. The results showed that 25 countries introduce, at least once, including 21 medical check regularly. Age is the main factor that motivates control. The frequency of examinations increases with the age of the driver. In other countries, a sworn statement of the absence of pathology is enough. Although a medical examination is mostly carried out systematically, it the content is extremely variable, ranging from a simple vision test to a full review with psycho test. Management of professional secrecy is approached differently in different countries, although predominantly an exemption exists in the event of discovery of the inability of a patient. We note that there is a great diversity in the medical screening modalities unsuited to driving. These systems will be harmonized to comply with the wishes of European directives.

  20. [Physician assessment of aptitude for driving in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Lentaigne de Logivière, Xavier; Jardé, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2015-09-01

    Road safety is for several years a major public health issue, given the number of casualties and annual deaths caused by road accidents in France or Europe. European directives of 2006 and 2009 were aimed harmonized community practices for the conduct, including medically. We studied the laws in force in each of the 28 countries of the European Union to make an inventory of the organization on this subject. The results showed that 25 countries introduce, at least once, including 21 medical check regularly. Age is the main factor that motivates control. The frequency of examinations increases with the age of the driver. In other countries, a sworn statement of the absence of pathology is enough. Although a medical examination is mostly carried out systematically, it the content is extremely variable, ranging from a simple vision test to a full review with psycho test. Management of professional secrecy is approached differently in different countries, although predominantly an exemption exists in the event of discovery of the inability of a patient. We note that there is a great diversity in the medical screening modalities unsuited to driving. These systems will be harmonized to comply with the wishes of European directives. PMID:25960438

  1. Tuberculosis treatment outcome monitoring in European Union countries: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    van Hest, Rob; Ködmön, Csaba; Verver, Suzanne; Erkens, Connie G.M.; Straetemans, Masja; Manissero, Davide; de Vries, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Treatment success measured by treatment outcome monitoring (TOM) is a key programmatic output of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We performed a systematic literature review on national-level TOM in the 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Areas (EEA) countries to summarise methods used to collect and report data on TOM. Online reference bibliographic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant indexed and non-indexed literature published between January 2000 and August 2010. The search strategy resulted in 615 potentially relevant indexed citations, of which 27 full-text national studies (79 data sets) were included for final analysis. The selected studies were performed in 10 EU/EEA countries and gave a fragmented impression of TOM in the EU/EEA. Publication year, study period, sample size, databases, definitions, variables, patient and outcome categories, and population subgroups varied widely, portraying a very heterogeneous picture. This review confirmed previous reports of considerable heterogeneity in publications of TOM results across EU/EEA countries. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE indexed studies are not a suitable instrument to measure representative TOM results for the 30 EU/EEA countries. Uniform and complete reporting to the centralised European Surveillance System will produce the most timely and reliable results of TB treatment outcomes in the EU/EEA. PMID:22790913

  2. European Union research and innovation perspectives on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Danuta; Claxton, John; Economidis, Ioannis; Högel, Jens; Venturi, Piero; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2011-12-20

    "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and Biotechnology" is one of 10 thematic areas in the Cooperation programme of the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities (FP7). With a budget of nearly €2 billion for the period 2007-2013, its objective is to foster the development of a European Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) by bringing together science, industry and other stakeholders that produce, manage or otherwise exploit biological resources. Biotechnology plays an important role in addressing social, environmental and economic challenges and it is recognised as a key enabling technology in the transition to a green, low carbon and resource-efficient economy. Biotechnologies for non-health applications have received a considerable attention in FP7 and to date 61 projects on industrial, marine, plant, environmental and emerging biotechnologies have been supported with a contribution of €262.8 million from the European Commission (EC). This article presents an outlook of the research, technological development and demonstration activities in biotechnology currently supported in FP7 within the Cooperation programme, including a brief overview of the policy context. PMID:21745504

  3. Characterisation of infant food modifications in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Ashwell, Margaret; Beck, Birgit; Bronner, Andrée; Mathioudakis, Basil

    2002-01-01

    Improvements in the understanding of human milk composition, in dietetic effects on physiological outcomes in infants, and in food technology have lead to modifications in infant formulas and other dietetic products for infants. In Europe, new ingredients may be added to infant formula and follow-on formulas if their suitability for particular use by infants from birth has been established by generally accepted scientific data. However, there is uncertainty as to the nature of the evaluation needed to evaluate whether modifications in dietetic products for infants can be regarded as suitable and safe. Moreover, there is no agreement on the nature of evidence required to justify the scientific validity of potential effects on infant health and well-being, which might provide the basis for the communication of such effects to health professionals and consumers. Therefore, a scientific workshop was held under the auspices of the Child Health Foundation, Munich, Germany, and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to discuss issues arising in this area among participants representing academia, infant food industry, consumer organisations, the European Commission, and food regulatory bodies of some European Union member states. This article summarises the outcomes of this workshop. The participants agreed on general concepts of evaluation of innovations and on establishing evidence for benefits, but felt that further discussion would be necessary on the principles and practicalities involved in setting up a central register of clinical trials and of a central repository of trial data.

  4. Key Competences for the Development of Lifelong Learning in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hozjan, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses certain developments in education policy in the European Union since the implementation of the Lisbon strategy. Greater focus on lifelong learning as a means of increasing the competitiveness of the European Union, and establishment of several new, efficient policy tools (above all the "open method of coordination") have, in a…

  5. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  7. Bioequivalence requirements in the European Union: critical discussion.

    PubMed

    García-Arieta, Alfredo; Gordon, John

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to summarize the revised European Union (EU) Guideline on the Investigation of Bioequivalence and to discuss critically with respect to previous European requirements and present US Food and Drug Administration guidelines its more relevant novelties such as the following: in order to facilitate the development of generic medicinal products, the EU guideline includes the eligibility for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)-based biowaivers not only for BCS class I drugs but also for class III drugs with tighter requirements for dissolution and excipient composition. The permeability criterion of BCS classification has been substituted with human absorbability, as per the Biopharmaceutical Drug Disposition Classification System. The widening of the acceptance range for C (max) is possible only for highly variable reference products with an additional clinical justification. This scaled widening is carried out with a proportionality constant of 0.760 which is more conservative than the FDA approach and maintains the consumer risk at a 5% level when the intra-subject CV is close to 30%, due to the smooth transition between the scaled and the constant criteria. The guideline allows for the possibility of two-stage designs to obtain the necessary information on formulation differences and variability from interim analyses as a part of the pivotal bioequivalence study, instead of undertaking pilot studies. The guideline also specifies that the statistical analyses should be performed considering all factors as fixed, which has implications in the case of replicate designs. PMID:22826032

  8. The European Union's emissions trading system in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    A. Denny Ellerman; Paul L. Joskow

    2008-05-15

    The performance of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to date cannot be evaluated without recognizing that the first three years from 2005 through 2007 constituted a 'trial' period and understanding what this trial period was supposed to accomplish. Its primary goal was to develop the infrastructure and to provide the experience that would enable the successful use of a cap-and-trade system to limit European GHG emissions during a second trading period, 2008-12, corresponding to the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The trial period was a rehearsal for the later more serious engagement and it was never intended to achieve significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in only three years. In light of the speed with which the program was developed, the many sovereign countries involved, the need to develop the necessary data, information dissemination, compliance and market institutions, and the lack of extensive experience with emissions trading in Europe, we think that the system has performed surprisingly well. Although there have been plenty of rough edges, a transparent and widely accepted price for tradable CO{sub 2} emission allowances emerged by January 1, 2005, a functioning market for allowances has developed quickly and effortlessly without any prodding by the Commission or member state governments, the cap-and-trade infrastructure of market institutions, registries, monitoring, reporting and verification is in place, and a significant segment of European industry is incorporating the price of CO{sub 2} emissions into their daily production decisions. The development of the EU ETS and the experience with the trial period provides a number of useful lessons for the U.S. and other countries. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Mapping Health Literacy Research in the European Union: A Bibliometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kondilis, Barbara K.; Kiriaze, Ismene J.; Athanasoulia, Anastasia P.; Falagas, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background To examine and compare the research productivity on selected fields related to health literacy of the current members of the European Union, the four candidate countries waiting to join the EU, Norway, Switzerland, and the United States. Methodology/Principal findings A bibliometric analysis (1991–2005). Data sources included papers published by authors from each country separately. The 25 European countries produce less than 1/3 health literacy research when compared to the U.S. (13,710 and 49,523 articles were published by authors with main affiliation in the European Union and the four candidate countries, and the U.S., respectively). The Netherlands and Sweden (followed by Germany, Italy, and France) are the European countries with the highest number of research published in fields related to health literacy. After adjustment for population Sweden, Finland, and Norway, were on the top of the relevant list. In addition, Sweden, Finland, and Ireland, were on the top of the list of countries regarding research productivity on the selected fields after adjustment for gross domestic product (GDP). Conclusions/Significance Inequalities in research published on the topic of health literacy exist among Europe, Norway, Switzerland, and the U.S. More research may need to be done in all areas of health literacy in Europe and the potential detrimental effects of this gap should be further investigated. PMID:18575594

  10. Patient mobility in the European Union: pushing for EU internal health market.

    PubMed

    Lang, Iris Goldner

    2009-12-01

    Having access to high-quality healthcare is a priority issue for European citizens and is recognised by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. The right to healthcare also encompasses situations where patients travel from one EU Member State to another and receive treatment there. This paper will explore the contradictory relation between the competence of EU Member States to regulate their health systems on their own, on the one hand, and free movement of services in the European Union, on the other hand. It will discuss the consequences of the decisions of the European Court of Justice in this field and the provisions of the Proposal for a Directive on Patients' Rights in Cross-Border Healthcare, especially in the light of opening up of EU Member States' healthcare markets, the need to control national healthcare expenditures and to protect the welfare state and the population of the host state. PMID:20157977

  11. International Workshops for Teachers at the European Geosciences Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, C.

    2005-12-01

    The 2005 edition of the EGU Geophysical Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshoptook place in April 2005 during the General Assembly of the European Gesciences Union. It reunited 70 teachers from 16 European Countries and 3 teachers from the USA. The general theme of this 2-days workshop was 'The history of the Earth' and it focussed on important, but somewhat ill-known aspects of the evolution of our planet. GIFT-2005 was preceeded by a one-day workshop on Natural Risk Assessment (NaRAs) which included aspects of seismology in the schools and two talks on the 2004 Sumatra tsunami. Both were organized by the Committee on Education of EGU. Both workshops comprised seminal talks by leading scientists in the field, but also presentations by science educators and presentations by the teachers themselved of some off-track activities in their schools. This combitation stimulated discussions between the teachers, scientists and science educators and among the teachers where the different languages did not appear to create major difficulties (the official language of the workshops was English). Some of the contacts between teachers are already evolving in long term collaborations between them and their respective schools. It clearly appears that reuniting teachers formed and teaching within different educational systems, leads to stimulating creative discussions and collaborations, each teacher benefitting from the different background of his/her colleagues. The great output of this kind of international workshop is to show that while there is no educational system 'better than all others', the interactions between teachers, scientists and sciences educators during a major scientific conference, create new stimulus and enthousiasm among the teachers and this will invariably lead to up-to-date and alive teaching of geo-sciences (and scicnes in general) in primary and secondary schools, i.e. where future geoscientist are formed.

  12. Estimated historic emissions of fluorocarbons from the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, A.; Midgley, P. M.

    Emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and one hydrofluorocarbon (HFC-134a) from Europe have been estimated for the years 1986-1996 with a precision in most cases better than ±20%. During that period, sales of CFCs have reduced to virtually zero but they are still being emitted from the "bank" in use in equipment. These emissions are calculated to have fallen dramatically; however the largest releases are still of CFC-11, at 44,000 tonnes in 1996. Significant contributions to the total emission of ozone depleting substances from the European Union during 1996 were also made by HCFC-22 (35,000 tonnes) and CFC-12 (9000 tonnes); releases of other CFCs and HCFCs into the atmosphere from the EU are markedly less. On the other hand, emissions of HFC-134a (which is not an ozone depleting substance) would appear to be growing rapidly and could have reached 12,000 tonnes yr -1 in 1996. HFC-134a is a replacement for CFC-12, releases of which are calculated to have declined much more than the growth in HFC-134a. This leads to the conclusion that substitution of one by the other has been much less than 100% and is actually smaller than had been projected by market research in the early 1990s.

  13. Newcastle disease in the European Union 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dennis J

    2011-12-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating disease of poultry that has to some extent been neglected by those working in the field in the past 10 to 15 years while attention has been focused on the emergence and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by a H5N1 subtype virus. During 2000 to 2009 in the European Union (EU) member states, ND viruses virulent for chickens have been detected in wild birds, domesticated pigeons and poultry. Based on these isolations it appears that the epizootic in racing pigeons caused by the variant viruses termed pigeon avian paramyxovirus type 1, which form the genetic group 4b(VIb) first seen in Europe in 1981, continued during 2000 to 2009, and the virus is probably enzootic in racing pigeons in some EU countries. This virus appears to have spread regularly to wild birds, especially those of the Columbidae family, and has been the cause of significant outbreaks in poultry. Other avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses responsible for ND outbreaks in the EU during 2000 to 2009 have been those from genetic groups 5b(VIIb) and 5d(VIId). There is evidence that the former may well represent spread from a wild bird source and these viruses have also been isolated from wild birds, while the latter represents continuing spread from the East. Future legislation or recommendations aimed at the control and eradication of ND will need to encompass these three sources of virulent ND viruses.

  14. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA’ commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Methods: We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. Results: In 2010, of the 73 996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants’ vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. PMID:25500265

  15. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  16. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    PubMed Central

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. PMID:24926115

  17. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    PubMed

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. PMID:24926115

  18. Introduction of African Swine Fever into the European Union through Illegal Importation of Pork and Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union. PMID:23613795

  19. Medication information for patients with limited English proficiency: lessons from the European Union.

    PubMed

    Regenstein, Marsha; Andres, Ellie; Nelson, Dylan; David, Stephanie; Lopert, Ruth; Katz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Misuse or misunderstanding of medication information is a common and costly problem in the U.S. The risks of misunderstanding medication information are compounded for the large and growing population of individuals with limited English proficiency that often lacks access to this information in their own language. This paper examines practices related to translation of medication information in the European Union that may serve as a model for future U.S. policy efforts to improve the quality and availability of medication information for individuals with limited English proficiency.

  20. Management of landfill leachate: The legacy of European Union Directives.

    PubMed

    Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Morrison, L; Hynes, S; Norton, D; Clifford, E

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachate is the product of water that has percolated through waste deposits and contains various pollutants, which necessitate effective treatment before it can be released into the environment. In the last 30years, there have been significant changes in landfill management practices in response to European Union (EU) Directives, which have led to changes in leachate composition, volumes produced and treatability. In this study, historic landfill data, combined with leachate characterisation data, were used to determine the impacts of EU Directives on landfill leachate management, composition and treatability. Inhibitory compounds including ammonium (NH4-N), cyanide, chromium, nickel and zinc, were present in young leachate at levels that may inhibit ammonium oxidising bacteria, while arsenic, copper and silver were present in young and intermediate age leachate at concentrations above inhibitory thresholds. In addition, the results of this study show that while young landfills produce less than 50% of total leachate by volume in the Republic of Ireland, they account for 70% of total annual leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) load and approximately 80% of total 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N loads. These results show that there has been a decrease in the volume of leachate produced per tonne of waste landfilled since enactment of the Landfill Directive, with a trend towards increased leachate strength (particularly COD and BOD5) during the initial five years of landfill operation. These changes may be attributed to changes in landfill management practices following the implementation of the Landfill Directive. However, this study did not demonstrate the impact of decreasing inputs of biodegradable municipal waste on leachate composition. Increasingly stringent wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) emission limit values represent a significant threat to the sustainability of co-treatment of leachate with municipal wastewater. In addition

  1. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    PubMed

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion.

  2. DTCA of prescription medicines in the European Union: is there still a need for a ban?

    PubMed

    Poser, Mareen

    2010-12-01

    The pharmaceutical sector is one of the main markets in the European Union. The consumption of medicines is high and steadily increasing. However, the pharmaceutical market is subject to a wider range of restrictions than almost any other sector. The restrictions mainly apply to information provision and advertising practice within the community. One of the main features in pharmaceutical regulation is the ban on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. However, an abolition of the ban is controversial in the European Community, especially as the pharmaceutical industry keeps pleading for its ability to use the highly effective marketing strategy of DTCA to promote prescription medicines to the general public. Such advertising is only allowed in two jurisdictions in the world, New Zealand and the United States. In both systems the impact of DTCA on the consumer and the economy has been subject to research. The outcome of these studies is outlined in this article. Since the European Commission has provided a new proposal to amend the current information practice regarding prescription medicines in 2008 (European Commission, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending, as Regards Information to the General Public on Medicinal Products Subject to Medical Prescription, Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community Code Relating to Medicinal Products for Human Use, COM/2008/0663 final) it is time to examine different options to regulate the provision of information and discuss the need for a ban of DTCA. PMID:21133243

  3. Unmarried cohabitation and union stability: testing the role of diffusion using data from 16 European countries.

    PubMed

    Liefbroer, Aart C; Dourleijn, Edith

    2006-05-01

    Cohabitors and married people who cohabited before marriage have higher risks of union dissolution than people who married without prior cohabitation. However, these differences in union stability vary markedly between countries. We hypothesize that the impact of cohabitation on union stability depends on how far cohabitation has diffused within a society. We test this hypothesis with data from 16 European countries. The results support our hypothesis: former cohabitors run a higher risk of union dissolution than people who married without prior cohabitation only in societies in which cohabitation is a small minority or a large majority phenomenon.

  4. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).
METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.
RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).
CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens

  5. Reported foodborne outbreaks due to fresh produce in the United States and European Union: trends and causes.

    PubMed

    Callejón, Raquel M; Rodríguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Ubeda, Cristina; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of fruit and vegetables continues to rise in the United States and European Union due to healthy lifestyle recommendations. Meanwhile, the rate of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of these products remains high in both regions, representing a significant public health and financial issue. This study addresses the occurrence of reported foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables consumption in the United States and European Union during the period 2004-2012, where data are available. Special attention is paid to those pathogens responsible for these outbreaks, the mechanisms of contamination, and the fresh produce vehicles involved. Norovirus is shown to be responsible for most of the produce-related outbreaks, followed by Salmonella. Norovirus is mainly linked with the consumption of salad in the United States and of berries in the European Union, as demonstrated by the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Salmonella was the leading cause of multistate produce outbreaks in the United States and was the pathogen involved in the majority of sprouts-associated outbreaks. As is reflected in the MCA, the pattern of fresh produce outbreaks differed in the United States and European Union by the type of microorganism and the food vehicle involved.

  6. Towards the Electronic Parliamentary Library in the Context of the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toornstra, Dick

    The electronic parliamentary library at the European Union (EU) level is developing to meet the needs of a changing political context. It is emerging in multiple forms: cooperation among EU institutions; cooperation among EU parliaments; and the service of the European Parliament itself. The development of electronic service presents a management…

  7. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European...

  9. An Index of Child Well-Being in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jonathan; Hoelscher, Petra; Richardson, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    While the living conditions of children and young people in the European Union have gained increasing recognition across the EU, the well-being of children is not monitored on the European level. Based on a rights-based, multi-dimensional understanding of child well-being we analyse data already available for the EU 25, using series data as well…

  10. The New Political Economy of Health Care in the European Union: The Impact of Fiscal Governance.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L; Jarman, Holly; Baeten, Rita

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the political economy of health care in the European Union is being changed by the creation of a substantial new apparatus of European fiscal governance. A series of treaties and legal changes since 2008 have given the European Union new powers and duties to enforce budgetary austerity in the member states, and this apparatus of fiscal governance has already extended to include detailed and sometimes coercive policy recommendations to member states about the governance of their health care systems. We map the structures of this new fiscal governance and the way it purports to affect health care decision making.

  11. The New Political Economy of Health Care in the European Union: The Impact of Fiscal Governance.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L; Jarman, Holly; Baeten, Rita

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the political economy of health care in the European Union is being changed by the creation of a substantial new apparatus of European fiscal governance. A series of treaties and legal changes since 2008 have given the European Union new powers and duties to enforce budgetary austerity in the member states, and this apparatus of fiscal governance has already extended to include detailed and sometimes coercive policy recommendations to member states about the governance of their health care systems. We map the structures of this new fiscal governance and the way it purports to affect health care decision making. PMID:27076653

  12. The 2011 PHARMINE report on pharmacy and pharmacy education in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart

    The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students’ Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. The consortium surveyed pharmacies and pharmacists in different settings: community, hospital, industry and other sectors. The consortium also looked at how European Union higher education institutions and courses are organised. The PHARMINE survey of pharmacy and pharmacy education in Europe produced country profiles with extensive information for EU member states and several other European countries. These data are available at: http://www.pharmine.org/losse_paginas/Country_Profiles/. This 2011 PHARMINE report presents the project and data, and some preliminary analysis on the basic question of how pharmacy education is adapted to pharmacy practice in the EU. PMID:24198854

  13. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    PubMed

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  14. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  15. Integrative efforts in occupational safety and health in the European union.

    PubMed

    Horst, A

    2001-01-01

    The European Union has had a long tradition in developing a common European social policy from its beginning. A milestone to European social policy in the field of occupational safety and health was the Single European Act in 1986. With this Single European Act the improvement of the work environment became an explicit objective of the community. Since that starting point several legislative and nonlegislative actions have been taken to face the huge challenges of globalisation with a targeted social policy. The aim of this policy is to reconcile the interests of the employers in productive and competitive workplaces with the interests of the employees in healthy working conditions.

  16. Blood donor selection in European Union directives: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    de Kort, Wim; Mayr, Wolfgang; Jungbauer, Christof; Vuk, Tomislav; Kullaste, Riin; Seifried, Erhard; Grazzini, Giuliano; de Wit, Jeroen; Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infections have made both blood bankers and health authorities overly cautious. The general public expects and hence reinforces this policy. To obtain a high level of blood product safety, blood and plasma donors have to meet increasingly stringent eligibility criteria; however, it is not known whether this policy translates into improved outcomes for patients. There is a risk that the management of donors does not match the ambition of greater safety for patients. European directives related to the collection process and donor selection will probably be reconsidered in the next few years. Material and methods The development of European directives on donor selection and their basis in the literature were reviewed with an emphasis on the background and considerations for eligibility criteria to be included in the directives. Results The precautionary principle appears to be the predominant reason behind the set of eligibility criteria. However, the formal eligibility criteria, put into force in 2004, do not balance with the developments of the past decade in laboratory tests and measures that have substantially reduced actual infection risks. In no cases were the effects of eligibility criteria on the donor pool and donor well-being quantified. Regional differences in the epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections were not taken into consideration either. Discussion First, the Authors promote the collection of epidemiological data on the incidence and prevalence of conditions in the general population and in blood and plasma donors which could pose a risk for transfused patients, in order to use these data as a basis for decision-making in donor-selection policies. Second, the Authors suggest including allowance for differential deferral criteria throughout Europe, based on factual risk levels. There should be an accepted balance between donor and patient welfare, and also between risk to transfusion safety and risk of

  17. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    PubMed

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF ; and at: http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_03j.pdf ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at: http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  18. Creating a European Union framework for actions in the field of rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Antoni Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Rare diseases, including those of genetic origin, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value. The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 152 of the Treaties of the European Union, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the First Public Health Programme 2003-2008 and from the Second Health Programme 2008-2013 has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda. The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and the future adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare, maybe during 2010, have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan drugs, European Committee of Experts, etc.). In conclusion, Rare diseases is an area with enormous and practical potentialities for the European cooperation.

  19. Creating a European Union framework for actions in the field of rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Antoni Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Rare diseases, including those of genetic origin, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value. The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 152 of the Treaties of the European Union, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the First Public Health Programme 2003-2008 and from the Second Health Programme 2008-2013 has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda. The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and the future adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare, maybe during 2010, have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan drugs, European Committee of Experts, etc.). In conclusion, Rare diseases is an area with enormous and practical potentialities for the European cooperation. PMID:20824460

  20. Art of Disaster Preparedness in European Union: a Survey on the Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M.; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. Method: A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Results: Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). Conclusion: This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal

  1. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Kimo C; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-15

    Global society faces serious "phosphorus challenges" given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between +23.2 (Belgium) and -2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement.

  2. Cost of dementia in the pre-enlargement countries of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Leal, Jose; Gray, Alastair M

    2011-01-01

    Dementia has a significant impact on the health and social care systems of the European Union (EU), on patients, on family and friends who provide unpaid care, and on the wider economy and society. Information about its economic burden will be helpful when deciding the allocation of future research funds. We included the 15 countries who were members of the EU (EU-15) before the Eastern enlargement in 2004. The economic burden of dementia was estimated using patient-level studies and aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health and social care use. The same methodological approach was used across all countries. Healthcare and social care costs were estimated from expenditure on nursing and residential home care; and primary, outpatient, emergency and inpatient care, as well as drug treatment. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and premature death were also included in the study. Dementia was estimated to cost the EU-15 ${\\rm \\euro}$189 billion in 2007. 68% of total costs were due to informal care, 26% to social care, 5% to health care and 1% to productivity losses. In conclusion, dementia poses a significant economic burden to European health and social care systems, and society overall. Our results will be helpful for policy makers in evaluating policy impact and prioritising research expenditures. This study also highlights the need for more accurate and comparable dementia-related data across the European countries.

  3. Multilevel Governance and Shared Sovereignty: European Union, Member States, and the FCTC

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, HADII M.; STUDLAR, DONLEY T.

    2010-01-01

    The Westphalian idea of sovereignty in international relations has undergone recent transformation. “Shared sovereignty” through multilevel governance describes the responsibility of the European Union (EU) and its Member States in tobacco control policy. We examine how this has occurred on the EU level through directives and recommendations, accession rules for new members, tobacco control campaigns, and financial support for antitobacco nongovernmental organizations. In particular, the negotiation and ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the participation in the FCTC Conference of the Parties illustrates shared sovereignty. The EU Commission was the lead negotiator for Member States on issues over which it had jurisdiction, while individual Member States, through the EU presidency, could negotiate on issues on which authority was divided or remained with them. Shared sovereignty through multilevel governance has become the norm in the tobacco control policy area for EU members, including having one international organization negotiate within the context of another. PMID:20622934

  4. Healthcare and aging: do European Union countries differ?

    PubMed

    Stankunas, Mindaugas; Avery, Mark; Lindert, Jutta; Edwards, Ian; Rosa, Mirko Di; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Soares, Joaquim

    2016-10-10

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate socio-economic inequalities in the use, accessibility and satisfaction with health services amongst 60-84 year old people from seven European urban communities. Design/methodology/approach Data for this study were collected in 2009. The target population was people aged 60-84 years from Stuttgart (Germany), Athens (Greece), Ancona (Italy), Kaunas (Lithuania), Porto (Portugal), Granada (Spain) and Stockholm (Sweden). The total sample comprised 4,467 respondents with a mean response rate across these countries of 45.2 per cent. Findings The study demonstrated that the majority of respondents had contact with a health care provider within the last 12 months. The highest percentages were reported by respondents from Spain (97.8 per cent) and Portugal (97.7 per cent). The results suggest that 13.0 per cent of respondents had refrained from seeking care services. The highest rates were amongst seniors from Lithuania (24.0 per cent), Germany (16.2 per cent) and Portugal (15.4 per cent). Logistic regression suggests that seniors who refrained from seeking health care was statistically significant associated with those with higher levels of education (odds ratios (OR)=1.21; 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI)=1.01-1.25) and financial strain (OR=1.26; 95 per cent CI=1.16-1.37). Furthermore, the majority of respondents were satisfied with health care services. Originality/value The findings from the "Elder Abuse: a multinational prevalence survey" study indicate the existence of significant variations in use, accessibility and satisfaction with health services by country and for socio-economic factors related to organizing and financing of care systems. PMID:27671424

  5. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  6. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  7. Indicators for European Union Policies. Business as Usual?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltelli, Andrea; D'Hombres, Beatrice; Jesinghaus, Jochen; Manca, Anna Rita; Mascherini, Massimiliano; Nardo, Michela; Saisana, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the role of "statistics-based knowledge" in the making of EU policy. We highlight "shortcomings" in the use of statistical indicators made in the course of the Lisbon strategy, ended in 2010. In our opinion the shortcomings are: (i) The paradox of the "coexistence" within the same European Commission of "two holistic…

  8. European Union Students Studying in English Higher Education Institutions. DIUS Research Report 08-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian; Rutt, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the pathways, intentions and relevant perceptions of (non-UK) European Union (EU) students entering English higher education. It sought to identify why students wished to obtain an English HE qualification, their attitudes towards the uptake and repayment of tuition fee loans and their future career plans. Drawing on…

  9. [E-health developments in the system of health services in Hungary and the European Union].

    PubMed

    Váradi, Ágnes

    2014-05-25

    The question of electronic solutions in public health care has become a contemporary issue at the European Union level since the action plan of the Commission on the e-health developments of the period between 2012 and 2020 has been published. In Hungary this issue has been placed into the centre of attention after a draft on modifications of regulations in health-care has been released for public discourse, which - if accepted - would lay down the basics of an electronic heath-service system. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of e-health solutions in Hungary and the European Union with the help of the most important pieces of legislation, documents of the European Union institutions and sources from secondary literature. When examining the definition of the basic goals and instruments of the development, differences between the European Union and national approaches can be detected. Examination of recent developmental programs and existing models seem to reveal difficulties in creating interoperability and financing such projects. Finally, the review is completed by the aspects of jurisdiction and fundamental rights. It is concluded that these issues are mandatory to delineate the legislative, economic and technological framework for the development of the e-health systems. PMID:24836317

  10. Designing Dreams or Constructing Contradictions? European Union Multifunctional Policies and the Polish Organic Farm Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Master, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Analysts have heralded the principle of "multifunctionality" undergirding the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy "Second Pillar" support mechanisms as a "new...and strong paradigm" for agriculture (van der Ploeg and Roep 2003), with the potential to re-embed social, environmental, and ethical concerns into the structure of the…

  11. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  12. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or...

  13. [E-health developments in the system of health services in Hungary and the European Union].

    PubMed

    Váradi, Ágnes

    2014-05-25

    The question of electronic solutions in public health care has become a contemporary issue at the European Union level since the action plan of the Commission on the e-health developments of the period between 2012 and 2020 has been published. In Hungary this issue has been placed into the centre of attention after a draft on modifications of regulations in health-care has been released for public discourse, which - if accepted - would lay down the basics of an electronic heath-service system. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of e-health solutions in Hungary and the European Union with the help of the most important pieces of legislation, documents of the European Union institutions and sources from secondary literature. When examining the definition of the basic goals and instruments of the development, differences between the European Union and national approaches can be detected. Examination of recent developmental programs and existing models seem to reveal difficulties in creating interoperability and financing such projects. Finally, the review is completed by the aspects of jurisdiction and fundamental rights. It is concluded that these issues are mandatory to delineate the legislative, economic and technological framework for the development of the e-health systems.

  14. European Union Policies in Education and Training: The Lisbon Agenda as a Turning Point?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates European Union (EU) education and training policies in the light of the evolving Lisbon agenda on improving the competitiveness of the EU. It examines the ways in which EU policies have developed over time, focusing on their legal basis, underlying principles, main forms of implementation and their impact on national…

  15. European Union's Moratorium Impact on Food Biotechnology: A Discussion-Based Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lori Unruh; Gallo, Maria; Fulford, Stephen G.; Irani, Tracy; Rudd, Rick; DiFino, Sharon M.; Durham, Timothy C.

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops such as maize (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Moench], and canola (Brassica rapa L.) have been widely adopted by American farmers. In spite of their use in the United States, the European Union (EU) imposed a 6-year de facto moratorium (1998-2004) on the cultivation/import of…

  16. Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

  17. Cyprus Accession to the European Union and Educational Change: A Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelides, Panayiotis; Leigh, James

    2004-01-01

    Cyprus will soon become a member of the European Union. The negotiations for its access have ended and as from next year it will represent one of the countries that will expand the EU. The member countries of the EU have progressed in the field of education, they have high requirements from their schools and offer quality education (although there…

  18. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  19. Soft Power and Hard Measures: Large-Scale Assessment, Citizenship and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) with particular emphasis on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the regional portion. Using the ICCS, the EU actively combines hard measures with soft power, allowing the EU to define and steer cross-national rankings of values of EU citizenship. The…

  20. Epidemiology and the planned new Data Protection Directive of the European Union: a symposium report.

    PubMed

    Saracci, R; Olsen, J; Seniori-Costantini, A; West, R

    2012-03-01

    A revision of the 1995 Data Protection Directive of the European Union is currently in preparation. It is argued that the revised version should take explicitly and adequately into account the special requirements for personal data collection, storage and use needed in epidemiological research activities such as health services auditing, studies involving disease registries and investigations of public health emergencies.

  1. The crisis as catalyst for reframing health care policies in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Helderman, Jan-Kees

    2015-01-01

    Seen from the perspective of health, the global financial crisis (GFC) may be conceived of as an exogenous factor that has undermined the fiscal sustainability of European welfare states and consequently, their (expanding) health systems as well. Being one of the core programs of European welfare states, health care has always belonged to the sovereignty of European Member States. However, in past two decades, European welfare states have in fact become semi-sovereign states and the European Union (EU) no longer is an exogenous actor in European health policy making. Today, the EU not only puts limits to unsustainable growth levels in health care spending, it also acts as an health policy agenda setter. Since the outbreak of the GFC, it does so in an increasingly coercive and persuasive way, claiming authority over health system reforms alongside the responsibilities of its Member States.

  2. The crisis as catalyst for reframing health care policies in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Helderman, Jan-Kees

    2015-01-01

    Seen from the perspective of health, the global financial crisis (GFC) may be conceived of as an exogenous factor that has undermined the fiscal sustainability of European welfare states and consequently, their (expanding) health systems as well. Being one of the core programs of European welfare states, health care has always belonged to the sovereignty of European Member States. However, in past two decades, European welfare states have in fact become semi-sovereign states and the European Union (EU) no longer is an exogenous actor in European health policy making. Today, the EU not only puts limits to unsustainable growth levels in health care spending, it also acts as an health policy agenda setter. Since the outbreak of the GFC, it does so in an increasingly coercive and persuasive way, claiming authority over health system reforms alongside the responsibilities of its Member States. PMID:25662196

  3. Worksite health and wellness in the European union.

    PubMed

    Guazzi, Marco; Faggiano, Pompilio; Mureddu, Gianfranco F; Faden, Giacomo; Niebauer, Josef; Temporelli, Pierluigi L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and prevalence in Europe have shown a significant decline. Nonetheless, CVD still remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality and, as such, more efficient intervention strategies are needed. In this context, workplace health promotion is universally viewed as a potential resource for further reducing CVD burden. Currently, the most active organizations for promoting workplace health promotion are the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion and the Wellness International. The idea of wellbeing in the workplace has multiple meanings across organizations and countries in Europe and no comprehensive surveys examining its exact prevalence and overall impact are currently available. This review will describe the current state of workplace health promotion in Europe and address future directions for this potentially important intervention strategy.

  4. Energy market of the European union: common or segmented?

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Bartlomiej

    2010-12-15

    The European energy market operates on the premise of open and competitive markets among its 27 member states. But the gas and electricity market dynamics and levels of competitiveness vary enormously across the EU 27. Among the issues are unequal implementation of electricity and gas directives, a lack of independent energy regulators, the absence of proper and full unbundling, and discriminatory third-party access to the infrastructure. (author)

  5. [Acceptance of alternative disease control strategies in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Nigsch, Annette; Depner, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission intends to change its animal disease control strategy following the slogan "Prevention is better than cure". Vaccination and diagnostics should play a major role in emergency situations. A policy paper regarding the use of vaccines has been discussed with all Member States and the main aspects were evaluated in a questionnaire. In principle, the majority of Member States are in favour of a future strategy in which vaccination is replacing culling. However, questions regarding the pathogen freedom and the trade of vaccinated animals and animal products from vaccinated animals still remain open.

  6. Immigration to Spain: implications for a unified European Union immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Huntoon, L

    1998-01-01

    A unified immigration policy is one of the prerequisites for establishing the free movement of people within the European Union (EU). This paper considers the difficulties in establishing a joint policy on the free movement of people within the EU by focusing upon changing immigration policies in Spain. By comparing Spain, a country of only recent, small-scale immigration, to Germany, a country with a longer history of non-European immigration, obstacles to developing and effectively implementing coordinated immigration policies among EU members can be elucidated. The administrative control of entry, estimates of legal and illegal immigrants in the country, and the status of bilateral relations with Morocco are examined in order to highlight the political difficulties encountered in a unified immigration policy both within Spanish society and for the EU. Spain is both a threshold to the EU and a destination. Border control may be the easiest part of implementing a joint immigration policy in the EU. It is more difficult to control settlement. In addition, high rates of unemployment may result among the native host country populations as immigrants more readily accept low-skilled, low-paying jobs.

  7. Financing and planning of public and private not-for-profit hospitals in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ceri R; McKee, Martin

    2004-03-01

    While much has been written about health care financing in Europe in recent years, discussion has almost entirely focused on revenue. In contrast, there has been remarkably little written on financing of capital investment in European health care systems. Yet major changes are underway in several countries, in particular involving new forms of public-private partnerships (PPP). At the same time, there is growing recognition of the way in which the inherited structure of the health care delivery system constrains the system's ability to adapt to changing circumstances. This paper reports the results of a survey undertaken among key informants in the member states of the European Union to begin to ascertain existing practices and future plans in relation to hospital planning and financing amongst public and private not-for-profit hospitals. The locus of hospital planning decisions reflect the constitutional framework of the country involved, and thus the emphasis on national or local plans. There has been an expansion of private sector involvement, with four basic models identified: private loans direct to the hospital; private loans to a regional health body; a PPP where the private sector's role is to build, design and operate the non-clinical functions of the hospital; and, finally, a PPP, where the private sector's involvement also includes management of the clinical functions of the hospital. It is too early to say whether these approaches will be more successful than the models they are replacing.

  8. Financing and planning of public and private not-for-profit hospitals in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ceri R; McKee, Martin

    2004-03-01

    While much has been written about health care financing in Europe in recent years, discussion has almost entirely focused on revenue. In contrast, there has been remarkably little written on financing of capital investment in European health care systems. Yet major changes are underway in several countries, in particular involving new forms of public-private partnerships (PPP). At the same time, there is growing recognition of the way in which the inherited structure of the health care delivery system constrains the system's ability to adapt to changing circumstances. This paper reports the results of a survey undertaken among key informants in the member states of the European Union to begin to ascertain existing practices and future plans in relation to hospital planning and financing amongst public and private not-for-profit hospitals. The locus of hospital planning decisions reflect the constitutional framework of the country involved, and thus the emphasis on national or local plans. There has been an expansion of private sector involvement, with four basic models identified: private loans direct to the hospital; private loans to a regional health body; a PPP where the private sector's role is to build, design and operate the non-clinical functions of the hospital; and, finally, a PPP, where the private sector's involvement also includes management of the clinical functions of the hospital. It is too early to say whether these approaches will be more successful than the models they are replacing. PMID:15036816

  9. Setting occupational exposure limits for sensory irritants: the approach in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, M

    2001-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the European Commission initiated a program to establish European Union (EU)-wide occupational exposure limits (OELs). As in the United States and other countries, a panel of experts known as the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) was identified and brought together to identify the proper values. This article describes the approach used by SCOEL to identify appropriate values for sensory irritants. The EU panel believes that irritant effects in the eyes and respiratory tract can produce symptoms that range from trivial to serious, and that responses to irritants may be viewed as belonging to a continuum. One of the interesting differences between the approach used by the ACGIH TLV committee and the SCOEL is the use of five grades of irritation to evaluate this class of chemicals. For purposes of setting an OEL, the SCOEL makes no distinction between irritation or nuisance and related somatic effects such as headache. How the committee established an OEL for ethyl acetate is offered as an illustrative example.

  10. Attributing foodborne salmonellosis in humans to animal reservoirs in the European Union using a multi-country stochastic model.

    PubMed

    DE Knegt, L V; Pires, S M; Hald, T

    2015-04-01

    A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period from 2007 to 2009, were mainly obtained from studies and reports published by the European Food Safety Authority. Availability of food sources for consumption was derived from trade and production data from the European Statistical Office. Results showed layers as the most important reservoir of human salmonellosis in Europe, with 42·4% (7 903 000 cases, 95% credibility interval 4 181 000-14 510 000) of cases, 95·9% of which was caused by S. Enteritidis. In Finland and Sweden, most cases were travel-related, while in most other countries the main sources were related to the laying hen or pig reservoir, highlighting differences in the epidemiology of Salmonella, surveillance focus and eating habits across the European Union.

  11. Impact of the European Union enlargement on health professionals and health care systems.

    PubMed

    Avgerinos, Efthimios D; Koupidis, Sotirios A; Filippou, Dimitrios K

    2004-09-01

    As the European family enlarges, the admission of new human resources in the health services will have an impact on the European market and health care system. Under the umbrella of the European Union (EU) equality, the educational quality barriers (e.g. PLAB test in UK, DIKATSA test in Greece) will be abolished. The overproduction of health professionals and their heterogeneous regional and per specialty distribution will lead to medical unemployment and demotion of the medical profession. Medical and political authorities and decision makers of the EU need to reform the European Health System, supervise, and assess the quality of medical education, harmonize the individual National Health System policies, and follow the World Health Organization (regional office for Europe) guidelines on health policy. An agreed, structured European Health Policy might moderate the vibrations of the forthcoming EU enlargement.

  12. The impact of European Union law on Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, John

    This article considers the impact of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), both in its own right since the 1950s, and in conjunction with the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) when this brought these rights home by incorporating them into the domestic law of the UK thus enabling our judiciary to give effect to them directly. The ECHR and the HRA say very little, if anything, expressly about health or health care, but have been relied on by litigants in a wide range of contexts, including but not limited to, assisted reproduction, abortion, access to treatment, management of health records, end of life issues and the investigation of potentially negligent or criminal conduct by professionals.

  13. Development and testing of a European Union-wide farm-level carbon calculator

    PubMed Central

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; De Camillis, Camillo; Leip, Adrian; Nisini, Luigi; Pelletier, Nathan; Haastrup, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture accounted for approximately 10% of total European Union (EU) emissions in 2010. To reduce farming-related GHG emissions, appropriate policy measures and supporting tools for promoting low-C farming practices may be efficacious. This article presents the methodology and testing results of a new EU-wide, farm-level C footprint calculator. The Carbon Calculator quantifies GHG emissions based on international standards and technical specifications on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and C footprinting. The tool delivers its results both at the farm level and as allocated to up to 5 main products of the farm. In addition to the quantification of GHG emissions, the calculator proposes mitigation options and sequestration actions that may be suitable for individual farms. The results obtained during a survey made on 54 farms from 8 EU Member States are presented. These farms were selected in view of representing the diversity of farm types across different environmental zones in the EU. The results of the C footprint of products in the data set show wide range of variation between minimum and maximum values. The results of the mitigation actions showed that the tool can help identify practices that can lead to substantial emission reductions. To avoid burden-shifting from climate change to other environmental issues, the future improvements of the tool should include incorporation of other environmental impact categories in place of solely focusing on GHG emissions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:404–416. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points The methodology and testing results of a new European Union-wide, farm-level carbon calculator are presented. The Carbon Calculator reports life cycle assessment-based greenhouse gas emissions at farm and product levels and recommends farm- specific mitigation actions. Based on the results obtained from testing the tool in 54

  14. Inconsistencies among European Union Pharmaceutical Regulator Safety Communications: A Cross-Country Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Lefèvre, Jérémie H.; Downing, Nicholas; Bergeron, Henri; Ross, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and national regulators share the responsibility to communicate to healthcare providers postmarketing safety events but little is known about the consistency of this process. We aimed to compare public availability of safety-related communications and drug withdrawals from the EMA and European Union member countries for novel medicines. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis using public Dear Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) for all novel medicines authorized between 2001 and 2010 by the EMA and available for use in France, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Between 2001 and 2010, the EMA approved 185 novel medicines. DHPCs could not be ascertained for the EMA. Among the 4 national regulators, as of April 30, 2013, at least one safety DHPC or withdrawal occurred for 53 (28.6%) medicines, totaling 90 DHPCs and 5 withdrawals. Among these 53 medicines, all 4 national agencies issued at least one communication for 17 (32.1%), three of the four for 25 (47.2%), two of the four for 6 (11.3%), and one of the four for 5 (9.4%). Five drugs were reported to be withdrawn, three by all four countries, one by three and one by two. Among the 95 DHPCs and withdrawals, 20 (21.1%) were issued by all 4 national regulators, 37 (38.9%) by 3 of the 4, 22 (23.2%) by 2 of the 4, and 16 (16.8%) by one. Consistency of making publicly available all identified safety DHPC or withdrawal across regulator pairs varied from 33% to 73% agreement. Conclusions Safety communications were not made publicly available by the EMA. Among the 4 European member countries with national regulators that make DHPCs publicly available since at least 2001, there were substantial inconsistencies in safety communications for novel medicines. The impact of those inconsistencies in terms of public health remains to be determined. PMID:25333986

  15. European Society for Swallowing Disorders – European Union Geriatric Medicine Society white paper: oropharyngeal dysphagia as a geriatric syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baijens, Laura WJ; Clavé, Pere; Cras, Patrick; Ekberg, Olle; Forster, Alexandre; Kolb, Gerald F; Leners, Jean-Claude; Masiero, Stefano; Mateos-Nozal, Jesús; Ortega, Omar; Smithard, David G; Speyer, Renée; Walshe, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and it is included in the World Health Organization’s classification of diseases. It can cause severe complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia, and increased readmissions, institutionalization, and morbimortality. OD is a prevalent and serious problem among all phenotypes of older patients as oropharyngeal swallow response is impaired in older people and can cause aspiration. Despite its prevalence and severity, OD is still underdiagnosed and untreated in many medical centers. There are several validated clinical and instrumental methods (videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing) to diagnose OD, and treatment is mainly based on compensatory measures, although new treatments to stimulate the oropharyngeal swallow response are under research. OD matches the definition of a geriatric syndrome as it is highly prevalent among older people, is caused by multiple factors, is associated with several comorbidities and poor prognosis, and needs a multidimensional approach to be treated. OD should be given more importance and attention and thus be included in all standard screening protocols, treated, and regularly monitored to prevent its main complications. More research is needed to develop and standardize new treatments and management protocols for older patients with OD, which is a challenging mission for our societies

  16. Mobbing in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the member states of the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    Mobbing as a specific form of discrimination which applies only to the labor law, is a very young branch of labor law. It began to develop during the eighties of last century. This kind of psychoterror that appears in the workplace, was first spotted, formulated and diagnosed by the Swedish psychologist of German origin prof. Dr. Heinz Lejman (Heinz Leymann July 17, 1932.; Wolfenbuttel, Germany - 1999 Stockholm, Sweden). Today, the legal regulation of mobbing in terms of prevention, rules of behavior and sanctions is indispensable to every modern democratic state. I'll make a comparison of the legislative regulation provided by BiH with several European Union member states. I will compare the results of a survey conducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Condition, during the year 2000. In the European Union Member States, with the results of the questionnaire for employees, which I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conclusion I came to in this paper is: Bosnia and Herzegovina is lagging behind a lot of European Union member states, both in terms of prevention of mobbing, as well as legislation, that is insufficient to regulate this complex issue. Results of the questionnaire for the employees that I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina are devastating and alarming.

