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Sample records for european union relations

  1. [European Union fight against smoking related activitiy].

    PubMed

    Calvete Oliva, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed at providing information concerning the provisions adopted by the European Union on both a compulsory and non-compulsory basis for its member States related in one way or another to the fight against smoking. To this end, a review is made of all of the provisions published in the Official Journal of the European Union as of the first published in 1986 up to March 2005, commenting upon the aspects of each provision having to do with the subject stated above.

  2. Compensation of research-related injuries in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Avilds, Miguelangel Ramiro

    2014-12-01

    The planned reform of the Clinical Trials Directive has re-opened the debate over how to implement and interpret research-related injuries regulation. In the European Union (EU), clinical trials are currently regulated by Directive 2001/20/EC, which establishes the provision of mandatory insurance before clinical trials commence but is silent on the system of liability. The proposed new Regulation will impact biomedical research assurance in all EU Member States because it points to insurance costs as being one of the causes of the fall in the number of clinical trials carried out in the EU. Despite the adoption of a risk-balance approach, the proposed new Regulation does not include a no-fault compensation system to protect subjects participating in clinical trials. An adequate protection of the rights and wellbeing of trial subjects would require not only mandatory insurance for clinical trials but also a no-fault compensation system. The new regulation should include a general clause requiring mandatory insurance and establishing liability insurance based on no-fault compensation; an exception clause, enabling the performance of clinical trials without insurance in the case of low-risk interventions or non-commercial clinical trials; and an exclusion clause, excluding compensation when there is no causal connection between injuries and clinical trial.

  3. U.S.-European Union Relations and the 2007 Summit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-13

    2007 summit to launch initiatives jointly promoting technological advances in biofuels, energy efficiency, methane recovery, and clean coal and carbon ... capture and storage. Although European officials agree with the United States that these technologies should help to improve transatlantic energy

  4. The European Union’s Impact on Turkey’s Pattern of Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    the influence of the military. These institutional changes designed by the European Union represent only the first step in Turkey’s attempt to gain......legislation packages designed to curb the influence of the military. These institutional changes designed by the European Union represent only the first

  5. Job satisfaction in the European union: the role of macroeconomic, personal, and job-related factors.

    PubMed

    Augner, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Job satisfaction is influenced by many factors. Most of them are attributed to personality or company features. Little research has been conducted identifying the relationship of job satisfaction with macroeconomic parameters. We used data collected by European Commission (Eurostat, Eurofound) and World Health Organization (WHO) for personal (eg, subjective health, physical activity), company (eg, career advancement perspectives, negative health effects of work), or macroeconomic parameters (eg, Gross Domestic Product, unemployment rate) on state level. Correlation analysis and a stepwise linear regression model were obtained. Gross domestic product (GDP) was the best predictor for job satisfaction across the European Union member states ahead of good career perspectives, and WHO-5 score (depressive symptoms). Beside personal, job-related, and organizational factors that influence job satisfaction, the macroeconomic perspective has to be considered, too.

  6. Models of risk assessments for biologicals or related products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Moos, M

    1995-12-01

    In the context of veterinary biologicals, environmental risk assessment means the evaluation of the risk to human health and the environment (which includes plants and animals) connected with the release of such products. The following categories or types of veterinary biologicals can be distinguished: non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMOs) (inactivated/live) GMOs (inactivated/live) carrier products related products (e.g. non-specific "inducers'). Suitable models used in risk assessment for these products should aim to identify all possible adverse effects. A good working model should lead, at least, to a qualitative judgement on the environmental risk of the biological product (e.g. negligible, low, medium, severe, unacceptable). Quantifiable outcomes are rare; therefore, the producer of a biological product and the European control authorities should accept only models which are based on testable points and which are relevant to the type of product and its instructions for use. In view of animal welfare aspects, models working without animals should be preferred. In recent years, some of these methods have been integrated into safety tests described in European Union Directives and in monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia. By reviewing vaccine/registration problems (e.g. Aujeszky's disease live vaccine for pigs, and vaccinia-vectored rabies vaccine), several models used in risk assessment are demonstrated and discussed.

  7. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Anna, Bluszcz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  8. Civil-Military Relations in the European Union and "Innere Fuehrung"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    35 For a deeper analysis including the development of modernization theory, see Juan J. Linz and Alfred C. Stepan, Problems of...the starting point of scholarly interest in EU member states. 71 Howorth, Security and Defence Policy in the European Union, 315; Alfred C. Stepan and...Defence Policy. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2006. Giegerich, Bastian and William Wallace . “Not Such a Soft Power: The External

  9. New Superpower, The European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    196 from Japan and 210 from the EC; in the Super Fifty non-American 27 are from the common market. It is clear that the European Union will be one of...C687e). (page 31, bottom)4 Mastrivh treaty, articulo 6Mastrich treaty, articulo 6Janes 1994, pag 31. 8ii JRATOM and Nuclear Safeguards. Darryl A

  10. Actions for prevention and control of health threats related to maritime transport in European Union.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Guglielmetti, Paolo; Lemos, Cinthia Menel; Nichols, Gordon; Paux, Thierry; Schlaich, Clara; Cornejo, Miguel Davila; Martinez, Carmen Varela; Dionisio, Mauro; Rehmet, Sybille; Jaremin, Bogdan; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Actions at European Union level for International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 implementation and maritime transport were focused on two European projects implemented between 2006 and 2011. Situation analysis and needs assessment were conducted, a Manual including European standards and best practice and training material was developed and training courses were delivered. Ship-to-port and port-to-port communication web-based network and database for recording IHR Ship Sanitation Certificates (SSC) were established. Fifty pilot inspections based on the Manual were conducted on passenger ships. A total of 393 corrective actions were implemented according to recommendations given to Captains during pilot inspections. The web-based communication network of competent authorities at ports in EU Member States was used to manage 13 events/outbreaks (dengue fever, Legionnaires' disease, gastroenteritis, meningitis, varicella and measles). The European information database system was used for producing and recording 1018 IHR SSC by 156 inspectors in 6 countries in accordance with the WHO Handbook for inspection of ships and issuance of SSC. Implementation of corrective actions after pilot inspections increased the level of compliance with the hygiene standards in passenger ships sailing within the EU waters and improved hygiene conditions. The communication tool contributed to improvement of outbreak identification and better management through rapid sharing of public health information, allowing a more timely and coordinated response. After the implementation of actions on passenger ships, the European Commission co-funded a Joint action that will expand the activities to all types of ships and chemical, biological and radio-nuclear threats (deliberate acts/accidental). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  12. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  13. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  14. The Imprimatur of Europe: Turkey, Europeanization, and the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    barriers to Turkey’s admission to the ED, the EU’s position on Turkey’s accession, bilateral views of key EU members, and assessment of the likelihood of...circumstances found in the international system. Our purpose is to look carefully at each view with an eye towards assessing its relative ability to contribute...intergovernmental organizations like OPEC, the United Nations, and the European Union, as well as multinational corporations like IBM, Shell or Ford, and

  15. Democratic Peace Theory and Greek-Turkish Relations in the Context of the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Organization 49, (1995): 511–22. 60 David L. Rousseau , Christopher Gelpi, Dan Reiter, and Paul K. Huth, “Assessing the Dyadic Nature of the Democratic...In particular, Greek policy was inspired by visionary leaders like Jean Monnet, Konrad Adenauer, and Robert Schuman, who right after the ending of...accession since it will have full veto rights. Additionally, as the European Commission representative, Jean -Christophe Filori, observed, “We will be

  16. Universal Services in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Johannes M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses universal service policies in the European Union. Topics include information access; the demise of the public service model; the effects of competition on universal service; financing; national implementation of member states; programs for schools and libraries; and pertinent Web sites on European universal service policy. (LRW)

  17. [The zig-zagging legislative policies of the European Union in relation to transgenic products].

    PubMed

    Martín Uranga, Amelia

    2003-01-01

    The author analyses the E.U. legislative policies related to transgenic products from the 80s until nowadays, she stops in Directive 2001/18/Ce and its conversion into national law. She explains how the regulatory frame is after the recent approval of the newest rules about tracking and labelling genetically modified organisms (OMG). She also studies communitary jurisprudence about this subject according to the legislation, concretely sentence 9 September 2003 in the affair C-236/01 about commercialisation of two lines of transgenic corn. Finally she points out how legislative policies have influenced the creation and development of biotechnological enterprises.

  18. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  19. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy.

  20. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    and the United Arab Emirates , Iraq (1997), and Iran (1997). 413 Haass, p. 236. 124 efforts at fighting domestic leftist uprisings.”414 Although...farreaching consequences for Arab willingness to work with the United States against Iraq and Libya, as well as its affects on European views towards...Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Kellar, Ronald Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s

  1. Recycling policy in the european union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballah, I.; Kanari, N.

    2001-11-01

    Recycling in the European Union (EU) has benefited from R&D efforts and strict environmental regulations of the EU’s members. Thanks to the adoption of sustainable development policies by the EU’s European Institutions, economic incentives are expected to further strengthen the recycling industry. Moreover, the historical accumulation of non-ferrous metals in Europe will likely enhance secondary metal production. Also contributing to EU recycling is mining in East European countries and the resulting industrial waste. The rate of growth of the recycling industry is expected to approach double digits for at least this decade.

  2. Affordability of medicines in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Zaprutko, Tomasz; Kopciuch, Dorota; Kus, Krzysztof; Merks, Piotr; Nowicka, Monika; Augustyniak, Izabela; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Background Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices. Methods The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU) countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU. Finally, we considered 9 originators used in the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Information on drug prices were collected from pharmacies. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous in order to avoid accusations of advertising. To evaluate affordability, several factors were used (e.g. minimum earnings and Gini coefficient). Due to unavailability in some countries, the exact number of analyzed medicines varies. Results Drug prices vary significantly between EU Member States. Almost eleven fold difference was observed between Germany (EUR 1451.17) and Croatia (EUR 132.77) in relation to Interferone beta-1a 22 μg. Generally, prices were the highest in Germany. The cheapest drugs were found in various countries but never in the poorest ones like Bulgaria or Romania. Discrepancies in wages were observed too (the smallest minimum wage was EUR 138.00 in Bulgaria and the highest EUR 1801.00 in Luxembourg). Full price of olanzapine 5mg, however, was higher in Bulgaria (EUR 64.53) than, for instance, in Belgium (EUR 37.26). Conclusions Analyzed medications are still unaffordable for many citizens of the EU. Besides, access to medicines is also impaired e.g. due to parallel trade. Unaffordability of medications may lead to the patients’ non-compliance and therefore to increased direct and indirect costs of treatment. Common European solutions are needed to achieve a real affordability and accessibility of medications. PMID

  3. [European Union funds and clinical toxicology].

    PubMed

    Wiszniewiecka, Monika; Cejrowski, Daniel; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Since 2014 we are heading the third programming period of help from European Union (EU). The new budget will run until 2020. From common resources of EU, 106 billion euro will reach Poland, of which about 82.3 billion to cohesion policy, levelling differences of regional development. Clinical toxicology centres will be able to apply for funding under the allocation for the health service. Polish health service very actively benefited from EU funds in previous programming periods, between 2004-2006, and 2007-2013. Thanks to grants from the EU, a large number of health centres were built or renovated. Unfortunately the needs of hospitals, which were underinvested for many years, exceeded available funds according to UE programmes. Except investment projects, also projects training of health professionals were executed. In the current programming period European Union will still support projects aimed at health service. Clinical toxicology centres should have a try of using this period to fulfil their plans.

  4. Institutions of the European Union: medical perspective.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    The way through the institutions of the European Union (EU) is very difficult. The difficulties will increase with the expansion of EU to 25 member states, and even more so in the area of medical societies. Following the agenda of the EU, an efficient public health service is a responsibility of every member country. The possibilities of medical interest are pointed out in this paper

  5. Differences in vaccinations in European Union.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    The European Union (EU) currently has 27 Member States, each with its own history, characteristics and habits. The National Health Services of most of these countries have different vaccination systems, different vaccine recommendations and different schedules of vaccine administration, which means that immunization is not considered in the same way and, at least for some antigens, vaccination coverage does not always meet changing medical needs. Together with a lack of political will concerning prevention in childhood, a poor understanding or false perceptions on the part of the general public (and even healthcare workers), and the inadequacies and heterogeneity of the vaccination systems can all be considered barriers to vaccinations in Europe. The most important limitations are those relating to the evaluation of vaccination coverage, the lack of active reminder systems to pick up patients who miss appointments, and the monitoring of adverse events. A common programme designed to overcome these limitations could be beneficial in promoting vaccinations everywhere, above all because active measures by the Health Authorities to demonstrate the importance they attribute to vaccination could convince still uncertain parents to have their children vaccinated.

  6. European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care

    PubMed Central

    Migliori, G.B.; Zellweger, J.P.; Abubakar, I.; Ibraim, E.; Caminero, J.A.; De Vries, G.; D'Ambrosio, L.; Centis, R.; Sotgiu, G.; Menegale, O.; Kliiman, K.; Aksamit, T.; Cirillo, D.M.; Danilovits, M.; Dara, M.; Dheda, K.; Dinh-Xuan, A.T.; Kluge, H.; Lange, C.; Leimane, V.; Loddenkemper, R.; Nicod, L.P.; Raviglione, M.C.; Spanevello, A.; Thomsen, V.Ø.; Villar, M.; Wanlin, M.; Wedzicha, J.A.; Zumla, A.; Blasi, F.; Huitric, E.; Sandgren, A.; Manissero, D.

    2012-01-01

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) jointly developed European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ESTC) aimed at providing European Union (EU)-tailored standards for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB). The International Standards for TB Care (ISTC) were developed in the global context and are not always adapted to the EU setting and practices. The majority of EU countries have the resources and capacity to implement higher standards to further secure quality TB diagnosis, treatment and prevention. On this basis, the ESTC were developed as standards specifically tailored to the EU setting. A panel of 30 international experts, led by a writing group and the ERS and ECDC, identified and developed the 21 ESTC in the areas of diagnosis, treatment, HIV and comorbid conditions, and public health and prevention. The ISTCs formed the basis for the 21 standards, upon which additional EU adaptations and supplements were developed. These patient-centred standards are targeted to clinicians and public health workers, providing an easy-to-use resource, guiding through all required activities to ensure optimal diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB. These will support EU health programmes to identify and develop optimal procedures for TB care, control and elimination. PMID:22467723

  7. Enhancing the European Union’s Development Strategy in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Brussels: European Union, 12 December 2008. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=266& lang =En (accessed July 28, 2009). 7. 5 European Union...www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx ?id=266& lang =EN (accessed August 14, 2009). 4–6; Council of the European Union, EU-Afghanistan Joint Declaration...Security Strategy,” Consilium – European Security Strategy. December 12, 2003. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=266& lang =en (accessed

  8. [Women and tobacco in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Sasco, A; Salvador, T; Villalbí, J R

    1999-01-01

    Over the last decades, the prevalence of smoking in the European Union has followed different trends by sex. While the prevalence has declined for men, it has increased or is stable for women. In some countries where these changes took place earlier, the prevalence of smoking is now higher among women than among men. This document provides quantitative data for these trends in the European Union, with special reference to the situation in Spain. In 1995 there were 60 million men and 42 million women smokers in the European Union. Up to 48% of female smokers used light cigarettes, that is 20 million women. There are documents from the tobacco industry showing that the goal of the promotion of light cigarettes is to reassure their clients and to keep as smokers those concerned about their health who are considering the possibility of quitting. There is evidence confirming that this policy is successful, and that the misconceptions of smokers about light cigarettes deter them from quitting. There is evidence on the role of smoking in weight control. Women are more concerned than men about their weight, and for young women body image is very relevant. Young girls often have the perception that they are overweight. Although fear of being overweight is more common than actual overweight, the evidence suggests that being afraid of gaining weight plays a role in keeping women as smokers, and that young girls begin smoking taking into consideration weight issues. The advice on how to maintain weight should be included in any smoking cessation program for women. Any preventive action for teen age smokers should include weight control issues.

  9. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  10. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  11. Patentability of Genes: A European Union Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the position in the United States following the recent Supreme Court decision in Myriad, in the European Union naturally occurring genetic sequences, whether of human or other origin, remain patent-eligible. Here the basis for such eligibility in legislation and in case law is explained. The utility of a sequence must be disclosed as a condition of eligibility, and requirements outlined in European Patent Office (EPO) and U.K. case law are discussed. A claimed sequence must also satisfy requirements of novelty and inventive step, the latter being considered primarily using the tests of “obvious to try” and reasonable expectation of success. From both positive and negative examples the significance of an identifiable difficulty supported by documentary and/or experimental evidence is apparent. Issues of priority and subject matter added by amendment during prosecution of an application can create unexpected problems given the narrow interpretation within the EPO of the identity of a disclosed sequence, and these problems are explored using as an example an opposition to a European patent covering BRCA1 gene sequences. Practical steps for the drafting of patent specifications to be filed in Europe are outlined. PMID:25324232

  12. Public funding for research on antibacterial resistance in the JPIAMR countries, the European Commission, and related European Union agencies: a systematic observational analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ruth; Zoubiane, Ghada; Walsh, Desmond; Ward, Rebecca; Goossens, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Antibacterial resistant infections are rising continuously, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. With no new antibiotic classes entering the market and the possibility of returning to the pre-antibiotic era, the Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR) was established to address this problem. We aimed to quantify the scale and scope of publicly funded antibacterial resistance research across JPIAMR countries and at the European Union (EU) level to identify gaps and future opportunities. We did a systematic observational analysis examining antibacterial resistance research funding. Databases of funding organisations across 19 countries and at EU level were systematically searched for publicly funded antibacterial resistance research from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2013. We categorised studies on the basis of the JPIAMR strategic research agenda's six priority topics (therapeutics, diagnostics, surveillance, transmission, environment, and interventions) and did an observational analysis. Only research funded by public funding bodies was collected and no private organisations were contacted for their investments. Projects in basic, applied, and clinical research, including epidemiological, public health, and veterinary research and trials were identified using keyword searches by organisations, and inclusion criteria were based on the JPIAMR strategic research agenda's six priority topics, using project titles and abstracts as filters. We identified 1243 antibacterial resistance research projects, with a total public investment of €1·3 billion across 19 countries and at EU level, including public investment in the Innovative Medicines Initiative. Of the total amount invested in antibacterial resistance research across the time period, €646·6 million (49·5%) was invested at the national level and €659·2 million (50·5%) at the EU level. When projects were classified under the six priority topics we found that 763 (63

  13. Public funding for research on antibacterial resistance in the JPIAMR countries, the European Commission, and related European Union agencies: a systematic observational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ruth; Zoubiane, Ghada; Walsh, Desmond; Ward, Rebecca; Goossens, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Antibacterial resistant infections are rising continuously, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. With no new antibiotic classes entering the market and the possibility of returning to the pre-antibiotic era, the Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR) was established to address this problem. We aimed to quantify the scale and scope of publicly funded antibacterial resistance research across JPIAMR countries and at the European Union (EU) level to identify gaps and future opportunities. Methods We did a systematic observational analysis examining antibacterial resistance research funding. Databases of funding organisations across 19 countries and at EU level were systematically searched for publicly funded antibacterial resistance research from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2013. We categorised studies on the basis of the JPIAMR strategic research agenda's six priority topics (therapeutics, diagnostics, surveillance, transmission, environment, and interventions) and did an observational analysis. Only research funded by public funding bodies was collected and no private organisations were contacted for their investments. Projects in basic, applied, and clinical research, including epidemiological, public health, and veterinary research and trials were identified using keyword searches by organisations, and inclusion criteria were based on the JPIAMR strategic research agenda's six priority topics, using project titles and abstracts as filters. Findings We identified 1243 antibacterial resistance research projects, with a total public investment of €1·3 billion across 19 countries and at EU level, including public investment in the Innovative Medicines Initiative. Of the total amount invested in antibacterial resistance research across the time period, €646·6 million (49·5%) was invested at the national level and €659·2 million (50·5%) at the EU level. When projects were classified under the six

  14. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  15. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  16. European Citizenship and European Union Expansion: Perspectives on Europeanness and Citizenship Education from Britain and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Chris; Busher, Hugh; Lawson, Tony; Acun, Ismail; Goz, Nur Leman

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some perspectives on citizenship education in Turkey and Britain in the context of current contested discourses on the nature of European identity and of the European Union (EU). It is based on data collected during an EU-funded student teacher exchange programme between three universities in Turkey and Leicester University…

  17. Is ICH exportable outside the European Union?

    PubMed

    Dent, N J

    2000-01-01

    This article sets out to explore whether or not the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Good Clinical Practices (GCP) Guidelines are exportable outside the European Union (EU). It is not a question of whether the Guidelines per se are exportable but rather can studies outside the EU be performed to the same, or a better standard? It is well known that the ICH Guidelines are accepted worldwide in the countries where International Clinical Trials are carried out. Likewise with the signatories to the Step 5 document being the major players--the USA, Japan, and Europe--the guidelines are already enshrined in national legislation. The author therefore sets out to address whether clinical trials can be conducted to the ICH GCP standard outside Western Europe. The facts and opinions presented here are based on a 16 centre (of which eight of the centres were required to be audited by the Sponsor) clinical study that was carried out in both the Czech Republic and Poland for nonseasonal rhinitis. The recruitment of patients was required to take place in a short period of time and had strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The overall concept of the study and the compliance with internationally accepted ICH GCPs was found to be of a very high standard. In addition, several other studies from totally different therapeutic areas, clearly show that the standard in non-EU countries is equally high and in most cases of a higher standard than is seen at the principal investigators sites within the EU. In what Western Europeans like to call "developing countries," an understanding of the international GCPs has already been grasped and extremely high quality clinical trials are being carried out. To demonstrate this, attention is drawn to a large head and neck cancer study that was part device and part pharmaceutical product and was conducted in conjunction with photodynamic therapy (PDT), carried out in several countries, but of note in India.

  18. Languages and Institutions in the European Union. Mercator Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz, Manuel

    This paper situates languages in the framework of European construction, analyzing problems resulting from the definition of languages' official status in the European Union (EU) juridical system. It explains that the process of European construction is historically defined by means of two distinct features (it is an open process, and at the same…

  19. The revision of the air quality legislation in the european union related to ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Amann, M; Lutz, M

    2000-11-03

    Complying with the obligation in the current ozone directive, the European Commission came forward in 1999 with a strategy to combat tropospheric ozone together with a proposed revision of the air quality legislation for this pollutant. As a daughter legislation under the 1996 Framework Directive on Air Quality, the proposed ozone daughter directive defines for the first time (interim) air quality targets for ozone to be attained by 2010, complemented by long-term objectives for ozone based on the guideline values of the World Health Organisation. It also sets out enhanced requirements for monitoring and assessment of ozone concentrations, as well as minimum criteria for appropriate information of the public about the measured air pollution. In the past, abatement strategies against air pollution consisted of concrete obligations for controlling emissions derived solely on the basis of technical and economic aspects, covering specific types of installations or activities, thus with no direct quantitative relationship to the level of air pollution let alone to its effects. In compensating this deficit, the Commission presented, as a complement to the existing sectoral legislation, a proposal for a directive on national emission ceilings (NEC) which quantifies emission targets for every Member State to bring its total precursor emissions by 2010 down to levels being considered as necessary to achieve everywhere on a regional scale the air quality targets set in the ozone daughter directive. As the core element of the ozone abatement strategy, the national ceilings for emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), ammonia (NH(3)) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were derived from a cost-effectiveness analysis integrating information on economic, technical, physical and biological aspects of ozone pollution and abatement. This integrated assessment considers the potential and costs for further emission control in the various economic sectors in the

  20. [Human cloning in the activities of the European Union].

    PubMed

    Mik, C

    2001-01-01

    The European Union has been concerned with human cloning since the late 80. It resulted from inclusion of biotechnology into the sphere of European integration. The attitude of the European Union in the domain of human cloning was shaped, in principle in the second part of the 90. As the Community law stands at present, the European Union is not able to regulate all aspects of the cloning of human beings. It has no general power to decide in that sphere, especially, as far as bioethic aspects are concerned. The cloning of human beings in the European Union is understood as a process aiming at producing new human being, genetically identical with another live or dead human being. Thus the notion of human cloning is reduced to reproductive cloning. Three instruments are at the disposal of the European Union in the domain of human cloning. The first is prohibition of reproductive cloning as a general principle of Community law. However, that principle is not the result of judicial activity of the European Court of Justice (as general principles normally are), but the logical consequence of views formally expressed by the European Parliament, the Council of the Europe as well as the Commission. The principle was finally included in the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union. The second instrument is an imperative prohibition of patent granting to biotechnological inventions on human reproductive cloning. Last, but not least, the Union applies a prohibition of financing scientific research connected with human cloning from the budget of the European Communities within the V Framework Programme in the field of research and technological development.

  1. A Research on University Students' Opinions about the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabas, Ramazan; Polat, Ümit; Kamer, S. Tunay

    2009-01-01

    This paper's aim is to analyze university students' opinions about Europe, Europeanship, and Europe Union nowadays when entering European Unions arguments are on. Data's are collected by "interview" method by senior class students in different parts of this qualitative research. In 2008-2009 academic years, 50 students' opinions on…

  2. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of... Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal.... Atlantis Program, CFDA number 84.116J, must be submitted electronically using the Governmentwide Grants.gov...

  3. Turkey and European Union. Problems and Prospects for Membership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    and Politics in the Light of February 28 Process,” p. 315. The comment is from Tuncer Kilinc, the Secretary General of the NSC. 91 See Ersel Aydinli ...136 Ersel Aydinli and Don Waxman. “A Dream Become Nightmare? Turkey’s Entry into the European Union,” Current... Aydinli , Ersel and Waxman, Don, “A Dream Become Nightmare? Turkey’s Entry into the European Union,” Current History, November 2001. 103 Balkan, N. and

  4. Migration-related tuberculosis: epidemiology and characteristics of tuberculosis cases originating outside the European Union and European Economic Area, 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    Migrants arriving from high tuberculosis (TB)-incidence countries may pose a significant challenge to TB control programmes in the host country. TB surveillance data for 2007-2013 submitted to the European Surveillance System were analysed. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin and reporting country. The contribution of migrant TB cases to the TB epidemiology in EU/EEA countries was analysed. Migrant TB cases accounted for 17.4% (n = 92,039) of all TB cases reported in the EU/EEA in 2007-2013, continuously increasing from 13.6% in 2007 to 21.8% in 2013. Of 91,925 migrant cases with known country of origin, 29.3% were from the Eastern Mediterranean, 23.0% from south-east Asia, 21.4% from Africa, 13.4% from the World Health Organization European Region (excluding EU/EEA), and 12.9% from other regions. Of 46,499 migrant cases with known drug-susceptibility test results, 2.9% had multidrug-resistant TB, mainly (51.7%) originating from the European Region. The increasing contribution of TB in migrants from outside the EU/EEA to the TB burden in the EU/EEA is mainly due to a decrease in native TB cases. Especially in countries with a high proportion of TB cases in non-EU/EEA migrants, targeted prevention and control initiatives may be needed to progress towards TB elimination.

  5. Has the European union achieved a single pharmaceutical market?

    PubMed

    Timur, Aysegul; Picone, Gabriel; DeSimone, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores price differences in the European Union (EU) pharmaceutical market, the EU's fifth largest industry. With the aim of enhancing quality of life along with industry competitiveness and R&D capability, many EU directives have been adopted to achieve a single EU-wide pharmaceutical market. Using annual 1994-2003 data on prices of molecules that treat cardiovascular disease, we examine whether drug price dispersion has indeed decreased across five EU countries. Hedonic regressions show that over time, cross-country price differences between Germany and three of the four other EU sample countries, France, Italy and Spain, have declined, with relative prices in all three as well as the fourth country, UK, rising during the period. We interpret this as evidence that the EU has come closer to achieving a single pharmaceutical market in response to increasing European Commission coordination efforts.

  6. Vocation or Vocational? Reviewing European Union Education and Mobility Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Amelia; Summerby-Murray, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role that education plays in European Union (EU) integration. We ask whether efforts which historically have been designed to endow European students with a "knowledge of Europe" in terms of an understanding of culture, politics and sensibility have been circumscribed by, or augmented, by the recently…

  7. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  8. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  9. Kindergarten Reading and Writing Curricula in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafa, Eufimia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the current literacy programmes in European Union kindergarten curricula support and enhance young children's reading and writing development. This study investigated whether the kindergarten curricula of 10 European countries: Britain, Belgium, France, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Portugal,…

  10. Vocation or Vocational? Reviewing European Union Education and Mobility Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Amelia; Summerby-Murray, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role that education plays in European Union (EU) integration. We ask whether efforts which historically have been designed to endow European students with a "knowledge of Europe" in terms of an understanding of culture, politics and sensibility have been circumscribed by, or augmented, by the recently…

  11. The effects of capping the alcohol consumption distribution and relative risk functions on the estimated number of deaths attributable to alcohol consumption in the European Union in 2004

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background When calculating the number of deaths attributable to alcohol consumption (i.e., the number of deaths that would not have occurred if everyone was a lifetime abstainer), alcohol consumption is most often modelled using a capped exposure distribution so that the maximum average daily consumption is 150 grams of pure alcohol. However, the effect of capping the exposure distribution on the estimated number of alcohol-attributable deaths has yet to be systematically evaluated. Thus, the aim of this article is to estimate the number of alcohol-attributable deaths by means of a capped and an uncapped gamma distribution and capped and uncapped relative risk functions using data from the European Union (EU) for 2004. Methods Sex- and disease-specific alcohol relative risks were obtained from the ongoing Global Burden of Disease, Comparative Risk Assessment Study. Adult per capita consumption estimates were obtained from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health. Data on the prevalence of current drinkers, former drinkers, and lifetime abstainers by sex and age were obtained from various population surveys. Alcohol-attributable deaths were calculated using Alcohol-Attributable Fractions that were calculated using capped (at 150 grams of alcohol) and uncapped alcohol consumption distributions and capped and uncapped relative risk functions. Results Alcohol-attributable mortality in the EU may have been underestimated by 25.5% for men and 8.0% for women when using the capped alcohol consumption distribution and relative risk functions, amounting to the potential underestimation of over 23,000 and 1,100 deaths in 2004 in men and women respectively. Capping of the relative risk functions leads to an estimated 9,994 and 468 fewer deaths for men and for women respectively when using an uncapped gamma distribution to model alcohol consumption, accounting for slightly less than half of the potential underestimation. Conclusions Although the distribution of

  12. Integration through Europeanization: Ukraine’s Policy Towards the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Europeanization . The Orange Revolution of late 2004, and the implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy , significantly improved Ukraine’s European ...of the European Neighbourhood Policy , significantly improved Ukraine’s European prospects. This thesis examines Ukraine’s efforts to undertake the... Neighbourhood Policy and Ukraine is one of six post-Soviet states invited to cooperate with the European Union within the multilateral

  13. The European Union, Education Governance and International Education Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volante, Louis; Ritzen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The European Union--comprising 28 member states with individual sovereignty in the formation and implementation of education policy--has developed research and communication strategies to facilitate the exchange of best practices, gathering and dissemination of education statistics and, perhaps most importantly, advice and support for national…

  14. Gender, Jobs and Working Conditions in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Colette; Burchell, Brendan

    Trends in gender, jobs, and working conditions in the European Union (EU) were examined. In 2000, representative samples of approximately 1,500 workers in each of the EU member states (500 in Luxembourg) were surveyed. To identify trends, the survey findings were compared with those of similar surveys conducted in 1991 and 1996. The comparison…

  15. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  16. Key Data on Vocational Training in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This book provides key quantitative and qualitative data on vocational education and training (VET) in the European Union. Among the topics on which data are provided are the following: demographic trends, educational attainment, and the labor market (aging of the population and labor force, changes in educational attainment over time, impacts of…

  17. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  18. The European Union, Education Governance and International Education Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volante, Louis; Ritzen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The European Union--comprising 28 member states with individual sovereignty in the formation and implementation of education policy--has developed research and communication strategies to facilitate the exchange of best practices, gathering and dissemination of education statistics and, perhaps most importantly, advice and support for national…

  19. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  20. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  1. RAPHAEL: The European Union's (Very) High Temperature Reactor Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fuetterer, Michael A.; Besson, D.; Bogusch, E.; Carluec, B.; Hittner, D.; Verrier, D.; Billot, Ph.; Phelip, M.; Buckthorpe, D.; Casalta, S.; Chauvet, V.; Van Heek, A.; Von Lensa, W.; Pirson, J.; Scheuermann, W.

    2006-07-01

    Since the late 1990, the European Union (EU) was conducting work on High Temperature Reactors (HTR) confirming their high potential in terms of safety (inherent safety features), environmental impact (robust fuel with no significant radioactive release), sustainability (high efficiency, potential suitability for various fuel cycles), and economics (simplifications arising from safety features). In April 2005, the EU Commission has started a new 4-year Integrated Project on Very High Temperature Reactors (RAPHAEL: Reactor for Process Heat And Electricity) as part of its 6{sup th} Framework Programme. The European Commission and the 33 partners from industry, R and D organizations and academia finance the project together. After the successful performance of earlier HTR-related EU projects which included the recovery of some earlier German experience and the re-establishment of strategically important R and D capabilities in Europe, RAPHAEL focuses now on key technologies required for an industrial VHTR deployment, both specific to very high temperature and generic to all types of modular HTR with emphasis on combined process heat and electricity generation. Advanced technologies are explored in order to meet the performance challenges required for a VHTR (900-1000 deg C, up to 200 GWd/tHM). To facilitate the planned sharing of significant parts of RAPHAEL results with the signatories of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) VHTR projects, RAPHAEL is structured in a similar way as the corresponding GIF VHTR projects. (authors)

  2. [Interpretation of Guidelines on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices for European Union].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Due to the limitations of pre-authorization clinical trials, the safety information obtained from them is relatively limited. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out pharmacovigilance activities on drugs post-marketing. In order to promote the specific implementation of the new pharmacovigilance regulations, the European medicines agency (EMA) developed the Guideline on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices (GVP), as the new criteria for pharmacovigilance in the European Union (EU). Compared with the previously published, Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance for Medicinal Products for Human Use (2007), the GVP proposed more comprehensive and systematic provisions of pharmacovigilance systems, quality control systems, judgements, pharmacovigilance inspections and audits. In addition, it set more specific and comprehensive requirements on risk management systems, the management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products, periodic safety update reports, post-authorization safety studies, signal management, and so on. Interpreting the basic principles, working mechanisms, key technologies and methods of the GVP provides a useful reference for us to carry out pharmacovigilance (especially regarding safety monitoring of parenterally administered Chinese medicine).

  3. Human vaccine research in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Ole F; Lonnroth, Anna; Mulligan, Bernard

    2009-01-29

    The use of vaccines is saving millions of lives every year across the globe, but a number of important diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB and hepatitis C continue to frustrate attempts to produce effective vaccines against them. Confronting these challenges will require new approaches and increased research efforts by the scientific community. The Sixth Framework Programme (FP6; 2002-2006) of the European Commission (EC) has been an important catalyst in this direction by allocating a financial contribution of more than EUR 210 million to a wide variety of vaccine research activities, ranging from basic vaccinology, translational research to clinical application of vaccines. Taken together, around 581 research groups from 52 countries are participating in the vaccine activities of FP6. This impressive number signals a new spirit of collaborative research, which will facilitate the exploitation of the immense possibilities in modern vaccinology.

  4. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    PubMed

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Uranium mine and mill tailings - Liabilities in the European Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hilden, Wolfgang; Murphy, Simon; Vrijen, Jan

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Uranium mining and milling has taken place on large scale in the Member States of the European Union (EU) for some 60 years. Although, compared to mining, milling activities are normally concentrated in fewer locations, this can still result in a relatively large number of disposal sites for the tailings, compared to other radioactive wastes. In addition these sites are also quite large, in terms of both volume and surface area. Coupled with the residual uranium in the tailings together with other radionuclides, heavy metals, chemicals etc this results in an environmental legacy continuing far into the future. Often during production no or little provision has been made for the closure, remediation and future supervision of such sites. In 1996 the European Commission funded an inventory of uranium mining and milling liabilities in nine Central and Eastern European Countries. Additionally, pilot projects were funded to carry out remediation activities at several sites. Almost ten years later the Commission has identified the need to address the situation of these large liabilities in all EU Member States and to assess the progress made in remediation of the sites, especially in view of the closure of almost all mining activities in Europe. The Commission study has identified the current tailings liabilities in Europe, their status, the future plans for these sites and the hazards that continue to be associated with them. It is clear that although considerable progress has been made in recent years, much work remains to be carried out in the areas of remediation, and ensuring the long-term safety of many of the identified objects. The paper presents the main findings of the study, as well as the challenges identified to ensure long-term safety of these wastes. (authors)

  7. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective.

    PubMed

    Alban, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  8. Demographic challenges across the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    Megyesiová, Silvia; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2012-07-01

    The Member States of the European Union are undergoing major demographic changes; these changes are slow but significant. The demographic picture in the EU-27 is clearer: population growth is mainly the result of immigration, fertility is far below the replacement ratio, and the population is growing older, which will be a key demographic challenge in many Member States. All the actual demographic trends will have consequences for health care systems. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. University degrees consistent with agricultural production in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigones, Alicia; del Cerro, Jesus; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Benedicto, Susana; García, Jose Luis

    2013-04-01

    Degrees clearly oriented to rural and agricultural engineering are distinguished from the rest of the engineering areas by the need to involve the biological phenomena of engineering calculations. These degrees, which include subjects such as crop production, biotechnology and physics, among others, have evolved tremendously over the last ten years, implanting new curricula and introducing new specialties such as those dedicated to the environment or rural development, thereby adapting new social, economic and environmental aspects of each country. Currently being finalized to implement new titles in most Spanish universities, and in rest of Europe, following the guidelines set by Bologna. The process of elaboration of these degrees is complicated precisely because of the great variety of areas and subjects involved in these degrees. In this paper we study, for several countries of the European Union, the core subjects of the university degrees of agricultural engineering and the correlations between the core contents and the importance of the related uses of the soil in the different sectors of crop production (arable crops, horticulture, fruit growing, gardening, etc.) as well as other socio-economic criteria. The objective is to detect if the design of the core content is consistent in each country with the importance of the related socio-economic sector. Key-words: curriculum, crop production, agricultural engineer.

  10. Future directions in the European union for veterinary education as related to food-producing animals, with special reference to Greece.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, Spyridon C; Alexopoulos, Constantinos; Tassis, Panayiotis D; Tzika, Eleni D; Kritas, Spyridon K; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2004-01-01

    During the past 50 years, procedures for raising food-producing animals have changed. Intensification of food production was necessary to keep prices low and to fulfill market demands for the continuously increasing worldwide population. Intensification of farming procedures produced many new problems, some of which had a considerable impact on public opinion about how animals are raised and how food of animal origin is produced and preserved. "Man made diseases" of animals such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE); contamination of foods with dioxins either through contamination of animal feeds or from the environment; and increased microbial resistance to drugs used for treatment, for prophylaxis of animals from infectious agents, and for growth promotion are some well-known hazards of intensified farming. Veterinarians working on food-producing animals are faced with an increased demand for foods of high quality and safety in developed countries, and higher quantities in the rest of the world. These qualitative and quantitative changes indicate that they must adjust to these new conditions. They will be most successful if their education is adjusted to meet the challenges that the public has created for them through new concepts of the production of food of animal origin. One such concept is the production of foods under fully certified procedures from the farm to the consumer's table. Food safety measures protecting public health will better be achieved if the education of the future veterinarian includes the principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) starting at farm level. This article provides some market-driven ideas in this direction for European Union (EU) countries, including Greece.

  11. Consumers and animal welfare. A comparison between European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata

    2012-04-01

    This paper analyses the impact of a priori identified determinants on stated willingness to change usual place of shopping in order to be able to buy more animal welfare friendly food products of consumers in nine European Union countries. We used Eurobarometer data and structural equation models with observed and latent variables. The results show that the ranking of determinants' impact on the behavioural willingness is similar in the majority of models, with access to information as the strongest determinant, followed by perceived responsibility of consumers and education with strong influence, then by labelling and occupation with lower impact and ending with children, with the lowest influence. This study aims to provide some evidence on the relationship between welfare friendly behavioural willingness and information and labelling issues, amongst other determinants, in the European Union. As both access to information and perception of welfare labelling were found to significantly influence the behavioural willingness, this might suggest the need for the European Union to invest more in improving the welfare labelling system, enhance the welfare information available to the public and improve access to it through measures such as welfare education campaigns.

  12. The Involvement of the European Union in Career Guidance Policy: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Sultana, Ronald G.; McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    The history of the involvement of the European Union in the development of policy related to career guidance is analysed in terms of three broad periods. In the first two of these, interventions were confined to pilot projects, exchanges and placements, study visits and studies/surveys, with particular attention to young people; whereas the period…

  13. The Involvement of the European Union in Career Guidance Policy: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Sultana, Ronald G.; McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    The history of the involvement of the European Union in the development of policy related to career guidance is analysed in terms of three broad periods. In the first two of these, interventions were confined to pilot projects, exchanges and placements, study visits and studies/surveys, with particular attention to young people; whereas the period…

  14. Archives, Libraries and Museums as Communicators of Memory in the European Union Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzuch, Zinaida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Explores the approach to communication of memory in archives, libraries and museums in European Union research projects in 2000-2005. The main objectives were: to identify predominant aspects of heritage communication; to determine whether and how heritage communication was related to memory; to establish patterns of participation in…

  15. Final report of coordination and cooperation with the European Union on embankment failure analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been an emphasis in the European Union (EU) community on the investigation of extreme flood processes and the uncertainties related to these processes. Over a 3-year period, the EU and the U.S. dam safety community (1) coordinated their efforts and collected information needed to integrate...

  16. A Comprehensive Fracture Prevention Strategy in Older Adults: The European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) Statement.

    PubMed

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.

  17. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement.

    PubMed

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.

  18. The impact of European Union law on public health.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, John

    The previous articles on the European Union and health law have looked at the effect of EU law on the practitioner and on the patient. This article considers the impact on public health. This is a broad concept, and the impact of EU law is equally broadly felt. There is a general recognition of the importance of health issues, reflected in Article 152 (1) EC, A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Community policies and activities. This article focuses particularly on the impact of Article 152 on public health within individual member states.

  19. Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

  20. Scientists Debate Geoengineering at European Geosciences Union Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and others have presented forecasts of a warmer world and cautioned that some forms of geoengineering might be necessary to deal with climate change in an emergency situation. A debate about geoengineering the climate, held at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly on 1 May, explored whether any geoengineering techniques should be considered; if so, which might be acceptable; and what circumstances could necessitate their use. Also discussed was whether potential unintended repercussions from geoengineering could be worse than the problem.

  1. Risk assessment of biological hazards in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Hugas, Marta; Tsigarida, Eirini; Robinson, Tobin; Calistri, Paolo

    2007-11-30

    International, community and national food safety law and any subsequent decision-making practices aim to be based on risk analysis--a process consisting of risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. With the appointment of the European Food Safety Authority as an independent scientific point of reference in risk assessment, there is a clear functional separation between risk assessment and risk management in the European Union food safety context. When a food safety question on microbiological hazards is to be answered--which is under the remit of the EFSA's Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ)--extensive dialogue and interactions covering the clarity of the question, the acceptability of the deadline and the availability of all necessary information take place with both the risk managers who ask the question and the stakeholders. During the first mandate of the BIOHAZ Panel (2003-2006), the scientific opinions were mainly based on qualitative and in some cases semi-quantitative microbiological risk assessment. In the second mandate of the BIOHAZ Panel, and as a first step towards developing a European approach on Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA), EFSA is preparing to carry out a QMRA on Salmonella in pigs, at European level through a consortium of European institutes.

  2. Organization and financing of home nursing in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kerkstra, A; Hutten, J B

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the organization and financing of home nursing in the 15 member states in the European Union. Home nursing was defined as the nursing care provided at the patients' home by professional home nursing organizations. Data were gathered by means of three complementary research methods: desk research, postal questionnaire among identified experts and face-to-face interviews with experts. The results showed that there are large differences between the countries in the way home nursing care is financed. There seems to be a relation between the way of funding and the organizational structure. In member states where the organizations receive a fixed budget, based on the number of inhabitants or the demography of the catchment area, home nursing is mainly provided by one type of organization and is freely accessible for the patients. In this situation there is little competition among the organizations, and the catchment areas of the regional organizations do not tend to overlap. On the other hand, in countries where organizations are reimbursed according to a fee-for-service principle and a referral of a doctor is required, home nursing is provided by different types of organizations and also by independent nurses. It seems that fee-for-service reimbursement stimulates competition between providers and a market-oriented home care. In addition, a fee-for-service method of funding also has the consequence that mainly technical nursing procedures and some basic care are reimbursed; this leaves little room for nurses to perform preventive and psychosocial activities or to provide more integrated care.

  3. Implementation of the European Union's Bathing Water Directive in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yukseler, Hande; Girgin, Serkan; Yetis, Ulku; Valatka, Simonas; Semeniene, Daiva; Kerestecioglu, Merih; Jacobsen, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The European Union (EU) Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) sets out standards for designated bathing waters which should be complied with by all Member States. Turkey, being a candidate country to the EU, requires heavy-cost investments in achieving approximation with the EU Environmental Acquis. This paper provides a description of the technical measures and investment and operational cost assessment related to the implementation of the Bathing Water Directive in Turkey. Bathing waters are defined as "all running or still freshwaters or parts thereof and seawater, in which bathing is explicitly authorized by the competent authorities, or bathing is not prohibited and is traditionally practiced by a large number of bathers". Since there is no complete registration of bathing waters in Turkey, this study has targeted all coastal agglomerations and designated these as in proximity to "highly-touristic" and "other" agglomerations including the agglomerations in the proximity of six lakes that are popularly used as bathing waters. For each of these agglomerations an assessment of the existing infrastructure has been made. In defining the infrastructural need, two scenarios have been developed. According to Scenario 1, only highly-touristic and touristic places are to receive investment. The suggested further treatment was "disinfection+sea outfall" and "sea-outfall", for highly-touristic and touristic agglomerations, respectively. In Scenario 2, other coastal agglomerations and all freshwater lakes were also included and disinfection has been proposed for these settlements. It appears that the total investment is at around 12.6 million Euros for Scenario 1 and increases to 21.8 million Euros for Scenario 2; whereas the annual operational and maintenance costs are about 0.5 and 0.8 million Euros for Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively.

