Science.gov

Sample records for european utility communications

  1. Integrating utility communication systems

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, S.K. ); Colley, R.; Iveson, R.H.; Malcolm, W.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Today, utilities are facing increasing pressures of deregulation, competition, changing business conditions and varying customer requirements. Existing computers and communications systems were installed with limited capabilities to communicate with other systems. The result, say many utilities, is an electronic Tower of Babel among computers that are unable to readily talk to one another or, if they can, haven't much say because of vastly different database structures. This paper reports that estimates of the industry's operating costs for telecommunications range from $2 billion to more likely $5 billion a year, with some individual company budgets growing as much as 25% a year. A typical medium-size utility will spend $35 million in annual telecommunication expenses. EPRI has been tasked by it member utilities to develop guidelines and specification that would support the development of integrated nonproprietary, interoperable utility communications systems. Substantial cost savings and improved performance are the key reasons for communications for new products and services result when a utility can share information, across all operations, in an effective and timely manner.

  2. Energy essays: a focus on utility communication

    SciTech Connect

    Selnow, G.W.; Crano, W.D.; Ludwig, S.; Messe, L.A.

    1981-08-01

    The following papers are included: (1) technology, customers, and the feedback loop, (2) utility communications: a need for understanding the American character, (3) utility programs and grass roots communication, (4) reading the tea leaves of public opinion, (5) the need for public opinion surveys in utility communication programs, (6) the role of assessment in effective utility communication programs, (7) utility customer communication; perspectives on current public policy and law, (8) customer communications - a notion in motion, (9) communication when your customer is your owner, (10) radio advertising, (11) television advertising, (12) newspaper advertising, and (13) magazine advertising. (MOW)

  3. European small geostationary communications satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei, , Dr.; Ellmers, Frank; Winkler, Andreas; Schuff, Herbert; Sansegundo Chamarro, Manuel Julián

    2011-04-01

    Hispasat Advanced Generation 1 (HAG1) is the first satellite using the SGEO platform, which is under the development in the ESA Artes-11 program. Since the last presentation in the IAC 2007, a European industrial consortium led by OHB has completed the mission and spacecraft design. The platform Preliminary Design Review has been carried out in May 2008. The customer for the first mission is a commercial operator—Hispasat. The contract was signed in December 2008 and the satellite will be launched in 2012. To give confidence to the customer, SGEO platform will use up to date flight proven technologies. HAG1 carries 20/24 Ku-band and 3/5 Ka-band transponders to provide commercial services. Some innovative payload technologies will also be flown on board of HAG1 to gain in-orbit heritage. SGEO has also been selected as the baseline platform for the ESA Data Relay Satellite (EDRS). Phase-A study has just kicked off in January 2009. The targeted launch date is 2013. Heinrich Hertz will also use the SGEO platform. Heinrich Hertz is funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and provides flight opportunities for technologies and components developed by the German Space Industry. With the HAG1 contract in hand, and EDRS and Heinrich Hertz in the line, OHB with its partners has the confidence that it will be able to speed up the product development of the SGEO platform for potential customers in the commercial market. This paper will first present the updated platform design and the status of the product development will be followed with the introduction of innovative payload technologies on board the first mission—HAG1 and ended with the mission concepts of EDRS and Heinrich Hertz missions.

  4. The future of European Communications Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.

    1984-02-01

    The paper, which is based on the work of a Eurospace Study Group on future prospects, reviews the problems arising from the introduction of new technologies in the industrial process of developing and manufacturing communications satellites, covering the topics of engineering, manufacturing, integration and test, and in-space management. It continues by considering the commerical and industrial problems encountered by European manufacturers, and the contractual and legal problems arising from the change of customer base, from ESA to user organizations, and from the political problems which stem from cross-border transmission of TV broadcasting and data transfer. It then considers the marketing problems of the spacecraft manufacturer - his remoteness from the end-user of telecommunications circuits, the competition from new technology in conventional communications, and the intense competition from U.S. competitors, who have the advantage of both military and domestic and international civil programs on which to develop technology. It concludes with a brief review of current and future spacecraft developments by British Aerospace, and some possible communications satellite configurations for the 1990's.

  5. Do manatees utilize infrasonic communication or detection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstein, Edmund; Gerstein, Laura; Forsythe, Steve; Blue, Joseph

    2004-05-01

    Some researchers speculate Sirenians might utilize infrasonic communication like their distant elephant cousins; however, audiogram measurements and calibrated manatee vocalizations do not support this contention. A comprehensive series of hearing tests conducted with West Indian manatees yielded the first and most definitive audiogram for any Sirenian. The manatee hearing tests were also the first controlled underwater infrasonic psychometric tests with any marine mammal. Auditory thresholds were measured from 0.4 to 46 kHz, but detection thresholds of possible vibrotactile origin were measured as low as 0.015 kHz. Manatees have short hairs on their bodies that may be sensitive vibrotactile receptors capable of detecting particle displacement in the near field. To detect these signals the manatee rotated on axis, exposing the densest portion of hairs toward the projector. Manatees inhabit shallow water where particle motion detection may be more useful near the water's surface, where sound pressures are low due to the Lloyd mirror effect. With respect to intraspecific communication, no infrasonic spectra have been identified in hundreds of calibrated calls. Low source levels and propagation limits in shallow-water habitats suggest low-frequency manatee calls have limited utility over long distances and infrasonic communication is not an attribute shared with elephants.

  6. Do manatees utilize infrasonic communication or detection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstein, Edmund; Gerstein, Laura; Forsythe, Steve; Blue, Joseph

    2001-05-01

    Some researchers speculate Sirenians might utilize infrasonic communication like their distant elephant cousins; however, audiogram measurements and calibrated manatee vocalizations do not support this contention. A comprehensive series of hearing tests conducted with West Indian manatees yielded the first and most definitive audiogram for any Sirenian. The manatee hearing tests were also the first controlled underwater infrasonic psychometric tests with any marine mammal. Auditory thresholds were measured from 0.4 to 46 kHz, but detection thresholds of possible vibrotactile origin were measured as low as 0.015 kHz. Manatees have short hairs on their bodies that may be sensitive vibrotactile receptors capable of detecting particle displacement in the near field. To detect these signals the manatee rotated on axis, exposing the densest portion of hairs toward the projector. Manatees inhabit shallow water where particle motion detection may be more useful near the water's surface, where sound pressures are low due to the Lloyd mirror effect. With respect to intraspecific communication, no infrasonic spectra have been identified in hundreds of calibrated calls. Low source levels and propagation limits in shallow-water habitats suggest low-frequency manatee calls have limited utility over long distances and infrasonic communication is not an attribute shared with elephants.

  7. Five years of EACH (European Association for Communication in Healthcare).

    PubMed

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Finset, Arnstein; Langewitz, Wolf; Zimmermann, Christa; Peltenburg, Michael; Visser, Adriaan; Bensing, Jozien

    2006-09-01

    Five years after launching EACH (European Association for Communication in Healthcare) we look back at what EACH achieved so far and announce new ideas and activities EACH plans to carry out in the near future. During the past five years several scientific, educational as well as societal changes have taken place in the area of communication in healthcare that all underline the need for continued international collaboration in line with the activities employed by EACH so far. Within communication research the focus has shifted from counting communication utterances to unraveling sequences of patient cues and provider responses. In the field of teaching it is becoming more and more common to attend to the training of trainers as well. Within these developments, new areas of interest arise and need attention. To comply with these increasing demands, EACH invites new persons to become a member of one of the recently launched committees in the area of research, teaching and publishing.

  8. Strategic Communication and its Utility in Ecosystem Service ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The field of Strategic Communication involves a focused effort to identify, develop, and present multiple types of communication media on a given subject. A Strategic Communication program recognizes the limitations of the most common communication models (primarily “one size fits all” and “presenting everything and letting the audience decide what is important”) and specifically focuses on building a communication framework that is composed of three interlinked pillars: message – Identifying the right content for a given audience and a vehicle; audience – Identify the right target group for a given message and vehicle; vehicle – Identifying the right types of media for a given message and audience. In addition to serving as an organizational framework, the physical structure of a Strategic Communication plan also can serve as a way to show an audience where they, the message, and vehicle fit into the larger picture (i.e., “you are here”). This presentation will explore the process of designing a Strategic Communication plan and examine some examples of its utility in the field of ecosystem services science. Ideally, a strategic communication matrix can be utilized to identify and access the materials of interest for any given activity (i.e., avoids the need to recreate materials or use the wrong materials for the wrong audience). Challenges in implementation will also be explored. Abstract for ACES conference

  9. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Johannes L.M.; Barcari, Elena; Hradecky, Marc; Trefz, Simone; Tolasch, Till; Gantert, Cornelia; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897), the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z)-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z)-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z)-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies. PMID:26462831

  10. The Development and Utilizations of Subsidiary Communications Authorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lorne A.

    1969-01-01

    "Lorne Parker's article is based on his book, 'SCA, A New Medium' (Madison: University Extension, University of Wisconsin, 1969). He gives a brief history of Subsidiary Communications Authorization systems, describes the technology, and treats extensively the commercial and educational utilizations. (Editor)

  11. The role of the European court of justice in the Europeanization of communicable disease control: driver or irrelevance?

    PubMed

    Hervey, Tamara

    2012-12-01

    What role(s) does the European Court of Justice (ECJ) play in the Europeanization of communicable disease control? Drawing on a review of the ECJ's case law, especially but not exclusively in public health fields, from the 1950s to 2009, this article argues that the ECJ's past and present role in the Europeanization of communicable disease control is neither that of a driver nor that of an irrelevance. Instead, the ECJ has been responsible for four important elements of the environment that over time led to the Europeanization of communicable disease control in general and the establishment of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in particular: (1) the European Union itself has responsibility for public health; (2) agencies are a constitutionally permissible institutional arrangement in the EU; (3) EU legislation that inter alia protects public health is mandatory and justiciable; and (4) such EU legislation may not be undermined by liberalizing internal market law. A fifth idea, "mainstreaming" public health, could play a role in the future.

  12. Archives, Libraries and Museums as Communicators of Memory in the European Union Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzuch, Zinaida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Explores the approach to communication of memory in archives, libraries and museums in European Union research projects in 2000-2005. The main objectives were: to identify predominant aspects of heritage communication; to determine whether and how heritage communication was related to memory; to establish patterns of participation in…

  13. Technical communications in aerospace - An analysis of the practices reported by U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    The flow of scientific and technical information (STI) at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels is studied. The responses of U.S and European aerospace engineers and scientists to questionnaires concerning technical communications in aerospace are examined. Particular attention is given to the means used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Demographic data about the survey respondents are provided. The methods used to communicate technical data and the sources utilized to solve technical problems are described. The importance of technical writing skills and the use of computer technology in the aerospace field are discussed. The derived data are useful for R&D and information managers in order to improve access to and utilization of aerospace STI.

  14. Intercultural Communicative Competence in the Context of the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coperias Aguilar, Maria Jose

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the close relationship between the European higher education area (EHEA), the common European framework of reference for languages and intercultural communicative competence (ICC) and show how the implementation of ICC in foreign language teaching can become an essential tool to acquire the full achievement of the EHEA.…

  15. Bandwidth utilization maximization of scientific RF communication systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, D.; Ryan, W.; Ross, M.

    1997-01-01

    A method for more efficiently utilizing the frequency bandwidth allocated for data transmission is presented. Current space and range communication systems use modulation and coding schemes that transmit 0.5 to 1.0 bits per second per Hertz of radio frequency bandwidth. The goal in this LDRD project is to increase the bandwidth utilization by employing advanced digital communications techniques. This is done with little or no increase in the transmit power which is usually very limited on airborne systems. Teaming with New Mexico State University, an implementation of trellis coded modulation (TCM), a coding and modulation scheme pioneered by Ungerboeck, was developed for this application and simulated on a computer. TCM provides a means for reliably transmitting data while simultaneously increasing bandwidth efficiency. The penalty is increased receiver complexity. In particular, the trellis decoder requires high-speed, application-specific digital signal processing (DSP) chips. A system solution based on the QualComm Viterbi decoder and the Graychip DSP receiver chips is presented.

  16. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  17. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization.

  18. Infant Communicative Development Assessed with the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frota, Sónia; Butler, Joseph; Correia, Susana; Severino, Cátia; Vicente, Selene; Vigário, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories short forms, the first published instruments for the assessment of language development in EP-learning infants and toddlers. Normative data from the EP population are presented, focusing on developmental trends for vocabulary learning, production…

  19. Strategic Communication and its Utility in Ecosystem Service Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    The field of Strategic Communication involves a focused effort to identify, develop, and present multiple types of communication media on a given subject. A Strategic Communication program recognizes the limitations of the most common communication models (primarily “one s...

  20. Communication, Development, and New Social Movements: A European Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servaes, Jan

    At the present time the social sciences implicitly or explicitly start from a normative vision which has a dialectical objective: a reasoning that is at once theoretical and practical, or that is both a political and a scientific discourse. A focus on Jurgen Habermas' theory of communicative action provides possibilities of shifting the frontier…

  1. The European Tactical Air Control System versus Communication Jamming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    Granted the creation of a special type of unit to handle this problem is some response. however the fact that they are attempting to operate with jerry ... Workman , A User’s Introduction to the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Vol I (Bedford, MA: The MITRE Corp. for U.S. Air Force...themselves may not be fatal to the utility of the system. ’ Workman , Introduction to JTIDS, p. 13. 2Leiner, Vulnerability of Packet Radio Networks, p. 4

  2. Utilization of Information and Communication Technologies as a Predictor of Educational Stress on Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskicumali, Ahmet; Arslan, Serhat; Demirtas, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between utilization of information and communication technologies and educational stress. Participants were 411 secondary school students. Educational Stress Scale and Utilization of Information and Communication Technologies Scale were used as measures. The relationships between students'…

  3. The utilization of Computer Mediated Communication for case study collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gwozdek, Anne E; Klausner, Christine P; Kerschbaum, Wendy E

    2008-01-01

    Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) can be used as an effective tool for student communication and collaboration. First-year, first-semester dental hygiene students self-selected groups to develop dental hygiene process of care treatment plans, written reports, and oral case presentations based on assigned clinical cases. In consultation with the University of Michigan (UM) Digital Media Commons Collaborative Technologies Teams, CMC options were identified. Two chat rooms were established within the UM's Course Management System (CTools) to provide opportunities for synchronous (simultaneous, real-time) communication. One course blog site and 8 case blog sites were developed to provide students and instructors with electronic asynchronous (nonsimultaneous) communication formats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of these technologies during group case study projects. CMC has the potential to provide an effective means of collaboration and communication when the technologies align with the purpose of the project and compliment the dynamics of student groups.

  4. Utilizing technology for longitudinal communication with homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Begun, Stephanie; DePrince, Anne; Haffejee, Badiah; Kaufmann, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    The current study investigated forms of technology (phone calls, texts, email and Facebook) for maintaining contact with homeless youth over baseline, 1-week, 6-week, and 3-month follow-up interviews. The study combined quantitative tracking of youths' response patterns and open-ended interviews regarding youths' preferred methods of communication. Results indicate that maintaining communication with homeless youth requires persistence, including frequent contact attempts over several days. Cell phone contacts (calls or texts) were most successful in communicating with youth, with e-mail and Facebook messaging useful when phones were lost or stolen. Youth who maintained contact were strikingly similar to youth who discontinued contact.