  17. European Union policy on pesticides: implications for agriculture in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jess, Stephen; Kildea, Steven; Moody, Aidan; Rennick, Gordon; Murchie, Archie K; Cooke, Louise R

    2014-11-01

    European Community (EC) legislation has limited the availability of pesticide active substances used in effective plant protection products. The Pesticide Authorisation Directive 91/414/EEC introduced the principle of risk assessment for approval of pesticide active substances. This principle was modified by the introduction of Regulation (EC) 1107/2009, which applies hazard, the intrinsic toxicity of the active substance, rather than risk, the potential for hazard to occur, as the approval criterion. Potential impacts of EC pesticide legislation on agriculture in Ireland are summarised. While these will significantly impact on pesticide availability in the medium to long term, regulations associated with water quality (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and Drinking Water Directive 1998/83/EC) have the potential to restrict pesticide use more immediately, as concerns regarding public health and economic costs associated with removing pesticides from water increase. This rationale will further reduce the availability of effective pesticide active substances, directly affecting crop protection and increasing pesticide resistance within pest and disease populations. In addition, water quality requirements may also impact on important active substances used in plant protection in Ireland. The future challenge for agriculture in Ireland is to sustain production and profitability using reduced pesticide inputs within a framework of integrated pest management.

  18. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  19. Income, Deprivation and Economic Stress in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    At risk of poverty indicators based on relative income measures suggest that within the enlarged EU societies located at quite different points on a continuum of affluence have similar levels of poverty. Substantial differences in levels of income between societies do not in themselves invalidate this approach. However, the relative income…

  20. The Transition from Education to Working Life: Key Data on Vocational Training in the European Union. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansuy, Michele; Couppie, Thomas; Fetsi, Anastasia; Scatoli, Carlo; Mooney, Paul; van den Brande, Godelieve

    The transition from education to working life in the European Union (EU) was examined through a review of data from the following sources: the European Labour Force Survey; The Vocational Education and Training Data Collection (an annual collection of data produced by Eurostat); and national data supplied to the European Training Foundation by…

  1. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe. PMID:24243874

  2. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  3. Tracing the Boundaries between Disability and Sickness in the European Union: Squaring the Circle?

    PubMed

    Favalli, Silvia; Ferri, Delia

    2016-03-01

    In recent years the European Union (EU) has sought to develop a far-reaching policy regarding persons with disabilities. However, to date, EU non-discrimination legislation does not provide any clear legal definition of what constitutes a disability. The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has attempted to fill this gap and, in several decisions, has elaborated on the concept of disability and its meaning under EU law. The CJEU, with reference to the application of the Employment Equality Directive, has explained the notion of disability mainly by comparing and contrasting it to the concept of sickness. Against this background, this article critically discusses recent case law and attempts to highlight that, even though the Court has firmly embraced the social model of disability envisaged by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the boundaries between the concepts of sickness and disability remain blurred. PMID:27044170

  4. Radioactive Waste Management in the European Union: Initiatives for New Legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.

    2003-02-25

    Improving the management of radioactive waste in the European Union is a major theme of the ''nuclear package'' recently adopted by the European Commission. Included in the package are proposals for new legislation that would bring about the development of common safety standards in Europe covering the full nuclear sector, segregated funds to cover all nuclear liabilities that remain after the operating lifetime of an installation and clearly defined waste programs for radioactive waste management in each of the Member States of the Union. Included in these programs must be firm dates for a number decision points leading to disposal of all forms of radioactive waste. The package also puts significant emphasis on more, and better coordinated, research on radioactive waste management as the present levels are thought to be inadequate.

  5. Tracing the Boundaries between Disability and Sickness in the European Union: Squaring the Circle?

    PubMed

    Favalli, Silvia; Ferri, Delia

    2016-03-01

    In recent years the European Union (EU) has sought to develop a far-reaching policy regarding persons with disabilities. However, to date, EU non-discrimination legislation does not provide any clear legal definition of what constitutes a disability. The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has attempted to fill this gap and, in several decisions, has elaborated on the concept of disability and its meaning under EU law. The CJEU, with reference to the application of the Employment Equality Directive, has explained the notion of disability mainly by comparing and contrasting it to the concept of sickness. Against this background, this article critically discusses recent case law and attempts to highlight that, even though the Court has firmly embraced the social model of disability envisaged by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the boundaries between the concepts of sickness and disability remain blurred.

  6. [Transnational solidarity? Cross-border heath-care in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schmucker, R

    2010-03-01

    The responsibilities of the European Union surrounding public health are concentrated on co-ordinating and complementary practices. A mandatory European harmonization of standards and policies is in effect in only a few areas such as pharmaceutical authorization and health protection at the workplace. The implementation of single market rights over the national health-care systems (negative integration) is growing at the European level. This has ambivalent repercussions. Whilst the rights of patients on the basis of the four fundamental freedoms in the context of cross-border health-care have got stronger, national governments see themselves confronted with a limitation of scope for their health-care policies. The basic principles of the integration project place European pressure on national governments. They are subject to sanctions if their policies are not directly in accordance with the single market concept.

  7. [Transnational solidarity? Cross-border heath-care in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schmucker, R

    2010-03-01

    The responsibilities of the European Union surrounding public health are concentrated on co-ordinating and complementary practices. A mandatory European harmonization of standards and policies is in effect in only a few areas such as pharmaceutical authorization and health protection at the workplace. The implementation of single market rights over the national health-care systems (negative integration) is growing at the European level. This has ambivalent repercussions. Whilst the rights of patients on the basis of the four fundamental freedoms in the context of cross-border health-care have got stronger, national governments see themselves confronted with a limitation of scope for their health-care policies. The basic principles of the integration project place European pressure on national governments. They are subject to sanctions if their policies are not directly in accordance with the single market concept. PMID:20191439

  8. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part I].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation of food supplements. The definition of the supplement category is given. The contemporary issues of nutrition in developed countries are discussed, and the essential role of food supplements in the diet is emphasized. In particular, the use of vitamins, minerals, botanicals and their chemical constituents in food supplements as well as the issue of setting maximum daily limits are discussed. The positive lists of vitamins, minerals and their chemical modifications are presented. The paper also outlines aspects of supplement safety, requirements for their labelling and pre-market notification procedure. PMID:25300107

  9. The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Recapitulating how genetic modification technology and its agro-food products aroused strong societal opposition in the European Union, this paper demonstrates how this opposition contributed to shape the European regulatory frame on GM crops. More specifically, it describes how this opposition contributed to a de facto moratorium on the commercialization of new GM crop events in the end of the nineties. From this period onwards, the regulatory frame has been continuously revised in order to slow down further erosion of public and market confidence. Various scientific and technical reforms were made to meet societal concerns relating to the safety of GM crops. In this context, the precautionary principle, environmental post-market monitoring and traceability were adopted as ways to cope with scientific uncertainties. Labeling, traceability, co-existence and public information were installed in an attempt to meet the general public request for more information about GM agro-food products, and the specific demand to respect the consumers' and farmers' freedom of choice. Despite these efforts, today, the explicit role of public participation and/or ethical consultation during authorization procedures is at best minimal. Moreover, no legal room was created to progress to an integral sustainability evaluation during market procedures. It remains to be seen whether the recent policy shift towards greater transparency about value judgments, plural viewpoints and scientific uncertainties will be one step forward in integrating ethical concerns more explicitly in risk analysis. As such, the regulatory frame stands open for further interpretation, reflecting in various degrees a continued interplay with societal concerns relating to GM agro-food products. In this regard, both societal concerns and diversely interpreted regulatory criteria can be inferred as signaling a request - and even a quest - to render more explicit the broader-than-scientific dimension of the actual

  10. Brazilian foot and mouth disease status and meat exportation to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Seixas, Luiza; McManus, Concepta

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to define the differences between the Brazilian states that export and do not export meat to the European Union (EU) and to identify the variables that are important to meet the export requirements. Infrastructure and computerization of the control of animal transit in Brazil that impact on regional health status were evaluated and linked to other variables such as status for foot and mouth disease (FMD) and qualification to export meat to EU. Variables related to transit control of bovines implemented by the state agencies of animal health and inspection in each Brazilian state were evaluated. Using a discriminant analysis, four variables were selected that explained the variation between Brazilian states that were "free" and "not free" of FMD while another four were selected to explain the variation between the zones "approved" and "not approved" to export meat to the EU, including number of official veterinarians, total transit of bovines and buffaloes, total number of animal transit certificates issued for bovine and buffaloes at the state or zone level, and total number of municipalities in the state or zone. It was possible to correctly discriminate between "free" and "not free" FMD states or zones. Variables related to animal transit are important in assessing the state for the classification of animal health situation and for EU approval for the exportation of meat.

  11. Land cover dynamics and accounts for European Union 2001-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekousis, George; Kavouras, Marinos; Mountrakis, Giorgos

    2015-06-01

    Land cover dynamics information plays an important role in environmental research and related studies. We use the 500m NASA MODIS land cover dataset for the European Union (EU28) to calculate (a) land cover share trends on an annual temporal increment from 2001 to 2011 and (b) land cover accounts from 2001 to 2011. Raster products are firstly mosaicked to produce a single image per year, covering the study area. Reclassification for each final annual product follows to convert the original 17 IGBP MODIS classes into 7 simpler classes of broader interest. Zonal statistics are used to calculate the number of land cover pixels per class, per country, per year. Further calculations create land account tables revealing land cover trends during 2001 through 2011. Results show that for the 2001 through 2011 period forests and cropland dominated EU28, covering almost 70% of the total area. Forest has an increasing trend, with an annual change rate of 0,60%, while cropland has a negative rate of annual change (-0, 46%). On average, grassland covers approximately 21% of EU28. A closer look reveals that despite the relatively stable overall counts, grassland has experienced high turnover. Almost half (40%) of grassland original stock changed to other land cover classes during 2001 through 2011. At the same time, there was a large conversion to grassland from other land cover classes thus keeping a balance in the overall share. Our analysis provides useful information for environmental assessments in order to better frame policies for a sustainable future.

  12. Brazilian foot and mouth disease status and meat exportation to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Seixas, Luiza; McManus, Concepta

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to define the differences between the Brazilian states that export and do not export meat to the European Union (EU) and to identify the variables that are important to meet the export requirements. Infrastructure and computerization of the control of animal transit in Brazil that impact on regional health status were evaluated and linked to other variables such as status for foot and mouth disease (FMD) and qualification to export meat to EU. Variables related to transit control of bovines implemented by the state agencies of animal health and inspection in each Brazilian state were evaluated. Using a discriminant analysis, four variables were selected that explained the variation between Brazilian states that were "free" and "not free" of FMD while another four were selected to explain the variation between the zones "approved" and "not approved" to export meat to the EU, including number of official veterinarians, total transit of bovines and buffaloes, total number of animal transit certificates issued for bovine and buffaloes at the state or zone level, and total number of municipalities in the state or zone. It was possible to correctly discriminate between "free" and "not free" FMD states or zones. Variables related to animal transit are important in assessing the state for the classification of animal health situation and for EU approval for the exportation of meat. PMID:24338447

  13. Breast cancer in European Union: an update of screening programmes as of March 2014 (review).

    PubMed

    Altobelli, E; Lattanzi, A

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer, a major cause of female morbidity and mortality, is a global health problem; 2008 data show an incidence of ~450,000 new cases and 140,000 deaths (mean incidence rate 70.7 and mortality rate 16.7, world age-standardized rate per 100,000 women) in European Union Member States. Incidence rates in Western Europe are among the highest in the world. We review the situation of BC screening programmes in European Union. Up to date information on active BC screening programmes was obtained by reviewing the literature and searching national health ministries and cancer service websites. Although BC screening programmes are in place in nearly all European Union countries there are still considerable differences in target population coverage and age and in the techniques deployed. Screening is a mainstay of early BC detection whose main weakness is the rate of participation of the target population. National policies and healthcare planning should aim at maximizing participation in controlled organized screening programmes by identifying and lowering any barriers to adhesion, also with a view to reducing healthcare costs. PMID:25174328

  14. The importance of values in predicting Turkish youth's opinions about the European Union in light of the Copenhagen Political Criteria.

    PubMed

    Kuşdil, M Ersin; Simşek, Sefa

    2008-12-01

    The enlargement process of the European Union may be regarded as one of the most important social projects of human history in that it is trying to unite several nation-states under a "European identity." As a historically and culturally "distant" candidate, Turkey has been asked to meet a set of expectations referred to as the "Copenhagen Criteria," requiring a series of large-scale reforms to the infrastructure and superstructure of the country. Taking advantage of the unique opportunity to relate Turkish people's opinions on the criteria to their values, hypotheses based on Schwartz's model of values were tested. Schwartz's Personal Values Questionnaire and a questionnaire measuring opinions on the criteria and the Union were completed by 368 Turkish university students. Factor analysis of the opinion items yielded five factors: reduction of military influence in civil life, scepticism towards Europe and the European Union, improvement of human rights and liberties, improvement of minority rights, and lack of transparency in public institutions. Regression analyses showed that values and nationalism were powerful predictors of opinions whereas the effect of religiosity was limited only to the prediction of a preference for the reduction of military influence in civil life. Preference for openness to change values were successful in predicting variance in three of the five criteria: The more the participants favoured these values, the more they supported the improvement of human rights and liberties, the improvement of minority rights, and regretted the lack of transparency. Self-transcendence values were also positively related to support for the same three criteria together with a preference for reduction of military influence. As for nationalism, the results showed that this variable was related negatively to reduction of the military influence, improvement of human rights and liberties, improvement of minority rights; and positively to scepticism. PMID

  15. The importance of values in predicting Turkish youth's opinions about the European Union in light of the Copenhagen Political Criteria.

    PubMed

    Kuşdil, M Ersin; Simşek, Sefa

    2008-12-01

    The enlargement process of the European Union may be regarded as one of the most important social projects of human history in that it is trying to unite several nation-states under a "European identity." As a historically and culturally "distant" candidate, Turkey has been asked to meet a set of expectations referred to as the "Copenhagen Criteria," requiring a series of large-scale reforms to the infrastructure and superstructure of the country. Taking advantage of the unique opportunity to relate Turkish people's opinions on the criteria to their values, hypotheses based on Schwartz's model of values were tested. Schwartz's Personal Values Questionnaire and a questionnaire measuring opinions on the criteria and the Union were completed by 368 Turkish university students. Factor analysis of the opinion items yielded five factors: reduction of military influence in civil life, scepticism towards Europe and the European Union, improvement of human rights and liberties, improvement of minority rights, and lack of transparency in public institutions. Regression analyses showed that values and nationalism were powerful predictors of opinions whereas the effect of religiosity was limited only to the prediction of a preference for the reduction of military influence in civil life. Preference for openness to change values were successful in predicting variance in three of the five criteria: The more the participants favoured these values, the more they supported the improvement of human rights and liberties, the improvement of minority rights, and regretted the lack of transparency. Self-transcendence values were also positively related to support for the same three criteria together with a preference for reduction of military influence. As for nationalism, the results showed that this variable was related negatively to reduction of the military influence, improvement of human rights and liberties, improvement of minority rights; and positively to scepticism.

  16. Cross border access to healthcare services within the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sellars, Clare

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of "medical tourism" and the extent to which patients resident in EU member states have a legally enforceable right to access healthcare services in other EU member states which are paid for by such patients' home member states. The article explains the various relevant legislation and explores the tensions within it and also focuses on various recent cases which have discussed whether prior authorization systems in relation to cross border medical treatment are justifiable in the objective public interest. The article also looks at the most recent developments in the case law concerning EU based national health services. PMID:16669372

  17. Comprehensive mapping of national school food policies across the European Union plus Norway and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, S

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge in Europe. Schools are seen as an important setting to promote healthy diet and lifestyle in a protected environment and school food-related practices are essential in this regard. To understand what policy frameworks European countries have created to govern these practices, a systematic assessment of national school food policies across the European Union plus Norway and Switzerland (n = 30 countries) was carried out. The survey revealed that all 30 countries currently have a school food policy in place; a total of 34 relevant policies were identified, 18 of which were mandatory and the remaining 16 voluntary. Major policy objectives specified were those to improve child nutrition (97% of policies), to help children learn and adopt healthy diet and lifestyle habits (94%) and to reduce or prevent childhood obesity (88%). Most commonly (>90%), the policies offered food-based standards for menu composition, and portion sizes were guided by age-appropriate energy requirements. Lunch and snacks were the most widely addressed mealtimes for almost 90% of all policies examined. Other important areas covered included food marketing to children; the availability of vending services; training requirements for catering staff; and whether nutrition education is a mandatory part of the national curriculum. Evaluation was mentioned in 59% of the school food policies reviewed. Future analyses should focus on evaluating the implementation of these policies and more importantly, their effectiveness in meeting the objectives defined therein. Comparable and up-to-date information along with data on education, attainment and public health indicators will enable a comprehensive impact assessment of school food policies and help facilitate optimal school food provision for all. PMID:25663818

  18. Losses of Ammonia and Nitrate from Agriculture and Their Effect on Nitrogen Recovery in the European Union and the United States between 1900 and 2050.

    PubMed

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Bouwman, Lex; Cassman, Kenneth G; van Es, Harold M; McCrackin, Michelle L; Beusen, Arthur H W

    2015-03-01

    Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more regulatory approach in the European Union. This paper explores the implications of these differences for attaining long-term policy targets for air and water quality. Nutrient surplus problems were more severe in the European Union than in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. The EU Nitrates and National Emission Ceilings directives contributed to decreases in fertilizer use, N surplus, and ammonia (NH) emissions, whereas in the United States they stabilized, although NH emissions are still increasing. These differences were analyzed using statistical data for 1900-2005 and the global IMAGE model. IMAGE could reproduce NH emissions and soil N surpluses at different scales (European Union and United States, country and state) and N loads in the Rhine and Mississippi. The regulation-driven changes during the past 25 yr in the European Union have reduced public concerns and have brought agricultural N loads to the aquatic environment closer to US levels. Despite differences in agro-environmental policies and agricultural structure (more N-fixing soybean and more spatially separated feed and livestock production in the United States than in the European Union), current N use efficiency in US and EU crop production is similar. IMAGE projections for the IAASTD-baseline scenario indicate that N loading to the environment in 2050 will be similar to current levels. In the United States, environmental N loads will remain substantially smaller than in the European Union, whereas agricultural production in 2050 in the United States will increase by 30% relative to 2005, as compared with an increase of 8% in the European Union. However, in the United States, even rigorous mitigation

  19. Losses of Ammonia and Nitrate from Agriculture and Their Effect on Nitrogen Recovery in the European Union and the United States between 1900 and 2050.

    PubMed

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Bouwman, Lex; Cassman, Kenneth G; van Es, Harold M; McCrackin, Michelle L; Beusen, Arthur H W

    2015-03-01

    Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more regulatory approach in the European Union. This paper explores the implications of these differences for attaining long-term policy targets for air and water quality. Nutrient surplus problems were more severe in the European Union than in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. The EU Nitrates and National Emission Ceilings directives contributed to decreases in fertilizer use, N surplus, and ammonia (NH) emissions, whereas in the United States they stabilized, although NH emissions are still increasing. These differences were analyzed using statistical data for 1900-2005 and the global IMAGE model. IMAGE could reproduce NH emissions and soil N surpluses at different scales (European Union and United States, country and state) and N loads in the Rhine and Mississippi. The regulation-driven changes during the past 25 yr in the European Union have reduced public concerns and have brought agricultural N loads to the aquatic environment closer to US levels. Despite differences in agro-environmental policies and agricultural structure (more N-fixing soybean and more spatially separated feed and livestock production in the United States than in the European Union), current N use efficiency in US and EU crop production is similar. IMAGE projections for the IAASTD-baseline scenario indicate that N loading to the environment in 2050 will be similar to current levels. In the United States, environmental N loads will remain substantially smaller than in the European Union, whereas agricultural production in 2050 in the United States will increase by 30% relative to 2005, as compared with an increase of 8% in the European Union. However, in the United States, even rigorous mitigation

  20. Sub-specialty training in head and neck surgical oncology in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Manganaris, Argyris; Black, Myles; Balfour, Alistair; Hartley, Christopher; Jeannon, Jean-Pierre; Simo, Ricard

    2009-07-01

    Sub-specialty training in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) is not standardised across European Union (EU) states and remains diverse. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of sub-specialty training programmes in head and neck surgical oncology within the European Union (EU-15). A postal questionnaire was distributed to 41 representative members of the European Federation of Otorhinolaryngological Societies (EUFOS) in the specialty of ORL-HNS in 15 EU states. The questionnaire included questions regarding the sub-specialty practice, structure, length, access, examination procedures and certification, future developments and also a space for individual comments. Thirty-one respondents (75.6%) from major training centres in 15 different European countries replied. Overall, the data revealed major diversity for all aspects analysed, between and within the different European countries. Only four EU states had formal sub-specialty training in head and neck surgical oncology. This includes Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. In the rest of EU states, the last year of residency programmes is often spent as an introduction to one of the sub-specialties. Sub-specialty training in head and neck surgical oncology within the EU at present is clearly underdeveloped. Issuing a European diploma in ORL-HNS could be an initial step towards assessing the skills acquired during specialist training within the different European countries and formalising specialist training. This would establish a uniform measure for evaluating candidacy for sub-specialty training both across the EU and for USA, Canada or Australia.

  1. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products.

  2. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  3. Epidemic threats to the European Union: expert views on six virus groups.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L; Brouwer, A; Wilson, A; Gale, P; Snary, E; Ross, David; de Vos, C J

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, several animal disease epidemics have occurred within the European Union (EU). At the 4th Annual Meeting of the EPIZONE network (7-10 June 2010, St. Malo, France), an interactive session was run to elicit the opinions of delegates on a pre-defined list of epidemic threats to the EU. Responses from over 190 delegates, to questions relating to impact and likelihood, were used to rank six virus groups with respect to their perceived threat now (2010) and in 2020. The combined opinions of all delegates suggested that, from the pre-selected list of virus groups, foot-and-mouth disease and influenza are currently of most concern. Delegates thought that influenza would be less of a threat and zoonotic arboviruses would be more of a threat in 2020. Although the virus group rankings should not be taken as definitive, the results could be used in conjunction with experimental and field data, by scientists, policy-makers and stakeholders when assessing and managing risks associated with these virus groups.

  4. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    PubMed

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC. PMID:22823351

  5. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products. PMID:26020137

  6. Development and testing of a European Union-wide farm-level carbon calculator.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; De Camillis, Camillo; Leip, Adrian; Nisini, Luigi; Pelletier, Nathan; Haastrup, Palle

    2015-07-01

    Direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture accounted for approximately 10% of total European Union (EU) emissions in 2010. To reduce farming-related GHG emissions, appropriate policy measures and supporting tools for promoting low-C farming practices may be efficacious. This article presents the methodology and testing results of a new EU-wide, farm-level C footprint calculator. The Carbon Calculator quantifies GHG emissions based on international standards and technical specifications on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and C footprinting. The tool delivers its results both at the farm level and as allocated to up to 5 main products of the farm. In addition to the quantification of GHG emissions, the calculator proposes mitigation options and sequestration actions that may be suitable for individual farms. The results obtained during a survey made on 54 farms from 8 EU Member States are presented. These farms were selected in view of representing the diversity of farm types across different environmental zones in the EU. The results of the C footprint of products in the data set show wide range of variation between minimum and maximum values. The results of the mitigation actions showed that the tool can help identify practices that can lead to substantial emission reductions. To avoid burden-shifting from climate change to other environmental issues, the future improvements of the tool should include incorporation of other environmental impact categories in place of solely focusing on GHG emissions.

  7. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    PubMed

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access.

  8. The European Union's REACH regulation: a review of its history and requirements.

    PubMed

    Williams, E Spencer; Panko, Julie; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the European Union (EU) promulgated a monumental regulatory initiative for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). To date, several thousand pages of text have been needed to describe the expectations of this regulation. There were numerous reasons for the promulgation of REACH, but, by and large, it is an extension of the global desire to produce fewer industrial chemicals, to understand the possible human and ecological hazards of those that are produced, and to insure that any major threat is anticipated, as well as prevented. Most industry-related groups consider it the most wide-ranging and costly regulatory initiatives related to health risk assessment ever to be promulgated. This review presents a description of REACH that should inform scientists, managers, and others about its objectives and the means to satisfy them. Registration is required for all chemicals manufactured or imported into the EU, unless specifically exempted. Registration is expected to be a collaborative process among companies, which will generate a dossier containing data on physicochemical characteristics, as well as toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. Though the magnitude of the gaps in the data required for registration is uncertain at this point, it is clear that basic toxicology testing will have to be conducted for many chemical substances that have not undergone formal review up to this point. For many chemicals, an examination of hazards and risks arising from the use of these substances will also be required in the form of a chemical safety report (CSR). Beginning with the dual processes of dossier and substance evaluation, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), the Member States of the EU, and the European Commission will identify chemicals that may pose unacceptable hazards to human health and/or the environment, and will curtail or restrict their usage. The implementation of REACH will expand and deepen the

  9. [Hungarian psychiatry in the light of the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union].

    PubMed

    Kurimay, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    In order to get an accurate picture of mental health and psychiatric care, the article reviews the relevant structures and functioning of the European Union. It examines a few, important professional events that reflect the gaining significance of the issue of mental health within the EU; the 2005 World Health Organization's European Ministerial Conference, the 2008 European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being, and the results of the so-called Thematic Conferences. For the future of the European Union, the articles stresses the crucial need for the continuing research and development, and highlights the benefits of the European Research Region an its framework programmes especially in the fields of brain research and mental health research. The issue of mental health, its care providing system, and the atmosphere of the work place, as the surveying of the Eurobarometer underscored, should be treated as priorities for the EU and during the Hungarian presidency. The programme of the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union provides priority to the presentation of the European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being to the Council Conclusion, as well as to the organization of a priority research presidential conference on the regions R and D, entitled "Discovery research in neuropsychiatry: depression, anxiety and schizophrenia in focus." The articles emphasizes the challenges of Hungarian psychiatry, first and foremost the difficulties of human resources, the theoretical context and determined perspectives for the establishment of the new National Psychiatry and Addictology Institute, the need of the move towards GP's and community care, and the importance of the cooperation with civil organizations, and scientific information gathering. The given tasks can only be achieved along with the professional development of psychiatry, with a change of perspectives towards EU since a concentrated multi level allocation of resources is only possible in the

  10. Availability of vaccines against major animal diseases in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Videnova, K; Mackay, D K J

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey in which countries within the European Union and the European Economic Area were requested to provide information on the availability of vaccines against 47 major diseases of animals as part of the DISCONTOOLS project within the European Technology Platform for Global Animal Health. The objective of the survey was to help identify those diseases to which priority should be given by both the public and private sectors in terms of developing new tools to assist in their control. The survey also provides information on the availability of vaccines authorised at national level against the diseases concerned which may be useful in the event of a disease emergency or to enhance preparedness.

  11. Women Physicists in the European Union : how Brussels is moving toward gender equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancheri, Giulia

    2008-04-01

    The policies of the European Union towards gender equality in science occupation will be discussed along three aspects: 1. Current statistics recently published by the EU will be illustrated with some comparison with similar US statistics. The latest recommendations of the Helsinki group will be presented, together with the conclusions of the Women in Science meetings organized by the EU. 2. The implementation of these recommendations will be illustrated by this speaker's experience both as independent expert for Physics Research Programs for the European Commission for the last 10 years, as well as from the point of view of having been European Coordinator of three Research Networks in Theoretical Physics from 1992 until 2006: the impact of this on young women students will be described. 3. National policies enforced through the Equal Opportunity Committees will be illustrated, with the specific case of the Affirmative Actions of Italian INFN Equal Opportunity Committe and their impact on hiring and promotion of women physicists.

  12. GMOMETHODS: the European Union database of reference methods for GMO analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonfini, Laura; Van den Bulcke, Marc H; Mazzara, Marco; Ben, Enrico; Patak, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide reliable and harmonized information on methods for GMO (genetically modified organism) analysis we have published a database called "GMOMETHODS" that supplies information on PCR assays validated according to the principles and requirements of ISO 5725 and/or the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry protocol. In addition, the database contains methods that have been verified by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed in the context of compliance with an European Union legislative act. The web application provides search capabilities to retrieve primers and probes sequence information on the available methods. It further supplies core data required by analytical labs to carry out GM tests and comprises information on the applied reference material and plasmid standards. The GMOMETHODS database currently contains 118 different PCR methods allowing identification of 51 single GM events and 18 taxon-specific genes in a sample. It also provides screening assays for detection of eight different genetic elements commonly used for the development of GMOs. The application is referred to by the Biosafety Clearing House, a global mechanism set up by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to facilitate the exchange of information on Living Modified Organisms. The publication of the GMOMETHODS database can be considered an important step toward worldwide standardization and harmonization in GMO analysis. PMID:23451388

  13. GMOMETHODS: the European Union database of reference methods for GMO analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonfini, Laura; Van den Bulcke, Marc H; Mazzara, Marco; Ben, Enrico; Patak, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide reliable and harmonized information on methods for GMO (genetically modified organism) analysis we have published a database called "GMOMETHODS" that supplies information on PCR assays validated according to the principles and requirements of ISO 5725 and/or the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry protocol. In addition, the database contains methods that have been verified by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed in the context of compliance with an European Union legislative act. The web application provides search capabilities to retrieve primers and probes sequence information on the available methods. It further supplies core data required by analytical labs to carry out GM tests and comprises information on the applied reference material and plasmid standards. The GMOMETHODS database currently contains 118 different PCR methods allowing identification of 51 single GM events and 18 taxon-specific genes in a sample. It also provides screening assays for detection of eight different genetic elements commonly used for the development of GMOs. The application is referred to by the Biosafety Clearing House, a global mechanism set up by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to facilitate the exchange of information on Living Modified Organisms. The publication of the GMOMETHODS database can be considered an important step toward worldwide standardization and harmonization in GMO analysis.

  14. Global health in the European Union--a review from an agenda-setting perspective.

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focuses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity.

  15. Global health in the European Union – a review from an agenda-setting perspective

    PubMed Central

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focusses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity. PMID:24560264

  16. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-01

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply

  17. Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Johansen, K; Nicoll, A; Ciancio, B C; Kramarz, P

    2009-01-01

    Pandemic vaccines from four manufacturers are now available for use within the European Union (EU). Use of these vaccines will protect individuals and reduce the impact on health services to more manageable levels. The majority of the severely ill will be from known risk groups and the best strategy will be to start vaccinating in line with the recommendation from the European Union Health Security Committee prioritizing adults and children with chronic conditions, pregnant women and healthcare workers. The composition of authorized vaccines is reviewed in this article. The vaccine strain in all authorized pandemic vaccines worldwide is based on the same initial isolate of influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)v but the vaccines differ in conditions for virus propagation, antigen preparation, antigen content and whether they are adjuvanted or not. The vaccines are likely to be effective since no significant genetic or antigenic drift has occurred and there are already mechanisms for estimating clinical effectiveness. Influenza vaccines have good safety records and no safety concerns have so far been encountered with any of the vaccines developed. However, special mechanisms have been devised for the early detection and rigorous investigation of possible significant side effects in Europe through post-marketing surveillance and analysis. Delivery of the vaccines to the risk groups will pose difficulties where those with chronic illnesses are not readily identifiable to the healthcare services. There is considerable scope for European added value through Member States with excess vaccines making them available to other states. PMID:19883538

  18. Is the Turkish health care system ready to be a part of the European Union?

    PubMed

    Kisa, Adnan; Kavuncubasi, Sahin; Ersoy, Korkut

    2002-04-01

    Lately, Turkey is struggling to recover from the economic effects of the economic crisis so that the government officials are trying to impose budget cuts in health and education sectors. After the United States, the country's national defense expenditures are the highest among the NATO countries. Therefore, Turkey allocates only 3-4% of the gross domestic product for health care expenses. Overall, the health status in Turkey is the lowest among the European Union countries; infant mortality rate is about 45 per 1000 live births, which is the highest on the European continent, and per capita health care expenditure is $120. Although 75% of the people are covered by some type of public insurance, 25% of the Turkish people do not have any insurance coverage. The national system is funded by taxes (43%), out of pocket payments (32%), and social and private insurance premiums (25%). This study examines whether Turkey is ready to be a part of the European Union in terms of the health sector of its economy and health status of its people. PMID:11993575

  19. Modular framework to assess the risk of African swine fever virus entry into the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent occurrence and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in Eastern Europe is perceived as a serious risk for the pig industry in the European Union (EU). In order to estimate the potential risk of ASF virus (ASFV) entering the EU, several pathways of introduction were previously assessed separately. The present work aimed to integrate five of these assessments (legal imports of pigs, legal imports of products, illegal imports of products, fomites associated with transport and wild boar movements) into a modular tool that facilitates the visualization and comprehension of the relative risk of ASFV introduction into the EU by each analyzed pathway. Results The framework’s results indicate that 48% of EU countries are at relatively high risk (risk score 4 or 5 out of 5) for ASFV entry for at least one analyzed pathway. Four of these countries obtained the maximum risk score for one pathway: Bulgaria for legally imported products during the high risk period (HRP); Finland for wild boar; Slovenia and Sweden for legally imported pigs during the HRP. Distribution of risk considerably differed from one pathway to another; for some pathways, the risk was concentrated in a few countries (e.g., transport fomites), whereas other pathways incurred a high risk for 4 or 5 countries (legal pigs, illegal imports and wild boar). Conclusions The modular framework, developed to estimate the risk of ASFV entry into the EU, is available in a public domain, and is a transparent, easy-to-interpret tool that can be updated and adapted if required. The model’s results determine the EU countries at higher risk for each ASFV introduction route, and provide a useful basis to develop a global coordinated program to improve ASFV prevention in the EU. PMID:24992824

  20. The Role of Lifelong Learning in Building Citizenship: European Union Approaches in the Light of British and Colonial Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John

    2006-01-01

    This article considers European Union measures to strengthen "citizenship" through the use of lifelong learning in the light of two twentieth-century British initiatives. European citizenship is discussed, and current EU initiatives to harness lifelong learning to the development of citizenship are briefly outlined. Aspects of British and colonial…

  1. Building Evaluation Capacity in Spain: A Case Study of Rural Development and Empowerment in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Yague, Jose L.; Afonso, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The development of European Community administrative authority has greatly influenced the development of an evaluation culture among the southern and central member states of the European Union. The present case study from Spain provides an example of this diffusion through the use of an empowerment evaluation approach to build evaluation capacity…

  2. Continuing Education of Civics Teachers for Teaching the European Union: Results of the Jean Monnet Project PEB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Monika; Forstmann, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The European dimension is of salient importance for understanding and shaping politics especially, but not only, in Europe. The European Union by now has become a compulsory content of civics classes in secondary schools throughout Germany. For teachers, however, teaching this topic is connected with manifold difficulties, for example, due to the…

  3. Educational Research Capacity Building in the European Union: A Critique of the Lived Experiences of Emerging Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallet, Fiona; Fidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which European Union (EU) policies impact upon the activities of associations such as the European Educational Research Association (EERA) and the experiences of emerging researchers aligned to such associations. In essence, the authors explore potential tensions between policy and the lived…

  4. Income distribution in the European Union versus in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagielski, Maciej; Duczmal, Rafał; Kutner, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    We prove that the refined approach-our extension of the Yakovenko et al. formalism-is universal in the sense that it describes well both household incomes in the European Union and individual incomes in the United States for all income social classes. This formalism, supplemented in this work by the entropy analysis, allowed the study of the impact of the recent world-wide financial crisis on the annual incomes of different income social classes. Hence, we find the most painful impact of the crisis on incomes of all income social classes. Furthermore, we indicate the existence of a possible market crisis precursor.

  5. Conducting an HIA of the effect of accession to the European Union on national agriculture and food policy in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Kuhar, Ales; Robertson, Aileen; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

    2004-02-01

    A health impact assessment (HIA) to consider the potential effects of European Union accession on agriculture and food policies in Slovenia has been undertaken as a joint project between the Slovenian Ministry of Health and the WHO European Region. The HIA project in Slovenia was conducted as a pilot project to develop the methods of HIA in this policy sector. The implications of the European Union Agricultural Policy to health are discussed. HIA methods have been used to assess some of the potential effects in Slovenia of accession to the European Union. This paper outlines some of the early findings and lessons to be learnt from the Slovenian HIA experience in order that other countries may adopt the approach to improve health considerations in agriculture and other intersectoral policymaking.

  6. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended. PMID:26771628

  7. The effect of migration within the European Union/European Economic Area on the distribution of tuberculosis, 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Hollo, Vahur; Kotila, Saara Magdalena; Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Immigration from tuberculosis (TB) high-incidence countries is known to contribute notably to the TB burden in low-incidence countries. However, the effect of migration enabled by the free movement of persons within the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) on TB notification has not been analysed. We analysed TB surveillance data from 29 EU/EEA countries submitted for the years 2007-2013 to The European Surveillance System. We used place of birth and nationality as proxy indicators for native, other EU/EEA and non-EU/EEA origin of the TB cases and analysed the characteristics of the subgroups by origin. From 2007-2013, a total of 527,467 TB cases were reported, of which 129,781 (24.6%) were of foreign origin including 12,566 (2.4%) originating from EU/EEA countries other than the reporting country. The countries reporting most TB cases originating from other EU/EEA countries were Germany and Italy, and the largest proportion of TB cases in individuals came from Poland (n=1,562) and Romania (n=6,285). At EU/EEA level only a small proportion of foreign TB cases originated from other EU/EEA countries, however, the uneven distribution of this presumed importation may pose a challenge to TB programmes in some countries.

  8. The effect of migration within the European Union/European Economic Area on the distribution of tuberculosis, 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Hollo, Vahur; Kotila, Saara Magdalena; Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Immigration from tuberculosis (TB) high-incidence countries is known to contribute notably to the TB burden in low-incidence countries. However, the effect of migration enabled by the free movement of persons within the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) on TB notification has not been analysed. We analysed TB surveillance data from 29 EU/EEA countries submitted for the years 2007-2013 to The European Surveillance System. We used place of birth and nationality as proxy indicators for native, other EU/EEA and non-EU/EEA origin of the TB cases and analysed the characteristics of the subgroups by origin. From 2007-2013, a total of 527,467 TB cases were reported, of which 129,781 (24.6%) were of foreign origin including 12,566 (2.4%) originating from EU/EEA countries other than the reporting country. The countries reporting most TB cases originating from other EU/EEA countries were Germany and Italy, and the largest proportion of TB cases in individuals came from Poland (n=1,562) and Romania (n=6,285). At EU/EEA level only a small proportion of foreign TB cases originated from other EU/EEA countries, however, the uneven distribution of this presumed importation may pose a challenge to TB programmes in some countries. PMID:27035746

  9. Nitrogen excretion factors of livestock in the European Union: a review.

    PubMed

    Velthof, Gerard L; Hou, Yong; Oenema, Oene

    2015-12-01

    Livestock manures are major sources of nutrients, used for the fertilisation of cropland and grassland. Accurate estimates of the amounts of nutrients in livestock manures are required for nutrient management planning, but also for estimating nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to the environment. Here we report on N excretion factors for a range of animal categories in policy reports by member states of the European Union (EU). Nitrogen excretion is defined in this paper as the total amount of N excreted by livestock per year as urine and faeces. We discuss the guidelines and methodologies for the estimation of N excretion factors by the EU Nitrates Directive, the OECD/Eurostat gross N balance guidebook, the EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the IPCC Guidelines. Our results show that N excretion factors for dairy cattle, other cattle, pigs, laying hens, broilers, sheep, and goats differ significantly between policy reports and between countries. Part of these differences may be related to differences in animal production (e.g. production of meat, milk and eggs), size/weight of the animals, and feed composition, but partly also to differences in the aggregation of livestock categories and estimation procedures. The methodologies and data used by member states are often not well described. There is a need for a common, harmonised methodology and procedure for the estimation of N excretion factors, to arrive at a common basis for the estimation of the production of manure N and N balances, and emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) across the EU. PMID:25959675

  10. The Role of Agriculture in Turkish Economy at the Beginning of the European Union Accession Negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrivermis, Harun; Bulbul, Mehmet

    In this study, Turkish economy and importance of agriculture in the economy on the way of accession negotiations to the European Union (EU) are discussed. Compliance with EU norms based on macroeconomic indicators is evaluated. Turkish economy exhibits the characteristics of a developing economy based on per capita income, economic growth, employment, income distribution, foreign trade volume and economic structure. Long-term economic growth rate of Turkey is quite low and it is negatively affected by economic crises. Income distribution among the households and the regions (both of the geographical and rural-urban regions) is imbalanced. Income per capita is about ¼ of an average developed country and the economy is still characterized by a high degree of dualism in the economic sectors, regions as well as social segments. Economy suffers from trade deficit and the level of agricultural import has almost reached to agricultural export`s level in 2004. From the point of view of all socio-economic indicators, the contribution of agricultural production to domestic economy is essential in terms of employment, contributing to national income and export earnings. The enterprise size is relatively small, duality in socio-economic structure is common, population is high, productivity level is low, costs are high and competition power of some sub-sectors is low in Turkish agricultural sector. Small family farms are the main unit of crops and livestock production and household members provide most of the labor requirements of the farms. Turkey launched a radical change in agricultural policy instead of unsustainable and costly system of support policies including input subsidies and support prices and issued a policy paper for 2006-2010 in line with the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU. Reevaluation of the agricultural policies is needed in order to minimize the regional development differences and to control the migration from rural areas to cities.

  11. The future of immunization policies in Italy and in the European Union: The Declaration of Erice

    PubMed Central

    Odone, Anna; Fara, Gaetano M; Giammaco, Giuseppe; Blangiardi, Francesco; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    On December 2014 the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) of the European Union adopted the Council Conclusions on “Vaccinations as an effective tool in public health,” a crucial step to strengthen EU action supporting Member States (MS) to implement effective immunization policies and programs. As a contribution to the ongoing pan-European discussion and to the Italian commitment to stay at the forefront of promoting vaccination polices, the Erice Declaration was drafted by Italy's best experts in the field of immunization to transpose to the national level the goals set by the EPSCO Conclusions. The aim of the current letter is to present to the broader international audience the Italian perspective as a case study to assess different immunization policy models, challenges and priorities. PMID:25806425

  12. Analysis of licensed over-the-counter (OTC) antibiotics in the European Union and Norway, 2012.

    PubMed

    Both, Leonard; Botgros, Radu; Cavaleri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognised as a growing problem that seriously threatens public health and requires prompt action. Concerns have therefore been raised about the potential harmful effects of making antibiotics available without prescription. Because of the very serious concerns regarding further spread of resistance, the over-the-counter (OTC) availability of antibiotics was analysed here. Topical and systemic OTC antibiotics and their indications were determined across 26 European Union (EU) countries and Norway by means of a European survey. We identified a total of 48 OTC products containing 20 different single antibiotics and three antibiotic combinations as active substances, used mainly as topical preparations in short treatment courses. Given the relevance of these medicines and the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance, it is important to limit the availability of OTC antibiotics and to monitor their use. PMID:26530125

  13. The future of immunization policies in Italy and in the European Union: The Declaration of Erice.

    PubMed

    Odone, Anna; Fara, Gaetano M; Giammaco, Giuseppe; Blangiardi, Francesco; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    On December 2014 the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) of the European Union adopted the Council Conclusions on "Vaccinations as an effective tool in public health," a crucial step to strengthen EU action supporting Member States (MS) to implement effective immunization policies and programs. As a contribution to the ongoing pan-European discussion and to the Italian commitment to stay at the forefront of promoting vaccination policies, the Erice Declaration was drafted by Italy's best experts in the field of immunization to transpose to the national level the goals set by the EPSCO Conclusions. The aim of the current letter is to present to the broader international audience the Italian perspective as a case study to assess different immunization policy models, challenges and priorities.