  4. European Union pharmacovigilance capabilities: potential for the new legislation

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, Amy; Kouvelas, Dimitrios; Lungu, Calin; Pirozynski, Michal; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Aislaitner, George

    2015-01-01

    European Directives and Regulations introduced between late 2010 and 2012 have substantially overhauled pharmacovigilance processes across the European Union (EU). In this review, the implementation of the pharmacovigilance legislative framework by EU regulators is examined with the aim of mapping Directive 2010/84/EU and Regulation EC No. 1235/2010 against their aspired objectives of strengthening and rationalizing pharmacovigilance in the EU. A comprehensive review of the current state of affairs of the progress made by EU regulators is presented in this paper. Our review shows that intense efforts by regulators and industry to fulfil legislative obligations have resulted in major positive shifts in pharmacovigilance. Harmonized decision making, transparency in decision processes with patient involvement, information accessibility to the public, patient adverse drug reaction reporting, efforts in communication and enhanced cooperation between member states to maximize resource utilization and minimize duplication of efforts are observed. PMID:26301067

  5. Dossier for marketing authorization in the European union.

    PubMed

    Todić, Maida

    2003-03-01

    Extensive and complete documentation must be presented for marketing authorization of a medicinal product in the EU. Presented documentation should prove quality, safety and efficacy of the medicinal product. It is ensured that the applicant supplies the authorities with complete information. The legislation in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has also taken more steps towards those European directions. The presentation and content of the dossier in the European Union has been redefined. The "old" EU format will be replaced with the Common Technical Document (EU CTD format) agreed in 2000, within the International Conference on Harmonization framework. These two formats are intended to coexist during the transition period until July 2003. The CTD is an internationally agreed upon format for the preparation of a well structured presentation for applications to be submitted to regulatory authorities in the three ICH regions of Europe, US and Japan.

  6. Crisis in the United Nations, NATO and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    The unilateralist policies of the United States administration have raised the question of how the international system should operate. It is suggested that the administration is dismissive of institutions such as the United Nations, the International Criminal Court and the Kyoto Protocol because they do not permit the US to follow its desire to be the world's unchallenged economic, political and military force. It is proposed that the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe should be responsible for European security in place of NATO. The European Union should not attempt to compete militarily with the US, but could act as a counterweight by adopting sustainable economic policies and political reforms. The United Nations must be democratized and international security enhanced by dealing with poverty and inequality. An emerging global public opinion may provide the political will for this to be achieved.

  7. The European Union approach to fuel cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthwick, William K. D.

    The European Union (EU) approach to fuel cell development should be viewed within the wider context of energy and environment policy. The energy policy is built on four main pillars — ensuring security of supply including the long term substitution of fossil fuels, improving competitiveness, achieving greater sustainability, and developing clean, efficient energy technologies. The prospect of fuel cells, as well as other technologies, to contribute positively to all these aspects of energy policy is widely recognised. Fuel cells can exploit diversified primary energy sources including renewable, and offer intrinsically clean, highly efficient energy conversion. Over successive Framework Programmes for Research, the European Commission has increased its financial support to fuel cell RTD&D. The recently launched Fifth Framework Programme introduces a problem-solving approach in which fuel cells will have to compete for funding support by demonstrating their ability to achieve ambitious cost and performance targets.

  8. European Union pharmacovigilance capabilities: potential for the new legislation.

    PubMed

    Borg, John Joseph; Tanti, Amy; Kouvelas, Dimitrios; Lungu, Calin; Pirozynski, Michal; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Aislaitner, George

    2015-08-01

    European Directives and Regulations introduced between late 2010 and 2012 have substantially overhauled pharmacovigilance processes across the European Union (EU). In this review, the implementation of the pharmacovigilance legislative framework by EU regulators is examined with the aim of mapping Directive 2010/84/EU and Regulation EC No. 1235/2010 against their aspired objectives of strengthening and rationalizing pharmacovigilance in the EU. A comprehensive review of the current state of affairs of the progress made by EU regulators is presented in this paper. Our review shows that intense efforts by regulators and industry to fulfil legislative obligations have resulted in major positive shifts in pharmacovigilance. Harmonized decision making, transparency in decision processes with patient involvement, information accessibility to the public, patient adverse drug reaction reporting, efforts in communication and enhanced cooperation between member states to maximize resource utilization and minimize duplication of efforts are observed.

  9. [Safe usage of chemicals in European Union countries].

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Barański, Bogusław

    2010-01-01

    New legal provisions have changed the rules of production, import and use of chemicals in the European Union Member States. Chemical substances present on the common market are covered by registration duty. Manufacturers and importers of substances are obliged to ensure that the risk posed by a given substance is adequately controlled on each stage. Information on substances is to be transferred both downstream and upstream in a supply chain. Substances of very high concern are the subject of authorisation procedure and will be gradually replaced by their safer equivalents. Information on substances of very high concern is transferred to downstream users and consumers. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and Member States Competent Authorities have been established. National Helpdesks on REACH are operating in Member States, giving help to enterprises and other stakeholders.

  10. Health behavior among Lithuania's adolescents in context of European Union.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lenciauskiene, Ilona

    2006-04-01

    To compare health behavior patterns of adolescents in Lithuania with health behavior of adolescents in European Union (EU) in 2001/2002. The study was carried out in conformity with the methodology of Health Behavior in School-aged Children: a World Health Organization cross-national study. Three country representative samples of schoolchildren, aged 11, 13, and 15, were surveyed in 25 EU countries and regions in 2001/2002 school year. The study instrument was a standardized questionnaire that included questions on alcohol consumption, smoking, illegal drugs use, physical activity, and other patterns of health behavior. The rate or mean values of the targeted health behavior of Lithuanian students were assessed and compared to those calculated as an average for the EU countries and regions. We found an early onset of alcohol consumption among Lithuanian boys. Lithuanian boys and girls across all age groups reported being drunk two and more times more often than their peers from other EU member states. Lithuanian 15-year-old boys smoked more often that did their European peers, while girls smoke more rarely. The prevalence of drugs (marihuana group) use among Lithuanian students is relatively low: the prevalence of drug use among 15-year-olds in Lithuania is two times lower than the prevalence in other EU countries and regions (11.2% vs 24.5% for boys and 4.5% vs 18.3% for girls, respectively). Physical activity of Lithuanian adolescents is rather high in comparison with their EU peers, although many students watch television for > or =4 hours a day. Lithuanian students did not eat sweets often, or drank soft drinks (Coca Cola and other), and they ate fruits and had breakfast every school day. With respect to hygienic habits, approximately only one in 3 boys and every second girl brushed their teeth more than once a day. There are health behavior differences between adolescents in Lithuania and those in other EU countries. The disparities among health behavior of

  11. Euroscepticism in Britain and France: Implications for NATO and the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    BRITAIN AND FRANCE : IMPLICATIONS FOR NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION by William R. Walsh March 2016 Thesis Advisor: David Yost Co-Advisor...AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EUROSCEPTICISM IN BRITAIN AND FRANCE : IMPLICATIONS FOR NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION 5...power leaving the European Union (EU)? Political movements in two of the most influential member states, the United Kingdom and France , have

  12. Biopesticides--towards increased consumer safety in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Katarzyna; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Łyczewska, Monika; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of new food safety regulations in the European Union has resulted in the withdrawal of many synthetic active substances used in plant protection products, in light of their potential or actual harmful effect on human and animal health, as well as on the environment. Alternatives to these compounds are being developed - naturally occurring pesticides, also referred to as biopesticides. The use of biopesticides in crop protection leads to decreased levels of pesticide residues in foods, and as a result to lower risk levels for the consumer. Biologically active agents defined as biopesticides are varied, and therefore application of the same environmental and consumer safety criteria to all of them is impossible. This presents serious complications in the approval of these pesticides as active plant protection products and in their registration. It needs to be stressed that, in the registration procedure of the European Union, biopesticides are subject to the same regulations as synthetic active substances. This situation has resulted in the need to introduce numerous new provisions in the legislation, as well as the preparation of new guidelines facilitating the registration of biopesticides. These activities aim to promote naturally originating pesticides.

  13. Mapping communicable disease control in the European union.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Heather A; Jones, David K; Greer, Scott L

    2012-12-01

    Understanding both the current performance of communicable disease control in Europe and the scale of the differences among systems is crucial to understanding its present performance and possible Europeanization. We attempt to identify the structure of authority in communicable disease control in each European Union (EU) member state. The primary sources of information were the competent bodies list posted on the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control website and the Health in Transition reports produced by the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Three key patterns emerge to answer the question of who does what. First, the landscape is full and crowded, with many actors involved. Second, the landscape is highly fragmented, with many organizations performing overlapping functions in each country. Third, regional patterns describe which types of organizations are assigned which functions. These full, fragmented, and regionally disparate systems show no signs of constituting a shared model. As a result, if there is an EU model of communicable disease control today, it is at most an aspiration.

  14. Public health research systems in the European union

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Strengthening health research is an important objective for international health organisations, but there has been less attention to support for health research in Europe. We describe the public-health (population and organisational level) research systems in the 27 European Union countries. Methods We developed a typology for describing health research structures based on funding streams and strategies. We drew data from internet sources and asked country informants to review these for consistency and completeness. The structures were described as organograms and narratives in country profiles for each of the 27 EU member states. National public-health research structures included public and independent funding organisations, 'mixed' institutions (which receive funds, and both use and allocate them) and provider institutions. Results Most health research is funded through ministries of science or science councils (and sometimes foundations), while parliaments and regions may also contribute. National institutes of public health are usually funded by ministries of health. Many national research organisations both determine research programmes and undertake health research, but there is a move towards public-health sciences within the universities, and a transition from internal grants to competitive funding. Of 27 national research strategies, 17 referred to health and 11 to public health themes. Although all countries had strategies for public health itself, we found little coherence in public-health research programmes. The European Commission has country contact points for both EU research and health programmes, but they do not coordinate with national health-research programmes. Conclusions Public-health research is broadly distributed across programmes in EU countries. Better understanding of research structures, programmes and results would improve recognition for public health in Europe, and contribute to practice. EU ministries of health should

  15. Climate Change in the Arctic and it's Geopolitical Consequence - The Analysis of the European Union Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuszczuk, Michał

    2011-01-01

    The article presents and briefly analyses the issue of the European Union's perspective on the problems of the climate change in the Arctic region and its geopolitical consequences. Offering an overview of the main documents in this area, the article concludes that the EU policy towards the Arctic is closely related with perceiving the climate change in polar regions not only in terms of new possibilities, but also as a source of new threats for the international environment

  16. Climate Change in the Arctic And It's Geopolitical Consequence - The Analysis of the European Union Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuszczuk, Michał

    2011-01-01

    The article presents and briefly analyses the issue of the European Union's perspective on the problems of the climate change in the Arctic region and its geopolitical consequences. Offering an overview of the main documents in this area, the article concludes that the EU policy towards the Arctic is closely related with perceiving the climate change in polar regions not only in terms of new possibilities, but also as a source of new threats for the international environment.

  17. Regulatory approaches to worker protection in nanotechnology industry in the USA and European union.

    PubMed

    Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul; Geraci, Charles; Howard, John

    2011-01-01

    A number of reports have been published regarding the applicability of existing regulatory frameworks to protect consumers and the environment from potentially adverse effects related to introduction of nanomaterials into commerce in the United States and the European Union. However, a detailed comparison of the regulatory approaches to worker safety and health in the USA and in the EU is lacking. This report aims to fill this gap by reviewing regulatory frameworks designed to protect workers and their possible application to nanotechnology.

  18. European Union research and innovation perspectives on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Danuta; Claxton, John; Economidis, Ioannis; Högel, Jens; Venturi, Piero; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2011-12-20

    "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and Biotechnology" is one of 10 thematic areas in the Cooperation programme of the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities (FP7). With a budget of nearly €2 billion for the period 2007-2013, its objective is to foster the development of a European Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) by bringing together science, industry and other stakeholders that produce, manage or otherwise exploit biological resources. Biotechnology plays an important role in addressing social, environmental and economic challenges and it is recognised as a key enabling technology in the transition to a green, low carbon and resource-efficient economy. Biotechnologies for non-health applications have received a considerable attention in FP7 and to date 61 projects on industrial, marine, plant, environmental and emerging biotechnologies have been supported with a contribution of €262.8 million from the European Commission (EC). This article presents an outlook of the research, technological development and demonstration activities in biotechnology currently supported in FP7 within the Cooperation programme, including a brief overview of the policy context.

  19. Characterisation of infant food modifications in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Ashwell, Margaret; Beck, Birgit; Bronner, Andrée; Mathioudakis, Basil

    2002-01-01

    Improvements in the understanding of human milk composition, in dietetic effects on physiological outcomes in infants, and in food technology have lead to modifications in infant formulas and other dietetic products for infants. In Europe, new ingredients may be added to infant formula and follow-on formulas if their suitability for particular use by infants from birth has been established by generally accepted scientific data. However, there is uncertainty as to the nature of the evaluation needed to evaluate whether modifications in dietetic products for infants can be regarded as suitable and safe. Moreover, there is no agreement on the nature of evidence required to justify the scientific validity of potential effects on infant health and well-being, which might provide the basis for the communication of such effects to health professionals and consumers. Therefore, a scientific workshop was held under the auspices of the Child Health Foundation, Munich, Germany, and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to discuss issues arising in this area among participants representing academia, infant food industry, consumer organisations, the European Commission, and food regulatory bodies of some European Union member states. This article summarises the outcomes of this workshop. The participants agreed on general concepts of evaluation of innovations and on establishing evidence for benefits, but felt that further discussion would be necessary on the principles and practicalities involved in setting up a central register of clinical trials and of a central repository of trial data.

  20. [Physician assessment of aptitude for driving in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Lentaigne de Logivière, Xavier; Jardé, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2015-09-01

    Road safety is for several years a major public health issue, given the number of casualties and annual deaths caused by road accidents in France or Europe. European directives of 2006 and 2009 were aimed harmonized community practices for the conduct, including medically. We studied the laws in force in each of the 28 countries of the European Union to make an inventory of the organization on this subject. The results showed that 25 countries introduce, at least once, including 21 medical check regularly. Age is the main factor that motivates control. The frequency of examinations increases with the age of the driver. In other countries, a sworn statement of the absence of pathology is enough. Although a medical examination is mostly carried out systematically, it the content is extremely variable, ranging from a simple vision test to a full review with psycho test. Management of professional secrecy is approached differently in different countries, although predominantly an exemption exists in the event of discovery of the inability of a patient. We note that there is a great diversity in the medical screening modalities unsuited to driving. These systems will be harmonized to comply with the wishes of European directives.

  1. Districts, Unions Seek to Improve Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Wrapping up a two-day conference in Denver designed to improve labor-management relations in school districts, sponsors and participants vowed to work at reforms that will be beneficial to teachers, students, and officials. Teams made up of a local superintendent, a school board representative, and the teachers' union leader descended on the Mile…

  2. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part 2].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses various aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation related to food supplements. The use of botanicals and minor bioactive substances in food supplements, and their labelling are studied. The EU principle of mutual recognition is described in the context of current challenges that exist in the regulatory harmonisation between the EU member states. The concept of novel foods and novel ingredients is also presented, and the procedure of their pre-market approval is described in detail. Basic principles of using claims for food supplements are also outlined.

  3. Scope and patterns of tourist injuries in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Robert; Körmer, Claudia; Sector, Mathilde

    2005-03-01

    European Union (EU) countries are among the leading tourist destinations in the world. Despite growing consumer demands on the safety of travelling, injuries amongst tourists remain an essentially invisible problem. Unique national and regional data sources are the only means by which the important negative impact of injuries on the health of non-domestic tourists in the EU-15 is underlined. With an estimated number of 3800 tourists dying each year, injuries account for up to 30% of fatalities during vacation. This toll reflects an increased risk of mortality in tourists compared to the domestic population. Amendments to national and EU health and injury monitoring are suggested in order to enable authorities to examine personal risks to travellers in more detail.

  4. Does reimportation reduce price differences for prescription drugs? Lessons from the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Margaret K; Allsbrook, Jennifer S; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of parallel trade on patterns of price dispersion for prescription drugs in the European Union. Longitudinal data from an IMS Midas database of prices and units sold for drugs in 36 categories in 30 countries from 1993 through 2004. The main outcome measures were mean price differentials and other measures of price dispersion within European Union countries compared with within non-European Union countries. We identified drugs subject to parallel trade using information provided by IMS and by checking membership lists of parallel import trade associations and lists of approved parallel imports. Parallel trade was not associated with substantial reductions in price dispersion in European Union countries. In descriptive and regression analyses, about half of the price differentials exceeded 50 percent in both European Union and non-European Union countries over time, and price distributions among European Union countries did not show a dramatic change concurrent with the adoption of parallel trade. In regression analysis, we found that although price differentials decreased after 1995 in most countries, they decreased less in the European Union than elsewhere. Parallel trade for prescription drugs does not automatically reduce international price differences. Future research should explore how other regulatory schemes might lead to different results elsewhere.

  5. Key Competences for the Development of Lifelong Learning in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hozjan, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses certain developments in education policy in the European Union since the implementation of the Lisbon strategy. Greater focus on lifelong learning as a means of increasing the competitiveness of the European Union, and establishment of several new, efficient policy tools (above all the "open method of coordination")…

  6. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  10. Does Reimportation Reduce Price Differences for Prescription Drugs? Lessons from the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Margaret K; Allsbrook, Jennifer S; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of parallel trade on patterns of price dispersion for prescription drugs in the European Union. Data Sources Longitudinal data from an IMS Midas database of prices and units sold for drugs in 36 categories in 30 countries from 1993 through 2004. Study Design The main outcome measures were mean price differentials and other measures of price dispersion within European Union countries compared with within non-European Union countries. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We identified drugs subject to parallel trade using information provided by IMS and by checking membership lists of parallel import trade associations and lists of approved parallel imports. Principal Findings Parallel trade was not associated with substantial reductions in price dispersion in European Union countries. In descriptive and regression analyses, about half of the price differentials exceeded 50 percent in both European Union and non-European Union countries over time, and price distributions among European Union countries did not show a dramatic change concurrent with the adoption of parallel trade. In regression analysis, we found that although price differentials decreased after 1995 in most countries, they decreased less in the European Union than elsewhere. Conclusions Parallel trade for prescription drugs does not automatically reduce international price differences. Future research should explore how other regulatory schemes might lead to different results elsewhere. PMID:18355258

  11. Gambling in Finland: problem gambling in the context of a national monopoly in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Tammi, Tuukka; Castrén, Sari; Lintonen, Tomi

    2015-05-01

    To describe and analyse the Finnish gambling market, regulatory system and the state of gambling research as well as the treatment system in operation for problem gamblers. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Finland, focusing primarily on the 1990s and 2000s. Only in recent years have gambling problems become a major issue for public debate in Finland. One reason for the increase in activity to address gambling problems is that, after Finland became a member of the European Union in 1995, the Finnish state gambling monopoly and its compatibility with European Union (EU) regulations have been questioned repeatedly. Since 2000, the Finnish government has put significant new resources into the research as well as the prevention and treatment of gambling problems. The resources grew from almost nothing to several million Euros in less than 10 years. This could be seen as an attempt to protect the national gambling monopoly system by showing that the Finnish monopoly system meets EU requirements. Since joining the European Union in 1995, the Finnish government has been able to maintain its gambling monopoly by providing substantial resources to signal a commitment to minimizing problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. The European Union's emissions trading system in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    A. Denny Ellerman; Paul L. Joskow

    2008-05-15

    The performance of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to date cannot be evaluated without recognizing that the first three years from 2005 through 2007 constituted a 'trial' period and understanding what this trial period was supposed to accomplish. Its primary goal was to develop the infrastructure and to provide the experience that would enable the successful use of a cap-and-trade system to limit European GHG emissions during a second trading period, 2008-12, corresponding to the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The trial period was a rehearsal for the later more serious engagement and it was never intended to achieve significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in only three years. In light of the speed with which the program was developed, the many sovereign countries involved, the need to develop the necessary data, information dissemination, compliance and market institutions, and the lack of extensive experience with emissions trading in Europe, we think that the system has performed surprisingly well. Although there have been plenty of rough edges, a transparent and widely accepted price for tradable CO{sub 2} emission allowances emerged by January 1, 2005, a functioning market for allowances has developed quickly and effortlessly without any prodding by the Commission or member state governments, the cap-and-trade infrastructure of market institutions, registries, monitoring, reporting and verification is in place, and a significant segment of European industry is incorporating the price of CO{sub 2} emissions into their daily production decisions. The development of the EU ETS and the experience with the trial period provides a number of useful lessons for the U.S. and other countries. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. [Recent initiatives of the European Union on the field of drug use and trafficking].

    PubMed

    Salazar, Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Moving from the general framework offered by the Treaties of the European Union and European Community, the paper presents the more recent specific initiatives of the Union in the field of fight against drugs and in particular on the European Union Plan of Action, adopted by the European Council in June 2000, and on the need for a global and balanced approach which it proposes as the main focus of the action of the European institutions. The paper then examines separately the initiatives taken both at the level of the reduction of the demand, mainly at the preventive and sanitary level, and of the supply reduction, of a mainly repressive character. Conclusively, the main initiatives in the field of international co-operation among the European Union and third Countries.

  14. Female "birds of passage" a decade later: gender and immigration in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kofman, E

    1999-01-01

    "First, this article critically assesses the dominant accounts of the sequence of labor migration and family reunification and argues that it is time to reclaim the heterogeneity of women's past migratory experiences in our understanding of European patterns of post-war immigration. Second, it examines family migration, covering diverse forms of family reunification and formation which, although the dominant form of legal immigration into Europe since the 1970s, has received relatively little attention. Third, it explores the implications of the diversification of contemporary female migration in the European Union and argues for the necessity of taking account of the reality of changing patterns of employment, households and social structures to advance our understanding of European immigration."

  15. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of Europeanfreshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has facedsome challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the Europeanmonitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science andsuggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensiveprioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters.The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integratedstrategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approachesto advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic “chemical status”assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historicalburdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessmentof contamination. Solution-oriented m

  16. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of Europeanfreshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has facedsome challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the Europeanmonitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science andsuggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensiveprioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters.The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integratedstrategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approachesto advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic “chemical status”assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historicalburdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessmentof contamination. Solution-oriented m

  17. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA’ commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Methods: We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. Results: In 2010, of the 73 996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants’ vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. PMID:25500265

  18. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  19. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  20. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  1. European Union research in support of environment and health: Building scientific evidence base for policy.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Tuomo; Hoeveler, Arnd; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2017-06-01

    Opinion polls show that the European Union citizens are increasingly concerned about the impact of environmental factors on their health. In order to respond and provide solid scientific evidence for the numerous policies related to the protection of human health and the environment managed at the Union level, the European Union made a substantial investment in research and innovation in the past two decades through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, including the current programme, Horizon 2020, which started in 2014. This policy review paper analysed the portfolio of forty collaborative projects relevant to environment and health, which received a total amount of around 228 million euros from the EU. It gives details on their contents and general scientific trends observed, the profiles of the participating countries and institutions, and the potential policy implications of the results obtained. The increasing knowledge base is needed to make informed policy decisions in Europe and beyond, and should be useful to many stakeholders including the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    PubMed

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  3. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    PubMed Central

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. PMID:24926115

  4. Introduction of African Swine Fever into the European Union through Illegal Importation of Pork and Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union. PMID:23613795

  5. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products.

    PubMed

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union.

  6. Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Priemus, Hugo; Schutte-Postma, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM) in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands. PMID:19440439

  7. Medical Device Regulation: A Comparison of the United States and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Maak, Travis G; Wylie, James D

    2016-08-01

    Medical device regulation is a controversial topic in both the United States and the European Union. Many physicians and innovators in the United States cite a restrictive US FDA regulatory process as the reason for earlier and more rapid clinical advances in Europe. The FDA approval process mandates that a device be proved efficacious compared with a control or be substantially equivalent to a predicate device, whereas the European Union approval process mandates that the device perform its intended function. Stringent, peer-reviewed safety data have not been reported. However, after recent high-profile device failures, political pressure in both the United States and the European Union has favored more restrictive approval processes. Substantial reforms of the European Union process within the next 5 to 10 years will result in a more stringent approach to device regulation, similar to that of the FDA. Changes in the FDA regulatory process have been suggested but are not imminent.

  8. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  9. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  10. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    PubMed

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  11. An overview of rheumatological research in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Mela, G.; Cimmino, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the distribution and scope of papers published by authors from the European Union (EU) in rheumatological journals and the impact of rheumatological research in the EU in comparison with that produced elsewhere.
METHODS—Papers published during the year 1995 in the 17 rheumatological journals screened by ISI were considered. The journal impact factor (IF) was noted. All key words, both those reported by the authors and those attributed by ISI, were identified and their frequency was calculated using a special purpose program.
RESULTS—2331 papers were published in the rheumatological literature during 1995. Of them, 1316 (56.5%) came from the EU (29.4% from the UK, 17.4% from France, 11.5% from Germany, and 10.8 % from Italy) and 544 (23.3%) from the USA. The mean IF of EU papers was approximately 2 in comparison with 3.5 for the USA and 2.4 for other countries. In 1995, 2680 key words attributed by the authors and 5651 attributed by ISI appeared in the rheumatological literature. Less than a quarter of them was cited more than twice. The leading key words were rheumatoid arthritis for diseases and methotrexate for drugs.
CONCLUSIONS—Bibliometric findings are useful to follow research trends. These data show the relevance of EU rheumatological research and the high scientific production of small countries. Dispersion of key words should be avoided and journal editors should promote their standardisation.

 Keywords: rheumatology; bibliometrics; Europe; keyword PMID:9924204

  12. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union.

    PubMed

    Pavličević, Ivančica; Barać, Lana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at synthesizing funding opportunities in the field of family medicine by determining the number of family medicine projects, as well as number of project leaderships and/ or participations by each country. This was done in order to encourage inclusion of physicians in countries with underdeveloped research networks in successful research networks or to encourage them to form new ones. We searched the Community Research and Development Information Service project database in February 2013. Study covered the period from years 1992 - 2012, selecting the projects within the field of general/family medicine. The search was conducted in February 2013. First search conducted in the CORDIS database came up with a total of 466 projects. After excluding 241 projects with insufficient data, we analysed 225 remaining projects; out of those, 22 (9.8%) were in the field of family medicine and 203 (90.2%) were from other fields of medicine. Sorted by the number of projects per country, Dutch institutions had the highest involvement in family medicine projects and were partners or coordinators in 18 out of 22 selected projects (81.8%), followed by British institutions with 15 (68.8%), and Spanish with 10 projects (45.5%). Croatia was a partner in a single FP7 Health project. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union show significant differences between countries. Constant and high-quality international cooperation in family medicine is the prerequisite for improvement and development of scientific research and the profession. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  13. Biological monitoring and Biological Limit Values (BLV): the strategy of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M; Thier, Ricarda

    2006-04-10

    Occupational standards concerning allowable concentrations of chemical compounds in the ambient air of workplaces have been established in several countries worldwide. With the integration of the European Union (EU), there has been a need of establishing harmonised Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL). The European Commission Directive 95/320/EC of 12 July 1995 has given the tasks to a Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) to propose, based on scientific data and where appropriate, occupational limit values which may include the 8-h time-weighted average (TWA), short-term limits/excursion limits (STEL) and Biological Limit Values (BLVs). In 2000, the European Union issued a list of 62 chemical substances with Occupational Exposure Limits. Of these, 25 substances received a "skin" notation, indicating that toxicologically significant amounts may be taken up via the skin. For such substances, monitoring of concentrations in ambient air may not be sufficient, and biological monitoring strategies appear of potential importance in the medical surveillance of exposed workers. Recent progress has been made with respect to formulation of a strategy related to health-based BLVs.

  14. Bildung in der Europaischen Union: Daten und Kennzahlen = Education across the European Union: Statistics and Indicators = Education dans L'Union Europeennee Statistiques et Indicateurs, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This publication provides comparable statistics and indicators on education across the 15 member states of the European Union. The main source of data is the joint UOE (UNESCO, Organisation for Economic Development, Eurostat) revised questionnaire on education statistics introduced in 1995. Educational attainment information draws on data from the…

  15. DTCA of prescription medicines in the European Union: is there still a need for a ban?

    PubMed

    Poser, Mareen

    2010-12-01

    The pharmaceutical sector is one of the main markets in the European Union. The consumption of medicines is high and steadily increasing. However, the pharmaceutical market is subject to a wider range of restrictions than almost any other sector. The restrictions mainly apply to information provision and advertising practice within the community. One of the main features in pharmaceutical regulation is the ban on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. However, an abolition of the ban is controversial in the European Community, especially as the pharmaceutical industry keeps pleading for its ability to use the highly effective marketing strategy of DTCA to promote prescription medicines to the general public. Such advertising is only allowed in two jurisdictions in the world, New Zealand and the United States. In both systems the impact of DTCA on the consumer and the economy has been subject to research. The outcome of these studies is outlined in this article. Since the European Commission has provided a new proposal to amend the current information practice regarding prescription medicines in 2008 (European Commission, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending, as Regards Information to the General Public on Medicinal Products Subject to Medical Prescription, Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community Code Relating to Medicinal Products for Human Use, COM/2008/0663 final) it is time to examine different options to regulate the provision of information and discuss the need for a ban of DTCA.

  16. Management of landfill leachate: The legacy of European Union Directives.

    PubMed

    Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Morrison, L; Hynes, S; Norton, D; Clifford, E

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachate is the product of water that has percolated through waste deposits and contains various pollutants, which necessitate effective treatment before it can be released into the environment. In the last 30years, there have been significant changes in landfill management practices in response to European Union (EU) Directives, which have led to changes in leachate composition, volumes produced and treatability. In this study, historic landfill data, combined with leachate characterisation data, were used to determine the impacts of EU Directives on landfill leachate management, composition and treatability. Inhibitory compounds including ammonium (NH4-N), cyanide, chromium, nickel and zinc, were present in young leachate at levels that may inhibit ammonium oxidising bacteria, while arsenic, copper and silver were present in young and intermediate age leachate at concentrations above inhibitory thresholds. In addition, the results of this study show that while young landfills produce less than 50% of total leachate by volume in the Republic of Ireland, they account for 70% of total annual leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) load and approximately 80% of total 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N loads. These results show that there has been a decrease in the volume of leachate produced per tonne of waste landfilled since enactment of the Landfill Directive, with a trend towards increased leachate strength (particularly COD and BOD5) during the initial five years of landfill operation. These changes may be attributed to changes in landfill management practices following the implementation of the Landfill Directive. However, this study did not demonstrate the impact of decreasing inputs of biodegradable municipal waste on leachate composition. Increasingly stringent wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) emission limit values represent a significant threat to the sustainability of co-treatment of leachate with municipal wastewater. In addition

  17. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).
METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.
RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).
CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens

  18. Reported foodborne outbreaks due to fresh produce in the United States and European Union: trends and causes.

    PubMed

    Callejón, Raquel M; Rodríguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Ubeda, Cristina; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of fruit and vegetables continues to rise in the United States and European Union due to healthy lifestyle recommendations. Meanwhile, the rate of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of these products remains high in both regions, representing a significant public health and financial issue. This study addresses the occurrence of reported foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables consumption in the United States and European Union during the period 2004-2012, where data are available. Special attention is paid to those pathogens responsible for these outbreaks, the mechanisms of contamination, and the fresh produce vehicles involved. Norovirus is shown to be responsible for most of the produce-related outbreaks, followed by Salmonella. Norovirus is mainly linked with the consumption of salad in the United States and of berries in the European Union, as demonstrated by the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Salmonella was the leading cause of multistate produce outbreaks in the United States and was the pathogen involved in the majority of sprouts-associated outbreaks. As is reflected in the MCA, the pattern of fresh produce outbreaks differed in the United States and European Union by the type of microorganism and the food vehicle involved.

  19. An Index of Child Well-Being in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jonathan; Hoelscher, Petra; Richardson, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    While the living conditions of children and young people in the European Union have gained increasing recognition across the EU, the well-being of children is not monitored on the European level. Based on a rights-based, multi-dimensional understanding of child well-being we analyse data already available for the EU 25, using series data as well…

  20. The New Political Economy of Health Care in the European Union: The Impact of Fiscal Governance.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L; Jarman, Holly; Baeten, Rita

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the political economy of health care in the European Union is being changed by the creation of a substantial new apparatus of European fiscal governance. A series of treaties and legal changes since 2008 have given the European Union new powers and duties to enforce budgetary austerity in the member states, and this apparatus of fiscal governance has already extended to include detailed and sometimes coercive policy recommendations to member states about the governance of their health care systems. We map the structures of this new fiscal governance and the way it purports to affect health care decision making.

  1. Food additives used in meat processing according to the Polish and European Union legislation.

    PubMed

    Uradziński, J; Weiner, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the legal regulations related to the use of food additives in meat production in Poland and the European Union. The Polish legal definition of food additives is given as well as the classification of permitted food additives added to food and stimulants by their technological function. In addition, a definition of processing aids in the food industry is included. It shows that Polish legislation includes food additives used to ensure or improve food nutritional value, whereas in the EU legislation, these substances are not included in the list of food additives. Moreover, the Council Directives include food additive specific purity criteria, whereas the Polish regulations do not mention the legal regulations of this issue in practice. The European Union use mechanisms and procedures for the introduction of new food additives into internal markets as well as controlling the circulation of additives. The Polish legislation in practice, however, does not determine approval or methods for the introduction of new food additives to the market. Legal regulations on the monitoring of food additives no exist.

  2. The 2011 PHARMINE report on pharmacy and pharmacy education in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart

    2011-10-01

    The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students' Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. THE CONSORTIUM SURVEYED PHARMACIES AND PHARMACISTS IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS: community, hospital, industry and other sectors. The consortium also looked at how European Union higher education institutions and courses are organised. The PHARMINE survey of pharmacy and pharmacy education in Europe produced country profiles with extensive information for EU member states and several other European countries. These data are available at: http://www.pharmine.org/losse_paginas/Country_Profiles/. This 2011 PHARMINE report presents the project and data, and some preliminary analysis on the basic question of how pharmacy education is adapted to pharmacy practice in the EU.

  3. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  4. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  5. Oral surgery in the European Union: challenges of diversity in training and practice.

    PubMed

    Nasseripour, M N; Hervé, C; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-02-01

    At the crossroads of medicine and dentistry, oral surgery with orthodontics are the only recognised dental specialties by the European Union. The goal of our study is to evaluate the current state of oral surgery in Europe from its teaching to its practice, the hypothesis being that a notable diversity persists despite European Union harmonisation process. To understand the impact of this diversity applied to European Union freedom of movement and its ethical implications for the practice of oral surgery, English and French questionnaires were sent by email to universities and organisations delivering authorisation to practise in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom chosen based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. An analysis of documents on these organisations' official websites was also conducted. Demographic information was obtained from the aforementioned organisations. The profile of practising oral surgeons is different dependent on the country. The university and hospital trainings conform to European recommendations and span 3-4 years. European Board certification is not required. Continuing education is mandatory only in France, Germany and United Kingdom. As for curricula and scope of practice, no consensus can be derived. There is potential conflict of interest between European Union principles of freedom of movement and protection of all citizens, as member countries do not uniformly apply Directives and recommendations. A new survey of all European Union oral surgery programmes as well as organisations delivering authorisation to practise is necessary to implement across the board harmonisation of training and practice to insure patient safety in light of the migration of European Union practitioners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    PubMed

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  7. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. PMID:28703098

  8. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    PubMed

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  9. Blood donor selection in European Union directives: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    de Kort, Wim; Mayr, Wolfgang; Jungbauer, Christof; Vuk, Tomislav; Kullaste, Riin; Seifried, Erhard; Grazzini, Giuliano; de Wit, Jeroen; Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infections have made both blood bankers and health authorities overly cautious. The general public expects and hence reinforces this policy. To obtain a high level of blood product safety, blood and plasma donors have to meet increasingly stringent eligibility criteria; however, it is not known whether this policy translates into improved outcomes for patients. There is a risk that the management of donors does not match the ambition of greater safety for patients. European directives related to the collection process and donor selection will probably be reconsidered in the next few years. Material and methods The development of European directives on donor selection and their basis in the literature were reviewed with an emphasis on the background and considerations for eligibility criteria to be included in the directives. Results The precautionary principle appears to be the predominant reason behind the set of eligibility criteria. However, the formal eligibility criteria, put into force in 2004, do not balance with the developments of the past decade in laboratory tests and measures that have substantially reduced actual infection risks. In no cases were the effects of eligibility criteria on the donor pool and donor well-being quantified. Regional differences in the epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections were not taken into consideration either. Discussion First, the Authors promote the collection of epidemiological data on the incidence and prevalence of conditions in the general population and in blood and plasma donors which could pose a risk for transfused patients, in order to use these data as a basis for decision-making in donor-selection policies. Second, the Authors suggest including allowance for differential deferral criteria throughout Europe, based on factual risk levels. There should be an accepted balance between donor and patient welfare, and also between risk to transfusion safety and risk of

  10. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    PubMed

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF ; and at: http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_03j.pdf ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at: http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  11. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  12. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  13. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  14. Art of Disaster Preparedness in European Union: a Survey on the Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M.; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. Method: A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Results: Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). Conclusion: This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal

  15. Art of disaster preparedness in European union: a survey on the health systems.

    PubMed

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-17

    Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal. Disaster medicine; Disaster preparedness

  16. Evolution of European Union legislation of herbal medicinal products and its transposition to national legislation in 1965-2007: case Finland.

    PubMed

    Koski, Sari M; Laitinen-Parkkonen, Pirjo; Airaksinen, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The study aim was to explore the progress of legislation relating to herbal medicinal products in the European Union and compare it with the corresponding progress of the legislation in Finland in 1965-2007. The study was carried out using content analysis. Data were searched from publicly available European Union directives and national acts. All definitions and safety-related requirements for herbal medicinal products were identified. The transposition of safety-related requirements into the national legislation was studied. Medicinal products from plant origins have been part of the European Union legislation since 1965. Most plant-based products have not initially been regarded as medicinal products but rather as some kind of medicine-like products. The official definition of herbal medicinal products was introduced in Directive 2004/24/EC and implemented into the Finnish legislation with the terminology to recognise herbal medicinal products as part of medicinal products. The current safety-related requirements of medicinal products concern analogously herbal medicinal products. Herbal medicinal products have had different definitions in pharmaceutical legislation over the study period in the European Union and Finland. The current definition places herbal medicinal products more clearly under the medicinal products' legislation. Safety-related requirements are now practically identical for all medicinal products. Transposition of the European Union legislation into the national legislation in Finland is apparent. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. European Economic and Monetary Union: Why Should We Care?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    to making concrete progress toward European unity.ൗ The act does not limit itself to economic means in achieving european unity. It devotes a...represent eight concerns that are of such a magnitude as to warrant a catagory of their own. They are: - Border Controls - Limitations on Freedom of...currency also has a bilateral parity rate against every other currency which makes up the upper and lower limits of the currency band with the ECU rate

  18. [The European Union and the migrations of populations. Government logic and human rights].

    PubMed

    Marie C-v

    1996-01-01

    "The first part of this article consists of a summary of the major [immigration] reforms undertaken by the EU [European Union] states over the past decade. The second chapter discusses the ways in which these reforms were drafted, and, in particular, the influence of intergovernmental negotiations on national policy. The third part, relative to the regulation of job markets, underscores the contrast between the tough restrictions on permanent employment of foreigners and flexibility...for administering seasonal immigration or entry visas granted within the context of temporary work contracts. The fourth part, which analyzes the impact of these legislative changes on individual rights, logically leads to a discussion of the foundation of the procedure followed by the wealthy countries, and points out the shortcoming of a strictly punitive or even military solution to what is chiefly a problem of development and democracy." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  19. Multilevel Governance and Shared Sovereignty: European Union, Member States, and the FCTC

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, HADII M.; STUDLAR, DONLEY T.

    2010-01-01

    The Westphalian idea of sovereignty in international relations has undergone recent transformation. “Shared sovereignty” through multilevel governance describes the responsibility of the European Union (EU) and its Member States in tobacco control policy. We examine how this has occurred on the EU level through directives and recommendations, accession rules for new members, tobacco control campaigns, and financial support for antitobacco nongovernmental organizations. In particular, the negotiation and ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the participation in the FCTC Conference of the Parties illustrates shared sovereignty. The EU Commission was the lead negotiator for Member States on issues over which it had jurisdiction, while individual Member States, through the EU presidency, could negotiate on issues on which authority was divided or remained with them. Shared sovereignty through multilevel governance has become the norm in the tobacco control policy area for EU members, including having one international organization negotiate within the context of another. PMID:20622934

  20. A European union and Canadian review of public health nursing preparation and practice.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Ann; Aarts, Clara; Koskinen, Liisa; Campbell, Barbara; Chassé, France

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the preparation and role of the public health nurse (PHN) across European Union (EU) countries (Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) and Canadian provinces (Alberta, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island). A literature review including relevant peer reviewed articles from 2000 on, in conjunction, with critical debate was undertaken. The results were considered in relation to the three essential areas of PHN practice, outlined in the World Health Organization (Moving on from Munich: A reference guide to the implementation of the declaration on nurses and midwives: A force for health, 2001b) recommendations, family oriented care, public health action, and policy making. The major challenge the review revealed across a variety of international education and practice environments was the lack of consistent preparation for and engagement with leadership and policy making in practice. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  2. Healthcare and aging: do European Union countries differ?

    PubMed

    Stankunas, Mindaugas; Avery, Mark; Lindert, Jutta; Edwards, Ian; Rosa, Mirko Di; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Soares, Joaquim

    2016-10-10

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate socio-economic inequalities in the use, accessibility and satisfaction with health services amongst 60-84 year old people from seven European urban communities. Design/methodology/approach Data for this study were collected in 2009. The target population was people aged 60-84 years from Stuttgart (Germany), Athens (Greece), Ancona (Italy), Kaunas (Lithuania), Porto (Portugal), Granada (Spain) and Stockholm (Sweden). The total sample comprised 4,467 respondents with a mean response rate across these countries of 45.2 per cent. Findings The study demonstrated that the majority of respondents had contact with a health care provider within the last 12 months. The highest percentages were reported by respondents from Spain (97.8 per cent) and Portugal (97.7 per cent). The results suggest that 13.0 per cent of respondents had refrained from seeking care services. The highest rates were amongst seniors from Lithuania (24.0 per cent), Germany (16.2 per cent) and Portugal (15.4 per cent). Logistic regression suggests that seniors who refrained from seeking health care was statistically significant associated with those with higher levels of education (odds ratios (OR)=1.21; 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI)=1.01-1.25) and financial strain (OR=1.26; 95 per cent CI=1.16-1.37). Furthermore, the majority of respondents were satisfied with health care services. Originality/value The findings from the "Elder Abuse: a multinational prevalence survey" study indicate the existence of significant variations in use, accessibility and satisfaction with health services by country and for socio-economic factors related to organizing and financing of care systems.

  3. Review of recommendations on cervical cancer screening in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Patnick, J

    2003-08-01

    In 2000 the European Commission Advisory Committee on Cancer Prevention published a position paper on cancer screening with recommendations. This followed working party deliberations in 1998 and conference discussion in 1999. Scientific advances, particularly in knowledge about the relationship of HPV and cervical cancer and political developments with the enlargement of the European Union, mean that the position paper and recommendations may shortly need revising in the light of changed circumstances.

  4. Turkey’s Membership in the European Union: Analyzing Potential Benefits and Drawbacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    the region. In this context, Turkey is an important country for the EU in terms of its foreign and security policies.14 Likewise, Seda Domaniç...economy.19 Moreover, the EU’s population is getting older, and this 15 Seda Domaniç, “The...European Integration. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publisher, Inc, 2005. 74 Domaniç, Seda . “The Turkish Accession to the European Union: Mutually

  5. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    PubMed

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  6. Regulatory considerations for translating gene therapy: a European Union perspective.

    PubMed

    Galli, Maria Cristina

    2009-11-11

    A preclinical study on a gene therapy approach for treatment of the severe muscle weakness associated with a variety of neuromuscular disorders provides a forum to discuss the translational challenges of gene therapy from a regulatory point of view. In this Perspective, the findings are considered from the view of European regulatory requirements for first clinical use.