  5. The communication of physical science uncertainty in European National Adaptation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, S; Dessai, S; Paavola, J; Forster, P M

    Many European countries have developed National Adaptation Strategies (NAS) to guide adaptation to the expected impacts of climate change. There is a need for more structured communication of the uncertainties related to future climate and its impacts so that adaptation actions can be planned and implemented effectively and efficiently. We develop a novel uncertainty assessment framework for comparing approaches to the inclusion and communication of physical science uncertainty, and use it to analyse ten European NAS. The framework is based on but modifies and integrates the notion of the "cascade of uncertainties" and the NUSAP (Numeral Unit Spread Assessment Pedigree) methodology to include the overarching assessment categories of Numerical Value, Spread, Depth and Substantiation. Our assessment indicates that there are marked differences between the NAS in terms of inclusion and communication of physical science uncertainty. We find that there is a bias towards the communication of quantitative uncertainties as opposed to qualitative uncertainties. Through the examination of the English and German NAS, we find that similar stages of development in adaptation policy planning can nevertheless result in differences in handling physical science uncertainty. We propose that the degree of transparency and openness on physical science uncertainty is linked to the wider socio-political context within which the NAS are framed. Our methodology can help raise awareness among NAS users about the explicit and embedded information on physical science uncertainty within the existing NAS and would help to design more structured uncertainty communication in new or revised NAS.

  6. Free Space Optical Communications Utilizing MEMS Adaptive Optics Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Flath, L M; Wilks, S C; Young, R A; Johnson, G W; Ruggiero, A J

    2002-07-09

    Free space optical communications (FSO) are beginning to provide attractive alternatives to fiber-based solutions in many situations. Currently, a handful of companies provide fiberless alternatives specifically aimed at corporate intranet and sporting event video applications. These solutions are geared toward solving the ''last mile'' connectivity issues. There exists a potential need to extend this pathlength to distances much greater than a 1 km, particularly for government and military applications. For cases of long distance optical propagation, atmospheric turbulence will ultimately limit the maximum achievable data rate. In this paper, we propose a method to improve signal quality through the use of adaptive optics. In particular, we show work in progress toward a high-speed, small footprint Adaptive Optics system for horizontal and slant path laser communications. Such a system relies heavily on recent progress in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirrors, as well as improved communication and computational components.

  7. Creating a Linear Model to Optimize Satellite Communication Bandwidth Utilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Don’t write a GRP to fill an academic square; write a paper that will be useful to someone.” Lt Col Rick Folks and Maj Matt Lupone at JCS/J6SC were kind...radio waves for global communications is bending those straight paths of travel around the curvature of the earth. While some radio frequencies can...communications. A solution to bending the signal around the world is to “bounce” it off some object that can reflect it around the curvature of the earth

  8. Utilization of Information and Communication Technologies in Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saadati, Farzaneh; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Attention to integrate technology in teaching and learning has provided a major transformation in the landscape of education. Therefore, many innovations in teaching and learning have been technology-driven. The study attempted to examine what is engineering students' perception regarding the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)…

  9. Secure optical communication system utilizing deformable MEMS mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziph-Schatzberg, Leah; Bifano, Thomas; Cornelissen, Steven; Stewart, Jason; Bleier, Zvi

    2009-02-01

    An optical communication system suitable for voice, data retrieval from remote sensors and identification is described. The system design allows operation at ranges of several hundred meters. The heart of the system is a modulated MEMS mirror that is electrostatically actuated and changes between a flat reflective state and a corrugated diffractive state. A process for mass producing these mirrors at low cost was developed and is described. The mirror was incorporated as a facet in a hollow retro-reflector, allowing temporal modulation of an interrogating beam and the return of the modulated beam to the interrogator. This system thus consists of a low power, small and light communication node with large (about 60°) angular extent. The system's range and pointing are determined by the interrogator /detector/demodulator (Transceiver) unit. The transceiver is comprised of an optical channel to establish line of sight communication, an interrogating laser at 1550nm, an avalanche photo diode to detect the return signal and electronics to drive the laser and demodulate the detected signal and convert it to an audio signal. A functional prototype system was built using a modified compact optical sight as the transceiver. Voice communication in free space was demonstrated. The design and test of major components and the complete system are discussed.

  10. ISS Efforts to Fully Utilize its Target Acquisition Capability Serves as an Analog for Future Laser Pointing Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The ISS is an outstanding platform for developing, testing and refining laser communications systems for future exploration. A recent ISS project which improved ISS communications satellite acquisition performance proves the platform’s utility as a laser communications systems testbed.

  11. Radio frequency communication system utilizing radiating transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Struven, Warren C.

    1984-01-01

    A radio communication system for use in tunnels, mines, buildings or other shielded locations in which a pair of radiating transmission lines (30), (31) extend through such location in spaced coextensive relation to each other. Each transmission line (30), (31) has at least one unidirectional amplifier (32), (33) interposed therein with the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (32) of one transmission line (30) being opposite to the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (33) of the other transmission line (31). Each of the amplifiers (32), (33) has a gain which is less than the coupling loss between the transmission lines (30), (31). Two or more mobile transceivers (35) in the location served by the system are coupled to the transmission lines (30), (31) by electromagnetic wave propagation in space in order to communicate directly with each other at a given radio frequency within the frequency range of the system.

  12. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John S. F.; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002–13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009–13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals. PMID:27111670

  13. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mursheda; Lewison, Grant; Wright, John S F; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002-13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009-13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals.

  14. Utility of Space Transportation System to Space Communication Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    A potentially cost effective technique was investigated of launching operational satellites into synchronous orbit using the space transportation system (STS). This technique uses an unguided spinning solid rocket motor as the means for boosting a satellite from a low altitude shuttle parking orbit into a synchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft is then injected into a geosynchronous orbit by an apogee kick motor fired at transfer orbit apogee. The approach is essentially that used on all Delta and Atlas-Centaur launches of synchronous satellites with the shuttle orbiter performing the function of the first two stages of the Delta three stage launch vehicle and the perigee kick motor performing the function of the Delta third state. It is concluded that the STS can be useful to the space communication community as well as to other geostationary satellite system users if the recommended actions are implemented.

  15. Geostationary communications satellite orbit utilization strategies for the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedinger, R. A.

    Orbital congestion became apparent when the number of applications filed with the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) for 6/4 GHz orbital slots exceeded the number of slots available. In order to overcome this congestion, approaches must be studied for increasing the capacity of the geostationary orbit. In connection with an identification of the factors which affect geostationary orbit capacity, three types of capacity are introduced, including site capacity, service area capacity, and total capacity of the geostationary orbit. Attention is given to approaches for increasing the number of satellites in the geostationary orbit, the phased introduction of new technology, increased interference allocations from other satellites, methods for increasing the spectral efficiency by channel equipment design, the possibility to increase the spectral efficiency by antenna design and frequency reuse, procedures for increasing the available bandwidth, and the development of techniques for optimizing the placement of satellites serving different service areas.

  16. Terrorism and the Communication Utilities: A National Security Concern?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-23

    i l I I I i l B 𔃽 TF F R 1_. AUTHOR : I. wood .. Greene r. [ .... VC TITLE: Terrorim ;rn and the Communnication Utilities-A National Secu r itv Conce...ihood of a nuclear confrontation is less R.n edo One of the neiative results of this is the potential fo<.- an increase in terrorist activity by...sponsorshiip of terrorist groups provides a safe, cheap, and sound course of action, compared with the risks of a nuclear or ccnventional

  17. The Views of Young Women on HPV Vaccine Communication in Four European Countries.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Dafina; Brunton, Carol Gray; Jaeger, Moritz; Lenneis, Anita; Munoz, Rocio; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Todorova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and can cause cervical cancer. Two vaccines are available to protect against the most common strands of the virus. Vaccination programs differ across Europe but most neglect young adults, who are the group with the highest risk of contracting STIs. Our aim was to explore the views of young women from four European countries—Scotland, Spain, Serbia, and Bulgaria - about the HPV vaccine communication strategy. These countries are characterized by different cervical cancer prevalence and vaccine implementation policies. We conducted focus group discussions with young women (aged 18-26) with various vaccination histories in a purposive sample. We subjected the data to thematic analysis with the purpose of identifying themes related to communication about the HPV vaccine. We recorded the information sources mentioned by participants. Participants discussed numerous sources of vaccine-related information. They approached information critically rather than naively and questioned the sources' trustworthiness and motives. Participants desired transparent information about the risks of the virus and the risks and benefits of the vaccine. These risks and benefits were individualized in view of personal and external factors. Particular aspects of the vaccine and the way information was communicated resulted in feelings of uncertainty. There were notable cross-cultural differences in experiences with HPV vaccine communication. Our results suggest that transparent risk communication about the HPV vaccine is valued by young women. In addition, both individual and culturally-dependent factors influenced experiences with, and preference for information.

  18. The European Network of Uropathology: a novel mechanism for communication between pathologists.

    PubMed

    Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Berney, Dan M; Boccon-Gibod, Liliane; Griffiths, David F; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Mikuz, Gregor; Varma, Murali; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2009-04-01

    In pathology there is a need to rapidly disseminate professional information to the appropriate target groups. This is a surprisingly difficult task on an international level. Therefore, the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP) was recently organized by the Uropathology Working Group of the European Society of Pathology. The purposes were to establish a channel for distribution of information about uropathology, such as guidelines, consensus documents, meetings and courses; to organize research collaborations; and to set up mechanisms for survey studies. ENUP has recruited a total of 374 individual members from 338 pathology laboratories in 15 Western European countries. E-mail is used for all communication, and studies are carried out through interactive Web sites. Information e-mails are sent regularly, and 2 Web-based surveys on handling and reporting of urologic specimens have been conducted. Here we report on the methods used to organize this novel information network. We think that ENUP could serve as a model for other fields of pathology and other geographic regions.

  19. Academic Staff Utilization of Information and Communication Technology and Knowledge Creation in Cross River State Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Etor, Comfort Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined academic staff utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in knowledge creation in universities in Cross River State. The study was guided by two research questions and one hypothesis. A questionnaire was developed, validated and used for data collection from a sample of 300 academic staff. Descriptive…

  20. Utilization of KSC Present Broadband Communications Data System For Digital Video Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrawis, Alfred S.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers a visibility study of utilizing present KSC broadband communications data system (BCDS) for digital video services. Digital video services include compressed digital TV delivery and video-on-demand. Furthermore, the study examines the possibility of providing interactive video on demand to desktop personal computers via KSC computer network.

  1. Utilization of KSC Present Broadband Communications Data System for Digital Video Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrawis, Alfred S.

    2002-01-01

    This report covers a visibility study of utilizing present KSC broadband communications data system (BCDS) for digital video services. Digital video services include compressed digital TV delivery and video-on-demand. Furthermore, the study examines the possibility of providing interactive video on demand to desktop personal computers via KSC computer network.

  2. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  3. Final Report Report: Smart Grid Ready PV Inverters with Utility Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, Brian; Huque, Aminul; Rogers, Lindsey; Key, Tom; Riley, Cameron; Li, Huijuan; York, Ben; Purcell, Chris; Pacific, Oliver; Ropp, Michael; Tran, Teresa; Asgeirsson, Hawk; Woodard, Justin; Steffel, Steve

    2016-03-30

    In 2011, EPRI began a four-year effort under the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) to demonstrate smart grid ready inverters with utility communication. The objective of the project was to successfully implement and demonstrate effective utilization of inverters with grid support functionality to capture the full value of distributed photovoltaic (PV). The project leveraged ongoing investments and expanded PV inverter capabilities, to enable grid operators to better utilize these grid assets. Developing and implementing key elements of PV inverter grid support capabilities will increase the distribution system’s capacity for higher penetration levels of PV, while reducing the cost. The project team included EPRI, Yaskawa-Solectria Solar, Spirae, BPL Global, DTE Energy, National Grid, Pepco, EDD, NPPT and NREL. The project was divided into three phases: development, deployment, and demonstration. Within each phase, the key areas included: head-end communications for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) at the utility operations center; methods for coordinating DER with existing distribution equipment; back-end PV plant master controller; and inverters with smart-grid functionality. Four demonstration sites were chosen in three regions of the United States with different types of utility operating systems and implementations of utility-scale PV inverters. This report summarizes the project and findings from field demonstration at three utility sites.

  4. A laser communication experiment utilizing the ACT satellite and an airborne laser transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencher, Charles E., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.

    1988-01-01

    The launch of a laser communication transmitter package into geosynchronous Earth orbit onboard the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) will present an excellent opportunity for the experimental reception of laser communication signals transmitted from a space orbit. The ACTS laser package includes both a heterodyne transmitter (Lincoln Labs design) and a direct detection transmitter (Goddard Space Flight Center design) with both sharing some common optical components. NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Electronics Division is planning to perform a space communication experiment utilizing the GSFC direct detection laser transceiver. The laser receiver will be installed within an aircraft provided with a glass port for the reception of the signal. This paper describes the experiment and the approach to performing such an experiment. Described are the constraints placed on the NASA Lewis experiment by the performance parameters of the laser transmitter and by the ACTS spacecraft operations. The conceptual design of the receiving terminal is given; also included is the anticipated capability of the detector.

  5. In-House Communication Support System Based on the Information Propagation Model Utilizes Social Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Teranishi, Yuuichi; Harumoto, Kaname; Shimojo, Shinji

    Almost all companies are now utilizing computer networks to support speedier and more effective in-house information-sharing and communication. However, existing systems are designed to support communications only within the same department. Therefore, in our research, we propose an in-house communication support system which is based on the “Information Propagation Model (IPM).” The IPM is proposed to realize word-of-mouth communication in a social network, and to support information-sharing on the network. By applying the system in a real company, we found that information could be exchanged between different and unrelated departments, and such exchanges of information could help to build new relationships between the users who are apart on the social network.

  6. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  7. Experience of Forming Professional and Communicative Competency of Future Social Workers in Education Systems of Western European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranyuk, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the experience of forming professional and communicative competency of future social workers in the education systems of Western European countries, in particular, France, Germany and Switzerland. On the basis of generalization of the studied data it has been found out that each country has its own techniques of forming…

  8. Lasers revisited - Their superior utility for interstellar beacons, communications, and travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rather, John D. G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates reasons why research supporting SETI and Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence should be broadened to optical wavelengths rather than focusing almost entirely upon microwave wavelengths and technologies. New perceptions regarding the feasibility of laser technologies, along with reassessments of signal-to-noise considerations, show both the desirability and feasibility of optical interstellar transmissions, especially at IR and visible wavelengths. It is shown that utilization of the large bandwidths available at optical wavelengths greatly improves the possible use of such endeavors.