  14. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2012-04-30

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  15. EMEA and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products Development in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) via the centralized procedure is the only available regulatory procedure for obtaining marketing authorization for gene therapy (GT) medicinal products in the European Union. The responsibility for the authorization of clinical trials remains with the national competent authorities (NCA) acting in a harmonized framework from the scientific viewpoint. With the entry into force of a new directive on good clinical practice implementation in clinical trials as of 1 May 2004, procedural aspects will also be harmonized at EU level. Scientifically sound development of medicinal products is the key for the successful registration of dossiers and for contributing to the promotion and protection of public health. The objective of this paper is to introduce the EMEA regulatory processes and scientific activities relevant to GT medicinal products. PMID:12686717

  16. Tobacco Control and Health Advocacy in the European Union: Understanding Effective Coalition-Building

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff; Amos, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Coalitions of supporters of comprehensive tobacco control policy have been crucial in achieving policy success nationally and internationally, but the dynamics of such alliances are not well understood. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured, narrative interviews with 35 stakeholders involved in developing the European Council Recommendation on smoke-free environments. These were thematically analyzed to examine the dynamics of coalition-building, collaboration and leadership in the alliance of organizations which successfully called for the development of comprehensive European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Results: An alliance of tobacco control and public health advocacy organizations, scientific institutions, professional bodies, pharmaceutical companies, and other actors shared the goal of fighting the harms caused by second-hand smoke. Alliance members jointly called for comprehensive EU smoke-free policy and the protection of the political debates from tobacco industry interference. The alliance’s success was enabled by a core group of national and European actors with long-standing experience in tobacco control, who facilitated consensus-building, mobilized allies and synchronized the actions of policy supporters. Representatives of Brussels-based organizations emerged as crucial strategic leaders. Conclusions: The insights gained and identification of key enablers of successful tobacco control advocacy highlight the strategic importance of investing into tobacco control at European level. Those interested in effective health policy can apply lessons learned from EU smoke-free policy to build effective alliances in tobacco control and other areas of public health. PMID:25634938

  17. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    PubMed

    Krings, Gautier M; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  18. The size of the irregular migrant population in the European Union – counting the uncountable?

    PubMed

    Vogel, Dita; Kovacheva, Vesela; Prescott, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to estimate the size of the irregular migrant population in a specific city or country, and even more difficult to arrive at estimates at the European level. A review of past attempts at European-level estimates reveals that they rely on rough and outdated rules-of-thumb. In this paper, we present our own European level estimates for 2002, 2005, and 2008. We aggregate country-specific information, aiming at approximate comparability by consistent use of minimum and maximum estimates and by adjusting for obvious differences in definition and timescale. While the aggregated estimates are not considered highly reliable, they do -- for the first time -- provide transparency. The provision of more systematic medium quality estimates is shown to be the most promising way for improvement. The presented estimate indicates a minimum of 1.9 million and a maximum of 3.8 million irregular foreign residents in the 27 member states of the European Union (2008). Unlike rules-of-thumb, the aggregated EU estimates indicate a decline in the number of irregular foreign residents between 2002 and 2008. This decline has been influenced by the EU enlargement and legalisation programmes.

  19. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    PubMed

    Krings, Gautier M; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. PMID:24465381

  20. Trade Integration and Trade Imbalances in the European Union: A Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Krings, Gautier M.; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. PMID:24465381

  1. Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Giesbrecht, N; Horverak, O; Nordlund, S; Norström, T; Olsson, O; Osterberg, E; Skog, O J

    1995-12-01

    This paper projects the consequences of modifying or eliminating the current national alcohol retail monopolies in Sweden, Norway and Finland as a possible result of those countries' membership in the European Union (EU). First, the authors project absolute alcohol consumption in each country based on different possible changes in alcohol price and availability. Then they predict the future levels of alcohol-related problems likely to result from increased per capita alcohol consumption (Sweden and Norway only). All of the scenarios examined in this paper are expected to lead to increases in per capita alcohol consumption. The smallest increase in consumption would result from a partial elimination of the current monopoly and a modest reduction in alcohol prices. In that case, projected per capita consumption in Sweden for inhabitants 15 years and older would rise from 6.3 to 9.3 litres; in Norway, from 4.7 to 6.7 litres; and in Finland, from 8.4 to 11.1 litres. The greatest projected increase in consumption would result from a complete elimination of the state monopolies such that all beer, wine and spirits were sold in food shops, grocery stores and gasoline stations, along with a substantial drop in alcohol prices as a result of private competition within each country and increased cross-border alcohol purchases. That scenario would result in projected per capita consumption of 12.7 litres in Sweden, 11.1 litres in Norway and 13.7 litres in Finland. The authors project that a 1-litre increase in consumption would result in a 9.5% increase in total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 9.7% increase in Norway. Further, alcohol-related assaults would increase by 9% in Sweden and 9.6% in Norway. A 5-litre increase in consumption would result in a 62% increase in alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 60% increase in Norway, and a 57% increase in alcohol-involved assaults in both countries.

  2. Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Giesbrecht, N; Horverak, O; Nordlund, S; Norström, T; Olsson, O; Osterberg, E; Skog, O J

    1995-12-01

    This paper projects the consequences of modifying or eliminating the current national alcohol retail monopolies in Sweden, Norway and Finland as a possible result of those countries' membership in the European Union (EU). First, the authors project absolute alcohol consumption in each country based on different possible changes in alcohol price and availability. Then they predict the future levels of alcohol-related problems likely to result from increased per capita alcohol consumption (Sweden and Norway only). All of the scenarios examined in this paper are expected to lead to increases in per capita alcohol consumption. The smallest increase in consumption would result from a partial elimination of the current monopoly and a modest reduction in alcohol prices. In that case, projected per capita consumption in Sweden for inhabitants 15 years and older would rise from 6.3 to 9.3 litres; in Norway, from 4.7 to 6.7 litres; and in Finland, from 8.4 to 11.1 litres. The greatest projected increase in consumption would result from a complete elimination of the state monopolies such that all beer, wine and spirits were sold in food shops, grocery stores and gasoline stations, along with a substantial drop in alcohol prices as a result of private competition within each country and increased cross-border alcohol purchases. That scenario would result in projected per capita consumption of 12.7 litres in Sweden, 11.1 litres in Norway and 13.7 litres in Finland. The authors project that a 1-litre increase in consumption would result in a 9.5% increase in total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 9.7% increase in Norway. Further, alcohol-related assaults would increase by 9% in Sweden and 9.6% in Norway. A 5-litre increase in consumption would result in a 62% increase in alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 60% increase in Norway, and a 57% increase in alcohol-involved assaults in both countries. PMID:8555952

  3. Initial surveillance of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in the European Union and European Economic Area, April-September 2009.

    PubMed

    Devaux, I; Kreidl, P; Penttinen, P; Salminen, Mika; Zucs, P; Ammon, A

    2010-12-01

    European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries reported surveillance data on 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) through the Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) during the early phase of the 2009 pandemic. We describe the main epidemiological findings and their implications in respect to the second wave of the 2009 influenza pandemic. Two reporting systems were in place (aggregate and case-based) from June to September 2009 to monitor the evolution of the pandemic. The notification rate was assessed through aggregate reports. Individual data were analysed retrospectively to describe the population affected. The reporting peak of the first wave of the 2009 pandemic influenza was reached in the first week of August. Transmission was travel-related in the early stage and community transmission within EU/EEA countries was reported from June 2009. Seventy eight per cent of affected individuals were less than 30 years old. The proportions of cases with complications and underlying conditions were 3% and 7%, respectively. The most frequent underlying medical conditions were chronic lung (37%) and cardio-vascular diseases (15%). Complication and hospitalisation were both associated with underlying conditions regardless of age. The information from the first wave of the pandemic produced a basis to determine risk groups and vaccination strategies before the start of the winter wave. Public health recommendations should be guided by early capture of profiles of affected populations through monitoring of infectious diseases. PMID:21163182

  4. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma A.; Bacci, Sabrina; Shadwick, Rebecca; Tillmann, Taavi; Rechel, Bernd; Noori, Teymur; Suk, Jonathan E.; Odone, Anna; Ingleby, Jonathan D.; Mladovsky, Philipa; Mckee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to which this is the case is poorly understood, due to a lack of data. This paper addresses this evidence gap by providing an overview of the burden of measles in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. Methods: Data were collected through a comprehensive literature review, a country survey of EU/EEA member states and information from measles experts gathered at an infectious disease workshop. Results: Our results showed incomplete data on measles in migrant populations, as national surveillance systems do not systematically record migration-specific information; however, evidence from the literature review and country survey suggested that some measles outbreaks in the EU/EEA were due to sub-optimal vaccination coverage in migrant populations. Conclusions: We conclude that it is essential that routine surveillance of measles cases and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage become strengthened, to capture migrant-specific data. These data can help to inform the provision of preventive services, which may need to reach out to vulnerable migrant populations that currently face barriers in accessing routine immunization and health services. PMID:26563254

  5. Exchange of best practices within the European Union: surgery standardization of abdominal organ retrieval.

    PubMed

    de Graauw, J A; Mihály, S; Deme, O; Hofker, H S; Baranski, A G; Gobée, O P; Krikke, C; Fehérvari, I; Langer, R M; Ploeg, R J; Marazuela, R; Domínguez-Gil, B; Haase-Kromwijk, B J J M; Font-Sala, C

    2014-01-01

    Considering the growing organ demand worldwide, it is crucial to optimize organ retrieval and training of surgeons to reduce the risk of injury during the procedure and increase the quality of organs to be transplanted. In the Netherlands, a national complete trajectory from training of surgeons in procurement surgery to the quality assessment of the procured organs was implemented in 2010. This mandatory trajectory comprises training and certification modules: E-learning, training on the job, and a practical session. Thanks to the ACCORD (Achieving Comprehensive Coordination in Organ Donation) Joint Action coordinated by Spain and co-funded under the European Commission Health Programme, 3 twinning activities (led by France) were set to exchange best practices between countries. The Dutch trajectory is being adapted and implemented in Hungary as one of these twinning activities. The E-learning platform was modified, tested by a panel of Hungarian and UK surgeons, and was awarded in July 2013 by the European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education of the European Union of Medical Specialists. As a pilot phase for future national training, 6 Hungarian surgeons from Semmelweis University are being trained; E-learning platform was fulfilled, and practical sessions, training-on-the-job activities, and evaluations of technical skills are ongoing. The first national practical session was recently organized in Budapest, and the new series of nationwide selected candidates completed the E-learning platform before the practical. There is great potential for sharing best practices and for direct transfer of expertise at the European level, and especially to export this standardized training in organ retrieval to other European countries and even broader. The final goal was to not only provide a national training to all countries lacking such a program but also to improve the quality and safety criteria of organs to be transplanted. PMID:25131109

  6. Exchange of best practices within the European Union: surgery standardization of abdominal organ retrieval.

    PubMed

    de Graauw, J A; Mihály, S; Deme, O; Hofker, H S; Baranski, A G; Gobée, O P; Krikke, C; Fehérvari, I; Langer, R M; Ploeg, R J; Marazuela, R; Domínguez-Gil, B; Haase-Kromwijk, B J J M; Font-Sala, C

    2014-01-01

    Considering the growing organ demand worldwide, it is crucial to optimize organ retrieval and training of surgeons to reduce the risk of injury during the procedure and increase the quality of organs to be transplanted. In the Netherlands, a national complete trajectory from training of surgeons in procurement surgery to the quality assessment of the procured organs was implemented in 2010. This mandatory trajectory comprises training and certification modules: E-learning, training on the job, and a practical session. Thanks to the ACCORD (Achieving Comprehensive Coordination in Organ Donation) Joint Action coordinated by Spain and co-funded under the European Commission Health Programme, 3 twinning activities (led by France) were set to exchange best practices between countries. The Dutch trajectory is being adapted and implemented in Hungary as one of these twinning activities. The E-learning platform was modified, tested by a panel of Hungarian and UK surgeons, and was awarded in July 2013 by the European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education of the European Union of Medical Specialists. As a pilot phase for future national training, 6 Hungarian surgeons from Semmelweis University are being trained; E-learning platform was fulfilled, and practical sessions, training-on-the-job activities, and evaluations of technical skills are ongoing. The first national practical session was recently organized in Budapest, and the new series of nationwide selected candidates completed the E-learning platform before the practical. There is great potential for sharing best practices and for direct transfer of expertise at the European level, and especially to export this standardized training in organ retrieval to other European countries and even broader. The final goal was to not only provide a national training to all countries lacking such a program but also to improve the quality and safety criteria of organs to be transplanted.

  7. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union's Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Petronille; Bochenek, Tomasz; Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union's perspective. PMID:25942432

  8. Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Andreas; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Jannigje M; Oordt-Speets, Anouk M; van Kessel, Gerarda B; de Vlas, Sake J; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-08-25

    Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis (TB) will not be feasible. In 2013, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) started an assessment of benefits and risks of introducing programmatic LTBI control, with the aim of providing guidance on how to incorporate LTBI control into national TB strategies in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and candidate countries. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies. This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes. Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control.

  9. Changing hepatitis A epidemiology in the European Union: new challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gossner, C M; Severi, E; Danielsson, N; Hutin, Y; Coulombier, D

    2015-04-23

    This perspective on hepatitis A in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) presents epidemiological data on new cases and outbreaks and vaccination policies. Hepatitis A endemicity in the EU/EEA ranges from very low to intermediate with a decline in notification rates in recent decades. Vaccination uptake has been insufficient to compensate for the increasing number of susceptible individuals. Large outbreaks occur. Travel increases the probability of introducing the virus into susceptible populations and secondary transmission. Travel medicine services and healthcare providers should be more effective in educating travellers and travel agents regarding the risk of travel-associated hepatitis A. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) endorses the World Health Organization's recommendations on vaccination of high-risk groups in countries with low and very low endemicity and on universal vaccination in countries with intermediate endemicity. Those recommendations do not cover the use of hepatitis A vaccine to control outbreaks. ECDC together with EU/EEA countries should produce evidence-based recommendations on hepatitis A immunisation to control outbreaks. Data about risk behaviours, exposure and mortality are scarce at the EU/EEA level. EU/EEA countries should report to ECDC comprehensive epidemiological and microbiological data to identify opportunities for prevention.

  10. [Noise-induced risks at workstations in Poland and other European Union countries].

    PubMed

    Augustyńska, Danuta; Pleban, Dariusz; Radosz, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Noise is one of the most common physical risks in the workplace. Long term exposure to its high levels (above 80-85 dB) can pose a significant threat to health of workers, including hearing loss. Noise can also be a burdensome factor hampering work, causing stress and various health problems. In the European Union about 80 million workers (1/3 of total working population) complain about noise. In Poland, there are about 200 thousand workers exposed to noise in excess of MAI values. For years noise-induced hearing loss has been at the top of the list of occupational diseases. This paper presents a review of the data on noise hazards in the EU countries based on the reports of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions and publications of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. The statistical data on working conditions in Poland (including noise-induced risks) obtained from the Central Statistical Office and statistical data on occupational diseases (including hearing loss) elaborated by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź were the subject of analysis. The article also presents the results of noise measurements and surveys carried out in selected national companies. The obtained results indicate the necessity for both objective and subjective assessments of noise hazards in the workplace. PMID:23394010

  11. General aspects on the assessment of functional foods in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Palou, A; Serra, F; Pico, C

    2003-09-01

    During the last 6 y, the European Union has undergone a profound qualitative change in the focus on food safety problems. In 1997, nine new scientific committees were created, including the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and the Scientific Steering Committee (SSC), and were put under the auspices of the Directorate General in charge of defending consumer interests and health. The process is foreseen to be completed by the incorporation in 2003 of all food safety activities of these committees into the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Among the immediate challenges in the near future are the scientific and technological developments and the regulatory measures for the so-called 'functional foods', which can positively affect the health and well-being of consumers. Functional foods are a recent phenomenon in Europe and are, as yet, not covered by any specific legislation. The two key aspects in the evaluation of functional foods are safety and efficacy. Whereas safety can be covered under different legislative umbrellas such as novel foods (NFs), foods for particular nutritional purposes, supplements, additives and others, the issue of evaluation of their efficacy is only at a very early stage since the criteria to establish the validity of 'health claims' has not been clearly addressed at a European level.

  12. More attention to public health in the European Union - implications for dentistry?

    PubMed

    Widström, Eeva; Van Den Heuvel, Jos

    2005-06-01

    At present the European Union is developing its competence on health and new important issues will be taken on board in European health policy. Increasing mobility of people and integration of the applicant countries puts pressure on the current health care provision systems. A mandate for an open co-ordination process in public health is expected to be given by the European Council. The process will start by exchange of information and best practice models. The next step will be the presentation of common targets between member countries, followed by national action programmes and indicators. It is likely that a lot of emphasis will be put on access to health services, comparisons of costs of health care and benchmarking the costs of items of care. In the long run this will mean convergence of the health care systems. If oral health is to be considered an integral part of general health dental professionals need to be aware of and be able to influence the actions to be taken. PMID:15997966

  13. Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Andreas; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Jannigje M; Oordt-Speets, Anouk M; van Kessel, Gerarda B; de Vlas, Sake J; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-08-25

    Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis (TB) will not be feasible. In 2013, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) started an assessment of benefits and risks of introducing programmatic LTBI control, with the aim of providing guidance on how to incorporate LTBI control into national TB strategies in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and candidate countries. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies. This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes. Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control. PMID:27589214

  14. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    PubMed

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. PMID:27357560

  15. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    PubMed

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste.

  16. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007. PMID:17328817

  17. Intrinsic classes in the Union of European Football Associations soccer team ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2014-11-01

    A strong structural regularity of classes is found in soccer teams ranked by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) for the time interval 2009-2014. It concerns 424 to 453 teams according to the 5 competition seasons. The analysis is based on the rank-size theory considerations, the size being the UEFA coefficient at the end of a season. Three classes emerge: (i) the few "top" teams, (ii) 300 teams, (iii) the rest of the involved teams (about 150) in the tail of the distribution. There are marked empirical laws describing each class. A 3-parameter Lavalette function is used to describe the concave curving as the rank increases, and to distinguish the the tail from the central behavior.

  18. Health impact assessment: assessing opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union

    PubMed Central

    Lock, K.; McKee, M.

    2005-01-01

    On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for assessing the health impacts of policy in the EU and, using health impact assessment as a case study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682

  19. Clinical development of gene therapy needs a tailored approach: a regulatory perspective from the European Union.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Gopalan; Cossu, Giulio; Galli, Maria Cristina; Flory, Egbert; Ovelgonne, Hans; Salmikangas, Paula; Schneider, Christian K; Trouvin, Jean-Hugues

    2014-03-01

    Gene therapy is a rapidly evolving field that needs an integrated approach, as acknowledged in the concept article on the revision of the guideline on gene transfer medicinal products. The first gene therapy application for marketing authorization was approved in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) region in 2012, the product being Alipogene tiparvovec. The regulatory process for this product has been commented on extensively, highlighting the challenges posed by such a novel technology. Here, as current or previous members of the Committee for Advanced Therapies, we share our perspectives and views on gene therapy as a treatment modality based on current common understanding and regulatory experience of gene therapy products in the European Union to date. It is our view that a tailored approach is needed for a given gene therapy product in order to achieve successful marketing authorization.

  20. Facing the water framework directive challenges: a baseline of stakeholder participation in the European Union.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Lucia

    2010-06-01

    Public participation is a key element of Integrated Water Resources Management and, in the European Union (EU), is a major challenge in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which was adopted in December 2000. When new legislation enters into force it is essential to set a baseline against which to measure the progress towards the established goals at significant milestones of its implementation. This paper presents an assessment of the quality of stakeholder participation at the beginning of the WFD implementation in twenty countries belonging to or with close institutional relationships with the EU. The evaluation was completed by environmental non-governmental organizations and it shows that already in 2003 there were positive examples of stakeholder participation in several countries but that, in general, the WFD implementation will require significant efforts to improve on participatory practices throughout Europe. PMID:20223583

  1. Assumptions in the European Union biofuels policy: frictions with experiences in Germany, Brazil and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Franco, Jennifer; Levidow, Les; Fig, David; Goldfarb, Lucia; Hönicke, Mireille; Mendonça, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The biofuel project is an agro-industrial development and politically contested policy process where governments increasingly become global actors. European Union (EU) biofuels policy rests upon arguments about societal benefits of three main kinds - namely, environmental protection (especially greenhouse gas savings), energy security and rural development, especially in the global South. Each argument involves optimistic assumptions about what the putative benefits mean and how they can be fulfilled. After examining those assumptions, we compare them with experiences in three countries - Germany, Brazil and Mozambique - which have various links to each other and to the EU through biofuels. In those case studies, there are fundamental contradictions between EU policy assumptions and practices in the real world, involving frictional encounters among biofuel promoters as well as with people adversely affected. Such contradictions may intensify with the future rise of biofuels and so warrant systematic attention. PMID:21125723

  2. A spatiotemporal analysis of aggregate labour force behaviour by sex and age across the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in age-specific male and female labour force participation rates using annual data from 154 regions across ten European Union member states for the period 1983-1997. Regional participation rates appear to be strongly correlated in time, weakly correlated in space and to parallel their national counterparts. An econometric model is designed consistent with these empirical findings. To control for potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables, we use an instrumental variables estimation scheme based on a matrix exponential spatial specification of the error terms. Many empirical studies of aggregate labour force behaviour have ignored population distribution effects, relying instead on the representative-agent paradigm. In order for representative-agent models to accurately describe aggregate behaviour, all marginal reactions of individuals to changes in aggregate variables must be identical. It turns out that this condition cannot apply to individuals across different sex/age groups.

  3. Contribution of Meat Inspection to the surveillance of poultry health and welfare in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Stärk, K D C; Mateus, A; Lupo, C; Lindberg, A; LE Bouquin-Leneveu, S

    2015-08-01

    In the European Union, Meat Inspection (MI) aims to protect public health by ensuring that minimal hazardous material enters in the food chain. It also contributes to the detection and monitoring of animal diseases and welfare problems but its utility for animal surveillance has been assessed partially for some diseases only. Using the example of poultry production, we propose a complete assessment of MI as a health surveillance system. MI allows a long-term syndromic surveillance of poultry health but its contribution is lowered by a lack of data standardization, analysis and reporting. In addition, the probability of case detection for 20 diseases and welfare conditions was quantified using a scenario tree modelling approach, with input data based on literature and expert opinion. The sensitivity of MI appeared to be very high to detect most of the conditions studied because MI is performed at batch level and applied to a high number of birds per batch.

  4. Health care expenditure disparities in the European Union and underlying factors: a distribution dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, José; Maza, Adolfo; Hierro, María

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines health care expenditure (HCE) disparities between the European Union countries over the period 1995-2010. By means of using a continuous version of the distribution dynamics approach, the key conclusions are that the reduction in disparities is very weak and, therefore, persistence is the main characteristic of the HCE distribution. In view of these findings, a preliminary attempt is made to add some insights into potentially main factors behind the HCE distribution. The results indicate that whereas per capita income is by far the main determinant, the dependency ratio and female labour participation do not play any role in explaining the HCE distribution; as for the rest of the factors studied (life expectancy, infant mortality, R&D expenditure and public HCE expenditure share), we find that their role falls somewhat in between. PMID:24823964

  5. Public funding of clinical-stage antibiotic development in the United States and European Union.

    PubMed

    Eichberg, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The health and national security challenge of antibiotic resistance has led governments to adopt policies to stimulate new antibiotic R&D. Government programs that directly fund late-stage clinical development of antibiotics have emerged, including the Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Program of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority in the United States, and the New Drugs for Bad Bugs program of the Innovative Medicines Initiative in the European Union. These efforts are collectively investing nearly $1 billion and are supporting nearly 20% of the global antibiotic pipeline. This article describes these programs, including the antibiotics and their targeted pathogens and clinical indications, as well as program mechanisms for project eligibility, selection, governance, funding, and IP management. Preliminary assessment of the impact of these mechanisms on the success of the programs is provided. PMID:26042859

  6. European Union bans atrazine, while the United States negotiates continued use.

    PubMed

    Sass, Jennifer Beth; Colangelo, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Atrazine is a common agricultural herbicide with endocrine disruptor activity. There is evidence that it interferes with reproduction and development, and may cause cancer. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved its continued use in October 2003, that same month the European Union (EU) announced a ban of atrazine because of ubiquitous and unpreventable water contamination. The authors reviewed regulatory procedures and government documents, and report efforts by the manufacturer of atrazine, Syngenta, to influence the U.S. atrazine assessment, by submitting flawed scientific data as evidence of no harm, and by meeting repeatedly and privately with EPA to negotiate the government's regulatory approach. Many of the details of these negotiations continue to be withheld from the public, despite EPA regulations and federal open-government laws that require such decisions to be made in the open. PMID:16967834

  7. European Union bans atrazine, while the United States negotiates continued use.

    PubMed

    Sass, Jennifer Beth; Colangelo, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Atrazine is a common agricultural herbicide with endocrine disruptor activity. There is evidence that it interferes with reproduction and development, and may cause cancer. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved its continued use in October 2003, that same month the European Union (EU) announced a ban of atrazine because of ubiquitous and unpreventable water contamination. The authors reviewed regulatory procedures and government documents, and report efforts by the manufacturer of atrazine, Syngenta, to influence the U.S. atrazine assessment, by submitting flawed scientific data as evidence of no harm, and by meeting repeatedly and privately with EPA to negotiate the government's regulatory approach. Many of the details of these negotiations continue to be withheld from the public, despite EPA regulations and federal open-government laws that require such decisions to be made in the open.

  8. Health care expenditure disparities in the European Union and underlying factors: a distribution dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, José; Maza, Adolfo; Hierro, María

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines health care expenditure (HCE) disparities between the European Union countries over the period 1995-2010. By means of using a continuous version of the distribution dynamics approach, the key conclusions are that the reduction in disparities is very weak and, therefore, persistence is the main characteristic of the HCE distribution. In view of these findings, a preliminary attempt is made to add some insights into potentially main factors behind the HCE distribution. The results indicate that whereas per capita income is by far the main determinant, the dependency ratio and female labour participation do not play any role in explaining the HCE distribution; as for the rest of the factors studied (life expectancy, infant mortality, R&D expenditure and public HCE expenditure share), we find that their role falls somewhat in between.

  9. The healthcare system and provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 4: Greece.

    PubMed

    Damaskinos, P; Koletsi-Kounari, H; Economou, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-03-11

    This paper presents a description of the healthcare system and how oral healthcare is organised and provided in Greece, a country in a deep economic and social crisis. The national health system is underfunded, with severe gaps in staffing levels and the country has a large private healthcare sector. Oral healthcare has been largely provided in the private sector. Most people are struggling to survive and have no money to spend on general and oral healthcare. Unemployment is rising and access to healthcare services is more difficult than ever. Additionally, there has been an overproduction of dentists and no development of team dentistry. This has led to under or unemployment of dentists in Greece and their migration to other European Union member states, such as the United Kingdom, where over 600 Greek dentists are currently working. PMID:26964601

  10. [Blood transfusion in the European Union: current status and future challenges].

    PubMed

    Rouger, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Blood transfusion is developing rapidly in the European Union. Though a compromise between technocrats, lobbies and blood transfusion professionals, the new specific EU directive (2002/98/EC) was a major step forward. In the future, blood transfusion in the EU must be centered on medical, scientific and social criteria, within a sound ethical and non commercial framework. Attention must be paid to the needs of patients and blood donors alike. The EuroNet-TMS survey is highly informative in this respect. National transfusion systems are extremely heterogeneous, ranging from public services to profit-oriented organizations. The approach to donors varies from one country and culture to another Some member states prescribe 2.5 times more blood products than others. Likewise, prevention and haemovigilance strategies are highly variable, with no attempt at harmonization.

  11. Assumptions in the European Union biofuels policy: frictions with experiences in Germany, Brazil and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Franco, Jennifer; Levidow, Les; Fig, David; Goldfarb, Lucia; Hönicke, Mireille; Mendonça, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The biofuel project is an agro-industrial development and politically contested policy process where governments increasingly become global actors. European Union (EU) biofuels policy rests upon arguments about societal benefits of three main kinds - namely, environmental protection (especially greenhouse gas savings), energy security and rural development, especially in the global South. Each argument involves optimistic assumptions about what the putative benefits mean and how they can be fulfilled. After examining those assumptions, we compare them with experiences in three countries - Germany, Brazil and Mozambique - which have various links to each other and to the EU through biofuels. In those case studies, there are fundamental contradictions between EU policy assumptions and practices in the real world, involving frictional encounters among biofuel promoters as well as with people adversely affected. Such contradictions may intensify with the future rise of biofuels and so warrant systematic attention.

  12. European Union public opinion on policy measures to address childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Suggs, L Suzanne; McIntyre, Chris

    2011-02-01

    Increases in pediatric overweight and obesity throughout the European Union (EU) generate concern because of the many associated co-morbidities, psychosocial effects, and economic costs. A variety of policy approaches have been implemented, but counteracting weight gain has proven challenging. Do differences in public opinion about policy options to fight the problem exist among EU countries? We obtained data for our study from the Eurobarometer and include representative samples from all EU Member States plus four prospective countries. Our results suggest strong consistency among EU countries in support for two policies: providing information to parents and more physical activity in schools. For improving children's diets, our data show widespread support for providing parents with information, education programs in schools, and restrictions on advertising. For reducing childhood obesity, more physical activity in schools received the most support followed by education and advertising restrictions. There was very little support for imposing taxes on unhealthy food. PMID:21150940

  13. Sovereign debt crisis in the European Union: A minimum spanning tree approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, João

    2012-03-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, sovereign debt crisis has emerged and is severely affecting some countries in the European Union, threatening the viability of the euro and even the EU itself. This paper applies recent developments in econophysics, in particular the minimum spanning tree approach and the associate hierarchical tree, to analyze the asynchronization between the four most affected countries and other resilient countries in the euro area. For this purpose, daily government bond yield rates are used, covering the period from April 2007 to October 2010, thus including yield rates before, during and after the financial crises. The results show an increasing separation of the two groups of euro countries with the deepening of the government bond crisis.

  14. Public funding of clinical-stage antibiotic development in the United States and European Union.

    PubMed

    Eichberg, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The health and national security challenge of antibiotic resistance has led governments to adopt policies to stimulate new antibiotic R&D. Government programs that directly fund late-stage clinical development of antibiotics have emerged, including the Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Program of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority in the United States, and the New Drugs for Bad Bugs program of the Innovative Medicines Initiative in the European Union. These efforts are collectively investing nearly $1 billion and are supporting nearly 20% of the global antibiotic pipeline. This article describes these programs, including the antibiotics and their targeted pathogens and clinical indications, as well as program mechanisms for project eligibility, selection, governance, funding, and IP management. Preliminary assessment of the impact of these mechanisms on the success of the programs is provided.

  15. [Dissection of differences and similarities of botanical drugs in European Union, US and Canada].

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Zhao, Libin; Ye, Zhengliang; Guo, Zhixin; Sun, He

    2011-10-01

    Because of the unique nature and treatment concept of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), TCMs have been respected again since 70s of last century. The regulatory agencies of some developed countries (the FDA, EMA and Health Canada etc) have published new guidance/guidelines/directives in recent years, such as the botanical drug product guidance of the FDA, the evidence for quality of finished natural health products guidance of the Health Canada and the guideline on quality of herbal medicinal products/ traditional herbal medicinal products of the EMA etc. All of the regulatory agencies are willing to scientifically evaluate the herbal medicines and accept it as therapeutic product. This paper analyzed the history of herbal medicine regulation and the similarities and differences of the regulatory requirements of the European Union, the United States and Canada, proposed possible future direction of the international development of Chinese medicine from the perspective of global regulatory affairs.

  16. Public Funding of Clinical-Stage Antibiotic Development in the United States and European Union

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The health and national security challenge of antibiotic resistance has led governments to adopt policies to stimulate new antibiotic R&D. Government programs that directly fund late-stage clinical development of antibiotics have emerged, including the Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Program of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority in the United States, and the New Drugs for Bad Bugs program of the Innovative Medicines Initiative in the European Union. These efforts are collectively investing nearly $1 billion and are supporting nearly 20% of the global antibiotic pipeline. This article describes these programs, including the antibiotics and their targeted pathogens and clinical indications, as well as program mechanisms for project eligibility, selection, governance, funding, and IP management. Preliminary assessment of the impact of these mechanisms on the success of the programs is provided. PMID:26042859

  17. Single European currency and Monetary Union. Macroeconomic implications for pharmaceutical spending.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, P

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the potential implications of introducing a single currency among the Member States of the European Union for national pharmaceutical prices and spending. In doing so, it provides a brief account of the direct effects of introducing a single currency on pharmaceutical business. These are static in nature and include the elimination of exchange rate volatility and transaction costs, increased price transparency and limited potential for parallel trade. It subsequently analyses the potential medium and long term macroeconomic policy choices facing the Member States and their impact on pharmaceutical spending following the introduction of a single currency. These include policy directions in order to meet the Maastricht convergence criteria in the run-up to forming an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the implications of EMU on national macroeconomic policy thereafter. This article argues that the necessity for tight fiscal policies across the EU and, in particular, in those Member States facing high budget deficits and overall debt levels, will continue to exert considerable downward pressure on pharmaceutical spending. PMID:10175989

  18. Methods for the determination of European Union-permitted added natural colours in foods: a review.

    PubMed

    Scotter, M J

    2011-05-01

    Coupled to increasing consumer demand, food manufacturers have moved towards increased usage of approved natural colours. There is a legal requirement for governments to monitor the consumption of all food additives in the European Union to ensure the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are not exceeded, especially by young children. Validated analytical methods are needed to fulfil this requirement. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on methods of extraction for approved natural colours in food and drink. Available analytical methods for the determination of European Union-permitted natural food colour additives in foods and beverages have been assessed for their fitness for purpose in terms of their key extraction and analysis procedures, selectivity and sensitivity, especially with regard to maximum permitted levels, and their applicability for use in surveillance and in an enforcement role. The advantages and disadvantages of available analytical methods for each of nine designated chemical classes (groups) of natural colours in different food and beverage matrices are given. Other important factors such as technical requirements, cost, transferability and applicability are given due consideration. Gaps in the knowledge and levels of validation are identified and recommendations made on further research to develop suitable methods. The nine designated natural colour classes covered are: 1. Curcumin (E100), 2. Riboflavins (E101i-ii), 3. Cochineal (E120), 4. Chlorophylls--including chlorophyllins and copper analogues (E140-141), 5. Caramel Classes I-IV (E150a-d), 6. Carotenoids (E160a-f, E161b, E161g), 7. Beetroot red (E162), 8. Anthocyanins (E163), and 9. Other colours--Vegetable carbon (E153), Calcium carbonate (E170), Titanium dioxide (E171) and Iron oxides and hydroxides (E172).

  19. Health and access to care for undocumented migrants living in the European Union: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Aniek; Howard, Natasha; Wolffers, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Background Literature on health and access to care of undocumented migrants in the European Union (EU) is limited and heterogeneous in focus and quality. Authors conducted a scoping review to identify the extent, nature and distribution of existing primary research (1990–2012), thus clarifying what is known, key gaps, and potential next steps. Methods Authors used Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage scoping framework, with Levac, Colquhoun and O’Brien’s revisions, to review identified sources. Findings were summarized thematically: (i) physical, mental and social health issues, (ii) access and barriers to care, (iii) vulnerable groups and (iv) policy and rights. Results Fifty-four sources were included of 598 identified, with 93% (50/54) published during 2005–2012. EU member states from Eastern Europe were under-represented, particularly in single-country studies. Most study designs (52%) were qualitative. Sampling descriptions were generally poor, and sampling purposeful, with only four studies using any randomization. Demographic descriptions were far from uniform and only two studies focused on undocumented children and youth. Most (80%) included findings on health-care access, with obstacles reported at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Major access barriers included fear, lack of awareness of rights, socioeconomics. Mental disorders appeared widespread, while obstetric needs and injuries were key reasons for seeking care. Pregnant women, children and detainees appeared most vulnerable. While EU policy supports health-care access for undocumented migrants, practices remain haphazard, with studies reporting differing interpretation and implementation of rights at regional, institutional and individual levels. Conclusions This scoping review is an initial attempt to describe available primary evidence on health and access to care for undocumented migrants in the European Union. It underlines the need for more and better-quality research, increased

  20. Methods for the determination of European Union-permitted added natural colours in foods: a review.

    PubMed

    Scotter, M J

    2011-05-01

    Coupled to increasing consumer demand, food manufacturers have moved towards increased usage of approved natural colours. There is a legal requirement for governments to monitor the consumption of all food additives in the European Union to ensure the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are not exceeded, especially by young children. Validated analytical methods are needed to fulfil this requirement. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on methods of extraction for approved natural colours in food and drink. Available analytical methods for the determination of European Union-permitted natural food colour additives in foods and beverages have been assessed for their fitness for purpose in terms of their key extraction and analysis procedures, selectivity and sensitivity, especially with regard to maximum permitted levels, and their applicability for use in surveillance and in an enforcement role. The advantages and disadvantages of available analytical methods for each of nine designated chemical classes (groups) of natural colours in different food and beverage matrices are given. Other important factors such as technical requirements, cost, transferability and applicability are given due consideration. Gaps in the knowledge and levels of validation are identified and recommendations made on further research to develop suitable methods. The nine designated natural colour classes covered are: 1. Curcumin (E100), 2. Riboflavins (E101i-ii), 3. Cochineal (E120), 4. Chlorophylls--including chlorophyllins and copper analogues (E140-141), 5. Caramel Classes I-IV (E150a-d), 6. Carotenoids (E160a-f, E161b, E161g), 7. Beetroot red (E162), 8. Anthocyanins (E163), and 9. Other colours--Vegetable carbon (E153), Calcium carbonate (E170), Titanium dioxide (E171) and Iron oxides and hydroxides (E172). PMID:21424961

  1. A clash of civilizations? Examining liberal-democratic values in Turkey and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2008-12-01

    Turkey's proposed entry into the European Union (EU) has been undermined by Europeans' perceptions of Turkish-European cultural differences, particularly regarding the liberal-democratic values that the EU promotes (democracy, rule of law, and respect for and appreciation of minority/human rights). Yet, cross-national research on values has not focused on Turkey, the EU, and these liberal-democratic values, leaving assumptions of cultural differences and their explanations untested. Through analyses of World and European Values Survey data (1999-2002), this article asks whether people in Turkey have the same values regarding democracy, rule of law (versus religious and authoritarian rule), and minority/human rights as people in EU member and candidate states (as of 2000)? What factors explain these values? I find that people in Turkey support democracy to the same extent as people in EU member and candidate states, but people in Turkey are more supportive of religious and authoritarian rule and are less tolerant of minorities. Although the 'clash of civilizations' thesis expects liberal values to be ordered according to countries' religious traditions, with western Christian the most supportive and Islamic the least, only for tolerance of minorities values is this pattern found. Instead, economic development most consistently explains differences between Turkey and EU member and candidate states in support for these values. I conclude with calls for theoretical refinement, particularly of the clash of civilizations thesis, along with suggestions for future research to examine more Muslim and Orthodox countries; I discuss the debate over Turkey's EU entry. PMID:19035918

  2. Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J H; Jensen, L K

    2010-11-01

    The migration of phthalates into foodstuffs from food-contact materials (FCM) is a well-known source of food contamination. In 2005, the European Food Safety Authority finalized its risk assessment for several of the classical phthalate plasticizers. In their risk management procedure the European Commission transformed the tolerable daily intakes established by the Authority into legislative limits for phthalates in both plastic and food simulants, while taking exposure from other sources into consideration. These limits have been into force since 1 July 2008. A detailed interpretation of the regulation of these substances was agreed upon in the European network of FCM reference laboratories. This paper reports results from a Danish control campaign of samples collected by official food inspectors and analysed by a newly validated analytical method run under accreditation. Samples were from FCM producers, FCM importers and importers of packed foodstuffs from third-party countries. Products containing phthalates above the current limits were found in several categories of FCM: conveyor belts (six of six), lids from packed foodstuffs in glasses (eight of 28), tubes for liquid foodstuffs (four of five) and gloves (five of 14). More than 20% of the samples analysed contained dibutylphthalate (DBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) above the compositional limits of 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. Analysis of residual phthalates in metal lid gaskets instead of analysis of phthalates in the food when controlling foodstuffs packed outside the European Union proved to be an efficient and simple control method. All findings of phthalates were associated with the use of plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC).

  3. A clash of civilizations? Examining liberal-democratic values in Turkey and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2008-12-01

    Turkey's proposed entry into the European Union (EU) has been undermined by Europeans' perceptions of Turkish-European cultural differences, particularly regarding the liberal-democratic values that the EU promotes (democracy, rule of law, and respect for and appreciation of minority/human rights). Yet, cross-national research on values has not focused on Turkey, the EU, and these liberal-democratic values, leaving assumptions of cultural differences and their explanations untested. Through analyses of World and European Values Survey data (1999-2002), this article asks whether people in Turkey have the same values regarding democracy, rule of law (versus religious and authoritarian rule), and minority/human rights as people in EU member and candidate states (as of 2000)? What factors explain these values? I find that people in Turkey support democracy to the same extent as people in EU member and candidate states, but people in Turkey are more supportive of religious and authoritarian rule and are less tolerant of minorities. Although the 'clash of civilizations' thesis expects liberal values to be ordered according to countries' religious traditions, with western Christian the most supportive and Islamic the least, only for tolerance of minorities values is this pattern found. Instead, economic development most consistently explains differences between Turkey and EU member and candidate states in support for these values. I conclude with calls for theoretical refinement, particularly of the clash of civilizations thesis, along with suggestions for future research to examine more Muslim and Orthodox countries; I discuss the debate over Turkey's EU entry.

  4. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Loyen, Anne; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Bauman, Adrian; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States. Methods This study reports data from the Special Eurobarometer 412. In 2013, 27,919 randomly selected Europeans (approximately 1000 per Member State) were interviewed face-to-face. Sitting time on a usual day was self-reported and dichotomised into sitting less- and more than 7.5 hours per day. Uni- and multivariate odds ratios of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day were assessed by country and socio-demographic variables using binary logistic regression analyses. The analyses were stratified by country to study the socio-demographic correlates of sitting time within the different countries. Results A total of 26,617 respondents were included in the analyses. Median sitting time was five hours per day. Across Europe, 18.5 percent of the respondents reported to sit more than 7.5 hours per day, with substantial variation between countries (ranging from 8.9 to 32.1 percent). In general, northern European countries reported more sitting than countries in the south of Europe. ‘Current occupation’ and ‘age when stopped education’ were found to be the strongest correlates of sitting time, both across Europe and within most Member States. Compared to manual workers, the odds ratio of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day was 5.00 for people with white collar occupations, 3.84 for students, and 3.65 for managers. Conclusions There is substantial variation in self-reported sitting time among European adults across countries as well as socio-demographic groups. While regular surveillance of (objectively measured) sedentary behaviour is needed, the results of this study provide entry points for developing targeted interventions aimed at highly sedentary populations, such as

  5. A Union of Professionals: Labor Relations and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor; Koppich, Julia E.

    This book examines the changing role of teacher unions in the educational reform movement. It contains nine case studies of unions across the United States that are forging new, collaborative relationships with management in a reconceptualization of "professional unionism." Chapters include: (1) "Building the Airplane While It's Rolling Down the…

  6. A critical assessment of the European Commission's proposals for the risk assessment and registration of chemical substances in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert; Dandrea, Jennifer; Balls, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In May, 2003, the European Commission published detailed proposals relating to its 2001 White Paper - Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy. The White Paper described a new registration system called the REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) system, for both new and existing chemicals. Subsequently, these detailed proposals were available for an eight-week consultation period for stakeholders to voice their views and concerns. In this paper, we describe our reactions to the Commission's more-detailed proposals. These include the creation of a European Chemicals Agency to implement the REACH system in conjunction with Competent Authorities (CAs) in Member States and the Commission itself. Unfortunately, many of our concerns and suggestions, previously voiced and shared with several other key stakeholders, remain unanswered, but are as relevant as when the White Paper was published. In particular, we are concerned about the lack of a clear and coherent strategy. There is no guidance for registrants on intelligent testing to maximise the use of non-animal approaches to safety testing, based on a combination of factors for estimating exposure levels, rather than mainly on production volumes. We are also concerned about the absence of a clear programme for the development, improvement and validation of new alternative methods, in conjunction with the Commission's own unit, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, as well as other organisations with relevant expertise and experience, including FRAME. Finally, we explain why such measures should be introduced, together with clearer guidelines for the respective roles of the Agency, the CAs and the Commission in implementing and harmonising the REACH system at the European Union and Member State levels. A series of recommendations are made, to improve the situation and to improve the risk assessment process.