  7. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Reynolds, Jillian; García-Altés, Anna; Gual, Antoni; Anderson, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Drug use accounts for one of the main disease groups in Europe, with relevant consequences to society. There is an increasing need to evaluate the economic consequences of drug use in order to develop appropriate policies. Here, we review the social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union. A systematic search of relevant databases was conducted. Grey literature and previous systematic reviews were also searched. Studies reporting on social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco were included. Methodology, cost components as well as costs were assessed from individual studies. To compare across studies, final costs were transformed to 2014 Euros. Forty-five studies reported in 43 papers met the inclusion criteria (11 for illegal drugs, 26 for alcohol and 8 for tobacco). While there was a constant inclusion of direct costs related to treatment of substance use and comorbidities, there was a high variability for the rest of cost components. Total costs showed also a great variability. Price per capita for the year 2014 ranged from €0.38 to €78 for illegal drugs, from €26 to €1500 for alcohol and from €10.55 to €391 for tobacco. Drug use imposes a heavy economic burden to Europe. However, given the high existing heterogeneity in methodologies, and in order to better assess the burden and thus to develop adequate policies, standardised methodological guidance is needed. [Barrio P, Reynolds J, García-Altés A, Gual A, Anderson P. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Training, education, accreditation and professional development in surgery in Europe: the perspective of the European Union of Medical Specialist (UEMS).

    PubMed

    Papalois, Vassilios

    2017-03-27

    The European Union of Medical Specialists, founded in 1958, is the largest and oldest european medical organization. It includes 39 member states (of the European Union and others), and represents a total of 1.600.000 medical specialists. The main objective of the UEMS is to influence european healthcare politics by promoting the interests of the european medical specialists, establishing high standards in practice and training, as well as continuing medical education and professional development, and guaranteeing quality in specialist practice. The UEMS is developing several projects to face current and future challenges related to surgical training, education, acreditation, revalidation and professional development: i.- First, the UEMS is developing homogeneous requisites for European Training (ETRs), ii.- To manage the quality control process of the ETRs and evaluation of the organization, the UEMS has created the Council of european specialized medial evaluations (CESMA), iii.- The UEMS has been greatly involved in the acreditation process of training centres in all of Europe, iv.- in relation to continuing medical education, the European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (EACCME) is the main project of the UEMS for the accreditation of educational events and v.- the UEMS has established the Network of Accredited Clinical Skills Centres of Europe (UEMS-NASCE), that facilitates the accreditation and cooperation of training centres in Europe. In conclusion, with the great support of National Surgical Societies of the UEMS and the Surgery Section a series of solid projects have been established to support the professional development of the collective in Europe. This process constitutes a continuous effort that is very gratifying, with the aim to set the standards for a brilliant future for surgery students and specialized surgeons.

  9. European Union's Moratorium Impact on Food Biotechnology: A Discussion-Based Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lori Unruh; Gallo, Maria; Fulford, Stephen G.; Irani, Tracy; Rudd, Rick; DiFino, Sharon M.; Durham, Timothy C.

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops such as maize (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Moench], and canola (Brassica rapa L.) have been widely adopted by American farmers. In spite of their use in the United States, the European Union (EU) imposed a 6-year de facto moratorium (1998-2004) on the cultivation/import of…

  10. Phenotypic variability in a panel of strawberry cultivars from North America and the European Union

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phenotypic diversity in 96 antique and modern cultivars from the European Union and North America was evaluated in Michigan and Oregon, in 2011 and 2012. A total of thirty-five fruit and developmental characteristics were measured. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among cultivars...

  11. European Union's Moratorium Impact on Food Biotechnology: A Discussion-Based Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lori Unruh; Gallo, Maria; Fulford, Stephen G.; Irani, Tracy; Rudd, Rick; DiFino, Sharon M.; Durham, Timothy C.

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops such as maize (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Moench], and canola (Brassica rapa L.) have been widely adopted by American farmers. In spite of their use in the United States, the European Union (EU) imposed a 6-year de facto moratorium (1998-2004) on the cultivation/import of…

  12. Swiss-German versus Standard German: Switzerland's Language Policy and the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, Ursula M.

    A survey investigated the increasing preference for Alemannic Swiss German over standard German in public functions in Switzerland, particularly in light of Switzerland's decision in 1996 not to join the European Union, which suggests an emphasis on national independence. The history of Alemannic Swiss usage and language policy are briefly…

  13. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or...

  14. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  15. Update on European Union and United Kingdom legislation for Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Stephen Hunter

    2006-01-01

    Legislative action at both the European Union (E.U.) and United Kingdom (U.K.) national level has been taken in response to outbreaks of Phytophthora ramorum and, more recently, Phytophthora kernoviae. Measures are aimed at identifying and preventing the movement of infected nursery stock and the containment and eradication of...

  16. Designing Dreams or Constructing Contradictions? European Union Multifunctional Policies and the Polish Organic Farm Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Master, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Analysts have heralded the principle of "multifunctionality" undergirding the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy "Second Pillar" support mechanisms as a "new...and strong paradigm" for agriculture (van der Ploeg and Roep 2003), with the potential to re-embed social, environmental, and ethical concerns into…

  17. Is the European (Active) Citizenship Ideal Fostering Inclusion within the Union? A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milana, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews: (1) the establishment and functioning of EU citizenship: (2) the resulting perception of education for European active citizenship; and (3) the question of its adequacy for enhancing democratic values and practices within the Union. Key policy documents produced by the EU help to unfold the basic assumptions on which…

  18. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  19. Designing Dreams or Constructing Contradictions? European Union Multifunctional Policies and the Polish Organic Farm Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Master, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Analysts have heralded the principle of "multifunctionality" undergirding the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy "Second Pillar" support mechanisms as a "new...and strong paradigm" for agriculture (van der Ploeg and Roep 2003), with the potential to re-embed social, environmental, and ethical concerns into…

  20. Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

  1. [E-health developments in the system of health services in Hungary and the European Union].

    PubMed

    Váradi, Ágnes

    2014-05-25

    The question of electronic solutions in public health care has become a contemporary issue at the European Union level since the action plan of the Commission on the e-health developments of the period between 2012 and 2020 has been published. In Hungary this issue has been placed into the centre of attention after a draft on modifications of regulations in health-care has been released for public discourse, which - if accepted - would lay down the basics of an electronic heath-service system. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of e-health solutions in Hungary and the European Union with the help of the most important pieces of legislation, documents of the European Union institutions and sources from secondary literature. When examining the definition of the basic goals and instruments of the development, differences between the European Union and national approaches can be detected. Examination of recent developmental programs and existing models seem to reveal difficulties in creating interoperability and financing such projects. Finally, the review is completed by the aspects of jurisdiction and fundamental rights. It is concluded that these issues are mandatory to delineate the legislative, economic and technological framework for the development of the e-health systems.

  2. Investigating Prospective Social Studies Teachers? Perceptions of European Union through Metaphor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate metaphors developed by social studies teacher candidates about the European Union. 185 second, third and fourth year social studies teacher candidates participated in the study. This study was designed as a phenomenological study and mataphor analysis was conducted. At the end of the study, the students…

  3. Performing phase I clinical trials of anticancer agents: perspectives from within the European union and Japan.

    PubMed

    Forster, Martin D; Saijo, Nagahiro; Seymour, Lesley; Calvert, Hilary

    2010-03-15

    Drug discovery and early clinical development is an international endeavor, conducted in partnership between commercial entities such as biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and academic investigators. Although once considered quite disparate, early clinical trials requirements and conduct are largely harmonized between the European Union, Japan, and the United States, increasing the opportunities for productive commercial-academic collaborations.

  4. The Conceptualisation of the European Union in Polish Public Discourse, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zbierska-Sawala, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Based on recent theoretical insights into the conceptual role of metaphors, this paper investigates figurative discourse in the current conceptualisation of the European Union (EU) in Polish. The metaphorical expressions found in the data present a cline of conventionality, and many of them display processes analysed by Lakoff and Turner (1989),…

  5. Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

  6. The Baltic Republics and Language Ideological Debates Surrounding European Union Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of European Union accession negotiations on language ideological debates regarding minority (language) and citizenship rights in the Baltic Republics. It explores issues pertaining to the transferability of standards developed for established democracies in the West to the situation of democratising countries in…

  7. The Baltic Republics and Language Ideological Debates Surrounding European Union Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of European Union accession negotiations on language ideological debates regarding minority (language) and citizenship rights in the Baltic Republics. It explores issues pertaining to the transferability of standards developed for established democracies in the West to the situation of democratising countries in…

  8. Swiss-German versus Standard German: Switzerland's Language Policy and the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, Ursula M.

    A survey investigated the increasing preference for Alemannic Swiss German over standard German in public functions in Switzerland, particularly in light of Switzerland's decision in 1996 not to join the European Union, which suggests an emphasis on national independence. The history of Alemannic Swiss usage and language policy are briefly…

  9. Soft Power and Hard Measures: Large-Scale Assessment, Citizenship and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) with particular emphasis on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the regional portion. Using the ICCS, the EU actively combines hard measures with soft power, allowing the EU to define and steer cross-national rankings of values of EU citizenship. The…

  10. Delay and restricted access of new molecules in Turkey compared to the United States and European Union

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Toros; Yeşil, Atakan; Topcu, Türker

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study compares the performances of new-molecule (NM) launches in Turkey with those in the European Union and United States for the years 2007–2013. Methods The Thomson Reuters Newport Horizon for Innovators Database is used to identify NMs with a launch date after January 1, 2007, worldwide and marketing authorization approval after January 1, 2007, in the European Union. The launch dates for the European Union, the United States, and Turkey were retrieved from the same database. Data for Turkey were confirmed via IMS and RxMedia. Results Out of 183 records identified that are launched in the European Union, the United States, or both, 44 of the NMs are launched in Turkey (24%). Conclusion The results of this study show that 24% of the NMs that are launched in either the European Union or United States were able to be launched in Turkey with a mean delay of 821 days (2.25 years). PMID:27226824

  11. Patient-Focused Benefit-Risk Analysis to Inform Regulatory Decisions: The European Union Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin; Beyer, Andrea R; Garner, Sarah

    Regulatory decisions are often based on multiple clinical end points, but the perspectives used to judge the relative importance of those end points are predominantly those of expert decision makers rather than of the patient. However, there is a growing awareness that active patient and public participation can improve decision making, increase acceptance of decisions, and improve adherence to treatments. The assessment of risk versus benefit requires not only information on clinical outcomes but also value judgments about which outcomes are important and whether the potential benefits outweigh the harms. There are a number of mechanisms for capturing the input of patients, and regulatory bodies within the European Union are participating in several initiatives. These can include patients directly participating in the regulatory decision-making process or using information derived from patients in empirical studies as part of the evidence considered. One promising method that is being explored is the elicitation of "patient preferences." Preferences, in this context, refer to the individual's evaluation of health outcomes and can be understood as statements regarding the relative desirability of a range of treatment options, treatment characteristics, and health states. Several methods for preference measurement have been proposed, and pilot studies have been undertaken to use patient preference information in regulatory decision making. This article describes how preferences are currently being considered in the benefit-risk assessment context, and shows how different methods of preference elicitation are used to support decision making within the European context.

  12. The crisis as catalyst for reframing health care policies in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Helderman, Jan-Kees

    2015-01-01

    Seen from the perspective of health, the global financial crisis (GFC) may be conceived of as an exogenous factor that has undermined the fiscal sustainability of European welfare states and consequently, their (expanding) health systems as well. Being one of the core programs of European welfare states, health care has always belonged to the sovereignty of European Member States. However, in past two decades, European welfare states have in fact become semi-sovereign states and the European Union (EU) no longer is an exogenous actor in European health policy making. Today, the EU not only puts limits to unsustainable growth levels in health care spending, it also acts as an health policy agenda setter. Since the outbreak of the GFC, it does so in an increasingly coercive and persuasive way, claiming authority over health system reforms alongside the responsibilities of its Member States.

  13. European Union’s Military Crisis Management: Challenges and Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    International Intervention in the Defense of Human Rights, ed. Nigel S. Rodley (London: Brassey’s Ltd., 1992), 113. 44 transition of the territory...convince the conflicting sides to abandon their actions. “The Balkan crises . . . constituted a wake -up call for European leaders by making obvious...Rights, edited by Nigel S. Rodley. New York, NY: MacMillan, 1992. Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement. New York, NY

  14. Energy market of the European union: common or segmented?

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Bartlomiej

    2010-12-15

    The European energy market operates on the premise of open and competitive markets among its 27 member states. But the gas and electricity market dynamics and levels of competitiveness vary enormously across the EU 27. Among the issues are unequal implementation of electricity and gas directives, a lack of independent energy regulators, the absence of proper and full unbundling, and discriminatory third-party access to the infrastructure. (author)

  15. Medical research in emergency research in the European Union member states: tensions between theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    In almost all of the European Union member states, prior consent by a legal representative is used as a substitute for informed patient consent for non-urgent medical research. Deferred (patient and/or proxy) consent is accepted as a substitute in acute emergency research in approximately half of the member states. In 12 European Union member states emergency research is not mentioned in national law. Medical research in the European Union is covered by the Clinical Trial Directive 2001/20/EC. A proposal for a regulation by the European Commission is currently being examined by the European Parliament and the Council and will replace Directive 2001/20/EC. Deferred patient and/or proxy consent is allowed in the proposed regulation, but does not fit completely in the practice of emergency research. For example, deferred consent is only possible when legal representatives are not available. This criterion will delay inclusion of patients in acute life-threatening conditions in short time frames. As the regulation shall be binding in its entirety in all member states, emergency research in acute situations is still not possible as it should be.

  16. Financing and planning of public and private not-for-profit hospitals in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ceri R; McKee, Martin

    2004-03-01

    While much has been written about health care financing in Europe in recent years, discussion has almost entirely focused on revenue. In contrast, there has been remarkably little written on financing of capital investment in European health care systems. Yet major changes are underway in several countries, in particular involving new forms of public-private partnerships (PPP). At the same time, there is growing recognition of the way in which the inherited structure of the health care delivery system constrains the system's ability to adapt to changing circumstances. This paper reports the results of a survey undertaken among key informants in the member states of the European Union to begin to ascertain existing practices and future plans in relation to hospital planning and financing amongst public and private not-for-profit hospitals. The locus of hospital planning decisions reflect the constitutional framework of the country involved, and thus the emphasis on national or local plans. There has been an expansion of private sector involvement, with four basic models identified: private loans direct to the hospital; private loans to a regional health body; a PPP where the private sector's role is to build, design and operate the non-clinical functions of the hospital; and, finally, a PPP, where the private sector's involvement also includes management of the clinical functions of the hospital. It is too early to say whether these approaches will be more successful than the models they are replacing.

  17. Immigration to Spain: implications for a unified European Union immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Huntoon, L

    1998-01-01

    A unified immigration policy is one of the prerequisites for establishing the free movement of people within the European Union (EU). This paper considers the difficulties in establishing a joint policy on the free movement of people within the EU by focusing upon changing immigration policies in Spain. By comparing Spain, a country of only recent, small-scale immigration, to Germany, a country with a longer history of non-European immigration, obstacles to developing and effectively implementing coordinated immigration policies among EU members can be elucidated. The administrative control of entry, estimates of legal and illegal immigrants in the country, and the status of bilateral relations with Morocco are examined in order to highlight the political difficulties encountered in a unified immigration policy both within Spanish society and for the EU. Spain is both a threshold to the EU and a destination. Border control may be the easiest part of implementing a joint immigration policy in the EU. It is more difficult to control settlement. In addition, high rates of unemployment may result among the native host country populations as immigrants more readily accept low-skilled, low-paying jobs.

  18. Aflatoxins in Turkish dried figs intended for export to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Senyuva, H Z; Gilbert, J; Ulken, U

    2007-04-01

    Dried figs for export from Turkey from crop years 2003 through 2006 were tested for aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. For export to the European Union, consignments of 0.5 to 10 tonnes of dried figs were sampled according to European Commission regulations, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine concentrations of aflatoxins Bl, B2, G1, and G2. For each consignment of dried figs, a 30-kg sample (comprising 100 subsamples) was divided into three 10-kg subsamples, which were separately blended and analyzed with HPLC. This monitoring effort was conducted for figs from 2003, 2004, 2005, and up to June 2006, for a total of 10,396 30-kg samples (28,489 analyses). The incidence of contamination with aflatoxin B1 at higher than 2 ng/g was on average 0.6, 2.0, 4.0, and 2.4% for 2003, 2004, 2005, and up to June 2006, respectively, whereas contamination with total aflatoxins at higher than 4 ng/g was 2.6, 3.0, 5.1, and 2.7%. There was significant variability in contamination between replicate 1-kg samples, indicating small numbers of individual contaminated figs were probably responsible. There were also substantial differences in the relative proportions of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 among samples, suggesting different contributing fungal sources.

  19. Attributing foodborne salmonellosis in humans to animal reservoirs in the European Union using a multi-country stochastic model.

    PubMed

    DE Knegt, L V; Pires, S M; Hald, T

    2015-04-01

    A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period from 2007 to 2009, were mainly obtained from studies and reports published by the European Food Safety Authority. Availability of food sources for consumption was derived from trade and production data from the European Statistical Office. Results showed layers as the most important reservoir of human salmonellosis in Europe, with 42·4% (7 903 000 cases, 95% credibility interval 4 181 000-14 510 000) of cases, 95·9% of which was caused by S. Enteritidis. In Finland and Sweden, most cases were travel-related, while in most other countries the main sources were related to the laying hen or pig reservoir, highlighting differences in the epidemiology of Salmonella, surveillance focus and eating habits across the European Union.

  20. Oral healthcare systems in the extended European union.

    PubMed

    Widström, Eeva; Eaton, Kenneth A

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a survey of the systems for the provision of oral healthcare in the 28 member and accession states of the EU/EEA in 2003. Descriptions of the systems were collected from the principal dental advisers to governments in the individual states. In many states these were the Chief Dental Officers (CDOs). In states without a CDO, descriptions were gathered from CDO equivalents or senior academics. A template (model description) was used to guide all respondents. Additional statistical information on oral healthcare costs and workforce was collected from the Council of European Chief Dental Officers, WHO and World Bank websites. The study showed that in broad terms there were six patterns (Beveridgian, Bismarkian, The Eastern European (in transition), Nordic, Southern European and Hybrid) for the administration and financing of oral healthcare in the expanding EU. The extent and nature of government involvement in planning and coordinating oral healthcare services and the numbers and pay of the oral healthcare workforce varied between the different models. The biggest recent changes in European oral healthcare were found to have occurred in Eastern Europe, where there has been wide scale privatization of the previously public dental services. However, most of the EU accession (Eastern European) states seemed to be slowly developing insurance systems to cover oral health treatment costs. In the existing EU/EEA, the public dental services such as those in the Nordic countries still have strong political support and some expansion has occurred. In Southern Europe public dental services seemed to have gained some acceptance for the treatment of children and special needs groups. In UK, which has a unique public dental service system, there are plans to make big changes in the delivery, commissioning and remuneration of dental services in the near future. Some EU member states which operate the Bismarkian system with health insurances offering wide

  1. Buy baby: the European Union and regulation of human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hervey, T K

    1998-01-01

    In its decision in ex parte Blood the Court of Appeal relied on European Community (EC) law to hold that the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority had acted unlawfully in taking its decision to prevent Mrs Blood from exporting sperm taken from her dying husband without his written consent. The Blood case raises the issue of the extent to which EC law may affect the regulation of human reproduction in the Member States. Responding to fears that such national regulation might be 'swept away' by the commodifying nature of EC law, this article considers the scope of the potential application of EC law to regulation of human reproduction. The cautious conclusion is that, while there may be some increase in deregulatory pressures, the 'vertical relationship' of supreme EC law to national law may turn out to be less significant than 'horizontal relationships' between policy-makers within and between the EU and its Member States.

  2. The impact of European Union law on Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, John

    This article considers the impact of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), both in its own right since the 1950s, and in conjunction with the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) when this brought these rights home by incorporating them into the domestic law of the UK thus enabling our judiciary to give effect to them directly. The ECHR and the HRA say very little, if anything, expressly about health or health care, but have been relied on by litigants in a wide range of contexts, including but not limited to, assisted reproduction, abortion, access to treatment, management of health records, end of life issues and the investigation of potentially negligent or criminal conduct by professionals.

  3. How accurate are the European Union's classifications of chemical substances.

    PubMed

    Rudén, Christina; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2003-09-30

    The European Commission has decided on harmonized classifications for a large number of individual chemicals according to its own directive for classification and labeling of dangerous substances. We have compared the harmonized classifications for acute oral toxicity to the acute oral toxicity data available in the RTECS database. Of the 992 substances eligible for this comparison, 15% were assigned a too low danger class and 8% a too high danger class according to the RTECS data. Due to insufficient transparency-scientific documentations of the classification decisions are not available-the causes of this discrepancy can only be hypothesized. We propose that the scientific motivations of future classifications be published and that the apparent over- and underclassifications in the present system be either explained or rectified, according to what are the facts in the matter.

  4. Development and testing of a European Union-wide farm-level carbon calculator

    PubMed Central

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; De Camillis, Camillo; Leip, Adrian; Nisini, Luigi; Pelletier, Nathan; Haastrup, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture accounted for approximately 10% of total European Union (EU) emissions in 2010. To reduce farming-related GHG emissions, appropriate policy measures and supporting tools for promoting low-C farming practices may be efficacious. This article presents the methodology and testing results of a new EU-wide, farm-level C footprint calculator. The Carbon Calculator quantifies GHG emissions based on international standards and technical specifications on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and C footprinting. The tool delivers its results both at the farm level and as allocated to up to 5 main products of the farm. In addition to the quantification of GHG emissions, the calculator proposes mitigation options and sequestration actions that may be suitable for individual farms. The results obtained during a survey made on 54 farms from 8 EU Member States are presented. These farms were selected in view of representing the diversity of farm types across different environmental zones in the EU. The results of the C footprint of products in the data set show wide range of variation between minimum and maximum values. The results of the mitigation actions showed that the tool can help identify practices that can lead to substantial emission reductions. To avoid burden-shifting from climate change to other environmental issues, the future improvements of the tool should include incorporation of other environmental impact categories in place of solely focusing on GHG emissions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:404–416. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points The methodology and testing results of a new European Union-wide, farm-level carbon calculator are presented. The Carbon Calculator reports life cycle assessment-based greenhouse gas emissions at farm and product levels and recommends farm- specific mitigation actions. Based on the results obtained from testing the tool in 54

  5. Mobbing in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the member states of the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    Mobbing as a specific form of discrimination which applies only to the labor law, is a very young branch of labor law. It began to develop during the eighties of last century. This kind of psychoterror that appears in the workplace, was first spotted, formulated and diagnosed by the Swedish psychologist of German origin prof. Dr. Heinz Lejman (Heinz Leymann July 17, 1932.; Wolfenbuttel, Germany - 1999 Stockholm, Sweden). Today, the legal regulation of mobbing in terms of prevention, rules of behavior and sanctions is indispensable to every modern democratic state. I'll make a comparison of the legislative regulation provided by BiH with several European Union member states. I will compare the results of a survey conducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Condition, during the year 2000. In the European Union Member States, with the results of the questionnaire for employees, which I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conclusion I came to in this paper is: Bosnia and Herzegovina is lagging behind a lot of European Union member states, both in terms of prevention of mobbing, as well as legislation, that is insufficient to regulate this complex issue. Results of the questionnaire for the employees that I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina are devastating and alarming.

  6. European Society for Swallowing Disorders – European Union Geriatric Medicine Society white paper: oropharyngeal dysphagia as a geriatric syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baijens, Laura WJ; Clavé, Pere; Cras, Patrick; Ekberg, Olle; Forster, Alexandre; Kolb, Gerald F; Leners, Jean-Claude; Masiero, Stefano; Mateos-Nozal, Jesús; Ortega, Omar; Smithard, David G; Speyer, Renée; Walshe, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and it is included in the World Health Organization’s classification of diseases. It can cause severe complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia, and increased readmissions, institutionalization, and morbimortality. OD is a prevalent and serious problem among all phenotypes of older patients as oropharyngeal swallow response is impaired in older people and can cause aspiration. Despite its prevalence and severity, OD is still underdiagnosed and untreated in many medical centers. There are several validated clinical and instrumental methods (videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing) to diagnose OD, and treatment is mainly based on compensatory measures, although new treatments to stimulate the oropharyngeal swallow response are under research. OD matches the definition of a geriatric syndrome as it is highly prevalent among older people, is caused by multiple factors, is associated with several comorbidities and poor prognosis, and needs a multidimensional approach to be treated. OD should be given more importance and attention and thus be included in all standard screening protocols, treated, and regularly monitored to prevent its main complications. More research is needed to develop and standardize new treatments and management protocols for older patients with OD, which is a challenging mission for our societies

  7. European Society for Swallowing Disorders - European Union Geriatric Medicine Society white paper: oropharyngeal dysphagia as a geriatric syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baijens, Laura Wj; Clavé, Pere; Cras, Patrick; Ekberg, Olle; Forster, Alexandre; Kolb, Gerald F; Leners, Jean-Claude; Masiero, Stefano; Mateos-Nozal, Jesús; Ortega, Omar; Smithard, David G; Speyer, Renée; Walshe, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and it is included in the World Health Organization's classification of diseases. It can cause severe complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia, and increased readmissions, institutionalization, and morbimortality. OD is a prevalent and serious problem among all phenotypes of older patients as oropharyngeal swallow response is impaired in older people and can cause aspiration. Despite its prevalence and severity, OD is still underdiagnosed and untreated in many medical centers. There are several validated clinical and instrumental methods (videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing) to diagnose OD, and treatment is mainly based on compensatory measures, although new treatments to stimulate the oropharyngeal swallow response are under research. OD matches the definition of a geriatric syndrome as it is highly prevalent among older people, is caused by multiple factors, is associated with several comorbidities and poor prognosis, and needs a multidimensional approach to be treated. OD should be given more importance and attention and thus be included in all standard screening protocols, treated, and regularly monitored to prevent its main complications. More research is needed to develop and standardize new treatments and management protocols for older patients with OD, which is a challenging mission for our societies.

  8. European Union policy on pesticides: implications for agriculture in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jess, Stephen; Kildea, Steven; Moody, Aidan; Rennick, Gordon; Murchie, Archie K; Cooke, Louise R

    2014-11-01

    European Community (EC) legislation has limited the availability of pesticide active substances used in effective plant protection products. The Pesticide Authorisation Directive 91/414/EEC introduced the principle of risk assessment for approval of pesticide active substances. This principle was modified by the introduction of Regulation (EC) 1107/2009, which applies hazard, the intrinsic toxicity of the active substance, rather than risk, the potential for hazard to occur, as the approval criterion. Potential impacts of EC pesticide legislation on agriculture in Ireland are summarised. While these will significantly impact on pesticide availability in the medium to long term, regulations associated with water quality (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and Drinking Water Directive 1998/83/EC) have the potential to restrict pesticide use more immediately, as concerns regarding public health and economic costs associated with removing pesticides from water increase. This rationale will further reduce the availability of effective pesticide active substances, directly affecting crop protection and increasing pesticide resistance within pest and disease populations. In addition, water quality requirements may also impact on important active substances used in plant protection in Ireland. The future challenge for agriculture in Ireland is to sustain production and profitability using reduced pesticide inputs within a framework of integrated pest management. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  10. GCFR: The European Union Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Colin; Peers, Karen; Poette, Christian; Coddington, Paul; Somers, Joe; Van-Goethem, George

    2006-07-01

    In March 2005, the European Commission (EC) initiated a new 4-year Project on Gas Cooled Fast Reactors (GCFR) within its 6. Framework Programme. The EC and more than 10 participating companies, R and D organizations and universities finance the project in equal parts. The project contributes to the Generation IV ambitious goals requiring innovative solutions in terms environmental impact (robust fuel with no significant radioactive release), sustainability (core which is self sustaining and has the flexibility for waste reduction), proliferation resistant fuel cycle and economics (high coolant temperatures leading to increased thermodynamic efficiency). A matrix has been prepared for the Generation IV GFR studies to facilitate sharing the work between the members, which identifies seven combinations of design options. These option studies will lead to a pre-selection of a reference concept and alternatives and the preliminary GFR viability report. The GCFR project, which forms part of the EURATOM contribution to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) has responsibility for the direct cycle and indirect cycle 600 MW options. In detail, the GCFR project will examine; the GFR (600 MW options) and ETDR, core and system design; GFR and ETDR safety analysis, including the analysis of selected transients; the qualification and benchmarking of the transient analysis codes through a series of benchmark exercises; and a review of candidate fuels and core materials, including their fabrication and irradiation. Education and communication to foster understanding of the growing needs for nuclear power in general and for the technology of the GCFR in particular is specific goal of the EU project. (authors)

  11. Income, Deprivation and Economic Stress in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    At risk of poverty indicators based on relative income measures suggest that within the enlarged EU societies located at quite different points on a continuum of affluence have similar levels of poverty. Substantial differences in levels of income between societies do not in themselves invalidate this approach. However, the relative income…

  12. Income, Deprivation and Economic Stress in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    At risk of poverty indicators based on relative income measures suggest that within the enlarged EU societies located at quite different points on a continuum of affluence have similar levels of poverty. Substantial differences in levels of income between societies do not in themselves invalidate this approach. However, the relative income…

  13. Tracing the Boundaries between Disability and Sickness in the European Union: Squaring the Circle?

    PubMed

    Favalli, Silvia; Ferri, Delia

    2016-03-01

    In recent years the European Union (EU) has sought to develop a far-reaching policy regarding persons with disabilities. However, to date, EU non-discrimination legislation does not provide any clear legal definition of what constitutes a disability. The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has attempted to fill this gap and, in several decisions, has elaborated on the concept of disability and its meaning under EU law. The CJEU, with reference to the application of the Employment Equality Directive, has explained the notion of disability mainly by comparing and contrasting it to the concept of sickness. Against this background, this article critically discusses recent case law and attempts to highlight that, even though the Court has firmly embraced the social model of disability envisaged by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the boundaries between the concepts of sickness and disability remain blurred.

  14. Nonmedical use of prescription drugs in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Novak, Scott P; Håkansson, Anders; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Reimer, Jens; Krotki, Karol; Varughese, Sajan

    2016-08-04

    Nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU) refers to the self-treatment of a medical condition using medication without a prescriber's authorization as well as use to achieve euphoric states. This article reports data from a cross-national investigation of NMPDU in five European Countries, with the aim to understand the prevalence and characteristics of those engaging in NMPDU across the EU. A parallel series of self-administered, cross-sectional, general population surveys were conducted in 2014. Data were collected using multi-stage quota sampling and then weighted using General Exponential Model. A total of 22,070 non-institutionalized participants, aged 12 to 49 years, in 5 countries: Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Spain, and Sweden. Lifetime and past-year nonmedical use of prescription medications such as stimulants, opioids, and sedatives were ascertained via a modified version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Information about how the medications were acquired for NMPDU were also collected from the respondent. Lifetime and past-year prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use was estimated for opioids (13.5 and 5.0 %), sedatives (10.9 and 5.8 %), and stimulants (7.0 and 2.8 %). Germany exhibited the lowest levels of NMPDU, with Great Britain, Spain, and Sweden having the highest levels. Mental and sexual health risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of past-year nonmedical prescription drug use. Among past-year users, about 32, 28, and 52 % of opioid, sedative, and stimulant nonmedical users, respectively, also consumed illicit drugs. Social sources (sharing by friends/family) were the most commonly endorsed methods of acquisition, ranging from 44 % (opioids) to 62 % (sedatives). Of interest is that Internet pharmacies were a common source of medications for opioids (4.1 %), stimulants (7.6 %), and sedatives (2.7 %). Nonmedical prescription drug use was reported across the five

  15. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  16. The Ideas of the Students of Education Faculty about the European Union Education and Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergün, Muammer; Kamer, S. Tunay

    2009-01-01

    The most important issue that Turkey has been dealing with since the beginning of 2000s is the entrance to the European Union and the preparatory activities for this period. No what how it is evaluated, as an opportunity or a threat to which will break us off our cultural values, EU is a reality that our country faces. The programs such as FORCE,…

  17. Challenges in harmonising controls on the radioactivity of building materials within the European Union.

    PubMed

    Markkanen, M

    2001-05-14

    Possibilities for harmonising controls on the radioactivity of building materials within the European Union are being discussed in a Working Party on Natural Radiation Sources established by the Article 31 Group of Experts (Euratom Treaty). The Working Party is preparing a document to aid the Article 31 Expert Group and the European Commission in considering possible recommendations and technical guidance to the Member States for the implementation of the new Basic Safety Standards Directive concerning the radioactivity of building materials. The discussions in the working party have demonstrated several challenges in the possible harmonisation of controls, many of them arising from some significant differences in national circumstances.

  18. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part I].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation of food supplements. The definition of the supplement category is given. The contemporary issues of nutrition in developed countries are discussed, and the essential role of food supplements in the diet is emphasized. In particular, the use of vitamins, minerals, botanicals and their chemical constituents in food supplements as well as the issue of setting maximum daily limits are discussed. The positive lists of vitamins, minerals and their chemical modifications are presented. The paper also outlines aspects of supplement safety, requirements for their labelling and pre-market notification procedure.

  19. The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Recapitulating how genetic modification technology and its agro-food products aroused strong societal opposition in the European Union, this paper demonstrates how this opposition contributed to shape the European regulatory frame on GM crops. More specifically, it describes how this opposition contributed to a de facto moratorium on the commercialization of new GM crop events in the end of the nineties. From this period onwards, the regulatory frame has been continuously revised in order to slow down further erosion of public and market confidence. Various scientific and technical reforms were made to meet societal concerns relating to the safety of GM crops. In this context, the precautionary principle, environmental post-market monitoring and traceability were adopted as ways to cope with scientific uncertainties. Labeling, traceability, co-existence and public information were installed in an attempt to meet the general public request for more information about GM agro-food products, and the specific demand to respect the consumers' and farmers' freedom of choice. Despite these efforts, today, the explicit role of public participation and/or ethical consultation during authorization procedures is at best minimal. Moreover, no legal room was created to progress to an integral sustainability evaluation during market procedures. It remains to be seen whether the recent policy shift towards greater transparency about value judgments, plural viewpoints and scientific uncertainties will be one step forward in integrating ethical concerns more explicitly in risk analysis. As such, the regulatory frame stands open for further interpretation, reflecting in various degrees a continued interplay with societal concerns relating to GM agro-food products. In this regard, both societal concerns and diversely interpreted regulatory criteria can be inferred as signaling a request - and even a quest - to render more explicit the broader-than-scientific dimension of the actual

  20. Climate change policy in the European Union: Confronting the dilemmas of mitigation and adaptation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Alan

    2011-08-01

    There is no doubt that climate change presents an exquisite dilemma to global society and our systems of governance. Either we accept our collective responsibility and adapt our energy systems, or our societies and many critical ecosystems may be swept away by climate extremes, food crises, and, eventually, rising seas. The European Union (EU) has emerged in a leading role in the international struggle to govern climate change. Climate change is an accepted part of the political agenda in the EU, so agreement on targets has been relatively easy compared to the actual implementation of policies to reduce emissions. This book addresses in a historical context, from the late 1980s to 2010, the challenges that climate change policy has presented to the EU and how policy has been developed. The risks posed by climate change have been known for several decades. The evolution of climate change policy in the EU has occurred in parallel with extensive expansion of the EU itself, which grew from 9 member countries in the 1980s to its present 27. The EU is a relatively large emitter of greenhouse gases, and with 27 countries, it represents a microcosm of the global community, albeit with a unique form of governance.

  1. Brazilian foot and mouth disease status and meat exportation to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Seixas, Luiza; McManus, Concepta

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to define the differences between the Brazilian states that export and do not export meat to the European Union (EU) and to identify the variables that are important to meet the export requirements. Infrastructure and computerization of the control of animal transit in Brazil that impact on regional health status were evaluated and linked to other variables such as status for foot and mouth disease (FMD) and qualification to export meat to EU. Variables related to transit control of bovines implemented by the state agencies of animal health and inspection in each Brazilian state were evaluated. Using a discriminant analysis, four variables were selected that explained the variation between Brazilian states that were "free" and "not free" of FMD while another four were selected to explain the variation between the zones "approved" and "not approved" to export meat to the EU, including number of official veterinarians, total transit of bovines and buffaloes, total number of animal transit certificates issued for bovine and buffaloes at the state or zone level, and total number of municipalities in the state or zone. It was possible to correctly discriminate between "free" and "not free" FMD states or zones. Variables related to animal transit are important in assessing the state for the classification of animal health situation and for EU approval for the exportation of meat.

  2. European Union investment and countries' involvement in mental health research between 2007 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Hazo, J-B; Gervaix, J; Gandré, C; Brunn, M; Leboyer, M; Chevreul, K

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the commitment to mental health research by the European Union (EU) through the 7th framework (FP7) and the competitiveness and innovation (CIP) programmes during the 2007-2013 period. Research projects dedicated or partially related to mental health were identified using keywords in the CORDIS database that inventories all FP7 and CIP research projects. We then contacted projects' principal investigators to access the budget breakdown by country and performed an imputation of the distribution of funding between countries based on projects' and participants' characteristics where information was missing. Among the 25 783 research projects funded by the FP7 and the CIP, 215 (0.8%) were specifically dedicated to mental health and 170 (0.7%) were partially related to mental health. They received €607.1 million representing 1.4% of FP7 total funding. Within the FP7-Health subprogramme, the projects represented 5.2% of funding. Important variations appeared across EU countries both for raw funding, which varied between €0 and €77M, and for funding per 100 inhabitants, which varied between €0 and €293. EU funding of mental health research does not match the burden incurred by mental disorders and must be increased in the next framework programme. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Land cover dynamics and accounts for European Union 2001-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekousis, George; Kavouras, Marinos; Mountrakis, Giorgos

    2015-06-01

    Land cover dynamics information plays an important role in environmental research and related studies. We use the 500m NASA MODIS land cover dataset for the European Union (EU28) to calculate (a) land cover share trends on an annual temporal increment from 2001 to 2011 and (b) land cover accounts from 2001 to 2011. Raster products are firstly mosaicked to produce a single image per year, covering the study area. Reclassification for each final annual product follows to convert the original 17 IGBP MODIS classes into 7 simpler classes of broader interest. Zonal statistics are used to calculate the number of land cover pixels per class, per country, per year. Further calculations create land account tables revealing land cover trends during 2001 through 2011. Results show that for the 2001 through 2011 period forests and cropland dominated EU28, covering almost 70% of the total area. Forest has an increasing trend, with an annual change rate of 0,60%, while cropland has a negative rate of annual change (-0, 46%). On average, grassland covers approximately 21% of EU28. A closer look reveals that despite the relatively stable overall counts, grassland has experienced high turnover. Almost half (40%) of grassland original stock changed to other land cover classes during 2001 through 2011. At the same time, there was a large conversion to grassland from other land cover classes thus keeping a balance in the overall share. Our analysis provides useful information for environmental assessments in order to better frame policies for a sustainable future.

  4. Breast cancer in European Union: an update of screening programmes as of March 2014 (review).

    PubMed

    Altobelli, E; Lattanzi, A

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer, a major cause of female morbidity and mortality, is a global health problem; 2008 data show an incidence of ~450,000 new cases and 140,000 deaths (mean incidence rate 70.7 and mortality rate 16.7, world age-standardized rate per 100,000 women) in European Union Member States. Incidence rates in Western Europe are among the highest in the world. We review the situation of BC screening programmes in European Union. Up to date information on active BC screening programmes was obtained by reviewing the literature and searching national health ministries and cancer service websites. Although BC screening programmes are in place in nearly all European Union countries there are still considerable differences in target population coverage and age and in the techniques deployed. Screening is a mainstay of early BC detection whose main weakness is the rate of participation of the target population. National policies and healthcare planning should aim at maximizing participation in controlled organized screening programmes by identifying and lowering any barriers to adhesion, also with a view to reducing healthcare costs.

  5. Losses of Ammonia and Nitrate from Agriculture and Their Effect on Nitrogen Recovery in the European Union and the United States between 1900 and 2050.

    PubMed

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Bouwman, Lex; Cassman, Kenneth G; van Es, Harold M; McCrackin, Michelle L; Beusen, Arthur H W

    2015-03-01

    Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more regulatory approach in the European Union. This paper explores the implications of these differences for attaining long-term policy targets for air and water quality. Nutrient surplus problems were more severe in the European Union than in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. The EU Nitrates and National Emission Ceilings directives contributed to decreases in fertilizer use, N surplus, and ammonia (NH) emissions, whereas in the United States they stabilized, although NH emissions are still increasing. These differences were analyzed using statistical data for 1900-2005 and the global IMAGE model. IMAGE could reproduce NH emissions and soil N surpluses at different scales (European Union and United States, country and state) and N loads in the Rhine and Mississippi. The regulation-driven changes during the past 25 yr in the European Union have reduced public concerns and have brought agricultural N loads to the aquatic environment closer to US levels. Despite differences in agro-environmental policies and agricultural structure (more N-fixing soybean and more spatially separated feed and livestock production in the United States than in the European Union), current N use efficiency in US and EU crop production is similar. IMAGE projections for the IAASTD-baseline scenario indicate that N loading to the environment in 2050 will be similar to current levels. In the United States, environmental N loads will remain substantially smaller than in the European Union, whereas agricultural production in 2050 in the United States will increase by 30% relative to 2005, as compared with an increase of 8% in the European Union. However, in the United States, even rigorous mitigation

  6. Female Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Patricia A.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Fowler, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: A growing body of evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to female reproductive disorders. Objective: To calculate the associated combined health care and economic costs attributable to specific EDC exposures within the European Union (EU). Design: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. Cost-of-illness estimation used multiple peer-reviewed sources. Setting, Patients and Participants and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. Results: The most robust EDC-related data for female reproductive disorders exist for 1) diphenyldichloroethene-attributable fibroids and 2) phthalate-attributable endometriosis in Europe. In both cases, the strength of epidemiological evidence was rated as low and the toxicological evidence as moderate, with an assigned probability of causation of 20%–39%. Across the EU, attributable cases were estimated to be 56 700 and 145 000 women, respectively, with total combined economic and health care costs potentially reaching €163 million and €1.25 billion. Conclusions: EDCs (diphenyldichloroethene and phthalates) may contribute substantially to the most common reproductive disorders in women, endometriosis and fibroids, costing nearly €1.5 billion annually. These estimates represent only EDCs for which there were sufficient epidemiologic studies and those with the highest probability of causation. These public health costs should be considered as the EU contemplates regulatory action on EDCs. PMID

  7. [Cross-border healthcare in European Union and Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Barták, Miroslav; Rogalewicz, Vladimír; Jílková, Jiřina; Jeřábková, Silvie

    Currently, the cross-border healthcare still represents a marginal part of the Czech healthcare system's performance, though. Compared to the total healthcare expenditures in the Czech Republic that accounted for CZK 299.9 billion in 2014, the costs of the treatment provided to Czech patients abroad constitute mere 0.27%, and the (subsequently refunded) costs of the treatment provided to foreign patients in the Czech Republic 0.24%.Although data on changes in the volume and reimbursements of healthcare due to the Directive 2011/24/EU have not been published yet, we can expect rather evolutionary than revolutionary development of cross-border healthcare volumes. Taking into account all available data, we can conclude that the cross-border healthcare, as specified by the directive currently in force, is important in our conditions above all in relation to our neighbours, i. e. Germany, Austria, Slovakia and Poland.Key words: cross-border healthcare, patient mobility, international reimbursements EU health policy, Directive 2011/24/EU.

  8. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    PubMed

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  9. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  10. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products.

  11. Factors associated with teenage pregnancy in the European Union countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Mari; Tucker, Janet; Hannaford, Phil; da Silva, Miguel Oliveira; Astin, Margaret; Wyness, Laura; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Jahn, Albrecht; Karro, Helle; Olsen, Jørn; Temmerman, Marleen

    2007-12-01

    As part of the REPROSTAT2 project, this systematic review aimed to identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in 25 European Union countries. The search strategy included electronic bibliographic databases (1995 to May 2005), bibliographies of selected articles and requests to all country representatives of the research team for relevant reports and publications. Primary outcome measure was conception. Inclusion criteria were quantitative studies of individual-level factors associated with teenage (13-19 years) pregnancy in EU countries. Of 4444 studies identified and screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies took place in UK and Nordic countries. The well-recognized factors of socioeconomic disadvantage, disrupted family structure and low educational level and aspiration appear consistently associated with teenage pregnancy. However, evidence that access to services in itself is a protective factor remains inconsistent. Although further associations with diverse risk-taking behaviours and lifestyle, sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour are reported, the independent effects of these factors too remain unclear. Included studies varied widely in terms of methods and definitions used. This heterogeneity within the studies leaves two outstanding issues. First, we cannot synthesize or generalize key findings as to how all these factors interact with one another and which factors are the most significant. Second, it is not possible to examine potential variation between countries. Future research ensuring comparability and generalizability of results related to teenage sexual health outcomes will help gain insight into the international variation in observed pregnancy rates and better inform interventions.

  12. Genetic testing in the European Union: does economic evaluation matter?

    PubMed

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, R; Hutter, M F; Lorente, R; Juárez, C; Pinillos, M

    2012-10-01

    We review the published economic evaluation studies applied to genetic technologies in the EU to know the main diseases addressed by these studies, the ways the studies were conducted and to assess the efficiency of these new technologies. The final aim of this review was to understand the possibilities of the economic evaluations performed up to date as a tool to contribute to decision making in this area. We have reviewed a set of articles found in several databases until March 2010. Literature searches were made in the following databases: PubMed; Euronheed; Centre for Reviews and Dissemination of the University of York-Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, NHS Economic Evaluation Database; and Scopus. The algorithm was "(screening or diagnosis) and genetic and (cost or economic) and (country EU27)". We included studies if they met the following criteria: (1) a genetic technology was analysed; (2) human DNA must be tested for; (3) the analysis was a real economic evaluation or a cost study, and (4) the articles had to be related to any EU Member State. We initially found 3,559 papers on genetic testing but only 92 articles of economic analysis referred to a wide range of genetic diseases matched the inclusion criteria. The most studied diseases were as follows: cystic fibrosis (12), breast and ovarian cancer (8), hereditary hemochromatosis (6), Down's syndrome (7), colorectal cancer (5), familial hypercholesterolaemia (5), prostate cancer (4), and thrombophilia (4). Genetic tests were mostly used for screening purposes, and cost-effectiveness analysis is the most common type of economic study. The analysed gene technologies are deemed to be efficient for some specific population groups and screening algorithms according to the values of their cost-effectiveness ratios that were below the commonly accepted threshold of 30,000€. Economic evaluation of genetic technologies matters but the number of published studies is still

  13. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    PubMed

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access.