  9. Horizontal inequity in public health care service utilization for non-communicable diseases in urban Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Kien, Vu Duy; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Weinehall, Lars; Ng, Nawi

    2014-01-01

    Background A health system that provides equitable health care is a principal goal in many countries. Measuring horizontal inequity (HI) in health care utilization is important to develop appropriate and equitable public policies, especially policies related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Design A cross-sectional survey of 1,211 randomly selected households in slum and non-slum areas was carried out in four urban districts of Hanoi city in 2013. This study utilized data from 3,736 individuals aged 15 years and older. Respondents were asked about health care use during the previous 12 months; information included sex, age, and self-reported NCDs. We assessed the extent of inequity in utilization of public health care services. Concentration indexes for health care utilization and health care needs were constructed via probit regression of individual utilization of public health care services, controlling for age, sex, and NCDs. In addition, concentration indexes were decomposed to identify factors contributing to inequalities in health care utilization. Results The proportion of healthcare utilization in the slum and non-slum areas was 21.4 and 26.9%, respectively. HI in health care utilization in favor of the rich was observed in the slum areas, whereas horizontal equity was achieved among the non-slum areas. In the slum areas, we identified some key factors that affect the utilization of public health care services. Conclusion Our results suggest that to achieve horizontal equity in utilization of public health care services, policy should target preventive interventions for NCDs, focusing more on the poor in slum areas. PMID:25095780

  10. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    PubMed

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  11. Utilizing the ISS Mission as a Testbed to Develop Cognitive Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan

    2016-01-01

    unwanted variability because each specialist has a different core of experience with comm link performance. Because the ISS utilizes two different frequency bands, dynamic structure can be occasionally translucent at one frequency while it can completely interdict service at the other frequency. The impact of articulating structure on the comm link can depend on its orientation at the time it impinges on the link. It can become easy for a human specialist to cross-associate experience at one frequency with experience at the other frequency. Additionally, the specialist's experience is incremental, occurring one nine-hour shift at a time. Only the IAM processor experiences the complete 24x7x365 communications link performance for both communications links but, it has no "learning capability." If the IAM processor could be endowed with a cognitive ability to remember past structure-induced comm link outages, based on its knowledge of the ISS position, attitude, communications gear, array joint angles and tracking accuracy, it could convey such experience to the human operator. It could also use its learned communications link behaviors to accurately convey the availability of future communications sessions. Further, the tool could remember how accurately or inaccurately it predicted availability and correct future predictions based on past performance. The IAM tool could learn frequency-specific impacts due to spacecraft structures and pass that information along as "experience." Such development would provide a single artificial intelligence processor that could provide two different experience bases. If it also "knew" the satellite service schedule, it could distinguish structure blockage from schedule or planet blockage and then quickly switch to another satellite. Alternatively, just as a human operator could judge, a cognizant comm system based on the IAM model could "know" that the blockage is not going to last very long and continue tracking a comm satellite, waiting

  12. Joint Access Control Based on Access Ratio and Resource Utilization for High-Speed Railway Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The fast development of high-speed rails makes people's life more and more convenient. However, provisioning of quality of service of multimedia applications for users on the high-speed train is a critical task for wireless communications. Therefore, new solutions are desirable to be found to address this kind of problem. Current researches mainly focus on providing seamless broadband wireless access for high-speed mobile terminals. In this paper, an algorithm to calculate the optimal resource reservation fraction of handovers is proposed. A joint access control scheme for high-speed railway communication handover scenario is proposed. Metrics of access ratio and resource utilization ratio are considered jointly in the analysis and the performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm and the scheme improve quality of service compared with other conventional schemes.

  13. Training clinicians in mental health communication skills: Impact on primary care utilization

    PubMed Central

    Gadomski, Anne; Wissow, Lawrence S.; Slade, Eric; Jenkins, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although it is known that children with mental health problems utilize primary care services more than most other children, it is unknown how addressing mental health problems in primary care affects children’s subsequent services utilization. This study measures primary care utilization in the context of a randomized trial of a communication skills training program for primary care clinicians that had a positive impact on child mental health outcomes. Methods From 2002 to 2005, 48 pediatric primary care clinicians at 13 sites in rural upstate New York, urban Maryland, and Washington, DC were randomized to in-office training or to a control group. Consecutive primary care patients between the ages of 5 and 16 years were screened for mental health problems, as indicated by a possible or probable score on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). For 397 screened children, primary care visits during the next 6 months were identified using chart review and administrative databases. Using generalized estimating equation regression to account for clustering at the clinician level, primary care utilization was compared by study group and SDQ status. Results The number of primary care visits to the trained clinicians did not differ significantly from those made to control clinicians (2.5 for both groups, p=0.63). Children with possible or probable SDQ scores made, on average, 0.38 or 0.65 more visits on a per-child basis, respectively, during the six-month follow-up period than SDQ unlikely children (p-value=0.0002). Conclusions Seeing a trained clinician did not increase subsequent primary care utilization. However, primary care utilization was greater among children with mental health problems as measured by the SDQ. Addressing children’s mental health in primary care does not increase the primary care visit burden. Research on overall health services utilization is needed. PMID:20685190

  14. Common data buffer system. [communication with computational equipment utilized in spacecraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A high speed common data buffer system is described for providing an interface and communications medium between a plurality of computers utilized in a distributed computer complex forming part of a checkout, command and control system for space vehicles and associated ground support equipment. The system includes the capability for temporarily storing data to be transferred between computers, for transferring a plurality of interrupts between computers, for monitoring and recording these transfers, and for correcting errors incurred in these transfers. Validity checks are made on each transfer and appropriate error notification is given to the computer associated with that transfer.

  15. Utilizing the ISS Mission as a Testbed to Develop Cognitive Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan

    2016-01-01

    unwanted variability because each specialist has a different core of experience with comm link performance. Because the ISS utilizes two different frequency bands, dynamic structure can be occasionally translucent at one frequency while it can completely interdict service at the other frequency. The impact of articulating structure on the comm link can depend on its orientation at the time it impinges on the link. It can become easy for a human specialist to cross-associate experience at one frequency with experience at the other frequency. Additionally, the specialist's experience is incremental, occurring one nine-hour shift at a time. Only the IAM processor experiences the complete 24x7x365 communications link performance for both communications links but, it has no "learning capability." If the IAM processor could be endowed with a cognitive ability to remember past structure-induced comm link outages, based on its knowledge of the ISS position, attitude, communications gear, array joint angles and tracking accuracy, it could convey such experience to the human operator. It could also use its learned communications link behaviors to accurately convey the availability of future communications sessions. Further, the tool could remember how accurately or inaccurately it predicted availability and correct future predictions based on past performance. The IAM tool could learn frequency-specific impacts due to spacecraft structures and pass that information along as "experience." Such development would provide a single artificial intelligence processor that could provide two different experience bases. If it also "knew" the satellite service schedule, it could distinguish structure blockage from schedule or planet blockage and then quickly switch to another satellite. Alternatively, just as a human operator could judge, a cognizant comm system based on the IAM model could "know" that the blockage is not going to last very long and continue tracking a comm satellite, waiting

  16. Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiqing; Chatterjee, Samir

    With rapid advances in information and communication technology, computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies are utilizing multiple IT platforms such as email, websites, cell-phones/PDAs, social networking sites, and gaming environments. However, no studies have compared the effectiveness of a persuasive system using such alternative channels and various persuasive techniques. Moreover, how affective computing impacts the effectiveness of persuasive systems is not clear. This study proposes (1) persuasive technology channels in combination with persuasive strategies will have different persuasive effectiveness; (2) Adding positive emotion to a message that leads to a better overall user experience could increase persuasive effectiveness. The affective computing or emotion information was added to the experiment using emoticons. The initial results of a pilot study show that computer-mediated communication channels along with various persuasive strategies can affect the persuasive effectiveness to varying degrees. These results also shows that adding a positive emoticon to a message leads to a better user experience which increases the overall persuasive effectiveness of a system.

  17. Korean American Parents' Communication with European American Therapist during Behavioral Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research method was employed in order to explore how Korean American parents of children with severe developmental disabilities and problem behaviors collaborate with European American service providers. Ten Korean American parents who received behavioral therapy from European American therapists participated in this study. Results of…

  18. Digital Divide in the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Counsellor Education in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyo, Mfon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated digital divide in the utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in counsellor education in Nigerian universities. It had two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. It adopted a survey design and used ICT Utilization Questionnaire (IUQ) in gathering data from the…

  19. The science of Strategic Communication and its utility in natural resource management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The field of Strategic Communication involves a focused effort to identify, develop, and present multiple types of communication media on a given subject. A Strategic Communication program recognizes the limitations of the most common communication models (primarily "one si...

  20. Communication, knowledge, social network and family planning utilization among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mosha, Idda H; Ruben, Ruerd

    2013-09-01

    Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in Mwanza, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire with questions on knowledge, communication among the couples and practice of family planning was used. Descriptive statistics and Logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with family planning (FP) use at four levels. The findings showed that majority (73.2%) of respondents have not used family planning. Wealth was positive related to FP use (p=.000, OR = 3.696, and 95% C.I = 1.936 lower and upper 7.055). Religion was associated with FP use (p=.002, OR =2.802, 95% C.I = 1.476 lower and 5.321 upper), communication and FP use were significantly associated, (p=.000, OR = 0.323 and 95% C.I = 0.215) lower and upper = 0.483), social network and FP use (p=.000, OR = 2.162 and 95% C.I = 1.495 lower and upper =3.125) and knowledge and FP use(p=.000, OR = 2.224 and 95% C.I = 1.509 lower and upper =3.278). Wealth showed a significant association with FP use (p=.001, OR = 1.897, 95% C.I = 0.817 lower and 4.404).Urban area was positively associated with FP use (p= .000, OR = 0.008 and 95% C.I = 0.001 lower and upper =0.09), semi urban was significant at (p= .004, OR = 3.733 and C.I = 1.513 lower and upper =9.211). Information, education and communication materials and to promote family planning in Tanzania should designed and promoted.

  1. Climate Change Communication by a Research Institute: Experiences, Successes, and Challenges from a North European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyytimäki, Jari; Nygrén, Nina A.; Ala-Ketola, Ulla; Pellinen, Sirpa; Ruohomäki, Virpi; Inkinen, Aino

    2013-01-01

    Communicating about climate change is challenging not only because of the multidisciplinary and complex nature of the issue itself and multiple policy options related to mitigation and adaptation, but also because of the plenitude of potential communication methods coupled with limited resources for communication. This article explores climate…

  2. Novel Web-based Education Platforms for Information Communication utilizing Gamification, Virtual and Immersive Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in internet technologies make it possible to manage and visualize large data on the web. Novel visualization techniques and interactive user interfaces allow users to create realistic environments, and interact with data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This presentation showcase information communication interfaces, games, and virtual and immersive reality applications for supporting teaching and learning of concepts in atmospheric and hydrological sciences. The information communication platforms utilizes latest web technologies and allow accessing and visualizing large scale data on the web. The simulation system is a web-based 3D interactive learning environment for teaching hydrological and atmospheric processes and concepts. The simulation systems provides a visually striking platform with realistic terrain and weather information, and water simulation. The web-based simulation system provides an environment for students to learn about the earth science processes, and effects of development and human activity on the terrain. Users can access the system in three visualization modes including virtual reality, augmented reality, and immersive reality using heads-up display. The system provides various scenarios customized to fit the age and education level of various users.

  3. Analysis of performance of high light-energy-utilization-ratio laser communication antenna based on axicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Ying-chao; Jiang, Lun; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    According to the transverse intensity distribution of the TEM00 Gaussian light field and character of an irradiance redistribution element, we proposed a novel method, which has the advantages of high light-energy-utilization-ratio (LEUR). The current laser communication (LASCOM) antenna frequently employs the Cassegrain reflective optical structure, in which the secondary mirror will introduce a center obscuration, leading to high ratio of transmitting power loss. To solve this problem, we make the transmitting beam pass through double convex axicons. The Gaussian peak of incident light coming into the central part of such element, will go out from near the peripheral part of the second axicon, and the edge part of Gaussian beam will go out from the central part. When the changed beam passes the Cassegrain structure, the utilizing efficiency will be raised obviously. In the paper, on different obscuration rate, the LEURs of LASCOM system before and after using the axicons are compared. In addition, the far-field intensity distribution of the laser beam changed by the axicon pair and transmitted by the antenna is calculated. The simulation result shows that the LEURs of antenna with and without an axicon pair are 91.7% and 28.9% on a Line obscuration ratio of 1/4. After a propagation of 1000 km, the far-field energy distribution of the hollow beam translated by the high LEUR antenna is closer to a flattop beam than that for the common Gaussian beam.

  4. Technological Innovation and Technical Communications: Their Place in Aerospace Engineering Curricula. A Survey of European, Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports on results from 260 aerospace engineers and scientists in United States, Europe, and Japan regarding their opinions about professional importance of technical communications; generation and utilization of technical communications; and relevant content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The fields of cryogenics,…

  5. A European chart review study on early rheumatoid arthritis treatment patterns, clinical outcomes, and healthcare utilization.

    PubMed

    Emery, Paul; Solem, Caitlyn; Majer, Istvan; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Tarallo, Miriam

    2015-11-01

    This retrospective medical chart review aimed to provide a current, real-world overview of biologic usage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Germany, Spain, and the UK, and estimate clinical and healthcare utilization outcomes associated with early versus late treatment. Adults (≥18 years) with a confirmed RA diagnosis between January 2008 and December 2010, who received biologic treatment for ≥3 months and had ≥12 months of follow-up were included. Early treatment was receipt of biologic agent ≤1 year after RA diagnosis. Outcomes included 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) reduction of ≥1.2 from biologic start and remission (DAS28 < 2.6). Time to outcome was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Of 328 patients enrolled (Germany [n = 111], Spain [n = 106], UK [n = 111]), 58.2 % received early biologic (Germany: 55.0 %, UK: 55.9 %, Spain: 64.2 %; p = 0.321). First-line biologics were more frequent in Spain (26.4 %) and Germany (19.8 %) versus the UK (7.2 %; p < 0.001). Late-treated patients were hospitalized more often than early-treated patients (10.5 vs 2.9 % [p = 0.006] for 9.0 vs 5.4 mean inpatient days [p = 0.408]). DAS28 was 5.1 at biologic initiation (n = 310); 73.5 % of patients had a DAS28 decrease of ≥1.2 and 44.5 % achieved remission. More patients had DAS28 decrease of ≥1.2 (79.2 vs 65.9 %; p = 0.009) and remission (51.1 vs 35.6 %; p = 0.007) with early versus late treatment, with a significant difference in Kaplan-Meier curves when indexing on time since diagnosis (p < 0.001) and biologic start (p = 0.024). In RA patients receiving biologic therapy, over half received biologic therapy early. Early initiation was associated with improved clinical outcomes and reduced hospitalization rates versus late treatment.