  7. A critical assessment of the European Commission's proposals for the risk assessment and registration of chemical substances in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert; Dandrea, Jennifer; Balls, Michael

    2006-03-01

    In May, 2003, the European Commission published detailed proposals relating to its 2001 White Paper--Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy. The White Paper described a new registration system called the REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) system, for both new and existing chemicals. Subsequently, these detailed proposals were available for an eight-week consultation period for stakeholders to voice their views and concerns. In this paper, we describe our reactions to the Commissions more-detailed proposals. These include the creation of a European Chemicals Agency to implement the REACH system in conjunction with Competent Authorities (CAs) in Member States and the Commission itself. Unfortunately, many of our concerns and suggestions, previously voiced and shared with several other key stakeholders, remain unanswered, but are as relevant as when the White Paper was published. In particular, we are concerned about the lack of a clear and coherent strategy. There is no guidance for registrants on intelligent testing to maximise the use of non-animal approaches to safety testing, based on a combination of factors for estimating exposure levels, rather than mainly on production volumes. We are also concerned about the absence of a clear programme for the development, improvement and validation of new alternative methods, in conjunction with the Commissions own unit, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, as well as other organisations with relevant expertise and experience, including FRAME. Finally, we explain why such measures should be introduced, together with clearer guidelines for the respective roles of the Agency, the CAs and the Commission in implementing and harmonising the REACH system at the European Union and Member State levels. A series of recommendations are made, to improve the situation and to improve the risk assessment process.

  8. Mutatis Mutandis? The Court of Justice of the European Union Rules that Member States May Be Allowed to Impose Non-Resident Student Quotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this month, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the Court), ruled that European Union (EU) member states can impose non-resident student quotas in certain circumstances. The Court, whose job is to ensure that all EU member states interpret and apply EU legislation in the same way, recently made the ruling in response to a…

  9. Tuberculosis treatment outcome in the European Union and European Economic Area: an analysis of surveillance data from 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Karo, Basel; Hauer, Barbara; Hollo, Vahur; van der Werf, Marieke J; Fiebig, Lena; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the treatment outcome (TO) of tuberculosis (TB) is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention and to identify potential barriers for TB control. The global target is to reach a treatment success rate (TSR) of at least 85%. We aimed to assess the TB TO in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2002 and 2011, and to identify factors associated with unsuccessful treatment. Only 18 countries reported information on TO for the whole observation period accounting for 250,854 new culture-confirmed pulmonary TB cases. The 85% target of TSR was not reached in any year between 2002 and 2011 and was on average 78%. The TSR for multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB cases at 24-month follow-up was 49%. In the multivariable regression model, unsuccessful treatment was significantly associated with increasing age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.02 per a one-year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.02), MDR-TB (OR = 8.7, 95% CI: 5.09-14.97), male sex (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.28-1.52), and foreign origin (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). The data highlight that special efforts are required for patients with MDR-TB and the elderly aged ≥65 years, who have particularly low TSR. To allow for valid monitoring at EU level all countries should aim to report TO for all TB cases. PMID:26676247

  10. The importance of the coding of hospital malnutrition in the health strategy of the European Union: a Spanish contribution.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, J; León, M; Planas, M; García de Lorenzo, A

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition related to illness and inadequate nutrition remains a matter of relevant interest in the member countries of the European Union because of its elevated prevalence and high costs. It is estimated to affect 30 million patients and cost 170 billion euros annually. The 2008-2013 strategy "Together for Health" put forward in the European Parliament urges Member States to develop, together with local and regional authorities, initiatives in the field of education of the population, training, investigation and good clinical practices. SENPE (Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition) collaborates in different areas in the development of this strategy which aim to put malnutrition related to illness in the focus of the health system. One of its contributions has been the preparation of the Document of Consensus on the Coding of Malnutrition SENPE-SEDOM (Spanish Society of Medical Documentation). The agreements adopted have helped normalize the process of coding this pathology with the assignment of specific codes for specifically defined terms. This document has allowed the optimization of information regarding the types and degrees of malnutrition and the procedures employed for its prevention or treatment in the hospital centres of the National Health System. PMID:21519757

  11. Sufficiently well Informed and Seriously Concerned? European Union Policy Responses to Marginalisation, Structural Racism, and Institutionalised Exclusion in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the European Union, children from marginalised communities experience an appalling reality of poverty, exclusion, discrimination, and racism. Growing up in poverty and social exclusion shapes the reality of the lived experience for an increasing number of children in one of the wealthiest regions of the world. In the UK, a member of the…

  12. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  13. The Future Development of the European Union Education, Training and Youth Programmes After 2006: A Public Consultation Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document launches a wide public consultation with all those involved in and with an interest in the European Union's (EU's) education, training, and youth programs called Socrates, Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, and Youth for Europe. It is the first step toward preparing the new generation of programs to start in 2007 and will inform the…

  14. European Union and Greek Lifelong Learning Policy within an Intercultural Context: Preliminary Insights from Research in the Sociology of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutidou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings of an extensive socio-legal research project, currently in progress, concerning the implementation of the European Union and the Greek institutional framework on lifelong learning (LLL) and exploring the social effectiveness of LLL policy. The main outcomes, based on testing two research hypotheses through…

  15. The Role of Human Resource Management in Today's Organizations: The Case of Cyprus in Comparison with the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou-Costea, Eleni

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 91 Cypriot human resource managers identified strategies, training and development practices, and use of flexible work arrangements. Compared with European Union nations, the role of human resource management in many Cypriot organizations is not strategic, and flexible practices are not yet implemented to the same extent as elsewhere.…

  16. Towards the Learning Region: Education and Regional Innovation in the European Union and the United States. CEDEFOP Reference Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Barry, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.; Deitmer, Ludger, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of innovative education practices throughout regions in the United States (US) and Europe. It contains 16 papers written by experts from the educational, economic, and regional development fields in the US and the European Union (EU). Introductory materials are: a foreword (David O'Sullivan); preface (Stavros…

  17. An Assessment of the Quality of Life in the European Union Based on the Social Indicators Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, Marco; Canova, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    This article carries out a multidimensional analysis of welfare based on the social indicators approach aimed at assessing the quality of life in the 25 member countries of the European Union. It begins with description of the social indicators approach and provides some specifications on its most controversial points. It then specifies the…

  18. The European Union's Adequacy Approach to Privacy and International Data Sharing in Health Research.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, Jennifer; Chan, Benny; Joly, Yann

    2016-03-01

    The European Union (EU) approach to data protection consists of assessing the adequacy of the data protection offered by the laws of a particular jurisdiction against a set of principles that includes purpose limitation, transparency, quality, proportionality, security, access, and rectification. The EU's Data Protection Directive sets conditions on the transfer of data to third countries by prohibiting Member States from transferring to such countries as have been deemed inadequate in terms of the data protection regimes. In theory, each jurisdiction is evaluated similarly and must be found fully compliant with the EU's data protection principles to be considered adequate. In practice, the inconsistency with which these evaluations are made presents a hurdle to international data-sharing and makes difficult the integration of different data-sharing approaches; in the 20 years since the Directive was first adopted, the laws of only five countries from outside of the EU, Economic Area, or the European Free Trade Agreement have been deemed adequate to engage in data transfers without the need for further administrative safeguards. PMID:27256130

  19. Patent protection for stem cell procedures under the law of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Spranger, Tade Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Stem cell research shows an immense diagnostic and therapeutic potential. The procedures based on human stem cells seem to allow new medical treatments for serious diseases like Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease, leukaemia or diabetes. However, as no company or inventor would take the risk of immense investments without an adequate legal protection of the possible benefits arising out of their work, intellectual property law plays a pivotal role for the further development of stem cell techniques. Although international patent law knows protection of inventions using biological substances and living matter for about 160 years, patents on stem cells, DNA and other parts of the human body raise specific objections. Nevertheless, from a strictly legal angle, there are no barriers to patents on stem cell procedures. In particular, Art. 6 of the "Directive 98/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union of July 6, 1998 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions" - which qualifies inventions as unpatentable where their commercial exploitation would be contrary to ordre public or morality - does not hinder patent protection for stem cell research. PMID:16294439

  20. Animal health and the trade in aquatic animals within and to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Daelman, W

    1996-06-01

    The creation of a single European market has significantly extended the scope of veterinary animal and public health legislation. This extension includes aquatic animals, and a comprehensive set of directives and decisions has been developed to ensure free circulation of aquaculture animals and their products, while guaranteeing a high level of animal health. At the same time, and in the same context, other directives have been adopted which organise checks on animals and products within and to the European Union (EU), as well as accompanying financial measures. Animal health legislation for the movement of aquaculture animals is also based on a number of principles, including the following: --the definition of important pathogens and their hosts --zoning (regionalisation)--the obligation for EU Member States to move animals only from areas or farms with high health status to and between areas and farms with equal or lower health status--the prescription of a testing regime to improve animal health status in zones or farms. In addition, disease control prescriptions have been established or are being considered for adoption. These include the establishment of national and EU reference laboratories, as well as the application of contingency plans and the measures to be taken in the event of a disease outbreak. PMID:8890390

  1. Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the European Union with implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Tóth, G; Hermann, T; Da Silva, M R; Montanarella, L

    2016-03-01

    Soil plays a central role in food safety as it determines the possible composition of food and feed at the root of the food chain. However, the quality of soil resources as defined by their potential impact on human health by propagation of harmful elements through the food chain has been poorly studied in Europe due to the lack of data of adequate detail and reliability. The European Union's first harmonized topsoil sampling and coherent analytical procedure produced trace element measurements from approximately 22,000 locations. This unique collection of information enables a reliable overview of the concentration of heavy metals, also referred to as metal(loid)s including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Sb. Co, and Ni. In this article we propose that in some cases (e.g. Hg and Cd) the high concentrations of soil heavy metal attributed to human activity can be detected at a regional level. While the immense majority of European agricultural land can be considered adequately safe for food production, an estimated 6.24% or 137,000km(2) needs local assessment and eventual remediation action.

  2. Solving employment problems in the European Union: The role of energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, V.

    1998-07-01

    This paper is based on a project funded under the European Commission's SAVE (Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy Efficiency) program. The project is looking at the employment implications of energy efficiency programs, using a large number of case studies throughout the nine European Union (EU) countries participating in the project. Various modeling techniques are being used to investigate policy scenarios. The EU is particularly interested in looking at employment potential of energy efficiency at the present time. Traditionally, jobs in the environmental sector have only been seen as occurring in end-of-pipe type industries, such as pollution control; but a large potential for employment opportunities has now been recognized in the energy efficiency sector. Included in the study will be a detailed discussion of the quality, as well as the quantity, of jobs created, i.e. what skill levels will be required and the types of people who would wish to undertake the work. The qualitative aspect of jobs will be looked at for their suitability for solving EU and country specific problems, such as long term unemployment of unskilled workers. This paper will present some initial results from the study and discuss the issues raised by it and by other recent work in this area. Such issues include not only the types and numbers of jobs directly created through the programs, but also indirect effects on the local, national and international economies. The negative effects, such as the reduced energy usage effect on the supply industry will also be examined.

  3. The syphilis epidemics in Hungary 1985-2004, before entering the European Union.

    PubMed

    Talha, Elyas; Nagy, Károly; Horváth, Attila

    2013-09-01

    In the decade prior to the turn of the millennium, great interest was raised, and rightly so, by the STD (syphilis and HIV/AIDS) epidemic that developed in the Eastern-Central European Region. Its coincidence with the far-reaching political and economic changes that took place at that time suggested a link between the two events.Hungary, where these infections had had low incidence before the period investigated, also experienced an increase in STD incidence. The trend in syphilis infection during the 20 years between 1985-2004, that preceded the turn of the millennium and when finally Hungary joined the European Union, have been analyzed. Due to the nature of venereological epidemiological surveillance in Hungary, syphilis prevalence data are appropriate for further analysis from socio-demographic aspects. Behavioural changes underlying the specific features of the epidemics in Hungary had developed several years earlier and cannot be linked to the political and economic changes that started in the early 90s. The only exception is the phenomenon of growing migration that appeared simultaneously with the political changes and had a decisive impact on the spread and level of infection in some areas in the country. As shown by our data, trends seen in specific demographic groups (females, rural population) preceded the suddenly occurring political changes by about 15 years.

  4. Interpretation of aged sorption studies for pesticides and their use in European Union regulatory leaching assessments.

    PubMed

    Beulke, Sabine; van Beinum, Wendy; Suddaby, Laura

    2015-04-01

    First-tier regulatory exposure assessments for pesticides assume that pesticide sorption is instantaneous and fully reversible. In European Union (EU) regulatory guidance, an increase in sorption over time ("aged sorption") can be considered at the higher tier to refine predicted environmental concentrations in groundwater. Research commissioned by the UK Chemicals Regulation Directorate (CRD), funded by the Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), formed the basis of a draft regulatory guidance document proposing 1) a protocol on how to measure aged sorption of parent compounds in laboratory studies, 2) procedures to fit kinetic models to the experimental data, 3) criteria to test the reliability of the parameters, and 4) procedures for use of the parameters in the groundwater exposure assessment. The draft guidance was revised after feedback from stakeholders and testing of the guidance was performed against real data sets by an independent consultancy. The Chemicals Regulation Directorate submitted the revised document to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for scrutiny. This article gives an overview of the draft guidance and explains the reasoning behind the recommendations made. PMID:25565626

  5. Food packaging regulation in the United States and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Jerome H

    2005-06-01

    The regulation of food packaging has, indeed, become a global subject as the world's commercial channels have broadened since World War II. The first comprehensive regulatory statute governing the area was the Food Additives Amendment of 1958 in the United States, a modification of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, and Belgium began regulatory activity in the early 1960s and the European Community set in motion its own work in this direction beginning in 1976. Companies in the United States and the Europe have been struggling with each of the laws since then. The regulatory systems employed on the two continents are superficially similar but this is far from the truth in actual practice. Each has its own special history and set of exemptions; they vary tremendously. Each has its cadre of supporters as well but a considerable lack of understanding afflicts regulators and the regulated on both sides of the Atlantic. This three part report first discusses the history of the United States system and its characteristics; Book II covers the history of European Union regulations and their salient features; and Book III highlights the commonalities and differences in the systems, discusses their scientific basing points, and makes some recommendations as to how they can be brought closer together in the interests of harmonization and the removal of unnecessary trade barriers.

  6. European Union strategies for the protection of the environment and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Martini, Natalia; Gasparrini, Giuliana

    2002-09-01

    Currently there are three main parallel processes aiming either to improve the environment or to achieve sustainable development within the European Union (EU): the 6th Environmental Action Programme (6th EAP), the Cardiff Process and the Strategy for Sustainable Development (SDS). The 6th EAP provides key environmental objectives and the framework to set other environmental strategies. The Cardiff Process plays a fundamental role in the progression of environmental integration, as an essential tool to implement the EAP and to achieve sustainable development. Sustainable development is a major political mandate for the EU and the SDS aims to provide long-term objectives and measures to promote and implement it. The EU Chemicals policy is an example of a European policy extracting and using some new approaches and principles characterising the political processes described above. The aim of this paper is to analyse these political processes, their reciprocal interactions, highlight their innovative approaches, as well as providing concrete example of sectoral policy implementing them.

  7. Medicinal products in the European Union--between harmonization and divergence.

    PubMed

    Lojko, Natalia

    2010-03-01

    The rules governing the manufacture and trade in medicinal products in the European Union are, to a large extent, harmonized covering almost the entire life cycle of a medicinal product, starting from the conduct of clinical trials (Directive 2001/20, 2005/28), through manufacture (Directive 2003/94), registration, distribution and pharmacovigilance (Directive 2001/83) to the principles concerning pricing and reimbursement (Directive 89/105). A unified registration procedure has been established with respect to highly innovative medicinal products (Regulation 726/2004). There is also abundant case law of the European Court of Justice concerning medicinal products. The harmonization both judicial and legislative--took place in spite of the lack of explicit competence of the EU as regards healthcare and was based to a large extent on the provisions of economic nature, whose aim was to ensure the unfettered functioning of the internal market. In spite of those harmonization efforts, national rules governing pharmaceuticals are still to a large extent divergent, in particular as regards financing and distribution of medicinal products. This paper explores the level of harmonization of pharmaceutical market in Europe, in particular in the light of the primary competence of the Member States in the field of healthcare and discusses its implications.

  8. Licensing procedures and registration of medical doctors in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Eszter; Schmidt, Andrea E; Szocska, Gabor; Busse, Reinhard; McKee, Martin; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2014-06-01

    The current proposals to update the European Union (EU) directive on professional qualifications will have potentially important implications for health professions. Yet those discussing it will struggle to find basic information on key issues such as licensing and registration of physicians in different countries. A survey was conducted among national experts in 14 EU member states, supplemented by literature and independent expert review. The questionnaire covered five components of licensing and registration: (1) definitions, (2) regulatory basis, (3) governance, (4) the process of registration and (5) flow and quantity of applications. We identify seven areas of concern: (1) the meaning of terminology, which is inconsistent; (2) the role of language assessments and the responsibility for them; (3) whether approval to practise should be lifelong or time limited, subject to periodic assessment; (4) the need for improved systems to identify those deemed no longer fit to practise in one member state; (5) the complexity of processes for graduates from non-EU/European Economic Area (EAA) countries; (6) public access to registers; and (7) transparency of systems of governance. The systems of licensing and registration of doctors in Europe have developed within specific national contexts and vary widely. This creates inevitable problems in the context of free movement of professionals and increasing mobility. PMID:24889564

  9. Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Wysocki, Patrick; Roumiantzeff, Micha; Freney, Jean; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Vos, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes, the European Union (EU) is becoming progressively free of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)-mediated rabies. Over the past three decades, the incidence of rabies had decreased substantially and vast areas of Western and Central Europe have been freed from rabies using this method of controlling an infectious disease in wildlife. Since rabies control is a top priority in the EU, the disease is expected to be eliminated from the animal source in the near future. While responsible authorities may consider the mission of eliminating fox rabies from the EU almost accomplished, there are still issues to be dealt with and challenges to be met that have not yet been in the focus of attention, but could jeopardise the ultimate goal. Among them are increasing illegal movements of animals, maintaining funding support for vaccination campaigns, devising alternative vaccine strategies in neighbouring Eastern European countries and the expanding distribution range of several potential rabies reservoir species in Europe.

  10. Recent advances to address European Union Health Security from cross border chemical health threats.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Davidson, R; Orford, R; Wyke, S; Griffiths, M; Amlôt, R; Chilcott, R

    2014-11-01

    The European Union (EU) Decision (1082/2013/EU) on serious cross border threats to health was adopted by the European Parliament in November 2013, in recognition of the need to strengthen the capacity of Member States to coordinate the public health response to cross border threats, whether from biological, chemical, environmental events or events which have an unknown origin. Although mechanisms have been in place for years for reporting cross border health threats from communicable diseases, this has not been the case for incidents involving chemicals and/or environmental events. A variety of collaborative EU projects have been funded over the past 10 years through the Health Programme to address gaps in knowledge on health security and to improve resilience and response to major incidents involving chemicals. This paper looks at the EU Health Programme that underpins recent research activities to address gaps in resilience, planning, responding to and recovering from a cross border chemical incident. It also looks at how the outputs from the research programme will contribute to improving public health management of transnational incidents that have the potential to overwhelm national capabilities, putting this into context with the new requirements as the Decision on serious cross border threats to health as well as highlighting areas for future development.

  11. Interpretation of aged sorption studies for pesticides and their use in European Union regulatory leaching assessments.

    PubMed

    Beulke, Sabine; van Beinum, Wendy; Suddaby, Laura

    2015-04-01

    First-tier regulatory exposure assessments for pesticides assume that pesticide sorption is instantaneous and fully reversible. In European Union (EU) regulatory guidance, an increase in sorption over time ("aged sorption") can be considered at the higher tier to refine predicted environmental concentrations in groundwater. Research commissioned by the UK Chemicals Regulation Directorate (CRD), funded by the Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), formed the basis of a draft regulatory guidance document proposing 1) a protocol on how to measure aged sorption of parent compounds in laboratory studies, 2) procedures to fit kinetic models to the experimental data, 3) criteria to test the reliability of the parameters, and 4) procedures for use of the parameters in the groundwater exposure assessment. The draft guidance was revised after feedback from stakeholders and testing of the guidance was performed against real data sets by an independent consultancy. The Chemicals Regulation Directorate submitted the revised document to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for scrutiny. This article gives an overview of the draft guidance and explains the reasoning behind the recommendations made.

  12. [Actual and perspective activities of the European Union concerning protection against noise].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, S; Sułkowski, W

    1997-01-01

    In most industrialised countries exposure to noise is one of major health problems which, because of its social and economic dimension has been given priority in the area of preventive activities. It is estimated that only in Europe about 25-30 million people are employed in conditions under exposure to noise at excessive levels, harmful to the hearing organ, generating the risk of hearing loss (disability), and in consequence limiting the possibility of active life. Acknowledging the significance of the problem and its consequences the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the International (ISA) and European Federation of Audiological Society (EFAS) has developed the programme for the protection against noise. The prime aims of the programme are to establish the cooperation between scientists, health services and technicians in order to promote knowledge and exchange of experience, to improve workers' health, and to identify the biological, neuropsychological and psycho-social effect of noise exposure on the hearing ability. The authors discuss basic objectives and adopted strategies of experimental and clinical studies carried out in countries of the European Union, participating in the implementation of the programme. The WHO guidelines for the reduction in noise exposure in the working, municipal and recreation environments are also presented. PMID:9558638

  13. Food packaging regulation in the United States and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Jerome H

    2005-06-01

    The regulation of food packaging has, indeed, become a global subject as the world's commercial channels have broadened since World War II. The first comprehensive regulatory statute governing the area was the Food Additives Amendment of 1958 in the United States, a modification of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, and Belgium began regulatory activity in the early 1960s and the European Community set in motion its own work in this direction beginning in 1976. Companies in the United States and the Europe have been struggling with each of the laws since then. The regulatory systems employed on the two continents are superficially similar but this is far from the truth in actual practice. Each has its own special history and set of exemptions; they vary tremendously. Each has its cadre of supporters as well but a considerable lack of understanding afflicts regulators and the regulated on both sides of the Atlantic. This three part report first discusses the history of the United States system and its characteristics; Book II covers the history of European Union regulations and their salient features; and Book III highlights the commonalities and differences in the systems, discusses their scientific basing points, and makes some recommendations as to how they can be brought closer together in the interests of harmonization and the removal of unnecessary trade barriers. PMID:15896448

  14. Trends in age-specific cerebrovascular disease in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Wei; Ji, Yue; Shi, Jing; Xuan, Qinkao; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing

    2014-01-01

    Although the mortality of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been steadily declined in the European Union (EU), CVD remains among the major causes of death in EU. As risk factors such asobesity and diabetes mellitus are increasing, the trends of European CVD mortality remains unknown. To understand the variation in CVD mortality of different EU countries, we studied the trends in CVD mortality in EU countries over the last three decades between males and females. Age- and sex-specific mortality rates between 1980 and 2011 were calculated by data from the WHO mortality database. Joinpoint software was used to calculate annual percentage changes and to characterize trends in mortality rates over time. Our study showed that between 1980 and 2011, CVD mortality significantly decreased in both men and women across all age groups. The specific mortality trends varied largely between EU countries. The plateau trend was observed in little regions at different age groups, however, the EU as a whole displayed declined trend CVD mortality. During the last three decades, CVD mortality decreased substantially in the entire population of EU. However, despite this overall decline in CVD mortality, several areas were identified as having no change in their CVD mortality rates at different period. The whole EU needs to establish strict prevention measures toreduce the incidence of CVD risk factors. PMID:25550927

  15. Relating Examinations to the Common European Framework: A Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueras, Neus; North, Brian; Takala, Sauli; Verhelst, Norman; Van Avermaet, Piet

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the linking of examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). Following the rapid adoption of the CEFR by the Council of Europe and the European Union as well as many national and local actors, there have been calls for guidance on how examinations could be made more transparent by means of the CEFR,…

  16. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  17. Analysis of tuberculosis treatment outcomes in the European Union and European Economic Area: efforts needed towards optimal case management and control.

    PubMed

    Manissero, D; Hollo, V; Huitric, E; Kodmon, C; Amato-Gauci, A

    2010-03-18

    An analysis of surveillance data was performed to assess treatment outcomes of patients belonging to selected calendar year cohorts. Twenty-two countries in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) reported treatment outcome monitoring data for culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases reported in 2007. The overall treatment success rate was 73.8% for all culture-confirmed pulmonary cases and 79.5% for new culture-confirmed pulmonary cases. For the cohort of new culture-confirmed TB cases, only three countries achieved the target of 85% success rate. This underachievement appears to be a result of relative high defaulting and unknown outcome information. Case fatality remains high particularly among cases of national origin. This factor appears attributable to advanced age of the national cohort. Treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were reported by 15 countries, with a range of 19.8% to 100% treatment success at 24 months. The data underline the urgent need for strengthening treatment outcome monitoring in the EU and EEA in order to ensure an effective programme implementation and case management that will ultimately contribute to TB elimination.

  18. Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Mingo, Valentin; Lötters, Stefan; Wagner, Norman

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution has an especially high impact on wildlife. This is especially the case in industrialized countries. Although, many species within the European Union benefit from protection by the Habitats Directive, no special consideration is given to possible detrimental effects of pesticides. This is in particular remarkable as negative effects, which may lead to a regional diversity loss, have already been identified in laboratory and mesocosm studies. We conducted a pesticide exposure risk evaluation for all European reptile species with sufficient literature data on the considered biological and ecological aspects and occurrence data within agricultural areas with regular pesticide applications (102 out of 141). By using three evaluation factors - (i) pesticide exposure, (ii) physiology and (iii) life history - a taxon-specific pesticide exposure risk factor (ERF) was created. The results suggest that about half of all evaluated species, and thus at least 1/3 of all European species exhibited a high exposure risk. At the same time, two of them (Mauremys leprosa and Testudo graeca) are globally classified as threatened with extinction in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Variation regarding species occurrence in exposed landscapes between pesticide admission zones within the EU is rather large. This variation is mainly caused by differing land use and species abundances between zones. At the taxonomic level, significant differences in exposure risk can be observed between threatened and non-threatened species, which can be explained by the formers remote distribution areas. Lizards display the highest sensitivity toward pesticides, although no differences in overall ERFs can be observed between taxonomic groups. By identifying species at above-average risk to pesticide exposure, species-based risk evaluations can improve conservation actions for reptiles from cultivated landscapes. PMID:27182977

  19. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  20. Product-specific validation of a serological potency test for release of Leptospira vaccines in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera

    2013-09-01

    Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach.

  1. Product-specific validation of a serological potency test for release of Leptospira vaccines in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera

    2013-09-01

    Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach. PMID:23849308

  2. Natural radioactivity in building materials in the European Union: a database and an estimate of radiological significance.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, R; Risica, S; D'Alessandro, M; Paradiso, D; Nuccetelli, C

    2012-02-01

    The authors set up a database of activity concentration measurements of natural radionuclides (²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K) in building material. It contains about 10,000 samples of both bulk material (bricks, concrete, cement, natural- and phosphogypsum, sedimentary and igneous bulk stones) and superficial material (igneous and metamorphic stones) used in the construction industry in most European Union Member States. The database allowed the authors to calculate the activity concentration index I--suggested by a European technical guidance document and recently used as a basis for elaborating the draft Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive--for bricks, concrete and phosphogypsum used in the European Union. Moreover, the percentage could be assessed of materials possibly subject to restrictions, if either of the two dose criteria proposed by the technical guidance were to be adopted.

  3. Food-borne diseases associated with frozen berries consumption: a historical perspective, European Union, 1983 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Tavoschi, L; Severi, E; Niskanen, T; Boelaert, F; Rizzi, V; Liebana, E; Gomes Dias, J; Nichols, G; Takkinen, J; Coulombier, D

    2015-07-23

    Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus (NoV) infections in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last five years have highlighted frozen berries as a vehicle of infection. Given the increasing berry consumption in the EU over the last decades, we undertook a review of the existing evidence to assess the potential scale of threat associated with this product. We searched the literature and four restricted-access online platforms for outbreak/contamination events associated with consumption of frozen berries. We performed an evaluation of the sources to identify areas for improvement. The review revealed 32 independent events (i.e. outbreak, food contamination) in the period 1983–2013, of which 26 were reported after 2004. The identified pathogens were NoV, HAV and Shigella sonnei. NoV was the most common and implicated in 27 events with over 15,000 cases reported. A capture–recapture analysis was performed including three overlapping sources for the period 2005–2013. The study estimated that the event-ascertainment was 62%. Consumption of frozen berries is associated with increasing reports of NoV and HAV outbreaks and contamination events, particularly after 2003. A review of the risks associated with this product is required to inform future prevention strategies. Better integration of the available communication platforms and databases should be sought at EU/EEA level to improve monitoring, prevention and control of food-borne-related events.

  4. The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases: three productive years at the service of the rare disease community

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases was entrusted with aiding the European Commission in a number of tasks, ranging from the monitoring of initiatives, to recommending improvements and actions to be pursued in the future, in addition to helping strengthen liaison at both European and International levels in the field of rare diseases. The three-year mandate of the EUCERD drew to a close in July 2013 with an impressive record. The EUCERD has laid down the foundations for future work so as to continue to advance in the key areas that have been identified as of interest for the rare disease community at large: centres of expertise, European Reference Networks, patient registries and databases, newborn screening, and indicators for national rare disease plans/strategies. The work of the Committee should now be continued by the newly formed European Commission Expert Group on Rare Diseases. PMID:24580800

  5. The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases: three productive years at the service of the rare disease community.

    PubMed

    Aymé, Ségolène; Rodwell, Charlotte

    2014-02-28

    The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases was entrusted with aiding the European Commission in a number of tasks, ranging from the monitoring of initiatives, to recommending improvements and actions to be pursued in the future, in addition to helping strengthen liaison at both European and International levels in the field of rare diseases. The three-year mandate of the EUCERD drew to a close in July 2013 with an impressive record. The EUCERD has laid down the foundations for future work so as to continue to advance in the key areas that have been identified as of interest for the rare disease community at large: centres of expertise, European Reference Networks, patient registries and databases, newborn screening, and indicators for national rare disease plans/strategies. The work of the Committee should now be continued by the newly formed European Commission Expert Group on Rare Diseases.

  6. Continental level landslide susceptibility assessment in the context of the European Union's Soil Thematic Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, A.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Reichenbach, P.; Hervás, J.; Malet, J.; Guzzetti, F.

    2011-12-01

    In the context of the European Union's Soil Thematic Strategy, and the formulation of a draft of a European framework directive devoted to the sustainable protection of soil, landslides are recognized as one of the eight soil threats requiring harmonized spatial hazard assessments over the EU territory. The general framework for the harmonized assessment of soil threats (namely erosion, organic matter decline, salinisation, compaction, landslides, contamination, sealing and loss of biodiversity) consists of a nested geographical approach based on "Tiers", where a semi-quantitative, low-resolution (1:1 million) evaluation ("Tier 1") using already available pan-European datasets should enable the delineation of priority areas requiring more detailed quantitative inventory-based assessments with additional data ("Tier 2"). In this contribution, we present the elaboration of a continental level "Tier 1" generic landslide susceptibility model based on a heuristic, spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach exploiting the most important conditioning factors for landslides being slope gradient, lithology and land cover. Additionally, extensive landslide locations available at regional and national levels were collected, harmonized and standardized over the EU territory to obtain a signal for input parameter specification and model calibration, evaluation and classification. Since the analyzed area is highly complex in terms of climatic, physiographic and seismotectonic conditions controlling landslide occurrences, a terrain differentiation based on climatic and geomorphologic criteria is proposed to delineate distinct zones to which specific predictor class weights have been allocated through the SMCE approach for susceptibility evaluation. The heuristic indexing scheme is cross-validated with multivariate statistical evaluations in representative areas for which detailed inventory information is available. The resulting pan-European susceptibility estimate

  7. Towards the "Fifth Freedom": Increasing the Mobility of Researchers in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marimon, Ramon; Lietaert, Matthieu; Grigolo, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers trained in Europe leave to work abroad, namely in the USA. This brain-drain phenomenon is the result of a lack of openness and competition in European academic systems. Some aspects relating to the mobility of academic careers could make a difference in attracting--and maintaining--researchers, aside to serious structural reform.…

  8. [The use of nanotechnology in medicinal products in the light of European Union law].

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Margin

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of EU regulations in relation to nanotechnology, according to the European Commission's Communication "Regulatory aspects of nanomaterials", is to allow the public to use innovative applications of nanotechnology while ensuring a high level of safety, health care and environmental protection. This article characterizes and comments on EU legislation in respect of medicinal products containing nanomaterials. Medicinal products manufactured using nanotechnology are subject to the optional centralized authorization procedure by the European Commission authorizations for the placing on the market throughout the EU; advanced therapy medicinal products containing nanomaterials are covered by the mandatory centralized procedure. Evaluation of medicines in centralized authorization mode for the marketing of medicinal products, including those containing nanomaterials, is carried out by the Committee on Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) subject to the European Medicines Agency (EMA).

  9. New modes of regulation for health and safety: post-enlargement policy perspectives for the European Union.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The recent joining of ten new member states to the European Union, eight of which are former communist countries, has reopened inherent tensions in current European Union (EU) policy-making on safety and health in the workplace. These spring from seemingly incompatible objectives; the need to ensure broad EU member state compliance with regulation, around agreed minimum standards through active regulatory enforcement, and the promotion of "softer" voluntary initiatives in the management of workplace risks and hazards in order to create "a culture of prevention." The present EU strategy which ends in 2006, seeks to secure a balance between both sets of objectives. However, with respect to the post-communist new member states of Central and Eastern Europe, the appropriateness of the current strategy is doubtful. This article therefore focuses on the implications of the expansion of the European Union in May 2004 in the context of the elaboration of the new "soft law" modes of regulatory governance at the EU level. In turn, this provokes the question: will the "new" European policy for occupational health and safety from 2007 onwards, be "new," or simply more of the same? If the latter, it is suggested that the future for working environment standards in Europe as a whole may be significantly compromised.

  10. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  11. Comparative development of knowledge-based bioeconomy in the European Union and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celikkanat Ozan, Didem; Baran, Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Biotechnology, defined as the technological application that uses biological systems and living organisms, or their derivatives, to create or modify diverse products or processes, is widely used for healthcare, agricultural and environmental applications. The continuity in industrial applications of biotechnology enables the rise and development of the bioeconomy concept. Bioeconomy, including all applications of biotechnology, is defined as translation of knowledge received from life sciences into new, sustainable, environment friendly and competitive products. With the advanced research and eco-efficient processes in the scope of bioeconomy, more healthy and sustainable life is promised. Knowledge-based bioeconomy with its economic, social and environmental potential has already been brought to the research agendas of European Union (EU) countries. The aim of this study is to summarize the development of knowledge-based bioeconomy in EU countries and to evaluate Turkey's current situation compared to them. EU-funded biotechnology research projects under FP6 and FP7 and nationally-funded biotechnology projects under The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Academic Research Funding Program Directorate (ARDEB) and Technology and Innovation Funding Programs Directorate (TEYDEB) were examined. In the context of this study, the main research areas and subfields which have been funded, the budget spent and the number of projects funded since 2003 both nationally and EU-wide and the gaps and overlapping topics were analyzed. In consideration of the results, detailed suggestions for Turkey have been proposed. The research results are expected to be used as a roadmap for coordinating the stakeholders of bioeconomy and integrating Turkish Research Areas into European Research Areas.

  12. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  13. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-06-08

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  14. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  15. Differences in national influenza vaccination policies across the European Union, Norway and Iceland 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Mereckiene, J; Cotter, S; D'Ancona, F; Giambi, C; Nicoll, A; Levy-Bruhl, D; Lopalco, P L; Weber, J T; Johansen, K; Dematte, L; Salmaso, S; Stefanoff, P; Greco, D; Dorleans, F; Polkowska, A; O'Flanagan, D

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the second cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken by the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project across 27 European Union (EU) member states (MS), Norway and Iceland (n=29) to determine changes in official national seasonal influenza vaccination policies since a survey undertaken in 2008 and to compare the estimates of vaccination coverage between countries using data obtained from both surveys. Of 27 responding countries, all recommended vaccination against seasonal influenza to the older adult population. Six countries recommended vaccination of children aged between six months and <18 years old. Most countries recommended influenza vaccination for those individuals with chronic medical conditions. Recommendations for vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) in various settings existed in most, but not all countries. Staff in hospitals and long-term care facilities were recommended vaccination in 23 countries, and staff in out-patient clinics in 22 countries. In the 2009 survey, the reported national estimates on vaccine coverage varied by country and risk group, ranging from 1.1% - 82.6% for the older adult population; to between 32.9% -71.7% for clinical risk groups; and from 13.4% -89.4% for HCW. Many countries that recommend the influenza vaccination do not monitor the coverage in risk groups. In 2008 and 2009 most countries recommended influenza vaccination for the main risk groups. However, despite general consensus and recommendations for vaccination of high risk groups, many countries do not achieve high coverage in these groups. The reported vaccination coverage still needs to be improved in order to achieve EU and World Health Organization goals. PMID:21087586

  16. Cross-border health care in the European Union: recent legal implications of 'Decker and Kohll'.

    PubMed

    Hermans, H E

    2000-11-01

    In the European Union a growing number of citizens are receiving medical treatment in a country other than the one in which they are resident. This concerns migrant (frontier) workers, emergency treatment and preauthorized care. Since 1998 a 'new category' can be discerned of persons going abroad without prior authorization on the basis of the Decker and Kohll rulings of the EC Court of Justice. Local payers would, because of the Decker and Kohll judgements, be obliged to reimburse patients who travel abroad to circumvent the existing problems with the authorization rules. During the past years studies within specific so-called Euregions have been performed to analyse cross-border flows and provide some more insight in the practical and health policy consequences of the Decker and Kohll judgements. The abolishment of current preauthorization is pleaded for by many respondents in these studies. Waiting lists form an important motive (in particular in the Netherlands) to consume health care in another Member State (Belgium and Germany). The familiarity with (health care in) Belgium eases the unofficial Decker and Kohll route. However, when some parts of the health care services seem to be more expensive in the other Member State, the patient has to pay the difference. New court cases are pending before the European Court of Justice. These cases raise new issues such as the tenability of 'benefits-in-kind' systems. So far, the Decker and Kohll rulings could be seen as an incentive to enhance access to cross-border health care in border areas. PMID:11133126

  17. Is there still a problem with lead in drinking water in the European Union?

    PubMed

    Hayes, C R; Skubala, N D

    2009-12-01

    The presence of lead in drinking water poses a range of risks to human health, including the retardation of some aspects of child development, the inducement of abortion, and other clinical disorders. The extent of these risks has not been quantified at the European Union (EU) scale. A number of sampling methods are in use across the EU, some of which are inadequate for determining the concentrations of lead in drinking water at consumers' taps. In consequence, non-compliance with the EU standards for lead in drinking water has been under-estimated. Emerging data indicates significant non-compliance with these standards in some countries, particularly with the 10 microg(-1) standard that will become a legal requirement in 2013; the current interim standard of 25 microg l(-1) is also exceeded in some locations. An initial estimate is that 25% of domestic dwellings in the EU have a lead pipe, either as a connection to the water main, or as part of the internal plumbing, or both, potentially putting 120 million people at risk from lead in drinking water within the EU. These issues are relevant to the implementation of the Protocol on Water and Health and to drinking water safety planning.

  18. Law's performativities: shaping the emergence of regenerative medicine through European Union legislation.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Alex

    2012-10-01

    The paper undertakes a textual and documentary analysis of the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products Regulation, which was passed into law in the European Union (EU) in 2007. This law is significant for the development of regenerative medicine in the EU and globally. Regulatory texts such as this one provide significant material for addressing key concerns in recent theorising about innovative technologies in socio-legal studies, innovation studies, and science and technology studies. These concerns include expectations about future technologies and economic sector-building. By revisiting philosopher J.L. Austin's well-known work on How to Do Things with Words, this paper deploys his concepts of performative utterances to inform its analysis. Pursuing Austin's and later commentators' analysis of performatives in language use, and drawing on Lindsay Prior's application of actor-network theory to documents, the analysis shows two different types of performativity at work in and through the document. These are termed 'generative' and 'enactive' performativity. The 'enactive' type includes 'legislative' and 'social' forms. In addition, a more conventional content analysis reveals a range of actions, both legislative and discursive, in the regulatory document. The analysis shows a tension between standardisation and imprecision in the conceptual detailing of the document. Legislative texts produced through established politico-legal conventions are a special class of document that should be accorded a more prominent place in understanding the role of political governance processes in shaping emergent technoscientific fields and sectors. PMID:23189613

  19. The use of primary total hip arthroplasty in university hospitals of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Scheerlinck, Thierry; Druyts, Pieter; Casteleyn, Pierre-Paul

    2004-06-01

    Current practice in primary total hip replacement was investigated by postal survey in 125 university hospitals of the European Union (EU). Most hospitals (78.4%) use a hip register and implant cemented as well as uncemented stems (72.0%) and cups (68.8%). In Scandinavian & Anglo-Saxon countries, 42.9% of the departments implant cemented stems in all their patients, and 16.7% implant cemented cups in all their patients. In these countries, modern cementing techniques are commonly used and therapeutic choices are strongly influenced by hip registers. In Southern Europe, cemented cups have been abandoned in 31.1% and modern cementing techniques are less common. Benelux & Germanic countries have a practice in between. Three cemented (Exeter, Charnley, Lubinus) and three uncemented stems (Zweymüller, ABG, Bi-contact) represent 41.9% and 25.3% of stem types in use. Most departments (70.4%) have adopted alternative bearings. Ceramic-ceramic and metal-metal are both used in almost half of the hospitals. Metal-polyethylene has been abandoned in 15.2%. These trends are taught to new generations of surgeons in the EU and could become common practice in a near future. PMID:15287402

  20. Yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in dietary guidelines of the member states of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Smug, L N; Salminen, S; Sanders, M E; Ebner, S

    2014-03-01

    Beneficial microbes enter the food supply primarily through fermented foods (largely milks) and addition of probiotics. Fermented milks are a significant component of the diet of some geographical regions, including Europe. The fermentation process serves to preserve safety, nutritional quality and palatability of milk. In addition, the microbes associated with fermented milks and probiotics are associated with human health benefits. However, in the area of health claims only one claim for beneficial microbes has been approved in the European Union, that is for yoghurt to improve lactose tolerance. We searched for health messages that include probiotics or fermented milks in nutrition guidelines and recommendations in thirteen countries of the EU plus Switzerland. Such messages are allowed when they are made by non-commercial government bodies. Our analysis revealed that five EU member states have national nutrition guidelines or recommendations that include either probiotics or fermented milks with live bacteria. This supports that some EU member states recognise health benefits associated with consumption of live microbes, even if commercial marketing claims are not authorised. Harmonisation between recommendations and approved health-claims would benefit consumers and public health.

  1. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  2. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed.

  3. Regulatory and associated political issues with respect to Bt transgenic maize in the European union.

    PubMed

    Saeglitz, Christiane; Bartsch, Detlef

    2003-06-01

    Legislation at the national level in Europe as well as that developed by the European Union (EU) generally permits release and commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, only 10 plant/event combinations were registered as of 2002: three maize events (Bt176, Mon810, and Bt11), with the other seven divided among carnation (3), oil-seed rape (2), tobacco (1), and raddiccio (1). Of these, only one maize event (Bt176) has been registered as a legal variety, and this was in Spain, where 22,000ha have been planted annually since 1998. In this paper, we first provide an overview on the complexity of EU GMO legislation. Then we discuss the minor role that results of EU-funded biosafety research have had on governmental policy. Finally, we provide information about initiatives for post-commercialization monitoring plans of Bt maize in Europe. As a result of the slow progress to date, we conclude that commercialization of GMOs will be seriously delayed in the EU for the next several years.

  4. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets.

  5. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets. PMID:25064651

  6. Probiotics for animal nutrition in the European Union. Regulation and safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Anadón, Arturo; Martínez-Larrañaga, Maria Rosa; Aranzazu Martínez, Maria

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics are alive micro-organisms, generally bacteria but also yeasts than, when ingested alive in sufficient amount, they have a positive effect on the health going beyond the nutritional ones commonly known. Probiotics may operate through a nutritional and/or health or sanitary effect. Micro-organisms used in animal feed in the EU are mainly bacterial strains of Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the types Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and strains of yeast belonging to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species and kluyveromyces. While most of the species and genera are apparently safe, certain micro-organisms may be problematic, particularly the enterococci, which may harbour transmissible antibiotic resistance determinants and bacilli, specially those belonging to the Bacillus cereus group that are known to produce enterotoxins and an emetic toxin. The history and the current legislation in the European Union on probiotics feed additives including the requirements for the safety assessment for the target animal species, consumers, workers, and environment are presented. PMID:16563585

  7. Law's performativities: shaping the emergence of regenerative medicine through European Union legislation.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Alex

    2012-10-01

    The paper undertakes a textual and documentary analysis of the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products Regulation, which was passed into law in the European Union (EU) in 2007. This law is significant for the development of regenerative medicine in the EU and globally. Regulatory texts such as this one provide significant material for addressing key concerns in recent theorising about innovative technologies in socio-legal studies, innovation studies, and science and technology studies. These concerns include expectations about future technologies and economic sector-building. By revisiting philosopher J.L. Austin's well-known work on How to Do Things with Words, this paper deploys his concepts of performative utterances to inform its analysis. Pursuing Austin's and later commentators' analysis of performatives in language use, and drawing on Lindsay Prior's application of actor-network theory to documents, the analysis shows two different types of performativity at work in and through the document. These are termed 'generative' and 'enactive' performativity. The 'enactive' type includes 'legislative' and 'social' forms. In addition, a more conventional content analysis reveals a range of actions, both legislative and discursive, in the regulatory document. The analysis shows a tension between standardisation and imprecision in the conceptual detailing of the document. Legislative texts produced through established politico-legal conventions are a special class of document that should be accorded a more prominent place in understanding the role of political governance processes in shaping emergent technoscientific fields and sectors.