  14. The European Union's REACH regulation: a review of its history and requirements.

    PubMed

    Williams, E Spencer; Panko, Julie; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the European Union (EU) promulgated a monumental regulatory initiative for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). To date, several thousand pages of text have been needed to describe the expectations of this regulation. There were numerous reasons for the promulgation of REACH, but, by and large, it is an extension of the global desire to produce fewer industrial chemicals, to understand the possible human and ecological hazards of those that are produced, and to insure that any major threat is anticipated, as well as prevented. Most industry-related groups consider it the most wide-ranging and costly regulatory initiatives related to health risk assessment ever to be promulgated. This review presents a description of REACH that should inform scientists, managers, and others about its objectives and the means to satisfy them. Registration is required for all chemicals manufactured or imported into the EU, unless specifically exempted. Registration is expected to be a collaborative process among companies, which will generate a dossier containing data on physicochemical characteristics, as well as toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. Though the magnitude of the gaps in the data required for registration is uncertain at this point, it is clear that basic toxicology testing will have to be conducted for many chemical substances that have not undergone formal review up to this point. For many chemicals, an examination of hazards and risks arising from the use of these substances will also be required in the form of a chemical safety report (CSR). Beginning with the dual processes of dossier and substance evaluation, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), the Member States of the EU, and the European Commission will identify chemicals that may pose unacceptable hazards to human health and/or the environment, and will curtail or restrict their usage. The implementation of REACH will expand and deepen the

  15. Women Physicists in the European Union : how Brussels is moving toward gender equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancheri, Giulia

    2008-04-01

    The policies of the European Union towards gender equality in science occupation will be discussed along three aspects: 1. Current statistics recently published by the EU will be illustrated with some comparison with similar US statistics. The latest recommendations of the Helsinki group will be presented, together with the conclusions of the Women in Science meetings organized by the EU. 2. The implementation of these recommendations will be illustrated by this speaker's experience both as independent expert for Physics Research Programs for the European Commission for the last 10 years, as well as from the point of view of having been European Coordinator of three Research Networks in Theoretical Physics from 1992 until 2006: the impact of this on young women students will be described. 3. National policies enforced through the Equal Opportunity Committees will be illustrated, with the specific case of the Affirmative Actions of Italian INFN Equal Opportunity Committe and their impact on hiring and promotion of women physicists.

  16. Availability of medicines in the European Union: results from the EURO-Medicines project.

    PubMed

    Folino-Gallo, P; Walley, T; Frolich, J C; Carvajal, A; Edwards, I R

    2001-09-01

    There is at present no comprehensive directory of medicines available in European countries. Such a directory would be valuable to policy analysts, clinicians, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and consumer groups. The aim of this project was to compile such a directory of all medicines marketed in each of the European Union member countries. Lists of medicines for each country, compiled from several national sources, classified by Anatomical-Chemical-Therapeutic (ATC) code. Census date was late 1998. A comprehensive directory was created using data from 14 of the 15 European Union countries. Numbers of trade names and of active ingredients varied widely, from Germany with 18,554 and 1,973, respectively, to Denmark with 1,915 and 1,016, respectively. In individual therapeutic areas, there were variations in the numbers of active ingredients available: the least variation between countries was in antineoplastic medicines (ATC code L, maximum number available in any country 101, minimum 60) and wider variation in alimentary (ATC code A, maximum 256. minimum 103) or cardiovascular (ATC code C, maximum 269, minimum 112). Only 7% of all the active ingredients were available in all the countries studied. The Scandinavian countries had the greatest proportion of active ingredients (60%) available in all other countries. Each country had a number of active ingredients available only in that country Italy had the largest number of these. The directory illustrates the wide variations in the availability of medicines across the European Union. The range of drugs available in each country represents differences in regulatory and market policies, as well as cultural and historic differences. This directory lends itself to many further analyses.

  17. GMOMETHODS: the European Union database of reference methods for GMO analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonfini, Laura; Van den Bulcke, Marc H; Mazzara, Marco; Ben, Enrico; Patak, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide reliable and harmonized information on methods for GMO (genetically modified organism) analysis we have published a database called "GMOMETHODS" that supplies information on PCR assays validated according to the principles and requirements of ISO 5725 and/or the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry protocol. In addition, the database contains methods that have been verified by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed in the context of compliance with an European Union legislative act. The web application provides search capabilities to retrieve primers and probes sequence information on the available methods. It further supplies core data required by analytical labs to carry out GM tests and comprises information on the applied reference material and plasmid standards. The GMOMETHODS database currently contains 118 different PCR methods allowing identification of 51 single GM events and 18 taxon-specific genes in a sample. It also provides screening assays for detection of eight different genetic elements commonly used for the development of GMOs. The application is referred to by the Biosafety Clearing House, a global mechanism set up by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to facilitate the exchange of information on Living Modified Organisms. The publication of the GMOMETHODS database can be considered an important step toward worldwide standardization and harmonization in GMO analysis.

  18. HIV Strategic Information in Non-European Union Countries in the World Health Organization European Region: Capacity Development Needs.

    PubMed

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Handanagic, Senad; Cakalo, Jurja Ivana; Rinder Stengaard, Annemarie; Rutherford, George

    2017-06-23

    Capacity building of the national HIV strategic information system is a core component of the response to the HIV epidemic as it enables understanding of the evolving nature of the epidemic, which is critical for program planning and identification of the gaps and deficiencies in HIV programs. The study aims to describe the results of the assessment of the needs for further development of capacities in HIV strategic information systems in the non-European Union (EU) countries in the World Health Organization European Region (EUR). Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to national AIDS programs. The first questionnaire was sent to all countries (N=18) to find out, among other issues, the priority level for strengthening a range of HIV surveillance areas and their key gaps and weaknesses. The second questionnaire was sent to 15 countries to more specifically determine capacities for the analysis of the HIV care cascade. Responses to the first questionnaire were received from 10 countries, whereas 13 countries responded to the second questionnaire. Areas that were most frequently marked as being of high to moderate priority for strengthening were national electronic patient monitoring systems, evaluation of HIV interventions and impact analysis, implementation science, and data analysis. Key weaknesseses were lack of electronic reporting of HIV cases, problems with timeliness and completeness of reporting in HIV cases, under-estimates of the reported number of HIV-related deaths, and limited CD4 count testing at the time of HIV diagnosis. Migrant populations, internally displaced persons, and refugees were most commonly mentioned as groups not covered by surveillance, followed by clients of sex workers and men who have sex with men. The majority of countries reported that they were able to provide the number of people diagnosed with HIV who know their HIV status, which is important for the analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal HIV care cascades

  19. HIV Strategic Information in Non-European Union Countries in the World Health Organization European Region: Capacity Development Needs

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Capacity building of the national HIV strategic information system is a core component of the response to the HIV epidemic as it enables understanding of the evolving nature of the epidemic, which is critical for program planning and identification of the gaps and deficiencies in HIV programs. Objective The study aims to describe the results of the assessment of the needs for further development of capacities in HIV strategic information systems in the non-European Union (EU) countries in the World Health Organization European Region (EUR). Methods Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to national AIDS programs. The first questionnaire was sent to all countries (N=18) to find out, among other issues, the priority level for strengthening a range of HIV surveillance areas and their key gaps and weaknesses. The second questionnaire was sent to 15 countries to more specifically determine capacities for the analysis of the HIV care cascade. Results Responses to the first questionnaire were received from 10 countries, whereas 13 countries responded to the second questionnaire. Areas that were most frequently marked as being of high to moderate priority for strengthening were national electronic patient monitoring systems, evaluation of HIV interventions and impact analysis, implementation science, and data analysis. Key weaknesseses were lack of electronic reporting of HIV cases, problems with timeliness and completeness of reporting in HIV cases, under-estimates of the reported number of HIV-related deaths, and limited CD4 count testing at the time of HIV diagnosis. Migrant populations, internally displaced persons, and refugees were most commonly mentioned as groups not covered by surveillance, followed by clients of sex workers and men who have sex with men. The majority of countries reported that they were able to provide the number of people diagnosed with HIV who know their HIV status, which is important for the analysis of cross

  20. Global health in the European Union – a review from an agenda-setting perspective

    PubMed Central

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focusses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity. PMID:24560264

  1. Global health in the European Union--a review from an agenda-setting perspective.

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focuses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity.

  2. Global health in the European Union - a review from an agenda-setting perspective.

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-12-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focusses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity.

  3. Inequality, Poverty, and Material Deprivation in New and Old Members of European Union

    PubMed Central

    Matković, Teo; Šućur, Zoran; Zrinščak, Siniša

    2007-01-01

    Aim To analyze the main indicators of income inequality, objective and subjective poverty, material deprivation, and the role of public social transfers in the reduction of poverty in 15 old and 10 new member states of the European Union (EU), undergoing post-communist socio-economic transition, as well as in Croatia, a candidate EU country. Method Objective poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, poverty thresholds in purchasing power standards (PPS), total social expenditure, inequality indicators, and risks of poverty according to demographics were calculated using the data from the Eurostat databases (in particular, Household Budget Survey). For Croatia, Central Bureau of Statistics first releases on poverty indicators were used, as well as database of the Ministry of Finance (social expenditure). Subjective poverty rates and non-monetary deprivation index were calculated using the European Quality of Life Survey, which was carried out in 2003 in EU countries and in 2006 in Croatia. Results According to the indicators of income inequality and objective poverty, there was a divide among old EU member states (EU15), with UK, Ireland and South European countries having higher and Continental and Nordic countries lower indicators of inequality and poverty. Among new member states (NMS10), Baltic countries and Poland had the highest and Slovenia and the Czech Republic the lowest indicators of inequality and poverty. In all EU15 countries, except Greece, subjective poverty rates were lower than objective ones, whereas in all NMS10 countries the levels of subjective poverty were much higher than those of objective poverty. With some exceptions, NMS10 countries had low or even decreasing social expenditures. The share of respondents who were deprived of more than 50% of items was 6 times higher in the NMS10 than in the EU15 countries. When standard of living was measured by income inequality, relative poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, total social protection

  4. Inequality, poverty, and material deprivation in new and old members of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Matković, Teo; Sucur, Zoran; Zrinscak, Sinsa

    2007-10-01

    To analyze the main indicators of income inequality, objective and subjective poverty, material deprivation, and the role of public social transfers in the reduction of poverty in 15 old and 10 new member states of the European Union (EU), undergoing post-communist socio-economic transition, as well as in Croatia, a candidate EU country. Objective poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, poverty thresholds in purchasing power standards (PPS), total social expenditure, inequality indicators, and risks of poverty according to demographics were calculated using the data from the Eurostat databases, in particular, Household Budget Survey. For Croatia, Central Bureau of Statistics first releases on poverty indicators were used, as well as database of the Ministry of Finance (social expenditure). Subjective poverty rates and non-monetary deprivation index were calculated using the European Quality of Life Survey, which was carried out in 2003 in EU countries and in 2006 in Croatia. According to the indicators of income inequality and objective poverty, there was a divide among old EU member states (EU15), with UK, Ireland and South European countries having higher and Continental and Nordic countries lower indicators of inequality and poverty. Among new member states (NMS10), Baltic countries and Poland had the highest and Slovenia and the Czech Republic the lowest indicators of inequality and poverty. In all EU15 countries, except Greece, subjective poverty rates were lower than objective ones, whereas in all NMS10 countries the levels of subjective poverty were much higher than those of objective poverty. With some exceptions, NMS10 countries had low or even decreasing social expenditures. The share of respondents who were deprived of more than 50% of items was 6 times higher in the NMS10 than in the EU15 countries. When standard of living was measured by income inequality, relative poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, total social protection expenditures, and non

  5. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-02

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply

  6. The cost and burden of cancer in the European Union 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Bengt; Hofmarcher, Thomas; Lindgren, Peter; Wilking, Nils

    2016-10-01

    There is an intense debate about the cost of cancer and the value of new treatments. However, there is limited data on the cost of cancer in the European Union (EU) and how costs relate to the burden of disease. This paper presents new estimates on the development of the cost of cancer in the EU 1995-2014, with a focus on the major cost components: total health expenditure, cancer drugs, and production loss due to premature mortality. Data on overall health expenditure were combined with national disease estimates to derive cancer-specific health expenditure. Data on drug sales were obtained from IMS Health, and epidemiological data were used to calculate life years lost due to cancer. Health expenditure on cancer increased continuously from €35.7 billion in 1995 to €83.2 billion in 2014 in the EU and spending on cancer drugs from €7.6 billion in 2005 to €19.1 billion in 2014 (current prices). Yet the share of total health expenditure devoted to cancer was mostly constant (around 6 per cent). While expenditures on cancer drugs increased in both absolute and relative terms, other expenditures were stable or decreased, despite increases in cancer incidence driven by a growing and ageing population. Reductions in cancer mortality during working age resulted in decreasing production loss due to premature mortality. Health spending on cancer as a share of total health expenditure is rather low and stable despite the growing incidence and relative burden of cancer. Problems to reallocate funding in health care systems under economic pressure may be one explanation and shifting costs from inpatient to ambulatory care another. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer research performance in the European Union: a study of published output from 2000 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Andrea; Di Salvo, Francesca; Lombardo, Claudio; Ugolini, Donatella; Baili, Paolo; A Pierotti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Although several studies have assessed cancer research performance in individual European countries, comparisons of European Union (EU27) performance with countries of similar population size are not available. We compared cancer research performance in 2000-2008 between EU27 and 11 countries with over 100 million inhabitants. Performance should not have been affected by the 2007-2009 recession. We examined 143 journals considered oncology journals by Journal Citation Reports, accessing them via Scopus. Publications were attributed to countries using a published counting procedure. For number of publications, the USA held a clear lead in 2006-2008 (yearly averages: 10,293 USA vs 9,962 EU27), whereas the EU27 held the lead previously. EU27 was also second to the USA for total impact factor. China markedly improved its cancer publications record over the period. Compared to the USA, EU27 and Japan, the other countries (all developing) had a poor publications record. Comparative cancer research spending data are not available. However from 2002 to 2007, gross domestic expenditure on research and development (UNESCO data) increased by 34% in North America, 161% in China and only 28% in EU27. Thus the European Union is lagging behind North America and may well be eclipsed by China in research and development spending in the near future. We suggest that these new findings should be considered by policymakers in Europe and other countries when developing policies for cancer control.

  8. Which Wild Aardvarks Are Most Suitable for Outdoor Enclosures in Zoological Gardens in the European Union?

    PubMed

    Patoka, Jiří; Vejtrubová, Markéta; Vrabec, Vladimír; Masopustová, Renata

    2017-08-07

    The aardvark is popular in many zoological gardens in the European Union. These creatures are nocturnal, and aardvarks in the wild are known to walk distances of 4 km to 7 km per night. Despite what is known about their biology, most aardvarks are kept in zoological gardens in indoor enclosures with little space for movement. This lack of space leads to a tendency toward obesity and compromised welfare. With their wide distribution in Sub-Saharan Africa, aardvarks are perceived as thermophilic nonhuman animals. Nevertheless, some records suggest they may be able to adapt to colder climates and can be active outside their burrows when temperatures fall to 2°C. These findings suggest there may be a wild African population that is suitable for partial outdoor keeping under European climatic conditions. Therefore, a climate match was computed between the source area with aardvark occurrence and a target area of the European Union. Data revealed that the Free State, a South African province, was the area with the best climate similarity, and aardvarks from this area are recommended as suitable for the aforementioned purpose.

  9. Continuing Education of Civics Teachers for Teaching the European Union: Results of the Jean Monnet Project PEB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Monika; Forstmann, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The European dimension is of salient importance for understanding and shaping politics especially, but not only, in Europe. The European Union by now has become a compulsory content of civics classes in secondary schools throughout Germany. For teachers, however, teaching this topic is connected with manifold difficulties, for example, due to the…

  10. Educational Research Capacity Building in the European Union: A Critique of the Lived Experiences of Emerging Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallet, Fiona; Fidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which European Union (EU) policies impact upon the activities of associations such as the European Educational Research Association (EERA) and the experiences of emerging researchers aligned to such associations. In essence, the authors explore potential tensions between policy and the lived…

  11. Continuing Education of Civics Teachers for Teaching the European Union: Results of the Jean Monnet Project PEB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Monika; Forstmann, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The European dimension is of salient importance for understanding and shaping politics especially, but not only, in Europe. The European Union by now has become a compulsory content of civics classes in secondary schools throughout Germany. For teachers, however, teaching this topic is connected with manifold difficulties, for example, due to the…

  12. Educational Research Capacity Building in the European Union: A Critique of the Lived Experiences of Emerging Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallet, Fiona; Fidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which European Union (EU) policies impact upon the activities of associations such as the European Educational Research Association (EERA) and the experiences of emerging researchers aligned to such associations. In essence, the authors explore potential tensions between policy and the lived…

  13. Building Evaluation Capacity in Spain: A Case Study of Rural Development and Empowerment in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Yague, Jose L.; Afonso, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The development of European Community administrative authority has greatly influenced the development of an evaluation culture among the southern and central member states of the European Union. The present case study from Spain provides an example of this diffusion through the use of an empowerment evaluation approach to build evaluation capacity…

  14. Mobility and Migration of Labour in the European Union and Their Specific Implications for Young People. CEDEFOP Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassinopoulos, Alexandros; Werner, Heinz; Kristensen, Soren

    This document contains two papers that examine mobility and migration of labor in the European Union and discuss specific implications for young people. The "Foreword" (Jordi Planas) examines the practical and symbolic role that establishment of the right to freedom of movement for European citizens plays in the process of construction…

  15. Building Evaluation Capacity in Spain: A Case Study of Rural Development and Empowerment in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Yague, Jose L.; Afonso, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The development of European Community administrative authority has greatly influenced the development of an evaluation culture among the southern and central member states of the European Union. The present case study from Spain provides an example of this diffusion through the use of an empowerment evaluation approach to build evaluation capacity…

  16. Labor Relations: Unions and the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-08

    reflect today’s labor relations environment as commanders still do not understand labor law and the roles of unions. 3 Labor Relations in Federal...current leanings of the administration, it is not likely the uniform services would be considered for exclusion from labor law , at least in the near term...better understanding of labor law and employee relations. Popular with companies in the private sector, business management companies provide a variety

  17. Modular framework to assess the risk of African swine fever virus entry into the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent occurrence and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in Eastern Europe is perceived as a serious risk for the pig industry in the European Union (EU). In order to estimate the potential risk of ASF virus (ASFV) entering the EU, several pathways of introduction were previously assessed separately. The present work aimed to integrate five of these assessments (legal imports of pigs, legal imports of products, illegal imports of products, fomites associated with transport and wild boar movements) into a modular tool that facilitates the visualization and comprehension of the relative risk of ASFV introduction into the EU by each analyzed pathway. Results The framework’s results indicate that 48% of EU countries are at relatively high risk (risk score 4 or 5 out of 5) for ASFV entry for at least one analyzed pathway. Four of these countries obtained the maximum risk score for one pathway: Bulgaria for legally imported products during the high risk period (HRP); Finland for wild boar; Slovenia and Sweden for legally imported pigs during the HRP. Distribution of risk considerably differed from one pathway to another; for some pathways, the risk was concentrated in a few countries (e.g., transport fomites), whereas other pathways incurred a high risk for 4 or 5 countries (legal pigs, illegal imports and wild boar). Conclusions The modular framework, developed to estimate the risk of ASFV entry into the EU, is available in a public domain, and is a transparent, easy-to-interpret tool that can be updated and adapted if required. The model’s results determine the EU countries at higher risk for each ASFV introduction route, and provide a useful basis to develop a global coordinated program to improve ASFV prevention in the EU. PMID:24992824

  18. Ophthalmologist attitudes regarding fixed combination treatment for glaucoma in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William C; Kruft, Bonnie; Nelson, Lindsay A; Stewart, Jeanette A

    2009-01-01

    To survey ophthalmologists in the European Union to determine their fixed combination (FC) preferences. A multiple-choice survey was sent to randomly chosen ophthalmologists throughout the European Union and bordering countries by electronic mail delivery. Ophthalmologists were resent the survey on two more occasions if no response was obtained. In total, 50 surveys were received from 530 distributed (9.4% response) from 16 countries. More ophthalmologists prescribed an FC as second (80%) or third choice (64%) therapy than first choice (30%, p=0.0036). As first (p<0.0001) and third choice (p=0.011), the dorzolamide/timolol FC was most commonly prescribed, while as second choice the latanoprost/timolol FC (p<0.0001) was most popular. Overall, 98% (49/50) of doctors believed FC therapy improved patient care most often by better compliance (n=49) and quality of life(n=48, p<0.0001). Most ophthalmologists believed that there was a difference in efficacy between the FC products (32/50, 64%) with the most effective being the bimatoprost/timolol FC (n=12, 24%, p=0.029). However, fewer ophthalmologists perceived safety differences between the products (34/50, 68%). For prostaglandins, dosing time was suggested in the morning by 18 (36%) ophthalmologists and in the evening by 24 (48%) (p=0.35). FCs in the European Union are a potentially popular method to reduce intraocular pressure, being prescribed most commonly as second or third choice therapy. The perceived advantages to FC therapy are greater adherence to the medicine and improved patient quality of life.

  19. Income distribution in the European Union versus in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagielski, Maciej; Duczmal, Rafał; Kutner, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    We prove that the refined approach-our extension of the Yakovenko et al. formalism-is universal in the sense that it describes well both household incomes in the European Union and individual incomes in the United States for all income social classes. This formalism, supplemented in this work by the entropy analysis, allowed the study of the impact of the recent world-wide financial crisis on the annual incomes of different income social classes. Hence, we find the most painful impact of the crisis on incomes of all income social classes. Furthermore, we indicate the existence of a possible market crisis precursor.

  20. Hepatitis B immunisation programmes in European Union, Norway and Iceland: where we were in 2009?

    PubMed

    Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Lopalco, Pierluigi; D'Ancona, Fortunato; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Giambi, Cristina; Johansen, Kari; Dematte, Luca; Salmaso, Stefania; Stefanoff, Pawel; O'Flanagan, Darina

    2010-06-17

    In January 2009 25 European Union (EU) Member States (MSs), Norway and Iceland, participated in a survey seeking information on national hepatitis B vaccination programmes. Details of vaccination policy, schedule, population groups targeted for vaccination, programme funding, vaccine coverage and methods of monitoring of vaccine coverage were obtained. Twenty (74%) countries reported that they have a universal hepatitis B vaccination programme, in addition to immunisation of at risk groups; seven (26%) countries recommend HBV for high risk groups only (with some inter-country variation on groups considered at high risk). Among countries without universal hepatitis B vaccination programmes, the major factor for non-introduction is low disease endemicity.

  1. Conducting an HIA of the effect of accession to the European Union on national agriculture and food policy in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Kuhar, Ales; Robertson, Aileen; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

    2004-02-01

    A health impact assessment (HIA) to consider the potential effects of European Union accession on agriculture and food policies in Slovenia has been undertaken as a joint project between the Slovenian Ministry of Health and the WHO European Region. The HIA project in Slovenia was conducted as a pilot project to develop the methods of HIA in this policy sector. The implications of the European Union Agricultural Policy to health are discussed. HIA methods have been used to assess some of the potential effects in Slovenia of accession to the European Union. This paper outlines some of the early findings and lessons to be learnt from the Slovenian HIA experience in order that other countries may adopt the approach to improve health considerations in agriculture and other intersectoral policymaking.

  2. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended. PMID:26771628

  3. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-13

    From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population's overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population's overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended.

  4. The emerging mental health strategy of the European Union: a multi-level work-in-progress.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2008-01-01

    Policy-making in the European Union (EU) is a complex process that can appear impenetrable and opaque. This paper examines the ongoing process of mental health policy-making in the EU. In 2005, the Health and Consumer Protectorate Director-General of the European Commission published a Green Paper and launched a consultation process aimed at mental health service-users, advocates, providers, business, social services and governments. While there were varying levels of participation between member states, a range of trans-national, national and infra-national actors made contributions. Based on these consultations, a 'Consultative Platform' was created and made 10 recommendations centered on the principles of partnership; establishing policy competencies; integrating mental health into national policies; involving stakeholders; and protecting human rights. This ongoing process illustrates many features of EU policy-making: (a) the European Commission generates an initiative; (b) policy focuses on EU standardization, with member states remaining central actors in service-delivery; (c) policy focuses on social inclusion; (d) the European Commission coordinates diverse networks of actors; and (e) there is 'multi-level' involvement, with direct interaction between trans-national, national and infra-national actors. An enhanced focus on epidemiological data and 'evidence-based policy' would increase rigor and focus further attention on this relatively neglected policy area.

  5. Nitrogen excretion factors of livestock in the European Union: a review.

    PubMed

    Velthof, Gerard L; Hou, Yong; Oenema, Oene

    2015-12-01

    Livestock manures are major sources of nutrients, used for the fertilisation of cropland and grassland. Accurate estimates of the amounts of nutrients in livestock manures are required for nutrient management planning, but also for estimating nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to the environment. Here we report on N excretion factors for a range of animal categories in policy reports by member states of the European Union (EU). Nitrogen excretion is defined in this paper as the total amount of N excreted by livestock per year as urine and faeces. We discuss the guidelines and methodologies for the estimation of N excretion factors by the EU Nitrates Directive, the OECD/Eurostat gross N balance guidebook, the EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the IPCC Guidelines. Our results show that N excretion factors for dairy cattle, other cattle, pigs, laying hens, broilers, sheep, and goats differ significantly between policy reports and between countries. Part of these differences may be related to differences in animal production (e.g. production of meat, milk and eggs), size/weight of the animals, and feed composition, but partly also to differences in the aggregation of livestock categories and estimation procedures. The methodologies and data used by member states are often not well described. There is a need for a common, harmonised methodology and procedure for the estimation of N excretion factors, to arrive at a common basis for the estimation of the production of manure N and N balances, and emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) across the EU. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control policies have been

  7. What Factors Influence Smoking Prevalence and Smoke Free Policy Enactment across the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Methods Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. Results In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Conclusions Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key

  8. Health technology assessment of medical devices: a survey of non-European union agencies.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Oriana; Wilcher, Britni; Blankart, Carl Rudolf; Hatz, Maximilian; Rupel, Valentina Prevolnik; Erker, Renata Slabe; Varabyova, Yauheniya; Taylor, Rod S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review and compare current health technology assessment (HTA) activities for medical devices across non-European Union HTA agencies. HTA activities for medical devices were evaluated from three perspectives: organizational structure, processes, and methods. Agencies were primarily selected upon membership of existing HTA networks. The data collection was performed in two stages: stage 1-agency Web-site assessment using a standardized questionnaire, followed by review and validation of the collected data by a representative of the agency; and stage 2-semi-structured telephone interviews with key informants of a sub-sample of agencies. In total, thirty-six HTA agencies across twenty non-EU countries assessing medical devices were included. Twenty-seven of thirty-six (75 percent) agencies were judged at stage 1 to have adopted HTA-specific approaches for medical devices (MD-specific agencies) that were largely organizational or procedural. There appeared to be few differences in the organization, process and methods between MD-specific and non-MD-specific agencies. Although the majority (69 percent) of both categories of agency had specific methods guidance or policy for evidence submission, only one MD-specific agency had developed methodological guidelines specific to medical devices. In stage 2, many MD-specific agencies cited insufficient resources (budget, skilled employees), lack of coordination (between regulator and reimbursement bodies), and the inability to generalize findings from evidence synthesis to be key challenges in the HTA of medical devices. The lack of evidence for differentiation in scientific methods for HTA of devices raises the question of whether HTA needs to develop new methods for medical devices but rather adapt existing methodological approaches. In contrast, organizational and/or procedural adaptation of existing HTA agency frameworks to accommodate medical devices appear relatively commonplace.

  9. Economic burden of cancer across the European Union: a population-based cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Leal, Jose; Gray, Alastair; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-11-01

    In 2008, 2·45 million people were diagnosed with cancer and 1·23 million died because of cancer in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU). We aimed to estimate the economic burden of cancer in the EU. In a population-based cost analysis, we evaluated the cost of all cancers and also those associated with breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers. We obtained country-specific aggregate data for morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use from international and national sources. We estimated health-care costs from expenditure on care in the primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient settings, and also drugs. Additionally, we estimated the costs of unpaid care provided by relatives or friends of patients (ie, informal care), lost earnings after premature death, and costs associated with individuals who temporarily or permanently left employment because of illness. Cancer cost the EU €126 billion in 2009, with health care accounting for €51·0 billion (40%). Across the EU, the health-care costs of cancer were equivalent to €102 per citizen, but varied substantially from €16 per person in Bulgaria to €184 per person in Luxembourg. Productivity losses because of early death cost €42·6 billion and lost working days €9·43 billion. Informal care cost €23·2 billion. Lung cancer had the highest economic cost (€18·8 billion, 15% of overall cancer costs), followed by breast cancer (€15·0 billion, 12%), colorectal cancer (€13·1 billion, 10%), and prostate cancer (€8·43 billion, 7%). Our results show wide differences between countries, the reasons for which need further investigation. These data contribute to public health and policy intelligence, which is required to deliver affordable cancer care systems and inform effective public research funds allocation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and testing of a European Union-wide farm-level carbon calculator.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; De Camillis, Camillo; Leip, Adrian; Nisini, Luigi; Pelletier, Nathan; Haastrup, Palle

    2015-07-01

    Direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture accounted for approximately 10% of total European Union (EU) emissions in 2010. To reduce farming-related GHG emissions, appropriate policy measures and supporting tools for promoting low-C farming practices may be efficacious. This article presents the methodology and testing results of a new EU-wide, farm-level C footprint calculator. The Carbon Calculator quantifies GHG emissions based on international standards and technical specifications on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and C footprinting. The tool delivers its results both at the farm level and as allocated to up to 5 main products of the farm. In addition to the quantification of GHG emissions, the calculator proposes mitigation options and sequestration actions that may be suitable for individual farms. The results obtained during a survey made on 54 farms from 8 EU Member States are presented. These farms were selected in view of representing the diversity of farm types across different environmental zones in the EU. The results of the C footprint of products in the data set show wide range of variation between minimum and maximum values. The results of the mitigation actions showed that the tool can help identify practices that can lead to substantial emission reductions. To avoid burden-shifting from climate change to other environmental issues, the future improvements of the tool should include incorporation of other environmental impact categories in place of solely focusing on GHG emissions. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  11. Hospital Exemption for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: Issue in Application in the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    Ivaskiene, Tatjana; Mauricas, Mykolas; Ivaska, Justinas

    2017-01-01

    Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 of the European Parliament and the Council on advanced therapy medicinal products and amending Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 allowed the use of non - authorized advanced therapy medicinal products under the certain circumstances. This socalled hospital exemption rule needs to be applied in the each Member State of the European Union individually and for this purpose Member States should provide national procedures and control measures. The aim of this article is to clear up the criteria for hospital exemption listed in Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 and to contrast the difference in implementing hospital exemption rule into national legal regimes on examples of the United Kingdom, Lithuania and Poland.

  12. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor. PMID:22546368

  13. The future of immunization policies in Italy and in the European Union: The Declaration of Erice.

    PubMed

    Odone, Anna; Fara, Gaetano M; Giammaco, Giuseppe; Blangiardi, Francesco; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    On December 2014 the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) of the European Union adopted the Council Conclusions on "Vaccinations as an effective tool in public health," a crucial step to strengthen EU action supporting Member States (MS) to implement effective immunization policies and programs. As a contribution to the ongoing pan-European discussion and to the Italian commitment to stay at the forefront of promoting vaccination policies, the Erice Declaration was drafted by Italy's best experts in the field of immunization to transpose to the national level the goals set by the EPSCO Conclusions. The aim of the current letter is to present to the broader international audience the Italian perspective as a case study to assess different immunization policy models, challenges and priorities.

  14. Privacy and anonymity in the information society - challenges for the European Union.

    PubMed

    Tsoukalas, Ioannis A; Siozos, Panagiotis D

    2011-03-01

    Electronic information is challenging traditional views on property and privacy. The explosion of digital data, driven by novel web applications, social networking, and mobile devices makes data security and the protection of privacy increasingly difficult. Furthermore, biometric data and radiofrequency identification applications enable correlations that are able to trace our cultural, behavioral, and emotional states. The concept of privacy in the digital realm is transformed and emerges as one of the biggest risks facing today's Information Society. In this context, the European Union (EU) policy-making procedures strive to adapt to the pace of technological advancement. The EU needs to improve the existing legal frameworks for privacy and data protection. It needs to work towards a "privacy by education" approach for the empowerment of "privacy-literate" European digital citizens.

  15. Analysis of licensed over-the-counter (OTC) antibiotics in the European Union and Norway, 2012.

    PubMed

    Both, Leonard; Botgros, Radu; Cavaleri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognised as a growing problem that seriously threatens public health and requires prompt action. Concerns have therefore been raised about the potential harmful effects of making antibiotics available without prescription. Because of the very serious concerns regarding further spread of resistance, the over-the-counter (OTC) availability of antibiotics was analysed here. Topical and systemic OTC antibiotics and their indications were determined across 26 European Union (EU) countries and Norway by means of a European survey. We identified a total of 48 OTC products containing 20 different single antibiotics and three antibiotic combinations as active substances, used mainly as topical preparations in short treatment courses. Given the relevance of these medicines and the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance, it is important to limit the availability of OTC antibiotics and to monitor their use.

  16. EMEA and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products Development in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) via the centralized procedure is the only available regulatory procedure for obtaining marketing authorization for gene therapy (GT) medicinal products in the European Union. The responsibility for the authorization of clinical trials remains with the national competent authorities (NCA) acting in a harmonized framework from the scientific viewpoint. With the entry into force of a new directive on good clinical practice implementation in clinical trials as of 1 May 2004, procedural aspects will also be harmonized at EU level. Scientifically sound development of medicinal products is the key for the successful registration of dossiers and for contributing to the promotion and protection of public health. The objective of this paper is to introduce the EMEA regulatory processes and scientific activities relevant to GT medicinal products. PMID:12686717

  17. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2012-04-30

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  18. The future of immunization policies in Italy and in the European Union: The Declaration of Erice

    PubMed Central

    Odone, Anna; Fara, Gaetano M; Giammaco, Giuseppe; Blangiardi, Francesco; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    On December 2014 the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) of the European Union adopted the Council Conclusions on “Vaccinations as an effective tool in public health,” a crucial step to strengthen EU action supporting Member States (MS) to implement effective immunization policies and programs. As a contribution to the ongoing pan-European discussion and to the Italian commitment to stay at the forefront of promoting vaccination polices, the Erice Declaration was drafted by Italy's best experts in the field of immunization to transpose to the national level the goals set by the EPSCO Conclusions. The aim of the current letter is to present to the broader international audience the Italian perspective as a case study to assess different immunization policy models, challenges and priorities. PMID:25806425

  19. The effect of migration within the European Union/European Economic Area on the distribution of tuberculosis, 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Hollo, Vahur; Kotila, Saara Magdalena; Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Immigration from tuberculosis (TB) high-incidence countries is known to contribute notably to the TB burden in low-incidence countries. However, the effect of migration enabled by the free movement of persons within the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) on TB notification has not been analysed. We analysed TB surveillance data from 29 EU/EEA countries submitted for the years 2007-2013 to The European Surveillance System. We used place of birth and nationality as proxy indicators for native, other EU/EEA and non-EU/EEA origin of the TB cases and analysed the characteristics of the subgroups by origin. From 2007-2013, a total of 527,467 TB cases were reported, of which 129,781 (24.6%) were of foreign origin including 12,566 (2.4%) originating from EU/EEA countries other than the reporting country. The countries reporting most TB cases originating from other EU/EEA countries were Germany and Italy, and the largest proportion of TB cases in individuals came from Poland (n=1,562) and Romania (n=6,285). At EU/EEA level only a small proportion of foreign TB cases originated from other EU/EEA countries, however, the uneven distribution of this presumed importation may pose a challenge to TB programmes in some countries.

  20. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013: Data and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; Axelsson, Maria; Costagliola, Dominique; Cowan, Susan; Croxford, Sara; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Del Amo, Julia; Delpech, Valerie; Díaz, Asunción; Girardi, Enrico; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Hernando, Victoria; Jose, Sophie; Leierer, Gisela; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Obel, Niels; Op de Coul, Eline; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Sasse, André; Schmid, Daniela; Sonnerborg, Anders; Spina, Alexander; Suligoi, Barbara; Supervie, Virginie; Touloumi, Giota; Van Beckhoven, Dominique; van Sighem, Ard; Vourli, Georgia; Zangerle, Robert; Porter, Kholoud

    2017-06-15

    The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a "90-90-90" target to curb the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic by 2020, but methods used to assess whether countries have reached this target are not standardized, hindering comparisons. Through a collaboration formed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) with European HIV cohorts and surveillance agencies, we constructed a standardized, 4-stage continuum of HIV care for 11 European Union countries for 2013. Stages were defined as (1) number of people living with HIV in the country by end of 2013; (2) proportion of stage 1 ever diagnosed; (3) proportion of stage 2 that ever initiated ART; and (4) proportion of stage 3 who became virally suppressed (≤200 copies/mL). Case surveillance data were used primarily to derive stages 1 (using back-calculation models) and 2, and cohort data for stages 3 and 4. In 2013, 674500 people in the 11 countries were estimated to be living with HIV, ranging from 5500 to 153400 in each country. Overall HIV prevalence was 0.22% (range, 0.09%-0.36%). Overall proportions of each previous stage were 84% diagnosed, 84% on ART, and 85% virally suppressed (60% of people living with HIV). Two countries achieved ≥90% for all stages, and more than half had reached ≥90% for at least 1 stage. European Union countries are nearing the 90-90-90 target. Reducing the proportion undiagnosed remains the greatest barrier to achieving this target, suggesting that further efforts are needed to improve HIV testing rates. Standardizing methods to derive comparable continuums of care remains a challenge.

  1. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013: Data and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; Axelsson, Maria; Costagliola, Dominique; Cowan, Susan; Croxford, Sara; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; del Amo, Julia; Delpech, Valerie; Díaz, Asunción; Girardi, Enrico; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Hernando, Victoria; Jose, Sophie; Leierer, Gisela; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Obel, Niels; Op de Coul, Eline; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Sasse, André; Schmid, Daniela; Sonnerborg, Anders; Spina, Alexander; Suligoi, Barbara; Supervie, Virginie; Touloumi, Giota; Van Beckhoven, Dominique; van Sighem, Ard; Vourli, Georgia; Zangerle, Robert; Porter, Kholoud

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a “90-90-90” target to curb the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic by 2020, but methods used to assess whether countries have reached this target are not standardized, hindering comparisons. Methods. Through a collaboration formed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) with European HIV cohorts and surveillance agencies, we constructed a standardized, 4-stage continuum of HIV care for 11 European Union countries for 2013. Stages were defined as (1) number of people living with HIV in the country by end of 2013; (2) proportion of stage 1 ever diagnosed; (3) proportion of stage 2 that ever initiated ART; and (4) proportion of stage 3 who became virally suppressed (≤200 copies/mL). Case surveillance data were used primarily to derive stages 1 (using back-calculation models) and 2, and cohort data for stages 3 and 4. Results. In 2013, 674500 people in the 11 countries were estimated to be living with HIV, ranging from 5500 to 153400 in each country. Overall HIV prevalence was 0.22% (range, 0.09%–0.36%). Overall proportions of each previous stage were 84% diagnosed, 84% on ART, and 85% virally suppressed (60% of people living with HIV). Two countries achieved ≥90% for all stages, and more than half had reached ≥90% for at least 1 stage. Conclusions. European Union countries are nearing the 90-90-90 target. Reducing the proportion undiagnosed remains the greatest barrier to achieving this target, suggesting that further efforts are needed to improve HIV testing rates. Standardizing methods to derive comparable continuums of care remains a challenge. PMID:28369283

  2. Health Behavior among Lithuania’s Adolescents in Context of European Union

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lenciauskiene, Ilona

    2006-01-01

    Aim To compare health behavior patterns of adolescents in Lithuania with health behavior of adolescents in European Union (EU) in 2001/2002. Methods The study was carried out in conformity with the methodology of Health Behavior in School-aged Children: a World Health Organization cross-national study. Three country representative samples of schoolchildren, aged 11, 13, and 15, were surveyed in 25 EU countries and regions in 2001/2002 school year. The study instrument was a standardized questionnaire that included questions on alcohol consumption, smoking, illegal drugs use, physical activity, and other patterns of health behavior. The rate or mean values of the targeted health behavior of Lithuanian students were assessed and compared to those calculated as an average for the EU countries and regions. Results We found an early onset of alcohol consumption among Lithuanian boys. Lithuanian boys and girls across all age groups reported being drunk two and more times more often than their peers from other EU member states. Lithuanian 15-year-old boys smoked more often that did their European peers, while girls smoke more rarely. The prevalence of drugs (marihuana group) use among Lithuanian students is relatively low: the prevalence of drug use among 15-year-olds in Lithuania is two times lower than the prevalence in other EU countries and regions (11.2% vs 24.5% for boys and 4.5% vs 18.3% for girls, respectively). Physical activity of Lithuanian adolescents is rather high in comparison with their EU peers, although many students watch television for ≥4 hours a day. Lithuanian students did not eat sweets often, or drank soft drinks (Coca Cola and other), and they ate fruits and had breakfast every school day. With respect to hygienic habits, approximately only one in 3 boys and every second girl brushed their teeth more than once a day. Conclusions There are health behavior differences between adolescents in Lithuania and those in other EU countries. The

  3. Wavelet modeling and prediction of the stability of states: the Roman Empire and the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Tatyana Y.; Krysko, Dmitri V.; Dobriyan, Vitalii; Zhigalov, Maksim V.; Vos, Hendrik; Vandenabeele, Peter; Krysko, Vadim A.

    2015-09-01

    How can the stability of a state be quantitatively determined and its future stability predicted? The rise and collapse of empires and states is very complex, and it is exceedingly difficult to understand and predict it. Existing theories are usually formulated as verbal models and, consequently, do not yield sharply defined, quantitative prediction that can be unambiguously validated with data. Here we describe a model that determines whether the state is in a stable or chaotic condition and predicts its future condition. The central model, which we test, is that growth and collapse of states is reflected by the changes of their territories, populations and budgets. The model was simulated within the historical societies of the Roman Empire (400 BC to 400 AD) and the European Union (1957-2007) by using wavelets and analysis of the sign change of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents. The model matches well with the historical events. During wars and crises, the state becomes unstable; this is reflected in the wavelet analysis by a significant increase in the frequency ω (t) and wavelet coefficients W (ω, t) and the sign of the largest Lyapunov exponent becomes positive, indicating chaos. We successfully reconstructed and forecasted time series in the Roman Empire and the European Union by applying artificial neural network. The proposed model helps to quantitatively determine and forecast the stability of a state.

  4. Considerations on the sphere of application of European Union animal protection legislation for horses.

    PubMed

    Peli, Angelo; Scagliarini, Lorenzo; Calbucci, Stefano; Diegoli, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The increasing awareness of animal welfare issues among consumers and the general public in the European Union has brought about the adoption of laws for the protection of production animals throughout the various steps of the food chain, from breeding to slaughter. Considering that horses may be kept for a variety of reasons, including as companion animals and as farm animals, protective legislation in Europe applies to this species only partially. In consistency with the areas of competence of the European Union, it is the purpose of the activity (be it economic/commercial or neither) and not the final purpose of the equine (whether they are intended for human consumption or not) along the entire food chain that determines the application of the above legislation. Even horses which are not kept for food production are covered by EU laws when they are bred or transported in connection with a commercial activity, while equines kept for purposes outside this context are protected only by national laws.

  5. Updated programme for harmonization of training in nephrology in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Lappin, David W P; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B

    2013-02-01

    In 1996, the first European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) minimum standards programme in nephrology was published. Since then, medical practice in an expanded European Union (EU) has evolved significantly. These changes have prompted the UEMS Nephrology Section to update and review the programme on harmonization of nephrology training in the EU. Although directives of the EU indicate that a specialist from one EU member state must be recognized in all EU member states, the current practical implications of these directives are limited due to the important existing differences in the EU member states' training programmes. Although not exhaustive, the present document aims to profile a minimum common framework of nephrology training in the EU for both trainers and higher-specialty trainees. The nephrology programme addresses several topics, among them enrolment requirements, duration and organization of the training and a detailed description of the knowledge, competences, practical skills and attitudes necessary to become a specialist in nephrology. Whilst the development of a standard, pan-EU nephrology training programme is not realistic, the UEMS Nephrology section believes that this does not diminish the need for improving harmonization of training in the EU.