  6. The strategic research agenda of the Technology Platform Photonics21: European component industry for broadband communications and the FP 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylén, Lars

    2006-07-01

    The design and manufacture of components and systems underpin the European and indeed worldwide photonics industry. Optical materials and photonic components serve as the basis for systems building at different levels of complexity. In most cases, they perform a key function and dictate the performance of these systems. New products and processes will generate economic activity for the European photonics industry into the 21 st century. However, progress will rely on Europe's ability to develop new and better materials, components and systems. To achieve success, photonic components and systems must: •be reliable and inexpensive •be generic and adaptable •offer superior functionality •be innovative and protected by Intellectual Property •be aligned to market opportunities The challenge in the short-, medium-, and long-term is to put a coordinating framework in place which will make the European activity in this technology area competitive as compared to those in the US and Asia. In the short term the aim should be to facilitate the vibrant and profitable European photonics industry to further develop its ability to commercialize advances in photonic related technologies. In the medium and longer terms the objective must be to place renewed emphasis on materials research and the design and manufacturing of key components and systems to form the critical link between science endeavour and commercial success. All these general issues are highly relevant for the component intensive broadband communications industry. Also relevant for this development is the convergence of data and telecom, where the low cost of data com meets with the high reliability requirements of telecom. The text below is to a degree taken form the Strategic Research Agenda of the Technology Platform Photonics 21 [1], as this contains a concerted effort to iron out a strategy for EU in the area of photonics components and systems.

  7. Evaluation of the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) Project Using the Multiattribute Utility (MAU) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Julia B.; Meadan, Hedda; Angell, Maureen E.; Daczewitz, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a multiattribute utility (MAU) evaluation to assess the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) project which was funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). In the PiCS project parents of young children with developmental disabilities are trained and coached in their homes on naturalistic and visual teaching…

  8. High-speed phosphor-LED wireless communication system utilizing no blue filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J.; Liu, Y. L.; Wu, Y. F.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose and investigate an adaptively 84.44 to 190 Mb/s phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) system at a practical transmission distance. Here, we utilize the orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing quadrature-amplitude-modulation (OFDM-QAM) modulation with power/bit-loading algorithm in proposed VLC system. In the experiment, the optimal analogy pre-equalization design is also performed at LED-Tx side and no blue filter is used at the Rx side for extending the modulation bandwidth from 1 MHz to 30 MHz. In addition, the corresponding free space transmission lengths are between 75 cm and 2 m under various data rates of proposed VLC. And the measured bit error rates (BERs) of < 3.8×10-3 [forward error correction (FEC) limit] at different transmission lengths and measured data rates can be also obtained. Finally, we believe that our proposed scheme could be another alternative VLC implementation in practical distance, supporting < 100 Mb/s, using commercially available LED and PD (without optical blue filtering) and compact size.

  9. Is there a case for broadband utility communications networks? Valuing and pricing incremental communications capacity on electric utility smart grid networks

    SciTech Connect

    Heidell, James; Ware, Harold

    2010-01-15

    Analysis of the potential for selling non-utility uses of broadband capability constructed in conjunction with Smart Grid/AMI deserves careful consideration. These services can be provided in a manner that neither creates unfair competition nor results in cross-subsidization of unregulated services by regulated services. (author)

  10. Statistically validated mobile communication networks: the evolution of motifs in European and Chinese data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Xia; Palchykov, Vasyl; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János; Miccichè, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2014-08-01

    Big data open up unprecedented opportunities for investigating complex systems, including society. In particular, communication data serve as major sources for computational social sciences, but they have to be cleaned and filtered as they may contain spurious information due to recording errors as well as interactions, like commercial and marketing activities, not directly related to the social network. The network constructed from communication data can only be considered as a proxy for the network of social relationships. Here we apply a systematic method, based on multiple-hypothesis testing, to statistically validate the links and then construct the corresponding Bonferroni network, generalized to the directed case. We study two large datasets of mobile phone records, one from Europe and the other from China. For both datasets we compare the raw data networks with the corresponding Bonferroni networks and point out significant differences in the structures and in the basic network measures. We show evidence that the Bonferroni network provides a better proxy for the network of social interactions than the original one. Using the filtered networks, we investigated the statistics and temporal evolution of small directed 3-motifs and concluded that closed communication triads have a formation time scale, which is quite fast and typically intraday. We also find that open communication triads preferentially evolve into other open triads with a higher fraction of reciprocated calls. These stylized facts were observed for both datasets.

  11. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 4:] Technical communications in aerospace: An analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    Two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: (1) solicit opinions regarding the importance of technical communications; (2) determine the use and production of technical communications; (3) seek views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; (4) determine use of libraries, information centers, and online database; (5) determine use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected aerospace engineers and scientists, with a slightly modified version sent to European colleagues. Their responses to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  12. Inter-Vehicle Communication System Utilizing Autonomous Distributed Transmit Power Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yukio; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

    In ad-hoc network such as inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system, safety applications that vehicles broadcast the information such as car velocity, position and so on periodically are considered. In these applications, if there are many vehicles broadcast data in a communication area, congestion incurs a problem decreasing communication reliability. We propose autonomous distributed transmit power control method to keep high communication reliability. In this method, each vehicle controls its transmit power using feed back control. Furthermore, we design a communication protocol to realize the proposed method, and we evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method using computer simulation.

  13. Utilization of a Pharmacy Clinical Surveillance System for Pharmacist Alerting and Communication at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Stashek, Chad; Anger, Kevin E; Szumita, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to describe the utilization metrics of a pharmacy clinical surveillance system (PCSS) at a tertiary, academic medical center.We performed a retrospective database analysis assessing rule-based alerts (RBA), interventions and pharmacist communication notes documented in the PCSS from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. Reports were generated on 92 unique RBAs sent to clinicians for evaluation. Metrics assessed included the number of RBAs that were triggered, clinically evaluated, intervened on by pharmacists, and therapeutic category of interventions. Pharmacy communication notes were also evaluated.A total of 399,979 RBAs were triggered through the PCSS. During that time, pharmacists documented a total of 17,733 interventions. The most common RBAs were related to lab abnormalities (132,487; 33 %) and anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy (126,425; 32.1 %). Interventions were most frequently related to RBAs regarding anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy (6412; 36 %) and antimicrobial therapy (3320; 19 %). Pharmacist communication was most commonly related to clarification of medication and lab orders, and therapeutic drug monitoring.Based on utilization metrics presented, the implementation of a PCSS has successfully generated RBAs to aid pharmacists in clinical practice and improved departmental documentation and communication. Further analysis is warranted to assess the impact of the RBAs, interventions, and communication notes on outcomes such as hospital cost and adverse drug events.

  14. Educating European Corporate Communication Professionals for Senior Management Positions: A Collaboration between UCLA's Anderson School of Management and the University of Lugano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Janis

    2005-01-01

    UCLA's program in strategic management for European corporate communication professionals provides participants with a concentrated, yet selective, immersion in those management disciplines taught at U.S. business schools, topics that are essential to their work as senior advisors to CEOs and as leaders in the field. The choice of topics…

  15. Adapting wave-front algorithms to efficiently utilize systems with deep communication hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbyson, Darren J; Lang, Michael; Pakin, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale systems increasingly exhibit a differential between intra-chip and inter-chip communication performance. Processor-cores on the same socket are able to communicate at lower latencies, and with higher bandwidths, than cores on different sockets either within the same node or between nodes. A key challenge is to efficiently use this communication hierarchy and hence optimize performance. We consider here the class of applications that contain wave-front processing. In these applications data can only be processed after their upstream neighbors have been processed. Similar dependencies result between processors in which communication is required to pass boundary data downstream and whose cost is typically impacted by the slowest communication channel in use. In this work we develop a novel hierarchical wave-front approach that reduces the use of slower communications in the hierarchy but at the cost of additional computation and higher use of on-chip communications. This tradeoff is explored using a performance model and an implementation on the Petascale Roadrunner system demonstrates a 27% performance improvement at full system-scale on a kernel application. The approach is generally applicable to large-scale multi-core and accelerated systems where a differential in system communication performance exists.

  16. Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy & Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Haiqing

    2010-01-01

    With rapid advancements in information and communication technologies, computer-mediated communication channels such as email, web, mobile smart-phones with SMS, social networking websites (Facebook), multimedia websites, and OEM devices provide users with multiple technology choices to seek information. However, no study has compared the…

  17. Utilization of Concurrent Buffers to Facilitate Seamless Data Transition in Tactical Cellular Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    CONCURRENT BUFFERS TO FACILITATE SEAMLESS DATA TRANSITION IN TACTICAL CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS by Darien M. Pitts September 2015 Thesis...searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments... DATA TRANSITION IN TACTICAL CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Pitts, Darien M. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  18. The Chinese Politics of Communication Technology: Utility, State Building and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an examination into the formulation and construction of information and communication technology policy in China. It traces the rise of information technology and the "informatization" drive in China's political rhetoric, and identifies the changes and trajectory of information and communication technology in China's…

  19. A Multidisciplinary Intervention Utilizing Virtual Communication Tools to Reduce Health Disparities: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, John F.; Welch, Madelyn; Rossman, Whitney E.; Carek, Stephen; Ludden, Thomas; Templin, Megan; Moore, Charity G.; Tapp, Hazel; Dulin, Michael; McWilliams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology are likely to provide new approaches to address healthcare disparities for high-risk populations. This study explores the feasibility of a new approach to health disparities research using a multidisciplinary intervention and advanced communication technology to improve patient access to care and chronic disease management. A high-risk cohort of uninsured, poorly-controlled diabetic patients was identified then randomized pre-consent with stratification by geographic region to receive either the intervention or usual care. Prior to enrollment, participants were screened for readiness to make a behavioral change. The primary outcome was the feasibility of protocol implementation, and secondary outcomes included the use of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) services and markers of chronic disease control. The intervention included a standardized needs assessment, individualized care plan, intensive management by a multidisciplinary team, including health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and the use of a cloud-based glucose monitoring system. One-hundred twenty-seven high-risk, potentially eligible participants were randomized. Sixty-one met eligibility criteria after an in-depth review. Due to limited resources and time for the pilot, we only attempted to contact 36 participants. Of these, we successfully reached 20 (32%) by phone and conducted a readiness to change screen. Ten participants screened in as ready to change and were enrolled, while the remaining 10 were not ready to change. Eight enrolled participants completed the final three-month follow-up. Intervention feasibility was demonstrated through successful implementation of 13 out of 14 health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and 100% of participants indicated that they would recommend the intervention to a friend. Protocol feasibility was demonstrated as eight of 10 participants completed the entire study protocol. At the end of the three-month intervention, participants had a

  20. Challenges in communicating research and research careers: lesson learned from the European Researchers' Nights at INGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana; Rubbia, Giuliana; Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) participates to the European Researchers' Night, promoted by the European Commission, in the framework of Associazione Frascati Scienza (http://www.frascatiscienza.it/), with a program rich of events aimed at intriguingnand stimulating audiences of all ages about Earth Sciences, i.e., to make the general public aware on activities and roles of INGV researchers. For the September 27th Night, INGV contributed with a program in the INGV headquarters inspired by the INGV ScienzAperta Open Day held in April: guided tours, as well seminars held by researchers, exhibitions, educational games. We proposed two parallel programs: one devoted to earthquakes, including the visit to the INGV seismic surveillance room, seminars about Italian territory seismic hazard and exhibitions on Earthquakes and Volcanoes; the alternative program included the guided tour of the INGV laboratories (Aero-photogrammetry, Paleo-magnetism beside exhibition on geomagnetism, High Pressures and High Temperatures, Geochemistry, Restoration of historical instruments). In Frascati, we organized educational games, hands-on laboratories and a science theatre performance: "When the sky flashed red", as well as exhibitions at Museo Geofisico Rocca di Papa. A paper-based appreciation survey, compiled by visitors at INGV headquarter and by the scientific theatre's audiences, supplied our team with feedback, revealing some precious hints about users themselves, appreciation and margins of improvement, both in organization and in content. People of all ages and professions came. For example, a father asked specific paths for children, with even more appropriate language. A boy (aged 11) found the visit to the labs "interesting but a bit boring". It was suggested to prepare specific hand-outs for each visit, and certificates of participation for students. A girl, 9 years old, wrote that such event makes her closer to science world. The

  1. Exploring the utility of Posidonia oceanica chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of water quality within the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gera, Alessandro; Alcoverro, Teresa; Mascaró, Oriol; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The European Water Framework Directive commits partner countries to evolve uniform protocols for monitoring the environmental condition of natural water bodies, crucially integrating biological and ecological criteria from the associated ecosystems. This has encouraged considerable research on the development of bioindicator-based systems of water quality monitoring. A critical step towards this end is providing evidence that the proposed bioindicator system adequately reflects the human pressures to which a specific water body is submitted. Here we investigate the utility of pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry, a fast, non-destructive and increasingly popular bioindicator-based method, in assessing water quality based on the widespread Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, an important constituent of submersed benthic vegetation. Specifically, we evaluated the ability of PAM to discriminate between sites along a pre-established gradient of anthropogenic pressures and the consistency and reliability of PAM parameters across spatial scales. Our results show that the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), representing the structural photosynthetic efficiency of the plant, responds significantly to the degree of site-level anthropogenic pressure. However, Fv/Fm values in our study increased with increasing pressure, in striking contrast with other studies that report declines in Fv/Fm values with increasing stress. A potential explanation for this discrepancy is that our study sites were influenced by multiple diffuse stressors (characteristic of most coastal waters) that could potentially interact with each other to influence Fv/Fm values in often unpredictable ways. The photosynthetic variables calculated from rapid light curves (ETR(max), maximum electron transport rate; α, initial slope of the curve; I (k), saturating irradiance), which represent an instant picture of the photosynthetic activity of the plant, were unable to clearly discriminate between sites

  2. Utility of space transportation system to space communication community: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronstein, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The space transportation system (STS) offers the opportunity for maintaining, and perhaps accelerating, growth of the space communication community. This new launch vehicle service, however, must be obtained at a cost lower than the current expandable launch vehicles cost. A cost competitive STS is defined for geostationary payloads. It is concluded that the STS will be useful to the space communication community, as well as to other geostationary satellite system users, if the proposed recommendations are adapted.

  3. Knowledge and utilization of information communication technology (ICT) among health science students at the University of Gondar, North Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the relatively huge ICT investment and policy deployment in higher institutions in Ethiopia, there is still scant information about the success of implementation of the Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the higher education. This study, therefore, was carried out with an aim to assess knowledge and utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among medicine and health science students and its associated factors in Gondar College of Medicine and Health sciences, University of Gondar. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of the students, level of knowledge and utilization of ICT were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results A total of 1096 students responded giving a response rate of 97.8%. The mean age of the study participants was 20.3 (±1. 3) years. Females constitute only 26% of the respondents. The majority (79%) were fulltime students. Only half of the respondents (51%) had ICT knowledge and only 46% students utilized ICT while 47% of the respondents never used electronic communication (e.g. email or chat room) and 39% of the respondents never used Microsoft office (e.g. word ® or WordPerfect ®). ICT knowledge [AOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.5], family educational background [AOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 2.16-8.80], and perceived quality of training [AOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8] showed strong and positive associations with ICT utilization. Students from urban areas were more likely to utilize ICT compared with those from rural areas [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 2.097, 3.497], and information technology training was found to be positively associated with ICT utilization [AOR = 2. 07, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.62]. Conclusions The result showed that students’ knowledge was inadequate and utilization of ICT was poor. Therefore, the

  4. The European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Eutelsat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Jean

    An overview is presented of Eutelsat, which was created in 1977 by 17 European telecommunications operators to provide mobile and fixed satellite communication services to the entire continent. The eight Eutelsat satellites now in orbit are utilized for telephony and business services, for direct-to-home broadcasting, for the distribution and exchange of radio and television programs, and for land mobile services.