  8. Assessment of the pharmaceutical market in Poland after accession to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Willert, Patricia L

    2007-12-01

    The Republic of Poland joined the European Union (EU) on 1 May 2004. The EU accession brought new opportunities to the Polish health care system and the pharmaceutical market. However, there are still barriers to overcome such as bureaucracy, lack of transparency in pricing and reimbursement, decision-making processes, the short period of data exclusivity, respect for intellectual property rights, favorisation of local companies and low health care investment. Additionally, drug costs outpace overall economic development, a trend which is universally valid for almost all EU countries and which forms one of the most serious factors in health care expenditure. A systematic cost-effective assessment, the so-called fourth hurdle (after quality, efficacy and safety), of prescription drugs seems a necessity in most EU countries. The Polish Ministry of Health has defined aims for the future health care system in the National Drug Policy 2004-2008, including health economical criteria and instruments. However, it is to be expected that for some time there will be more a reimbursement hurdle instead of a fourth hurdle in controlling drug expenditure. This review focuses on the Polish pharmaceutical market with special consideration of the history of the Polish health care system. It will highlight the present situation of the Polish health care system after EU accession and provide an outlook to its possible future.

  9. [Polish guidelines of 2001 for maximum admissible intensities in high frequency EMF versus European Union recommendations].

    PubMed

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, a draft of amendments to maximum admissible intensities (MAI) of electromagnetic fields (0 Hz-300 GHz) was prepared by Professor H. Korniewicz of the Central Institute for Labour Protection, Warsaw, in cooperation with the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź (radio- and microwaves) and the Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw (pulse radiation). Before 2000, the development of the national MAI guidelines for the frequency range of 0.1 MHz-300 GHz was based on the knowledge of biological and health effects of EMF exposure available on the turn of the 1960s. A current basis for establishing the MAI international standards is a well-documented thermal effect measured by the value of a specific absorption rate (SAR), whereas the effects of resonant absorption imposes the nature of the functional dependency on EMF frequency. The Russian standards, already thoroughly analyzed, still take so-called non-thermal effects and the conception of energetic load for a work-shift with its progressive averaging (see hazardous zone in Polish guidelines) as a basis for setting maximum admissible intensities. The World Health Organization recommends a harmonization of the EMF protection guidelines, existing in different countries, with the guidelines of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and its position is supported by the European Union.

  10. Regulatory or regulating publics? The European Union's regulation of emerging health technologies and citizen participation.

    PubMed

    Flear, Mark L; Pickersgill, Martyn D

    2013-01-01

    'Citizen participation' includes various participatory techniques and is frequently viewed as an unproblematic and important social good when used as part of the regulation of the innovation and implementation of science and technology. This is perhaps especially evident in debates around 'anticipatory governance' or 'upstream engagement'. Here, we interrogate this thesis using the example of the European Union's regulation of emerging health technologies (such as nanotechnology). In this case, citizen participation in regulatory debate is concerned with innovative objects for medical application that are considered to be emergent or not yet concrete. Through synthesising insights from law, regulatory studies, critical theory, and science and technology studies, we seek to cast new light on the promises, paradoxes, and pitfalls of citizen participation as a tool or technology of regulation in itself. As such we aim to generate a new vantage point from which to view the values and sociotechnical imaginaries that are both 'designed-in' and 'designed-out' of citizen participation. In so doing, we show not only how publics (do not) regulate technologies, but also how citizens themselves are regulated through the techniques of participation. PMID:23222171

  11. REGULATORY OR REGULATING PUBLICS? THE EUROPEAN UNION'S REGULATION OF EMERGING HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES AND CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

    PubMed Central

    Flear, Mark L.; Pickersgill, Martyn D.

    2013-01-01

    ‘Citizen participation’ includes various participatory techniques and is frequently viewed as an unproblematic and important social good when used as part of the regulation of the innovation and implementation of science and technology. This is perhaps especially evident in debates around ‘anticipatory governance’ or ‘upstream engagement’. Here, we interrogate this thesis using the example of the European Union's regulation of emerging health technologies (such as nanotechnology). In this case, citizen participation in regulatory debate is concerned with innovative objects for medical application that are considered to be emergent or not yet concrete. Through synthesising insights from law, regulatory studies, critical theory, and science and technology studies, we seek to cast new light on the promises, paradoxes, and pitfalls of citizen participation as a tool or technology of regulation in itself. As such we aim to generate a new vantage point from which to view the values and sociotechnical imaginaries that are both ‘designed-in’ and ‘designed-out’ of citizen participation. In so doing, we show not only how publics (do not) regulate technologies, but also how citizens themselves are regulated through the techniques of participation. PMID:23222171

  12. Indicators for monitoring sustainable development goals: An application to oceanic development in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickels, Wilfried; Dovern, Jonas; Hoffmann, Julia; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDG) with 169 specific targets. As such, it could be a step forward in achieving efficient governance and policies for global sustainable development. However, the current indicator framework with its broad set of individual indicators prevents straightforward assessment of synergies and trade-offs between the various indicators, targets, and goals, thus, heightening the significance of policy guidance in achieving sustainable development. With our detailed analysis of SDG 14 (Ocean) for European Union (EU) coastal states, we demonstrate how the (complementary) inclusion of composite indicators that aggregate the individual indicators by applying a generalized mean can provide important additional information and facilitate the assessment of sustainable development in general and in the SDG context in particular. Embedded in the context of social choice theory, the generalized mean varies the specification of substitution elasticity and thus allows: (a) for a straightforward distinction between a concept of weak and strong sustainability and (b) for straightforward sensitivity analysis. We show that while in general the EU coastal states have a fairly balanced record at the SDG 14 level, certain countries like Slovenia and Portugal with a fairly balanced and a fairly unbalanced showing, respectively, rank very differently in terms of the two concepts of strong sustainability.

  13. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  14. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension.

  15. The European Court of Justice's decision regarding the Brüstle patent and its implications for the legality of stem cell research within the European Union.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Martin; Spranger, Tade Matthias

    2013-12-01

    In 2011 the European Court of Justice issued a decision regarding the patentability of technologies derived from human embryonic stem cells. The finding will have an impact on the framework of stem cell research within the European Union and its Member States and has already triggered several political initiatives regarding the funding of research with human embryonic stem cells on the European level as well as a renewed public debate. This article will take a short look at the case history and the findings of the court. It offers some critical comments regarding the findings' consistency with European and international regulations on intellectual property rights as well as some considerations on the possible impact of the case for other fields of law.

  16. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    PubMed

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM. PMID:19709941

  17. Publication Rates and Trends in International Collaborations for Astronomers in Developing Countries, Eastern European Countries, and the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, James C., II

    1992-06-01

    I surveyed two major astronomical journals for the thirty-year period 1960 to 1989 looking for papers with either principal or co-authors from developing countries, formerly communist Eastern European countries, and the former Soviet Union. The number of papers with authors from these areas has increased during the period surveyed, but the percentage of papers with such authors is less than 10% of the total number of papers over the period. The number of papers by collaborations between astronomers from developing countries and industrialized countries was found to be approximately the same as the number of papers by astronomers from developing countries only. Astronomers from Eastern European countries and the former Soviet Union, however, were found to either prefer or require collaborations with Western astronomers. (SECTION: Astronomical Sociology)

  18. The Finnish forward surgical team: lessons from the European Union Forces Operation République Démocratique du Congo.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Handolin; Olli, Kiviluoto

    2008-05-01

    The European Union Forces Operation République Démocratique du Congo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2006 was the first operation planned and conducted solely by the European Union Forces. The Finnish forward surgical team (FST) was deployed for 4 months in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Because of the peacekeeping nature of the operation, the surgical workload was light and the total number of patients treated by the FST was 12. However, there is an obvious need to establish similar surgical assets in future operations. The lessons and experiences regarding the variables in the composition of the FST (mobility, surgical ability, staffing, patient care, physical stability, environmental adaptation, and independence) are discussed in the present article. The major future challenges are to resource the FST units optimally to remain light and easily deployable and to maintain the effectiveness of the unit during nonclinical periods.

  19. The Finnish forward surgical team: lessons from the European Union Forces Operation République Démocratique du Congo.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Handolin; Olli, Kiviluoto

    2008-05-01

    The European Union Forces Operation République Démocratique du Congo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2006 was the first operation planned and conducted solely by the European Union Forces. The Finnish forward surgical team (FST) was deployed for 4 months in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Because of the peacekeeping nature of the operation, the surgical workload was light and the total number of patients treated by the FST was 12. However, there is an obvious need to establish similar surgical assets in future operations. The lessons and experiences regarding the variables in the composition of the FST (mobility, surgical ability, staffing, patient care, physical stability, environmental adaptation, and independence) are discussed in the present article. The major future challenges are to resource the FST units optimally to remain light and easily deployable and to maintain the effectiveness of the unit during nonclinical periods. PMID:18543567

  20. Summary of government sponsored foreign electronics: European union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, France, and Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garian, Robert

    1994-10-01

    This report provides basic information and statistical data on foreign electronics research and development sponsored by the governments of the European Union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, France, and Singapore. Industrial R&D funding was found to be highly significant in all of the countries studied. Government and industry typically collaborate closely in the planning of economic strategies for capturing new or larger shares of targeted segments of the electronics market.

  1. Obesity, Diabetes, and Associated Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Legler, Juliette; Fletcher, Tony; Govarts, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Obesity and diabetes are epidemic in the European Union (EU). Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is increasingly recognized as a contributor, independent of diet and physical activity. Objective: The objective was to estimate obesity, diabetes, and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the EU. Design: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from that applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized published cost estimates for childhood obesity, adult obesity, and adult diabetes. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was performed from the societal perspective. Results: The panel identified a 40% to 69% probability of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 1555 cases of overweight at age 10 (sensitivity analysis: 1555–5463) in 2010 with associated costs of €24.6 million (sensitivity analysis: €24.6–86.4 million). A 20% to 39% probability was identified for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 28 200 cases of adult diabetes (sensitivity analysis: 28 200–56 400) with associated costs of €835 million (sensitivity analysis: €835 million–16.6 billion). The panel also identified a 40% to 69% probability of phthalate exposure causing 53 900 cases of obesity in older women and €15.6 billion in associated costs. Phthalate exposure was also found to have a 40% to 69% probability of causing 20 500 new-onset cases of diabetes in older women with €607 million in associated costs. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure was identified to have a 20% to 69% probability of causing 42 400 cases of childhood obesity, with associated lifetime costs of €1.54 billion

  2. Avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the European Union in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Hesterberg, Uta; Harris, Kate; Stroud, David; Guberti, Vittorio; Busani, Luca; Pittman, Maria; Piazza, Valentina; Cook, Alasdair; Brown, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background  Infections of wild birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) subtype H5N1 virus were reported for the first time in the European Union in 2006. Objectives  To capture epidemiological information on H5N1 HPAI in wild bird populations through large‐scale surveillance and extensive data collection. Methods  Records were analysed at bird level to explore the epidemiology of AI with regard to species of wild birds involved, timing and location of infections as well as the applicability of different surveillance types for the detection of infections. Results  In total, 120,706 records of birds were sent to the Community Reference Laboratory for analysis. Incidents of H5N1 HPAI in wild birds were detected in 14 EU Member States during 2006. All of these incidents occurred between February and May, with the exception of two single cases during the summer months in Germany and Spain. Conclusions  For the detection of H5N1 HPAI virus, passive surveillance of dead or diseased birds appeared the most effective approach, whilst active surveillance offered better detection of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. No carrier species for H5N1 HPAI virus could be identified and almost all birds infected with H5N1 HPAI virus were either dead or showed clinical signs. A very large number of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were tested in 2006 and while a high proportion of LPAI infections were found in this species, H5N1 HPAI virus was rarely identified in these birds. Orders of species that appeared to be very clinically susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus were swans, diving ducks, mergansers and grebes, supporting experimental evidence. Surveillance results indicate that H5N1 HPAI virus did not establish itself successfully in the EU wild bird population in 2006. PMID:19453436

  3. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements.

  4. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Grandjean, Philippe; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Bellanger, Martine; Hauser, Russ; Legler, Juliette; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Results: Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood obesity, adult obesity, adult diabetes, cryptorchidism, male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median cost of €157 billion (or $209 billion, corresponding to 1.23% of EU gross domestic product) annually across 1000 simulations. Notably, using the lowest end of the probability range for each relationship in the Monte Carlo simulations produced a median range of €109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. Conclusions: EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and

  5. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-01-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs’ interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  6. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  7. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007 - 2012; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Maureen

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides a summary of IEA Wind Task 26 report on Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007-2012

  8. European union water policy--tasks for implementing "Water Framework Directive" in pre-accession countries.

    PubMed

    Sözen, Seval; Avcioglu, Ebru; Ozabali, Asli; Görgun, Erdem; Orhon, Derin

    2003-08-01

    Water Framework Directive aiming to maintain and improve the aquatic environment in the EU was launched by the European Parliament in 2000. According to this directive, control of quantity is an ancillary element in securing good water quality and therefore measures on quantity, serving the objective of ensuring good quality should also be established. Accordingly, it is a comprehensive and coordinated package that will ensure all European waters to be protected according to a common standard. Therefore, it refers to all other Directives related to water resources management such as Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive Nitrates Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Integrated Pollution Prevention Control etc. Turkey, as a candidate state targeting full-membership, should comply the necessary preparations for the implementation of the "Water Framework Directive" as soon as possible. In this study, the necessary legislative, political, institutional, and technical attempts of the pre-accession countries have been discussed and effective recommendations have been offered for future activities in Turkey.

  9. The legal design of the international and European Union ban on tributyltin antifouling paint: direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Gipperth, Lena

    2009-02-01

    The Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (AFS Convention), which was adopted in 2001 and will come into force in September 2008, bans the use of TBT (tributyltin) antifouling paint on ships. The EU (European Union) effectively implemented the Convention on 1 January 2008 by enforcing a similar ban. Several states have national restrictions and bans in place. The regulation on TBT antifouling paint aims at checking the risk of adverse effects on marine ecosystems. The legal and political situation is, however, characterized by complex relations between different layers of legislation, the use of several different legal techniques, and levels of ambition. The international and EU bans thereby cause some indirect effects, which are only partly included in what is seen as 'the TBT issue' and so only partly assessed in the legal process of the ban. This article discusses the expediency of the existing legislation and legal strategies aimed at reducing the negative environmental effects of TBT-like toxins in marine ecosystems and indirect effects of such actions. It considers the adequacy and limits of current regulatory approaches for handling complex environmental problems, such as TBT in antifouling paint.

  10. The Court of Justice of the European Union changes its case law on patentability of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bonadio, Enrico; Rovati, Angelo Maria

    2015-01-01

    On 18 December 2014, in International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks (C-364/13), the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) delivered an important decision regarding the scope of the exclusion from patentability on morality-related grounds under Article 6(2) of the EU Biotech Directive. The Court made an important distinction between embryonic stem cell technologies based on fertilised human ovum and those based on unfertilised human ovum stimulated by parthenogenesis. The CJEU held, in particular, that a human ovum: (i) who is unfertilized and (ii) whose division and further development has been stimulated by parthenogenesis, is not a human embryo under Article 6(2)(c) of the Biotech Directive, if it in itself has not the inherent capacity of developing into a human being, this matter to be ascertained by the national court in the light of current scientific knowledge. By doing so, the Court clarified its previous ruling in Brüstle (October 2011).

  11. The Court of Justice of the European Union changes its case law on patentability of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bonadio, Enrico; Rovati, Angelo Maria

    2015-01-01

    On 18 December 2014, in International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks (C-364/13), the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) delivered an important decision regarding the scope of the exclusion from patentability on morality-related grounds under Article 6(2) of the EU Biotech Directive. The Court made an important distinction between embryonic stem cell technologies based on fertilised human ovum and those based on unfertilised human ovum stimulated by parthenogenesis. The CJEU held, in particular, that a human ovum: (i) who is unfertilized and (ii) whose division and further development has been stimulated by parthenogenesis, is not a human embryo under Article 6(2)(c) of the Biotech Directive, if it in itself has not the inherent capacity of developing into a human being, this matter to be ascertained by the national court in the light of current scientific knowledge. By doing so, the Court clarified its previous ruling in Brüstle (October 2011). PMID:26665350

  12. A revaluation of the cultural dimension of disability policy in the European Union: the impact of digitization and web accessibility.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Delia; Giannoumis, G Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting the commitments undertaken by the EU through the conclusion of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), the European Disability Strategy 2010–2020 not only gives a prominent position to accessibility, broadly interpreted, but also suggests an examination of the obligations for access to cultural goods and services. The European Disability Strategy 2010–2020 expressly acknowledges that EU action will support national activities to make sports, leisure, cultural and recreational organizations and activities accessible, and use the possibilities for copyright exceptions in the Directive 2001/29/EC (Infosoc Directive). This article discusses to what extent the EU has realized the principle of accessibility and the right to access cultural goods and services envisaged in the UNCRPD. Previous research has yet to explore how web accessibility and digitization interact with the cultural dimension of disability policy in the European Union. This examination attempts to fill this gap by discussing to what extent the European Union has put this cultural dimension into effect and how web accessibility policies and the digitization of cultural materials influence these efforts. PMID:24676850

  13. A revaluation of the cultural dimension of disability policy in the European Union: the impact of digitization and web accessibility.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Delia; Giannoumis, G Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting the commitments undertaken by the EU through the conclusion of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), the European Disability Strategy 2010–2020 not only gives a prominent position to accessibility, broadly interpreted, but also suggests an examination of the obligations for access to cultural goods and services. The European Disability Strategy 2010–2020 expressly acknowledges that EU action will support national activities to make sports, leisure, cultural and recreational organizations and activities accessible, and use the possibilities for copyright exceptions in the Directive 2001/29/EC (Infosoc Directive). This article discusses to what extent the EU has realized the principle of accessibility and the right to access cultural goods and services envisaged in the UNCRPD. Previous research has yet to explore how web accessibility and digitization interact with the cultural dimension of disability policy in the European Union. This examination attempts to fill this gap by discussing to what extent the European Union has put this cultural dimension into effect and how web accessibility policies and the digitization of cultural materials influence these efforts.

  14. [Reflections on residency training under the current recommendations of the European Union of Medical specialists and the European Board of Anaesthesia (UEMS/EBA guidelines)].

    PubMed

    Sáez Fernández, A; Sistac Ballarín, J M; Martínez Torrente, F; Calvo Vecino, J M; Olmos Rodríguez, M

    2011-01-01

    The recent publication of guidelines for postgraduate training in anesthesiology, pain, and intensive care issued by the European Board of Anaesthesia (EBA) and the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) (http://www.sedar.es/revistasedar/uems.pdf) specifies directions we must take with our residents. The training section of the Sociedad Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (SEDAR) has decided to make the guidelines available on the association's website so that the UEMS/EBA proposals can be compared to the training program drafted by the Spanish national board for our specialty. Our aim is to identify points of convergence between the two proposals and to target gaps where improvements can be made so that Spanish residency training in this specialty is in harmony with the European framework.

  15. Chinese villages and their sustainable future: the European Union-China-Research Project "SUCCESS".

    PubMed

    Dumreicher, Heidi

    2008-04-01

    from European Union and China, agreed upon as a common result for the SUCCESS project, is as follows: "China is composed of a rich diversity of villages with many attractive qualities and essential resources for the future growth of the whole country; we recommend that policy makers cherish the human and natural potential of the rural economy and environment so that villages provide the foundation for sustainable development of this progressive nation" [Dumreicher, H., 2006. SUCCESS-a sustainable future for Chinese villages. International Symposium "Chinese Villages and their Sustainable Future", University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, January 16]. This sentence was used in papers that where sent to different Chinese authorities by the Chinese partners and found its way, as a sort of "unofficial Charta", towards governmental agencies at national and provincial levels. The team carried out a 5-year-research study in rural China, aiming at establishing future images under the premises of sustainability. But the basic topic that needed to be tackled with was the question whether at all those villages could persist in the coming decades of rapid development. Therefore, the first aim of the study was to establish the importance of the rural environment and living space as a basis for the future of China.

  16. Graphical study of reasons for engagement in physical activity in European Union.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Daniel; Cubedo, Marta; Ríos, Martín

    2013-01-01

    We collect data on 15 reasons why people in the 27 EU countries engage in physical activity, from the European Commission's Special Eurobarometer. A graphical output was obtained using classical Principal Component Analysis techniques in order to analyse types of motivation in the EU. Cluster Analysis method were used to define the interrelationship between the data in the 27 countries. People in Sweden, Denmark and Finland were the most highly motivated. High rates were detected in Austria, Germany, Slovenia, Estonia, Luxembourg and Latvia while low rates were found in Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Greece, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. The lowest motivation rates were in the Netherlands. Regarding the reasons for engaging in exercise (a sport or physical activity), we observed two motivation types. The first group was related to health and physical appearance while the second was associated with social reasons: to be with friends, to better integrate into society, to meet people from other cultures. For citizens of Latvia, Bulgaria and Romania, health and physical appearance carried greater importance than the European average while for citizens of Germany, Finland and Sweden the second motivation type was higher than the European average. PMID:24102045

  17. Patterns of drinking and eating across the European Union: implications for hydration status.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L

    2015-09-01

    Appropriate hydration is essential for health and well-being. In Europe, water consumption patterns vary despite the unlimited availability of this resource. Water constitutes the largest proportion of total fluid intake in most countries. According to the 2008 European Food Safety Authority's Concise Food Consumption Database, tap water consumption was highest in the northern European countries and in Austria. While Germany had a particularly low intake of tap water, it led in consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, soft drinks, and especially bottled water. European nutrition surveys generally report an average fluid intake within the recommended range of 1500-2000 mL/day, with higher intake levels corresponding with increasing frequency of intake. However, some population groups consume less than others, e.g., the elderly who are at higher risk for dehydration due to age-related increased urinary fluid losses. In turn, physical activity is associated with higher beverage consumption as is adherence to a health-conscious diet. While water constitutes the most commonly consumed beverage throughout Europe, drinking patterns and quantities vary and are influenced by a variety of factors, including age, gender, diet, and physical activity level. PMID:26290299

  18. Patterns of drinking and eating across the European Union: implications for hydration status.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L

    2015-09-01

    Appropriate hydration is essential for health and well-being. In Europe, water consumption patterns vary despite the unlimited availability of this resource. Water constitutes the largest proportion of total fluid intake in most countries. According to the 2008 European Food Safety Authority's Concise Food Consumption Database, tap water consumption was highest in the northern European countries and in Austria. While Germany had a particularly low intake of tap water, it led in consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, soft drinks, and especially bottled water. European nutrition surveys generally report an average fluid intake within the recommended range of 1500-2000 mL/day, with higher intake levels corresponding with increasing frequency of intake. However, some population groups consume less than others, e.g., the elderly who are at higher risk for dehydration due to age-related increased urinary fluid losses. In turn, physical activity is associated with higher beverage consumption as is adherence to a health-conscious diet. While water constitutes the most commonly consumed beverage throughout Europe, drinking patterns and quantities vary and are influenced by a variety of factors, including age, gender, diet, and physical activity level.

  19. The National Union Catalog, Reference and Related Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, John W., Jr., Comp.; Freitag, Ruth S.

    The National Union Catalog (NUC) is a record of publications and their location in more than 1,100 libraries in the United States and Canada. As such, it is the central register of library resources in North America. Major portions of the NUC are published on a continuing basis, but most of the records for imprints before 1956 consist of card…

  20. Teacher Unions and the Politics of Fear in Labor Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Bruce S.; Sureau, John

    2008-01-01

    Union-management relationships have been filled with fear since the rise of capitalism; public education is no different. Workers fear exploitation by owners (profits depend on it) and capitalist/management has always worried that the working classes will organize and either take over the firm or strike and bring production to a screeching halt.…

  1. Clinical education and training of student nurses in four moderately new European Union countries: Assessment of students' satisfaction with the learning environment.

    PubMed

    Antohe, Ileana; Riklikiene, Olga; Tichelaar, Erna; Saarikoski, Mikko

    2016-03-01

    Nurses underwent different models of education during various historical periods. The recent decade in Europe has been marked with educational transitions for the nursing profession related to Bologna Declaration and enlargement of the European Union. This paper aims to explore the situation of clinical placements for student nurses and assess students' satisfaction with the learning environment in four relatively new member states of European Union: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Romania. The data for cross-sectional quantitative study were collected during the exploratory phase of EmpNURS Project via a web based questionnaire which utilized a part of Clinical Learning Environment scale (CLES + T). The students evaluated their clinical learning environment mainly positively. The students' utter satisfaction with their clinical placements reached a high level and strongly correlated with the supervisory model. Although the commonest model for supervision was traditional group supervision, the most satisfied students had the experience of individualised supervision. The study gives a picture of the satisfaction of students with the learning environment and, moreover, with clinical placement education of student nurses in four EU countries. The results highlight the individualized supervision model as a crucial factor of students' total satisfaction during their clinical training periods.

  2. Global Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production for Biomass Consumption in the European Union, 1986–2007

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Karl‐Heinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Summary The ongoing globalization process strengthens the connections between different geographic regions through trade. Biomass products, such as food, fiber, or bioenergy, are increasingly traded globally, thereby leading to telecouplings between distant, seemingly unrelated regions. For example, restrictions for agricultural production or changes in bioenergy demand in Europe or the United States might contribute to deforestation in Latin America or Sub‐Saharan Africa. One approach to analyze trade‐related land‐use effects of the global socioeconomic biomass metabolism is the “embodied human appropriation of net primary production” or eHANPP. eHANPP accounts allocate to any product the entire amount of the human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) that emerges throughout its supply chain. This allows consumption‐based accounts to move beyond simple area‐demand approaches by taking differences in natural productivity as well as in land‐use intensity into account, both across land‐use types as well as across world regions. In this article, we discuss the eHANPP related to the European Union's (EU) consumption of biomass products in the period 1986–2007, based on a consistent global trade data set derived from bilateral data. We find a considerable dependency of the EU on the appropriation of biological productivity outside its own boundaries, with increasing reliance on Latin America as a main supplier. By using the EU as an illustrative example, we demonstrate the usefulness of eHANPP for assessing land‐use impacts caused by nations’ socioeconomic activities and conclude that the eHANPP approach can provide useful information to better manage ecosystems globally in the face of an increasingly interconnected world. PMID:27524879

  3. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  4. Anticipation of Occupation and Qualification Trends in the European Union: Innovations for Effective Anticipation of Qualification and Competence Trends and the Adaptation of VET Provision in Member States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart, Ed.

    The approaches being taken and innovations being adopted at the national and European levels to anticipate occupation and qualification trends in the European Union (EU) were examined in a survey of the 15 EU member states. The survey findings were presented by country and in a synthesis. In addition, the findings for Belgium were broken down by…

  5. Political and Legal Framework for the Development of Training Policy in the European Union. Part I--From the Treaty of Rome to the Treaty of Maastricht.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Steve; Murray, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the history of vocational training policy from the establishment of the European Economic Community in the Treaty of Rome in 1957 to the Treaty of Maastricht, which created the European Union in 1992. Discusses the evolution from a centralized legislative approach to a more user-oriented approach promoting mobility. (Contains 40…

  6. Professional Mobility and the Mutual Recognition of Qualifications in the European Union: Two Institutional Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blitz, Brad K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of transnational institutions (particularly the European Commission and committees of the European Parliament) in facilitating the mutual recognition of professional qualifications among members of the European Economic Community (EEC). Discusses relevant EEC directives, varying compliance among nations, and six cases of citizen…

  7. What influences changes in alcoholic beverage consumption over time? Poland in the light of the European Union Amphora study.

    PubMed

    Swiątkiewicz, Grażyna; Wieczorek, Lukasz; Allamani, Allaman

    2014-10-01

    This paper is based on the Polish country-level final report of the European Union Amphora study: contextual determinants and alcohol polices. The authors present the results of a time series analysis model designed to explore and explain the influence of selected alcoholic beverage control policy measures and unplanned sociodemographical determinants on changes in alcoholic beverage consumption from 1960 to the 2000s in Poland. Complex historical and social changes are described, which occurred during the 50 years covered by the study. The study findings confirmed that sociodemographical determinants have an important influence on alcoholic beverage consumption. Study limitations are noted and future research is suggested.

  8. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    PubMed

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. PMID:23849285

  9. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis of the European Union system for the evaluation of substances multimedia regional distribution model.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Michael; Berding, Volker; Beyer, Andreas

    2004-10-01

    The European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES) is a computerized model system to facilitate and harmonize health and environmental risk assessment of previously notified and new substances. For calculation of regional background exposure, a multimedia distribution model is used. In the present study, the uncertainty of this regional model is analyzed. Environmental parameters were collected for North Rhine Westphalia (Germany), which resembles the standard region of EUSES. Probability distribution functions of various types (uniform, triangular, normal, log normal) depending on data availability were derived for environmental input parameters, including geometric parameters. Generic log-normal distribution functions with fixed standard deviations were chosen for solubility in air, water, and n-octanol as well as for degradation half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for 10 reference substances having different properties. Contribution of environmental parameter uncertainty to total output uncertainties is higher than that of substance parameters. Range of output uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the logarithms of the 90th and 10th percentiles of the cumulative probability distribution function, shows an increase from air and water to soil. The highest-occurring range is 1.4 orders of magnitude, which means that total uncertainty of the regional model is relatively low and, usually, is lower than the range of measured values. The median of output probability distributions lies above the point estimate. Influence of input parameters was estimated as their rank correlation coefficients to output uncertainty. Substance and environmental parameters contribute differently to output variance depending on individual substance properties and environmental compartment. Hence, the present study underlines the need to perform uncertainty analyses instead of either using a set of simple rules or just looking at certain parameters.

  10. Smoking Behaviour, Involuntary Smoking, Attitudes towards Smoke-Free Legislations, and Tobacco Control Activities in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Gallus, Silvano; Martínez, Cristina; Sureda, Xisca; La Vecchia, Carlo; Clancy, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Background The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). Methods/Principal Findings Ecologic study in the EU27. We used data from the TCS in 2007 and from the Eurobarometer on Tobacco Survey in 2008. We analysed the relations between the TCS and prevalence of smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS (home and work), and attitudes towards smoking bans by means of scatter plots and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients (rsp). Among the EU27, smoking prevalence varied from 22.6% in Slovenia to 42.1% in Greece. Austria was the country with the lowest TCS score (35) and the UK had the highest one (93). The correlation between smoking prevalence and TCS score was negative (rsp = −0.42, p = 0.03) and the correlation between TCS score and support to smoking bans in all workplaces was positive (rsp = 0.47, p = 0.01 in restaurants; rsp = 0.5, p = 0.008 in bars, pubs, and clubs; and rsp = 0.31, p = 0.12 in other indoor workplaces). The correlation between TCS score and self-reported exposure to SHS was negative, but statistically non-significant. Conclusions/Significance Countries with a higher score in the TCS have higher support towards smoking bans in all workplaces (including restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs, and other indoor workplaces). TCS scores were strongly, but not statistically, associated with a lower prevalence of smokers and a lower self-reported exposure to SHS. PMID:21079729

  11. An international carbon tax to combat global warming: An economic and political analysis of the European union proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Herber, B.P.; Raga, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    An international carbon tax has been the subject of considerable recent discussion as an economic incentive instrument to combat the perceived threat of global warming resulting, primarily, from the use of the carbon-emitting fossils - coal, oil, and natural gas - in the production of energy. During 1991, the European Union proposed the adoption of such a tax to be imposed by each member nation. The economic merits as well as the problems associated with the proposed European carbon tax are discussed along with the political prospects for its adoption. It is concluded that even though early adoption of the tax is unlikely, the economic merits of this tax instrument for the alleviation of global warming accompanied by changing political parameters may lead to its adoption in the long run.

  12. Lessons learnt to keep Europe polio-free: a review of outbreaks in the European Union, European Economic Area, and candidate countries, 1973 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Derrough, Tarik; Salekeen, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor the outbreaks and their geographical spread. Outbreaks were predominantly caused by poliovirus type 1 and typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated groups within highly immunised communities. Oral polio vaccine was primarily used to respond to the outbreaks with catch-up campaigns implemented either nationwide or in restricted geographical areas or age groups. The introduction of supplementary immunisation contained the outbreaks. In 2002, the European region of the World Health Organization was declared polio-free and it has maintained this status since. However, as long as there are non-vaccinated or under-vaccinated groups in European countries and poliomyelitis is not eradicated, countries remain continuously at risk of reintroduction and establishment of the virus. Continued efforts to reach these groups are needed in order to ensure a uniform and high vaccination coverage.

  13. Lessons learnt to keep Europe polio-free: a review of outbreaks in the European Union, European Economic Area, and candidate countries, 1973 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Derrough, Tarik; Salekeen, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor the outbreaks and their geographical spread. Outbreaks were predominantly caused by poliovirus type 1 and typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated groups within highly immunised communities. Oral polio vaccine was primarily used to respond to the outbreaks with catch-up campaigns implemented either nationwide or in restricted geographical areas or age groups. The introduction of supplementary immunisation contained the outbreaks. In 2002, the European region of the World Health Organization was declared polio-free and it has maintained this status since. However, as long as there are non-vaccinated or under-vaccinated groups in European countries and poliomyelitis is not eradicated, countries remain continuously at risk of reintroduction and establishment of the virus. Continued efforts to reach these groups are needed in order to ensure a uniform and high vaccination coverage. PMID:27123992

  14. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoicracy that we call ‘republican intergovernmentalism’. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making. PMID:26924935

  15. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union. PMID:25646389

  16. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union.

  17. [Changes in adolescents' alcohol drinking in the time of accession to European Union: Polish and Lithuanian experiences].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Berzanskytez, Ausra; Valinteliene, Rolanda

    2006-01-01

    The greatest increase in the late nineties in adolescent's alcohol consumption in Europe were in the countries that were candidates for European Union. The aim of the papers is: 1) to examine the changes of adolescent's alcohol drinking in fife-year period preceding the accession of Poland to European Union and 2) to compare regular alcohol drinking and attitude toward alcohol drinking among Polish and Lithuanian adolescents. The surveys in 1999 and 2004 in Warsaw junior secondary schools and in 2004 in Vilnius junior secondary schools were carried out, and the data from 14-15 years old adolescents were obtained. The analysis confirmed significant increase in frequency of alcohol consumption as well as in more positive attitude toward usefulness of alcohol drinking. This process took place more dynamically among girls. The comparison of Warsaw and Vilnius samples showed that Lithuanian girls were more likely to drink alcohol regularly and Lithuanian adolescents were more likely to access higher the usefulness of alcohol drinking for coping with everyday troubles. The findings were widely discussed in respect to other studies and changes in alcohol control policy.

  18. Review of Progress in Vocational Education and Training Reform of the Candidate Countries for Accession to the European Union in the Light of Developments in European Policy on Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reviews progress in vocational education and training (VET) reform in the candidate countries for accession to the European Union in light of developments in European policy on vocational training. The document consists of a cross-country overview and individual overviews of VET in 12 candidate countries: Bulgaria, the Czech…

  19. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories. PMID:27089364

  20. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries’ National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013–2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories. PMID:27089364

  1. An Assessment of the Results of European Parliament Elections in Greece and European Union Under the Shadow of Economic Crisis.

    PubMed

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    On January 1, 1981, Greece became the tenth member of the European Economic Community and, 20 years later, on January 1, 2001, joined the euro area. In May of 2010 and February of 2012, Greece signed the first and the second economic adjustment programs and adopted austerity policies throughout the public sector in order to avoid the economic collapse, affecting residents' income and health status. We studied the questionnaires of polls conducted in Greece before the elections of the European Parliament (May 25, 2014) and the "Europeans 2014" Eurobarometer's survey in March of 2014. The responses of Greek voters from the Greek polls were alarming, pointing out their declining personal economic situation and Greece's national economic situation, with a sense that the country was heading in the wrong direction, declaring themselves unsatisfied and insecure. The responses of Greek voters from the "Europeans 2014" survey were even more alarming. Health was the first priority for the voters. As the Greek polls and the Eurobarometer's survey forecasted, but more significantly as the results of the Euro-elections showed, Greek voters preferred to put their hopes in something new.

  2. An Assessment of the Results of European Parliament Elections in Greece and European Union Under the Shadow of Economic Crisis.

    PubMed

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    On January 1, 1981, Greece became the tenth member of the European Economic Community and, 20 years later, on January 1, 2001, joined the euro area. In May of 2010 and February of 2012, Greece signed the first and the second economic adjustment programs and adopted austerity policies throughout the public sector in order to avoid the economic collapse, affecting residents' income and health status. We studied the questionnaires of polls conducted in Greece before the elections of the European Parliament (May 25, 2014) and the "Europeans 2014" Eurobarometer's survey in March of 2014. The responses of Greek voters from the Greek polls were alarming, pointing out their declining personal economic situation and Greece's national economic situation, with a sense that the country was heading in the wrong direction, declaring themselves unsatisfied and insecure. The responses of Greek voters from the "Europeans 2014" survey were even more alarming. Health was the first priority for the voters. As the Greek polls and the Eurobarometer's survey forecasted, but more significantly as the results of the Euro-elections showed, Greek voters preferred to put their hopes in something new. PMID:27491404

  3. Joint United States-European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for In Situ Biogradation

    SciTech Connect

    Suflita, Joseph M.; Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-08-14

    The Joint United States - European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for in situ Biodegradation was held May 24 through June 7 at The University of Oklahoma. Twenty-four graduate and postgraduate students from both the United States and the European Union attended the course. Nine states and ten European countries were represented. Students were assigned living quarters and laboratory partners to maximize interactions between US and EU participants as well as to mix people with different technical backgrounds together. The students used the latest methods in molecular biology to characterize beneficial microorganisms and genes involved in the biodegradation of pollutants at a nearby landfill as well as an active hydrocarbon-producing site, part of which is undergoing bioremediation. Seminars by distinguished scientists were organized to expose the students to the breadth of the environmental field, including field assay and engineering applications, laboratory scale bioreactors, microbiology, genetics, regulation, pathway analysis, design of recombinant bacteria, and application of the associated techniques to the field. Lectures were given by various OU faculty on the principles behind the techniques to be used in the laboratory. These lectures included troubleshooting hints and encouraged questions and comments from the audience. The laboratory experiments covered chemical, microbiological, and molecular genetic analyses of soils; bioavailability of contaminants; enrichment cultures; gene probing; PCR amplification of known genes and gene families; identification of microbes based traditional and nontraditional approaches, nutritional capabilities, and 16S rRNA sequence; mRNA detection; and enzyme assays. Field trips were made to the USGS landfill field sampling site, and to the Tall Grass Prairie Preserve, a Nature Conservancy site which also featured long-term studies of bioremediation of crude oil and brine spills by one of the

  4. The precautionary principle within European Union public health policy. The implementation of the principle under conditions of supranationality and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Lila; van Meurs, Philip

    2003-11-01

    The present study examines the precautionary principle within the parameters of public health policy in the European Union, regarding both its meaning, as it has been shaped by relevant EU institutions and their counterparts within the Member States, and its implementation in practice. In the initial section I concentrate on the methodological question of "scientific uncertainty" concerning the calculation of risk and possible damage. Calculation of risk in many cases justifies the adopting of preventive measures, but, as it is argued, the principle of precaution and its implementation cannot be wholly captured by a logic of calculation; such a principle does not only contain scientific uncertainty-as the preventive principle does-but it itself is generated as a principle by this scientific uncertainty, recognising the need for a society to act. Thus, the implementation of the precautionary principle is also a simultaneous search for justification of its status as a principle. This justification would result in the adoption of precautionary measures against risk although no proof of this principle has been produced based on the "cause-effect" model. The main part of the study is occupied with an examination of three cases from which the stance of the official bodies of the European Union towards the precautionary principle and its implementation emerges: the case of the "mad cows" disease, the case of production and commercialization of genetically modified foodstuffs. The study concludes with the assessment that the effective implementation of the precautionary principle on a European level depends on the emergence of a concerned Europe-wide citizenship and its acting as a mechanism to counteract the material and social conditions that pose risks for human health. PMID:14585517

  5. A Generic Quantitative Risk Assessment Framework for the Entry of Bat-Borne Zoonotic Viruses into the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Horigan, Verity; Gale, Paul; Kosmider, Rowena D.; Breed, Andrew C.; Snary, Emma L.

    2016-01-01

    Bat-borne viruses have been linked to a number of zoonotic diseases; in 2014 there have been human cases of Nipah virus (NiV) in Bangladesh and Ebola virus in West and Central Africa. Here we describe a model designed to provide initial quantitative predictions of the risk of entry of such viruses to European Union (EU) Member States (MSs) through four routes: human travel, legal trade (e.g. fruit and animal products), live animal movements and illegal importation of bushmeat. The model utilises available datasets to assess the movement via these routes between individual countries of the world and EU MSs. These data are combined with virus specific data to assess the relative risk of entry between EU MSs. As a case study, the model was parameterised for NiV. Scenario analyses showed that the selection of exporting countries with NiV and potentially contaminated trade products were essential to the accuracy of all model outputs. Uncertainty analyses of other model parameters identified that the model expected number of years to an introduction event within the EU was highly susceptible to the prevalence of NiV in bats. The relative rankings of the MSs and routes, however, were more robust. The UK, the Netherlands and Germany were consistently the most likely points of entry and the ranking of most MSs varied by no more than three places (maximum variation five places). Legal trade was consistently the most likely route of entry, only falling below human travel when the estimate of the prevalence of NiV in bats was particularly low. Any model-based calculation is dependent on the data available to feed into the model and there are distinct gaps in our knowledge, particularly in regard to various pathogen/virus as well as host/bat characteristics. However, the strengths of this model lie in the provision of relative comparisons of risk among routes and MSs. The potential for expansion of the model to include other routes and viruses and the possibility of rapid

  6. The alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ian; Hauck, Jennifer; Bonn, Aletta

    2015-08-01

    Europe is a region of relatively high population density and productive agriculture subject to substantial government intervention under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Many habitats and species of high conservation interest have been created by the maintenance of agricultural practices over long periods. These practices are often no longer profitable, and nature conservation initiatives require government support to cover the cost for them to be continued. The CAP has been reformed both to reduce production of agricultural commodities at costs in excess of world prices and to establish incentives for landholders to adopt voluntary conservation measures. A separate nature conservation policy has established an extensive series of protected sites (Natura 2000) that has, as yet, failed to halt the loss of biodiversity. Additional broader scale approaches have been advocated for conservation in the wider landscape matrix, including the alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies, which remains a challenge. Possibilities for alignment include further shifting of funds from general support for farmers toward targeted payments for biodiversity goals at larger scales and adoption of an ecosystem approach. The European response to the competing demands for land resources may offer lessons globally as demands on rural land increase.

  7. The alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ian; Hauck, Jennifer; Bonn, Aletta

    2015-08-01

    Europe is a region of relatively high population density and productive agriculture subject to substantial government intervention under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Many habitats and species of high conservation interest have been created by the maintenance of agricultural practices over long periods. These practices are often no longer profitable, and nature conservation initiatives require government support to cover the cost for them to be continued. The CAP has been reformed both to reduce production of agricultural commodities at costs in excess of world prices and to establish incentives for landholders to adopt voluntary conservation measures. A separate nature conservation policy has established an extensive series of protected sites (Natura 2000) that has, as yet, failed to halt the loss of biodiversity. Additional broader scale approaches have been advocated for conservation in the wider landscape matrix, including the alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies, which remains a challenge. Possibilities for alignment include further shifting of funds from general support for farmers toward targeted payments for biodiversity goals at larger scales and adoption of an ecosystem approach. The European response to the competing demands for land resources may offer lessons globally as demands on rural land increase. PMID:25998969

  8. European Union's rapid TSE testing in adult cattle and sheep: implementation and results in 2001 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sheila M

    2003-06-01

    After the discovery of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), scientific advances quickly led to post-mortem tests to identify late-stage bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) disease. These were first used in Switzerland in 1999 for active BSE surveillance of a) fallen and emergency-slaughter bovines (risk stock) and b) 5% sample of routinely slaughtered cattle over 30 months of age. In 1999 and 2000, Switzerland's estimated 103 BSE positives per 1000000 adult cattle put it in the same BSE risk classification as UK and Portugal. In July 2000, the European Union's Scientific Steering Committee published its methodology (and first vetted results) for geographical BSE risk (GBR) assessment in cattle. Member states with no BSE cases found themselves, on rational assessment, classified as GBR III (BSE likely but not confirmed, or confirmed at a lower level). Because of Europe's thus highly assessed BSE risks, active BSE surveillance of adult cattle in all member states began in January 2001 using one of three validated post-mortem tests. Implementation was variable across member states in January to March 2001 but, where operational, active surveillance was typically achieved for around 13300 routinely slaughtered and 1000 risk stock per month per 1000000 adult cattle; BSE positive rates were 60 and 600 per 1000000 routinely slaughtered and risk cattle, respectively. By the second half of 2001, active BSE surveillance was operating reasonably in most member states, although anomalies persisted. Performance and results for July to December 2001 and for January to June 2002 are considered in detail. The BSE positive rate decreased substantially in UK, Portugal and Ireland between semesters, whereas Spain's rates increased for both routinely slaughtered and risk bovines. Based on 1450000 routinely slaughtered and 135000 risk stock as standard, France could have expected 153 BSE positives in July to December 2001 (109 in January to June 2002); Italy 154 (67); and

  9. Risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Maarten J; Sanaa, Moez; Havelaar, Arie H

    2012-09-01

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) allows evaluating the public health impact of food safety targets to support the control of foodborne pathogens. We estimate the risk reduction of setting microbiological criteria (MCs) for Campylobacter on broiler meat in 25 European countries, applying quantitative data from the 2008 EU baseline survey. We demonstrate that risk based MCs can be derived without explicit consideration of Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives. Published QMRA models for the consumer phase and dose response provide a relation between Campylobacter concentration on skin samples and the attending probability of illness for the consumer. Probabilistic modelling is used to evaluate a set of potential MCs. We present the percentage of batches not complying with the potential criteria, in relation to the risk reduction attending totally efficient treatment of these batches. We find different risk estimates and different impacts of MCs in different countries, which offers a practical and flexible tool for risk managers to select the most appropriate MC by weighing the costs (i.e. non-compliant batches) and the benefits (i.e. reduction in public health risk). Our analyses show that the estimated percentage of batches not complying with the MC is better correlated with the risk estimate than surrogate risk measures like the flock prevalence or the arithmetic mean concentration of bacteria on carcasses, and would therefore be a good measure for the risk of Campylobacter on broiler meat in a particular country. Two uncertain parameters in the model are the ratio of within- and between-flock variances in concentrations, and the transition factor of skin sample concentrations to concentrations on the meat. Sensitivity analyses show that these parameters have a considerable effect on our results, but the impact of their uncertainty is small compared to that of the parameters defining the Microbiological Criterion and the concentration

  10. Validation of a confirmatory method for the determination of sulphonamides in muscle according to the European Union regulation 2002/657/EC.