  6. Defining a common set of indicators to monitor road accidents in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Farchi, Sara; Molino, Nunzio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Borgia, Piero; Krzyzanowski, Michael; Dalbokova, Dafina; Kim, Rokho

    2006-01-01

    Background currently road accidents are mostly monitored through mortality and injury rates. This paper reports the methodology and the results of a project set forth by the European Union (EU) and coordinated by the WHO aimed at identifying and evaluating a core set of indicators to monitor the causal chain of road accident health effects. The project is part of the ECOEHIS (Development of Environment and Health Indicators for European Union Countries). Methods a group of experts (WG), identified 14 indicators after a review of the information collected at the EU level, each of them representing a specific aspect of the DPSEEA (Driving, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action) model applied and adapted to the road accidents. Each indicator was scored according to a list of 16 criteria chosen by the WG. Those found to have a high score were analysed to determine if they were compatible with EU legislation and then tested in the feasibility study. Results 11 of the 14 indicators found to be relevant and compatible with the criteria of selection were proposed for the feasibility study. Mortality, injury, road accident rate, age of vehicle fleet, and distance travelled are the indicators recommended for immediate implementation. Conclusion after overcoming the limitations that emerged (absence of a common definition of death by road accident and injury severity, underestimation of injuries, differences in information quality) this core set of indicators will allow Member States to carry out effective internal/external comparisons over time. PMID:16834780

  7. Tobacco Control and Health Advocacy in the European Union: Understanding Effective Coalition-Building

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff; Amos, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Coalitions of supporters of comprehensive tobacco control policy have been crucial in achieving policy success nationally and internationally, but the dynamics of such alliances are not well understood. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured, narrative interviews with 35 stakeholders involved in developing the European Council Recommendation on smoke-free environments. These were thematically analyzed to examine the dynamics of coalition-building, collaboration and leadership in the alliance of organizations which successfully called for the development of comprehensive European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Results: An alliance of tobacco control and public health advocacy organizations, scientific institutions, professional bodies, pharmaceutical companies, and other actors shared the goal of fighting the harms caused by second-hand smoke. Alliance members jointly called for comprehensive EU smoke-free policy and the protection of the political debates from tobacco industry interference. The alliance’s success was enabled by a core group of national and European actors with long-standing experience in tobacco control, who facilitated consensus-building, mobilized allies and synchronized the actions of policy supporters. Representatives of Brussels-based organizations emerged as crucial strategic leaders. Conclusions: The insights gained and identification of key enablers of successful tobacco control advocacy highlight the strategic importance of investing into tobacco control at European level. Those interested in effective health policy can apply lessons learned from EU smoke-free policy to build effective alliances in tobacco control and other areas of public health. PMID:25634938

  8. The size of the irregular migrant population in the European Union – counting the uncountable?

    PubMed

    Vogel, Dita; Kovacheva, Vesela; Prescott, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to estimate the size of the irregular migrant population in a specific city or country, and even more difficult to arrive at estimates at the European level. A review of past attempts at European-level estimates reveals that they rely on rough and outdated rules-of-thumb. In this paper, we present our own European level estimates for 2002, 2005, and 2008. We aggregate country-specific information, aiming at approximate comparability by consistent use of minimum and maximum estimates and by adjusting for obvious differences in definition and timescale. While the aggregated estimates are not considered highly reliable, they do -- for the first time -- provide transparency. The provision of more systematic medium quality estimates is shown to be the most promising way for improvement. The presented estimate indicates a minimum of 1.9 million and a maximum of 3.8 million irregular foreign residents in the 27 member states of the European Union (2008). Unlike rules-of-thumb, the aggregated EU estimates indicate a decline in the number of irregular foreign residents between 2002 and 2008. This decline has been influenced by the EU enlargement and legalisation programmes.

  9. Trade Integration and Trade Imbalances in the European Union: A Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Krings, Gautier M.; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. PMID:24465381

  10. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    PubMed

    Krings, Gautier M; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  11. Bioethanol from poplar: a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuel in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Jade; Guo, Miao; Boerjan, Wout; Murphy, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The European Union has made it a strategic objective to develop its biofuels market in order to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to help mitigate climate change and to address energy insecurity within the transport sector. Despite targets set at national and supranational levels, lignocellulosic bioethanol production has yet to be widely commercialized in the European Union. Here, we use techno-economic modeling to compare the price of bioethanol produced from short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar feedstocks under two leading processing technologies in five European countries. Our evaluation shows that the type of processing technology and varying national costs between countries results in a wide range of bioethanol production prices (€0.275 to 0.727/l). The lowest production prices for bioethanol were found in countries that had cheap feedstock costs and high prices for renewable electricity. Taxes and other costs had a significant influence on fuel prices at the petrol station, and therefore the presence and amount of government support for bioethanol was a major factor determining the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel. In a forward-looking scenario, genetically engineering poplar with a reduced lignin content showed potential to enhance the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel by reducing overall costs by approximately 41% in four out of the five countries modeled. However, the possible wider phenotypic traits of advanced poplars needs to be fully investigated to ensure that these do not unintentionally negate the cost savings indicated. Through these evaluations, we highlight the key bottlenecks within the bioethanol supply chain from the standpoint of various stakeholders. For producers, technologies that are best suited to the specific feedstock composition and national policies should be optimized. For policymakers, support schemes that benefit emerging bioethanol producers and allow renewable fuel to be

  12. Association of Cigarette Price Differentials With Infant Mortality in 23 European Union Countries.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Hone, Thomas; Been, Jasper V; Millett, Christopher

    2017-09-18

    Raising the price of cigarettes by increasing taxation has been associated with improved perinatal and child health outcomes. Transnational tobacco companies have sought to undermine tobacco tax policy by adopting pricing strategies that maintain the availability of budget cigarettes. To assess associations between median cigarette prices, cigarette price differentials, and infant mortality across the European Union. A longitudinal, ecological study was conducted from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014, of infant populations in 23 countries (comprising 276 subnational regions) within the European Union. Median cigarette prices and the differential between these and minimum cigarette prices were obtained from Euromonitor International. Pricing differentials were calculated as the proportions (%) obtained by dividing the difference between median and minimum cigarette price by median price. Prices were adjusted for inflation. Annual infant mortality rates. Associations were assessed using linear fixed-effect panel regression models adjusted for smoke-free policies, gross domestic product, unemployment rate, education, maternal age, and underlining temporal trends. Among the 53 704 641 live births during the study period, an increase of €1 (US $1.18) per pack in the median cigarette price was associated with a decline of 0.23 deaths per 1000 live births in the same year (95% CI, -0.37 to -0.09) and a decline of 0.16 deaths per 1000 live births the following year (95% CI, -0.30 to -0.03). An increase of 10% in the price differential between median-priced and minimum-priced cigarettes was associated with an increase of 0.07 deaths per 1000 live births (95% CI, 0.01-0.13) the following year. Cigarette price increases across 23 European countries between 2004 and 2014 were associated with 9208 (95% CI, 8601-9814) fewer infant deaths; 3195 (95% CI, 3017-3372) infant deaths could have been avoided had there been no cost differential between the median-priced and

  13. Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Giesbrecht, N; Horverak, O; Nordlund, S; Norström, T; Olsson, O; Osterberg, E; Skog, O J

    1995-12-01

    This paper projects the consequences of modifying or eliminating the current national alcohol retail monopolies in Sweden, Norway and Finland as a possible result of those countries' membership in the European Union (EU). First, the authors project absolute alcohol consumption in each country based on different possible changes in alcohol price and availability. Then they predict the future levels of alcohol-related problems likely to result from increased per capita alcohol consumption (Sweden and Norway only). All of the scenarios examined in this paper are expected to lead to increases in per capita alcohol consumption. The smallest increase in consumption would result from a partial elimination of the current monopoly and a modest reduction in alcohol prices. In that case, projected per capita consumption in Sweden for inhabitants 15 years and older would rise from 6.3 to 9.3 litres; in Norway, from 4.7 to 6.7 litres; and in Finland, from 8.4 to 11.1 litres. The greatest projected increase in consumption would result from a complete elimination of the state monopolies such that all beer, wine and spirits were sold in food shops, grocery stores and gasoline stations, along with a substantial drop in alcohol prices as a result of private competition within each country and increased cross-border alcohol purchases. That scenario would result in projected per capita consumption of 12.7 litres in Sweden, 11.1 litres in Norway and 13.7 litres in Finland. The authors project that a 1-litre increase in consumption would result in a 9.5% increase in total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 9.7% increase in Norway. Further, alcohol-related assaults would increase by 9% in Sweden and 9.6% in Norway. A 5-litre increase in consumption would result in a 62% increase in alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 60% increase in Norway, and a 57% increase in alcohol-involved assaults in both countries.

  14. European Union's strategy on endocrine disrupting chemicals and the current position of Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Perharič, Lucija; Fatur, Tanja; Drofenik, Jernej

    2016-06-01

    In view of the European Union regulations 1107/2009 and 528/2012, which say that basic substances in plant protection and biocidal products marketed in the European Union (EU) should not have an inherent capacity to cause endocrine disruption, an initiative was started to define scientific criteria for the identification of endocrine disruptors (EDs). The objectives of the EU strategy on EDs are to protect human health and the environment, to assure the functioning of the market, and to provide clear and coherent criteria for the identification of EDs that could have broad application in the EU legislation. Policy issues were to be addressed by the Ad-hoc group of Commission Services, EU Agencies and Member States established in 2010, whereas the scientific issues were to be addressed by the Endocrine Disruptors Expert Advisory Group (ED EAG), established in 2011. The ED EAG adopted the 2002 World Health Organization (WHO) definition of endocrine disruptor and agreed that for its identification it is necessary to produce convincing evidence of a biologically plausible causal link between an adverse effect and endocrine disrupting mode of action. In 2014, the European Commission proposed four ED identification criteria options and three regulatory options, which are now being assessed for socio-economic, environmental, and health impact. Slovenia supports the establishing of identification criteria and favours option 4, according to which ED identification should be based on the WHO definition with the addition of potency as an element of hazard characterisation. As for regulatory options, Slovenia favours the risk-based rather than hazard-based regulation.

  15. A climatology of ⁷Be in surface air in European Union.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Cinelli, G; Ferrer, M Marín; Tollefsen, T; De Felice, L; Nweke, E; Tognoli, P V; Vanzo, S; De Cort, M

    2015-03-01

    This study presents a European-wide analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the cosmogenic isotope (7)Be in surface air. This is the first time that a long term database of 34 sampling sites that regularly provide data to the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) network, managed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, is used. While temporal coverage varies between stations, some of them have delivered data more or less continuously from 1984 to 2011. The station locations were considerably heterogeneous, both in terms of latitude and altitude, a range which should ensure a high degree of representativeness of the results. The mean values of (7)Be activity concentration presented a spatial distribution value ranging from 2.0 to 5.4 mBq/m(3) over the European Union. The results of the ANOVA analysis of all (7)Be data available indicated that its temporal and spatial distributions were mainly explained by the location and characteristic of the sampling sites rather than its temporal distribution (yearly, seasonal and monthly). Higher (7)Be concentrations were registered at the middle, compared to high-latitude, regions. However, there was no correlation with altitude, since all stations are sited within the atmospheric boundary layer. In addition, the total and yearly analyses of the data indicated a dynamic range of (7)Be activity for each solar cycle and phase (maximum or minimum), different impact on stations having been observed according to their location. Finally, the results indicated a significant seasonal and monthly variation for (7)Be activity concentration across the European Union, with maximum concentrations occurring in the summer and minimum in the winter, although with differences in the values reached. The knowledge of the horizontal and vertical distribution of this natural radionuclide in the atmosphere is a key parameter for modelling studies of atmospheric processes, which are important phenomena to be taken into

  16. TB and MDR/XDR-TB in European Union and European Economic Area countries: managed or mismanaged?

    PubMed

    Migliori, G B; Sotgiu, G; D'Ambrosio, L; Centis, R; Lange, C; Bothamley, G; Cirillo, D M; De Lorenzo, S; Guenther, G; Kliiman, K; Muetterlein, R; Spinu, V; Villar, M; Zellweger, J P; Sandgren, A; Huitric, E; Manissero, D

    2012-03-01

    In spite of the growing awareness of emerging drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the extent of inappropriate tuberculosis (TB) case management may be underestimated, even in Europe. We evaluated TB case management in the European Union/European Economic Area countries, with special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB, using a purposely developed, standardised survey tool. National reference centres in five countries representing different geographical, socioeconomic and epidemiological patterns of TB in Europe were surveyed. 40 consecutive, original clinical TB case records (30 MDR/XDR-TB cases) were reviewed in each of the five countries. The findings were recorded and, through the survey tool, compared with previously agreed and identified international standards. Deviations from international standards of TB care were observed in the following areas: surveillance (no information available on patient outcomes); infection control (lack of respiratory isolation rooms/procedures and negative-pressure ventilation rooms); clinical management of TB, MDR-TB and HIV co-infection (inadequate bacteriological diagnosis, regimen selection and treatment duration); laboratory support; and diagnostic/treatment algorithms. Gaps between present international standards of care and the management of MDR/XDR-TB patients were identified. Training, increased awareness, promotion of standards and allocation of appropriate resources are necessary to ensure appropriate care and management as well as to prevent further emergence of drug resistance.

  17. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union's Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Petronille; Bochenek, Tomasz; Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union's perspective.

  18. Exchange of best practices within the European Union: surgery standardization of abdominal organ retrieval.

    PubMed

    de Graauw, J A; Mihály, S; Deme, O; Hofker, H S; Baranski, A G; Gobée, O P; Krikke, C; Fehérvari, I; Langer, R M; Ploeg, R J; Marazuela, R; Domínguez-Gil, B; Haase-Kromwijk, B J J M; Font-Sala, C

    2014-01-01

    Considering the growing organ demand worldwide, it is crucial to optimize organ retrieval and training of surgeons to reduce the risk of injury during the procedure and increase the quality of organs to be transplanted. In the Netherlands, a national complete trajectory from training of surgeons in procurement surgery to the quality assessment of the procured organs was implemented in 2010. This mandatory trajectory comprises training and certification modules: E-learning, training on the job, and a practical session. Thanks to the ACCORD (Achieving Comprehensive Coordination in Organ Donation) Joint Action coordinated by Spain and co-funded under the European Commission Health Programme, 3 twinning activities (led by France) were set to exchange best practices between countries. The Dutch trajectory is being adapted and implemented in Hungary as one of these twinning activities. The E-learning platform was modified, tested by a panel of Hungarian and UK surgeons, and was awarded in July 2013 by the European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education of the European Union of Medical Specialists. As a pilot phase for future national training, 6 Hungarian surgeons from Semmelweis University are being trained; E-learning platform was fulfilled, and practical sessions, training-on-the-job activities, and evaluations of technical skills are ongoing. The first national practical session was recently organized in Budapest, and the new series of nationwide selected candidates completed the E-learning platform before the practical. There is great potential for sharing best practices and for direct transfer of expertise at the European level, and especially to export this standardized training in organ retrieval to other European countries and even broader. The final goal was to not only provide a national training to all countries lacking such a program but also to improve the quality and safety criteria of organs to be transplanted.

  19. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gemma A; Bacci, Sabrina; Shadwick, Rebecca; Tillmann, Taavi; Rechel, Bernd; Noori, Teymur; Suk, Jonathan E; Odone, Anna; Ingleby, Jonathan D; Mladovsky, Philipa; Mckee, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to which this is the case is poorly understood, due to a lack of data. This paper addresses this evidence gap by providing an overview of the burden of measles in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through a comprehensive literature review, a country survey of EU/EEA member states and information from measles experts gathered at an infectious disease workshop. Our results showed incomplete data on measles in migrant populations, as national surveillance systems do not systematically record migration-specific information; however, evidence from the literature review and country survey suggested that some measles outbreaks in the EU/EEA were due to sub-optimal vaccination coverage in migrant populations. We conclude that it is essential that routine surveillance of measles cases and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage become strengthened, to capture migrant-specific data. These data can help to inform the provision of preventive services, which may need to reach out to vulnerable migrant populations that currently face barriers in accessing routine immunization and health services. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma A.; Bacci, Sabrina; Shadwick, Rebecca; Tillmann, Taavi; Rechel, Bernd; Noori, Teymur; Suk, Jonathan E.; Odone, Anna; Ingleby, Jonathan D.; Mladovsky, Philipa; Mckee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to which this is the case is poorly understood, due to a lack of data. This paper addresses this evidence gap by providing an overview of the burden of measles in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. Methods: Data were collected through a comprehensive literature review, a country survey of EU/EEA member states and information from measles experts gathered at an infectious disease workshop. Results: Our results showed incomplete data on measles in migrant populations, as national surveillance systems do not systematically record migration-specific information; however, evidence from the literature review and country survey suggested that some measles outbreaks in the EU/EEA were due to sub-optimal vaccination coverage in migrant populations. Conclusions: We conclude that it is essential that routine surveillance of measles cases and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage become strengthened, to capture migrant-specific data. These data can help to inform the provision of preventive services, which may need to reach out to vulnerable migrant populations that currently face barriers in accessing routine immunization and health services. PMID:26563254

  1. Is tuberculosis crossing borders at the Eastern boundary of the European Union?

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, Marieke J.; Hollo, Vahur; Noori, Teymur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Eastern border of the European Union (EU) consists of 10 countries after the expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2007. These 10 countries border to the East to countries with high tuberculosis (TB) notification rates. We analyzed the notification data of Europe to quantify the impact of cross-border TB at the Eastern border of the EU. Methods: We used TB surveillance data of 2010 submitted by 53 European Region countries to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin of the case (national/foreign). We calculated the contribution of foreign to overall TB notification. Results: In the 10 EU countries located at the EU Eastern border, 618 notified TB cases (1.7% of all notified TB cases) were of foreign origin. Of those 618 TB cases, 173 (28.0%) were from countries bordering the EU to the East. More specifically, 90 (52.0%) were from Russia, 33 (19.1%) from Belarus, 33 (19.1%) from Ukraine, 13 (7.5%) from Moldova and 4 (2.3%) from Turkey. Conclusions: Currently, migrants contribute little to TB notifications in the 10 EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU, but changes in migration patterns may result in an increasing contribution. Therefore, EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU should strive to provide prompt diagnostic services and adequate treatment of migrants. PMID:23813718

  2. Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Sandgren, Andreas; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Jannigje M; Oordt-Speets, Anouk M; van Kessel, Gerarda B; de Vlas, Sake J; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis (TB) will not be feasible. In 2013, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) started an assessment of benefits and risks of introducing programmatic LTBI control, with the aim of providing guidance on how to incorporate LTBI control into national TB strategies in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and candidate countries. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies. This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes. Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control. PMID:27589214

  3. Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Andreas; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Jannigje M; Oordt-Speets, Anouk M; van Kessel, Gerarda B; de Vlas, Sake J; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-08-25

    Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis (TB) will not be feasible. In 2013, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) started an assessment of benefits and risks of introducing programmatic LTBI control, with the aim of providing guidance on how to incorporate LTBI control into national TB strategies in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and candidate countries. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies. This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes. Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control.

  4. [Harmonisation of personal injury compensation in the European Union. Application to medical liability case law].

    PubMed

    Hureau, Jacques

    2006-03-01

    Harmonisation of personal injury compensation in the European Union (EU) is crucial. Continuing on from the work begun by the European Federation of Medical Academies, a working party of the XVth Committee of the French National Academy of Medicine has sought to go beyond the restrictive framework of automobile accident compensation in order to address more universal concerns, regardless of the causes and effects of bodily injury. The specific situation of injuries resulting from medical acts was considered, both for its medicolegal complexity and its potential human consequences. After recalling relevant European legislation, the authors consider the different philosophies of medical liability and health care systems in Europe. Methodological convergence is required to achieve harmonisation of personal injury compensation regimes, and especially for the classification of different types of bodily injury, the role of social services, and the establishment of a reference for medical evaluation of injury with built-in compensation levels. The doctrines and concepts of all EU member states (civil law, common law, Nordic medical liability regimes, etc.) are discussed, together with means of facilitating their harmonisation.

  5. General aspects on the assessment of functional foods in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Palou, A; Serra, F; Pico, C

    2003-09-01

    During the last 6 y, the European Union has undergone a profound qualitative change in the focus on food safety problems. In 1997, nine new scientific committees were created, including the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and the Scientific Steering Committee (SSC), and were put under the auspices of the Directorate General in charge of defending consumer interests and health. The process is foreseen to be completed by the incorporation in 2003 of all food safety activities of these committees into the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Among the immediate challenges in the near future are the scientific and technological developments and the regulatory measures for the so-called 'functional foods', which can positively affect the health and well-being of consumers. Functional foods are a recent phenomenon in Europe and are, as yet, not covered by any specific legislation. The two key aspects in the evaluation of functional foods are safety and efficacy. Whereas safety can be covered under different legislative umbrellas such as novel foods (NFs), foods for particular nutritional purposes, supplements, additives and others, the issue of evaluation of their efficacy is only at a very early stage since the criteria to establish the validity of 'health claims' has not been clearly addressed at a European level.

  6. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  7. Changing hepatitis A epidemiology in the European Union: new challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gossner, C M; Severi, E; Danielsson, N; Hutin, Y; Coulombier, D

    2015-04-23

    This perspective on hepatitis A in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) presents epidemiological data on new cases and outbreaks and vaccination policies. Hepatitis A endemicity in the EU/EEA ranges from very low to intermediate with a decline in notification rates in recent decades. Vaccination uptake has been insufficient to compensate for the increasing number of susceptible individuals. Large outbreaks occur. Travel increases the probability of introducing the virus into susceptible populations and secondary transmission. Travel medicine services and healthcare providers should be more effective in educating travellers and travel agents regarding the risk of travel-associated hepatitis A. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) endorses the World Health Organization's recommendations on vaccination of high-risk groups in countries with low and very low endemicity and on universal vaccination in countries with intermediate endemicity. Those recommendations do not cover the use of hepatitis A vaccine to control outbreaks. ECDC together with EU/EEA countries should produce evidence-based recommendations on hepatitis A immunisation to control outbreaks. Data about risk behaviours, exposure and mortality are scarce at the EU/EEA level. EU/EEA countries should report to ECDC comprehensive epidemiological and microbiological data to identify opportunities for prevention.

  8. Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sectors of European Union member states: a panel data analysis.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Hélde Araujo; De Melo Faria, Alexandre Magno; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso

    2017-06-15

    In the last two decades, there has been a rich debate about the environmental degradation that results from exposure to solid urban waste. Growing public concern with environmental issues has led to the implementation of various strategic plans for waste management in several developed countries, especially in the European Union. In this paper, the relationships were assessed between economic growth, renewable energy extraction and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the waste sector. The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was analysed for the member states of the European Union, in the presence of electricity generation, landfill and GHG emissions for the period 1995 to 2012. The results revealed that there is no inverted-U-shaped relationship between income and GHG emissions in European Union countries. The renewable fuel extracted from waste contributes to a reduction in GHG, and although the electricity produced also increases emissions somewhat, they would be far greater if the waste-based generation of renewable energy did not take place. The waste sector needs to strengthen its political, economic, institutional and social communication instruments to meet its aims for mitigating the levels of pollutants generated by European economies. To achieve the objectives of the Horizon 2020 programme, currently in force in the countries of the European Union, it will be necessary to increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix.

  9. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-02-28

    Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. The cross-sectional national sample included 25-84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994-2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007.

  10. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007. PMID:17328817

  11. [A proposal for reforming psychologists' training in France and in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, J-P

    2009-02-01

    In France, as in the European Union, the number of psychologists continues to increase and constitutes by far the most important source of professionals in this field. The requests for services of psychologists in many various domains have also increased in an unprecedented way over a number of years. In spite of this development, which should continue to increase considerably, the initial training of psychologists remains uneven and disparate and often remote from, even unsuitable to, the legitimate expectations of users. It is therefore important to reform this training by extending, updating, homogenising and adapting it to current knowledge and needs, and by marking it by a single and specific degree: that of a doctorate. This new eight-year doctoral curriculum would be at the same time more complete and simpler than the European Diploma in Psychology model (EuroPsy), for instance. This latter is a very complicated and insufficient subject and would not completely resolve the great problems of psychologists' training and the competences they need to gain in order to access professional practise, research and teaching. This extension of the psychologists' training would make it possible to integrate new data concerning traditional fields of psychology and data concerning new fields of application of psychology and should obviously include the essential training for psychotherapies referred to the great theoretical and practical models, since their interest is clinically acknowledged (psychoanalysis and psychoanalytical therapies, cognitive and behavioural therapies, systemic therapies, therapies for individuals, couples, families, groups...). This polyreferred training would make it possible to go from a culture still too often axed on orientation and deficiencies of the therapist, to a culture of indication, opening and competence, focused on the patient's interest. Teaching of psychophysiology and neurosciences should be updated and harmonised by taking into

  12. [Establishing ophthalmology in the research framework programs of the European Union].

    PubMed

    Scholl, H P N; Wheeler-Schilling, T H; Zrenner, E; Holz, F G

    2006-02-01

    The framework programmes (FP) of the European Commission have substantially contributed to the funding of research within the European countries. The contribution of the funding provided by the EU relative to the funding available on the national level has steadily increased. European ophthalmology and vision research has benefited from this support provided by the EU. This review introduces the European funding policies and the European Research Area (ERA) and provides a list of all projects in ophthalmology and vision research that have been funded within FP1 to FP6. As an example for new instruments within FP6, Integrated Projects, the EVI-GENORET project is introduced. Finally an outlook for FP7 is provided.

  13. Intrinsic classes in the Union of European Football Associations soccer team ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2014-11-01

    A strong structural regularity of classes is found in soccer teams ranked by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) for the time interval 2009-2014. It concerns 424 to 453 teams according to the 5 competition seasons. The analysis is based on the rank-size theory considerations, the size being the UEFA coefficient at the end of a season. Three classes emerge: (i) the few "top" teams, (ii) 300 teams, (iii) the rest of the involved teams (about 150) in the tail of the distribution. There are marked empirical laws describing each class. A 3-parameter Lavalette function is used to describe the concave curving as the rank increases, and to distinguish the the tail from the central behavior.

  14. Post Brexit: challenges and opportunities for radiology beyond the European Union.

    PubMed

    Piorkowska, Marta; Goh, Vicky; Booth, Thomas C

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to review the challenges and opportunities that radiology may face once the UK leaves the European Union (EU). Even before the exit negotiations commence, uncertainty over future policies and funding within the UK may influence the National Health Service (NHS). We discuss the potential impact that financial, regulatory and social changes may have on healthcare, and radiology in particular. Current difficulties in recruitment and retention of radiologists and the challenges that Brexit present are considered. Uncertainty over the new immigration regulations and their impact on the NHS workforce is addressed. Challenges also apply to UK research, which has greatly benefited from EU funding and the free movement of staff. Appreciating the problems as well as the opportunities that Brexit presents will help prepare radiology in the UK for the next decade.

  15. The healthcare system and provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 4: Greece.

    PubMed

    Damaskinos, P; Koletsi-Kounari, H; Economou, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-03-11

    This paper presents a description of the healthcare system and how oral healthcare is organised and provided in Greece, a country in a deep economic and social crisis. The national health system is underfunded, with severe gaps in staffing levels and the country has a large private healthcare sector. Oral healthcare has been largely provided in the private sector. Most people are struggling to survive and have no money to spend on general and oral healthcare. Unemployment is rising and access to healthcare services is more difficult than ever. Additionally, there has been an overproduction of dentists and no development of team dentistry. This has led to under or unemployment of dentists in Greece and their migration to other European Union member states, such as the United Kingdom, where over 600 Greek dentists are currently working.

  16. The Scaling of Water Governance Tasks: A Comparative Federal Analysis of the European Union and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, David; Jordan, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Conflicts over how to “scale” policy-making tasks have characterized environmental governance since time immemorial. They are particularly evident in the area of water policy and raise important questions over the democratic legitimacy, economic efficiency and effectiveness of allocating (or “scaling”) tasks to some administrative levels as opposed to others. This article adopts a comparative federalism perspective to assess the “optimality” of scaling—either upward or downward—in one issue area, namely coastal recreational water quality. It does so by comparing the scaling of recreational water quality tasks in the European Union (EU) and Australia. It reveals that the two systems have adopted rather different approaches to scaling and that this difference can partly be accounted for in federal theoretical terms. However, a much greater awareness of the inescapably political nature of scaling processes is nonetheless required. Finally, some words of caution are offered with regard to transferring policy lessons between these two jurisdictions.

  17. The Romanian need of postgraduate specialization in dentistry considering the integration to the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Dragos, Stanciu; Alexandru, Bucur; Anca, Temelcea; Radu, Stanciu

    2008-01-01

    Once that Romania became part of the European Union, conditions regarding the activity in dentistry changed, and open borders are now a fact that we have to accept. The Romanian activity in dentistry developed a lot after the 1990, being a result of private dental practice – which covers over 98% and also of material resources of patients that were asking for more performing dental treatments. In order to be able to face all this, the dentists followed many of postgraduate specializations. We have to consider as well that the situation of the Romanian dentists is not the best, because they had to face the dentists that got their certificates in Eastern countries, where they only had to pay a fee and not pass an exam. Also, the Romanians that wanted to specialize abroad were not able to do that because the National Dentists’ Association was protecting their own colleagues. PMID:20108483

  18. Public Funding of Clinical-Stage Antibiotic Development in the United States and European Union

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The health and national security challenge of antibiotic resistance has led governments to adopt policies to stimulate new antibiotic R&D. Government programs that directly fund late-stage clinical development of antibiotics have emerged, including the Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Program of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority in the United States, and the New Drugs for Bad Bugs program of the Innovative Medicines Initiative in the European Union. These efforts are collectively investing nearly $1 billion and are supporting nearly 20% of the global antibiotic pipeline. This article describes these programs, including the antibiotics and their targeted pathogens and clinical indications, as well as program mechanisms for project eligibility, selection, governance, funding, and IP management. Preliminary assessment of the impact of these mechanisms on the success of the programs is provided. PMID:26042859

  19. A spatiotemporal analysis of aggregate labour force behaviour by sex and age across the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in age-specific male and female labour force participation rates using annual data from 154 regions across ten European Union member states for the period 1983-1997. Regional participation rates appear to be strongly correlated in time, weakly correlated in space and to parallel their national counterparts. An econometric model is designed consistent with these empirical findings. To control for potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables, we use an instrumental variables estimation scheme based on a matrix exponential spatial specification of the error terms. Many empirical studies of aggregate labour force behaviour have ignored population distribution effects, relying instead on the representative-agent paradigm. In order for representative-agent models to accurately describe aggregate behaviour, all marginal reactions of individuals to changes in aggregate variables must be identical. It turns out that this condition cannot apply to individuals across different sex/age groups.

  20. Health care expenditure disparities in the European Union and underlying factors: a distribution dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, José; Maza, Adolfo; Hierro, María

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines health care expenditure (HCE) disparities between the European Union countries over the period 1995-2010. By means of using a continuous version of the distribution dynamics approach, the key conclusions are that the reduction in disparities is very weak and, therefore, persistence is the main characteristic of the HCE distribution. In view of these findings, a preliminary attempt is made to add some insights into potentially main factors behind the HCE distribution. The results indicate that whereas per capita income is by far the main determinant, the dependency ratio and female labour participation do not play any role in explaining the HCE distribution; as for the rest of the factors studied (life expectancy, infant mortality, R&D expenditure and public HCE expenditure share), we find that their role falls somewhat in between.

  1. Health impact assessment: assessing opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union

    PubMed Central

    Lock, K.; McKee, M.

    2005-01-01

    On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for assessing the health impacts of policy in the EU and, using health impact assessment as a case study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682

  2. Integrating the implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive and Floods Directive in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Earle, J R; Blacklocke, S; Bruen, M; Almeida, G; Keating, D

    2011-01-01

    Water Framework Directive (WFD) statutory authorities and stakeholders in Ireland are now challenged with the issue of how the proposed programmes of measures in the newly required River Basin Management Plans - designed to protect and restore good ecology by reverting as closely as possible back to natural conditions - are to be implemented in a way that concurrently complies with other existing and emerging intersecting European Union legislation, such as the Floods Directive (FD). The WFD is driven largely by ecological considerations, whereas the FD and other legislation are more geared towards protecting physical property and mitigating public safety risks. Thus many of the same waterbodies, especially heavily modified waterbodies, arguably have somewhat competing policy objectives put upon them. This paper explores the means by which Ireland might best achieve the highest degrees of cost effectiveness, economic efficiency and institutional durability in pursuing the common and overarching objective of the WFD and FD - to ensure Irish waterways are put to their highest valued uses.

  3. Public funding of clinical-stage antibiotic development in the United States and European Union.

    PubMed

    Eichberg, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The health and national security challenge of antibiotic resistance has led governments to adopt policies to stimulate new antibiotic R&D. Government programs that directly fund late-stage clinical development of antibiotics have emerged, including the Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Program of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority in the United States, and the New Drugs for Bad Bugs program of the Innovative Medicines Initiative in the European Union. These efforts are collectively investing nearly $1 billion and are supporting nearly 20% of the global antibiotic pipeline. This article describes these programs, including the antibiotics and their targeted pathogens and clinical indications, as well as program mechanisms for project eligibility, selection, governance, funding, and IP management. Preliminary assessment of the impact of these mechanisms on the success of the programs is provided.

  4. Contribution of Meat Inspection to the surveillance of poultry health and welfare in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Stärk, K D C; Mateus, A; Lupo, C; Lindberg, A; LE Bouquin-Leneveu, S

    2015-08-01

    In the European Union, Meat Inspection (MI) aims to protect public health by ensuring that minimal hazardous material enters in the food chain. It also contributes to the detection and monitoring of animal diseases and welfare problems but its utility for animal surveillance has been assessed partially for some diseases only. Using the example of poultry production, we propose a complete assessment of MI as a health surveillance system. MI allows a long-term syndromic surveillance of poultry health but its contribution is lowered by a lack of data standardization, analysis and reporting. In addition, the probability of case detection for 20 diseases and welfare conditions was quantified using a scenario tree modelling approach, with input data based on literature and expert opinion. The sensitivity of MI appeared to be very high to detect most of the conditions studied because MI is performed at batch level and applied to a high number of birds per batch.

  5. Assumptions in the European Union biofuels policy: frictions with experiences in Germany, Brazil and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Franco, Jennifer; Levidow, Les; Fig, David; Goldfarb, Lucia; Hönicke, Mireille; Mendonça, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The biofuel project is an agro-industrial development and politically contested policy process where governments increasingly become global actors. European Union (EU) biofuels policy rests upon arguments about societal benefits of three main kinds - namely, environmental protection (especially greenhouse gas savings), energy security and rural development, especially in the global South. Each argument involves optimistic assumptions about what the putative benefits mean and how they can be fulfilled. After examining those assumptions, we compare them with experiences in three countries - Germany, Brazil and Mozambique - which have various links to each other and to the EU through biofuels. In those case studies, there are fundamental contradictions between EU policy assumptions and practices in the real world, involving frictional encounters among biofuel promoters as well as with people adversely affected. Such contradictions may intensify with the future rise of biofuels and so warrant systematic attention.

  6. Online multimedia delivery of the European Union directive within adult nursing education.

    PubMed

    Ward, Rod; Sales, Rachel

    2009-04-01

    The use of online multimedia content in nurse education is still in its infancy with limited research about its role and acceptance by students and staff within nursing courses. This paper describes the development of interactive web-based delivery for the European Union directive (77/453/EEC) for maternity, child care and mental health within adult nursing education. An evaluative study carried out by an online questionnaire with students, using both structured questions and free text, and a focus group with staff whilst identifying areas for further development found general acceptance of this approach. The study has provided important insights into both the content and delivery of the packs, and the format of the material. The use of IT, with multimedia elements, was seen as being beneficial by both students and staff. The findings will be useful in improving and developing the packs for future cohorts.

  7. Spent fuel management in the former Soviet Union and the eastern European countries

    SciTech Connect

    Takats, F.

    1995-04-01

    There is a total of 66 nuclear power plant units in the former Soviet Union and eastern European countries, with a generating capacity of more than 44,000 MWe. Changes in politics and trading relationships are affecting spent fuel management policies. This paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle adopting in these countries and reports data on the amount of spent fuel discharged from the nuclear power reactors with a summary table. Various types of interim storage capacities for the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. The Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Technology Section in the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is responsible for organizing work concerning the management of spent fuel from power plants and research reactors, providing a forum to exchange and disseminate information on the storage of spent fuel from research and test reactors. An account is given of IAEA programs and recent publications.

  8. Single European currency and Monetary Union. Macroeconomic implications for pharmaceutical spending.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, P

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the potential implications of introducing a single currency among the Member States of the European Union for national pharmaceutical prices and spending. In doing so, it provides a brief account of the direct effects of introducing a single currency on pharmaceutical business. These are static in nature and include the elimination of exchange rate volatility and transaction costs, increased price transparency and limited potential for parallel trade. It subsequently analyses the potential medium and long term macroeconomic policy choices facing the Member States and their impact on pharmaceutical spending following the introduction of a single currency. These include policy directions in order to meet the Maastricht convergence criteria in the run-up to forming an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the implications of EMU on national macroeconomic policy thereafter. This article argues that the necessity for tight fiscal policies across the EU and, in particular, in those Member States facing high budget deficits and overall debt levels, will continue to exert considerable downward pressure on pharmaceutical spending.

  9. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Brodmann, Theodor; Endo, Akihito; Gueimonde, Miguel; Vinderola, Gabriel; Kneifel, Wolfgang; de Vos, Willem M.; Salminen, Seppo; Gómez-Gallego, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU) regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available), publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market. PMID:28955311

  10. COPD care delivery pathways in five European Union countries: mapping and health care professionals’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Kayyali, Reem; Odeh, Bassel; Frerichs, Inéz; Davies, Nikki; Perantoni, Eleni; D’arcy, Shona; Vaes, Anouk W; Chang, John; Spruit, Martijn A; Deering, Brenda; Philip, Nada; Siva, Roshan; Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Pierscionek, Barbara; Weiler, Norbert; Wouters, Emiel FM; Raptopoulos, Andreas; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is among the leading causes of chronic morbidity and mortality in the European Union with an estimated annual economic burden of €25.1 billion. Various care pathways for COPD exist across Europe leading to different responses to similar problems. Determining these differences and the similarities may improve health and the functioning of health services. Objective The aim of this study was to compare COPD patients’ care pathway in five European Union countries including England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Greece, and Germany and to explore health care professionals’ (HCPs) perceptions about the current pathways. Methods HCPs were interviewed in two stages using a qualitative, semistructured email interview and a face-to-face semistructured interview. Results Lack of communication among different health care providers managing COPD and comorbidities was a common feature of the studied care pathways. General practitioners/family doctors are responsible for liaising between different teams/services, except in Greece where this is done through pulmonologists. Ireland and the UK are the only countries with services for patients at home to shorten unnecessary hospital stay. HCPs emphasized lack of communication, limited resources, and poor patient engagement as issues in the current pathways. Furthermore, no specified role exists for pharmacists and informal carers. Conclusion Service and professional integration between care settings using a unified system targeting COPD and comorbidities is a priority. Better communication between health care providers, establishing a clear role for informal carers, and enhancing patients’ engagement could optimize current care pathways resulting in a better integrated system. PMID:27881915

  11. Methods for the determination of European Union-permitted added natural colours in foods: a review.

    PubMed

    Scotter, M J

    2011-05-01

    Coupled to increasing consumer demand, food manufacturers have moved towards increased usage of approved natural colours. There is a legal requirement for governments to monitor the consumption of all food additives in the European Union to ensure the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are not exceeded, especially by young children. Validated analytical methods are needed to fulfil this requirement. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on methods of extraction for approved natural colours in food and drink. Available analytical methods for the determination of European Union-permitted natural food colour additives in foods and beverages have been assessed for their fitness for purpose in terms of their key extraction and analysis procedures, selectivity and sensitivity, especially with regard to maximum permitted levels, and their applicability for use in surveillance and in an enforcement role. The advantages and disadvantages of available analytical methods for each of nine designated chemical classes (groups) of natural colours in different food and beverage matrices are given. Other important factors such as technical requirements, cost, transferability and applicability are given due consideration. Gaps in the knowledge and levels of validation are identified and recommendations made on further research to develop suitable methods. The nine designated natural colour classes covered are: 1. Curcumin (E100), 2. Riboflavins (E101i-ii), 3. Cochineal (E120), 4. Chlorophylls--including chlorophyllins and copper analogues (E140-141), 5. Caramel Classes I-IV (E150a-d), 6. Carotenoids (E160a-f, E161b, E161g), 7. Beetroot red (E162), 8. Anthocyanins (E163), and 9. Other colours--Vegetable carbon (E153), Calcium carbonate (E170), Titanium dioxide (E171) and Iron oxides and hydroxides (E172).

  12. Health and access to care for undocumented migrants living in the European Union: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Aniek; Howard, Natasha; Wolffers, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Background Literature on health and access to care of undocumented migrants in the European Union (EU) is limited and heterogeneous in focus and quality. Authors conducted a scoping review to identify the extent, nature and distribution of existing primary research (1990–2012), thus clarifying what is known, key gaps, and potential next steps. Methods Authors used Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage scoping framework, with Levac, Colquhoun and O’Brien’s revisions, to review identified sources. Findings were summarized thematically: (i) physical, mental and social health issues, (ii) access and barriers to care, (iii) vulnerable groups and (iv) policy and rights. Results Fifty-four sources were included of 598 identified, with 93% (50/54) published during 2005–2012. EU member states from Eastern Europe were under-represented, particularly in single-country studies. Most study designs (52%) were qualitative. Sampling descriptions were generally poor, and sampling purposeful, with only four studies using any randomization. Demographic descriptions were far from uniform and only two studies focused on undocumented children and youth. Most (80%) included findings on health-care access, with obstacles reported at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Major access barriers included fear, lack of awareness of rights, socioeconomics. Mental disorders appeared widespread, while obstetric needs and injuries were key reasons for seeking care. Pregnant women, children and detainees appeared most vulnerable. While EU policy supports health-care access for undocumented migrants, practices remain haphazard, with studies reporting differing interpretation and implementation of rights at regional, institutional and individual levels. Conclusions This scoping review is an initial attempt to describe available primary evidence on health and access to care for undocumented migrants in the European Union. It underlines the need for more and better-quality research, increased

  13. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Brodmann, Theodor; Endo, Akihito; Gueimonde, Miguel; Vinderola, Gabriel; Kneifel, Wolfgang; de Vos, Willem M; Salminen, Seppo; Gómez-Gallego, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU) regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available), publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  14. United States/European Union Co-ordination with HR Wallingford on Dredged Material Fate Modelling Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    United States Army EUROPEAN RESEARCH OFFICE OF THE U.S. ARMY London, England CONTRACT NUMBER N68171-01-M-5407 HR Wallingford Report No EX 4891...Netherlands, The United Kingdom , Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany. When all of the comments have been collated the protocols will be finalised. There... United States/European Union Co-ordination with HR Wallingford on Dredged Material Fate Modelling Improvements Final Report – April 2003 by T N Burt

  15. Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J H; Jensen, L K

    2010-11-01

    The migration of phthalates into foodstuffs from food-contact materials (FCM) is a well-known source of food contamination. In 2005, the European Food Safety Authority finalized its risk assessment for several of the classical phthalate plasticizers. In their risk management procedure the European Commission transformed the tolerable daily intakes established by the Authority into legislative limits for phthalates in both plastic and food simulants, while taking exposure from other sources into consideration. These limits have been into force since 1 July 2008. A detailed interpretation of the regulation of these substances was agreed upon in the European network of FCM reference laboratories. This paper reports results from a Danish control campaign of samples collected by official food inspectors and analysed by a newly validated analytical method run under accreditation. Samples were from FCM producers, FCM importers and importers of packed foodstuffs from third-party countries. Products containing phthalates above the current limits were found in several categories of FCM: conveyor belts (six of six), lids from packed foodstuffs in glasses (eight of 28), tubes for liquid foodstuffs (four of five) and gloves (five of 14). More than 20% of the samples analysed contained dibutylphthalate (DBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) above the compositional limits of 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. Analysis of residual phthalates in metal lid gaskets instead of analysis of phthalates in the food when controlling foodstuffs packed outside the European Union proved to be an efficient and simple control method. All findings of phthalates were associated with the use of plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC).

  16. Tobacco Control and Health Advocacy in the European Union: Understanding Effective Coalition-Building.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Amos, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    Coalitions of supporters of comprehensive tobacco control policy have been crucial in achieving policy success nationally and internationally, but the dynamics of such alliances are not well understood. Qualitative semi-structured, narrative interviews with 35 stakeholders involved in developing the European Council Recommendation on smoke-free environments. These were thematically analyzed to examine the dynamics of coalition-building, collaboration and leadership in the alliance of organizations which successfully called for the development of comprehensive European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. An alliance of tobacco control and public health advocacy organizations, scientific institutions, professional bodies, pharmaceutical companies, and other actors shared the goal of fighting the harms caused by second-hand smoke. Alliance members jointly called for comprehensive EU smoke-free policy and the protection of the political debates from tobacco industry interference. The alliance's success was enabled by a core group of national and European actors with long-standing experience in tobacco control, who facilitated consensus-building, mobilized allies and synchronized the actions of policy supporters. Representatives of Brussels-based organizations emerged as crucial strategic leaders. The insights gained and identification of key enablers of successful tobacco control advocacy highlight the strategic importance of investing into tobacco control at European level. Those interested in effective health policy can apply lessons learned from EU smoke-free policy to build effective alliances in tobacco control and other areas of public health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  17. A clash of civilizations? Examining liberal-democratic values in Turkey and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2008-12-01

    Turkey's proposed entry into the European Union (EU) has been undermined by Europeans' perceptions of Turkish-European cultural differences, particularly regarding the liberal-democratic values that the EU promotes (democracy, rule of law, and respect for and appreciation of minority/human rights). Yet, cross-national research on values has not focused on Turkey, the EU, and these liberal-democratic values, leaving assumptions of cultural differences and their explanations untested. Through analyses of World and European Values Survey data (1999-2002), this article asks whether people in Turkey have the same values regarding democracy, rule of law (versus religious and authoritarian rule), and minority/human rights as people in EU member and candidate states (as of 2000)? What factors explain these values? I find that people in Turkey support democracy to the same extent as people in EU member and candidate states, but people in Turkey are more supportive of religious and authoritarian rule and are less tolerant of minorities. Although the 'clash of civilizations' thesis expects liberal values to be ordered according to countries' religious traditions, with western Christian the most supportive and Islamic the least, only for tolerance of minorities values is this pattern found. Instead, economic development most consistently explains differences between Turkey and EU member and candidate states in support for these values. I conclude with calls for theoretical refinement, particularly of the clash of civilizations thesis, along with suggestions for future research to examine more Muslim and Orthodox countries; I discuss the debate over Turkey's EU entry.