  5. Communication in Health Professions: A European consensus on inter- and multi-professional learning objectives in German.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Cadja; Kiessling, Claudia; Härtl, Anja; Haak, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund und Zielsetzung: Kommunikation rückt in den Gesundheitsberufen zunehmend in den Blickpunkt. Die Vermittlung kommunikativer Kompetenzen sollte bereits im Studium bzw. in der Ausbildung beginnen.Ziel des Projekts war, einen englischsprachigen Ausbildungszielkatalog für die Kommunikation in den Gesundheitsberufen, das „Health Professions Core Communication Curriculum (HPCCC)“, ins Deutsche zu übersetzen und einer breiten deutschsprachigen Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen. Der Katalog umfasst 61 Ausbildungsziele und wurde von 121 internationalen Kommunikationsexperten konsentiert. Ein europäischer Bezugsrahmen für die inter- und multiprofessionelle Curriculumentwicklung „Kommunikation in den Gesundheitsberufen“ im deutschsprachigen Raum sollte hergestellt werden.Methode: Die deutschsprachige Version des HPCCC wurde von sechs Personen entwickelt und in mehreren Revisionsschleifen konsentiert. Beispielhaft wurden Ausbildungsziele mit geeigneten didaktischen Methoden und Prüfungsinstrumenten aus der Materialiensammlung des teaching committee of the European Association for Communication Health Care (tEACH) versehen. Ergebnisse: Die Ausbildungsziele des HPCCC liegen nun in deutscher Version vor und können für die Curriculumsplanung und -entwicklung in den einzelnen deutschsprachigen Gesundheitsberufen aber auch berufsübergreifend genutzt werden. Anwendungsbeispiele für didaktische Methoden und Prüfungsinstrumente werden aufgelistet und zeigen konkrete Umsetzungsmöglichkeiten auf.Fazit: Die deutschsprachige Version des HPCCC, die Ausbildungsziele für die Kommunikation in den Gesundheitsberufen aufzeigt, kann einen wichtigen Beitrag zur inter- und multiprofessionellen Curriculumentwicklung in den Gesundheitsberufen im deutschen Sprachraum leisten. Beispiele für didaktische Methoden und Prüfungen aus der Materialiensammlung der tEACH ergänzen das curriculare Konzept und sollen Anregungen für die praktische Umsetzung der

  6. An Empirical Study of Synchrophasor Communication Delay in a Utility TCP/IP Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kun; Chenine, Moustafa; Nordström, Lars; Holmström, Sture; Ericsson, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Although there is a plethora of literature dealing with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) communication delay, there has not been any effort made to generalize empirical delay results by identifying the distribution with the best fit. The existing studies typically assume a distribution or simply build on analogies to communication network routing delay. Specifically, this study provides insight into the characterization of the communication delay of both unprocessed PMU data and synchrophasors sorted by a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). The results suggest that a bi-modal distribution containing two normal distributions offers the best fit of the delay of the unprocessed data, whereas the delay profile of the sorted synchrophasors resembles a normal distribution based on these results, the possibility of evaluating the reliability of a synchrophasor application with respect to a particular choice of PDC timeout is discussed.

  7. Application of communications satellites to educational development. [technology utilization/information systems - bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of research is presented. The broad objectives of this interdisciplinary research effort were: (1) to assess the role of satellite communications as a means of improving education in the United States, as well as in less-developed areas of the world; (2) to generate basic knowledge which will aid in making rational decisions about satellite application in the field of education in the years ahead; (3) to devise systems and strategies for improving education; and (4) to educate individuals who will be knowledgeable about aspects of satellite communications policy which transcend any single discipline.

  8. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  9. Utilizing Information and Communication Technologies to Achieve Lifelong Education for All: A Case Study of Myanmar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Naing Yee

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in advancing the cause of education for all and livelong learning. After examining the claimed benefits of ICTs for promoting education and schooling, and the characteristics of education and the basic education movement in Asia, the paper focuses on providing a case…

  10. FINAL REPORT ON TWO INTER-INSTITUTIONAL PROGRAMS UTILIZING AMPLIFIED TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens Coll., Columbia, MO.

    STEPHENS COLLEGE USED SEVERAL NEW INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES IN INTRODUCING TWO INTERINSTITUTIONAL COURSES. THE UNDERGRADUATE COURSE, "AMERICAN LIFE AS SEEN BY CONTEMPORARY WRITERS," SUPPLEMENTED DISCUSSION SESSIONS WITH POETRY READINGS ON AUDIO TAPES AND LECTURES VIA AMPLIFIED, LIVE TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION. THE LATTER DEVICE ALSO MADE…

  11. Appraisal of the Availability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology in the Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbuozobe, J. E.; Okeke, Emeka Paul

    2014-01-01

    The availability and functionality of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) provides a productive academic platform for both students and staff of institutions of higher learning. ICT use for educational purposes has enhanced teaching and learning through its dynamic, interactive and engaging academic course content. In application, it…

  12. A Teacher's Utilization of Information and Communication Technology as a Pedagogical Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golas, Jennifer Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigated the factors that either contribute or inhibit a teacher from using information and communication technology as an educational tool in the classroom. Factors as teachers' perceived level of proficiency with technology, technology-related professional development, planning time, and the technology resources available…

  13. Utilizing remote sensing data for modeling water and heat regimes of the Black Earth Region territory of the European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Uspensky, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    At present physical-mathematical modeling processes of water and heat exchange between vegetation covered land surfaces and atmosphere is the most appropriate method to describe peculiarities of water and heat regime formation for large territories. The developed model of such processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) is intended for calculation evaporation, transpiration by vegetation, soil water content and other water and heat regime characteristics, as well as distributions of the soil temperature and humidity in depth utilizing remote sensing data from satellites on land surface and meteorological conditions. The model parameters and input variables are the soil and vegetation characteristics and the meteorological characteristics, correspondingly. Their values have been determined from ground-based observations or satellite-based measurements by radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-9, -10. The case study has been carried out for the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth region with coordinates 49.5 deg. - 54 deg. N, 31 deg. - 43 deg. E and a total area of 227,300 km2 located in the steppe-forest zone of the European Russia for years 2009-2012 vegetation seasons. From AVHRR data there have been derived the estimates of three types of land surface temperature (LST): land surface skin temperature Tsg, air-foliage temperature Ta and efficient radiation temperature Ts.eff, emissivity E, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, leaf area index LAI, cloudiness and precipitation. From MODIS data the estimates of LST Tls, E, NDVI and LAI have been obtained. The SEVIRI data have been used to build the estimates of Tls, Ta, E, LAI and precipitation. Previously developed method and technology of above AVHRR-derived estimates have been improved and adapted to the study area. To check the reliability of the Ts.eff and Ta estimations for named seasons the error statistics of their definitions has been analyzed through

  14. End-to-end communication test on variable length packet structures utilizing AOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warner H.; Sank, V.; Fong, Wai; Miko, J.; Powers, M.; Folk, John; Conaway, B.; Michael, K.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a communication test, which successfully demonstrated the transfer of losslessly compressed images in an end-to-end system. These compressed images were first formatted into variable length Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packets in the Advanced Orbiting System Testbed (AOST). The CCSDS data Structures were transferred from the AOST to the Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center (RFSOC), via a fiber optic link, where data was then transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The received data acquired at the White Sands Complex (WSC) was transferred back to the AOST where the data was captured and decompressed back to the original images. This paper describes the compression algorithm, the AOST configuration, key flight components, data formats, and the communication link characteristics and test results.

  15. Latino and European American early adolescents' exposure to music with substance-use references: examining parent-child communication as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Wang, Ningxin; Harvey, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    This study hypothesized that frequent exposure to and attention to music with substance-use references would be indirectly related to alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use through pro-substance-use beliefs (e.g., norms, outcome expectancies, and refusal efficacy). Parent-child communication, however, would attenuate such associations, which would differ by ethnicity. Multigroup mediation and moderation analyses were conducted, using cross-sectional survey data from 253 Latino and 308 European American 6th-8th grades students. For Latino and European American early adolescents, best-friend-injunctive norms and weak refusal efficacy were significant mediators, but not positive outcome expectancies. Descriptive norms were a significant mediator, but only for European American early adolescents. Although targeted parent-child communication and parental mediation did not moderate the associations between the music-exposure variables and the pro-substance-use beliefs variables, targeted parent-child communication attenuated the association between listening to favorite songs and alcohol consumption. Parental mediation attenuated the association between attention to music and alcohol consumption.

  16. Clinical Experiments of Communication by ALS Patient Utilizing Detecting Event-Related Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanou, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Kenji; Nakashima, Kenji

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) patients are unable to successfully communicate their desires, although their mentality is normal, and so, the necessity of Communication Aids(CA) for ALS patients is realized. Therefore, the authors are focused on Event-Related Potential(ERP) which is elicited primarily for the target by visual and auditory stimuli. P200, N200 and P300 are components of ERP. These are potentials that are elicited when the subject focuses attention on stimuli that appears infrequently. ALS patient participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, a target word out of five words on a computer display was specified. The five words were linked to an each electric appliance, allowing the ALS patient to switch on a target appliance by ERP. In the second experiment, a target word in a 5×5 matrix was specified by measure of ERP. The rows and columns of the matrix were reversed randomly. The word on a crossing point of rows and columns including the target word, was specified as the target word. The rate of correct judgment in the first and second experiments were 100% in N200 and 96% in P200. For practical use of this system, it is very important to determine suitable communication algorithms for each patient by performing these experiments evaluating the results.

  17. Blue-light digital communication in underwater environments utilizing orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdady, Joshua; Miller, Keith; Osler, Sean; Morgan, Kaitlyn; Li, Wenzhe; Johnson, Eric; Cochenour, Brandon

    2016-05-01

    Underwater optical communication has recently become the topic of much investigation as the demands for underwater data transmission have rapidly grown in recent years. The need for reliable, high-speed, secure underwater communication has turned increasingly to blue-light optical solutions. The blue-green visible wavelength window provides an attractive solution to the problem of underwater data transmission thanks to its low attenuation, where traditional RF solutions used in free-space communications collapse. Beginning with GaN laser diodes as the optical source, this work explores the encoding and transmission of digital data across underwater environments of varying turbidities. Given the challenges present in an underwater environment, such as the mechanical and optical turbulences that make proper alignment difficult to maintain, it is desirable to achieve extremely high data rates in order to allow the time window of alignment between the transmitter and receiver to be as small as possible. In this paper, work is done to increase underwater data rates through the use of orbital angular momentum. Results are shown for a range of data rates across a variety of channel types ranging in turbidity from that of a clear ocean to a dirty harbor.

  18. Pharmaceutical consultations in community pharmacies: utility of the Roter Interaction Analysis System to study pharmacist-patient communication.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Afonso; Roter, Debra

    2010-06-01

    Communication is a key issue in the delivery of healthcare services. In the pharmacy context, pharmacist-patient communication may vary from brief counselling episodes to extensive pharmaceutical care consultations. Many community pharmacies have developed practices to facilitate the effective delivery of pharmacy care, in particular to chronic patients, although the nature and extent of the services differ widely from country to country. Diabetes-focused pharmaceutical care is an example highlighting both the opportunities and challenges associated with an expansion of pharmacy services from product dispensing to pharmaceutical consultations. An area of particular challenge of such an expansion of pharmaceutical services is the development of expertise in the delivery of patient-centred pharmaceutical consultations. Although well known to medicine and nursing, patient-centredness has not been routinely incorporated into the training of pharmacists, evaluation of pharmacy practice or conduct of pharmacy-related research. There are few studies of the communication process based on analysis of an objective record such as an audio or video recording and the common perspective is largely a one-way information flow from pharmacist to patient. This has hampered the field's ability to link pharmacy communication to outcomes, including patient adherence and satisfaction with services. An extensive body of communication research on physician-patient interaction, employing the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS), exists and the system presents a potentially useful tool in the pharmacy context. The purpose of this essay is to explore the utility of the RIAS for analysis of pharmacist-patient interaction and its implication for improving patient care and optimizing pharmacy-specific outcomes.

  19. 78 FR 45096 - Standards for Business Practices and Communication Protocols for Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... for Public Utilities adopted by the Wholesale Electric Quadrant (WEQ) of the North American Energy... Transmission Systems 12 (SAMTS) 2. Network Integration Transmission Service (NITS).. 13 3. Rollover Rights for.... Gas/Electric Coordination Standards 18 3. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Standards........ 19...

  20. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald D.

    1990-01-01

    Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.

  1. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Alan

    An informal introduction to the study of communication deals with the major topics in the field. It presents basic theories of communication and language, reviews how language takes on meaning, explains the stimulus-response and Piaget theories of learning, and presents major theories dealing with communications and society. These theories include…

  2. Direct Spectrum Division Transmission for Highly Efficient Frequency Utilization in Satellite Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Jun-Ichi; Yamashita, Fumihiro; Nakahira, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper proposes Direct Spectrum Division Transmission with spectrum editing technique. The transmitter divides the single carrier modulated signal into multiple “sub-spectra” in the frequency domain and arranges each sub-spectrum so as to more fully utilize the unused frequency resources. In the receiver, the divided sub-spectra are combined in the frequency domain and demodulated. By editing the divided spectrum in the frequency domain, the total bandwidth occupied by the multiple “sub-spectra” is less than that of the modulated signal. The proposed technique allows the unused frequency resources scattered across the bands to be better utilized. Simulations show that the proposed technique makes the bit error rate negligible.

  3. Time Modulated Arrays: From their Origin to Their Utilization in Wireless Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    Maneiro-Catoira, Roberto; Brégains, Julio; García-Naya, José A.; Castedo, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Time-modulated arrays (TMAs) are electromagnetic systems whose radiated power pattern is controlled by the application of variable-width periodical pulses to the individual elements. The nonlinear nature of the array operation causes the appearance of radiation patterns at the harmonic frequencies of such periodic pulses. The technique can be used for improving the side-lobe level (SLL) topology of the radiation pattern at the central frequency and/or to profitably exploit the harmonic patterns in order to supply smart antenna capabilities. Among the latter features, the TMA harmonic beamforming takes on special importance due to its attractive trade-off performance-hardware complexity. From this perspective, TMAs are sensors capable of transforming the spatial diversity of a communication channel into frequency diversity, thus improving the performance of a wireless communication. In addition to a walk through the origins of the concept, and a brief analysis of the mathematical fundamentals, this paper organizes the prolific state of the art of TMAs in two major thematic blocks: (1) TMA design from an antenna perspective; and (2) TMA design from a signal processing perspective. PMID:28335415

  4. Satellite applications to electric-utility communications needs. [land mobile satellite service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstein, M.; Barnett, R.