    PubMed

    Pecorelli, Ivan; Bibi, Rita; Fioroni, Laura; Galarini, Roberta

    2004-04-01

    A simple multiresidue method is described for assaying 10 sulphonamides (SAs) (sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadimethoxine) in muscle samples. Samples were prepared by homogenizing the tissue, extracting with ethyl acetate and cleaning up with a cation-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. The detection of analytes was achieved by HPLC-diode array detection (DAD) at 270 nm. The procedure was validated according to the European Union regulation 2002/657/EC determining specificity, decision limit, detection capability, trueness and precision. The results of validation process demonstrate that the method is suitable for application in European Union statutory veterinary drug residue surveillance programmes. PMID:15065772

  11. Infectious diseases prioritisation for event-based surveillance at the European Union level for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, A; Kinross, P; Domanovic, D; Coulombier, D

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, London hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Games (the Games), with events occurring throughout the United Kingdom (UK) between 27 July and 9 September 2012. Public health surveillance was performed by the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Collaboration between the HPA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established for the detection and assessment of significant infectious disease events (SIDEs) occurring outside the UK during the time of the Games. Additionally, ECDC undertook an internal prioritisation exercise to facilitate ECDC’s decisions on which SIDEs should have preferentially enhanced monitoring through epidemic intelligence activities for detection and reporting in daily surveillance in the European Union (EU). A team of ECDC experts evaluated potential public health risks to the Games, selecting and prioritising SIDEs for event-based surveillance with regard to their potential for importation to the Games, occurrence during the Games or export to the EU/European Economic Area from the Games. The team opted for a multilevel approach including comprehensive disease selection, development and use of a qualitative matrix scoring system and a Delphi method for disease prioritisation. The experts selected 71 infectious diseases to enter the prioritisation exercise of which 27 were considered as priority for epidemic intelligence activities by ECDC for the EU for the Games. PMID:24762663

  12. Learning from MARQuIS: future direction of quality and safety in hospital care in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Groene, O; Klazinga, N; Walshe, K; Cucic, C; Shaw, C D; Suñol, R

    2009-01-01

    This article summarises the significant lessons to be drawn from, and the policy implications of, the findings of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) project—a part of the suite of research projects intended to support policy established by the European Commission through its Sixth Framework Programme. The article first reviews the findings of MARQuIS and their implications for healthcare providers (and particularly for hospitals), and then addresses the broader policy implications for member states of the European Union (EU) and for the commission itself. Against the background of the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme, it then outlines a number of future areas for research to inform policy and practice in quality and safety in Europe. The article concludes that at this stage, a unique EU-wide quality improvement system for hospitals does not seem to be feasible or effective. Because of possible future community action in this field, attention should focus on the use of existing research on quality and safety strategies in healthcare, with the aim of combining soft measures to accelerate mutual learning. Concrete measures should be considered only in areas for which there is substantial evidence and effective implementation can be ensured. PMID:19188465

  13. Learning from MARQuIS: future direction of quality and safety in hospital care in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Groene, O; Klazinga, N; Walshe, K; Cucic, C; Shaw, C D; Suñol, R

    2009-02-01

    This article summarises the significant lessons to be drawn from, and the policy implications of, the findings of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) project--a part of the suite of research projects intended to support policy established by the European Commission through its Sixth Framework Programme. The article first reviews the findings of MARQuIS and their implications for healthcare providers (and particularly for hospitals), and then addresses the broader policy implications for member states of the European Union (EU) and for the commission itself. Against the background of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme, it then outlines a number of future areas for research to inform policy and practice in quality and safety in Europe. The article concludes that at this stage, a unique EU-wide quality improvement system for hospitals does not seem to be feasible or effective. Because of possible future community action in this field, attention should focus on the use of existing research on quality and safety strategies in healthcare, with the aim of combining soft measures to accelerate mutual learning. Concrete measures should be considered only in areas for which there is substantial evidence and effective implementation can be ensured.

  14. Infectious diseases prioritisation for event-based surveillance at the European Union level for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, A; Kinross, P; Domanovic, D; Coulombier, D

    2014-04-17

    In 2012, London hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Games (the Games), with events occurring throughout the United Kingdom (UK) between 27 July and 9 September 2012. Public health surveillance was performed by the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Collaboration between the HPA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established for the detection and assessment of significant infectious disease events (SIDEs) occurring outside the UK during the time of the Games. Additionally, ECDC undertook an internal prioritisation exercise to facilitate ECDC’s decisions on which SIDEs should have preferentially enhanced monitoring through epidemic intelligence activities for detection and reporting in daily surveillance in the European Union (EU). A team of ECDC experts evaluated potential public health risks to the Games, selecting and prioritising SIDEs for event-based surveillance with regard to their potential for importation to the Games, occurrence during the Games or export to the EU/European Economic Area from the Games. The team opted for a multilevel approach including comprehensive disease selection, development and use of a qualitative matrix scoring system and a Delphi method for disease prioritisation. The experts selected 71 infectious diseases to enter the prioritisation exercise of which 27 were considered as priority for epidemic intelligence activities by ECDC for the EU for the Games.

  15. What the eye does not see: a critical interpretive synthesis of European Union policies addressing sexual violence in vulnerable migrants.

    PubMed

    Keygnaert, Ines; Guieu, Aurore

    2015-11-01

    In Europe, refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are more vulnerable to sexual victimisation than European citizens. They face more challenges when seeking care. This literature review examines how legal and policy frameworks at national, European and international levels condition the prevention of and response to sexual violence affecting these vulnerable migrant communities living in the European Union (EU). Applying the Critical Interpretive Synthesis method, we reviewed 187 legal and policy documents and 80 peer-reviewed articles on migrant sexual health for elements on sexual violence and further analysed the 37 legal and 12 peer-reviewed articles among them that specifically focused on sexual violence in vulnerable migrants in the EU-27 States. Legal and policy documents dealing with sexual violence, particularly but not exclusively in vulnerable migrants, apply 'tunnel vision'. They ignore: a) frequently occurring types of sexual violence, b) victimisation rates across genders and c) specific risk factors within the EU such as migrants' legal status, gender orientation and living conditions. The current EU policy-making paradigm relegates sexual violence in vulnerable migrants as an 'outsider' and 'female only' issue while EU migration and asylum policies reinforce its invisibility. Effective response must be guided by participatory rights- and evidence-based policies and a public health approach, acknowledging the occurrence and multiplicity of sexual victimisation of vulnerable migrants of all genders within EU borders. PMID:26718996

  16. Analysing arrangements for cross-border mobility of patients in the European Union: a proposal for a framework.

    PubMed

    Legido-Quigley, Helena; Glinos, Irene A; Baeten, Rita; McKee, Martin; Busse, Reinhard

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a framework for analyzing arrangements set up to facilitate cross-border mobility of patients in the European Union. Exploiting both conceptual analysis and data from a range of case studies carried out in a number of European projects, and building on Walt and Gilson's model of policy analysis, the framework consists of five major components, each with a subset of categories or issues: (1) The actors directly and indirectly involved in setting up and promoting arrangements, (2) the content of the arrangements, classified into four categories (e.g. purchaser-provider and provider-provider or joint cross-border providers), (3) the institutional framework of the arrangements (including the underlying European and national legal frameworks, health systems' characteristics and payment mechanisms), (4) the processes that have led to the initiation and continuation, or cessation, of arrangements, (5) contextual factors (e.g. political or cultural) that impact on cross-border patient mobility and thus arrangements to facilitate them. The framework responds to what is a clearly identifiable demand for a means to analyse these interrelated concepts and dimensions. We believe that it will be useful to researchers studying cross-border collaborations and policy makers engaging in them. PMID:22871354

  17. Evidence-based medicine breaking the borders--a working model for the European Union to facilitate evidence-based health care.

    PubMed

    Gartlehner, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    The promotion of evidence-based health care to improve quality of care has become an important political agenda worldwide. In April 2003 the European Commission acknowledged the lack of evidence-based health care in the European Union. Nevertheless, neither the new eHealth 2005 Action Plan nor the Public Health Program 2003 explicitly state the facilitation of evidence-based health care as a goal. This article proposes a working model for a network of institutions and databases within the European Union to facilitate evidence-based health care. The model strives to adapt existing U.S. examples of institutions in the field of evidence-based medicine, like Evidence-based Practice Centers, and the National Guideline Clearinghouse to the heterogeneous and legally restrictive environment of the European Union, particularly Article 152 of the European Union Treaty. In addition to increasing efficiency and decreasing redundancy, coordinating national efforts in best practice will also facilitate information sharing and knowledge transfer. The establishment of databases in native languages could also break down one of the main barriers existing between care providers and evidence-based medicine while adhering to the overall concepts of eHealth 2005.

  18. Legislative and non-legislative regulations concerning Rx drug advertisement in the European Union and the United States--comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Czerw, Aleksandra; Religioni, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Drug advertising is one of the most popular forms of communication between pharmaceutical companies and prospect drug purchasers. In the face of strong competition on the pharmaceutical market on the one hand, and patient's high susceptibility to various forms of advertising on the other, drug producers try to reach as wide group of recipients as possible. However, proper medicine use requires not only doctor's wide knowledge and experience, but also patient's awareness of necessity of rational drug usage. Advertising activities related to this group of medicines are covered by rigorous law regulations, with taking into account above-mentioned issues, and other specific features of drugs available with prescription. The aim of this article is to present legislative and non-legislative regulations concerning Rx drugs, taking into consideration law regulations that are in force in the European Union and the United States. Ethic codes implemented by drug producers associations were also used. PMID:22876622

  19. Legislative and non-legislative regulations concerning Rx drug advertisement in the European Union and the United States--comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Czerw, Aleksandra; Religioni, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Drug advertising is one of the most popular forms of communication between pharmaceutical companies and prospect drug purchasers. In the face of strong competition on the pharmaceutical market on the one hand, and patient's high susceptibility to various forms of advertising on the other, drug producers try to reach as wide group of recipients as possible. However, proper medicine use requires not only doctor's wide knowledge and experience, but also patient's awareness of necessity of rational drug usage. Advertising activities related to this group of medicines are covered by rigorous law regulations, with taking into account above-mentioned issues, and other specific features of drugs available with prescription. The aim of this article is to present legislative and non-legislative regulations concerning Rx drugs, taking into consideration law regulations that are in force in the European Union and the United States. Ethic codes implemented by drug producers associations were also used.

  20. The impact of the European financial crisis on clinical research within the European union or "when life gives you lemons, make lemonade".

    PubMed

    Tsoulfas, G

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) and the world are faced with unprecedented economic challenges, which if allowed to persist could threaten its continued existence in its current form as a union. Furthermore, these same financial challenges can easily translate into societal hardship. The biomedical and pharmaceutical industries of the U.S. and Europe have been in the midst of severe financial constraints over the last few years, which will worsen in the coming years. A critical factor is a financial crisis that appears to be spreading like wildfire through Europe, with 3 of its oldest members (Greece, Ireland, Portugal) already having enlisted the aid of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to avoid bankruptcy, and with the possibility of others to follow (Italy, Spain). Adding to this the increasing cost of introducing new medications and devices, and conducting clinical research, as well as the tightening regulatory pressures and the drying pharmaceutical pipelines, cost cutting pressures are mounting on pharmaceutical industries and the biomedical sector, whether in academia or in industry. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the problems that clinical research in Europe may be facing, as well as discuss some of the potential solutions. Although this will by no means be an exhaustive analysis, the goal is to show that times of financial hardship, such as the current one, may also provide the impetus for constructive change.

  1. The impact of the European financial crisis on clinical research within the European union or "when life gives you lemons, make lemonade"

    PubMed Central

    Tsoulfas, G

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) and the world are faced with unprecedented economic challenges, which if allowed to persist could threaten its continued existence in its current form as a union. Furthermore, these same financial challenges can easily translate into societal hardship. The biomedical and pharmaceutical industries of the U.S. and Europe have been in the midst of severe financial constraints over the last few years, which will worsen in the coming years. A critical factor is a financial crisis that appears to be spreading like wildfire through Europe, with 3 of its oldest members (Greece, Ireland, Portugal) already having enlisted the aid of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to avoid bankruptcy, and with the possibility of others to follow (Italy, Spain). Adding to this the increasing cost of introducing new medications and devices, and conducting clinical research, as well as the tightening regulatory pressures and the drying pharmaceutical pipelines, cost cutting pressures are mounting on pharmaceutical industries and the biomedical sector, whether in academia or in industry. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the problems that clinical research in Europe may be facing, as well as discuss some of the potential solutions. Although this will by no means be an exhaustive analysis, the goal is to show that times of financial hardship, such as the current one, may also provide the impetus for constructive change. PMID:23930050

  2. [Health protection of workers occupationally exposed to effects of electromagnetic fields in Poland and in the European Union member states].

    PubMed

    Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, one of potentially harmful physical agents present in the work environment in Poland, are under a constant surveillance regulated by the law. Among others, the surveillance involves periodical measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) intensities in the work environment and medical prophylactic examination of workers at the employers' expense. The introduction of new MAC values imposes extra responsibilities on occupational health services, resulting from the need to verify the number of workers exposed to EMF at frequency bands corresponding with protection zones, and the need to set an appropriate range of prophylactic examinations, taking account of the current body of knowledge of biological effects of EMF and their hazards to workers' health. The suggestions how to change the range and frequency of medical prophylactic examinations are presented. The differences in occupational health care between Poland and the European Union members states, as well as changes in legal regulations on occupational diseases are discussed.

  3. External Quality Assessment for Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Drug Resistance in the European Union: A Five Year Multicentre Implementation Study

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Elvira; Ahmed, Nada; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Kodmon, Csaba; Drobniewski, Francis; Ruesch-Gerdes, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Background External quality assurance (EQA) systems are essential to ensure accurate diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB. The implementation of EQA through organising regular EQA rounds and identification of training needs is one of the key activities of the European TB reference laboratory network (ERLTB-Net). The aim of this study was to analyse the results of the EQA rounds in a systematic manner and to identify potential benefits as well as common problems encountered by the participants. Methods The ERLTB-Net developed seven EQA modules to test laboratories’ proficiency for TB detection and drug susceptibility testing using both conventional and rapid molecular tools. All National TB Reference laboratories in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States were invited to participate in the EQA scheme. Results A total of 32 National TB Reference laboratories participated in six EQA rounds conducted in 2010–2014. The participation rate ranged from 52.9% - 94.1% over different modules and rounds. Overall, laboratories demonstrated very good proficiency proving their ability to diagnose TB and drug-resistant TB with high accuracy in a timely manner. A small number of laboratories encountered problems with identification of specific Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTMs) (N = 5) and drug susceptibility testing to Pyrazinamide, Amikacin, Capreomycin, and Ethambutol (N = 4). Conclusions The European TB Reference laboratories showed a steady and high level of performance in the six EQA rounds. A network such as ERLTB-Net can be instrumental in developing and implementing EQA and in establishing collaboration between laboratories to improve the diagnosis of TB in the EU/EEA. PMID:27055064

  4. Race, Ethnicity and Difference versus Imagined Homogeneity within the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaine, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article argues three things. First, it argues that the perception of diversity being problematic in Europe has been generated largely by non-European immigration into urban areas. This has been Britain's experience for 50 years and Spain's for barely 15, but whether the immigrants are ex-colonial, Turkish or Balkan migrant labour, or Africans…

  5. Health effects of supplemental work from home in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2014-12-01

    Internationalization and technological developments have changed the work organization in developed and developing industrial economies. Information and communication technologies, such as computers and smartphones, are increasingly used, allowing more temporal and spatial flexibility of work. This may lead to an increase in supplemental work, i.e. constant availability or working in addition to contractually agreed work hours. This in turn extends work hours and leads to work hours in evenings and weekends, causing interferences of work hours with biological and social rhythms for sleep, recovery and social interaction. However, empirical findings on the effects of supplemental work and work hours on occupational health are rather scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between (1) work-related contacts outside of regular work hours and (2) working in the free time with self-reported work-related health impairments in the fourth and fifth European Working Conditions Surveys (EWCS 2005, EWCS 2010). Out of these cross-sectional, large-scale surveys, data on n = 22 836 and n = 34 399 employed workers were used for weighted logistic regression analyses. About half of the sample reported at least occasional supplemental work. The results showed an increased risk of reporting at least one health problem for employees who had been contacted by their employer (EWCS 2005), or worked in their free time to meet work demands (EWCS 2010) in the last 12 months, compared to those reporting no supplemental work or work-related contacts during free time. These results were controlled for demographic variables, physical and mental work load, worker autonomy, and several work hours characteristics (e.g. hours per week, unusual and variable hours). The risk of reporting health problems was increased by being contacted both sometimes (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.26, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.14-1.39) and often (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1

  6. The added value of a European Union tuberculosis reference laboratory network--analysis of the national reference laboratory activities.

    PubMed

    Drobniewski, F A; Nikolayevskyy, V; Hoffner, S; Pogoryelova, O; Manissero, D; Ozin, A J

    2008-03-18

    National reference laboratories (NRL) and other laboratories are the cornerstones of well-functioning tuberculosis programmes and surveillance activities. However, the scope and activity of NRL services for mycobacterial identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) has not been examined in detail across the European Union (EU), nor has the added value of cooperation and networking at the European level been explored with regard to strengthening laboratory services. Therefore, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has commissioned a survey to explore these issues and to identify areas of work that could bring added value by supporting networking activities of tuberculosis (TB) reference laboratories in the EU. Structured questionnaires were sent to TB reference laboratory experts in the EU and European Economic Area (EEA) countries, and in three additional countries selected on the basis of their networking activities with EU projects and other initiatives (Switzerland, Croatia and Israel). The compiled results describe the activities and structure of 32 NRLs (29 countries replied, a response rate of 91%). The analysis of the survey led to the following recommendations for strengthening TB laboratory services: (1) implementing of the published European standards for TB laboratory services with respect to infrastructure, national reference functions, biosafety, human resources, quality assurance, operational research (including evaluation of new medical diagnostics), accuracy and speed, appropriately trained staff; (2) ensuring that laboratories only perform activities for which they have demonstrated proficiency; (3) implement validated and standardised second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST), including drugs used to define extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB); (4) aiming to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance in over 90% of cultures and cases from smear-positive sputum

  7. Surveillance of Food- and Smear-Transmitted Pathogens in European Soldiers with Diarrhea on Deployment in the Tropics: Experience from the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) Mali

    PubMed Central

    Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Frey, Claudia; Schmidt, Salvatore; Janke, Christian; Erkens, Kay; Schotte, Ulrich; Köller, Thomas; Maaßen, Winfried; Podbielski, Andreas; Binder, Alfred; Hinz, Rebecca; Queyriaux, Benjamin; Wiemer, Dorothea; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Since 2013, European soldiers have been deployed on the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) in Mali. From the beginning, diarrhea has been among the most “urgent” concerns. Diarrhea surveillance based on deployable real-time PCR equipment was conducted between December 2013 and August 2014. Material and Methods. In total, 53 stool samples were obtained from 51 soldiers with acute diarrhea. Multiplex PCR panels comprised enteroinvasive bacteria, diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC, and EIEC), enteropathogenic viruses, and protozoa. Noroviruses were characterized by sequencing. Cultural screening for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) with subsequent repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) typing was performed. Clinical information was assessed. Results. Positive PCR results for diarrhea-associated pathogens were detected in 43/53 samples, comprising EPEC (n = 21), ETEC (n = 19), EAEC (n = 15), Norovirus (n = 10), Shigella spp./EIEC (n = 6), Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 3), Giardia duodenalis (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 1), Astrovirus (n = 1), Rotavirus (n = 1), and Sapovirus (n = 1). ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae were grown from 13 out of 48 samples. Simultaneous infections with several enteropathogenic agents were observed in 23 instances. Symptoms were mild to moderate. There were hints of autochthonous transmission. Conclusions. Multiplex real-time PCR proved to be suitable for diarrhea surveillance on deployment. Etiological attribution is challenging in cases of detection of multiple pathogens. PMID:26525953

  8. Surveillance of Food- and Smear-Transmitted Pathogens in European Soldiers with Diarrhea on Deployment in the Tropics: Experience from the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) Mali.

    PubMed

    Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Frey, Claudia; Schmidt, Salvatore; Janke, Christian; Erkens, Kay; Schotte, Ulrich; Köller, Thomas; Maaßen, Winfried; Podbielski, Andreas; Binder, Alfred; Hinz, Rebecca; Queyriaux, Benjamin; Wiemer, Dorothea; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Since 2013, European soldiers have been deployed on the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) in Mali. From the beginning, diarrhea has been among the most "urgent" concerns. Diarrhea surveillance based on deployable real-time PCR equipment was conducted between December 2013 and August 2014. Material and Methods. In total, 53 stool samples were obtained from 51 soldiers with acute diarrhea. Multiplex PCR panels comprised enteroinvasive bacteria, diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC, and EIEC), enteropathogenic viruses, and protozoa. Noroviruses were characterized by sequencing. Cultural screening for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) with subsequent repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) typing was performed. Clinical information was assessed. Results. Positive PCR results for diarrhea-associated pathogens were detected in 43/53 samples, comprising EPEC (n = 21), ETEC (n = 19), EAEC (n = 15), Norovirus (n = 10), Shigella spp./EIEC (n = 6), Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 3), Giardia duodenalis (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 1), Astrovirus (n = 1), Rotavirus (n = 1), and Sapovirus (n = 1). ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae were grown from 13 out of 48 samples. Simultaneous infections with several enteropathogenic agents were observed in 23 instances. Symptoms were mild to moderate. There were hints of autochthonous transmission. Conclusions. Multiplex real-time PCR proved to be suitable for diarrhea surveillance on deployment. Etiological attribution is challenging in cases of detection of multiple pathogens. PMID:26525953

  9. Measures Taken in the Member States of the European Union To Assist Young People Who Have Left the Education System without Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    European Union Member States gather information on students who drop out without qualification so that they may know how to help this population. This report presents the broad range of measures, arrangements, and systems that exist for supervising, monitoring, training, and providing for dropouts. The text defines the categories used for the…

  10. The Future of Schools from a European Union Perspective: Selecting, Analyzing and Disseminating the Most Innovative Approaches towards the School of Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Henrik; Hall, Scott

    2005-01-01

    What can we learn from European Union (EU) school projects about future learning approaches? The EU has invested massively in information and communication technologies (ICT) projects promoting innovative use of new technologies in school settings. The aim of the project "School Foresight", with partners in Bulgaria, Estonia, Greece, Romania, the…

  11. A Comparative Analysis of E-Learning Policy Formulation in the European Union and the United States: Discursive Convergence and Divergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erichsen, Elizabeth Roumell; Salajan, Florin D.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a framework that compares the content and purposes of "federal" level European Union (EU) and United States (US) e-learning policy to ascertain trends, patterns, and points of convergence and divergence across the years 1994-2010. It reveals that the EU and US are applying similar rhetoric for policy framing,…

  12. The Curricular Reform Initiatives of Turkey in the Fields of Life Science and Social Studies in the Process of Accession to the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and assess how the relationships with and candidateship conditions of the European Union have reflected to the Turkish primary educational curricula for the Life Science and Social Studies which were changed in the years of 1968, 1998 and 2004. The study was performed on a qualitative basis by analyzing…

  13. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  14. Organizational Justice as a Framework for Understanding Union-Management Relations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wendy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I have conceptualized union-management relations using an organizational justice framework. I consider organizational justice theory, including distributive, procedural, interactional, and what I call relational justice perspectives. Utilizing examples from my experience and research, I illustrate and discuss various forms of…

  15. Regulatory structures for gene therapy medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Klug, Bettina; Celis, Patrick; Carr, Melanie; Reinhardt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account the complexity and technical specificity of advanced therapy medicinal products: (gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineered products), a dedicated European regulatory framework was needed. Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, the "ATMP Regulation" provides tailored regulatory principles for the evaluation and authorization of these innovative medicines. The majority of gene or cell therapy product development is carried out by academia, hospitals, and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, acknowledging the particular needs of these types of sponsors, the legislation also provides incentives for product development tailored to them. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and, in particular, its Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) provide a variety of opportunities for early interaction with developers of ATMPs to enable them to have early regulatory and scientific input. An important tool to promote innovation and the development of new medicinal products by micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises is the EMA's SME initiative launched in December 2005 to offer financial and administrative assistance to smaller companies. The European legislation also foresees the involvement of stakeholders, such as patient organizations, in the development of new medicines. Considering that gene therapy medicinal products are developed in many cases for treatment of rare diseases often of monogenic origin, the involvement of patient organizations, which focus on rare diseases and genetic and congenital disorders, is fruitful. Two such organizations are represented in the CAT. Research networks play another important role in the development of gene therapy medicinal products. The European Commission is funding such networks through the EU Sixth Framework Program. PMID:22365782

  16. Regulatory structures for gene therapy medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Klug, Bettina; Celis, Patrick; Carr, Melanie; Reinhardt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account the complexity and technical specificity of advanced therapy medicinal products: (gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineered products), a dedicated European regulatory framework was needed. Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, the "ATMP Regulation" provides tailored regulatory principles for the evaluation and authorization of these innovative medicines. The majority of gene or cell therapy product development is carried out by academia, hospitals, and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, acknowledging the particular needs of these types of sponsors, the legislation also provides incentives for product development tailored to them. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and, in particular, its Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) provide a variety of opportunities for early interaction with developers of ATMPs to enable them to have early regulatory and scientific input. An important tool to promote innovation and the development of new medicinal products by micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises is the EMA's SME initiative launched in December 2005 to offer financial and administrative assistance to smaller companies. The European legislation also foresees the involvement of stakeholders, such as patient organizations, in the development of new medicines. Considering that gene therapy medicinal products are developed in many cases for treatment of rare diseases often of monogenic origin, the involvement of patient organizations, which focus on rare diseases and genetic and congenital disorders, is fruitful. Two such organizations are represented in the CAT. Research networks play another important role in the development of gene therapy medicinal products. The European Commission is funding such networks through the EU Sixth Framework Program.

  17. The challenges of organising cervical screening programmes in the 15 old member states of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Rebolj, Matejka; De Kok, Inge M C M; Fender, Murielle; Becker, Nikolaus; O'Reilly, Marian; Andrae, Bengt

    2009-10-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be reduced substantially by organised cytological screening at 3 to 5 year intervals, as was demonstrated in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and parts of Italy. Opportunistic screening, often proposed at yearly schedules, has also reduced the burden of cervical cancer in some, but not all, of the other old member states (belonging to the European Union since 1995) but at a cost that is several times greater. Well organised screening programmes have the potential to achieve greater participation of the target population at regular intervals, equity of access and high quality. Despite the consistent evidence that organised screening is more efficient than non-organised screening, and in spite of the Cancer Screening Recommendations of the European Council, health authorities of eight old member states (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain) have not yet started national organised implementation of screening for cervical cancer. A decision was made by the Irish government to extend their pilot programme nationally while new regional programmes commenced in Portugal and Spain. Introduction of new methods of prevention, such as HPV screening and prophylactic HPV vaccination, can reduce the burden further, but this will require a high level of organisation with particular attention needed for the maximisation of population coverage, compliance with evidence-based guidelines, monitoring of data enabling continued evaluation and improvement of the preventive programmes.

  18. The Monitoring of Triphenylmethane Dyes in Aquaculture Products Through the European Union Network of Official Control Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Eric; Bessiral, Melaine; Chotard, Marie-Pierre; Couëdor, Pierrick; Fourmond, Marie-Pierre; Fuselier, Régine; Gaugain, Murielle; Gautier, Sophie; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Laurentie, Michel; Pirotais, Yvette; Roudaut, Brigitte; Sanders, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal production industry for the past four decades, and almost half of the fish eaten in the world are now farmed fish. To prevent diseases in this more intensive aquaculture farming, use of therapeutic chemicals has become a basic choice. The monitoring of malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye and one of the oldest and widely used chemicals in fish production, has gained more interest since the mid 1990s when this substance was finally proven to be toxic enough to be prohibited in seafood products destined for human consumption. The enforcement of the European Union (EU) regulation of this banned substance along with some other triphenylmethane dye congeners and their metabolites in its domestic production and in seafood imports was undertaken through the National Residue Monitoring Plans implemented in nearly all of the 28 EU member states. The reliability of the overall European monitoring of this dye contamination in aquaculture products was assessed by using the results of proficiency testing (PT) studies provided by the EU Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) in charge of the network of the EU National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). The proficiency of each NRL providing analytical support services for regulating dye residues was carefully checked during three PT rounds. In the process, the analytical methods developed and validated for this purpose have gradually been improved and extended over the last two decades. PMID:26025009

  19. The Monitoring of Triphenylmethane Dyes in Aquaculture Products Through the European Union Network of Official Control Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Eric; Bessiral, Melaine; Chotard, Marie-Pierre; Couëdor, Pierrick; Fourmond, Marie-Pierre; Fuselier, Régine; Gaugain, Murielle; Gautier, Sophie; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Laurentie, Michel; Pirotais, Yvette; Roudaut, Brigitte; Sanders, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal production industry for the past four decades, and almost half of the fish eaten in the world are now farmed fish. To prevent diseases in this more intensive aquaculture farming, use of therapeutic chemicals has become a basic choice. The monitoring of malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye and one of the oldest and widely used chemicals in fish production, has gained more interest since the mid 1990s when this substance was finally proven to be toxic enough to be prohibited in seafood products destined for human consumption. The enforcement of the European Union (EU) regulation of this banned substance along with some other triphenylmethane dye congeners and their metabolites in its domestic production and in seafood imports was undertaken through the National Residue Monitoring Plans implemented in nearly all of the 28 EU member states. The reliability of the overall European monitoring of this dye contamination in aquaculture products was assessed by using the results of proficiency testing (PT) studies provided by the EU Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) in charge of the network of the EU National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). The proficiency of each NRL providing analytical support services for regulating dye residues was carefully checked during three PT rounds. In the process, the analytical methods developed and validated for this purpose have gradually been improved and extended over the last two decades.

  20. Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

    This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became

  1. Design and preparation of market baskets of European Union commercial baby foods for the assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals and to their effects.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, R; Pandelova, M; Le Donne, C; Ferrari, M; Schramm, K-W; Leclercq, C

    2010-10-01

    The assessment of acute and chronic dietary exposure to contaminants in baby foods is needed to ensure healthy infant growth. Monthly European Union market baskets of commercial baby foods were designed for the first 9 months of life by the 'babyfood' study group of the CASCADE Network of Excellence for the specific purpose of assessing exposure to potentially toxic substances in infants fed with such foods. The present paper reports the different steps that led to the preparation of monthly pooled samples of commercial baby foods ('Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' and 'Other baby foods') that may constitute the extreme case of the diet for an infant who would not be breast fed at all. Several market baskets were generated for an 'average European Union infant' and for infants of four selected countries (Italy, Sweden, Spain, and the Slovakia), fed with either milk infant formulae, soy infant formulae or hypoallergenic infant formulae and weaned (at the fifth month) with commercial baby foods and beverages available on the European Union market. Market share data for 2007 for baby foods were used to design the baskets. Holding companies and the name of all their products were identified. Monthly diets for European Union infants were elaborated in terms of food categories (e.g. infant cereals) of typologies of products (e.g. infant cereals without gluten) and of a specific product. The number of baskets generated was 30 for 'Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' (including 62 products) and 13 for 'Other baby foods' (including 35 products). These market baskets were designed to be used for the determination of certain contaminants and nutrients in the diet of European Union infants and for the assessment of their effects on infant health.

  2. Principles for the risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms and their food products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Jaime; Gomes, Ana R; Olaru, Irina

    2013-10-01

    Genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) are involved in the production of a variety of food and feed. The release and consumption of these products can raise questions about health and environmental safety. Therefore, the European Union has different legislative instruments in place in order to ensure the safety of such products. A key requirement is to conduct a scientific risk assessment as a prerequisite for the product to be placed on the market. This risk assessment is performed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), through its Scientific Panels. The EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms has published complete and comprehensive guidance for the risk assessment of GMMs and their products for food and/or feed use, in which the strategy and the criteria to conduct the assessment are explained, as well as the scientific data to be provided in applications for regulated products. This Guidance follows the main risk assessment principles developed by various international organisations (Codex Alimentarius, 2003; OECD, 2010). The assessment considers two aspects: the characterisation of the GMM and the possible effects of its modification with respect to safety, and the safety of the product itself. Due to the existing diversity of GMMs and their products, a categorisation is recommended to optimise the assessment and to determine the extent of the required data. The assessment starts with a comprehensive characterisation of the GMM, covering the recipient/parental organism, the donor(s) of the genetic material, the genetic modification, and the final GMM and its phenotype. Evaluation of the composition, potential toxicity and/or allergenicity, nutritional value and environmental impact of the product constitute further cornerstones of the process. The outcome of the assessment is reflected in a scientific opinion which indicates whether the product raises any safety issues. This opinion is taken into account by the different European regulatory

  3. Implications of the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union for Croatian health care system.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The Republic of Croatia's accession to the European Union (EU) will affect all segments of economy and society, including the health care system. The aim of this paper is to establish the potential effects of joining the EU on Croatian health care, as well as to assess its readiness to enter this regional economic integration. The paper identifies potential areas of impact of EU accession on Croatian health care and analyzes the results of the conducted empirical research. In this research, a method of in-depth interviews was applied on a sample of 49 subjects; health professionals from public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). Once Croatia joins the EU, it will face: new rules and priorities in line with the current European health strategy; the possibilities of drawing funds from European cohesion funds; labour migrations; new guidelines on patient safety and mobility. From the aspect of harmonising national regulations with EU regulations in the area of health care, Croatian system can be assessed as ready to enter the EU. Croatia's accession to the EU can result in a better information flow, growth of competitiveness of Croatian health care system, enhanced quality, inflow of EU funds, development of health tourism, but also in increased migration of health care professionals, and potential increase in the cost of health care services. Functioning within the EU framework might result in adaptation to the EU standards, but it could also result in the concentration of staff and institutions in larger cities.

  4. Principles for the risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms and their food products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Jaime; Gomes, Ana R; Olaru, Irina

    2013-10-01

    Genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) are involved in the production of a variety of food and feed. The release and consumption of these products can raise questions about health and environmental safety. Therefore, the European Union has different legislative instruments in place in order to ensure the safety of such products. A key requirement is to conduct a scientific risk assessment as a prerequisite for the product to be placed on the market. This risk assessment is performed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), through its Scientific Panels. The EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms has published complete and comprehensive guidance for the risk assessment of GMMs and their products for food and/or feed use, in which the strategy and the criteria to conduct the assessment are explained, as well as the scientific data to be provided in applications for regulated products. This Guidance follows the main risk assessment principles developed by various international organisations (Codex Alimentarius, 2003; OECD, 2010). The assessment considers two aspects: the characterisation of the GMM and the possible effects of its modification with respect to safety, and the safety of the product itself. Due to the existing diversity of GMMs and their products, a categorisation is recommended to optimise the assessment and to determine the extent of the required data. The assessment starts with a comprehensive characterisation of the GMM, covering the recipient/parental organism, the donor(s) of the genetic material, the genetic modification, and the final GMM and its phenotype. Evaluation of the composition, potential toxicity and/or allergenicity, nutritional value and environmental impact of the product constitute further cornerstones of the process. The outcome of the assessment is reflected in a scientific opinion which indicates whether the product raises any safety issues. This opinion is taken into account by the different European regulatory

  5. Scientific Issues Relevant to Setting Regulatory Criteria to Identify Endocrine-Disrupting Substances in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Rémy; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Demeneix, Barbara; Ivell, Richard; Panzica, Giancarlo; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    , Kortenkamp A, Zoeller RT. 2016. Scientific issues relevant to setting regulatory criteria to identify endocrine disrupting substances in the European Union. Environ Health Perspect 124:1497–1503; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP217 PMID:27108591

  6. Composition, labelling, and safety of food supplements based on bee products in the legislative framework of the European Union - Croatian experiences.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Mario; Pollak, Lea

    2015-12-01

    The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family. PMID:26751855

  7. Composition, labelling, and safety of food supplements based on bee products in the legislative framework of the European Union - Croatian experiences.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Mario; Pollak, Lea

    2015-12-01

    The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family.

  8. Time-varying long term memory in the European Union stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensoy, Ahmet; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a new efficiency index to model time-varying inefficiency in stock markets. We focus on European stock markets and show that they have different degrees of time-varying efficiency. We observe that the 2008 global financial crisis has an adverse effect on almost all EU stock markets. However, the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis has a significant adverse effect only on the markets in France, Spain and Greece. For the late members, joining EU does not have a uniform effect on stock market efficiency. Our results have important implications for policy makers, investors, risk managers and academics.

  9. The role of networks in the European union public health experience.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Peter D

    2012-12-01

    Improving our understanding of how the public health system should be organized is important, because the system's organizational structure makes a significant difference to the public's health. How the system is structured influences a practitioner's ability to respond and the system's capacity to adapt to changing circumstances. In view of the scarce resources society is willing to expend for public health, it is essential to have a structure in place that most appropriately and efficiently allocates those resources. The articles in this issue offer considerable insight from a European context, that deserves attention from US public health practitioners, advocates, and policy makers.

  10. Prevention and control of childhood asthma and allergy in the EU from the public health point of view: Polish Presidency of the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Samoliński, B; Fronczak, A; Kuna, P; Akdis, C A; Anto, J M; Bialoszewski, A Z; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Czupryniak, A; Dahl, R; Flood, B; Galea, G; Jutel, M; Kowalski, M L; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N; Raciborski, F; Sienkiewicz, D; Tomaszewska, A; Mutius, E; Willman, D; Włodarczyk, A; Yusuf, O; Zuberbier, T; Bousquet, J; Niggemann, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The leading priority for the Polish Presidency of the Council of the European Union was to reduce health inequalities across European societies, and, within its framework, prevention and control of respiratory diseases in children. This very important paper contain proposal of international cooperation on the prevention, early detection and monitoring of asthma and allergic diseases in childhood which will be undertaken by the EU member countries as a result of EU conclusion developed during the Polish Presidency of the Council of the European Union. This will result in collaboration in the field of chronic diseases, particularly respiratory diseases, together with the activity of the network of national institutions and NGOs in this area. Paper also contains extensive analysis of the socio-economic, political, epidemiological, technological and medical factors affecting the prevention and control of childhood asthma and allergy presented during Experts presidential conference organized in Warsaw-Ossa 21–22 September 2011. PMID:22540290

  11. Prevention and control of childhood asthma and allergy in the EU from the public health point of view: Polish Presidency of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Samoliński, B; Fronczak, A; Kuna, P; Akdis, C A; Anto, J M; Bialoszewski, A Z; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Czupryniak, A; Dahl, R; Flood, B; Galea, G; Jutel, M; Kowalski, M L; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N; Raciborski, F; Sienkiewicz, D; Tomaszewska, A; Von Mutius, E; Willman, D; Włodarczyk, A; Yusuf, O; Zuberbier, T; Bousquet, J

    2012-06-01

    The leading priority for the Polish Presidency of the Council of the European Union was to reduce health inequalities across European societies, and, within its framework, prevention and control of respiratory diseases in children. This very important paper contain proposal of international cooperation on the prevention, early detection and monitoring of asthma and allergic diseases in childhood which will be undertaken by the EU member countries as a result of EU conclusion developed during the Polish Presidency of the Council of the European Union. This will result in collaboration in the field of chronic diseases, particularly respiratory diseases, together with the activity of the network of national institutions and NGOs in this area. Paper also contains extensive analysis of the socio-economic, political, epidemiological, technological and medical factors affecting the prevention and control of childhood asthma and allergy presented during Experts presidential conference organized in Warsaw-Ossa 21-22 September 2011.

  12. Which lessons can we learn from the European Union legal framework of medicines for the regulation of direct-to-consumer genetic tests?

    PubMed

    van Hellemondt, Rachèl; Hendriks, Aart; Breuning, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    The legal framework of the European Union (EU) for regulating access to and supply of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests is very liberal compared to the legal and regulatory framework for (internet) medicines. Nevertheless, both health related products can cause equally serious damage to the well being of individuals. In this contribution we examine whether the legal framework of the EU for the safety and responsible use of (internet) medicines could be an example for regulating access to and supply of DTC genetic tests. The EU laws governing medicines can, notwithstanding their shortcomings, serve as an example for (central) authorising the marketing of DTC genetic tests on the internal market in accordance with strict criteria regarding predictive value and clinical usefulness. Furthermore, a legal framework controlling DTC genetic tests also should introduce system supervision as well as quality criteria with respect to the information to be provided to consumers in order to enhance health protection. However, DTC genetic tests purchased through online ordering are difficult to supervise by any agency. Adequately protecting individuals against questionable testing kits calls for international vigilance and comprehensive measures by the international community. For Europe, it is important to rank the regulation of DTC genetic tests on the European regulatory agenda.

  13. Food contamination by metals and pesticides in the European Union. Should we worry?

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, L; Parent-Massin, D

    2002-02-28

    The estimation of the risk associated with dietary intakes of heavy metals and pesticide residues by the consumer is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The exposure of the consumer is compared directly to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for pesticides and to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for heavy metals. The exposure is obtained using the basic equation: Exposure (mg/kg b.w./day)=Consumption (mg/kg b.w./day) x Residue (mg/kg). The establishment of the ADI and the TDI is based on the results of toxicological studies that involve the determination of the lowest-no-observed-adverse-effect level/10 (SF1) x10 (SF2), where SF corresponds to 'Safety Factor'. SF1 and SF2 account for interspecies and intraspecies variability, respectively. In order to evaluate the risk for the consumer, that is associated to the presence of heavy metals and pesticides in food, a review of the level of contamination in European countries has been made. The exposure of European consumers to lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury is superior to the TDI. For pesticides, the first step is to compare the detected amount of residues of a specific pesticide to the maximum residue level (MRL) authorized in foodstuffs. If the residue level in food exceeds the MRL, the theoretical maximum daily intakes and the ADI have to be taken into account in order to assess the risk for the consumer.

  14. Tuberculosis research in the European union: past achievements and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Lång, Hannu; Quaglio, GianLuca; Olesen, Ole F

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) supports a large number of research activities in tuberculosis through the EU Framework Programmes for Research and Development (FP). By utilizing a variety of funding instruments, the EC has established a mixed portfolio of research projects, ranging from small discovery projects to large multidisciplinary consortia with sufficient critical mass to undertake translational and clinical research. The European investments in TB research have generated promising results with new vaccine candidates, drug leads, diagnostic markers and basic research results starting to emerge. In the light of a rapidly changing global research environment it has therefore become timely to review and update the priorities for TB research. To facilitate this process, a high-level conference on "Challenges for the future: research on HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis" was convened in Brussels on November 2008. This review gives an overview of the present portfolio of EC funded TB research, and summarises the conclusions from the conference on future perspectives for TB research in Europe and beyond.