  18. Mutatis Mutandis? The Court of Justice of the European Union Rules that Member States May Be Allowed to Impose Non-Resident Student Quotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this month, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the Court), ruled that European Union (EU) member states can impose non-resident student quotas in certain circumstances. The Court, whose job is to ensure that all EU member states interpret and apply EU legislation in the same way, recently made the ruling in response to a…

  19. Mutatis Mutandis? The Court of Justice of the European Union Rules that Member States May Be Allowed to Impose Non-Resident Student Quotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this month, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the Court), ruled that European Union (EU) member states can impose non-resident student quotas in certain circumstances. The Court, whose job is to ensure that all EU member states interpret and apply EU legislation in the same way, recently made the ruling in response to a…

  20. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Loyen, Anne; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Bauman, Adrian; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States. Methods This study reports data from the Special Eurobarometer 412. In 2013, 27,919 randomly selected Europeans (approximately 1000 per Member State) were interviewed face-to-face. Sitting time on a usual day was self-reported and dichotomised into sitting less- and more than 7.5 hours per day. Uni- and multivariate odds ratios of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day were assessed by country and socio-demographic variables using binary logistic regression analyses. The analyses were stratified by country to study the socio-demographic correlates of sitting time within the different countries. Results A total of 26,617 respondents were included in the analyses. Median sitting time was five hours per day. Across Europe, 18.5 percent of the respondents reported to sit more than 7.5 hours per day, with substantial variation between countries (ranging from 8.9 to 32.1 percent). In general, northern European countries reported more sitting than countries in the south of Europe. ‘Current occupation’ and ‘age when stopped education’ were found to be the strongest correlates of sitting time, both across Europe and within most Member States. Compared to manual workers, the odds ratio of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day was 5.00 for people with white collar occupations, 3.84 for students, and 3.65 for managers. Conclusions There is substantial variation in self-reported sitting time among European adults across countries as well as socio-demographic groups. While regular surveillance of (objectively measured) sedentary behaviour is needed, the results of this study provide entry points for developing targeted interventions aimed at highly sedentary populations, such as

  1. Towards the Learning Region: Education and Regional Innovation in the European Union and the United States. CEDEFOP Reference Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Barry, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.; Deitmer, Ludger, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of innovative education practices throughout regions in the United States (US) and Europe. It contains 16 papers written by experts from the educational, economic, and regional development fields in the US and the European Union (EU). Introductory materials are: a foreword (David O'Sullivan); preface (Stavros…

  2. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  3. European Union and Greek Lifelong Learning Policy within an Intercultural Context: Preliminary Insights from Research in the Sociology of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutidou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings of an extensive socio-legal research project, currently in progress, concerning the implementation of the European Union and the Greek institutional framework on lifelong learning (LLL) and exploring the social effectiveness of LLL policy. The main outcomes, based on testing two research hypotheses through…

  4. The Role of Human Resource Management in Today's Organizations: The Case of Cyprus in Comparison with the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou-Costea, Eleni

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 91 Cypriot human resource managers identified strategies, training and development practices, and use of flexible work arrangements. Compared with European Union nations, the role of human resource management in many Cypriot organizations is not strategic, and flexible practices are not yet implemented to the same extent as elsewhere.…

  5. The Future Development of the European Union Education, Training and Youth Programmes After 2006: A Public Consultation Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document launches a wide public consultation with all those involved in and with an interest in the European Union's (EU's) education, training, and youth programs called Socrates, Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, and Youth for Europe. It is the first step toward preparing the new generation of programs to start in 2007 and will inform the…

  6. An Assessment of the Quality of Life in the European Union Based on the Social Indicators Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, Marco; Canova, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    This article carries out a multidimensional analysis of welfare based on the social indicators approach aimed at assessing the quality of life in the 25 member countries of the European Union. It begins with description of the social indicators approach and provides some specifications on its most controversial points. It then specifies the…

  7. European Union and Greek Lifelong Learning Policy within an Intercultural Context: Preliminary Insights from Research in the Sociology of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutidou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings of an extensive socio-legal research project, currently in progress, concerning the implementation of the European Union and the Greek institutional framework on lifelong learning (LLL) and exploring the social effectiveness of LLL policy. The main outcomes, based on testing two research hypotheses through…

  8. Sufficiently well Informed and Seriously Concerned? European Union Policy Responses to Marginalisation, Structural Racism, and Institutionalised Exclusion in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the European Union, children from marginalised communities experience an appalling reality of poverty, exclusion, discrimination, and racism. Growing up in poverty and social exclusion shapes the reality of the lived experience for an increasing number of children in one of the wealthiest regions of the world. In the UK, a member of the…

  9. Sufficiently well Informed and Seriously Concerned? European Union Policy Responses to Marginalisation, Structural Racism, and Institutionalised Exclusion in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the European Union, children from marginalised communities experience an appalling reality of poverty, exclusion, discrimination, and racism. Growing up in poverty and social exclusion shapes the reality of the lived experience for an increasing number of children in one of the wealthiest regions of the world. In the UK, a member of the…

  10. A Union of Professionals: Labor Relations and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor; Koppich, Julia E.

    This book examines the changing role of teacher unions in the educational reform movement. It contains nine case studies of unions across the United States that are forging new, collaborative relationships with management in a reconceptualization of "professional unionism." Chapters include: (1) "Building the Airplane While It's Rolling Down the…

  11. Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the European Union with implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Tóth, G; Hermann, T; Da Silva, M R; Montanarella, L

    2016-03-01

    Soil plays a central role in food safety as it determines the possible composition of food and feed at the root of the food chain. However, the quality of soil resources as defined by their potential impact on human health by propagation of harmful elements through the food chain has been poorly studied in Europe due to the lack of data of adequate detail and reliability. The European Union's first harmonized topsoil sampling and coherent analytical procedure produced trace element measurements from approximately 22,000 locations. This unique collection of information enables a reliable overview of the concentration of heavy metals, also referred to as metal(loid)s including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Sb. Co, and Ni. In this article we propose that in some cases (e.g. Hg and Cd) the high concentrations of soil heavy metal attributed to human activity can be detected at a regional level. While the immense majority of European agricultural land can be considered adequately safe for food production, an estimated 6.24% or 137,000km(2) needs local assessment and eventual remediation action. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Proposals for model-based paediatric medicinal development within the current European Union regulatory framework

    PubMed Central

    Manolis, Efthymios; Pons, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    The new paediatric European Union (EU) regulation and the consequent demand for paediatric studies on one hand and the ethical need for minimizing the burden of studies in children on the other hand necessitate optimal techniques in the assessment of safety/efficacy and use of drugs in children. Modelling and simulation (M&S) is one way to circumvent some difficulties in developing medicinal products in children. M&S allows the quantitative use of sparse sampling, characterization and prediction of pharmacokinetics/ pharmacodynamics (PK/PD), extrapolation from adults to children, interpolation between paediatric age subsets, optimal use of scientific literature and in vitro/preclinical data. Together, industry, academia and regulators recognize the usefulness of modelling and simulation in this setting. However, even if M&S is an emerging science, its integration in the EU regulatory decision making is for the time being deficient and M&S expertise is concentrated in big pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions. The European Medicines Agency, acknowledging all the above conditions, organized and hosted a Workshop on Modelling in Paediatric Medicines. The article presents the personal views of the authors on the issues presented and discussed in the workshop. We attempt to identify the regulatory framework for the use of M&S in paediatric medicinal development and to make proposals for model-based paediatric medicinal development. The objective is to open the discussion between industry, academia, paediatricians and regulators on the optimal use of M&S in paediatric medicinal development. PMID:19843052

  13. The energy divide: Integrating energy transitions, regional inequalities and poverty trends in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions – commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change – and existing patterns of regional economic inequality. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the national-scale patterns of energy poverty, as well as gas and electricity prices. The results of our work indicate that the classic economic development distinction between the core and periphery also holds true in the case of energy poverty, as the incidence of this phenomenon is significantly higher in Southern and Eastern European EU Member States. The paper thus aims to provide the building blocks for a novel theoretical integration of questions of path-dependency, uneven development and material deprivation in existing interpretations of energy transitions. PMID:28690374

  14. Matches and mismatches between conservation investments and biodiversity values in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Abellán, Pedro; Aragón, Pedro; Varela, Sara; Cabeza, Mar

    2017-07-28

    Recently, the European Commission adopted a new strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity. Member states are expected to favour a more effective collection and redistribution of European Union (EU) funds under the current Multiannual Financial Framework for 2014-2020. Because of the large spatial variation in the distribution of biodiversity and conservation needs at the continental scale, EU instruments should ensure that countries with higher biodiversity values get more funds and resources for the conservation of this biodiversity than other countries. We assess the association between conservation investments and biodiversity values across the member states, accounting for a variety of conservation investment indicators, taxonomic groups (including groups of plants, vertebrates and invertebrates) and biodiversity value indicators. In general, we have found good overall associations between conservation investments and biodiversity variables. However, some mismatches were found in countries receiving more (or less) investments than expected based on their biodiversity values. We also found that the extensive use of birds as unique indicators of conservation effectiveness may be misleading. These results can provide insight to policymakers to aid future decisions regarding funding allocation, allowing a better redistribution of EU funds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in age-specific cerebrovascular disease in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Wei; Ji, Yue; Shi, Jing; Xuan, Qinkao; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing

    2014-01-01

    Although the mortality of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been steadily declined in the European Union (EU), CVD remains among the major causes of death in EU. As risk factors such asobesity and diabetes mellitus are increasing, the trends of European CVD mortality remains unknown. To understand the variation in CVD mortality of different EU countries, we studied the trends in CVD mortality in EU countries over the last three decades between males and females. Age- and sex-specific mortality rates between 1980 and 2011 were calculated by data from the WHO mortality database. Joinpoint software was used to calculate annual percentage changes and to characterize trends in mortality rates over time. Our study showed that between 1980 and 2011, CVD mortality significantly decreased in both men and women across all age groups. The specific mortality trends varied largely between EU countries. The plateau trend was observed in little regions at different age groups, however, the EU as a whole displayed declined trend CVD mortality. During the last three decades, CVD mortality decreased substantially in the entire population of EU. However, despite this overall decline in CVD mortality, several areas were identified as having no change in their CVD mortality rates at different period. The whole EU needs to establish strict prevention measures toreduce the incidence of CVD risk factors. PMID:25550927

  16. Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Wysocki, Patrick; Roumiantzeff, Micha; Freney, Jean; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Vos, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes, the European Union (EU) is becoming progressively free of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)-mediated rabies. Over the past three decades, the incidence of rabies had decreased substantially and vast areas of Western and Central Europe have been freed from rabies using this method of controlling an infectious disease in wildlife. Since rabies control is a top priority in the EU, the disease is expected to be eliminated from the animal source in the near future. While responsible authorities may consider the mission of eliminating fox rabies from the EU almost accomplished, there are still issues to be dealt with and challenges to be met that have not yet been in the focus of attention, but could jeopardise the ultimate goal. Among them are increasing illegal movements of animals, maintaining funding support for vaccination campaigns, devising alternative vaccine strategies in neighbouring Eastern European countries and the expanding distribution range of several potential rabies reservoir species in Europe.

  17. Effectiveness of the European Union text-only cigarette health warnings: findings from four countries

    PubMed Central

    Mons, Ute; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Guignard, Romain; Mcneill, Ann; Willemsen, Marc C.; Driezen, Pete; Wilquin, Jean-Louis; Beck, François; Du-Roscöat, Enguerrand; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The European Commission requires tobacco products sold in the European Union to display standardized text health warnings. This article examines the effectiveness of the text health warnings among daily cigarette smokers in four Member States. Methods: Data were drawn from nationally representative samples of smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys in France (2007), Germany (2007), the Netherlands (2008) and the UK (2006). We examined: (i) smokers’ ratings of the health warnings on warning salience, thoughts of harm and quitting and forgoing of cigarettes; (ii) impact of the warnings using a Labels Impact Index (LII), with higher scores signifying greater impact; and (iii) differences on the LII by demographic characteristics and smoking behaviour. Results: Scores on the LII differed significantly across countries. Scores were highest in France, lower in the UK, and lowest in Germany and the Netherlands. Across all countries, scores were significantly higher among low-income smokers, smokers who had made a quit attempt in the past year and smokers who smoked fewer cigarettes per day. Conclusion: The impact of the health warnings varies greatly across countries. Impact tended to be highest in countries with more comprehensive tobacco control programmes. Because the impact of the warnings was highest among smokers with the lowest socioeconomic status (SES), this research suggests that health warnings could be more effective among smokers from lower SES groups. Differences in warning label impact by SES should be further investigated. PMID:21920847

  18. Medicinal products in the European Union--between harmonization and divergence.

    PubMed

    Lojko, Natalia

    2010-03-01

    The rules governing the manufacture and trade in medicinal products in the European Union are, to a large extent, harmonized covering almost the entire life cycle of a medicinal product, starting from the conduct of clinical trials (Directive 2001/20, 2005/28), through manufacture (Directive 2003/94), registration, distribution and pharmacovigilance (Directive 2001/83) to the principles concerning pricing and reimbursement (Directive 89/105). A unified registration procedure has been established with respect to highly innovative medicinal products (Regulation 726/2004). There is also abundant case law of the European Court of Justice concerning medicinal products. The harmonization both judicial and legislative--took place in spite of the lack of explicit competence of the EU as regards healthcare and was based to a large extent on the provisions of economic nature, whose aim was to ensure the unfettered functioning of the internal market. In spite of those harmonization efforts, national rules governing pharmaceuticals are still to a large extent divergent, in particular as regards financing and distribution of medicinal products. This paper explores the level of harmonization of pharmaceutical market in Europe, in particular in the light of the primary competence of the Member States in the field of healthcare and discusses its implications.

  19. [Actual and perspective activities of the European Union concerning protection against noise].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, S; Sułkowski, W

    1997-01-01

    In most industrialised countries exposure to noise is one of major health problems which, because of its social and economic dimension has been given priority in the area of preventive activities. It is estimated that only in Europe about 25-30 million people are employed in conditions under exposure to noise at excessive levels, harmful to the hearing organ, generating the risk of hearing loss (disability), and in consequence limiting the possibility of active life. Acknowledging the significance of the problem and its consequences the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the International (ISA) and European Federation of Audiological Society (EFAS) has developed the programme for the protection against noise. The prime aims of the programme are to establish the cooperation between scientists, health services and technicians in order to promote knowledge and exchange of experience, to improve workers' health, and to identify the biological, neuropsychological and psycho-social effect of noise exposure on the hearing ability. The authors discuss basic objectives and adopted strategies of experimental and clinical studies carried out in countries of the European Union, participating in the implementation of the programme. The WHO guidelines for the reduction in noise exposure in the working, municipal and recreation environments are also presented.

  20. Scientific collaboration between 'old' and 'new' member states: Did joining the European Union make a difference?

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo

    This paper provides new insights on the effects of the enlargement of the European Union (EU) and European integration by investigating the issue of scientific collaboration within the new EU member states vis-à-vis the old EU member states. The question addressed is whether the EU membership following the two enlargement waves 2004 and 2007 has significantly increased the co-publication intensity of the new member states with other member countries. The empirical results based on data collected from the Web of Science database and Difference-in-Difference estimations point towards a conclusion that joining the EU indeed has had an additional positive impact on the co-publication intensity between the new and old member states and, in particular, within the new member states themselves. These results give tentative support for the successfulness of the EU's science policies in achieving a common 'internal market' in research. We also find evidence for early anticipation effects of the consecutive EU accession.

  1. Responsible decision-making for plant research and breeding innovations in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Dennis; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2017-10-09

    Plant research and breeding has made substantial technical progress over the past few decades, indicating a potential for tremendous societal impact. Due to this potential, the development of policies and legislation on plant breeding and the technical progress should preferably involve all relevant stakeholders. However, we argue here that there is a substantial imbalance in the European Union (EU) regarding the influence of the various stakeholder groups on policy makers. We use evidence from three examples in order to show that the role of science is overlooked: 1) important delays in the decision process concerning the authorization of genetically modified (GM) maize events, 2) the significance attributed to non-scientific reasons in new legislation concerning the prohibition of GM events in EU member states, and 3) failure of the European Commission to deliver legal guidance to new plant breeding techniques despite sufficient scientific evidence and advisory reports. We attribute this imbalance to misinformation and misinterpretation of public perceptions and a disproportionate attention to single outlier reports, and we present ideas on how to establish a better stakeholder balance within this field.

  2. Patent protection for stem cell procedures under the law of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Spranger, Tade Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Stem cell research shows an immense diagnostic and therapeutic potential. The procedures based on human stem cells seem to allow new medical treatments for serious diseases like Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease, leukaemia or diabetes. However, as no company or inventor would take the risk of immense investments without an adequate legal protection of the possible benefits arising out of their work, intellectual property law plays a pivotal role for the further development of stem cell techniques. Although international patent law knows protection of inventions using biological substances and living matter for about 160 years, patents on stem cells, DNA and other parts of the human body raise specific objections. Nevertheless, from a strictly legal angle, there are no barriers to patents on stem cell procedures. In particular, Art. 6 of the "Directive 98/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union of July 6, 1998 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions" - which qualifies inventions as unpatentable where their commercial exploitation would be contrary to ordre public or morality - does not hinder patent protection for stem cell research.

  3. Solving employment problems in the European Union: The role of energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, V.

    1998-07-01

    This paper is based on a project funded under the European Commission's SAVE (Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy Efficiency) program. The project is looking at the employment implications of energy efficiency programs, using a large number of case studies throughout the nine European Union (EU) countries participating in the project. Various modeling techniques are being used to investigate policy scenarios. The EU is particularly interested in looking at employment potential of energy efficiency at the present time. Traditionally, jobs in the environmental sector have only been seen as occurring in end-of-pipe type industries, such as pollution control; but a large potential for employment opportunities has now been recognized in the energy efficiency sector. Included in the study will be a detailed discussion of the quality, as well as the quantity, of jobs created, i.e. what skill levels will be required and the types of people who would wish to undertake the work. The qualitative aspect of jobs will be looked at for their suitability for solving EU and country specific problems, such as long term unemployment of unskilled workers. This paper will present some initial results from the study and discuss the issues raised by it and by other recent work in this area. Such issues include not only the types and numbers of jobs directly created through the programs, but also indirect effects on the local, national and international economies. The negative effects, such as the reduced energy usage effect on the supply industry will also be examined.

  4. Re-Processing of Mining Waste: An Alternative Way to Secure Metal Supplies of European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guézennec, Anne-Gwénaelle; Bodénan, Françoise; Bertrand, Guillaume; Fuentes, Annabelle; Bellenfant, Gael; Lemière, Bruno; d'Hugues, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Save, Maurice

    In France, a recently started project handled by the French geological survey (BRGM) is aimed at identifying interesting old mining wastes deposits at the national level and assessing the metal recovery potential of these dumps. By crossing several databases and information from BRGM archives, 95 old mining sites with sizeable tailings dumps were identified. Selection criteria used to draw up this list were chosen mainly on the basis of the "Criticality Report" compiled for the European Commission in 2010, in which 14 mineral raw materials — 12 critical metals- have been explicitly named as highly critical for the industrial development of the European Union. In most of these mines which date back hundreds of years or more, only a single or at best a couple of metals were extracted with processes whose performances were considerably lower than those used today. Knowing the type of ore commodities and the processes characteristics, it has been thus possible to assess the presence of valuable elements for each tailings dump. From this list an Ag-Pb French abandoned mine has then been selected as a case study to evaluate the potential of extraction of metals still remaining in the tailings with special focus on Ag and Sb. A global site characterization methodology is proposed which can be extrapolated to other sites according to key parameters.

  5. The European Union's Adequacy Approach to Privacy and International Data Sharing in Health Research.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, Jennifer; Chan, Benny; Joly, Yann

    2016-03-01

    The European Union (EU) approach to data protection consists of assessing the adequacy of the data protection offered by the laws of a particular jurisdiction against a set of principles that includes purpose limitation, transparency, quality, proportionality, security, access, and rectification. The EU's Data Protection Directive sets conditions on the transfer of data to third countries by prohibiting Member States from transferring to such countries as have been deemed inadequate in terms of the data protection regimes. In theory, each jurisdiction is evaluated similarly and must be found fully compliant with the EU's data protection principles to be considered adequate. In practice, the inconsistency with which these evaluations are made presents a hurdle to international data-sharing and makes difficult the integration of different data-sharing approaches; in the 20 years since the Directive was first adopted, the laws of only five countries from outside of the EU, Economic Area, or the European Free Trade Agreement have been deemed adequate to engage in data transfers without the need for further administrative safeguards.

  6. An overview of Compassionate Use Programs in the European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Morampudi, Suman; Chhabra, Pankdeep; Gowda, Arun; Zomorodi, Behsad

    2016-11-01

    The past decade witnessed rapid development of novel drugs and therapeutic biological agents. The marketing authorization for novel therapies is often time consuming and distressing for patients. Earlier clinical trials were the only way to access new drugs under development. However, not every patient meets the enrolment criteria, and participation is difficult for patients with life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously debilitating diseases like rare diseases. Early access programs like "Compassionate Use Program (CUP)" have generated alternative channels for such patients. The European Medical Agency provides regulations and recommendations for compassionate use, upon which every European Union (EU) member state has developed its own rules and regulations. Despite previous reviews and studies, the available information is limited and gaps exist. This literature review explores CUP in 28 EU member states. Data was collected through literature review and use of country-specific search terms from the healthcare domain. Data sources were not limited to databases and articles published in journals, but also included grey literature. The results implied that CUP was present in 20 EU member states (71%). Of 28 EU states, 18 (∼64%) had nationalized regulations and processes were well-defined. Overall, this review identified CUP and its current status and legislation in 28 EU member states. The established legislation for CUP in the EU member states suggest their willingness to adopt processes that facilitate earlier and better access to new medicines. Further research and periodic reviews are warranted to understand the contemporary and future regulatory trends in early access programs.

  7. Interpretation of aged sorption studies for pesticides and their use in European Union regulatory leaching assessments.

    PubMed

    Beulke, Sabine; van Beinum, Wendy; Suddaby, Laura

    2015-04-01

    First-tier regulatory exposure assessments for pesticides assume that pesticide sorption is instantaneous and fully reversible. In European Union (EU) regulatory guidance, an increase in sorption over time ("aged sorption") can be considered at the higher tier to refine predicted environmental concentrations in groundwater. Research commissioned by the UK Chemicals Regulation Directorate (CRD), funded by the Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), formed the basis of a draft regulatory guidance document proposing 1) a protocol on how to measure aged sorption of parent compounds in laboratory studies, 2) procedures to fit kinetic models to the experimental data, 3) criteria to test the reliability of the parameters, and 4) procedures for use of the parameters in the groundwater exposure assessment. The draft guidance was revised after feedback from stakeholders and testing of the guidance was performed against real data sets by an independent consultancy. The Chemicals Regulation Directorate submitted the revised document to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for scrutiny. This article gives an overview of the draft guidance and explains the reasoning behind the recommendations made.

  8. The syphilis epidemics in Hungary 1985-2004, before entering the European Union.

    PubMed

    Talha, Elyas; Nagy, Károly; Horváth, Attila

    2013-09-01

    In the decade prior to the turn of the millennium, great interest was raised, and rightly so, by the STD (syphilis and HIV/AIDS) epidemic that developed in the Eastern-Central European Region. Its coincidence with the far-reaching political and economic changes that took place at that time suggested a link between the two events.Hungary, where these infections had had low incidence before the period investigated, also experienced an increase in STD incidence. The trend in syphilis infection during the 20 years between 1985-2004, that preceded the turn of the millennium and when finally Hungary joined the European Union, have been analyzed. Due to the nature of venereological epidemiological surveillance in Hungary, syphilis prevalence data are appropriate for further analysis from socio-demographic aspects. Behavioural changes underlying the specific features of the epidemics in Hungary had developed several years earlier and cannot be linked to the political and economic changes that started in the early 90s. The only exception is the phenomenon of growing migration that appeared simultaneously with the political changes and had a decisive impact on the spread and level of infection in some areas in the country. As shown by our data, trends seen in specific demographic groups (females, rural population) preceded the suddenly occurring political changes by about 15 years.

  9. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  10. Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Mingo, Valentin; Lötters, Stefan; Wagner, Norman

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution has an especially high impact on wildlife. This is especially the case in industrialized countries. Although, many species within the European Union benefit from protection by the Habitats Directive, no special consideration is given to possible detrimental effects of pesticides. This is in particular remarkable as negative effects, which may lead to a regional diversity loss, have already been identified in laboratory and mesocosm studies. We conducted a pesticide exposure risk evaluation for all European reptile species with sufficient literature data on the considered biological and ecological aspects and occurrence data within agricultural areas with regular pesticide applications (102 out of 141). By using three evaluation factors - (i) pesticide exposure, (ii) physiology and (iii) life history - a taxon-specific pesticide exposure risk factor (ERF) was created. The results suggest that about half of all evaluated species, and thus at least 1/3 of all European species exhibited a high exposure risk. At the same time, two of them (Mauremys leprosa and Testudo graeca) are globally classified as threatened with extinction in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Variation regarding species occurrence in exposed landscapes between pesticide admission zones within the EU is rather large. This variation is mainly caused by differing land use and species abundances between zones. At the taxonomic level, significant differences in exposure risk can be observed between threatened and non-threatened species, which can be explained by the formers remote distribution areas. Lizards display the highest sensitivity toward pesticides, although no differences in overall ERFs can be observed between taxonomic groups. By identifying species at above-average risk to pesticide exposure, species-based risk evaluations can improve conservation actions for reptiles from cultivated landscapes.

  11. Natural radioactivity in building materials in the European Union: a database and an estimate of radiological significance.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, R; Risica, S; D'Alessandro, M; Paradiso, D; Nuccetelli, C

    2012-02-01

    The authors set up a database of activity concentration measurements of natural radionuclides (²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K) in building material. It contains about 10,000 samples of both bulk material (bricks, concrete, cement, natural- and phosphogypsum, sedimentary and igneous bulk stones) and superficial material (igneous and metamorphic stones) used in the construction industry in most European Union Member States. The database allowed the authors to calculate the activity concentration index I--suggested by a European technical guidance document and recently used as a basis for elaborating the draft Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive--for bricks, concrete and phosphogypsum used in the European Union. Moreover, the percentage could be assessed of materials possibly subject to restrictions, if either of the two dose criteria proposed by the technical guidance were to be adopted.

  12. Product-specific validation of a serological potency test for release of Leptospira vaccines in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera

    2013-09-01

    Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach.

  13. [European Union regulatory and quality requirements for botanical drugs and their implications for Chinese herbal medicinal products development].

    PubMed

    Zhu, You-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces regulatory pathways and characteristic quality requirements for marketing authorization of herbal medicinal products in the European Union(EU), and the legal status and applications of "European Union list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations" and "European Union herbal monographs". Also introduced are Chinese herbs that have been granted the EU list entry, those with EU herbal monographs, and registered EU traditional herbal medicinal products with Chinese herbs as active ingredients. Special attention is paid to the technical details of three authorized EU herbal medicinal products (Veregen, Sativex and Episalvan) in comparison with Andrographis paniculata extract HMPL-004 that failed the phase Ⅲ clinical trial for ulcerative colitis. The paper further emphasizes the importance of enriching active fractions of herbal extracts and taking regulatory and quality considerations into account in early stage of botanical drug development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases: three productive years at the service of the rare disease community.

    PubMed

    Aymé, Ségolène; Rodwell, Charlotte

    2014-02-28

    The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases was entrusted with aiding the European Commission in a number of tasks, ranging from the monitoring of initiatives, to recommending improvements and actions to be pursued in the future, in addition to helping strengthen liaison at both European and International levels in the field of rare diseases. The three-year mandate of the EUCERD drew to a close in July 2013 with an impressive record. The EUCERD has laid down the foundations for future work so as to continue to advance in the key areas that have been identified as of interest for the rare disease community at large: centres of expertise, European Reference Networks, patient registries and databases, newborn screening, and indicators for national rare disease plans/strategies. The work of the Committee should now be continued by the newly formed European Commission Expert Group on Rare Diseases.

  15. European perspective of ecosystem services and related policies.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Martha Bonnet; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we focus on the importance of terrestrial ecosystems and the services they provide. European Union policies, contributing to the conservation and maintenance of ecosystem services in Europe are discussed and their current impacts briefly reviewed in the light of the main challenges that European ecosystems might face in the near future.

  16. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  17. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  18. New modes of regulation for health and safety: post-enlargement policy perspectives for the European Union.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The recent joining of ten new member states to the European Union, eight of which are former communist countries, has reopened inherent tensions in current European Union (EU) policy-making on safety and health in the workplace. These spring from seemingly incompatible objectives; the need to ensure broad EU member state compliance with regulation, around agreed minimum standards through active regulatory enforcement, and the promotion of "softer" voluntary initiatives in the management of workplace risks and hazards in order to create "a culture of prevention." The present EU strategy which ends in 2006, seeks to secure a balance between both sets of objectives. However, with respect to the post-communist new member states of Central and Eastern Europe, the appropriateness of the current strategy is doubtful. This article therefore focuses on the implications of the expansion of the European Union in May 2004 in the context of the elaboration of the new "soft law" modes of regulatory governance at the EU level. In turn, this provokes the question: will the "new" European policy for occupational health and safety from 2007 onwards, be "new," or simply more of the same? If the latter, it is suggested that the future for working environment standards in Europe as a whole may be significantly compromised.

  19. Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 1995, approval for many new medicinal products has been obtained through a centralized procedure in the European Union. In recent years, the use of summary measures of population health has become widespread. We investigated whether efforts to develop innovative medicines are focusing on the most relevant conditions from a global public health perspective. Methods We reviewed the information on new medicinal products approved by centralized procedure from 1995 to 2009, information that is available to the public in the European Commission Register of medicinal products and the European Public Assessment Reports from the European Medicines Agency. Morbidity and mortality data were included for each disease group, according to the Global Burden of Disease project. We evaluated the association between authorized medicinal products and burden of disease measures based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the European Union and worldwide. Results We considered 520 marketing authorizations for medicinal products and 338 active ingredients. New authorizations were seen to increase over the period analyzed. There was a positive, high correlation between DALYs and new medicinal product development (ρ = 0.619, p = 0.005) in the European Union, and a moderate correlation for middle-low-income countries (ρ = 0.497, p = 0.030) and worldwide (ρ = 0.490, p = 0.033). The most neglected conditions at the European level (based on their attributable health losses) were neuropsychiatric diseases, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, sense organ conditions, and digestive diseases, while globally, they were perinatal conditions, respiratory infections, sense organ conditions, respiratory diseases, and digestive diseases. Conclusions We find that the development of new medicinal products is higher for some diseases than others. Pharmaceutical industry leaders and policymakers are invited to consider the implications of this imbalance by establishing

  20. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    PubMed

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders in active union carpenters

    PubMed Central

    Lemasters, G. K.; Atterbury, M. R.; Booth-Jones, A. D.; Bhattacharya, A.; Ollila-Glenn, N.; Forrester, C.; Forst, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for work related musculoskeletal disorders among union carpenters. METHODS: A detailed questionnaire on musculoskeletal symptoms and work history was administered to 522 carpenters. The symptom questions assessed if carpenters experienced pain, numbness, or tingling in a particular body region. A subset of this group then received a physical examination of the upper extremities and knees. RESULTS: The study group was primarily white (94.9%) and male (97.8%) with a mean age of 42.3 years. The highest prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders cases by carpentry specialty ranged from 20%-24% for those doing drywall or ceiling, finishing or framing, and the building of concrete forms. Generally, as duration of employment increased, the prevalence of symptoms increased. An adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that the group with the longest (> or = 20 years) duration of employment in carpentry was significantly associated with work related musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulders (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 8.9), hands or wrists (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 8.4), and knees (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 9.2). Also, analyses showed that carpenters who reported that they had little or no influence over their work schedule had significant increases of work related musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulders, hips, and knees with ORs of 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2), 2.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 7.2), and 2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.1), respectively. Feeling exhausted at the end of day was also a significant risk factor for work related musculoskeletal disorders of the knee (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.1). Upper extremity disorders were the most prevalent work related musculoskeletal disorders reported among all carpenters. Drywall or ceiling activities involve a considerable amount of repetitive motion and awkward postures often with arms raised holding heavy dry walls in place, whereas form work is

  2. On the road towards better health gain through co-operation in the European Union?

    PubMed

    Schutyser, K

    1999-01-01

    Explained are some 4 paradoxes, amongst many others, in healthcare and hospital policy and the turbulent "changes" and so-called changes they are going through all over Europe:--change vs being changed?--cost vs investment?--compete vs co-operate?--patients vs healthcare workers? There is certainly not yet a politically explicit option for a comprehensive European (Union) healthcare system. The national governments explicitly want to keep their part of the social organisation of society in their own hands. But at the same time the EU is active in the healthcare field when exercising its (reduced) competencies in public health and in data comparison as well as when acting in its very broad domains of the internal market. The informative and benchmarking role of the EU is immense and it has huge means to stimulate European networks and scientific research even in healthcare systems and policymaking. A strong message here is certainly to correctly invest in real health gain for patients and society through co-operation and networking among the many stakeholders in health and healthcare. The challenge for the future, for the numerous actors on the very slippery slope of health is to keep upright as moderate consumers, producers and rulers. This appeal to moderation, i.e. to prevention of exaggeration, which comes down to an attitude of subsidiarity, is a general conclusion, which may seem idealistic. However, one can qualify it also as "2000 realism" which our western social healthcare systems need for surviving, as they will have to see to a more solidarity-based coverage of health risks instead of reserving healthcare to the rich, and as they will have to open their social quality systems even more throughout the world.

  3. Comparative development of knowledge-based bioeconomy in the European Union and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celikkanat Ozan, Didem; Baran, Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Biotechnology, defined as the technological application that uses biological systems and living organisms, or their derivatives, to create or modify diverse products or processes, is widely used for healthcare, agricultural and environmental applications. The continuity in industrial applications of biotechnology enables the rise and development of the bioeconomy concept. Bioeconomy, including all applications of biotechnology, is defined as translation of knowledge received from life sciences into new, sustainable, environment friendly and competitive products. With the advanced research and eco-efficient processes in the scope of bioeconomy, more healthy and sustainable life is promised. Knowledge-based bioeconomy with its economic, social and environmental potential has already been brought to the research agendas of European Union (EU) countries. The aim of this study is to summarize the development of knowledge-based bioeconomy in EU countries and to evaluate Turkey's current situation compared to them. EU-funded biotechnology research projects under FP6 and FP7 and nationally-funded biotechnology projects under The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Academic Research Funding Program Directorate (ARDEB) and Technology and Innovation Funding Programs Directorate (TEYDEB) were examined. In the context of this study, the main research areas and subfields which have been funded, the budget spent and the number of projects funded since 2003 both nationally and EU-wide and the gaps and overlapping topics were analyzed. In consideration of the results, detailed suggestions for Turkey have been proposed. The research results are expected to be used as a roadmap for coordinating the stakeholders of bioeconomy and integrating Turkish Research Areas into European Research Areas.

  4. A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment for Salmonella in Pigs for the European Union.

    PubMed

    Snary, Emma L; Swart, Arno N; Simons, Robin R L; Domingues, Ana Rita Calado; Vigre, Hakan; Evers, Eric G; Hald, Tine; Hill, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    A farm-to-consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs in the European Union has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of hypothetical reductions of slaughter-pig prevalence and the impact of control measures on the risk of human Salmonella infection. A key consideration during the QMRA development was the characterization of variability between E.U. Member States (MSs), and therefore a generic MS model was developed that accounts for differences in pig production, slaughterhouse practices, and consumption patterns. To demonstrate the parameterization of the model, four case study MSs were selected that illustrate the variability in production of pork meat and products across MSs. For the case study MSs the average probability of illness was estimated to be between 1 in 100,000 and 1 in 10 million servings given consumption of one of the three product types considered (pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready-to-eat sausages). Further analyses of the farm-to-consumption QMRA suggest that the vast majority of human risk derives from infected pigs with a high concentration of Salmonella in their feces (≥10(4) CFU/g). Therefore, it is concluded that interventions should be focused on either decreasing the level of Salmonella in the feces of infected pigs, the introduction of a control step at the abattoir to reduce the transfer of feces to the exterior of the pig, or a control step to reduce the level of Salmonella on the carcass post-evisceration. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  6. Ranking of Palliative Care Development in the Countries of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Woitha, Kathrin; Garralda, Eduardo; Martin-Moreno, Jose María; Clark, David; Centeno, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in monitoring palliative care (PC) development internationally. One aspect of this is the ranking of such development for comparative purposes. To generate a ranking classification and to compare scores for PC development in the countries of the European Union, 2007 and 2013. PC "development" in this study is understood as a combination of the existence of relevant services in a country ("resources") plus the capacity to develop further resources in the future ("vitality"). "Resources" comprise indicators of three types of PC services per population (inpatient palliative care units and inpatient hospices, hospital support teams, and home care teams). "Vitality" of PC is estimated by numerical scores for the existence of a national association, a directory of services, physician accreditation, attendances at a key European conference and volume of publications on PC development. The leading country (by raw score) is then considered as the reference point against which all other countries are measured. Different weightings are applied to resources (75%) and vitality (25%). From this, an overall ranking is constructed. The U.K. achieved the highest level of development (86% of the maximum possible score), followed by Belgium and overall The Netherlands (81%), and Sweden (80%). In the resources domain, Luxembourg, the U.K., and Belgium were leading. The top countries in vitality were Germany and the U.K. In comparison to 2007, The Netherlands, Malta, and Portugal showed the biggest improvements, whereas the positions of Spain, France, and Greece deteriorated. The ranking method permitted a comparison of palliative care development between countries and shows changes over time. Recommendations for improving the ranking include improvements to the methodology and greater explanation of the levels and changes it reveals. Copyright © 2016 Universidad Navarra. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An overview of Compassionate Use Programs in the European Union member states

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Morampudi, Suman; Chhabra, Pankdeep; Gowda, Arun; Zomorodi, Behsad

    2016-01-01

    Summary The past decade witnessed rapid development of novel drugs and therapeutic biological agents. The marketing authorization for novel therapies is often time consuming and distressing for patients. Earlier clinical trials were the only way to access new drugs under development. However, not every patient meets the enrolment criteria, and participation is difficult for patients with life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously debilitating diseases like rare diseases. Early access programs like “Compassionate Use Program (CUP)” have generated alternative channels for such patients. The European Medical Agency provides regulations and recommendations for compassionate use, upon which every European Union (EU) member state has developed its own rules and regulations. Despite previous reviews and studies, the available information is limited and gaps exist. This literature review explores CUP in 28 EU member states. Data was collected through literature review and use of country-specific search terms from the healthcare domain. Data sources were not limited to databases and articles published in journals, but also included grey literature. The results implied that CUP was present in 20 EU member states (71%). Of 28 EU states, 18 (∼64%) had nationalized regulations and processes were well-defined. Overall, this review identified CUP and its current status and legislation in 28 EU member states. The established legislation for CUP in the EU member states suggest their willingness to adopt processes that facilitate earlier and better access to new medicines. Further research and periodic reviews are warranted to understand the contemporary and future regulatory trends in early access programs. PMID:27904819

  8. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  9. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-06-08

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  10. Inventory study of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is not notifiable in most European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries, the epidemiological situation of the >150 NTM species is largely unknown. We aimed to collect data on the frequency of NTM detection and NTM species types in EU/EEA countries. Methods Officially nominated national tuberculosis reference laboratories of all EU/EEA countries were asked to provide information on: laboratory routines for detection and identification of NTM, including drug sensitivity testing (DST) methods; data on the number and type of NTM species identified; coverage and completeness of the provided data on NTM; type and number of human specimens tested for NTM; and number of specimens tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and NTM. This information was summarized and the main results are described. Results In total, 99 different NTM species were identified with M. avium, M. gordonae, M. xenopi , M. intracellulare, and M. fortuitum identified most frequently. Seven percent of the NTM species could not be identified. NTM was cultured from between 0.4-2.0% of the specimens (data from four countries). The laboratories use culturing methods optimised for M. tuberculosis complex. Identification is mainly carried out by a commercial line probe assay supplemented with sequencing. Most laboratories carried out DST for rapid growers and only at the explicit clinical request for slow growers. Conclusion It is likely that the prevalence of NTM is underestimated because diagnostic procedures are not optimized specifically for NTM and isolates may not be referred to the national reference laboratory for identification. Due to the diagnostic challenges and the need to establish the clinical relevance of NTM, we recommend that countries should concentrate detection and identification in only few laboratories. PMID:24502462

  11. Stages of dietary change among nationally-representative samples of adults in the European Union.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, C; Van der Gaag, M; Kafatos, A; Lennernas, M; Kearney, J M

    1997-06-01

    To investigate the distribution across the different stages of change for each of the 15 participating European countries, and the effect of socio-demographic variables such as sex and education on this distribution. Also to assess the relationships between stages of change and influences of food choice, and other variables. A cross-sectional study in which quota-controlled, nationally-representative samples of approximately 1000 adults from each country completed a face-to-face interview-assisted questionnaire. The survey was conducted between October 1995 and February 1996 in the 15 member states of the European Union. 14331 subjects (aged 15 y upwards) completed the questionnaire. Data were weighted by population size for each country and by sex, age and regional distribution within each member state. Subjects were divided into five different categories according to their attitudes towards 'changing their eating habits in order to eat healthier': (1) Precontemplation; do not consider any changes, (2) Contemplation; consider changes, (3) Decision; make plans to change, (4) Action; carry out the changes, and (5) Maintenance; maintained changes for more than six months. 52% of the subjects were in the precontemplation stage, whereas 31% of the subjects were in the maintenance stage. Two, one, and seven percent of subjects were in the contemplation, decision and action stage, respectively. In the Mediterranean countries, and in Germany, there were more people (55-64%) in the precontemplation stage, whereas in the Scandinavian countries there were less people in precontemplation stage (20-38%). The opposite was true for the maintenance stage, whereas women and people with a higher education level tended to be more in the maintenance stage. With respect to influence on food choice, subjects in precontemplation stage found that taste was more important, whereas people in maintenance stage found that health was more important. The stages of change model makes a useful

  12. [The use of nanotechnology in medicinal products in the light of European Union law].

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Margin

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of EU regulations in relation to nanotechnology, according to the European Commission's Communication "Regulatory aspects of nanomaterials", is to allow the public to use innovative applications of nanotechnology while ensuring a high level of safety, health care and environmental protection. This article characterizes and comments on EU legislation in respect of medicinal products containing nanomaterials. Medicinal products manufactured using nanotechnology are subject to the optional centralized authorization procedure by the European Commission authorizations for the placing on the market throughout the EU; advanced therapy medicinal products containing nanomaterials are covered by the mandatory centralized procedure. Evaluation of medicines in centralized authorization mode for the marketing of medicinal products, including those containing nanomaterials, is carried out by the Committee on Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) subject to the European Medicines Agency (EMA).

  13. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed.

  14. Developing and testing of search filters for the new European Union Member States' research.

    PubMed

    Radut, Dan Silviu; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2010-09-01

    To develop and apply search filters retrieving the scientific output (SO) after 2000 focusing on Public Health (PH) of the new European Union (EU) Member States after the 2004 and 2007 enlargements. Twelve geographical filters (GFs) were designed and applied to retrieve references added since 2001 in Medline (accessed through PubMed) and originated in the new EU countries. The PH area was accessed using Medical Subject Heading terms. The filters were evaluated through a manual check and the agreement/non-agreement percentages were calculated. A number of 99 912 articles revealing the total SO and 6502 articles focusing on PH were retrieved. More than 66% were published abroad and more than 80% in English. The evaluation revealed an average agreement percentage of 98.97%. The results were compared with those obtained by using simple search strategies. Twelve GFs applied to medline retrieved references belonging to twelve countries for a specific period of time. The evaluation of the GFs through the manual check demonstrated effectiveness of these filters. Complementary studies would be advisable to focus on the development of search filters to retrieve complete and accurate information.

  15. Spectroscopy applied to feed additives of the European Union Reference Laboratory: a valuable tool for traceability.

    PubMed

    Omar, Jone; Slowikowski, Boleslaw; Boix, Ana; von Holst, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Feed additives need to be authorised to be placed on the market according to Regulation (EU) No. 1831/2003. Next to laying down the procedural requirements, the regulation creates the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL-FA) and requires that applicants send samples to the EURL-FA. Once authorised, the characteristics of the marketed feed additives should correspond to those deposited in the sample bank of the EURL-FA. For this purpose, the submitted samples were subjected to near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy for spectral characterisation. These techniques have the valuable potential of characterising the feed additives in a non-destructive manner without any complicated sample preparation. This paper describes the capability of spectroscopy for a rapid characterisation of products to establish whether specific authorisation criteria are met. This study is based on the analysis of feed additive samples from different categories and functional groups, namely products containing (1) selenium, (2) zinc and manganese, (3) vitamins and (4) essential oils such as oregano and thyme oil. The use of chemometrics turned out to be crucial, especially in cases where the differentiation of spectra by visual inspection was very difficult.