    1981-01-01

    Significant changes in the Nation's electric power systems are expected to result from the integration of new technology, possible during the next decade. Digital communications for monitor and control, exclusive of protective relaying, are expected to double or triple current traffic. A nationwide estimate of 13 Mb/s traffic is projected. Of this total, 8 Mb/s is attributed to the bulk-power system as it is now being operated (4 Mb/s). This traffic could be accommodated by current communications satellites using 3- to 4.5-m-diameter ground terminals costing $35,000 to $70,000 each. The remaining 5-Mb/s traffic is attributed to new technology concepts integrated into the distribution system. Such traffic is not compatible with current satellite technology because it requires small, low-cost ground terminals. Therefore, a high effective isotropic radiated power satellite, such as the one being planned by NASA for the Land Mobile Satellite Service, is required.

  5. Time Modulated Arrays: From their Origin to Their Utilization in Wireless Communication Systems.

    PubMed

    Maneiro-Catoira, Roberto; Brégains, Julio; García-Naya, José A; Castedo, Luis

    2017-03-14

    Time-modulated arrays (TMAs) are electromagnetic systems whose radiated power pattern is controlled by the application of variable-width periodical pulses to the individual elements. The nonlinear nature of the array operation causes the appearance of radiation patterns at the harmonic frequencies of such periodic pulses. The technique can be used for improving the side-lobe level (SLL) topology of the radiation pattern at the central frequency and/or to profitably exploit the harmonic patterns in order to supply smart antenna capabilities. Among the latter features, the TMA harmonic beamforming takes on special importance due to its attractive trade-off performance-hardware complexity. From this perspective, TMAs are sensors capable of transforming the spatial diversity of a communication channel into frequency diversity, thus improving the performance of a wireless communication. In addition to a walk through the origins of the concept, and a brief analysis of the mathematical fundamentals, this paper organizes the prolific state of the art of TMAs in two major thematic blocks: (1) TMA design from an antenna perspective; and (2) TMA design from a signal processing perspective.

  6. HUBNET: Wide Area Network utilization of Local Area Network medical reference and communication resources.

    PubMed Central

    Loonsk, J. W.; Schweigel, J. E.; Carr, D.

    1994-01-01

    The State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and its associated teaching sites have developed and partially implemented a regional Wide Area Network (WAN) in Buffalo and Western New York. The school wishes to use this WAN to deliver reference and communication resources to students, residents and faculty. The richest pool of easy to use reference and communication resources are PC software programs that are intended for individual workstations or at best, client-server, Local Area Network (LAN) implementation. HUBNET (Hospitals and University at Buffalo Library Resource Network), a project of the School of Medicine and the Library Consortium of Health Institutions in Buffalo offers integrated presentation of many such LAN resources over this regional WAN. The system crosses many institutional boundaries and reaches physically remote sites in a complex mix of information systems environments with few issues related to performance. The system design provides a level of ease of use that has brought many new users into active computer use while addressing integration into diverse information systems settings and networking environments. PMID:7949959

  7. Medical devices utilizing optical fibers for simultaneous power, communications and control

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Joseph P.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Hagans, Karla G.; Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter; Benett, William J.; Clough, Robert E.; DaSilva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.

    2003-06-10

    A medical device is constructed in the basic form of a catheter having a distal end for insertion into and manipulation within a body and a proximal end providing for a user to control the manipulation of the distal end within the body. A fiberoptic cable is disposed within the catheter and having a distal end proximate to the distal end of the catheter and a proximal end for external coupling of laser light energy. A laser-light-to-mechanical-power converter is connected to receive light from the distal end of the fiber optic cable and may include a photo-voltaic cell and an electromechanical motor or a heat-sensitive photo-thermal material. An electronic sensor is connected to receive electrical power from said distal end of the fiberoptic cable and is connected to provide signal information about a particular physical environment and communicated externally through the fiberoptic cable to the proximal end thereof. A mechanical sensor is attached to the distal end of the fiberoptic cable and connected to provide light signal information about a particular physical environment and communicated externally through the fiberoptic cable.

  8. The utilization of research-based information: Moving beyond communicating assessments of (climate) impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R.; Cohen, S. J.

    2006-12-01

    Societal impacts of changing environments include primary or direct effects (increased soil moisture, loss of life, crop and building damage etc.), secondary or indirect effects (displacement, illness) and, higher order or systemic effects (debt, loss of livelihood). Vulnerability to such events is constructed from: (1) the timing, magnitude, spatial extent, and duration of the physical hazard i.e. risk of occurrence; (2) exposure in regions of risk e.g. population, property; and, (3) factors that pre-condition the degree of impact and the capacity to respond and recover. The call for better articulated decision support and services components is rising on par with more traditional axes of assessments i.e. characterizing the integrated physical system and its social and environmental impacts. The expectation is that increasing the rate at which policy makers and resource managers acquire knowledge about environment-society interactions will result in improvements in the quality of public and private decisions (a decidedly idealized view). Much recent work has shown that this expectation is most difficult to meet when decision stakes are high, uncertainty is great, technologies are new, experience is limited, and there are unequal distributions of burdens and benefits. We review generalized frames of reference on the use of climate information identified in independent studies undertaken by the authors in different river basins of North America. As shown in these (and other) studies, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners (public and private) operate on different time-lines, use different languages, and most importantly respond to different problem definitions and accountability incentives. The process of communication is increasingly recognized to be complex, transactional, and heavily dependent on the potential user's pre-existing knowledge, beliefs and experiences. We outline differing approaches to risk communication and their associated assumptions

  9. Communicative Competences and the Use of ICT for Foreign Language Learning within the European Student Exchange Programme ERASMUS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Jose Ignacio Aguaded; Vicente, Cristina Pozo

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results from a mainly statistical and comparative analysis regarding the communicative competences and the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) of German exchange students. The data was extracted from two exhaustive, rigorous and methodical questionnaires related to communicative and ICT competences,…

  10. Establishing a Seismometer at PARI and Designing a Switching Circuit Utilizing Fiber Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Justin

    2007-12-01

    At Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC I spent ten weeks as the first NC Space Grant/Cline Astronomy Scholar developing multiple projects that helped to establish PARI as a resource for the scientific community. The first project that I worked on was establishing PARI's seismometer which serves as a resource for the region and utilizes sensitive equipment to measure 2.8 magnitude earthquakes occurring anywhere on earth. After basic seismometer operating principles were studied, multiple locations were surveyed to find an ideal location with little ambient noise and no disturbance from human or mechanical sources. Disturbances were generated at several locations identified as potential sites for the seismometer at 10, 20 and 30 feet by dropping a basketball and by driving a car around the location in an established pattern. Noise response was analyzed using the WinSDR software package which generates digital records of analog seismometer data and an ideal location was identified. The second project involved designing a circuit around the specific needs of the PARI optical telescope ridge. This ridge is susceptible to equipment that is damaged or improperly reset due to lightning. The circuit utilized the insulated properties of optical fiber to transmit a switching signal to the weather stations on the PARI optical ridge. This signal reset those stations that transmitted asynchronously after a lightning strike. Fiber optic transmitters were incorporated into the circuit along with TTL logic to provide a solid system that met the necessary specifications. After a rewarding an interesting summer I will follow up on my work next year for ten more weeks.

  11. Utilizing nonlinear ELF generation in modulated ionospheric heating experiments for communications applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.; Spasojevic, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.

    2013-01-01

    Modulated high-frequency heating of the D region ionosphere near the auroral electrojet can generate extremely low frequency (ELF; 3 Hz-3 kHz) radio waves. The modulated heating process is nonlinear and generates harmonics at integer multiples of the ELF modulation frequency. Quaternary phase shift keying, a digital modulation technique is applied to ELF waves to demonstrate transmission of digital data. Data were successfully decoded at a nearby receiver and the bit error rate computed. Square wave modulation of the high-frequency heater results in stronger signals and hence a smaller bit error rate. Simulations of the communication system using ELF waveforms and noise signals derived from ELF observations are also conducted. These simulations show that using higher harmonics of the ELF signal to improve the signal-to-noise ratio can reduce the bit error rate, although only when these harmonics are below ~4.5 kHz because of radio atmospherics (sferics) generating strong impulsive noise at higher frequencies.

  12. Utilizing usernames for sex categorization in computer-mediated communication: examining perceptions and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Cornetto, Karen M; Nowak, Kristine L

    2006-08-01

    As more interpersonal interactions move online, people increasingly get to know and recognize one another by their self-selected identifiers called usernames. Early research predicted that the lack of available cues in text based computer-mediated communication (CMC) would make primitive categories such as biological sex irrelevant in online interactions. Little is known about the types of perceptions people make about one another based on this information, but some limited research has shown that questions about gender are the first to be asked in online interactions and sex categorization has maintained salience. The current project was designed to examine the extent to which individuals might include obvious gender information in their usernames, as well as how easily gender could be attributed from usernames. Seventy-five coders were asked whether or not they could assign 298 people to a sex category based only on their username, and then to rate how confident they were in making the attribution. Results indicated that coders were fairly inaccurate in making these attributions, but moderately confident. Additionally, the results indicated that neither women nor men were more accurate in attributing gender from usernames, and that neither women nor men tended to use more obvious gender markers in their usernames. Additionally, those who did use obvious gender markers in their username tended to have less experience with computer chat. The results are discussed in conjunction with the limitations of the present investigation, and possibilities for future research.

  13. Joint source-channel coding for wireless object-based video communications utilizing data hiding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haohong; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, joint source-channel coding for multimedia communications has gained increased popularity. However, very limited work has been conducted to address the problem of joint source-channel coding for object-based video. In this paper, we propose a data hiding scheme that improves the error resilience of object-based video by adaptively embedding the shape and motion information into the texture data. Within a rate-distortion theoretical framework, the source coding, channel coding, data embedding, and decoder error concealment are jointly optimized based on knowledge of the transmission channel conditions. Our goal is to achieve the best video quality as expressed by the minimum total expected distortion. The optimization problem is solved using Lagrangian relaxation and dynamic programming. The performance of the proposed scheme is tested using simulations of a Rayleigh-fading wireless channel, and the algorithm is implemented based on the MPEG-4 verification model. Experimental results indicate that the proposed hybrid source-channel coding scheme significantly outperforms methods without data hiding or unequal error protection.

  14. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on air and water transport, communications, and utilities systems in south-central Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1967-01-01

    The earthquake of March 27, 1964, wrecked or severely hampered all forms of transportation, all utilities, and all communications systems over a very large part of south-central Alaska. Effects on air transportation were minor as compared to those on the water, highway, and railroad transport systems. A few planes were damaged or wrecked by seismic vibration or by flooding. Numerous airport facilities were damaged by vibration or by secondary effects of the earthquake, notably seismic sea and landslide-generated waves, tectonic subsidence, and compaction. Nearly all air facilities were partly or wholly operational within a few hours after the earthquake. The earthquake inflicted enormous damage on the shipping industry, which is indispensable to a State that imports fully 90 percent of its requirements—mostly by water—and whose largest single industry is fishing. Except for those of Anchorage, all port facilities in the earthquake-affected area were destroyed or made inoperable by submarine slides, waves, tectonic uplift, and fire. No large vessels were lost, but more than 200 smaller ones (mostly crab or salmon boats) were lost or severely damaged. Navigation aids were destroyed, and hitherto well-known waterways were greatly altered by uplift or subsidence. All these effects wrought far-reaching changes in the shipping economy of Alaska, many of them to its betterment. Virtually all utilities and communications in south-central Alaska were damaged or wrecked by the earthquake, but temporary repairs were effected in remarkably short times. Communications systems were silenced almost everywhere by loss of power or by downed lines; their place was quickly taken by a patchwork of self-powered radio transmitters. A complex power-generating system that served much of the stricken area from steam, diesel, and hydrogenerating plants was disrupted in many places by vibration damage to equipment and by broken transmission lines. Landslides in Anchorage broke gas

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in African- and European-American women: morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilization in the USA.

    PubMed

    Mehari, Alem; Gillum, Richard F

    2015-04-01

    The impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in US women. In 2008-2010, an estimated 7.9 million US women were living with COPD. Chronic lower respiratory disease was the third leading cause of mortality in 2010 and was a major cause of morbidity. Its economic and social burden is both substantial and increasing in the USA. The annual number of COPD deaths is now higher in women than in men. In 2011, 72,584 women and 65,920 men aged 25 years and over died of COPD. The death rate in African-American women was only half compared with European-American women. Further, rates of COPD prevalence, emergency room visits and hospitalization were greater among women than men. This review reports the latest patterns and trends in several measures of COPD in US women.

  16. Communicate!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Stuart

    This ten chapter book is designed to provide high school students with an understanding of basic communication processes. The first five chapters include discussions of language development, function, and acquisition in relation to both human and non-human communication. The sixth chapter contains specimen linguistic analyses of speech and…

  17. Complementary and Integrative Health Practices Among Hispanics Diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer: Utilization and Communication with Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Black, David S.; Lam, Chun Nok; Nguyen, Nathalie T.; Ihenacho, Ugonna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Complementary and integrative health (CIH) use among Hispanic adults with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis is not well documented. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of CIH use among Hispanics offers insights to uncover potential needs for clinical services. Design: Participants were age 21 years or older with a first-time diagnosis of CRC from population-based cancer registries in California. In-person and/or telephone-based interviews were administered to collect data on CIH use. Demographic and clinical diagnosis data were abstracted from medical records. Descriptive statistical and logistic regression was used to analyze the frequencies and associations between selected patient characteristics and CIH use. Results: Among 631 Hispanic patients, 40.1% reported ever using CIH. Herbal products/dietary supplements were used most often (35.3%), followed by bodywork (16.5%), mind–body practices (7.8%), and homeopathy (6.7%). About 60% of participants reported CIH use to address specific health conditions; however, most patients did not discuss CIH use with their physicians (76.3%). Women reported higher CIH use than did men (45.1% versus 35.9%; odds ratio, 1.49 [95% confidence interval, 1.07–2.08]; p = 0.02). CIH use did not differ by clinical stage, time since diagnosis, or preferred language. Conclusions: CIH use is prevalent among Hispanic patients with CRC, especially women. Little communication about CIH use occurs between participants and their healthcare providers. Efforts aimed at improving integrative oncology services provide an opportunity to address such gaps in healthcare service. PMID:27163178

  18. Long-range high-speed visible light communication system over 100-m outdoor transmission utilizing receiver diversity technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuan-quan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) has no doubt become a promising candidate for future wireless communications due to the increasing trends in the usage of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition to indoor high-speed wireless access and positioning applications, VLC usage in outdoor scenarios, such as vehicle networks and intelligent transportation systems, are also attracting significant interest. However, the complex outdoor environment and ambient noise are the key challenges for long-range high-speed VLC outdoor applications. To improve system performance and transmission distance, we propose to use receiver diversity technology in an outdoor VLC system. Maximal ratio combining-based receiver diversity technology is utilized in two receivers to achieve the maximal signal-to-noise ratio. A 400-Mb/s VLC transmission using a phosphor-based white LED and a 1-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing VLC transmission using a red-green-blue LED are both successfully achieved over a 100-m outdoor distance with the bit error rate below the 7% forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate at 100-m outdoor VLC transmission ever achieved. The experimental results clearly prove the benefit and feasibility of receiver diversity technology for long-range high-speed outdoor VLC systems.