  15. The Union Blockade and Demoralization of the South: Relative Prices in the Confederacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekelund, Robert B., Jr.; Thornton, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Applies the economic concept of relative prices to the blockaded Confederacy during the U.S. Civil War. Describes how the Union blockade encouraged blockade runners to supply luxury items while soldiers lacked food, clothing, and ammunition. Contends that the resultant demoralization was a factor in the demise of the Confederacy. (CFR)

  16. Energy intake and expenditure assessed 'in-season' in an elite European rugby union squad.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Warren J; Cavanagh, Bryce; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union (RU) is a complex high-intensity intermittent collision sport with emphasis placed on players possessing high lean body mass and low body fat. After an 8 to 12-week pre-season focused on physiological adaptations, emphasis shifts towards competitive performance. However, there are no objective data on the physiological demands or energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) for elite players during this period. Accordingly, in-season training load using global positioning system and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), alongside six-day assessments of EE and EI were measured in 44 elite RU players. Mean weekly distance covered was 7827 ± 954 m and 9572 ± 1233 m with a total mean weekly sRPE of 1776 ± 355 and 1523 ± 434 AU for forwards and backs, respectively. Mean weekly EI was 16.6 ± 1.5 and 14.2 ± 1.2 megajoules (MJ) and EE was 15.9 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.5 MJ. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.5 ± 0.8 and 3.4 ± 0.7 g.kg(-1) body mass, protein intake was 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.5 g.kg(-1) body mass, and fat intake was 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.3 g.kg(-1) body mass. All players who completed the food diary self-selected a 'low' CHO 'high' protein diet during the early part of the week, with CHO intake increasing in the days leading up to a match, resulting in the mean EI matching EE. Based on EE and training load data, the EI and composition seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if this diet is optimal for match day performance.

  17. Avoiding another directive: the unstable politics of European Union cross-border health care law.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L

    2013-10-01

    The European Union’s (EU) 2011 Directive on cross-border patient mobility codifies the right of any EU citizen to travel abroad for treatment and be reimbursed on the same terms as they would be at home. Governments hoped it would end the string of court cases that had reshaped EU health law but this article argues that it is likely to produce yet more judicial challenges. Patient mobility is an attractive idea with unclear definitions and divergent implementation. In many cases, providers, insurers and governments will not communicate and leave the patient with a bill – almost daring the patient to sue, and the courts to make more policy. Governments should try to prevent this by investing in coordination and alternative redress for patients who might otherwise sue. PMID:23425573

  18. [Pediatric drug development: ICH harmonized tripartite guideline E11 within the United States of America, the European Union, and Japan].

    PubMed

    Pflieger, M; Bertram, D

    2014-10-01

    To address the lack of appropriate pediatric drugs available on the global market, in 2000 the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) issued the ICH E11 guideline regarding the Clinical Investigation of Medicinal Products in the Pediatric Population. This guideline considerably changes the environment of drug development for children. It has been written specifically to harmonize, promote, and facilitate high-quality and ethical clinical research for children within the ICH regions, i.e., the United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), and Japan. This article details the various regulations applicable in each ICH region following the publication of the guideline. The framework of rewards, incentives, and obligations for pharmaceutical companies established for the development of pediatric drugs are compared. It appears that the USA and the EU have both developed specific regulations for pediatric drug development while Japan has not. However, in Japan, pharmaceutical companies (PCs) are encouraged to develop pediatric drugs voluntarily, and they may be granted additional months of market exclusivity or the postponement of the drug re-examination deadline. In both the USA and the EU, regulations aimed to increase the number of clinical studies conducted in children, in order to ensure that the necessary data are generated, determining the conditions in which a drug may be authorized to treat the pediatric population. PCs are encouraged to develop pediatric assessment, including pediatric clinical trials, which is described in a pediatric plan submitted to the relevant authorities. A system of rewards for PCs submitting an application for marketing authorization containing pediatric use information has been put in place to cover the additional investment for testing drugs in children. Subject to conditions, these rewards consist in a 6-month extension of the patent or

  19. [Pediatric drug development: ICH harmonized tripartite guideline E11 within the United States of America, the European Union, and Japan].

    PubMed

    Pflieger, M; Bertram, D

    2014-10-01

    To address the lack of appropriate pediatric drugs available on the global market, in 2000 the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) issued the ICH E11 guideline regarding the Clinical Investigation of Medicinal Products in the Pediatric Population. This guideline considerably changes the environment of drug development for children. It has been written specifically to harmonize, promote, and facilitate high-quality and ethical clinical research for children within the ICH regions, i.e., the United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), and Japan. This article details the various regulations applicable in each ICH region following the publication of the guideline. The framework of rewards, incentives, and obligations for pharmaceutical companies established for the development of pediatric drugs are compared. It appears that the USA and the EU have both developed specific regulations for pediatric drug development while Japan has not. However, in Japan, pharmaceutical companies (PCs) are encouraged to develop pediatric drugs voluntarily, and they may be granted additional months of market exclusivity or the postponement of the drug re-examination deadline. In both the USA and the EU, regulations aimed to increase the number of clinical studies conducted in children, in order to ensure that the necessary data are generated, determining the conditions in which a drug may be authorized to treat the pediatric population. PCs are encouraged to develop pediatric assessment, including pediatric clinical trials, which is described in a pediatric plan submitted to the relevant authorities. A system of rewards for PCs submitting an application for marketing authorization containing pediatric use information has been put in place to cover the additional investment for testing drugs in children. Subject to conditions, these rewards consist in a 6-month extension of the patent or

  20. Considerations for an institution for evaluation of diabetes technology devices to improve their quality in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido; Koschinsky, Theodor

    2013-03-01

    All medical devices used for self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG), insulin injection, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and continuous glucose monitoring in the European Union (EU) must have a Communauté Européenne (CE) mark. However, the approval process for obtaining this mark is different from that used by the European Medicines Agency in the EU for drugs or by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for such medical and in vitro diagnostic devices. The notified bodies involved in the CE mark process perform this evaluation in cooperation with the manufacturers. They have only limited diabetes know-how; they have to handle all kinds of medical devices. There are devices for therapy on the market in the EU (i.e., they have market approval) that do not fulfill quality requirements, as indicated, for example, in the international norm ISO 15197 for BG test systems. Evaluation of the performance of such systems is usually provided by the manufacturers. What is missing in the EU is an independent institution that performs regular and critical evaluation of the quality of devices used for diabetes therapy before and also after their market approval. The work of such an institution would focus on BG test systems (these represent two-thirds of the market of medical devices for diabetes treatment) but would also evaluate the performance of other devices. It has to be clarified what legal framework is required for such an institution and how it can be financed; probably this can be done in a shared manner by the manufacturers of such devices and the health insurance companies. Positive evaluation results should be a prerequisite prior to any reimbursement for such devices.

  1. Considerations for an institution for evaluation of diabetes technology devices to improve their quality in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido; Koschinsky, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    All medical devices used for self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG), insulin injection, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and continuous glucose monitoring in the European Union (EU) must have a Communauté Européenne (CE) mark. However, the approval process for obtaining this mark is different from that used by the European Medicines Agency in the EU for drugs or by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for such medical and in vitro diagnostic devices. The notified bodies involved in the CE mark process perform this evaluation in cooperation with the manufacturers. They have only limited diabetes know-how; they have to handle all kinds of medical devices. There are devices for therapy on the market in the EU (i.e., they have market approval) that do not fulfill quality requirements, as indicated, for example, in the international norm ISO 15197 for BG test systems. Evaluation of the performance of such systems is usually provided by the manufacturers. What is missing in the EU is an independent institution that performs regular and critical evaluation of the quality of devices used for diabetes therapy before and also after their market approval. The work of such an institution would focus on BG test systems (these represent two-thirds of the market of medical devices for diabetes treatment) but would also evaluate the performance of other devices. It has to be clarified what legal framework is required for such an institution and how it can be financed; probably this can be done in a shared manner by the manufacturers of such devices and the health insurance companies. Positive evaluation results should be a prerequisite prior to any reimbursement for such devices. PMID:23567012

  2. Biosimilars: A consideration of the regulations in the United States and European union.

    PubMed

    Daller, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Biosimilars are defined as biological products that are highly similar to a reference product, notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components. Biosimilars show no clinically meaningful differences in safety, purity, and potency of the product in comparison to the reference product. With the ever looming patent expiry of some major high cost biologics, biosimilar production is becoming ever more lucrative to companies. Europe (EU) set the precedent, followed by the United States (US) in early 2012, for the approval process for biosimilars. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the regulatory processes in the US and EU and to determine the requirements of each in the approval process of a biosimilar. The current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency's (EMA) guidance documents for biosimilars were reviewed revealing a need for further clarifications, as well as specifically addressing Celltrion's and Sandoz's application for approval for the biosimilars infliximab and filgrastim, respectively. Currently, the FDA and EMA focus on comparability in terms of the clinical, pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD), preclinical, biological activity, and physiochemical characterization results, as well as requiring a robust and consistent manufacturing process. Both the EU and US have prepared guidance documents for biosimilars that will result in biotherapeutics that are as safe and efficacious as the innovator product but the necessity exists to globally harmonize international nonproprietary naming nomenclature and clarify how the concept of pharmacovigilance, extrapolation, and interchangeability will be handled and regulated in the future. PMID:26732800

  3. Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union

    SciTech Connect

    Monte, M.C.

    2009-01-15

    Eleven million tonnes of waste are produced yearly by the European pulp and paper industry, of which 70% originates from the production of deinked recycled paper. Wastes are very diverse in composition and consist of rejects, different types of sludges and ashes in mills having on-site incineration treatment. The production of pulp and paper from virgin pulp generates less waste but the waste has similar properties to waste from the production of deinked pulp, although with less inorganics. Due to legislation and increased taxes, landfills are quickly being eliminated as a final destination for wastes in Europe, and incineration with energy recovery is becoming the main waste recovery method. Other options such as pyrolysis, gasification, land spreading, composting and reuse as building material are being applied, although research is still needed for optimization of the processes. Due to the large volumes of waste generated, the high moisture content of the waste and the changing waste composition as a result of process conditions, recovery methods are usually expensive and their environmental impact is still uncertain. For this reason, it is necessary to continue research on different applications of wastes, while taking into account the environmental and economic factors of these waste treatments.

  4. Biosimilars: A consideration of the regulations in the United States and European union.

    PubMed

    Daller, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Biosimilars are defined as biological products that are highly similar to a reference product, notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components. Biosimilars show no clinically meaningful differences in safety, purity, and potency of the product in comparison to the reference product. With the ever looming patent expiry of some major high cost biologics, biosimilar production is becoming ever more lucrative to companies. Europe (EU) set the precedent, followed by the United States (US) in early 2012, for the approval process for biosimilars. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the regulatory processes in the US and EU and to determine the requirements of each in the approval process of a biosimilar. The current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency's (EMA) guidance documents for biosimilars were reviewed revealing a need for further clarifications, as well as specifically addressing Celltrion's and Sandoz's application for approval for the biosimilars infliximab and filgrastim, respectively. Currently, the FDA and EMA focus on comparability in terms of the clinical, pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD), preclinical, biological activity, and physiochemical characterization results, as well as requiring a robust and consistent manufacturing process. Both the EU and US have prepared guidance documents for biosimilars that will result in biotherapeutics that are as safe and efficacious as the innovator product but the necessity exists to globally harmonize international nonproprietary naming nomenclature and clarify how the concept of pharmacovigilance, extrapolation, and interchangeability will be handled and regulated in the future.

  5. Sport promotion policies in the European Union: results of a contents analysis.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, N V; Kahlmeier, S; Racioppi, F

    2014-04-01

    Although sport promotion may play an important role in achieving the recommended levels of physical activity for health, until now, there has been no comprehensive assessment of how sport policies in Europe address health. This article aimed at filling this gap by reviewing and analyzing recent national policy developments in the area of sport promotion, with a focus on synergies and discrepancies with the promotion of health-enhancing physical activity. By applying various search methods, 130 documents focusing on sport and physical activity were identified in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. An analysis grid covering key indicators was developed for a systematic content analysis of 25 documents, selected according to established criteria. Analysis showed that general recommendations for good policy making were followed, such as establishing general goals, specifying time frame and responsible body for implementation and addressing different target groups. Furthermore, all sport strategies addressed health on an overall level and recognized the importance of Sport for All. However, in several strategies, there was a lack of measurable targets, specified budgets, and evaluation plans. The analysis showed that there is a great opportunity for health and sport sectors to work more closely together in the future, and identified areas where this could take place.

  6. Towards a harmonized approach for risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    The EU Scientific Committees have considered in the past the use of matematical models for human cancer risk estimation not adequately supported by the available scientific knowledge. Therefore, the advice given to risk managers was to reduce the exposure as far as possible, following the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle. However, ALARA does not allow to set priorities for risk management, as it does not take into consideration carcinogenic potency and level of human exposure. For this reason the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has identified as a priority task the development of a transparent, scientically justifiable and harmonized approach for risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens. This approach, proposed at the end of 2005, is based on the definition of the (MOE), i.e. the relationship between a given point of the dose reponse curve in the animal and human exposure. As point of comparison EFSA recommends the BMDL10, i.e. the lower limit of the confidence interval of the Benchmark Dose associated with an incidence of 10% of induced tumors. Based on current scientific knowkedge, EFSA concluded that a MOE of 10000 or greater is associated with a low risk and low priority for risk management actions. The approach proposed does not replace the ALARA. It should find application on food contaminants, process by-product, and other substances unintentionally present in food. On the other hand, it is not intended to provide a tool for the definition of tolerable intake levels for genotoxic carcinogens deliberately added to food.

  7. The Role of Published Information in Reviewing Conservation Objectives for Natura 2000 Protected Areas in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opermanis, Otars; MacSharry, Brian; Bailly-Maitre, Jerome; Evans, Douglas; Sipkova, Zelmira

    2014-03-01

    Protected areas are designated to protect species and other features known to be present at the time of designation, but over time the information about the presence of protected species may change and this should call for a continued review of conservation objectives. Published scientific literature is one of the possible information sources that would trigger a review of conservation objectives. We studied how published data on new discoveries of protected animal species were taken into account by the nature conservation authorities in updating species lists of Natura 2000 sites in the European Union, which are the basis for conservation planning at the site-level. Over the period studied (2000-2011) only 40 % of published new protected species records were recognized by the authorities. The two main reasons for this seem to be a reliance on other sources of information by authorities and the difficulty in finding relevant information in scientific papers. The latter is because published faunistic information is very fragmented among different journals, and often insufficient in details. We recommend better cooperation between authors, publishers, and nature conservation authorities in terms of information presentation, publishing policy, and a regular review of published information.

  8. Monitoring hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users in the European Union: a review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, K.; Hay, G.; Andragetti, R.; Taylor, A.; Goldberg, D.; Wiessing, L.

    2002-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among injecting drug users (IDUs) is one of the European Union's (EU) major public health problems. This review examines the current state of knowledge regarding HCV among IDUs in EU countries. Studies published between January 1990 and December 2000, were identified through a computerized search (MEDLINE and EMBASE). Ninety-eight studies have reported prevalence for HCV among groups of IDUs in all EU countries except Luxembourg. The prevalence of anti-HCV ranged from 30 to 98%. Incidence rates ranged from 6.2 to 39.3 per 100 person years. This review provides a comprehensive examination of HCV infection among IDUs in the countries of the EU, and quite clearly demonstrates that the quality and epidemiological relevance of the studies published varies widely. Thus, the reported data may not reflect accurately the current or recent past prevalence of HCV among IDUs in the EU. A strategic approach to the surveillance of HCV among IDUs in the EU, utilizing robust and consistent methods, is required urgently. PMID:12558341

  9. Health workforce development in the European Union: A matrix for comparing trajectories of change in the professions.

    PubMed

    Pavolini, Emmanuele; Kuhlmann, Ellen

    2016-06-01

    This article assesses professional development trajectories in top-, middle- and basic-level health workforce groups (doctors, nurses, care assistants) in different European Union countries using available international databases. Three theoretical strands (labour market, welfare state, and professions studies) were connected to explore ideal types and to develop a matrix for comparison. With a focus on larger EU-15 countries and four different types of healthcare systems, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the United Kingdom serve as empirical test cases. The analysis draws on selected indicators from public statistics/OECD data and micro-data from the EU Labour Force Survey. Five ideal typical trajectories of professional development were identified from the literature, which served as a matrix to compare developments in the three health workforce groups. The results reveal country-specific trajectories with uneven professional development and bring opportunities for policy interventions into view. First, there is a need for integrated health labour market monitoring systems to improve data on the skills mix of the health workforce. Second, a relevant number of health workers with fixed contracts and involuntary part-time reveals an important source for better recruitment and retention strategies. Third, a general trend towards increasing numbers while worsening working conditions was identified across our country cases. This trend hits care assistants, partly also nurses, the most. The research illustrates how public data sources may serve to create new knowledge and promote more sustainable health workforce policy.

  10. Research exemption/experimental use in the European Union: patents do not block the progress of science.

    PubMed

    Jaenichen, Hans-Rainer; Pitz, Johann

    2015-02-01

    In the public debate about patents, specifically in the area of biotechnology, the position has been taken that patents block the progress of science. As we demonstrate in this review, this is not the case in the European Union (EU). The national patent acts of the EU member states define research and experimental use exemptions from patent infringement that allow sufficient room for research activities to promote innovation. This review provides a comparative overview of the legal requirements and the extent and limitations of experimental use exemptions, including the so-called Bolar provision, in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy, and The Netherlands. The legal framework in the respective countries is illustrated with reference to practical examples concerning tests on patent-protected genetic targets and antibodies. Specific questions concerning the use of patent-protected research tools, the outsourcing of research activities, and the use of preparatory and supplying acts for experimental purposes that are necessary for conducting experiments are covered.

  11. Corporate coalitions and policymaking in the European Union: How and why British American Tobacco promoted ‘Better Regulation’

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine E.; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B.; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an inter-connected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way European Union (EU) policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex-ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this paper discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights: (i) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (ii) the extent to which ‘think tanks’ may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (iii) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favour the use of ‘evidence-tools’, such as impact assessments, in policymaking. We argue a key aspect of BAT’s ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the ‘Advocacy Coalition Framework’, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote ‘transparency’ and public health in the EU. PMID:25646389

  12. Health workforce development in the European Union: A matrix for comparing trajectories of change in the professions.

    PubMed

    Pavolini, Emmanuele; Kuhlmann, Ellen

    2016-06-01

    This article assesses professional development trajectories in top-, middle- and basic-level health workforce groups (doctors, nurses, care assistants) in different European Union countries using available international databases. Three theoretical strands (labour market, welfare state, and professions studies) were connected to explore ideal types and to develop a matrix for comparison. With a focus on larger EU-15 countries and four different types of healthcare systems, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the United Kingdom serve as empirical test cases. The analysis draws on selected indicators from public statistics/OECD data and micro-data from the EU Labour Force Survey. Five ideal typical trajectories of professional development were identified from the literature, which served as a matrix to compare developments in the three health workforce groups. The results reveal country-specific trajectories with uneven professional development and bring opportunities for policy interventions into view. First, there is a need for integrated health labour market monitoring systems to improve data on the skills mix of the health workforce. Second, a relevant number of health workers with fixed contracts and involuntary part-time reveals an important source for better recruitment and retention strategies. Third, a general trend towards increasing numbers while worsening working conditions was identified across our country cases. This trend hits care assistants, partly also nurses, the most. The research illustrates how public data sources may serve to create new knowledge and promote more sustainable health workforce policy. PMID:27021776

  13. A challenge of veterinary public health in the European Union: human trichinellosis due to horse meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Touratier, L

    2001-06-01

    Human trichinellosis in the European Union due to insufficiently cooked horse meat consumption has been reported in France and in Italy during the past 25 years. It occurred in several outbreaks totalling more than 3,000 patients during this period, with a low mortality and a high morbidity. Causative Trichinella species or phenotypes were determined by the International Reference Laboratory for Trichinellosis in Rome, Italy. They were: Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. murelli. As the culinary habits and customs of populations cannot be changed by regulations, measures of protection of public health essentially depend on food inspection. Comprehensive studies having been conducted in the pathophysiology of Trichinella infection in horses; it was demonstrated that the localisation of larvae are quite different in horses and in pork. It resulted an instruction from the French Veterinary, Service recommending that: the sampling of muscles in horses carcasses has to be done at first in the tongue (apex), then in the diaphragm (pillars); at least 50 g have to be sampled in each site; examination for larvae has to be done with the digestion method. Such recommendations might be extended to other EU member countries then to the OIE Zoo-Sanitary Code.

  14. Defining pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) from cases of human infection in the European Union, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Messens, W; Bolton, D; Frankel, G; Liebana, E; McLAUCHLIN, J; Morabito, S; Oswald, E; Threlfall, E J

    2015-06-01

    During 2007-2010, 13 545 confirmed human verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infections were reported in the European Union, including 777 haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) cases. Clinical manifestations were reported for 53% of cases, 64% of which presented with diarrhoea alone and 10% with HUS. Isolates from 85% of cases were not fully serotyped and could not be classified on the basis of the Karmali seropathotype concept. There is no single or combination of phenotypic or genetic marker(s) that fully define 'pathogenic' VTEC. Isolates which contain the vtx2 (verocytotoxin 2) gene in combination with the eae (intimin-encoding) gene or aaiC (secreted protein of enteroaggregative E. coli) and aggR (plasmid-encoded regulator) genes have been associated with a higher risk of more severe illness. A molecular approach targeting genes encoding VT and other virulence determinants is thus proposed to allow an assessment of the potential severity of disease that may be associated with a given VTEC isolate. PMID:25921781

  15. Ethical review of projects involving non-human primates funded under the European Union's 7th Research Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula; Phillips, Barry; Reid, Kirsty; Schmit, Véronique; Jennings, Maggy

    2013-09-01

    Internet searches were performed on projects involving non-human primates ('primates') funded under the European Union (EU) 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7), to determine how project proposals are assessed from an ethical point of view. Due to the incompleteness of the information publicly available, the types and severity of the experiments could not be determined with certainty, although in some projects the level of harm was considered to be 'severe'. Information was scarce regarding the numbers of primates, their sourcing, housing, care and fate, or the application of the Three Rs within projects. Project grant holders and the relevant Commission officer were consulted about their experiences with the FP7 ethics review process. Overall, it was seen as meaningful and beneficial, but some concerns were also noted. Ethical follow-up during project performance and upon completion was recognised as a valuable tool in ensuring that animal welfare requirements were adequately addressed. Based upon the outcome of the survey, recommendations are presented on how to strengthen the ethical review process under the upcoming Framework Programme 'Horizon 2020', while adequately taking into account the specific requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU, with the aim of limiting the harms inflicted on the animals and the numbers used, and ultimately, replacing the use of primates altogether. PMID:24168134

  16. Research exemption/experimental use in the European Union: patents do not block the progress of science.

    PubMed

    Jaenichen, Hans-Rainer; Pitz, Johann

    2015-02-01

    In the public debate about patents, specifically in the area of biotechnology, the position has been taken that patents block the progress of science. As we demonstrate in this review, this is not the case in the European Union (EU). The national patent acts of the EU member states define research and experimental use exemptions from patent infringement that allow sufficient room for research activities to promote innovation. This review provides a comparative overview of the legal requirements and the extent and limitations of experimental use exemptions, including the so-called Bolar provision, in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy, and The Netherlands. The legal framework in the respective countries is illustrated with reference to practical examples concerning tests on patent-protected genetic targets and antibodies. Specific questions concerning the use of patent-protected research tools, the outsourcing of research activities, and the use of preparatory and supplying acts for experimental purposes that are necessary for conducting experiments are covered. PMID:25377145

  17. Narrow-and-sharp or broad-and-blunt--regulations of hazardous chemicals in consumer products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Molander, Linda; Rudén, Christina

    2012-04-01

    Chemicals are incorporated into a vast number of consumer products, and it has been recognized that considerable exposures of humans and the environment to chemicals are due to diffuse emissions from everyday products. Different approaches to the management of risks concerning chemicals in products are discussed on the international arena, but no general strategy has yet been adopted. The aim of this study is to investigate how health and environmental risks associated with chemicals in consumer products are currently managed in European Union legislations, mainly by the Toys Directive, the RoHS Directive, and REACH. Significant differences were found between the risk reduction strategies in these legislations, including substance prioritization, type of restrictions and requirements, and information dissemination to consumers. REACH regulates chemicals in products to a limited extent, and via quite complicated processes. Product-specific rules are therefore useful supplements to REACH for regulating chemicals in products. The combined effects of the RoHS and WEEE directives seem to be effective in promoting substitution of substances identified as problematic in electrical and electronic equipment, and it is recommended that the possibility to develop similar systems should be considered also for other product categories.

  18. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    PubMed

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors.

  19. The risk of Rift Valley fever virus introduction and establishment in the United States and European Union.

    PubMed

    Rolin, Alicia I; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Kulkarni, Manisha A

    2013-12-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne disease resulting in severe morbidity and mortality in both human and ruminant populations. First identified in Kenya in 1930, the geographical range of RVFV has been largely constrained to the African continent, yet has recently spread to new regions, and is identified as a priority disease with potential for geographic emergence. We present a systematic literature review assessing the potential for RVFV introduction and establishment in the United States (US) and European Union (EU). Viable pathways for the introduction of RVFV include: transport of virus-carrying vectors, importation of viremic hosts and intentional entry of RVFV as a biological weapon. It is generally assumed that the risk of RVFV introduction into the US or EU is low. We argue that the risk of sporadic introduction is likely high, though currently an insufficient proportion of such introductions coincide with optimal environmental conditions. Future global trends may increase the likelihood of risk factors for RVFV spread.

  20. The role of published information in reviewing conservation objectives for Natura 2000 protected areas in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Opermanis, Otars; MacSharry, Brian; Bailly-Maitre, Jerome; Evans, Douglas; Sipkova, Zelmira

    2014-03-01

    Protected areas are designated to protect species and other features known to be present at the time of designation, but over time the information about the presence of protected species may change and this should call for a continued review of conservation objectives. Published scientific literature is one of the possible information sources that would trigger a review of conservation objectives. We studied how published data on new discoveries of protected animal species were taken into account by the nature conservation authorities in updating species lists of Natura 2000 sites in the European Union, which are the basis for conservation planning at the site-level. Over the period studied (2000-2011) only 40 % of published new protected species records were recognized by the authorities. The two main reasons for this seem to be a reliance on other sources of information by authorities and the difficulty in finding relevant information in scientific papers. The latter is because published faunistic information is very fragmented among different journals, and often insufficient in details. We recommend better cooperation between authors, publishers, and nature conservation authorities in terms of information presentation, publishing policy, and a regular review of published information.

  1. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    PubMed

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  2. Defining pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) from cases of human infection in the European Union, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Messens, W; Bolton, D; Frankel, G; Liebana, E; McLAUCHLIN, J; Morabito, S; Oswald, E; Threlfall, E J

    2015-06-01

    During 2007-2010, 13 545 confirmed human verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infections were reported in the European Union, including 777 haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) cases. Clinical manifestations were reported for 53% of cases, 64% of which presented with diarrhoea alone and 10% with HUS. Isolates from 85% of cases were not fully serotyped and could not be classified on the basis of the Karmali seropathotype concept. There is no single or combination of phenotypic or genetic marker(s) that fully define 'pathogenic' VTEC. Isolates which contain the vtx2 (verocytotoxin 2) gene in combination with the eae (intimin-encoding) gene or aaiC (secreted protein of enteroaggregative E. coli) and aggR (plasmid-encoded regulator) genes have been associated with a higher risk of more severe illness. A molecular approach targeting genes encoding VT and other virulence determinants is thus proposed to allow an assessment of the potential severity of disease that may be associated with a given VTEC isolate.

  3. Union-related correlates of employee referrals to an occupational alcoholism project in a health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Putnam, S L; Stout, R L

    1982-03-01

    A number of union-related factors, including the degree of unionization and the skill level of the work force, the quality of union-management relations, the extent of union involvement in program development, as well as the provision of supervisory training, have been found to be important in explaining occupational alcoholism program outcome. This study attempted to determine the relationship of such factors to an unusual measure of program outcome, employee referrals to the treatment component of an occupational alcoholism project housed in the counseling department of a health maintenance organization. Multiple-regression techniques were used, with data collected for unionized companies that adopted formal, written employee assistance program (EAP) policies and those that did not. The adoption of an EAP policy seems more important than any other factor in predicting referrals to treatment, In unionized companies without policies, the union-related factors bear no relationship to referrals, while in unionized companies with policies, these variables, particularly the quality of union-management relations, are strong predictors. Supervisory training has only a modest positive effect on referrals. The adoption of an employee assistance policy itself was found to be crucial to program outcome, measured by increased chances of referrals.

  4. Patterns of dermal exposure to hazardous substances in European union workplaces.

    PubMed

    Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, R; Roff, M; Delgado, P; Eriksson, K; Fransman, W; Gijsbers, J H J; Hughson, G; Mäkinen, M; van Hemmen, J J

    2004-04-01

    Workplace dermal exposure assessment is a complex task that aims to understand the dynamic interaction between the skin and the hazardous substances present in the surrounding environment. A European project known as RISKOFDERM gathered dermal exposure data in 85 workplaces (industrial and other types) in five countries in Europe. In order to optimize data collection and to develop a representative picture of dermal exposure, scenarios (tasks made up of a series of activities) were grouped together into dermal exposure operation units (DEOs). The allocation of scenarios to relevant DEOs was achieved on the basis of similarities of exposure routes, tasks and professional judgement. Sampling and quantification procedures were based on the approaches recommended by the OECD protocol. The laboratories involved in the analysis of the samples participated in quality assurance programmes. This exercise resulted in 419 body measurements and 437 measurements on hands expressed in terms of formulation (product) in use. Exposures for a given scenario varied by several orders of magnitude. The extent and patterns of exposure were found to be dependent on various exposure determinants, including inter- and intra-scenario variations. Hands were found to be the most contaminated parts of the body. Exposure patterns for liquid and solid contaminants were different. On the basis of the analysis of the data presented here, the averaged results (median and 95th percentile) for a given DEO unit should not be used as a representative measure of dermal exposure for all scenarios within that DEO without taking the exposure determinants into account. However, the data could be used to develop an exposure matrix (indicative exposure distributions) for different types of scenario and workplace, using determinants of exposure and a Bayesian approach to integrating expert opinion.

  5. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  6. Patterns of dermal exposure to hazardous substances in European union workplaces.

    PubMed

    Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, R; Roff, M; Delgado, P; Eriksson, K; Fransman, W; Gijsbers, J H J; Hughson, G; Mäkinen, M; van Hemmen, J J

    2004-04-01

    Workplace dermal exposure assessment is a complex task that aims to understand the dynamic interaction between the skin and the hazardous substances present in the surrounding environment. A European project known as RISKOFDERM gathered dermal exposure data in 85 workplaces (industrial and other types) in five countries in Europe. In order to optimize data collection and to develop a representative picture of dermal exposure, scenarios (tasks made up of a series of activities) were grouped together into dermal exposure operation units (DEOs). The allocation of scenarios to relevant DEOs was achieved on the basis of similarities of exposure routes, tasks and professional judgement. Sampling and quantification procedures were based on the approaches recommended by the OECD protocol. The laboratories involved in the analysis of the samples participated in quality assurance programmes. This exercise resulted in 419 body measurements and 437 measurements on hands expressed in terms of formulation (product) in use. Exposures for a given scenario varied by several orders of magnitude. The extent and patterns of exposure were found to be dependent on various exposure determinants, including inter- and intra-scenario variations. Hands were found to be the most contaminated parts of the body. Exposure patterns for liquid and solid contaminants were different. On the basis of the analysis of the data presented here, the averaged results (median and 95th percentile) for a given DEO unit should not be used as a representative measure of dermal exposure for all scenarios within that DEO without taking the exposure determinants into account. However, the data could be used to develop an exposure matrix (indicative exposure distributions) for different types of scenario and workplace, using determinants of exposure and a Bayesian approach to integrating expert opinion. PMID:15059805

  7. Suicide rates and socioeconomic factors in Eastern European countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union: trends between 1990 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; Milner, Allison; Värnik, Peeter

    2013-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the various Eastern European (EE) countries adapted in different ways to the social, political and economic changes. The present study aims to analyse whether the factors related to social integration and regulation are able to explain the changes in the suicide rate in EE. A separate analysis of suicide rates, together with the undetermined intent mortality (UD), was performed. A cross-sectional time-series design and applied a panel data fixed-effects regression technique was used in analyses. The sample included 13 countries from the former Soviet bloc between 1990 and 2008. Dependent variables were gender-specific age-adjusted suicide rates and suicide plus UD rates. Independent variables included unemployment, GDP, divorce rate, birth rate, the Gini index, female labour force participation, alcohol consumption and general practitioners per 100,000 people. Male suicide and suicide or UD rates had similar predictors, which suggest that changes in suicide were related to socioeconomic disruptions experienced during the transition period. However, male suicide rates in EE were not associated with alcohol consumption during the study period. Even so, there might be underestimation of alcohol consumption due to illegal alcohol and differences between methodologies of calculating alcohol consumption. However, predictors of female suicide were related to economic integration and suicide or UD rates with domestic integration.

  8. Emerging Forms of Climate Protection Governance: Urban Initiatives in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. K.; Brunner, E.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in climate patterns are expected to pose increasing challenges for cities in the following decades, with adverse impacts on urban populations currently stressed by poverty, health and economic inequities. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanization of poverty exists, with increased challenges for local governments to protect and sustain the well-being of growing cities. In the context of these two overarching trends, interdisciplinary research at the city scale is prioritized for understanding the social impacts of climate change and variability and for the evaluation of strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive and mitigative responses to climate change. Urban managers, and transnational networks of municipalities and non-state actors, have taken an increasingly active role in climate protection, through research, policies, programs and agreements on adaptation and mitigation strategies. Concerns for urban impacts of climate change include the potential increase in frequency and intensity of damaging extreme weather events, such as heat waves, hurricanes, heavy rainfall or drought, and coastal flooding and erosion, and potentially adverse impacts on infrastructure, energy systems, and public health. Higher average summertime temperatures in temperate zone cities are also associated with environmental and public health liabilities such as decreased air quality and increased peak electrical demand. We review municipal climate protection programs, generally categorized as approaches based on technological innovation (e.g., new materials); changes in behavior and public education (e.g., use of cooling centers); and improvements in urban design (e.g., zoning for mixed land-use; the use of water, vegetation and plazas to reduce the urban heat island effect). Climate protection initiatives in three European cities are assessed within the context of the global collective efforts enacted by the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations

  9. The PHARMINE study on the impact of the European Union directive on sectoral professions and of the Bologna declaration on pharmacy education in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart

    The Bologna declaration and the European Union (EU) directive 2005/36/EC on the recognition of professional qualifications influence the mobility of pharmacy students and pharmacy professionals, respectively. In addition the Bologna declaration aims at tuning higher education degrees including pharmacy throughout the EU in order to prepare for a harmonised European Higher Education Area. The directive outlines the knowledge, skills and qualifications required for the pursuit of the professional activity of a pharmacy in the EU. The PHARMINE project (Pharmacy Education in Europe, www.pharmine.org) looked at how the Bologna declaration and the directive influence modern-day pharmacy education and training in Europe. PMID:24198855

  10. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area. PMID:26557655

  11. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.

  12. Transatlantic Moves to the Market: The United States and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila; Cantwell, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    The theory of academic capitalism is used to explore US and EU marketization trajectories. Comparisons are made along the following dimensions: creation and expansion of intermediating organizations external to universities that promote closer relations between universities and markets; interstitial organizations that emerge from within…

  13. Annual Report on the State of the Drugs Problem in the European Union, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon (Portugal).

    This report presents an overview of the drug phenomenon in Europe at the start of the new millennium. The first chapter begins with a discussion of overall drug trends. Specifically, it examines trends in drug use and the consequences including multiple drug use; problem drug use and demand for treatment; drug-related deaths; drug-related…

  14. The Impact of Total Liberalization of Domestic Air Transport on the Social Welfare and on the Dynamic of Competition: Comparison Between the United States and the European Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a comparison with US system based on market demand, fare policy and network restrictions, we present our descriptive results coming from treatments on the OAG data. These results present several aspects such as the evolution of the competitive structure of the intra-european routes, the level of airport dominance and the growth of hub structure. The second part of the paper presents models of entry in the airline industry. As profitability" of route flown explains correctly decisions taken by airlines to serve or not a route, the paper focuses on the specification and the estimation of the determinants of city, pair profitability in the european union. Treatments done on the OAG data show a rapid development of leasing space agreement (partial and total) and code sharing practices between 1995 and 2000 in Europe that's why we differentiate first between the two type of competitive strategy of entry(direct entry and leasing space agreement) and second between the competitive strategy of entry and the alliance strategy of code sharing. So the estimation of model will be able to answer the question if the european air transport market is contestable and in case not to see if the decision of entry is more directed by the level of airport dominance (as in the domestic United States market)or essentially by the competitive structure of the routes. We try to explain the nature of entry(directleasing or code sharing) by the different levels of these two determinants.

  15. Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Russ; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Hass, Ulla; Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders; Andersson, Anna Maria; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to male reproductive diseases and disorders. Purpose: To estimate the incidence/prevalence of selected male reproductive disorders/diseases and associated economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to specific EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). Methods: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. The cost-of-illness estimation utilized multiple peer-reviewed sources. Results: The expert panel identified low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence for male infertility attributable to phthalate exposure, with a 40–69% probability of causing 618 000 additional assisted reproductive technology procedures, costing €4.71 billion annually. Low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence was also identified for cryptorchidism due to prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure, resulting in a 40–69% probability that 4615 cases result, at a cost of €130 million (sensitivity analysis, €117–130 million). A much more modest (0–19%) probability of causation in testicular cancer by polybrominated diphenyl ethers was identified due to very low epidemiological and weak toxicological evidence, with 6830 potential cases annually and costs of €848 million annually (sensitivity analysis, €313–848 million). The panel assigned 40–69% probability of lower T concentrations in 55- to 64-year-old men due to phthalate exposure, with 24 800 associated deaths annually and lost economic productivity of €7.96 billion. Conclusions: EDCs may contribute substantially to male

  16. Multiplex quantification of 12 European Union authorized genetically modified maize lines with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Dobnik, David; Spilsberg, Bjørn; Bogožalec Košir, Alexandra; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Žel, Jana

    2015-08-18

    Presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food and feed products is regulated in many countries. The European Union (EU) has implemented a threshold for labeling of products containing more than 0.9% of authorized GMOs per ingredient. As the number of GMOs has increased over time, standard-curve based simplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses are no longer sufficiently cost-effective, despite widespread use of initial PCR based screenings. Newly developed GMO detection methods, also multiplex methods, are mostly focused on screening and detection but not quantification. On the basis of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) technology, multiplex assays for quantification of all 12 EU authorized GM maize lines (per April first 2015) were developed. Because of high sequence similarity of some of the 12 GM targets, two separate multiplex assays were needed. In both assays (4-plex and 10-plex), the transgenes were labeled with one fluorescence reporter and the endogene with another (GMO concentration = transgene/endogene ratio). It was shown that both multiplex assays produce specific results and that performance parameters such as limit of quantification, repeatability, and trueness comply with international recommendations for GMO quantification methods. Moreover, for samples containing GMOs, the throughput and cost-effectiveness is significantly improved compared to qPCR. Thus, it was concluded that the multiplex ddPCR assays could be applied for routine quantification of 12 EU authorized GM maize lines. In case of new authorizations, the events can easily be added to the existing multiplex assays. The presented principle of quantitative multiplexing can be applied to any other domain. PMID:26169291

  17. Identification of hotspots in the European union for the introduction of four zoonotic arboviroses by live animal trade.

    PubMed

    Durand, Benoit; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Beck, Cécile; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Balenghien, Thomas; Chevalier, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Live animal trade is considered a major mode of introduction of viruses from enzootic foci into disease-free areas. Due to societal and behavioural changes, some wild animal species may nowadays be considered as pet species. The species diversity of animals involved in international trade is thus increasing. This could benefit pathogens that have a broad host range such as arboviruses. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk posed by live animal imports for the introduction, in the European Union (EU), of four arboviruses that affect human and horses: Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Importation data for a five-years period (2005-2009, extracted from the EU TRACES database), environmental data (used as a proxy for the presence of vectors) and horses and human population density data (impacting the occurrence of clinical cases) were combined to derive spatially explicit risk indicators for virus introduction and for the potential consequences of such introductions. Results showed the existence of hotspots where the introduction risk was the highest in Belgium, in the Netherlands and in the north of Italy. This risk was higher for Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) than for the three other diseases. It was mainly attributed to exotic pet species such as rodents, reptiles or cage birds, imported in small-sized containments from a wide variety of geographic origins. The increasing species and origin diversity of these animals may have in the future a strong impact on the risk of introduction of arboviruses in the EU. PMID:23894573

  18. Acetylsalicylic acid as a potential pediatric health hazard: legislative aspects concerning accidental intoxications in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Mund, Menen E; Gyo, Christoph; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is a frequently used medication worldwide. It is not used in pediatrics due its association with Reye syndrome. However, in case of pediatric intoxication, children are more fragile to salicylate poisoning because of their reduced ability of buffer the acid stress. Intoxication leads to a decoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and subsequently to a loss in mitochondrial function. Symptoms of poisoning are diverse; eventually they can lead to the death of the patient. Governmental websites of various EU countries were searched for legal information on acetylsalicylic acid availability in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores. Various EU countries permit prescription-free sales of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores. In Sweden acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg may be sold in a maximum package size of 20 tablets or effervescent tablets in a non-pharmacy. In the UK a maximum of 16 tablets of acetylsalicylic acid 325 mg is allowed to sell in non-pharmacies. In Ireland acetylsalicylic acid is classified as S2 medication. Subsequently, acetylsalicylic acid is allowed to be sold prescription-free in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores. In the Netherlands acetylsalicylic acid may only be sold in drug stores or pharmacies. A maximum of 24 tablets of 500 mg is allowed to purchase in a drug store. Several countries in the European Union are permitted to offer acetylsalicylic acid prescription-free in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores without legal guidance on the storage position within the store. Further research is needed to investigate whether acetylsalicylic acid is located directly accessible to young children within the stores in EU countries which permit prescription-free sales of acetylsalicylic acid. PMID:27418941

  19. Analysis and critical comparison of food allergen recalls from the European Union, USA, Canada, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bucchini, Luca; Guzzon, Antonella; Poms, Roland; Senyuva, Hamide

    2016-05-01

    As part of a European Union-funded project (FP7) developing 'Integrated approaches to food allergen and allergy management', a database was constructed based on publicly available information on food allergen recalls in Europe, North America, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand. Over 2000 entries were made into the database. The database covers a 4-year period from 2011 to 2014 and each entry is categorised into food type (two different classifications), identified allergen and cause where indicated by the authorities. Across different authorities, by far the biggest incidence of undeclared allergens occurred in the food categories of prepared dishes and snacks (range = 12-53%), and cereals and bakery products (range = 14-25% of all recalls and/or alerts). The biggest incidence of undeclared allergens, according to the information from most authorities, occurred for milk and milk products (16-31% of all products with recall or alert), followed by cereals containing gluten (9-19%), soy (5-45%), and egg and egg products (5-17%). Although 42-90% of the products with recalls/alerts were explained as being 'Not indicated on the label', this is a generic explanation of cause and does not provide much insight into the causes of the recall/alerts. However, 0-17% of products with recalls/alerts could be coded as caused by the unintended presence of an allergen as the probable result of cross-contact in production. Construction of the database of allergen recalls has provided some important lessons and recommendations to the authorities are made in this paper in terms of the harmonisation of the reporting of allergen recalls into a more standardised format. PMID:27004727

  20. Burden of disease and costs of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the European Union: an updated analysis.

    PubMed

    Trasande, L; Zoeller, R T; Hass, U; Kortenkamp, A; Grandjean, P; Myers, J P; DiGangi, J; Hunt, P M; Rudel, R; Sathyanarayana, S; Bellanger, M; Hauser, R; Legler, J; Skakkebaek, N E; Heindel, J J

    2016-07-01

    A previous report documented that endocrine disrupting chemicals contribute substantially to certain forms of disease and disability. In the present analysis, our main objective was to update a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the European Union, leveraging new burden and disease cost estimates of female reproductive conditions from accompanying report. Expert panels evaluated the epidemiologic evidence, using adapted criteria from the WHO Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group, and evaluated laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption using definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Delphi method was used to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels consensus was achieved for probable (>20%) endocrine disrupting chemical causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability; autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; endometriosis; fibroids; childhood obesity; adult obesity; adult diabetes; cryptorchidism; male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation, and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median annual cost of €163 billion (1.28% of EU Gross Domestic Product) across 1000 simulations. We conclude that endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in the hundreds of billions of Euros per year. These estimates represent only those endocrine disrupting chemicals with the highest probability of causation; a broader analysis would have produced greater estimates of burden of disease and costs.