  16. Future Intelligent Power Grids: Analysis of the vision in the European Union and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Coll-Mayor, Debora; Paget, Mia L.; Lightner, Eric M.

    2007-04-01

    The future of power grids is expected to involve an increasing level of intelligence and integration of new information and communication technologies in every aspect of the electricity system, from demand-side devices to wide-scale distributed generation to a variety of energy markets. This paper provides a general outlook of the definition of this future in the U.S. and the European Union and compares two approaches—GridWiseTM and SmartGrid. It describes the contexts in both the worlds, as they influence the two visions of the future intelligent power grid, and as they form foundations at each respective federal level for supporting research in this field. The similarities and complementarities of the two research programs are examined. Within the framework of a solid precedence for trans-Atlantic cooperation in energy research, the time would seem optimal to set in motion active collaboration and educational exchange on GridWise and SmartGrid research. This paper will help energy policy makers to better understand the key issues determining the two different approaches and the two different policies derived from them; as well as a comparison of the solution provided in each case. This work will also be useful for researchers and industry decision makers to be aware of trans-Atlantic approaches, opportunities, and resources looking toward future, more intelligent and interconnected power grids.

  17. The European Union CREATE project: a model for international standardization of allergy diagnostics and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Martin D; Ferreira, Fatima; Villalba, Mayte; Cromwell, Oliver; Bryan, Donna; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Durham, Stephen; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald

    2008-11-01

    Allergen measurements are used extensively in the formulation of allergy diagnostics and vaccines, yet no purified international allergen standards are available for calibration purposes. The aims of the European Union CREATE project were to develop international standards with verifiable allergen content. Purified natural and recombinant allergens were analyzed by means of SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectra, and small-angle x-ray scattering. IgE reactivity was assessed by means of direct RAST, RAST inhibition, immunoblotting, and basophil histamine release with sera from 961 allergic patients. Three recombinant allergens, rBet v 1, rPhl p 5a, and rDer p 2, were structurally indistinguishable from their natural counterparts and showed excellent IgE reactivity suitable for use as certified reference materials. A second tier of allergens (rPhl p 5b, rOle e1, rDer p 1, rDer f 1, and rDer f 2) was identified that could provide suitable candidates for certified reference materials with minor improvements to the recombinant proteins. Only rPhl p 1 was considered unsuitable as a reference material. Quantitative ELISAs were identified that accurately measured each allergen, except for rPhl p 1. The CREATE project has provided a major step forward in allergen standardization and provides a model for the development of a comprehensive panel of international reference preparations that will harmonize allergen measurements worldwide.

  18. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets.

  19. The governments' doctors: the roles and responsibilities of chief medical officers in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Elke; Martin-Moreno, José M; McKee, Martin

    2010-12-01

    The regular meetings of the chief medical officers (CMOs) from the European Union's (EU's) 27 Member States provide an important forum to address issues of common interest affecting Europe's populations. Yet there is no universally agreed role for a CMO. This article describes the findings of a study, based on interviews with key informants and documentary analysis that sought to describe their diverse roles. For the purpose of this article, CMOs are defined as those sent by their governments to the regular EU meetings of CMOs. Four broad categories of countries were identified: those whose CMO is the most senior doctor in the health ministry, in some cases with responsibility spanning all of government; where they are head of a division within the health ministry; head of a separate body such as a national board of health; and countries where no single individual can be identified. Although the diversity of health systems means that these roles cannot be harmonised, there is scope to explore what can be learnt from the different approaches.

  20. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension.

  1. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  2. Health professional mobility in the European Union: Exploring the equity and efficiency of free movement.

    PubMed

    Glinos, Irene A

    2015-12-01

    The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is a landmark in the health workforce migration debate. Yet its principles apply only partly within the European Union (EU) where freedom of movement prevails. The purpose of this article is to explore whether free mobility of health professionals contributes to "equitably strengthen health systems" in the EU. The article proposes an analytical tool (matrix), which looks at the effects of health professional mobility in terms of efficiency and equity implications at three levels: for the EU, for destination countries and for source countries. The findings show that destinations as well as sources experience positive and negative effects, and that the effects of mobility are complex because they change, overlap and are hard to pin down. The analysis suggests that there is a risk that free health workforce mobility disproportionally benefits wealthier Member States at the expense of less advantaged EU Member States, and that mobility may feed disparities as flows redistribute resources from poorer to wealthier EU countries. The article argues that the principles put forward by the WHO Code appear to be as relevant within the EU as they are globally. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Assessing the Risk of African Swine Fever Introduction into the European Union by Wild Boar.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, A; Bosch, J; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B; Martínez, M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-06-01

    The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF.

  4. Adoption of European Union's IPPC Directive to a textile mill: analysis of water and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Kocabas, A Merve; Yukseler, Hande; Dilek, Filiz B; Yetis, Ulku

    2009-10-01

    The present study was undertaken as part of the first application and evaluation of the BREF (Best Available Techniques; BAT Reference Document) Textile Document within the context of the European Union's Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive to a large scale textile mill in Turkey. The BAT requirements for the denim manufacturing textile mill were selected in cooperation with the factory management. Detailed mass balance calculations were conducted to evaluate the overall effect of the selected BAT options. The initial findings indicated that the adoption of the selected BAT options resulted in considerable savings in water and energy consumption in the mill. Besides the installation of flow meters and use of semi-counter current rinsing in the most water-intensive processes, minimization of wash waters in the water softening plant, reuse of the concentrate stream from the reverse osmosis plant and compressor cooling waters provided a 29.5% reduction in the total specific water consumption of the mill, reaching the lower limits suggested by the BREF Textile Document. In terms of energy consumption, use of waste heat from finishing wastewater streams in heating up the wash waters, heat insulation and maintenance applications in addition to BAT measures taken for water minimization reduced specific energy consumption by 9% achieving the limits set by the BREF Textile Document.

  5. Salmonella in the pork production chain and its impact on human health in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, S

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella spp. comprise the second most common food-borne pathogens in the European Union (EU). The role of pigs as carriers of Salmonella has been intensively studied both on farm and at slaughter. Salmonella infection in pigs may cause fever, diarrhoea, prostration and mortality. However, most infected pigs remain healthy carriers, and those infected at the end of the fattening period could pose a threat to human health. Contamination of pig carcasses can occur on the slaughter line, and it is linked to cross-contamination from other carcasses and the presence of Salmonella in the environment. Therefore, Salmonella serovars present on pig carcasses can be different from those detected in the same bathes on the farm. In recent years, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby and S. serotype 4,[5],12:i:- (a monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium) have been the most common serovars to be detected in pigs in EU countries, but S. Rissen, S. Infantis, S. Enteritidis and S. Brandenburg have also been reported. In humans, several cases of salmonellosis have been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and pork products. Among the main serovars of porcine origin detected in confirmed human cases, S. Typhimurium, the monophasic variant S. 4,[5],12:i:- and S. Derby are certainly the most important.

  6. Genetically modified organisms: an analysis of the regulatory framework currently employed within the European Union.

    PubMed

    Gent, R N

    1999-09-01

    Genetic engineering technology is starting to bring many commercial products to the market. These genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their derived products are subject to topical debate as to their benefits and risks. The strengths and weaknesses of the regulatory framework that controls their development and application is central to the question of whether this technology poses significant risk to the public health during this critical phase of its evolution. A critical review was carried out of the legal framework regulating the contained use, deliberate release and some aspects of consumer protection relevant to the control of GMOs in Europe and the United Kingdom. The current legal framework is failing to provide a speed of adaptation commensurate with the development of the science of genetic engineering; failing to properly respond to democratic control; failing to resolve significant conflict between the protection of free markets and protection of public health and the environment; and failing to implement obligations on biodiversity. The present legal framework must be replaced. Current European Union proposals for new standards of regulation are welcome, but provide only for further incremental change, and do not address some significant fundamental flaws in our current laws.

  7. [Comparative analysis of Brazil, Mercosul, Great Britain and European Union of food labeling legislation].

    PubMed

    Celeste, R K

    2001-06-01

    To analyze the Brazilian/Mercosul and the British/European Union food labeling legislation. The analysis was carried out using a set of 19 questions considered important to describe and compare the different sets of legislation. The results showed that all sets of legislation were very similar. Regarding health claims, the legislation differentiates content from effect claims. However, it is shown to be difficult to do so because both of them express the same message, that a product is good for the health. Concerning nutrition label, the problem is that in all sets of legislation it is only compulsory when a health claim is made. Another problem is that the nutritional description is required to be by weight, while international nutritional recommendations are made as percentage of energy. Health claims should not be allowed, they are potentially misleading and do not convey more information than nutrition label. Nutrition label should be compulsory, and the macronutrients presented as percentage of energy together with the international nutritional recommendations.

  8. Occupational versus environmental and lifestyle exposures of children and adolescents in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-02-28

    There is recent international concern about specific exposures of children and adolescents to toxicants. In general, the situation within the European Union appears as follows. (i) OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE: Due to regulatory measures, there are almost no toxicologically significant occupational exposure situations of children to chemical toxicants. This contrasts to the situation in developing countries. There is also strict regulation of occupational exposure of adolescents (aged under 18). In consequence, the number of potentially exposed adolescents has been minimised. (ii) ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE: Specific concern is directed towards exposures of infants, especially to neurotoxic heavy metals and carcinogens, and there is much regional differentiation of environmental exposures. (iii) FOOD: Recent research results are indicative of the general progress made in the field of food safety. (iv) INCIDENTAL ACUTE EXPOSURE: Besides drugs, household chemicals are a source of incidental acute intoxications in children. In Germany, there has been a particular focus on ingestion of lamp petroleum oils since 1989. (v) Paramount problems are associated with increasing consumption of tobacco (mean age of starting smoking in Germany: 13.6 years), alcohol (percentage of addicts at ages 12-24 in Germany 6%) and cannabis among adolescents, calling for new ways of risk communication. In general, it will be necessary to consider children of different ages as separate risk groups.

  9. Herbal medicines: challenges in the modern world. Part 2. European Union and Russia.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Helen M; Gubarev, Michael I; Krepkova, Lubov V; Bortnikova, Valentina V; Corrick, Fenella; Job, Kathleen M; Sherwin, Catherine Mt; Enioutina, Elena Y

    2016-08-01

    Herbal medicines (HMs) have been well known to people of the European Union (EU) and Russia for centuries. Currently, Western HMs can be classified into two categories, plant-derived conventional medicines and dietary supplements. Interest to HMs has grown rapidly in all countries during the past two decades. The main goal of this review article is to present the history of HMs in the EU and Russia, forms of modern HMs, including Oriental Medicines that are popular among consumers of both countries. Additional discussion points comprise safety and adulteration issues associated with HMs, including regulatory changes and new legislative measures undertaken by the authorities. Materials available from legislative and governmental websites, PubMed and news media were used. Expert commentary: Due to cultural diversities in the EU and Russia, traditional HMs of other regions, particularly Chinese Traditional and Ayurvedic medicines, are also popular. Recently, dietary supplements containing multiple herbal and other natural products have flooded the EU and Russian markets. Pharmacovigilance in these markets is challenging in terms of establishing quality and safety of ingredients, determining efficacy, and defining risks of herb-herb and herb-drug interactions. Both the EU and Russia have introduced new legislation aimed to overcome these deficiencies.

  10. Comparison of amount of biomedical research originating from the European Union and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine and compare the research productivity of the European Union, the four “candidate” countries (those currently waiting to join the EU), and the United States in several fields of biomedical sciences. Design A retrospective observational study—bibliometric analysis. Data sources Manuscripts published by authors from each country separately and from each group of countries for the period 1994 to 2004 and included in the Essential Science Indicators database of the Institute of Scientific Information. Main outcome measures Number of published articles and number of citations, adjusted for gross domestic product and population size. Results 1 485 749 articles were published by authors from the EU compared with 1 356 805 from the US. The research productivity of the first 15 countries to join the EU, adjusted for population, was lower (76%) than that of the US—and even lower (66%) when the 10 newest EU countries were included in the analysis. Conclusion The newest EU members and the EU candidate countries need further help and resources to increase their productivity, thereby improving the productivity of the EU as a whole. PMID:16037452

  11. Comparison of amount of biomedical research originating from the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-07-23

    To examine and compare the research productivity of the European Union, the four "candidate" countries (those currently waiting to join the EU), and the United States in several fields of biomedical sciences. A retrospective observational study-bibliometric analysis. Manuscripts published by authors from each country separately and from each group of countries for the period 1994 to 2004 and included in the Essential Science Indicators database of the Institute of Scientific Information. Number of published articles and number of citations, adjusted for gross domestic product and population size. 1,485,749 articles were published by authors from the EU compared with 1,356,805 from the US. The research productivity of the first 15 countries to join the EU, adjusted for population, was lower (76%) than that of the US-and even lower (66%) when the 10 newest EU countries were included in the analysis. The newest EU members and the EU candidate countries need further help and resources to increase their productivity, thereby improving the productivity of the EU as a whole.

  12. Complementary tools for the control and eradication of caprine and ovine brucellosis in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Crespo León, F; Sáez Llorente, J L; Reviriego Gordejo, F J; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Durán Ferrer, M

    2012-12-01

    Caprine and ovine brucellosis is one of the most serious and complex animal health problems faced by Veterinary Services in countries where the disease is endemic. Various geographical factors and the nature of the disease itself influence its epidemiology, encouraging widespread distribution and, at the same time, impeding the ability of animal health programmes to prevent, control and eradicate it. Although strategies against brucellosis have traditionally been based on two specific tools (namely, vaccination of the at-risk population and testing and slaughter of animals which are suspected of or test positive for the disease), other complementary tools of a technical or administrative nature should also be considered. Experience in the European Union has shown that these tools are necessary to guarantee sustainable progress and success against this disease. However, these complementary tools have not always received sufficient attention during the strategic planning and subsequent implementation of animal health programmes, with consequent reductions in efficiency. The aim of this article is to review these complementary tools, in order to facilitate their adoption and use by official Veterinary Services, according to the resources available.

  13. Is there still a problem with lead in drinking water in the European Union?

    PubMed

    Hayes, C R; Skubala, N D

    2009-12-01

    The presence of lead in drinking water poses a range of risks to human health, including the retardation of some aspects of child development, the inducement of abortion, and other clinical disorders. The extent of these risks has not been quantified at the European Union (EU) scale. A number of sampling methods are in use across the EU, some of which are inadequate for determining the concentrations of lead in drinking water at consumers' taps. In consequence, non-compliance with the EU standards for lead in drinking water has been under-estimated. Emerging data indicates significant non-compliance with these standards in some countries, particularly with the 10 microg(-1) standard that will become a legal requirement in 2013; the current interim standard of 25 microg l(-1) is also exceeded in some locations. An initial estimate is that 25% of domestic dwellings in the EU have a lead pipe, either as a connection to the water main, or as part of the internal plumbing, or both, potentially putting 120 million people at risk from lead in drinking water within the EU. These issues are relevant to the implementation of the Protocol on Water and Health and to drinking water safety planning.

  14. Law's performativities: shaping the emergence of regenerative medicine through European Union legislation.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Alex

    2012-10-01

    The paper undertakes a textual and documentary analysis of the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products Regulation, which was passed into law in the European Union (EU) in 2007. This law is significant for the development of regenerative medicine in the EU and globally. Regulatory texts such as this one provide significant material for addressing key concerns in recent theorising about innovative technologies in socio-legal studies, innovation studies, and science and technology studies. These concerns include expectations about future technologies and economic sector-building. By revisiting philosopher J.L. Austin's well-known work on How to Do Things with Words, this paper deploys his concepts of performative utterances to inform its analysis. Pursuing Austin's and later commentators' analysis of performatives in language use, and drawing on Lindsay Prior's application of actor-network theory to documents, the analysis shows two different types of performativity at work in and through the document. These are termed 'generative' and 'enactive' performativity. The 'enactive' type includes 'legislative' and 'social' forms. In addition, a more conventional content analysis reveals a range of actions, both legislative and discursive, in the regulatory document. The analysis shows a tension between standardisation and imprecision in the conceptual detailing of the document. Legislative texts produced through established politico-legal conventions are a special class of document that should be accorded a more prominent place in understanding the role of political governance processes in shaping emergent technoscientific fields and sectors.

  15. Regulatory and associated political issues with respect to Bt transgenic maize in the European union.

    PubMed

    Saeglitz, Christiane; Bartsch, Detlef

    2003-06-01

    Legislation at the national level in Europe as well as that developed by the European Union (EU) generally permits release and commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, only 10 plant/event combinations were registered as of 2002: three maize events (Bt176, Mon810, and Bt11), with the other seven divided among carnation (3), oil-seed rape (2), tobacco (1), and raddiccio (1). Of these, only one maize event (Bt176) has been registered as a legal variety, and this was in Spain, where 22,000ha have been planted annually since 1998. In this paper, we first provide an overview on the complexity of EU GMO legislation. Then we discuss the minor role that results of EU-funded biosafety research have had on governmental policy. Finally, we provide information about initiatives for post-commercialization monitoring plans of Bt maize in Europe. As a result of the slow progress to date, we conclude that commercialization of GMOs will be seriously delayed in the EU for the next several years.

  16. Toward a nontoxic poison: current trends in (European Union) biocides regulation.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, Elina; Nordström, Katrina

    2008-10-01

    The number of products containing biocides is increasing at the same time as the number of available biocides is decreasing. Biocides are biologically active chemicals with a vast area of applications where demands for maintaining product quality by use of biocides presents a major challenge for developers striving to meet emerging environmental concerns and fulfilling criteria for eco-labeled consumer products. Tightening regulations have, however, led to stagnation in the current development of new biocide chemistries, and the "nontoxic poison" has yet to be formulated. Accordingly, the present article presents a critical overview of European Union regulation of biocides and their usage and of some of the future challenges for meeting demands for environmentally safe products and processes in which biocides are used. The Biocidal Product Directive, which is presently implemented, is one focus in the present article. Regulations of environmental, health, and safety (EHS) risk classifications and their role in the future development of biocide-containing products are also discussed. Studying the biocide dilemma may provide tools for the chemical industry as whole for proactive anticipation of the effect of emerging regulatory demands on product development.

  17. Viral infections transmitted by food of animal origin: the present situation in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stolle, A; Sperner, B

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this presentation was to clarify which foods are involved in viral diseases, which viruses are transmitted via food and how to evaluate the risk of a foodborne viral infection. Food items frequently identified as cause of viral disease outbreaks were shellfish harvested in sewage-contaminated water. Another common source of foodborne viral illness was cold food contaminated by infected food handlers. In the European Union the viruses most frequently associated with foodborne illness were hepatitis A virus and the SRSV's. A few isolated cases of foodborne hepatitis E were reported in Mediterranean countries. Compared to other foodborne diseases, those caused by viruses are less severe and seldom fatal. This might be a reason why the problem of viral contamination of food has been neglected. Yet, because many foodborne viral diseases are not recognized either as foodborne or as caused by viruses, the actual number of cases must be assumed to be significantly higher than the reported number. Consequently, food associated diseases of viral origin should be granted more attention.

  18. Synthetic biology regulation and governance: Lessons from TAPIC for the United States, European Union, and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Trump, Benjamin D

    2017-08-02

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technology with potential benefits to various fields, yet also contains potential risks to human and environmental health. The field remains in an emerging state with limited quantitative guidance and a small but growing population of international researchers that conduct work within this field. Given the uncertain nature of this technology, an adaptive and anticipatory governance framework may be necessary to balance the potential benefits that may accrue from the technology's continued research alongside a desire to reduce or eliminate potential risks that may arise. However, such developments must account for the unique political and institutional factors that form a government's risk culture - something that can facilitate or impede the development of adaptive synthetic biology governance moving forward. The TAPIC framework helps illustrate those factors that are essential to develop good governance for emerging technologies like synthetic biology. Specifically, an application of TAPIC to synthetic biology governance indicates that the factors of accountability, participation, and integrity must be bolstered to improve technology governance in governments like with the United States, European Union, and Singapore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The lock-in effect and the greening of automotive cooling systems in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Bjørnåvold, Amalie; Van Passel, Steven

    2017-06-23

    As of 2017, the sale and use of the refrigerants most commonly used in automotive cooling systems - hydrofluorocarbons - are entirely banned in all new vehicles placed on the market in the European Union. These refrigerants have been recognised as potent greenhouse gases and, therefore, direct contributors to climate change. It is within this regulation-driven market that the technologies for a sustainable solution have been developed. However, this paper argues that the market for automotive cooling systems has been 'locked-in', which means that competing technologies, operating under dynamic increasing returns, will allow for one - potentially inferior technology - to dominate the market. Whilst such a situation is not uncommon, this paper discusses the way that regulation has reinforced a patented monopoly in 'picking winners': to the advantage of a synthetic chemical, R-1234yf, as opposed to the natural solution, which is CO2. By developing a generic conceptual framework of path dependence and lock-in, the presented evidence seeks to show how a snowballing effect has led to the intensification of differences in market share. We also argue that the automotive industry is potentially promoting short-term fixes, rather than long-term, sustainable and economically viable solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. REGULATORY OR REGULATING PUBLICS? THE EUROPEAN UNION'S REGULATION OF EMERGING HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES AND CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

    PubMed Central

    Flear, Mark L.; Pickersgill, Martyn D.

    2013-01-01

    ‘Citizen participation’ includes various participatory techniques and is frequently viewed as an unproblematic and important social good when used as part of the regulation of the innovation and implementation of science and technology. This is perhaps especially evident in debates around ‘anticipatory governance’ or ‘upstream engagement’. Here, we interrogate this thesis using the example of the European Union's regulation of emerging health technologies (such as nanotechnology). In this case, citizen participation in regulatory debate is concerned with innovative objects for medical application that are considered to be emergent or not yet concrete. Through synthesising insights from law, regulatory studies, critical theory, and science and technology studies, we seek to cast new light on the promises, paradoxes, and pitfalls of citizen participation as a tool or technology of regulation in itself. As such we aim to generate a new vantage point from which to view the values and sociotechnical imaginaries that are both ‘designed-in’ and ‘designed-out’ of citizen participation. In so doing, we show not only how publics (do not) regulate technologies, but also how citizens themselves are regulated through the techniques of participation. PMID:23222171

  1. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    PubMed

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  2. The European Union risk assessment on zinc and zinc compounds: the process and the facts.

    PubMed

    Bodar, Charles W M; Pronk, Marja E J; Sijm, Dick T H M

    2005-11-01

    A risk assessment on zinc and zinc compouns was carried out withn the framework of Council Regulation 793/93/EEC on Existing Chemicals. This risk assessment basically followed the European Union (EU) technical guidance documents (TGDs). These TGDs are built on the current knowledge on quantitative risk assessments, mainly for organic chemicals. This article describes the tailor-made approach for the zinc risk assessment. This work lasted almost a decade and involved the contributions of all EU member states and industry, who discussed the risk assessment during technical meetings. The risk assessment is initially based on scientific findings but is interrelated with pragmatic considerations. It follows a comprehensive approach, covering both environmental and human health. In the environmental part, new methodologies were developed to deal with the natural background of zinc, essentiality, speciation, and the use of species sensitivity distributions. The major results and the process of drawing conclusions of the risk assessment are outlined: potential environmental risks of zinc and zinc compounds may occur at local and regional scales in surfacewater, sediment, and soil. No potential health risks were identified for consumers and man indirectly exposed via the environment. For workers, potential health risks were identified only for zinc oxide and zinc chloride.

  3. Surveillance for avian influenza in wild birds in the European Union in 2007.

    PubMed

    Breed, Andrew C; Harris, Kate; Hesterberg, Uta; Gould, George; Londt, Brandon Z; Brown, Ian H; Cook, Alasdair J C

    2010-03-01

    Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses has been compulsory in the European Union (EU) since 2005, primarily as a means of detecting H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and of monitoring the circulation of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus H5 and H7 strains. In 2007, 79,392 wild birds were tested throughout the EU. H5N1 HPAI was detected in 329 birds from four Member States (MS); affected birds were almost entirely of the orders Podicipediformes (grebes) and Anseriformes (waterfowl) during the summer months. LPAI was detected in 1485 wild birds among 21 MS. A total of 1250 birds were positive for influenza A but were not discriminated any further; LPAI H5 was detected in 105 birds, exclusively of the order Anseriformes. LPAI H7 was detected in seven birds. LPAI of other subtypes was found in 123 birds. Epidemiologic evidence and phylogenetic analysis of H5N1 viruses indicate that H5N1 did not appear to persist in the EU from 2006 but was reintroduced, probably from the Middle East.

  4. Epidemiology and control prospects of foodborne parasitic zoonoses in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E

    2008-06-01

    In the 27 Member States of the European Union, zoonotic parasites transmitted by food are circulating with different prevalence according to the country, the environmental conditions, the human behaviour, and the socio-economic level. Foodborne parasites can be divided in two main groups according to the way of transmission to humans. These foodborne parasites reach the human beings through the consumption of raw infected food such as muscle tissues of different animal species (Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis suishominis, Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Opisthorchis felineus, Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova spp., Trichinella spp.), or vegetables (Fasciola hepatica), and contaminated food and water resources (Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., T. gondii, Echinococcus granulosus sensu latu, Echinococcus multilocularis, T. solium, Taenia multiceps). As a general role, the control strategies should be based on the education of the consumers, farmers and shepherds, the improvement of farming conditions, the improvement or the development of more sensitive methods to detect these parasites in slaughtered animals and in foodstuff, a control of sewage sludge on pastures and of drinking water resources, and the reduction of contacts between livestock and wild animals which frequently represent the most important reservoir of these pathogens.

  5. Evidence based policy making in the European Union: the role of the scientific community.

    PubMed

    Majcen, Špela

    2017-03-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  6. Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging infection in Italy and its implication for the European Union.

    PubMed

    Pozio, Edoardo; Armignacco, Orlando; Ferri, Fabrizio; Gomez Morales, Maria Angeles

    2013-04-01

    The liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus is one of the few zoonotic trematodes that circulates in the European Union (EU). It is transmitted from freshwater snails to fish and then to fish-eating mammals, including humans, in which it causes opisthorchiasis. In the 20th century, the majority of infections in humans have been reported in Eastern Europe (e.g., Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine) and Asia (Siberia). In EU in the last fifty years, the parasite has been detected in humans of Germany and Greece, and in red foxes, polecats, cats, dogs, fish and mollusks of Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. In Italy, four individual cases and eight outbreaks of opisthorchiasis were reported from 2003 to 2011, for a total of 211 confirmed infections in humans. All infected persons had consumed raw fillets of tench (Tinca tinca) fished from two lakes in central Italy, but some of infected people were tourists who developed the disease in their respective home-countries. In the past decade, it has become increasingly popular to consume raw marinated fillets of fish. The objective of this review is to show how a change in human food habits have caused and increased the transmission of O. felineus, which has probably been circulating in the EU yet in a silent form for many years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Costs of tuberculosis disease in the European Union: a systematic analysis and cost calculation.

    PubMed

    Diel, Roland; Vandeputte, Joris; de Vries, Gerard; Stillo, Jonathan; Wanlin, Maryse; Nienhaus, Albert

    2014-02-01

    Without better vaccines it is unlikely that tuberculosis (TB) will ever be eliminated. An investment of ∼ €560 million is considered necessary to develop a new, effective vaccine in the European Union (EU). However, less is known about the costs of TB disease in the EU. We performed a systematic review of literature and institutional websites addressing the 27 EU members to summarise cost data. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane bibliographies for relevant articles. Combining direct and indirect costs, we arrived at an average per-TB case costs in the original EU-15 states plus Cyprus, Malta and Slovenia of €10 282 for drug-susceptible TB, €57 213 for multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB and €170 744 for extensively drug resistant (XDR)-TB. In the remaining new EU states, costs amounted to €3427 for drug-susceptible TB and €24 166 for MDR-TB/XDR-TB. For the 70 340 susceptible TB cases, 1488 MDR-TB and 136 XDR-TB cases notified in 2011 costs of €536 890 315 accumulated in 2012. In the same year, the 103 104 disability-adjusted life years caused by these cases, when stated in monetary terms, amounted to a total of €5 361 408 000. Thus, the resulting economic burden of TB in the EU clearly outweighs the cost of investing in more efficient vaccines against TB.

  8. Indicators for monitoring sustainable development goals: An application to oceanic development in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickels, Wilfried; Dovern, Jonas; Hoffmann, Julia; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDG) with 169 specific targets. As such, it could be a step forward in achieving efficient governance and policies for global sustainable development. However, the current indicator framework with its broad set of individual indicators prevents straightforward assessment of synergies and trade-offs between the various indicators, targets, and goals, thus, heightening the significance of policy guidance in achieving sustainable development. With our detailed analysis of SDG 14 (Ocean) for European Union (EU) coastal states, we demonstrate how the (complementary) inclusion of composite indicators that aggregate the individual indicators by applying a generalized mean can provide important additional information and facilitate the assessment of sustainable development in general and in the SDG context in particular. Embedded in the context of social choice theory, the generalized mean varies the specification of substitution elasticity and thus allows: (a) for a straightforward distinction between a concept of weak and strong sustainability and (b) for straightforward sensitivity analysis. We show that while in general the EU coastal states have a fairly balanced record at the SDG 14 level, certain countries like Slovenia and Portugal with a fairly balanced and a fairly unbalanced showing, respectively, rank very differently in terms of the two concepts of strong sustainability.

  9. U.S.-European Union Relations and the 2007 Summit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-14

    reluctant to commit to global regulation; instead, they advocate transatlantic cooperation to promote alternative and clean energy technology. In light...review of U.S.-EU energy cooperation, a U.S.-EU High Level Dialogue on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development, and a U.S.-EU Energy

  10. Adherence, satisfaction and preferences for treatment in patients with psoriasis in the European Union: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Belinchón, I; Rivera, R; Blanch, C; Comellas, M; Lizán, L

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to treatment in patients with psoriasis is often poor. An investigation of patient preferences and satisfaction with treatment may be important, based on the expected correlation with therapy compliance. This paper aims to examine and describe the current literature on patient preferences, satisfaction and adherence to treatment for psoriasis in the European Union (EU). Electronic searches were conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Spanish databases and Google Scholar. European studies published in English or Spanish between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014 regarding patient-reported outcomes in psoriatic patients were included. Studies conducted in non-EU countries, letters to the editor, editorials, experts' opinions, case studies, congress proceedings, publications that did not differentiate between patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis or studies related to specific treatment were excluded. A total of 1,769 titles were identified, of which 1,636 were excluded as they were duplicates or did not provide any relevant information. After a full-text reading and application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 46 publications were included. This paper will describe publications on adherence (n=4), preferences (n=5) and satisfaction with treatment (n=7). Results related to health-related quality of life articles (n=30) have been published elsewhere. Adherence rates are generally low in psoriasis patients regardless of the type of treatment, severity of disease or methods used to measure adherence. Biologic therapy is associated with greater clinical improvement. There is a direct association between physician recommendations, patient preferences and several domains of treatment satisfaction. The results of this review support the conclusion that adherence rates in patients with psoriasis are suboptimal and highlight the need to improve patient compliance and satisfaction with treatment. Patients' preferences should be taken

  11. Adherence, satisfaction and preferences for treatment in patients with psoriasis in the European Union: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Belinchón, I; Rivera, R; Blanch, C; Comellas, M; Lizán, L

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Adherence to treatment in patients with psoriasis is often poor. An investigation of patient preferences and satisfaction with treatment may be important, based on the expected correlation with therapy compliance. This paper aims to examine and describe the current literature on patient preferences, satisfaction and adherence to treatment for psoriasis in the European Union (EU). Methods Electronic searches were conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Spanish databases and Google Scholar. European studies published in English or Spanish between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014 regarding patient-reported outcomes in psoriatic patients were included. Studies conducted in non-EU countries, letters to the editor, editorials, experts’ opinions, case studies, congress proceedings, publications that did not differentiate between patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis or studies related to specific treatment were excluded. Results A total of 1,769 titles were identified, of which 1,636 were excluded as they were duplicates or did not provide any relevant information. After a full-text reading and application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 46 publications were included. This paper will describe publications on adherence (n=4), preferences (n=5) and satisfaction with treatment (n=7). Results related to health-related quality of life articles (n=30) have been published elsewhere. Adherence rates are generally low in psoriasis patients regardless of the type of treatment, severity of disease or methods used to measure adherence. Biologic therapy is associated with greater clinical improvement. There is a direct association between physician recommendations, patient preferences and several domains of treatment satisfaction. Conclusion The results of this review support the conclusion that adherence rates in patients with psoriasis are suboptimal and highlight the need to improve patient compliance and satisfaction

  12. European questions related to satelite power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kassing, D.

    1983-01-01

    A number of problems which have been identified in recent European studies related to satellite power systems are addressed. Based on energy demand and supply projections for Europe, developed by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, the potential of power satellites in a future energy mix is discussed. A few major constraints are presented which may restrict power transmission to European receiving sites, e.g., orbital limitations, siting problems of the ground station, and economic and institutional issues. Conceptual designs for the structure of ground receiving stations located offshore near the European coastlines are described.

  13. The European Court of Justice's decision regarding the Brüstle patent and its implications for the legality of stem cell research within the European Union.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Martin; Spranger, Tade Matthias

    2013-12-01

    In 2011 the European Court of Justice issued a decision regarding the patentability of technologies derived from human embryonic stem cells. The finding will have an impact on the framework of stem cell research within the European Union and its Member States and has already triggered several political initiatives regarding the funding of research with human embryonic stem cells on the European level as well as a renewed public debate. This article will take a short look at the case history and the findings of the court. It offers some critical comments regarding the findings' consistency with European and international regulations on intellectual property rights as well as some considerations on the possible impact of the case for other fields of law.

  14. Risk of Cardiovascular Hospitalizations from Exposure to Coarse Particulate Matter (PM10) Below the European Union Safety Threshold.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; De Palma, Giuseppe; Manerba, Alessandra; Goldoni, Matteo; Triggiani, Marco; Apostoli, Pietro; Dei Cas, Livio; Nodari, Savina

    2016-04-15

    The association between exposure to air pollution and acute cardiovascular (CV) events is well documented; however, limited data are available evaluating the public health safety of various "doses" of particular matter (PM) below currently accepted safety thresholds. We explored the cross-sectional association between PM with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and daily CV hospitalizations in Brescia, Italy, using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, gender, and meteorologic indices. Average daily exposure to PM10 obtained from arithmetic means of air pollution data were captured by 4 selected monitoring stations. PM10 data were expressed as daily means (lag 0-day) or 3-day moving averages (lag 3-day) and categorized according to the European Union daily limit value of 50 μg/m(3). From September 2004 to September 2007, data from 6,000 acute CV admissions to a tertiary referral center were collected. An increase of 1 μg/m(3) PM10 at lag 0-day was independently associated with higher rates of acute hospitalizations for composite CV-related events (relative risk [RR] 1.004, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.002 to 1.006), acute heart failure (RR 1.004, 95% CI 1.001 to 1.008), acute coronary syndromes (RR 1.002, 95% CI 0.999 to 1.005), malignant ventricular arrhythmias (RR 1.004, 95% CI 0.999 to 1.010), and atrial fibrillation (RR 1.008, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.012). Similar results were obtained using PM10 lag 3-day data. The excess PM10 CV hospitalization risk (by lag 0-day and lag 3-day) did not vary significantly above and below the 50 μg/m(3) safety threshold or by age and gender. In conclusion, increased levels of PM10, even below the current limits set by the European Union, were associated with excess risk for admissions for acute CV events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The legal landscape for advanced therapies: material and institutional implementation of European Union rules in France and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Mahalatchimy, Aurélie; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Tournay, Virginie; Faulkner, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the European Union adopted a lex specialis, Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), a new legal category of medical product in regenerative medicine. The regulation applies to ATMPs prepared industrially or manufactured by a method involving an industrial process. It also provides a hospital exemption, which means that medicinal products not regulated by EU law do not benefit from a harmonized regime across the European Union but have to respect national laws. This article describes the recent EU laws, and contrasts two national regimes, asking how France and the United Kingdom regulate ATMPs which do and do not fall under the scope of Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007. What are the different legal categories and their enforceable regimes, and how does the evolution of these highly complex regimes interact with the material world of regenerative medicine and the regulatory bodies and socioeconomic actors participating in it?

  16. Role of Sample Processing Strategies at the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) Concerning the Analysis of Pesticide Residues.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette E

    2017-07-19

    The guidance document SANTE 11945/2015 recommends that cereal samples be milled to a particle size preferably smaller than 1.0 mm and that extensive heating of the samples should be avoided. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the differences in milling procedures, obtained particle size distributions, and the resulting pesticide residue recovery when cereal samples were milled at the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) with their routine milling procedures. A total of 23 NRLs participated in the study. The oat and rye samples milled by each NRL were sent to the European Union Reference Laboratory on Cereals and Feedingstuff (EURL) for the determination of the particle size distribution and pesticide residue recovery. The results showed that the NRLs used several different brands and types of mills. Large variations in the particle size distributions and pesticide extraction efficiencies were observed even between samples milled by the same type of mill.

  17. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    PubMed

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM.

  18. Introduction to "Diversity of Child Health Care in Europe: A Study of the European Paediatric Association/Union of National European Paediatric Societies and Associations".

    PubMed

    Ehrich, Jochen; Namazova-Baranova, Leyla; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    The field of pediatrics in Europe is characterized by the diversities, variations, and heterogeneities of child health care services provided in 53 European countries with more than 200 million children below 18 years of age. Managing the health care of infants, children, and adolescents in Europe requires balancing clinical aims, research findings, and socioeconomic goals within a typical environment characterized by cultural and economic complexity and large disparity in availability, affordability, and accessibility of pediatric care. Since its foundation in 1976, the European Paediatric Association-Union of National European Paediatric Societies and Associations has worked to improve both medical care of all children and cooperation of their caretakers in Europe. Such a report has been conceived in the strong belief that broadening of the intellectual basis of the European Paediatric Association-Union of National European Paediatric Societies and Associations and creating a multidisciplinary society will be necessary to reduce fragmentation of pediatrics and tackle the legal, economic, and organizational challenges of child health care in Europe.

  19. Summary of government sponsored foreign electronics: European union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, France, and Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garian, Robert

    1994-10-01

    This report provides basic information and statistical data on foreign electronics research and development sponsored by the governments of the European Union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, France, and Singapore. Industrial R&D funding was found to be highly significant in all of the countries studied. Government and industry typically collaborate closely in the planning of economic strategies for capturing new or larger shares of targeted segments of the electronics market.

  20. A model of union participation: the impact of perceived union support, union instrumentality, and union loyalty.

    PubMed

    Tetrick, Lois E; Shore, Lynn M; McClurg, Lucy Newton; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2007-05-01

    Perceived union support and union instrumentality have been shown to uniquely predict union loyalty. This study was the first to explicitly examine the relation between perceived union support and union instrumentality. Surveys were completed by 273 union members and 29 union stewards. A comparison of 2 models, 1 based on organizational support theory and 1 based on union participation theories, found that the model based on organizational support theory, in which union instrumentality was an antecedent to perceived union support and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, best fit the data. The model based on union participation theories, in which perceived union support was an antecedent of union instrumentality and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, was not supported. Union instrumentality was related to union commitment, but the relation was completely mediated by perceived union support.

  1. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007 - 2012; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Maureen

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides a summary of IEA Wind Task 26 report on Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007-2012

  2. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Grandjean, Philippe; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Bellanger, Martine; Hauser, Russ; Legler, Juliette; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Results: Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood obesity, adult obesity, adult diabetes, cryptorchidism, male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median cost of €157 billion (or $209 billion, corresponding to 1.23% of EU gross domestic product) annually across 1000 simulations. Notably, using the lowest end of the probability range for each relationship in the Monte Carlo simulations produced a median range of €109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. Conclusions: EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and

  3. Estimating burden and disease costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European union.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R Thomas; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Grandjean, Philippe; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Bellanger, Martine; Hauser, Russ; Legler, Juliette; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2015-04-01

    Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood obesity, adult obesity, adult diabetes, cryptorchidism, male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median cost of €157 billion (or $209 billion, corresponding to 1.23% of EU gross domestic product) annually across 1000 simulations. Notably, using the lowest end of the probability range for each relationship in the Monte Carlo simulations produced a median range of €109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in

  4. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements.

  5. An approach for mapping the vulnerability of European Union soils to antibiotic contamination.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Ana; Iglesias, Irene; Carballo, Matilde; Ramírez, Pablo; Muñoz, María Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Release of antibiotics into the environment through the agricultural reuse of animal manure is considered a cause of chronic environmental exposure that often leads to adverse ecotoxicological effects, as well as to the introduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the environment. The vulnerability of soil to antibiotic contamination plays a major role in determining the extent of the contamination and the likelihood of the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the appearance of ecotoxicological effects. It depends on soil characteristics, which vary across Europe, and antibiotic characteristics, which vary across drug classes. Understanding how soil vulnerability varies geographically for different veterinary medicinal products would be very useful for resource allocation among surveillance programmes. This paper performs risk analysis of the EU region for 12 antimicrobials using a spatial assessment performed in four steps. First, antibiotic release was estimated based on livestock density. Then exposure was estimated based on antimicrobial soil contamination. Third, consequences were modelled based on soil uses. Finally, risk was estimated by combining release, exposure and consequences using spatial multicriteria decision analysis. A final risk value for soil vulnerability was calculated for each antibiotic studied and displayed in chloropletic maps (ArcGIS 9.3). Furthermore, the Getis-Ord Gi statistic was used to identify clusters of areas at high risk for antibiotic soil contamination. Enrofloxacin was the highest-risk antibiotic in the European Union, followed by tetracyclines, tylosin and sulfodiazine. The highest risk values were found in Belgium, Ireland, Netherlands, Switzerland, Denmark, Germany and the UK. The results suggest that this methodology can be used successfully for evaluating the contamination potential of antibiotics over large areas with limited input data. This work is a preliminary step towards prioritising the use of veterinary

  6. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-01-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs’ interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  7. How online sales and promotion of snus contravenes current European Union legislation.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Silvy; Gilmore, Anna B

    2013-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive that bans sales of snus (a form of oral tobacco) in EU countries other than Sweden is currently under review. Major tobacco companies favour the ban being overturned. This study aims to explore compliance with the current ban on snus sales and examines the conduct of online snus vendors, including their compliance with two other EU Directives on excise and tobacco advertising and Swedish legislation banning sales of snus outside Sweden. To determine who is currently distributing snus via the internet in the EU, searches were carried out in Google, followed by searches in the WHOIS and Amadeus databases. Five online test purchases of snus were made in each of 10 EU Member States using a standardised protocol. Feedback from the test purchases and further analysis of the websites accessed for test purchases were used to critically examine snus retailers' conduct. The majority of online vendors operate from Sweden and target non-Swedish EU citizens. Test purchases were successfully made in all 10 EU Member States; of 43 orders placed, only two failed. Age verification relied only on self-report. The majority of sales applied Swedish taxes, contrary to EU requirements. Copious sales promotion activities, many price based, are incorporated in these websites contravening the EU regulation, and three test purchases were delivered with gifts. Snus is currently being sold on the single market via the internet in contravention of Swedish legislation and three EU Directives. The apparent willingness of the tobacco industry to contravene EU and Swedish legislation and profit from unlawful sales raises questions about their status as stakeholders in consultations on future policy developments. The findings highlight how national and regional tobacco control legislation can be undermined in an increasingly globalised world.

  8. [Some materials for the study of "labor force differences" of immigrants from outside the European Union].

    PubMed

    Piras, L

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of the productive behavior of immigrants arriving from outside the European Union comprise the phase preceding the immigration, the phase of first permanent residence, and the phase of secondary socialization to labor. The extra-community labor migration carries within itself all the individual cultural patrimony (values, conduct, faith, identity, lifestyle) which are invested into the transformation process and change through contact with the other culture. The differentiated labor-specific evolution of the extra-community migration was analyzed by means of a mathematical formula using the variables of compensation for work (salary), performance (effort), immigration, socialization to work, and the economic impact of differential work contribution, all of which individually and jointly exert an effect on the labor market. In the regular Italian labor market there is, however, a surplus; the irregular (underground) economy is differentiated by the variable of effort that immigrants exert in order to obtain employment. Labor behavior is determined by the competitiveness of the labor force and dangers inherent in leaving one's country and entering a foreign land illegally. Statistically, in the long term, individual situations show a diminishing trend vis-a-vis the risk of repatriation connected to the loss of the residency permit because of gradual integration into the labor market. The initial labor-specific effort (salary/performance) is reduced vis-a-vis a progressive process of socialization owing to work. New lifestyles and consumption patterns are acquired which also facilitate social integration. The human capital of the immigrant increases by progressive acquisition of language and other cultural instruments.

  9. Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union.