  19. Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James

    2010-01-01

    NASA s communication work for the UAS Command and Control area will build upon work currently being conducted under NASA Recovery Act funds. Communication portions of UAS NextGen ConOps, Stateof- the-Art assessment, and Gap Analysis. Preliminary simulations for UAS CNPC link scalability assessment. Surrogate UAS aircraft upgrades. This work will also leverage FY10 in-guide funding for communication link model development. UAS are currently managed through exceptions and are operating using DoD frequencies for line-of-sight (LOS) and satellite-based communications links, low-power LOS links in amateur bands, or unlicensed Instrument/Scientific/Medical (ISM) frequencies. None of these frequency bands are designated for Safety and Regularity of Flight. No radio-frequency (RF) spectrum has been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) specifically for UAS command and control links, for either LOS or Beyond LOS (BLOS) communication.

  20. Brief communication: two-rooted lower canines--a European trait and sensitive indicator of admixture across Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine; Scott, G Richard

    2011-11-01

    With the exception of Carabelli's trait, the European dentition is better known for the morphological traits that it does not exhibit rather than the ones that it does. One root trait, however, runs counter to the characterization of reduced and simplified European crowns and roots. Although a rare trait in general, two-rooted lower canines are much more common in Europeans than in any other regional grouping and, given adequate sample sizes, can be useful in evaluating gene flow between Europeans and neighboring groups. In European samples, two-rooted lower canines consistently exhibit frequencies of 5-8%. In our sample from northern Spain, the trait attains a frequency of almost 10%. In contrast, in Sub-Saharan Africans the trait is virtually unknown while in Asian and Asian-derived populations, it varies between 0.0 and 1.0%. Here we show that two-rooted canine frequencies for new migrants along the western frontiers of China and Mongolia ranged from 0-4%. These data suggest European-derived populations migrated into western China (Xinjiang Province) and Mongolia (Bayan Olgii Aimag) sometime during the late Bronze age (1000-400 BCE).

  1. Analysis of an all optical de-multiplexer architecture utilizing bevel design for spatially multiplexed optical fiber communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Finch, Michael F.; Lovell, Gregory L.

    2014-09-01

    Spatial domain multiplexing (SDM) is a system that allows multiple channels of light to traverse a single fiber, utilizing separate spatial regions inside the carrier fiber, thereby applying a new degree of photon freedom for optical fiber communications. These channels follow a helical pattern, the screen projection of which is viewable as concentric rings at the output end of the system. The MIMO nature of the SDM system implies that a typical pin-diode or APD will be unable to distinguish between these channels, as the diode will interpret the combination of the SDM signals from all channels as a single signal. As such, spatial de-multiplexing methods must be introduced to properly detect the SDM based MIMO signals. One such method utilizes a fiber consisting of multiple, concentric, hollow core fibers to route each channel independently and thereby de-mux the signals into separate fibers or detectors. These de-mux fibers consist of hollow core cylindrical structures with beveled edges on one side that gradually taper to route the circular, ring type, output energy patterns into a spot with the highest possible efficiency. This paper analyzes the beveled edge by varying its length and analyzing the total output power for each predetermined length allowing us to simulate ideal bevel length to minimize both system losses as well as total de-mux footprint. OptiBPM simulation engine is employed for these analyses.

  2. The other aspect of solar energy utilization. Solar technologies export enhancement: A central European point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, C. J.; Nitsch, J.; Klaiss, H.; Voigt, C.

    1985-11-01

    It is shown that solar energy utilization can, on a moderate scale, supplement the indigenous energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. It can contribute to the prevention of fatal ecological damage, open an attractive export market and, in the long run, prepare ground for North-South compensation, where energy-poor but technology rich countries cooperate with countries of the Third World, which are often rich in raw materials and are situated in the solar belt of the world, for the benefit of the implementation of a solar industry or the production of a marketable synthetic solar energy carrier.

  3. Performance and utilization of Northern European short-tailed breeds of sheep and their crosses in North America: a review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D L

    2010-08-01

    The five Northern European short-tailed sheep breeds present in North America are the Finnsheep, Romanov, Icelandic, Shetland and Gotland. The Finnsheep and Romanov were first imported in 1966 and 1986, respectively, for their high reproductive performance. The Shetland, Icelandic and Gotland breeds were first imported in 1980, 1985 and 2005, respectively, for the uniqueness of their physical appearance and their unique fleeces desired by fiber craftspeople. There have been no scientific studies conducted on the performance of the Shetland, Icelandic or Gotland breeds relative to other breeds of sheep in North America. However, the Shetland and Icelandic breeds have become very popular in the United States and ranked 9th and 18th, respectively, among 35 breeds of sheep for number of purebred animals registered in 2008. The performance of the Finnsheep breed in North America relative to domestic breeds has been thoroughly investigated. Compared to several domestic purebreds and crosses, sheep with Finnsheep breeding had a younger age at puberty, greater fertility to autumn mating, greater litter size, greater survival to weaning, similar growth rate, similar subcutaneous fat thickness, smaller loin muscle area and greater percentage of kidney and pelvic fat. Each 1% increase in Finnsheep breeding in ewes was associated with approximately 0.01 more lambs born per ewe lambing. In North American studies, Romanov ewes were superior to Finnsheep ewes for reproductive rate and lamb production per ewe under both autumn and spring mating. Lambs of the two breeds were similar for survival, growth and carcass traits. Romanov and Romanov-cross ewes produced fleeces that were heavily contaminated with medulated and colored fibers and were of very low commercial value. Three composite breeds containing 25% to 49% Finnsheep breeding (Polypay, Rideau Arcott and Outaouais Arcott) were developed in North America and are now more popular than the Finnsheep breed.

  4. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  5. Improving Nigerian health policymakers’ capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers’ ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  6. Investigating the Discourse on Social Cohesion in Relation to Innovation through the Vocabulary of European Commission Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalba, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    After the relaunch of the Lisbon Strategy, innovation has become one of the main areas of interest in the European Union (EU). In general terms, innovation is always seen as a driver of economic growth and a necessary element to achieve the strategic goal set by the EU in 2000 of becoming the most competitive knowledge-based economy. The strategic…

  7. Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  8. Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Resources and Job Effectiveness among Library Staff in the University of Calabar and Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntui, Aniebiet Inyang; Inyang, Comfort Linus

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources and job effectiveness among library staff in the University of Calabar and Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted…

  9. Assessing Young Children's Intention-Reading in Authentic Communicative Contexts: Preliminary Evidence and Clinical Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identifying what a communication partner is looking at (referential intention) and why (social intention) is essential to successful social communication, and may be challenging for children with social communication deficits. This study explores a clinical task that assesses these intention-reading abilities within an authentic…

  10. Expectations and beliefs in science communication: Learning from three European gene therapy discussions of the early 1990s.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-04-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical-ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs.

  11. Brief communication: discrimination between European-American and African-American children based on deciduous dental metrics and morphology.

    PubMed

    Lease, Loren R; Sciulli, Paul W

    2005-01-01

    This study employs metric and morphological features of the deciduous dentition for discriminating between European-American and African-American children and providing allocation rules (regression equations). Five logistic regression equations are presented, with the percentage of correct allocation to group of between 90.1-92.6%. All five equations employ three metric traits (the mesiodistal diameters of the mandibular deciduous canines and anterior and posterior deciduous premolars) and one morphological feature (cusp number of the maxillary deciduous anterior premolar). In addition to these four variables, only two or three additional morphological features are added in carious combinations in the final equations. Correct allocation to group is 4-12% greater when combining metric and morphological features compared to using the features separately.

  12. Studies of Innovation and of Communication to the Public. Studies in the Utilization of Behavioral Science, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elihu; And Others

    The papers presented in this volume report studies on the process of innovation and studies on the process and problems of communicating scientific information to the public. Papers include: "The Social Itinerary of Technical Change: Two Studies on the Diffusion of Innovation" by Elihu Katz; "The Communication of Ideals on Innovation in…

  13. Identifying Determinants of Socioeconomic Inequality in Health Service Utilization among Patients with Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua; Ning, Ning; Xu, Ling; Liu, Chaojie; Li, Ye; Kang, Zheng; Liu, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background People with chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are particularly vulnerable to socioeconomic inequality due to their long-term expensive health needs. This study aimed to assess socioeconomic-related inequality in health service utilization among NCD patients in China and to analyze factors associated with this disparity. Methods Data were taken from the 2008 Chinese National Health Survey, in which a multiple stage stratified random sampling method was employed to survey 56,456 households. We analyzed the distribution of actual use, need-expected use, and need-standardized usage of outpatient services (over a two-week period) and inpatient services (over one-year) across different income groups in 27,233 adult respondents who reported as having a NCD. We used a concentration index to measure inequality in the distribution of health services, which was expressed as HI (Horizontal Inequity Index) for need-standardized use of services. A non-linear probit regression model was employed to detect inequality across socio-economic groups. Results Pro-rich inequity in health services among NCD patients was more substantial than the average population. A higher degree of pro-rich inequity (HI = 0.253) was found in inpatient services compared to outpatient services (HI = 0.089). Despite a greater need for health services amongst those of lower socio-economic status, their actual use is much less than their more affluent counterparts. Health service underuse by the poor and overuse by the affluent are evident. Household income disparity was the greatest inequality factor in NCD service use for both outpatients (71.3%) and inpatients (108%), more so than health insurance policies. Some medical insurance schemes, such as the MIUE, actually made a pro-rich contribution to health service inequality (16.1% for outpatient and 12.1% for inpatient). Conclusions Inequality in health services amongst NCD patients in China remains largely determined by patient

  14. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonelle, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    Communications in any system is one of the last technologies to be considered, and sometimes it is considered too late to impact the system. This was somewhat the impression on reviewing the NASA budget for two mission scenarios for the space station. However, that budget fortunately was well spent, and the money was spent to get the most benefit per dollar. Another thing that is very often forgotten is that technology is not produced in a vacuum. In fact, in conducting independent research and development (IR&D), the first phase is to define the requirements which must be time phased, becuase very often the conditions will change during the life of the system. From the requirements, a set of architectures that are at least representative of that era are produced. If the exact requirements were not established, at least boundaries are set on the requirements for that architecture. When this is completed, then the technology that is really needed is defined. The major criticism of the work that was presented to the panel is the lack of a firm set of requirements.

  15. Enlargement Futures Project: Information and Communication Technologies. Final Report. Enlargement Futures Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourova, Elissaveta; Burgelman, Jean-Claude; Bogdanowicz, Marc; Herrmann, Christoph

    Trends in the development and utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the 13 candidate countries for admission into the European Union(the CC13) were examined by a 12-member panel of experts and its staff. The analysis focused on the following topics: (1) the communication infrastructure available in the CC13; (2) issues…

  16. Genetic Variation in the Strongly Canalized Sex Pheromone Communication System of the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia Nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, J.; Lofstedt, C.; Bengtsson, B. O.

    1996-01-01

    The major difference in pheromone production between the so-called E and Z strains of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis is controlled by two alleles at a single autosomal locus. E-strain females produce an (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate pheromone with 1-3% of the Z isomer, whereas Z-strain females produce the opposite blend. In laboratory-reared insects we found that F(1) females produced, on average, a 71:29 E/Z ratio, but the distribution was clearly bimodal. The variability in pheromone blend produced by heterozygous females could be explained by the existence of two different alleles in the Z strain which in combination with the E-strain allele for the major production locus cause the production of a component mixture either high or low in the E isomer. In addition, evidence was found for an independently inherited factor, existing in the E strain, with a dominant effect on the amount of E isomer produced by females homozygous for Z-alleles at the major production locus. Thus, the low variability normally found in the pheromone mixture produced by O. nubilalis and other moth females may, by canalization, hide a considerable amount of underlying genetic variation. PMID:8889536

  17. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  18. Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

  19. Relations between professional medical associations and healthcare industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.

  20. Relations between professional medical associations and the health-care industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.

  1. Relations between professional medical associations and the health-care industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a Policy Statement from the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    2012-03-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.

  2. Feasibility of utilizing Cherenkov Telescope Array gamma-ray telescopes as free-space optical communication ground stations.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vilera, Mariafernanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Cabrero, Juan Francisco

    2013-04-10

    The signals that will be received on Earth from deep-space probes in future implementations of free-space optical communication will be extremely weak, and new ground stations will have to be developed in order to support these links. This paper addresses the feasibility of using the technology developed in the gamma-ray telescopes that will make up the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory in the implementation of a new kind of ground station. Among the main advantages that these telescopes provide are the much larger apertures needed to overcome the power limitation that ground-based gamma-ray astronomy and optical communication both have. Also, the large number of big telescopes that will be built for CTA will make it possible to reduce costs by economy-scale production, enabling optical communications in the large telescopes that will be needed for future deep-space links.

  3. Sexually mature European eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) stimulate gonadal development of neighbouring males: possible involvement of chemical communication.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Mar; Scott, Alexander P; Hubbard, Peter C; Canário, Adelino V M; Cerdà, Joan

    2006-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate whether sexual maturation of immature male eels could be stimulated indirectly by placing them in contact with either male (Minj) or female (Finj) eels in which sexual maturation had been stimulated directly by weekly injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or salmon pituitary extract (SPE), respectively. Untreated males were placed either in the same tank or in a separate tank that was linked to the injected fish via a recirculation system. The hormonal treatments stimulated spermatogenesis and spermiation in Minj, and ovulation in Finj as well as an increase of the ocular (Io) and gonadosomatic (GSI) indices in both sexes. Plasma levels of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) increased in Minj and T and 17beta-estradiol (E2) in Finj. A small peak of plasma 17,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20betaP) occurred during ovulation, while the plasma levels of 17alpha-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (17P) were undetectable in both males and females. The water conditioned by Minj and Finj induced significant, though relatively minor, increases in Io and GSI in uninjected males. In addition, uninjected fish showed small changes in plasma T and 11-KT levels, apparently related to the timing of spermiation and ovulation of Minj and Finj, respectively, as well as an activation of spermatogenesis (but not spermiation). Injected fish released free and conjugated T, 11-KT and E2 into the water, although immature eels were unable to smell (by electro-olfactogram) any of these steroids or prostaglandin F2alpha. However, immature males were highly sensitive to water extracts conditioned by spermiating Minj and pre-ovulatory and ovulated Finj. These preliminary results suggest the existence of chemical communication between maturing eels and immature males that stimulates gonad development, although the putative pheromone(s) involved has/have not yet been identified.