  1. Prediction of population with Alzheimer’s disease in the European Union using a system dynamics model

    PubMed Central

    Tomaskova, Hana; Kuhnova, Jitka; Cimler, Richard; Dolezal, Ondrej; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative brain disease with irreversible brain effects; it is the most common cause of dementia. With increasing age, the probability of suffering from AD increases. In this research, population growth of the European Union (EU) until the year 2080 and the number of patients with AD are modeled. Aim The aim of this research is to predict the spread of AD in the EU population until year 2080 using a computer simulation. Methods For the simulation of the EU population and the occurrence of AD in this population, a system dynamics modeling approach has been used. System dynamics is a useful and effective method for the investigation of complex social systems. Over the past decades, its applicability has been demonstrated in a wide variety of applications. In this research, this method has been used to investigate the growth of the EU population and predict the number of patients with AD. The model has been calibrated on the population prediction data created by Eurostat. Results Based on data from Eurostat, the EU population until year 2080 has been modeled. In 2013, the population of the EU was 508 million and the number of patients with AD was 7.5 million. Based on the prediction, in 2040, the population of the EU will be 524 million and the number of patients with AD will be 13.1 million. By the year 2080, the EU population will be 520 million and the number of patients with AD will be 13.7 million. Conclusion System dynamics modeling approach has been used for the prediction of the number of patients with AD in the EU population till the year 2080. These results can be used to determine the economic burden of the treatment of these patients. With different input data, the simulation can be used also for the different regions as well as for different noncontagious disease predictions. PMID:27418826

  2. Multiplex quantification of 12 European Union authorized genetically modified maize lines with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Dobnik, David; Spilsberg, Bjørn; Bogožalec Košir, Alexandra; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Žel, Jana

    2015-08-18

    Presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food and feed products is regulated in many countries. The European Union (EU) has implemented a threshold for labeling of products containing more than 0.9% of authorized GMOs per ingredient. As the number of GMOs has increased over time, standard-curve based simplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses are no longer sufficiently cost-effective, despite widespread use of initial PCR based screenings. Newly developed GMO detection methods, also multiplex methods, are mostly focused on screening and detection but not quantification. On the basis of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) technology, multiplex assays for quantification of all 12 EU authorized GM maize lines (per April first 2015) were developed. Because of high sequence similarity of some of the 12 GM targets, two separate multiplex assays were needed. In both assays (4-plex and 10-plex), the transgenes were labeled with one fluorescence reporter and the endogene with another (GMO concentration = transgene/endogene ratio). It was shown that both multiplex assays produce specific results and that performance parameters such as limit of quantification, repeatability, and trueness comply with international recommendations for GMO quantification methods. Moreover, for samples containing GMOs, the throughput and cost-effectiveness is significantly improved compared to qPCR. Thus, it was concluded that the multiplex ddPCR assays could be applied for routine quantification of 12 EU authorized GM maize lines. In case of new authorizations, the events can easily be added to the existing multiplex assays. The presented principle of quantitative multiplexing can be applied to any other domain.

  3. Analysis and critical comparison of food allergen recalls from the European Union, USA, Canada, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bucchini, Luca; Guzzon, Antonella; Poms, Roland; Senyuva, Hamide

    2016-05-01

    As part of a European Union-funded project (FP7) developing 'Integrated approaches to food allergen and allergy management', a database was constructed based on publicly available information on food allergen recalls in Europe, North America, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand. Over 2000 entries were made into the database. The database covers a 4-year period from 2011 to 2014 and each entry is categorised into food type (two different classifications), identified allergen and cause where indicated by the authorities. Across different authorities, by far the biggest incidence of undeclared allergens occurred in the food categories of prepared dishes and snacks (range = 12-53%), and cereals and bakery products (range = 14-25% of all recalls and/or alerts). The biggest incidence of undeclared allergens, according to the information from most authorities, occurred for milk and milk products (16-31% of all products with recall or alert), followed by cereals containing gluten (9-19%), soy (5-45%), and egg and egg products (5-17%). Although 42-90% of the products with recalls/alerts were explained as being 'Not indicated on the label', this is a generic explanation of cause and does not provide much insight into the causes of the recall/alerts. However, 0-17% of products with recalls/alerts could be coded as caused by the unintended presence of an allergen as the probable result of cross-contact in production. Construction of the database of allergen recalls has provided some important lessons and recommendations to the authorities are made in this paper in terms of the harmonisation of the reporting of allergen recalls into a more standardised format.

  4. Burden of disease and costs of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the European Union: an updated analysis.

    PubMed

    Trasande, L; Zoeller, R T; Hass, U; Kortenkamp, A; Grandjean, P; Myers, J P; DiGangi, J; Hunt, P M; Rudel, R; Sathyanarayana, S; Bellanger, M; Hauser, R; Legler, J; Skakkebaek, N E; Heindel, J J

    2016-07-01

    A previous report documented that endocrine disrupting chemicals contribute substantially to certain forms of disease and disability. In the present analysis, our main objective was to update a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the European Union, leveraging new burden and disease cost estimates of female reproductive conditions from accompanying report. Expert panels evaluated the epidemiologic evidence, using adapted criteria from the WHO Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group, and evaluated laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption using definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Delphi method was used to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels consensus was achieved for probable (>20%) endocrine disrupting chemical causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability; autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; endometriosis; fibroids; childhood obesity; adult obesity; adult diabetes; cryptorchidism; male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation, and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median annual cost of €163 billion (1.28% of EU Gross Domestic Product) across 1000 simulations. We conclude that endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in the hundreds of billions of Euros per year. These estimates represent only those endocrine disrupting chemicals with the highest probability of causation; a broader analysis would have produced greater estimates of burden of disease and costs. PMID:27003928

  5. Feasibility study and optimization of image tasking in the context of the European Union CAP CwRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajsova, Blanka; Åstrand, Pär. Johan; Oddone, Axel; Ellis, George

    2012-09-01

    CwRS (Control with Remote Sensing) is a control method foreseen by the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) of the European Union (EU) which is used to check if agriculture area-based subsidies are correctly granted to EU farmers. A series of Very High Resolution (VHR) and High Resolution (HR) satellite sensors participate in the acquisition program. Imagery is collected in specific multi-temporal, short time-windows and used for parcel area determination, for crop identification and for control of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAECs). In the 2003 Campaign 37 VHR zones with an overall area of 12.500 km2 were checked with the CwRS technique; in the 2011 Campaign 426 VHR control zones were acquired covering an overall area of 242.000 km2, with a total expenditure of 7.1 M euro. This is an enormous increase due to the success of the methodology which needs pointing out. Of interest is also the increasing requirements put on the imagery quality (higher elevation angle, better resolution and better radiometry.). One of the crucial features requested by EU Member States (MS) is window length, for VHR this is usually quite short (6-8 weeks). A feasibility analysis for all zones is therefore done before each VHR Campaign starts to ensure a maximal statistical success rate. This paper describes the complexity of the technical and competitive feasibility assessment taking into account parameters such as satellite characteristics (revisit capacity, number of passes), zone size, shape and latitude; elevation angle, acquisition window length, programming priority level, weather forecast and competitive conflicting tasking. To increase the efficiency of the image acquisition a real local tasking with the use of a Direct Access Facility (DAF) can be compared to a tasking performed through an Imaging and Processing Facility (IPF). Both approaches allow the integration of last minute information into the collection plan and yield for instance better chances of

  6. Identification of hotspots in the European union for the introduction of four zoonotic arboviroses by live animal trade.

    PubMed

    Durand, Benoit; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Beck, Cécile; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Balenghien, Thomas; Chevalier, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Live animal trade is considered a major mode of introduction of viruses from enzootic foci into disease-free areas. Due to societal and behavioural changes, some wild animal species may nowadays be considered as pet species. The species diversity of animals involved in international trade is thus increasing. This could benefit pathogens that have a broad host range such as arboviruses. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk posed by live animal imports for the introduction, in the European Union (EU), of four arboviruses that affect human and horses: Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Importation data for a five-years period (2005-2009, extracted from the EU TRACES database), environmental data (used as a proxy for the presence of vectors) and horses and human population density data (impacting the occurrence of clinical cases) were combined to derive spatially explicit risk indicators for virus introduction and for the potential consequences of such introductions. Results showed the existence of hotspots where the introduction risk was the highest in Belgium, in the Netherlands and in the north of Italy. This risk was higher for Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) than for the three other diseases. It was mainly attributed to exotic pet species such as rodents, reptiles or cage birds, imported in small-sized containments from a wide variety of geographic origins. The increasing species and origin diversity of these animals may have in the future a strong impact on the risk of introduction of arboviruses in the EU.

  7. Identification of Hotspots in the European Union for the Introduction of Four Zoonotic Arboviroses by Live Animal Trade

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Benoit; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Beck, Cécile; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Balenghien, Thomas; Chevalier, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Live animal trade is considered a major mode of introduction of viruses from enzootic foci into disease-free areas. Due to societal and behavioural changes, some wild animal species may nowadays be considered as pet species. The species diversity of animals involved in international trade is thus increasing. This could benefit pathogens that have a broad host range such as arboviruses. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk posed by live animal imports for the introduction, in the European Union (EU), of four arboviruses that affect human and horses: Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Importation data for a five-years period (2005-2009, extracted from the EU TRACES database), environmental data (used as a proxy for the presence of vectors) and horses and human population density data (impacting the occurrence of clinical cases) were combined to derive spatially explicit risk indicators for virus introduction and for the potential consequences of such introductions. Results showed the existence of hotspots where the introduction risk was the highest in Belgium, in the Netherlands and in the north of Italy. This risk was higher for Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) than for the three other diseases. It was mainly attributed to exotic pet species such as rodents, reptiles or cage birds, imported in small-sized containments from a wide variety of geographic origins. The increasing species and origin diversity of these animals may have in the future a strong impact on the risk of introduction of arboviruses in the EU. PMID:23894573

  8. Geoscience Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops at the European Geoscience Union General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Eve; Barnikel, Friedrich; Berenguer, Jean-Luc; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Cifelli, Francesca; Funiciello, Francesca; Laj, Carlo; Macko, Stephen; Schwarz, Annegret; Smith, Phil; Summesberger, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    GIFT workshops are a two-and-a-half-day teacher enhancement workshops organized by the EGU Committee on Education and held in conjunction with the EGU annual General Assembly. The program of each workshop focuses on a different general theme each year. Past themes have included, for example, "Water!", "Natural Hazards", "Biodiversity and Evolution", "The Polar Regions", "The Carbon Cycle" and "The Earth from Space". These workshops combine scientific presentations on current research in the Earth and Space Sciences, given by prominent scientists attending EGU General Assemblies, with hands-on, inquiry-based activities that can be used by the teachers in their classrooms to explain related scientific principles or topics. Participating teachers are also invited to present their own classroom activities to their colleagues, even when not directly related to the current program. The main objective of these workshops is to communicate first-hand scientific information to teachers in primary and secondary schools, significantly shortening the time between discovery and textbook. The GIFT workshop provides the teachers with materials that can be directly incorporated into their classroom, as well as those of their colleagues at home institutions. In addition, the full immersion of science teachers in a truly scientific context (EGU General Assemblies) and the direct contact with leading geoscientists stimulates curiosity towards research that the teachers can transmit to their pupils. In addition to their scientific content, the GIFT workshops are of high societal value. The value of bringing teachers from many nations together includes the potential for networking and collaborations, the sharing of experiences and an awareness of science education as it is presented in other countries. Since 2003, the EGU GIFT workshops have brought together more than 600 teachers from more than 25 nations. At all previous EGU GIFT workshops teachers mingled with others from outside

  9. Geoscience Information For Teachers (GIFT) Workshops at the the European Geoscience Union (EGU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Laj, C. E.; The Europen Geoscience Union Committee on Education

    2011-12-01

    GIFT workshops are a two-and-a-half-day teacher enhancement workshops organized by the EGU Committee on Education and held in conjunction with the EGU annual General Assembly. The program of each workshop focuses on a different general theme each year. Past themes have included, for example, "The Polar Regions", "The Carbon Cycle" and "The Earth From Space". These workshops combine scientific presentations on current research in the Earth and Space Sciences, given by prominent scientists attending EGU General Assemblies, with hands-on, inquiry-based activities that can be used by the teachers in their classrooms to explain related scientific principles or topics. Participating teachers are also invited to present their own classroom activities to their colleagues, even when not directly related to the current program. The main objective of these workshops is to spread first-hand scientific information to teachers in primary and secondary schools, significantly shortening the time between discovery and textbook. The GIFT workshop provides the teachers with materials that can be directly incorporated into their classroom, as well as those of their colleagues at home institutions. In addition, the full immersion of science teachers in a truly scientific context (EGU General Assemblies) and the direct contact with leading geoscientists stimulates curiosity towards research that the teachers can transmit to their pupils. In addition to their scientific content, the GIFT workshops are of high societal value. The value of bringing teachers from many nations together includes the potential for networking and collaborations, the sharing of experiences and an awareness of science education as it is presented in other countries. Since 2003, the EGU GIFT workshops have brought together more than 500 teachers from more than 20 nations. At all previous EGU GIFT workshops teachers mingled with others from outside their own country, informally interacted with the scientists

  10. Geoscience Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops at the European Geoscience Union General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, E.; Barnikel, F.; Berenguer, J.; Bokwa, A.; Camerlenghi, A.; Cifelli, F.; Funiciello, F.; Laj, C.; Macko, S. A.; Schwarz, A.; Smith, P.; Summesberger, H.

    2012-04-01

    GIFT workshops are a two-and-a-half-day teacher enhancement workshops organized by the EGU Committee on Education and held in conjunction with the EGU annual General Assembly. The program of each workshop focuses on a different general theme each year. Past themes have included, for example, "Biodiversity and Evolution", "The Polar Regions", "The Carbon Cycle" and "The Earth from Space". These workshops combine scientific presentations on current research in the Earth and Space Sciences, given by prominent scientists attending EGU General Assemblies, with hands-on, inquiry-based activities that can be used by the teachers in their classrooms to explain related scientific principles or topics. Participating teachers are also invited to present their own classroom activities to their colleagues, even when not directly related to the current program. The main objective of these workshops is to spread first-hand scientific information to teachers in primary and secondary schools, significantly shortening the time between discovery and textbook. The GIFT workshop provides the teachers with materials that can be directly incorporated into their classroom, as well as those of their colleagues at home institutions. In addition, the full immersion of science teachers in a truly scientific context (EGU General Assembly) and the direct contact with leading geoscientists stimulates curiosity towards research that the teachers can transmit to their pupils. In addition to their scientific content, the GIFT workshops are of high societal value. The value of bringing teachers from many nations together includes the potential for networking and collaborations, the sharing of experiences and an awareness of science education as it is presented in other countries. Since 2003, the EGU GIFT workshops have brought together more than 500 teachers from more than 25 nations. At all previous EGU GIFT workshops teachers mingled with others from outside their own country and informally

  11. Geoscience Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops at the European Geoscience Union General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Eve; Barnikel, Friedrich; Berenguer, Jean-Luc; Cifelli, Francesca; Funiciello, Francesca; Laj, Carlo; Macko, Stephen; Schwarz, Annegret; Smith, Phil; Summesberger, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    GIFT workshops are a two-and-a-half-day teacher enhancement workshops organized by the EGU Committee on Education and held in conjunction with the EGU annual General Assembly. The program of each workshop focuses on a different general theme each year. Past themes have included, for example, "Mineral Resources", "Our changing Planet", "Natural Hazards", "Water", "Evolution and Biodiversity" and "Energy and Sustainable Development". These workshops combine scientific presentations on current research in the Earth and Space Sciences, given by prominent scientists attending EGU General Assemblies, with hands-on, inquiry-based activities that can be used by the teachers in their classrooms to explain related scientific principles or topics. Participating teachers are also invited to present their own classroom activities to their colleagues, even when not directly related to the current program. The main objective of these workshops is to communicate first-hand scientific information to teachers in primary and secondary schools, significantly shortening the time between discovery and textbook. The GIFT workshop provides the teachers with materials that can be directly incorporated into their classroom, as well as those of their colleagues at home institutions. In addition, the full immersion of science teachers in a truly scientific context (EGU General Assemblies) and the direct contact with leading geoscientists stimulates curiosity towards research that the teachers can transmit to their pupils. In addition to their scientific content, the GIFT workshops are of high societal value. The value of bringing teachers from many nations together includes the potential for networking and collaborations, the sharing of experiences and an awareness of science education as it is presented in other countries. Since 2003, the EGU GIFT workshops have brought together more than 700 teachers from more than 25 nations. At all previous EGU GIFT workshops teachers mingled with others

  12. Geoscience Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops at the European Geoscience Union General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Eve; Barnikel, Friedrich; Berenguer, Jean-Luc; Bokwa, Anita; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Cifelli, Francesca; Funiciello, Francesca; Laj, Carlo; Macko, Stephen; Schwarz, Annegret; Smith, Phil; Summesberger, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    GIFT workshops are a two-and-a-half-day teacher enhancement workshops organized by the EGU Committee on Education and held in conjunction with the EGU annual General Assembly. The program of each workshop focuses on a different general theme each year. Past themes have included, for example, "Water!", "Natural Hazards", "Biodiversity and Evolution", "The Polar Regions", "The Carbon Cycle" and "The Earth from Space". These workshops combine scientific presentations on current research in the Earth and Space Sciences, given by prominent scientists attending EGU General Assemblies, with hands-on, inquiry-based activities that can be used by the teachers in their classrooms to explain related scientific principles or topics. Participating teachers are also invited to present their own classroom activities to their colleagues, even when not directly related to the current program. The main objective of these workshops is to communicate first-hand scientific information to teachers in primary and secondary schools, significantly shortening the time between discovery and textbook. The GIFT workshop provides the teachers with materials that can be directly incorporated into their classroom, as well as those of their colleagues at home institutions. In addition, the full immersion of science teachers in a truly scientific context (EGU General Assemblies) and the direct contact with leading geoscientists stimulates curiosity towards research that the teachers can transmit to their pupils. In addition to their scientific content, the GIFT workshops are of high societal value. The value of bringing teachers from many nations together includes the potential for networking and collaborations, the sharing of experiences and an awareness of science education as it is presented in other countries. Since 2003, the EGU GIFT workshops have brought together more than 600 teachers from more than 25 nations. At all previous EGU GIFT workshops teachers mingled with others from outside

  13. Geoscience Information for Teachers (GIFT)Workshops at the European Geoscience Union General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Eve; Barnikel, Friederich; Berenguer, Jean-Luc; Bokwa, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Cifelli, Francesca; Funicello, Francesca; Laj, Carlo; Macko, Stephen; Shwarz, Annagret; Smith, Phil; Summesberger, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    GIFT workshops are a two-and-a-half-day teacher enhancement workshops organized by the EGU Committee on Education and held in conjunction with the EGU annual General Assembly. The program of each workshop focuses on a different general theme each year. Past themes have included, for example, "Biodiversity and Evolution", "The Polar Regions", "The Carbon Cycle" and "The Earth from Space". These workshops combine scientific presentations on current research in the Earth and Space Sciences, given by prominent scientists attending EGU General Assemblies, with hands-on, inquiry-based activities that can be used by the teachers in their classrooms to explain related scientific principles or topics. Participating teachers are also invited to present their own classroom activities to their colleagues, even when not directly related to the current program. The main objective of these workshops is to spread first-hand scientific information to teachers in primary and secondary schools, significantly shortening the time between discovery and textbook. The GIFT workshop provides the teachers with materials that can be directly incorporated into their classroom, as well as those of their colleagues at home institutions. In addition, the full immersion of science teachers in a truly scientific context (EGU General Assembly) and the direct contact with leading geoscientists stimulates curiosity towards research that the teachers can transmit to their pupils. In addition to their scientific content, the GIFT workshops are of high societal value. The value of bringing teachers from many nations together includes the potential for networking and collaborations, the sharing of experiences and an awareness of science education as it is presented in other countries. Since 2003, the EGU GIFT workshops have brought together more than 500 teachers from more than 25 nations. At all previous EGU GIFT workshops teachers mingled with others from outside their own country and informally

  14. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  15. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential. PMID:24243879

  16. Use of entire males for pig meat in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, M

    1998-01-01

    the short range, immunocastration may offer a viable way for a drastic reduction of the incidence of boar taint in entire male pig populations. On the long range, selection against skatole/androstenone may be cheaper and more readily acceptable. Artificial noses and related techniques offer interesting possibilities for the assessment of boar taint on the slaughter line, however, further developments are needed in order to determine whether they can be used in industrial conditions. Tainted meat can be used through processing, however specific studies have to be conducted for each of the many products that can be processed from pig meat. PMID:22060716

  17. Geoscience Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops at the European Geoscience Union General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Arnold, E. M.; Barnikel, F.; Berenguer, J. L.; Cifelli, F.; Funiciello, F.; Schwarz, A.; Smith, P.; Summesberger, H.; Laj, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    GIFT workshops are a two-and-a-half-day teacher enhancement workshops organized by the EGU Committee on Education and held in conjunction with the EGU annual General Assembly. The program of each workshop focuses on a different general theme each year. Past themes have included, for example, "Mineral Resources", "Our Changing Planet", "Natural Hazards", "Water" and "Biodiversity and Evolution". These workshops combine scientific presentations on current research in Earth and Space Sciences, given by prominent scientists attending EGU General Assemblies, with hands-on, inquiry-based activities that can be used by the teachers in their classrooms to explain related scientific principles or topics. Teachers are also invited to present their own classroom activities to their colleagues, regardless of the scientific topic. The main objective of these workshops is to communicate first-hand scientific information to teachers in primary and secondary schools, significantly shortening the time between discovery and textbook. The GIFT workshop provides the teachers with materials that can be directly incorporated into their classroom, as well as those of their colleagues at home institutions. In addition, the full immersion of science teachers in a truly scientific context (EGU General Assemblies) and the direct contact with leading geoscientists stimulates curiosity towards research that the teachers can transmit to their pupils. In addition to their scientific content, the GIFT workshops are of high societal value. The value of bringing teachers from many nations together includes the potential for networking and collaborations, the sharing of experiences and an awareness of science education as it is presented in other countries. Since 2003, the EGU GIFT workshops have brought together more than 700 teachers from more than 25 nations. At all previous EGU GIFT workshops teachers mingled with others from outside their own country and informally interacted with the

  18. Geoscience Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops at the European Geoscience Union General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, E. M.; Barnikel, F.; Berenguer, J. L.; Bokwa, A.; Camerlenghi, A. A.; Cifelli, F.; Funiciello, F.; Laj, C. E.; Macko, S. A.; Schwarz, A.; Smith, P.; Summesberger, H.

    2014-12-01

    GIFT workshops are a two-and-a-half-day teacher enhancement workshops organized by the EGU Committee on Education and held in conjunction with the EGU annual General Assembly. The program of each workshop focuses on a different general theme each year. Past themes have included, for example, "Natural Hazards", "Biodiversity and Evolution", "The Polar Regions", "The Carbon Cycle" and "The Earth from Space". These workshops combine scientific presentations on current research in Earth and Space Sciences, given by prominent scientists attending EGU General Assemblies, with hands-on, inquiry-based activities that can be used by the teachers in their classrooms to explain related scientific principles or topics. Participating teachers are also invited to present their own classroom activities to their colleagues, regardless of the scientific topic. The main objective of these workshops is to communicate first-hand scientific information to teachers in primary and secondary schools, significantly shortening the time between discovery and textbook. The GIFT workshop provides the teachers with materials that can be directly incorporated into their classroom, as well as those of their colleagues at home institutions. In addition, the full immersion of science teachers in a truly scientific context (EGU General Assemblies) and the direct contact with leading geoscientists stimulates curiosity towards research that the teachers can transmit to their pupils. In addition to their scientific content, the GIFT workshops are of high societal value. The value of bringing teachers from many nations together includes the potential for networking and collaborations, the sharing of experiences and an awareness of science education as it is presented in other countries. Since 2003, the EGU GIFT workshops have brought together more than 600 teachers from more than 25 nations. At all previous EGU GIFT workshops teachers mingled with others from outside their own country and informally

  19. La Rusa Lingvo en la Novaj Rilatoj de Europa Spac-Agentejo (The Russian Language in the New Relations of the European Space Agency).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Wim

    1992-01-01

    In view of the opportunities made possible by the Framework Agreement between the European Space Agency and the Soviet Union, this article examines the linguistic aspects of the agreement and its implementation. Many communication problems are related to Western concepts of project management and control that are difficult to translate into…

  20. European Union funded project on the development of a whole complement deficiency screening ELISA-A story of success and an exceptional manager: Mohamed R. Daha.

    PubMed

    Würzner, Reinhard; Tedesco, Francesco; Garred, Peter; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Truedsson, Lennart; Turner, Malcolm W; Sommarin, Yngve; Wieslander, Jörgen; Sim, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    A whole complement ELISA-based assay kit, primarily designed to screen for deficiencies in components of the complement system was developed during a European Union grant involving more than a dozen European scientists and a small-medium enterprise company (Wieslab, which later merged into Eurodiagnostica). The consortium was led by Prof. Mohamed R. Daha who had already guided a preceding European grant which prepared the ground for this endeavor to create a novel and sophisticated complement measurement tool. The final result of the grant was a scientific publication (Seelen et al., 2005, J. Immunol. Methods 296, 187-198) and a commercially available complement deficiency screening kit, WIESLAB(®) Complement system Screen. Thereafter, the group decided to carry on with a grant, located at Innsbruck Medical University, and supported by royalties and unrestricted educational grants from Eurodiagnostica, Malmö, entitled "Search for Applications for WIESLAB(®) Complement system Screen (SAW)" with the aim to look for further applications of this assay. During the latter project the group organized several scientific meetings aimed at evaluating the use of the assay as well as developing further branches of its platform. A look back over almost two decades reveals a great story of excellent research which was also commercially successful, fulfilling the aims of European Union grants. It is also a story of ageless friendship, only possible due to the vision and guidance of an exceptional manager: Moh Daha.

  1. European Union funded project on the development of a whole complement deficiency screening ELISA-A story of success and an exceptional manager: Mohamed R. Daha.

    PubMed

    Würzner, Reinhard; Tedesco, Francesco; Garred, Peter; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Truedsson, Lennart; Turner, Malcolm W; Sommarin, Yngve; Wieslander, Jörgen; Sim, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    A whole complement ELISA-based assay kit, primarily designed to screen for deficiencies in components of the complement system was developed during a European Union grant involving more than a dozen European scientists and a small-medium enterprise company (Wieslab, which later merged into Eurodiagnostica). The consortium was led by Prof. Mohamed R. Daha who had already guided a preceding European grant which prepared the ground for this endeavor to create a novel and sophisticated complement measurement tool. The final result of the grant was a scientific publication (Seelen et al., 2005, J. Immunol. Methods 296, 187-198) and a commercially available complement deficiency screening kit, WIESLAB(®) Complement system Screen. Thereafter, the group decided to carry on with a grant, located at Innsbruck Medical University, and supported by royalties and unrestricted educational grants from Eurodiagnostica, Malmö, entitled "Search for Applications for WIESLAB(®) Complement system Screen (SAW)" with the aim to look for further applications of this assay. During the latter project the group organized several scientific meetings aimed at evaluating the use of the assay as well as developing further branches of its platform. A look back over almost two decades reveals a great story of excellent research which was also commercially successful, fulfilling the aims of European Union grants. It is also a story of ageless friendship, only possible due to the vision and guidance of an exceptional manager: Moh Daha. PMID:26006049

  2. Sport related stress fracture of the clavicle with non-union: Case report and review.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Demitri; Kastanos, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Stress fractures are relatively uncommon sports injuries and when they do occur, are mostly found in the lower limb. Stress fractures of the clavicle are particularly rare, having been described in a number of non-sport related pathologies, such as nervous tics and post radical neck dissection. In sport, there have only been seven cases reported in the literature. We report on a clavicle stress fracture in a 47-year-old male, partaking in recreational weight lifting activities. This is the first reported case of a non-union stress fracture of the clavicle. The patient underwent an open reduction and internal fixation and made a full recovery.

  3. Twentieth anniversary of the European Union health mandate: taking stock of perceived achievements, failures and missed opportunities – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Union (EU) health mandate was initially defined in the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. The twentieth anniversary of the Treaty offers a unique opportunity to take stock of EU health actions by giving an overview of influential public health related EU-level policy outputs and a summary of policy outputs or actions perceived as an achievement, a failure or a missed opportunity. Methods Semi-structured expert interviews (N = 20) were conducted focusing on EU-level actions that were relevant for health. Respondents were asked to name EU policies or actions that they perceived as an achievement, a failure or a missed opportunity. A directed content analysis approach was used to identify expert perceptions on achievements, failures and missed opportunities in the interviews. Additionally, a nominal group technique was applied to identify influential and public health relevant EU-level policy outputs. Results The ranking of influential policy outputs resulted in top positions of adjudications and legislations, agencies, European Commission (EC) programmes and strategies, official networks, cooperative structures and exchange efforts, the work on health determinants and uptake of scientific knowledge. The assessment of EU health policies as being an achievement, a failure or a missed opportunity was often characterized by diverging respondent views. Recurring topics that emerged were the Directorate General for Health and Consumers (DG SANCO), EU agencies, life style factors, internal market provisions as well as the EU Directive on patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare. Among these recurring topics, expert perceptions on the establishment of DG SANCO, EU public health agencies, and successes in tobacco control were dominated by aspects of achievements. The implementation status of the Health in All Policy approach was perceived as a missed opportunity. Conclusions When comparing the emerging themes from the interviews conducted with the

  4. “Working the System”—British American Tobacco's Influence on the European Union Treaty and Its Implications for Policy: An Analysis of Internal Tobacco Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine E.; Fooks, Gary; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. Methods and Findings In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i) provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii) secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii) bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv) provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost–benefit analysis [CBA]) within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical

  5. On the Definition of Public Relations: A European View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vercic, Dejan; van Ruler, Betteke; Butschi, Gerhard; Flodin, Bertil

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the project on the European Public Relations Body of Knowledge (EBOK). Reviews proposals on the definition, dimensions, and domain of public relations. Confronts these with findings from EBOK. Presents ideas on how to bridge the differences. Proposes ideas for further investigation. (SG)

  6. Impact of land-take on the land resource base for crop production in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gergely

    2012-10-01

    Spatial analyses of cropland productivity levels and land use data from 2000 and 2006 were performed to assess the loss of cropland resources for biomass production of the European Union due to land take. Productivity loss in administrative regions was calculated on the basis of the extent and quality of agricultural land resources converted to artificial surfaces. Data show that while all EU member states experience constant decrease of their production capacity, there are also considerable differences among countries and regions. Based on the analysis of 24 member states, the EU lost 0.27% of its cropland and 0.26% of its crop productive potential in the period between 2000 and 2006 due to land take. The loss of agricultural land during the study period was the highest in the Netherlands, which lost 1.57% of its crop production potential within six years. The figures are quite alarming for Cyprus (0.84%), Ireland (0.77%) and Spain (0.49%) as well. In metropolitan areas of Barcelona, Berlin, Bratislava, Bucharest, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Milan, and Vienna infrastructural investment occurred on the higher quality cropland while Budapest, Paris, and Warsaw spread their urban growth to areas of less productive cropland. Denmark had to face the largest loss of its food production capacity for each citizen, exceeding the equivalent of 4 kg capita(-1)year(-1) of wheat, followed by Ireland with more than the equivalent of 3 kg wheat and Spain, Netherlands, Hungary, Cyprus and France all above 2 kg loss per capita, annually. The EU lost an amount of cropland production potential equal to approximately 700,000t of wheat grain, annually, in the study period. Results highlight the following general trends: (i) land conversion from different land cover types to artificial surfaces follows the historic trends in Europe with continuing consumption of more productive areas from its land resources; (ii) the conversion rate of croplands to artificial surfaces is growing with

  7. Overcoming Barriers to the Market Access of Biosimilars in the European Union: The Case of Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Moorkens, Evelien; Jonker-Exler, Clara; Huys, Isabelle; Declerck, Paul; Simoens, Steven; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2014, six of the top ten blockbuster medicines were monoclonal antibodies. This multibillion-dollar market with expiring patents is the main driver for the development of biosimilar mAbs. With the ever-increasing cost of healthcare and the economic pressure to reduce or sustain healthcare expenses, biosimilars could be instrumental in reducing costs for medication and increasing patient access to treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify and describe the barriers to market access of biosimilar mAbs in the European Union and to analyze how these barriers could be overcome. Methods: A narrative literature review was carried out using the databases PubMed, Embase, and EconLit. Studies were published in English or Dutch. Additionally, the reference list of the articles was checked for relevant studies. Articles and conference papers known to the authors were included as well. Articles were also identified by searching on the website of the Generics and Biosimilars Initiative (GaBI) journal. Results: Six barriers were identified based on available literature: The manufacturing process, the regulatory process, intellectual property rights, lack of incentive, the impossibility of substitution, and the innovator's reach. These six barriers are presented as a possible framework to study the market access of biosimilar mAbs. Based on the literature search, recommendations can be made to overcome these barriers: (i) invest initially in advanced production processes with the help of single-use technology, experience or outsourcing (ii) gain experience with the regulatory process and establish alignment between stakeholders (iii) limit patent litigation, eliminate evergreening benefits, build out further the unitary patent and unified patent litigation system within the EU (iv) create demand-side policies, disseminate objective information (v) change attitude toward biosimilar switching/substitution, starting with physician, and patient

  8. Impact of land-take on the land resource base for crop production in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gergely

    2012-10-01

    Spatial analyses of cropland productivity levels and land use data from 2000 and 2006 were performed to assess the loss of cropland resources for biomass production of the European Union due to land take. Productivity loss in administrative regions was calculated on the basis of the extent and quality of agricultural land resources converted to artificial surfaces. Data show that while all EU member states experience constant decrease of their production capacity, there are also considerable differences among countries and regions. Based on the analysis of 24 member states, the EU lost 0.27% of its cropland and 0.26% of its crop productive potential in the period between 2000 and 2006 due to land take. The loss of agricultural land during the study period was the highest in the Netherlands, which lost 1.57% of its crop production potential within six years. The figures are quite alarming for Cyprus (0.84%), Ireland (0.77%) and Spain (0.49%) as well. In metropolitan areas of Barcelona, Berlin, Bratislava, Bucharest, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Milan, and Vienna infrastructural investment occurred on the higher quality cropland while Budapest, Paris, and Warsaw spread their urban growth to areas of less productive cropland. Denmark had to face the largest loss of its food production capacity for each citizen, exceeding the equivalent of 4 kg capita(-1)year(-1) of wheat, followed by Ireland with more than the equivalent of 3 kg wheat and Spain, Netherlands, Hungary, Cyprus and France all above 2 kg loss per capita, annually. The EU lost an amount of cropland production potential equal to approximately 700,000t of wheat grain, annually, in the study period. Results highlight the following general trends: (i) land conversion from different land cover types to artificial surfaces follows the historic trends in Europe with continuing consumption of more productive areas from its land resources; (ii) the conversion rate of croplands to artificial surfaces is growing with

  9. Trends in seasonal influenza vaccine distribution in the European Union: 2003-4 to 2007-8.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez de Azero, M

    2008-10-23

    Seasonal influenza is widely regarded as a continuing threat to public health, with vaccination remaining the principal measure of prophylaxis. In 2003, the World Health Organization issued targets for influenza vaccine coverage in the elderly of at least 50% by 2006 and 75% by 2010, endorsed by the European Parliament in two resolutions in 2005 and 2006. However, a number of European public health systems lack mechanisms to assess progress in influenza vaccine uptake. The European Vaccine Manufacturers group (EVM) undertook a Europe-wide survey of vaccine distribution over the last five seasons (between 2003 and 2008) to provide baseline data from which vaccination trends may be extrapolated. The survey data showed that the dose distribution level per capita in the 27 EU countries increased from 17% in 2003-4 to 20% in 2006-7; this growth was not maintained in the season 2007-8. Even without information on which age or risk groups received the vaccine, an immunisation rate of approximately 20% of the whole population falls short of the public health goal by more than half: an estimated 49% of the total population fall into risk groups recommended to receive the influenza vaccine in Europe. These data provide the only systematic review of vaccine dose distribution across Europe from a uniform source. Although they represent an important baseline parameter, age- and risk-group related vaccine uptake data with sufficient detail are needed to assist public health policy decision making, immunisation planning and monitoring. In light of this situation, and to support the improvement of immunisation rates across the EU, EVM aims to provide dose distribution data for each influenza season to assist Member States in the implementation of local immunisation policies.

  10. Non-European Union doctors in the National Health Service: why, when and how do they come to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

    PubMed Central

    George, Jyothis T; Rozario, Kavitha S; Anthony, Jeffrin; Jude, Edward B; McKay, Gerard A

    2007-01-01

    Background As many as 30% of doctors working for the National Health System (NHS) of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK) have obtained their primary qualifications from a country outside the European Union. However, factors driving this migration of doctors to the UK merit continuing exploration. Our objective was to obtain training and employment profile of UK doctors who obtained their primary medical qualification outside the European Union (non-European doctors) and to assess self-reported reasons for their migration. Methods We conducted an online survey of non-European doctors using a pre-validated questionnaire. Results One thousand six hundred and nineteen doctors of 26 different nationalities completed the survey. Of the respondents, 90.1% were from India and over three-quarters migrated to the UK mainly for 'training'. Other reasons cited were 'better pay' (7.2%), 'better work environment' (7.1%) and 'having family and friends in the UK' (2.8%). Many of the respondents have been in the UK for more than a year (88.8%), with 31.3% having spent more than 3 years gaining experience of working in the NHS. Most respondents believe they will be affected by recent changes to UK immigration policy (86.6%), few report that they would be unaffected (3.7%) and the rest are unsure (9.8%). Conclusion The primary reason for many non-European doctors to migrate to the UK is for training within the NHS. Secondary reasons like better pay, better work environment and having friends and family in the UK also play a role in attracting these doctors, predominantly from the Indian subcontinent and other British Commonwealth countries. PMID:17326841

  11. Compulsory Unionism, the NLRB, and the Courts: A Legal Analysis of Union Security Agreements. Labor Relations and Public Policy Series Report No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Thomas R.

    As used here, compulsory union or union security agreements are federally sanctioned contracts between a labor union and employer whereby the employer agrees to require his employees, as a condition of their employment, to affiliate with the union in some way. Right-to-work is usually construed to mean the liberty of the individual to have a job…

  12. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007–2012

    SciTech Connect

    Vitina, Aisma; Lüers, Silke; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Berkhout, Volker; Duffy, Aidan; Cleary, Brendan; Husabø, Lief I.; Weir, David E.; Lacal-Arántegui, Roberto; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Belyeu, Kathy; Wiser, Ryan H; Bolinger, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2015-06-01

    The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for cooperation in Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems (IEA Wind) Task 26—The Cost of Wind Energy represents an international collaboration dedicated to exploring past, present and future cost of wind energy. This report provides an overview of recent trends in wind plant technology, cost, and performance in those countries that are currently represented by participating organizations in IEA Wind Task 26: Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States as well as the European Union.

  13. [Polish regulations on maximum admissible intensities for electric and magnetic frequencies of 60 Hz and the European Union recommendations for electrical power engineering].

    PubMed

    Groszko, Marian

    2003-01-01

    Electric and magnetic fields of 50 Hz from electric power devices affect not only workers, but also the general population, as these devices are also located in populated areas, hence the duality of regulations on maximum admissible intensities. This paper presents these regulations and discusses in detail the changes of 2001. Based on the Polish regulations, hygienic evaluation of electric power devices has been attempted. The Polish regulations on the 50 Hz electromagnetic fields were compared with relevant international regulations of CENELEC and the European Union recommendations. Our maximum admissible intensities have been found to conform with the international standards.

  14. Enforcement of presumed-consent policy and willingness to donate organs as identified in the European Union Survey: the role of legislation in reinforcing ideology in pluralistic societies.

    PubMed

    Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Friederich-Murray, Catherine

    2009-04-01

    To increase the supply of transplantable organs, some European Union (EU) countries have begun implementing and enforcing presumed consent policies for organ donation. Mossialos and colleagues performed an analysis of samples of citizens in 15 EU countries and found that legislation, enforcement, and awareness of presumed consent policies for organ donation increase people's willingness to donate their own organs and those of a deceased relative. The authors concluded that, in countries with enforced presumed consent, citizens are willing to donate because they accept organ donation as an ideology. This ideology originates in the thinking that organ donation is an implicit communal contract i.e., a mechanism by which individuals pay back society for the inclusion and social support that they have already experienced and hope to experience in the future. Acceptance of this ideology enhances people's willingness to donate organs and the efficiency in pursuing this collective action, thus, paving the way toward increased paternalism in society. We highlight some potential biases that may have been incorporated in the survey design and in Mossialos et al.'s conclusions, including (1) how the survey questions were constructed, (2) whether sufficient information was communicated about organ procurement practices in heart-beating and non-heart-beating donation before participants responded to the survey, and (3) whether respondents' knowledge about donation legislation can be equated with understanding of processes involved in organ donation. We address the consequences of using legislative authority to enforce the ideology of organ donation, thereby superseding the varying moral values, beliefs, and attitudes about human life and culture that are inherent in multicultural societies. PMID:18845356

  15. [Innovating in public health: monitoring of social determinants of health and reduction of health inequities: a priority for Spanish presidency of the European union in 2010].

    PubMed

    Calvete Oliva, Antonio; Campos Esteban, Pilar; Catalán Matamoros, Daniel; Fernández de la Hoz, Karoline; Herrador Ortiz, Zaida; Merino Merino, Begoña; Ramírez Fernández, Rosa; Santaolaya Cesteros, María; Hernández Aguado, Ildefonso

    2010-01-01

    Tackling health inequalities to achieve health equity is currently one of the main challenges for developed and developing countries. Aware of this reality, and knowing how relevant for economic and social growth the inequalities in health are, the Spanish Ministry of Health and Social Policy has established "Innovation in Public Health: monitoring social determinants of health and reduction of health inequalities" as one of the priorities for the Spanish presidency of the European Union in the first semester of 2010. Furthermore, a national strategy to tackle health inequalities is being developed in the current political term. By choosing this priority, the Spanish Ministry of Health an Social Policy aims to contribute to move forward a coherent and effective agenda at both European and national level, in a new world stage more aware of the social and economic expenditure of inequity in health and its repercussions on countries welfare and development.

  16. No patent-no therapy: a matter of moral and legal consistency within the European Union regarding the use of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Faltus, Timo

    2014-12-01

    In the aftermath of the European Court of Justice's decision case of Brüstle v Greenpeace of October 2011 that patent claims encompassing human embryonic stem cells were patent-ineligible in the European Union on public order and morality grounds, a rash of stories has appeared predicting the destruction or exodus of human embryonic stem cells research. Irrespective of whether these predictions are justified, amazingly it has not been examined so far whether this decision has an implication on the justification of human embryonic stem cell-based therapies. Therefore, this article presents considerations about the logical link between that patent ruling and the justification of therapies based on human embryonic stem cells.

  17. A System of Systems (SoS) Approach to transforming to a low carbon resource-efficient energy system: Insights for the European Union (EU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Jess, T.; Mahlooji, M.; Ristic, B.

    2015-12-01

    The world's energy sector is experiencing a serious transition from reliance on fossil fuel energy sources to extensive reliance on renewable energies. Europe is leading the way in this transition to a low carbon economy in an attempt to keep climate change below 2oC. Member States have committed themselves to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% and increasing the share of renewables in the EU's energy mix to 20% by 2020. The EU has now gone a step further with the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% by 2050. Nevertheless, the short-term focus of the European Commission is at "cost-efficient ways" to cut its greenhouse gas emissions which forgoes the unintended impacts of a large expansion of low-carbon energy technologies on major natural resources such as water and land. This study uses the "System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment" (Hadian and Madani, 2015) to evaluate the Relative Aggregate Footprint (RAF) of energy sources in different European Union (EU) member states. RAF reflects the overall resource-use efficiency of energy sources with respect to four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. Weights are assigned to the four resource use efficiency criteria based on each member state's varying natural and economic resources to examine the changes in the desirability of energy sources based on regional resource availability conditions, and to help evaluating the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio. A longer-term strategy in Europe has been devised under the "Resource Efficient Europe" flagship imitative intended to put the EU on course to using resources in a sustainable way. This study will highlight the resource efficiency of the EU's energy sector in order to assist in a sustainable transition to a low carbon economy in Europe. ReferenceHadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All

  18. The European Dimension in Vocational Training. Experiences and Tasks of Vocational Training Policy in the Member States of the European Union. Congress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Richard, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This volume contains presentations and workshop papers from the International Congress on "The European Dimension of Vocational Training--Experiences and Tasks" that provided those with responsibility for vocational training a forum for analyzing and discussing challenges that have emerged from European cooperation in vocational training. Two…

  19. The use of community herbal monographs to facilitate registrations and authorisations of herbal medicinal products in the European Union 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Wieland

    2014-12-01

    The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far.

  20. Assessment of the dietary intake of total flavan-3-ols, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2014-04-28

    Dietary interventions with flavan-3-ols have shown beneficial effects on vascular function. The translation of these findings into the context of the health of the general public requires detailed information on habitual dietary intake. However, only limited data are currently available for European populations. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins (PA) and theaflavins in the European Union (EU) and determined their main food sources using the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. Data for adults aged 18-64 years were available from fourteen European countries, and intake was determined using the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition Database, developed for the present study and based on the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. The mean habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, theaflavins and PA ranged from 181 mg/d (Czech Republic) to 793 mg/d (Ireland). The highest intakes of flavan-3-ol monomers and theaflavins were observed in Ireland (191/505 mg/d) and the lowest intakes in Spain (24/9 mg/d). In contrast, the daily intake of PA was highest in Spain (175 mg/d) and lowest in The Netherlands (96 mg/d). Main sources were tea (62%), pome fruits (11%), berries (3%) and cocoa products (3%). Tea was the major single contributor to monomer intake (75%), followed by pome fruits (6%). Pome fruits were also the main source of PA (28%). The present study provides important data on the population-based intake of flavanols in the EU and demonstrates that dietary intake amounts for flavan-3-ol monomers, PA and theaflavins vary significantly across European countries. The average habitual intake of flavan-3-ols is considerably below the amounts used in most dietary intervention studies.