    PubMed

    van der Jagt, Alexander P N; Szaraz, Luca R; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen

    2017-08-17

    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a nature-based solution (NbS). However, the mechanisms by which institutional actors can best support and facilitate CUG are understudied, which could create a gap between aspiration and reality. The aim of this study is therefore to identify what governance arrangements contribute to CUG delivering social resilience. Through the EU GREEN SURGE project, we studied six CUG initiatives from five EU-countries, representing different planning regimes and traditions. We selected cases taking a locally unique or innovative approach to dealing with urban challenges. A variety of actors associated with each of the cases were interviewed to achieve as complete a picture as possible regarding important governance arrangements. A cross-case comparison revealed a range of success factors, varying from clearly formulated objectives and regulations, municipal support, financial resources and social capital through to the availability of local food champions and facilitators engaging in community building. Municipalities can support CUG initiatives by moving beyond a rigid focus on top-down control, while involved citizens can increase the impact of CUG by pursuing political, in addition to hands-on, activities. We conclude that CUG has clear potential to act as a nature-based solution if managed with sensitivity to local dynamics and context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Obesity, diabetes, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Legler, Juliette; Fletcher, Tony; Govarts, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J; Trasande, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Obesity and diabetes are epidemic in the European Union (EU). Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is increasingly recognized as a contributor, independent of diet and physical activity. The objective was to estimate obesity, diabetes, and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the EU. An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from that applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized published cost estimates for childhood obesity, adult obesity, and adult diabetes. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was performed from the societal perspective. The panel identified a 40% to 69% probability of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 1555 cases of overweight at age 10 (sensitivity analysis: 1555-5463) in 2010 with associated costs of €24.6 million (sensitivity analysis: €24.6-86.4 million). A 20% to 39% probability was identified for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 28 200 cases of adult diabetes (sensitivity analysis: 28 200-56 400) with associated costs of €835 million (sensitivity analysis: €835 million-16.6 billion). The panel also identified a 40% to 69% probability of phthalate exposure causing 53 900 cases of obesity in older women and €15.6 billion in associated costs. Phthalate exposure was also found to have a 40% to 69% probability of causing 20 500 new-onset cases of diabetes in older women with €607 million in associated costs. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure was identified to have a 20% to 69% probability of causing 42 400 cases of childhood obesity, with associated lifetime costs of €1.54 billion. EDC exposures in the EU contribute

  11. Obesity, Diabetes, and Associated Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Legler, Juliette; Fletcher, Tony; Govarts, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Obesity and diabetes are epidemic in the European Union (EU). Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is increasingly recognized as a contributor, independent of diet and physical activity. Objective: The objective was to estimate obesity, diabetes, and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the EU. Design: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from that applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized published cost estimates for childhood obesity, adult obesity, and adult diabetes. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was performed from the societal perspective. Results: The panel identified a 40% to 69% probability of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 1555 cases of overweight at age 10 (sensitivity analysis: 1555–5463) in 2010 with associated costs of €24.6 million (sensitivity analysis: €24.6–86.4 million). A 20% to 39% probability was identified for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 28 200 cases of adult diabetes (sensitivity analysis: 28 200–56 400) with associated costs of €835 million (sensitivity analysis: €835 million–16.6 billion). The panel also identified a 40% to 69% probability of phthalate exposure causing 53 900 cases of obesity in older women and €15.6 billion in associated costs. Phthalate exposure was also found to have a 40% to 69% probability of causing 20 500 new-onset cases of diabetes in older women with €607 million in associated costs. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure was identified to have a 20% to 69% probability of causing 42 400 cases of childhood obesity, with associated lifetime costs of €1.54 billion

  12. Deciding when physicians are unfit to practise: an analysis of responsibilities, policy and practice in 11 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Struckmann, Verena; Panteli, Dimitra; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Busse, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    In 1974, the European Economic Community established mutual recognition of medical qualifications obtained in any of its member states. Subsequently, a series of directives has elaborated on the initial provisions, with the most recent enacted in 2013. However, greater movement of physicians across borders and some high-profile scandals have raised questions about how to prevent a physician sanctioned in one country from simply moving to another, without undermining the principle of free movement. A survey of key informants in 11 European Union (EU) member states was supplemented by a review of peer-reviewed and grey literature, with the results validated by independent reviewers. It examined processes, adjudicative and disciplinary measures that are in place to evaluate physicians about whom concerns arise, and related sanctions, along with other aspects of professional standards and regulation. Overall, responses varied greatly between participating countries, with respect to the institutions responsible for the regulation of medical professions, the investigation processes in place, and the terminology used in each member state. While the types of sanction (removal from the register of medical professionals and/or licence revocation, suspension, dismissal, reprimand, warnings, fines, as well as additional education and training) applied are similar, both the roles of the individuals involved and the level of public disclosure of information vary considerably. However, some key features, such as the involvement of professional peers in disciplinary panels and the involvement of courts in criminal cases, are similar in most member states studied. Given the variation in the regulatory context, individuals and processes involved that is illustrated by our findings, a common understanding of definitions of what constitutes competence to practise, its impairment and its potential impact on patient safety becomes particularly important. Public disclosure of

  13. Veterinary drug residues in seafood inspected by the European Union, United States, Canada, and Japan from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodman, Sarah; Neff, Roni A; Nachman, Keeve E

    2011-09-01

    Veterinary drugs are used to treat or prevent a wide array of production-related diseases in aquaculture. Residues of these drugs in seafood products may pose risks to consumers, prompting governments to set drug residue tolerance levels and inspect seafood for violations of these standards. This study characterizes veterinary drug inspection policies and violations among four inspecting bodies (European Union (E.U.), United States (U.S.), Canada, and Japan), using government-collected veterinary drug violation data from 2000 to 2009. Most veterinary drug violations were detected in species that are commonly farm-raised. Asian seafood products, including shrimp and prawns, catfish (or fish sold as catfish), crab, tilapia, eel, and Chilean salmon were most frequently in violation of veterinary drug residue standards. Vietnam had the greatest number of violations among exporting countries. Concentrations of most veterinary drugs in seafood found in violation did not differ between inspecting bodies that reported drug concentrations. Transparency in seafood inspection reporting varied widely among inspecting bodies. Estimation of violations in the untested fraction of seafood was precluded by a lack of information from inspecting bodies regarding the distinction between targeted and random sampling. Increased transparency could facilitate a more rigorous characterization of public health risks from consuming imported seafood.

  14. Market projections and factors influencing the development of new products and energy derived from agricultural crops in the European Union

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, B.E.A.; Houghton, T.M.

    1995-11-01

    Following the 1992 revision of the Common Agricultural Policy in the European Union, it is projected that 25-50 million acres of arable land currently used for food production could be surplus to requirements by 2000. This strategic study was carried out in order to assess factors that will determine, over the next twenty years, the use of a range of crops for non food outlets. Analysis of published research and economic reports and interviews with legislators and opinion leaders in different Member States was carried out. Five defined market sectors were covered: (i) biomass crops for the generation of heat and electricity, (ii) oilseed and cereal crops as sources of transport fuel, (iii) products from vegetable oils, (iv) products from starch and sugar, and (v) products from fibre crops. Opportunities and constraints were ranked and maximum and minimum land use requirements forecast for each sector. Biomass for electricity is projected to need most land, up to 20 million acres by 2015, if all factors are favourable. In the shorter term, crops grown to produce liquid transport fuel are likely to show the most rapid expansion in area. Market demand for environmentally superior products will be a driving force despite, currently, poor relative economics in comparison with fossil fuel derived products. Better integration between crop production and the end markets will be essential.

  15. The legal design of the international and European Union ban on tributyltin antifouling paint: direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Gipperth, Lena

    2009-02-01

    The Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (AFS Convention), which was adopted in 2001 and will come into force in September 2008, bans the use of TBT (tributyltin) antifouling paint on ships. The EU (European Union) effectively implemented the Convention on 1 January 2008 by enforcing a similar ban. Several states have national restrictions and bans in place. The regulation on TBT antifouling paint aims at checking the risk of adverse effects on marine ecosystems. The legal and political situation is, however, characterized by complex relations between different layers of legislation, the use of several different legal techniques, and levels of ambition. The international and EU bans thereby cause some indirect effects, which are only partly included in what is seen as 'the TBT issue' and so only partly assessed in the legal process of the ban. This article discusses the expediency of the existing legislation and legal strategies aimed at reducing the negative environmental effects of TBT-like toxins in marine ecosystems and indirect effects of such actions. It considers the adequacy and limits of current regulatory approaches for handling complex environmental problems, such as TBT in antifouling paint.

  16. A revaluation of the cultural dimension of disability policy in the European Union: the impact of digitization and web accessibility.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Delia; Giannoumis, G Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting the commitments undertaken by the EU through the conclusion of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), the European Disability Strategy 2010–2020 not only gives a prominent position to accessibility, broadly interpreted, but also suggests an examination of the obligations for access to cultural goods and services. The European Disability Strategy 2010–2020 expressly acknowledges that EU action will support national activities to make sports, leisure, cultural and recreational organizations and activities accessible, and use the possibilities for copyright exceptions in the Directive 2001/29/EC (Infosoc Directive). This article discusses to what extent the EU has realized the principle of accessibility and the right to access cultural goods and services envisaged in the UNCRPD. Previous research has yet to explore how web accessibility and digitization interact with the cultural dimension of disability policy in the European Union. This examination attempts to fill this gap by discussing to what extent the European Union has put this cultural dimension into effect and how web accessibility policies and the digitization of cultural materials influence these efforts.

  17. Chinese villages and their sustainable future: the European Union-China-Research Project "SUCCESS".

    PubMed

    Dumreicher, Heidi

    2008-04-01

    from European Union and China, agreed upon as a common result for the SUCCESS project, is as follows: "China is composed of a rich diversity of villages with many attractive qualities and essential resources for the future growth of the whole country; we recommend that policy makers cherish the human and natural potential of the rural economy and environment so that villages provide the foundation for sustainable development of this progressive nation" [Dumreicher, H., 2006. SUCCESS-a sustainable future for Chinese villages. International Symposium "Chinese Villages and their Sustainable Future", University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, January 16]. This sentence was used in papers that where sent to different Chinese authorities by the Chinese partners and found its way, as a sort of "unofficial Charta", towards governmental agencies at national and provincial levels. The team carried out a 5-year-research study in rural China, aiming at establishing future images under the premises of sustainability. But the basic topic that needed to be tackled with was the question whether at all those villages could persist in the coming decades of rapid development. Therefore, the first aim of the study was to establish the importance of the rural environment and living space as a basis for the future of China.

  18. [Reflections on residency training under the current recommendations of the European Union of Medical specialists and the European Board of Anaesthesia (UEMS/EBA guidelines)].

    PubMed

    Sáez Fernández, A; Sistac Ballarín, J M; Martínez Torrente, F; Calvo Vecino, J M; Olmos Rodríguez, M

    2011-01-01

    The recent publication of guidelines for postgraduate training in anesthesiology, pain, and intensive care issued by the European Board of Anaesthesia (EBA) and the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) (http://www.sedar.es/revistasedar/uems.pdf) specifies directions we must take with our residents. The training section of the Sociedad Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (SEDAR) has decided to make the guidelines available on the association's website so that the UEMS/EBA proposals can be compared to the training program drafted by the Spanish national board for our specialty. Our aim is to identify points of convergence between the two proposals and to target gaps where improvements can be made so that Spanish residency training in this specialty is in harmony with the European framework.

  19. Patterns of drinking and eating across the European Union: implications for hydration status.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L

    2015-09-01

    Appropriate hydration is essential for health and well-being. In Europe, water consumption patterns vary despite the unlimited availability of this resource. Water constitutes the largest proportion of total fluid intake in most countries. According to the 2008 European Food Safety Authority's Concise Food Consumption Database, tap water consumption was highest in the northern European countries and in Austria. While Germany had a particularly low intake of tap water, it led in consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, soft drinks, and especially bottled water. European nutrition surveys generally report an average fluid intake within the recommended range of 1500-2000 mL/day, with higher intake levels corresponding with increasing frequency of intake. However, some population groups consume less than others, e.g., the elderly who are at higher risk for dehydration due to age-related increased urinary fluid losses. In turn, physical activity is associated with higher beverage consumption as is adherence to a health-conscious diet. While water constitutes the most commonly consumed beverage throughout Europe, drinking patterns and quantities vary and are influenced by a variety of factors, including age, gender, diet, and physical activity level.

  20. Graphical study of reasons for engagement in physical activity in European Union.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Daniel; Cubedo, Marta; Ríos, Martín

    2013-01-01

    We collect data on 15 reasons why people in the 27 EU countries engage in physical activity, from the European Commission's Special Eurobarometer. A graphical output was obtained using classical Principal Component Analysis techniques in order to analyse types of motivation in the EU. Cluster Analysis method were used to define the interrelationship between the data in the 27 countries. People in Sweden, Denmark and Finland were the most highly motivated. High rates were detected in Austria, Germany, Slovenia, Estonia, Luxembourg and Latvia while low rates were found in Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Greece, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. The lowest motivation rates were in the Netherlands. Regarding the reasons for engaging in exercise (a sport or physical activity), we observed two motivation types. The first group was related to health and physical appearance while the second was associated with social reasons: to be with friends, to better integrate into society, to meet people from other cultures. For citizens of Latvia, Bulgaria and Romania, health and physical appearance carried greater importance than the European average while for citizens of Germany, Finland and Sweden the second motivation type was higher than the European average.

  1. Albania’s Road Toward Integrated and Accession into the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    European Common Aviation Area Agreement ECB European Central Bank ECJ the European Court of Justice ECT Energy Community Treaty EEAS European...obligations under the treaties and interprets the EU law at the requests of the national courts and tribunals.14 European Central Bank ( ECB ). The ECB ...curia.europa.eu/jcms/ jcms/j_6/ (accessed May 11, 2014). 6 power and thus price stability in the euro area (keep inflation under control). The ECB is

  2. European Symposium on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases: Report of the European Union Parliament Symposium (October 14, 2015).

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W

    2016-05-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS), and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on October 14, 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli, and with active participation of the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vytenis Andriukaitis, MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). The socioeconomic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic noncommunicable diseases in the EU; 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision medicine represents a novel approach, embracing four key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic, and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision-making process of therapeutic actions, and considering predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of precision medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the epidemic of allergies and chronic airways diseases. Participants underscored the need for optimal patient care in Europe, supporting joint action plans for disease prevention, patient empowerment, and cost-effective treatment strategies.

  3. European Union scientific production on alcohol and drug misuse (1976-2000).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Bellés, Ana; Beranuy, Marta

    2005-08-01

    Alcohol and drug misuse is a social and health phenomenon of great relevance in the European Union (EU). One indicator of scientific production in a given area is the analysis of publications included in bibliographic databases. Scientific production on alcohol and drug misuse was analysed in EU member countries, and comparisons were made between countries. Analysis of articles on alcohol and drug misuse published during the period 1976-2000 by institutions based in a country of the EU, indexed by PsycINFO. A total of 4825 citations was retrieved. Great Britain published 38.6%, while Sweden, Germany and Spain accounted for a further 30%. The articles dealt with drug and alcohol usage (12.8%), substance abuse (53.5%) and drug and alcohol rehabilitation (34.5%). The articles were published in 13 different languages, more than three-quarters being in English. Spanish was the second language, and was followed by French, German, Dutch and Italian. The articles were published in 521 different journals, and 62 of these published more than 10 articles. The journals publishing most were Addiction, Alcohol and Alcoholism and Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Sixty-eight per cent of the articles were signed by more than one author, and the index of collaboration, between 1996 and 2000, was 3.24. PsycINFO is useful for making comparisons between countries, because it includes the name and country of the institution. The number of publications in the EU on alcohol and drug misuse increased over the quarter-century analysed. The most used language was English, as it also is for PsycINFO as a whole, and a tendency towards its increased use was observed. Classification of the articles by subject by the Classification Code is too general, and makes it difficult to distinguish between the areas it proposes. Production tends to be concentrated in journals dealing specifically with drug dependence and psychiatry. The index of collaboration is similar to that found in other scientific areas.

  4. Prices and E-Cigarette Demand: Evidence From the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stoklosa, Michal; Drope, Jeffrey; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-10-01

    Many European Union (EU) Member States have expressed the need for EU legislation to clarify the issue of e-cigarette taxation, but the economic evidence to inform creation of such policies has been lacking. To date, only one study-on the United States only-has examined responsiveness of e-cigarette demand to price changes. We used 2011-2014 pooled time-series data on e-cigarette sales, as well as e-cigarette and cigarette prices for six EU markets (Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). We utilized static and dynamic fixed-effects models to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes. In a separate model for Sweden, we examined the effects of snus prices on e-cigarette sales. Based on static models, every 10% increase in e-cigarette prices is associated with a drop in e-cigarettes sales of approximately 8.2%, while based on dynamic models, the drop is 2.7% in the short run and 11.5% in the long run. Combustible cigarette prices are positively associated with sales of e-cigarettes. Snus prices are positively associated with sales of e-cigarettes in Sweden. Our results indicate that the sales of e-cigarettes are responsive to price changes, which suggests that excise taxes can help governments to mitigate an increase in e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes and regular cigarettes are substitutes, with higher cigarette prices being associated with increased e-cigarette sales. Making combustible cigarettes more expensive compared to e-cigarettes could be effective in moving current combustible smokers to e-cigarettes, which might have positive health effects. This study is an exploratory analysis of the issues around e-cigarette taxation in Europe. Our results suggest that taxation is a measure that could potentially address the concerns of both opponents and proponents of e-cigarettes: taxes on e-cigarettes could be used to raise prices so as to deter e-cigarette initiation by never users, while concomitant greater

  5. European Union-28: An annualised cost-of-illness model for venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Barco, Stefano; Woersching, Alex L; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Piovella, Franco; Mahan, Charles E

    2016-04-01

    Annual costs for venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been defined within the United States (US) demonstrating a large opportunity for cost savings. Costs for the European Union-28 (EU-28) have never been defined. A literature search was conducted to evaluate EU-28 cost sources. Median costs were defined for each cost input and costs were inflated to 2014 Euros (€) in the study country and adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity between EU countries. Adjusted costs were used to populate previously published cost-models based on adult incidence-based events. In the base model, annual expenditures for total, hospital-associated, preventable, and indirect costs were €1.5-2.2 billion, €1.0-1.5 billion, €0.5-1.1 billion and €0.2-0.3 billion, respectively (indirect costs: 12 % of expenditures). In the long-term attack rate model, total, hospital-associated, preventable, and indirect costs were €1.8-3.3 billion, €1.2-2.4 billion, €0.6-1.8 billion and €0.2-0.7 billion (indirect costs: 13 % of expenditures). In the multiway sensitivity analysis, annual expenditures for total, hospital-associated, preventable, and indirect costs were €3.0-8.5 billion, €2.2-6.2 billion, €1.1-4.6 billion and €0.5-1.4 billion (indirect costs: 22 % of expenditures). When the value of a premature life-lost increased slightly, aggregate costs rose considerably since these costs are higher than the direct medical costs. When evaluating the models aggregately for costs, the results suggests total, hospital-associated, preventable, and indirect costs ranging from €1.5-13.2 billion, €1.0-9.7 billion, €0.5-7.3 billion and €0.2-6.1 billion, respectively. Our study demonstrates that VTE costs have a large financial impact upon the EU-28's healthcare systems and that significant savings could be realised if better preventive measures are applied.

  6. Clinical education and training of student nurses in four moderately new European Union countries: Assessment of students' satisfaction with the learning environment.

    PubMed

    Antohe, Ileana; Riklikiene, Olga; Tichelaar, Erna; Saarikoski, Mikko

    2016-03-01

    Nurses underwent different models of education during various historical periods. The recent decade in Europe has been marked with educational transitions for the nursing profession related to Bologna Declaration and enlargement of the European Union. This paper aims to explore the situation of clinical placements for student nurses and assess students' satisfaction with the learning environment in four relatively new member states of European Union: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Romania. The data for cross-sectional quantitative study were collected during the exploratory phase of EmpNURS Project via a web based questionnaire which utilized a part of Clinical Learning Environment scale (CLES + T). The students evaluated their clinical learning environment mainly positively. The students' utter satisfaction with their clinical placements reached a high level and strongly correlated with the supervisory model. Although the commonest model for supervision was traditional group supervision, the most satisfied students had the experience of individualised supervision. The study gives a picture of the satisfaction of students with the learning environment and, moreover, with clinical placement education of student nurses in four EU countries. The results highlight the individualized supervision model as a crucial factor of students' total satisfaction during their clinical training periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surveillance of work-related musculoskeletal injuries among union carpenters.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, H J; Dement, J M; Loomis, D P; Silverstein, B; Kalat, J

    1997-12-01

    Combined data sources, including union administrative records and workers' compensation claims, were used to construct event histories for a dynamic cohort of union carpenters from Washington State during the period 1989-1992. Person-time at risk and the events of interest were stratified by age, sex, time in the union, and predominant type of carpentry work. Poisson regression techniques were used to identify subgroups at greatest risk of filing claims for a variety of musculoskeletal disorders defined by ANSI codes for body part injured and injury nature. Distinguishing different kinds of musculoskeletal disorders, even crudely with ANSI codes, led to different conclusions about the effects of the explanatory variables. Among older workers, the rates of fractures of the foot were higher, while rates of contusions of the hand and foot were lower. Women had higher rates of sprain/strains and nerve conditions of the wrist/forearm. Higher rates of injuries to the axial skeleton were seen among carpenters who did predominantly light commercial and drywall work, while piledrivers had lower rates of these injuries. Drywall workers had higher rates of sprains to the ankle/lower leg. Workers who were members of the union as long as four years had lower risks for the vast majority of musculoskeletal disorders studied. Similar patterns were seen for more serious claims that resulted in paid lost time from work.

  8. Anticipation of Occupation and Qualification Trends in the European Union: Innovations for Effective Anticipation of Qualification and Competence Trends and the Adaptation of VET Provision in Member States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart, Ed.

    The approaches being taken and innovations being adopted at the national and European levels to anticipate occupation and qualification trends in the European Union (EU) were examined in a survey of the 15 EU member states. The survey findings were presented by country and in a synthesis. In addition, the findings for Belgium were broken down by…

  9. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  10. The Potential of Transnational Language Policy to Promote Social Inclusion of Immigrants: An Analysis and Evaluation of the European Union's INCLUDE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bian, Cui

    2017-01-01

    Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the…

  11. European symposium on precision medicine in allergy and airways diseases: report of the European Union parliament symposium (October 14, 2015).

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W

    2015-12-01

    On 14 October 2015, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, underlined the importance of the need for a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for patients with Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases, and encouraged a joint initiative to control the epidemic of Allergy and Asthma in Europe. The socio-economic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic non-communicable diseases in the EU. Despite the fact that 30% of the total European population is nowadays suffering from allergies and asthma, more than half of these patients are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision Medicine represents a novel approach in medicine, embracing 4 key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision making process of therapeutic actions, and taking into account predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of Precision Medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the Epidemic of Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases. This report summarizes the key messages delivered during the symposium by the speakers, including the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vitenys Andriukaitis. The

  12. Evaluation of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection for resistance to Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Malvar, R A; Butrón, A; Alvarez, A; Ordás, B; Soengas, P; Revilla, L P; Ordás, A

    2004-04-01

    Two corn borer species are the principal maize insect pests in Europe, the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and the pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre). Hence, it would be advisable to evaluate the European maize germplasm for corn borer resistance to generate European varieties resistant to corn borer attack. The creation of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) allowed the screening of most of the variability for European corn borer resistance present among European maize local populations from France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, testing a representative sample. The objective of this study was the evaluation of stem and ear resistance of the EUMLCC to European corn borer and pink stem borer attack. Trials were made at two Spanish locations that represent two very different maize-growing areas. Populations that performed relatively well under corn borer infestation for stem and ear damage were 'PRT0010008' and'GRC0010085', among very early landraces; 'PRT00100120' and 'PRT00100186', among early landraces; 'GRC0010174', among midseason landraces; and 'ESP0070441', among late landraces. Either the selection that could have happen under high insect pressure or the singular origin of determined maize populations would be possible explanations for the higher corn borer resistance of some landraces. Landraces 'PRT0010008', 'FRA0410090', 'PRT00100186', and 'ESP0090214' would be selected to constitute a composite population resistant to corn borers and adapted to short season, whereas populations 'ESP0090033', 'PRT00100530', 'GRC0010174', and 'ITA0370005' would be used to make a resistant composite adapted to longer season.

  13. Global Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production for Biomass Consumption in the European Union, 1986–2007

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Karl‐Heinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Summary The ongoing globalization process strengthens the connections between different geographic regions through trade. Biomass products, such as food, fiber, or bioenergy, are increasingly traded globally, thereby leading to telecouplings between distant, seemingly unrelated regions. For example, restrictions for agricultural production or changes in bioenergy demand in Europe or the United States might contribute to deforestation in Latin America or Sub‐Saharan Africa. One approach to analyze trade‐related land‐use effects of the global socioeconomic biomass metabolism is the “embodied human appropriation of net primary production” or eHANPP. eHANPP accounts allocate to any product the entire amount of the human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) that emerges throughout its supply chain. This allows consumption‐based accounts to move beyond simple area‐demand approaches by taking differences in natural productivity as well as in land‐use intensity into account, both across land‐use types as well as across world regions. In this article, we discuss the eHANPP related to the European Union's (EU) consumption of biomass products in the period 1986–2007, based on a consistent global trade data set derived from bilateral data. We find a considerable dependency of the EU on the appropriation of biological productivity outside its own boundaries, with increasing reliance on Latin America as a main supplier. By using the EU as an illustrative example, we demonstrate the usefulness of eHANPP for assessing land‐use impacts caused by nations’ socioeconomic activities and conclude that the eHANPP approach can provide useful information to better manage ecosystems globally in the face of an increasingly interconnected world. PMID:27524879

  14. Global Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production for Biomass Consumption in the European Union, 1986-2007.

    PubMed

    Kastner, Thomas; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing globalization process strengthens the connections between different geographic regions through trade. Biomass products, such as food, fiber, or bioenergy, are increasingly traded globally, thereby leading to telecouplings between distant, seemingly unrelated regions. For example, restrictions for agricultural production or changes in bioenergy demand in Europe or the United States might contribute to deforestation in Latin America or Sub-Saharan Africa. One approach to analyze trade-related land-use effects of the global socioeconomic biomass metabolism is the "embodied human appropriation of net primary production" or eHANPP. eHANPP accounts allocate to any product the entire amount of the human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) that emerges throughout its supply chain. This allows consumption-based accounts to move beyond simple area-demand approaches by taking differences in natural productivity as well as in land-use intensity into account, both across land-use types as well as across world regions. In this article, we discuss the eHANPP related to the European Union's (EU) consumption of biomass products in the period 1986-2007, based on a consistent global trade data set derived from bilateral data. We find a considerable dependency of the EU on the appropriation of biological productivity outside its own boundaries, with increasing reliance on Latin America as a main supplier. By using the EU as an illustrative example, we demonstrate the usefulness of eHANPP for assessing land-use impacts caused by nations' socioeconomic activities and conclude that the eHANPP approach can provide useful information to better manage ecosystems globally in the face of an increasingly interconnected world.

  15. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    PubMed

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care (PASQ). Development and preliminary results in Europe and in the Spanish National Health System].

    PubMed

    Agra-Varela, Y; Fernández-Maíllo, M; Rivera-Ariza, S; Sáiz-Martínez-Acitorez, I; Casal-Gómez, J; Palanca-Sánchez, I; Bacou, J

    2015-01-01

    The joint action, European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care: PaSQ, aims to promote patient safety (PS) in the European Union (EU) and to facilitate the exchange of experiences among Member States (MS) and stakeholders on issues related to quality of care, PS, and patient involvement. The development and preliminary results are presented here, especially as regards the Spanish National Health System (SNHS). PaSQ is developed through 7 work packages, primarily aimed at sharing good practices (GP), which were identified using specific questionnaires and selected by means of explicit criteria, as well as to implement safe clinical practices (SCP) of proven effectiveness and agreed among MS. A total of 482 GP (39% provided by Spanish professionals) were identified. The 34 events organised in the EU, 11 including Spanish participation, facilitate sharing these practices. A total of 194 Health Care centres (49% in Spain) are implementing SCP (hand hygiene, safe surgery, medication reconciliation, and paediatric early warning scores) ACHIEVEMENTS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: PaSQ is making it possible to strengthen collaboration between organizations and professionals at EU and SNHS level regarding PS and quality of care. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of forest fire impacts and emissions in the European Union based on the European forest fire information system

    Treesearch

    Paulo Barbosa; Andrea Camia; Jan Kucera; Giorgio Libertá; Ilaria Palumbo; Jesus San-Miguel-Ayanz; Guido Schmuck

    2009-01-01

    An analysis on the number of forest fires and burned area distribution as retrieved by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) database is presented. On average, from 2000 to 2005 about...

  18. Alcohol poisoning in Russia and the countries in the European part of the former Soviet Union, 1970 2002.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Andreev, Evgueni; Razvodovsky, Yury; Vågerö, Denny; McKee, Martin

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the phenomenon of alcohol poisoning in Russia and the countries in the European part of the former Soviet Union in the period 1970-2002. Four time points were chosen spanning the late Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Data relating to alcohol poisoning deaths were collected at each point for the countries in the region-Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia and Ukraine. Age-standardized death rates from alcohol poisoning were subsequently calculated for the total population and separately for men and women. In 1970, the alcohol poisoning rates in the countries in this region were exceptionally high in comparative terms. Rates continued to rise in the late Soviet period in all the countries, only falling in the period following Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign. Mortality from alcohol poisoning became more common amongst women during the study period. In post-Soviet society alcohol poisoning mortality is occurring on an unprecedented scale although there may be some divergence in trends between the Slavic and Baltic countries which had mirrored each other in the Soviet period. Extremely high poisoning rates are probably explained by a combination of the volume of alcohol being consumed, what exactly is drunk and how it is being drunk. The consumption of illicitly produced alcohol in the post-Soviet period may also be contributing to the high mortality rates. Acute alcohol poisoning has now reached unprecedented rates in parts of the ex-USSR with worrying trends among men as well as among women. Effective action by the governments concerned is now essential.

  19. Smoking Behaviour, Involuntary Smoking, Attitudes towards Smoke-Free Legislations, and Tobacco Control Activities in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Gallus, Silvano; Martínez, Cristina; Sureda, Xisca; La Vecchia, Carlo; Clancy, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Background The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). Methods/Principal Findings Ecologic study in the EU27. We used data from the TCS in 2007 and from the Eurobarometer on Tobacco Survey in 2008. We analysed the relations between the TCS and prevalence of smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS (home and work), and attitudes towards smoking bans by means of scatter plots and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients (rsp). Among the EU27, smoking prevalence varied from 22.6% in Slovenia to 42.1% in Greece. Austria was the country with the lowest TCS score (35) and the UK had the highest one (93). The correlation between smoking prevalence and TCS score was negative (rsp = −0.42, p = 0.03) and the correlation between TCS score and support to smoking bans in all workplaces was positive (rsp = 0.47, p = 0.01 in restaurants; rsp = 0.5, p = 0.008 in bars, pubs, and clubs; and rsp = 0.31, p = 0.12 in other indoor workplaces). The correlation between TCS score and self-reported exposure to SHS was negative, but statistically non-significant. Conclusions/Significance Countries with a higher score in the TCS have higher support towards smoking bans in all workplaces (including restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs, and other indoor workplaces). TCS scores were strongly, but not statistically, associated with a lower prevalence of smokers and a lower self-reported exposure to SHS. PMID:21079729

  20. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union-level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake.

    PubMed

    Martin-Saborido, Carlos; Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia; Caldeira, Sandra; Wollgast, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy.

  1. Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Hąbek, Patrycja; Wolniak, Radosław

    The organization may communicate its engagement in sustainability and may presents results achieved in this field by creating and publishing corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports. Today, we can observe a growing number of companies issuing such reports as a part of their annual reports or as stand-alone CSR reports. Despite the increase in the number of such reports their quality is different. CSR reports do not always provide complete data that readers desire, which in turn intensifies the problem with the evaluation and comparison of the organization's results achieved in this scope. Differences also occur between reporting models used in different EU countries caused by, inter alia, differently applied EU legislation on the disclosure of non-financial information in different Member States. This paper is one of the first attempts to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of corporate sustainability reporting practices in several European Union countries. The purpose of this article is to present the current state of CSR reporting practices in selected EU Member States and identify the differences in the quality and level of this kind of practices, taking into account the mandatory and voluntary model of disclosure. The study included separate CSR reports as well as annual reports with CSR sections and integrated reports published in 2012 in six selected EU Member States. The authors have used a specific evaluation tool in the examination of the individual reports. The assessment questionnaire consists of seventeen criteria grouped into two categories (relevance and credibility of information). In order to assess the quality of examined reports, the authors aggregated the indicators related with the reporting practices. The findings show that the quality level of the studied reports is generally low. Referring to its components, the relevance of the information provided in the assessed reports is at the higher level than its credibility. The

  2. Bioequivalence Evaluations of Generic Dry Powder Inhaler Drug Products: Similarities and Differences Between Japan, USA, and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Toru; Sako, Hanaka; Takishita, Tomoko; Takagi, Kazunori

    2017-03-01

    In Japan, the development of generic oral dry powder inhaler (DPI) drug products for marketing approval has recently increased. The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) considers the required data for each drug product in the consultation meeting. However, guidelines for DPI drug products have been published by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. Recently, the basic principles of bioequivalence evaluations of generic DPI drug products were published in March 2016 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The document mainly outlines the current understanding regarding the bioequivalence evaluations of generic DPI drug products based on knowledge from PMDA consultation meetings. In this review, we compared the bioequivalence evaluations of DPI drug products among Japan, USA, and the European Union and discuss future development of generic DPI drug products in Japan.

  3. A Brief Outline of the Use of New Technologies for Treating Substance Use Disorders in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Quaglio, GianLuca; Schellekens, Arnt; Blankers, Matthijs; Hoch, Eva; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Esposito, Giovanni; Brand, Helmut; Nutt, David; Kiefer, Falk

    2017-08-12

    Clinicians in the field of drug addiction have started to exploit the growth of Technology-Based Interventions (TBIs). However, there is little information on how health personnel evaluate them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 20 European experts. All of the interviewees recognised TBIs as a valuable tool to improve the management of substance-use disorders (SUDs). Most interviewees indicated that combining both traditional face-to-face therapist-patient clinic appointment with TBIs is probably the most effective method. Most interviewees agree that TBIs are valuable tools to overcome both physical and social barriers, and hence significantly facilitate the access to treatment. Poor infrastructure and lack of digital literacy are recognised as major barriers to the diffusion of these tools. The application of various forms of technology in SUD treatment is an interesting development for the European Union. Technical and non-technical barriers exist and impede their full exploitation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Lessons learnt to keep Europe polio-free: a review of outbreaks in the European Union, European Economic Area, and candidate countries, 1973 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Derrough, Tarik; Salekeen, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor the outbreaks and their geographical spread. Outbreaks were predominantly caused by poliovirus type 1 and typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated groups within highly immunised communities. Oral polio vaccine was primarily used to respond to the outbreaks with catch-up campaigns implemented either nationwide or in restricted geographical areas or age groups. The introduction of supplementary immunisation contained the outbreaks. In 2002, the European region of the World Health Organization was declared polio-free and it has maintained this status since. However, as long as there are non-vaccinated or under-vaccinated groups in European countries and poliomyelitis is not eradicated, countries remain continuously at risk of reintroduction and establishment of the virus. Continued efforts to reach these groups are needed in order to ensure a uniform and high vaccination coverage.

  5. Waste Management in the European Union: National Self-Sufficiency and Harmonization at the Expense of Economic Efficiency?

    PubMed

    KARL; RANNÉ

    1999-02-01

    / Since 1975, the European Union (EU) has developed an impressive body of waste management legislation, although, according to the principle of subsidiarity, responsibilities belong to the most local level at which the tasks can be carried out effectively. Using economic theory, this paper examines several factors that influence the efficient distribution of regulatory authority among the EU and the member states. We specifically analyze the role of harmonization that, in our opinion, will often lead to an overcentralization. Within this context, a second issue is becoming more important, as ongoing discussions show. If no consensus can be reached about harmonization, should member states be allowed to stop cross-border shipments of waste, or should the EU strive for a common market for waste? We take the position that most objections against waste shipments are not convincing, especially if the member states implement minimum standards for landfills and waste processing facilities and common information and control systems. Competition between different national regulations within adequate constraints that, e.g., control transboundary externalities leads to more efficient waste management structures in Europe than national self-sufficiency or centralized decision-making at the EU level. KEY WORDS: Waste management; European Union; Subsidiarity; Institutional competition; Harmonization; Cross-border shipments of waste

  6. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  7. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoicracy that we call ‘republican intergovernmentalism’. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making. PMID:26924935

  8. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-02-07

    The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoicracy that we call 'republican intergovernmentalism'. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making.

  9. [Professional profile and responsibility of the qualified person within the European Union].

    PubMed

    Valverde, J L

    1999-01-01

    The European Community has established a fundamental condition for opening a pharmaceutical laboratory, i.e. the designation of a qualified person having the professional profile detailed in the European Community Directive and who is responsible for implementing specific obligations. It is the final responsibility of this qualified person to release medicine on the market. Do to the importance of this person, we have analyzed his/her functions, obligations and responsibilities. The training required to fulfil the functions of a qualified person is presented. The profiles of qualified persons in the most representative European countries are discussed to demonstrate analogies and differences in national legislations and their adaptation to European Community regulations.

  10. Update on the Risk of Introduction of African Swine Fever by Wild Boar into Disease-Free European Union Countries.

    PubMed

    Bosch, J; Rodríguez, A; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Jurado, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; de la Torre, A

    2016-06-28

    Despite efforts to prevent the appearance and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in the European Union, several Member States are now affected (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Estonia). Disease appearance in 2014 was associated with multiple entrances linked to wild boar movement from endemic areas (EFSA Journal, 8, 2015, 1556), but the risk of new introductions remains high (Gallardo et al., Porcine Health Management, 1, and 21) as ASF continues to be active in endemic countries (Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine). Since 2014, the number of ASF notifications has increased substantially, particularly in wild boar (WB), in parallel with slow but constant geographical advance of the disease. This situation suggests a real risk of further disease spread into other Member States, posing a great threat to pig production in the EU. Following the principles of the risk-based veterinary surveillance, this article applies a methodology developed by De la Torre et al. (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, and 272) to assess the relative risk of new introductions of ASF by natural movements of WB according to the current epidemiological situation. This update incorporates the most recent available data and an improved version of the most important risk estimator: an optimized cartographic tool of WB distribution to analyse wild boar suitable habitat. The highest relative risk values were estimated for Slovakia (5) and Romania (5), followed by Finland (4), Czech Republic (3) and Germany (3). Relative risk for Romania and Finland is associated mainly with disease entrance from endemic areas such as the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where the disease is currently spreading; relative risk for Germany and Czech Republic is associated mainly with the potential progress of the disease through the EU, and relative risk for Slovakia is associated with both pathways. WB habitat is the most important risk estimator, whereas WB density is the least significant, suggesting

  11. Towards new recommendations to reduce the burden of alcohol-induced hypertension in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Anderson, Peter; Prieto, Jose Angel Arbesu; Armstrong, Iain; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Bachmann, Michael; Bastus, Nuria Bastida; Brotons, Carlos; Burton, Robyn; Cardoso, Manuel; Colom, Joan; Duprez, Daniel; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni; Kraus, Ludwig; Kreutz, Reinhold; Liira, Helena; Manthey, Jakob; Møller, Lars; Okruhlica, Ľubomír; Roerecke, Michael; Scafato, Emanuele; Schulte, Bernd; Segura-Garcia, Lidia; Shield, Kevin David; Sierra, Cristina; Vyshinskiy, Konstantin; Wojnar, Marcin; Zarco, José

    2017-09-28

    Hazardous and harmful alcohol use and high blood pressure are central risk factors related to premature non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality worldwide. A reduction in the prevalence of both risk factors has been suggested as a route to reach the global NCD targets. This study aims to highlight that screening and interventions for hypertension and hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary healthcare can contribute substantially to achieving the NCD targets. A consensus conference based on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical guidelines, experimental studies, and statistical modelling which had been presented and discussed in five preparatory meetings, was undertaken. Specifically, we modelled changes in blood pressure distributions and potential lives saved for the five largest European countries if screening and appropriate intervention rates in primary healthcare settings were increased. Recommendations to handle alcohol-induced hypertension in primary healthcare settings were derived at the conference, and their degree of evidence was graded. Screening and appropriate interventions for hazardous alcohol use and use disorders could lower blood pressure levels, but there is a lack in implementing these measures in European primary healthcare. Recommendations included (1) an increase in screening for hypertension (evidence grade: high), (2) an increase in screening and brief advice on hazardous and harmful drinking for people with newly detected hypertension by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals (evidence grade: high), (3) the conduct of clinical management of less severe alcohol use disorders for incident people with hypertension in primary healthcare (evidence grade: moderate), and (4) screening for alcohol use in hypertension that is not well controlled (evidence grade: moderate). The first three measures were estimated to result in a decreased hypertension prevalence and hundreds of saved lives annually in the examined countries

  12. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-13

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  13. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries’ National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013–2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories. PMID:27089364

  14. Conducting Research into European Union Education and Training Policy: Some Theoretical and Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David; Economou, Anastasia

    1999-01-01

    Discusses PRESTIGE, the project funded by the European Commission within its Training and Mobility Researchers program, describing the research design of the Oxford part of the project. Describes a comparative study of the implementation of the 'European Dimension' in education in England, Scotland, and Wales. Considers the methodological and…

  15. 78 FR 78923 - Comparability Determination for the European Union: Certain Entity-Level Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... request by the European Commission (``EC'') and the European Securities and Markets Authority (``ESMA..., the EC and ESMA (collectively, the ``applicant'') submitted a request that the Commission determine... the EU On May 7, 2013, the EC and ESMA submitted a request that the Commission assess...

  16. Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Science in the European Union: The "ETAN Report."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Examines the underrepresentation of European women in science, engineering, and technology, discussing the European Technology Assessment Network (ETAN)report on promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality. Women leave scientific careers in disproportionate numbers. Gender equality can be developed through equal treatment, positive…

  17. The Contribution of European Vocational Training Policy to Reforms in the Partner Countries of the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent developments in EU vocational education and training (VET) policy, and of the issues and challenges faced by VET systems in the Western Balkans, Turkey, and other countries covered by the "wider European neighbourhood" policy. The purpose is to emphasise the relevance for these countries of the…

  18. An Assessment of the Results of European Parliament Elections in Greece and European Union Under the Shadow of Economic Crisis.

    PubMed

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    On January 1, 1981, Greece became the tenth member of the European Economic Community and, 20 years later, on January 1, 2001, joined the euro area. In May of 2010 and February of 2012, Greece signed the first and the second economic adjustment programs and adopted austerity policies throughout the public sector in order to avoid the economic collapse, affecting residents' income and health status. We studied the questionnaires of polls conducted in Greece before the elections of the European Parliament (May 25, 2014) and the "Europeans 2014" Eurobarometer's survey in March of 2014. The responses of Greek voters from the Greek polls were alarming, pointing out their declining personal economic situation and Greece's national economic situation, with a sense that the country was heading in the wrong direction, declaring themselves unsatisfied and insecure. The responses of Greek voters from the "Europeans 2014" survey were even more alarming. Health was the first priority for the voters. As the Greek polls and the Eurobarometer's survey forecasted, but more significantly as the results of the Euro-elections showed, Greek voters preferred to put their hopes in something new.

  19. Joint United States-European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for In Situ Biogradation

    SciTech Connect

    Suflita, Joseph M.; Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-08-14

    The Joint United States - European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for in situ Biodegradation was held May 24 through June 7 at The University of Oklahoma. Twenty-four graduate and postgraduate students from both the United States and the European Union attended the course. Nine states and ten European countries were represented. Students were assigned living quarters and laboratory partners to maximize interactions between US and EU participants as well as to mix people with different technical backgrounds together. The students used the latest methods in molecular biology to characterize beneficial microorganisms and genes involved in the biodegradation of pollutants at a nearby landfill as well as an active hydrocarbon-producing site, part of which is undergoing bioremediation. Seminars by distinguished scientists were organized to expose the students to the breadth of the environmental field, including field assay and engineering applications, laboratory scale bioreactors, microbiology, genetics, regulation, pathway analysis, design of recombinant bacteria, and application of the associated techniques to the field. Lectures were given by various OU faculty on the principles behind the techniques to be used in the laboratory. These lectures included troubleshooting hints and encouraged questions and comments from the audience. The laboratory experiments covered chemical, microbiological, and molecular genetic analyses of soils; bioavailability of contaminants; enrichment cultures; gene probing; PCR amplification of known genes and gene families; identification of microbes based traditional and nontraditional approaches, nutritional capabilities, and 16S rRNA sequence; mRNA detection; and enzyme assays. Field trips were made to the USGS landfill field sampling site, and to the Tall Grass Prairie Preserve, a Nature Conservancy site which also featured long-term studies of bioremediation of crude oil and brine spills by one of the

  20. The precautionary principle within European Union public health policy. The implementation of the principle under conditions of supranationality and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Lila; van Meurs, Philip

    2003-11-01

    The present study examines the precautionary principle within the parameters of public health policy in the European Union, regarding both its meaning, as it has been shaped by relevant EU institutions and their counterparts within the Member States, and its implementation in practice. In the initial section I concentrate on the methodological question of "scientific uncertainty" concerning the calculation of risk and possible damage. Calculation of risk in many cases justifies the adopting of preventive measures, but, as it is argued, the principle of precaution and its implementation cannot be wholly captured by a logic of calculation; such a principle does not only contain scientific uncertainty-as the preventive principle does-but it itself is generated as a principle by this scientific uncertainty, recognising the need for a society to act. Thus, the implementation of the precautionary principle is also a simultaneous search for justification of its status as a principle. This justification would result in the adoption of precautionary measures against risk although no proof of this principle has been produced based on the "cause-effect" model. The main part of the study is occupied with an examination of three cases from which the stance of the official bodies of the European Union towards the precautionary principle and its implementation emerges: the case of the "mad cows" disease, the case of production and commercialization of genetically modified foodstuffs. The study concludes with the assessment that the effective implementation of the precautionary principle on a European level depends on the emergence of a concerned Europe-wide citizenship and its acting as a mechanism to counteract the material and social conditions that pose risks for human health.