  4. European Crew Personal Active Dosimeter (EuCPAD), a novel dosimetry system utilizing operational and scientific synergies for the benefit of humans in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas

    A significant expansion of Human presence in space can be recognized over the last decade. Not only the frequency of human space mission did rise, but also time in space, mission duration with extended flights lasting half a year or more are becoming "standard". Despite the challenges to human health and well-being are still significant, or may even increase with mission length and work density. Also radiation exposure in space remains one of the inevitable and dominating factors relevant to crew- health, -safety and therefore mission success. The radiation environment that the space crews are exposed to differs significantly as compared to earth. Exposure in flight exceed doses that are usually received by terrestrial radiation workers on ground. Expanding "medical" demands are not a solely characteristics of current and current and upcoming mission scenarios. Likewise the margins for what is understood as "efficient utilization" for the fully operational science platform ISS, are immense. Understanding, accepting and approaching these challenges ESA-HSO did choose a particular pass of implementation for one of their current developments. Exploiting synergies of research, science and medical operational aspects, the "European Crew Personal Active Dosimeter for Astronauts (EuCPAD)" development exactly addresses these circumstances. It becomes novel part of ESA Radiation Protection Initiative for astronauts. The EuCPAD project aims at the development and manufacturing of an active (powered) dosimeter system to measure astronaut's exposures, support risk assessment dose management by providing a differentiated data set. Final goal is the verification of the system capabilities for medical monitoring at highest standards. The EuCPAD consists of several small portable Personal Active Dosimeters (MU = Mobile Unitas) and a rack mounted docking station “Personal Storage Device (PSD)” for MU storage, data read out and telemetry. The PSD furthermore contains a Tissue

  5. A European consensus report on blood cell identification: terminology utilized and morphological diagnosis concordance among 28 experts from 17 countries within the European LeukemiaNet network WP10, on behalf of the ELN Morphology Faculty.

    PubMed

    Zini, Gina; Bain, Barbara; Bettelheim, Peter; Cortez, José; d'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Faber, Edgar; Haferlach, Torsten; Kacirkova, Petra; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Matutes, Estella; Maynadié, Marc; Meletis, John; Petersen, Bodil L; Porwit, Anna; Terpos, Evangelos; Tichelli, Andrée; Vallespí, Teresa; Woessner, Soledad; Bennett, John; Bene, Marie C

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop a consensual glossary for haematopoietic cells within Diagnostics-WP10 of European-LeukemiaNet EU-project. This highly interactive work was made possible through the use of the net, requiring only a single two-day meeting of actual confrontation and debate. It resulted in the production of a freely accessible tool that could be useful for training as well as harmonization of morphological reports in onco-haematology especially, without geographic limitation, not limited to European countries. Moreover, this collective work resulted in the production of a consensus statement, taking into account individual practices, collegial agreement and literature data.

  6. Use of an Experiential Learning Assignment to Prepare Future Health Professionals to Utilize Social Media for Nutrition Communications.

    PubMed

    Twynstra, Jasna; Dworatzek, Paula

    2016-03-01

    Social media has become a popular platform for reputable health organizations to disseminate health information to the public. However, future health professionals may receive little training in social media communication. To train future dietetic professionals, we incorporated a social media assignment into a Communications course curriculum to facilitate effective use of social media for the profession. For the assignment, students were instructed to make 2 posts on Facebook. The posts were due 3 weeks apart so that students received feedback on their first post before making their second post. To demonstrate the type of social media communication commonly used by reputable health organizations, the first post raised awareness or provided nutrition education. The second post used Facebook's "comment" feature, to respond to another student's first post, demonstrating the use of social media for community engagement. Both posts included a hyperlink that the user could click to get more information. Students were evaluated on the hook, main points, professionalism, credibility, and effectiveness of inviting the reader to the hyperlinked website and its ease of navigation. Dietetics educators should be encouraged to incorporate social media education into their curriculums for the benefit of future dietitians and their clients.

  7. Training Family Medicine Residents in Effective Communication Skills While Utilizing Promotoras as Standardized Patients in OSCEs: A Health Literacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Patti; Kindratt, Tiffany; Arnold, Danielle; Brandt, Jeffrey; Woodfin, Grant; Gimpel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Future health care providers need to be trained in the knowledge and skills to effectively communicate with their patients with limited health literacy. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a curriculum designed to increase residents' health literacy knowledge, improve communication skills, and work with an interpreter. Materials and Methods. Family Medicine residents (N = 25) participated in a health literacy training which included didactic lectures and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Community promotoras acted as standardized patients and evaluated the residents' ability to measure their patients' health literacy, communicate effectively using the teach-back and Ask Me 3 methods, and appropriately use an interpreter. Pre- and postknowledge, attitudes, and postdidactic feedback were obtained. We compared OSCE scores from the group that received training (didactic group) and previous graduates. Residents reported the skills they used in practice three months later. Results. Family Medicine residents showed an increase in health literacy knowledge (p = 0.001) and scored in the adequately to expertly performed range in the OSCE. Residents reported using the teach-back method (77.8%) and a translator more effectively (77.8%) three months later. Conclusions. Our innovative health literacy OSCE can be replicated for medical learners at all levels of training.

  8. Two-Sides of the Same Coin: Communicating Climate Change Science to Water Utilities and Stakeholders in Florida and Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keener, V. W.; Staal, L.

    2011-12-01

    The NOAA-funded Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment (RISA) programs act as boundary organizations that both conduct and translate academic climate research in the physical and social sciences for a variety of stakeholder applications, including for local and state governments, natural resource managers, non-climate scientists, and community members. For the past six years, I have worked with two RISAs-one in the southeast United States, and recently in the Pacific region. In confronting the most immediate impacts of climate change, Florida and Hawai'i are both currently dealing with saltwater intrusion effects on infrastructure and water supply, sea level rise impacts on vulnerable coastlines, and expect the problems to worsen in the future. Both RISAs have focused on water resource sustainability as a topic of interest, and held workshops on climate variability and change impacts for water utilities and a wider range of relevant stakeholders. Methods that have been used to communicate climate science, projected impacts, and risk have included: working groups/collaborative learning, scientific presentations and presentations of relevant case studies, beach management planning, in-depth interviews, and educational radio spots. Despite the similarities in the types of issues being confronted, stakeholders in each location have responded with differing levels of acceptance, which has resulted in the usage of different methods of communication of the same types of climate science information. This talk will focus on the success of a variety of different methods in communicating similar information on comparable risks to different audiences.

  9. Socioeconomic status and health-care utilization: a study of the effects of low income, unemployment and hours of work on the demand for health care in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Economou, Athina; Nikolaou, Agelike; Theodossiou, Ioannis

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to shed light on the individual socioeconomic status and demographic determinants of the demand for health care in a cross-comparison study of nine European Union countries. It focuses on the effects of individual employment status on alternative indicators of demand for health care that constitutes a largely unexplored area. The evidence supports the existence of an employment status-demand for healthcare relationship, although it varies with respect to the type of health care examined and the institutional and environmental settings of the countries utilized in the study.

  10. Adaptive 84.44-190 Mbit/s phosphor-LED wireless communication utilizing no blue filter at practical transmission distance.

    PubMed

    Yeh, C H; Chow, C W; Chen, H Y; Chen, J; Liu, Y L

    2014-04-21

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a white-light phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) system with an adaptive 84.44 to 190 Mbit/s 16 quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal utilizing bit-loading method. Here, the optimal analogy pre-equalization design is performed at LED transmitter (Tx) side and no blue filter is used at the Rx side. Hence, the ~1 MHz modulation bandwidth of phosphor-LED could be extended to 30 MHz. In addition, the measured bit error rates (BERs) of < 3.8 × 10(-3) [forward error correction (FEC) threshold] at different measured data rates can be achieved at practical transmission distances of 0.75 to 2 m.

  11. Expedition to the 30-km Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and the Utilization of its Experience in Education and Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Aszodi, Attila; Yamaji, Bogdan; Silye, Judit; Pazmandi, Tamas

    2006-07-01

    Between May 28 - June 4, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (HYGN) - which operates within the framework of the HNS - a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the surrounding exclusion zone. The participants were young Hungarian nuclear professionals supervised by more experienced experts. The main scientific goals of the expedition were the followings: Get personal experiences in a direct way about the current status of the Chernobyl Power Plant and its surroundings, the contamination of the environment and about the doses. Gather information about the state of the shut down power plant and the shelter built above the damaged 4. unit. Training of young nuclear experts by performing on site measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives by performing wide-range of environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. Within the 30-km exclusion zone the influence of the accident occurred 20 years ago still could be measured clearly; however the level of the radioactivity is manageable in most places. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure occurred among the members of the expedition. The analysis of samples has been started at the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. During the expedition not only environmental sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out but it was also well documented with photos and video recordings for educational, training and PR purposes. A documentary TV film was recorded during the expedition. The first-hand knowledge acquired during the expedition helps the authentic communication of the accident and its present-day consequences, which is especially important in 2006, 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since Ukraine and Hungary are neighbor countries the media constantly discuss the accident, the consequences and the risks of

  12. The Financial Burden of Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Rural Nigeria: Wealth and Gender Heterogeneity in Health Care Utilization and Health Expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Wendy; de Bree, Godelieve J.; Aderibigbe, Sunday A.; Akande, Tanimola M.; Mesnard, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Better insights into health care utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD) are needed to develop accessible health care and limit the increasing financial burden of NCCDs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A household survey was conducted in rural Kwara State, Nigeria, among 5,761 individuals. Data were obtained using biomedical and socio-economic questionnaires. Health care utilization, NCCD-related health expenditures and distances to health care providers were compared by sex and by wealth quintile, and a Heckman regression model was used to estimate health expenditures taking selection bias in health care utilization into account. Results The prevalence of NCCDs in our sample was 6.2%. NCCD-affected individuals from the wealthiest quintile utilized formal health care nearly twice as often as those from the lowest quintile (87.8% vs 46.2%, p = 0.002). Women reported foregone formal care more often than men (43.5% vs. 27.0%, p = 0.058). Health expenditures relative to annual consumption of the poorest quintile exceeded those of the highest quintile 2.2-fold, and the poorest quintile exhibited a higher rate of catastrophic health spending (10.8% among NCCD-affected households) than the three upper quintiles (4.2% to 6.7%). Long travel distances to the nearest provider, highest for the poorest quintile, were a significant deterrent to seeking care. Using distance to the nearest facility as instrument to account for selection into health care utilization, we estimated out-of-pocket health care expenditures for NCCDs to be significantly higher in the lowest wealth quintile compared to the three upper quintiles. Conclusions Facing potentially high health care costs and poor accessibility of health care facilities, many individuals suffering from NCCDs—particularly women and the poor—forego formal care, thereby increasing the risk of more severe illness in the future. When seeking care, the poor spend less on

  13. On the Utility of ICT in the European Higher Education Area: The Bologna Process and Its Implications in the Innovation of the Teaching and Learning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, Pablo Murta Baião; Armendáriz-Iñigo, José Enrique

    Europe is pursuing a real union and one of its milestones is education. The appearance of the European High Education Area (the Bologna Process) supposes a major change in the teaching process at universities from the knowledge-based to the skills learning-based. It is a common belief that ICT could be the driving force in this change of paradigm. However, ICT itself is not the exclusive solution to the education problem; although it is part if the solution since it is very innovative further considerations have to be taken into account. In this paper we discuss the adoption of ICT in the Bologna Process focused on the particular case of Spain. We provide the current state of the art, discuss some drawbacks and point out some possible solutions.

  14. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) evolution in populations of the hyperparasitic European mistletoe pathogen fungus, Sphaeropsis visci (Botryosphaeriaceae): The utility of ITS2 secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Poczai, Péter; Varga, Ildikó; Hyvönen, Jaakko

    2015-03-01

    We investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for Sphaeropsis visci, a hyperparasitic fungus that causes the leaf spot disease of the hemiparasite European mistletoe (Viscum album). Samples of S. visci were obtained from Hungary covering all major infected forest areas. For obtaining PCR products we used a fast and efficient direct PCR approach based on a high fidelity DNA polymerase. A total of 140 ITS sequences were subjected to an array of complementary sequence analyses, which included analyses of secondary structure stability, nucleotide polymorphism patterns, GC content, and presence of conserved motifs. Analysed sequences exhibited features of functional rRNAs. Overall, polymorphism was observed within less conserved motifs, such as loops and bulges, or, alternatively, as non-canonical G-U pairs within conserved regions of double stranded helices. The secondary structure of ITS2 provides new opportunities for obtaining further valuable information, which could be used in phylogenetic analyses, or at population level as demonstrated in our study. This is due to additional information provided by secondary structures and their models. The combined score matrix was used with the methods implemented in the programme 4SALE. Besides the pseudoprotein coding method of 4SALE, the molecular morphometric character coding also has potential for gaining further information for phylogenetic analyses based on the geometric features of the sub-structural elements of the ITS2 RNA transcript.

  15. ECS communications success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddy, S. E.

    1985-09-01

    The European Communications Satellite (ECS) which supplies satellite links for national telecommunication, long-distance international telephone traffic, and the distribution of television programs is described. The ECS concept was tested by the Orbital Test Satellite and proved the applicability of the ECS for television transmission and high-speed data links provided by small earth stations. The industrial development, operation, and cost of the project, which was shared by the European Space Agency members, are discussed. Extra repeater chains for small-dish services employed by ECS operate in the 14.0-14.25 GHz uplink and 12.5-12.75 GHz downlink frequency band and are utilized by small earth stations. The advantages and disadvantages of transmission services provided by the small earth stations are studied. The utilization of the point-to-multipoint service of the small earth station for the transmission of data is analyzed. The television distribution services available with the ECS system are examined; the ECS provides ten 20-W channels for a lifetime of seven years.

  16. An Optimum Space-to-Ground Communication Concept for CubeSat Platform Utilizing NASA Space Network and Near Earth Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Yen F.; Kegege, Obadiah; Schaire, Scott H.; Bussey, George; Altunc, Serhat; Zhang, Yuwen; Patel Chitra

    2016-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) CubeSat missions are expected to grow rapidly in the next decade. Higher data rate CubeSats are transitioning away from Amateur Radio bands to higher frequency bands. A high-level communication architecture for future space-to-ground CubeSat communication was proposed within NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This architecture addresses CubeSat direct-to-ground communication, CubeSat to Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communication, CubeSat constellation with Mothership direct-to-ground communication, and CubeSat Constellation with Mothership communication through K-Band Single Access (KSA). A study has been performed to explore this communication architecture, through simulations, analyses, and identifying technologies, to develop the optimum communication concepts for CubeSat communications. This paper presents details of the simulation and analysis that include CubeSat swarm, daughter ship/mother ship constellation, Near Earth Network (NEN) S and X-band direct to ground link, TDRSS Multiple Access (MA) array vs Single Access mode, notional transceiver/antenna configurations, ground asset configurations and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) signal trades for daughter ship/mother ship CubeSat constellation inter-satellite cross link. Results of space science X-band 10 MHz maximum achievable data rate study are summarized. CubeSat NEN Ka-Band end-to-end communication analysis is provided. Current CubeSat communication technologies capabilities are presented. Compatibility test of the CubeSat transceiver through NEN and SN is discussed. Based on the analyses, signal trade studies and technology assessments, the desired CubeSat transceiver features and operation concepts for future CubeSat end-to-end communications are derived.

  17. Police Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Oklahoma City Police Department developed a computerized communications system, based on Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) 1960-mission control knowledge. JSC furnished information on lighting and other fatigue reducing measures, and provided specifications for equipment and design layouts. JSC also advised OCPD how to avoid communications bottlenecks associated with simultaneous handling of telephone, radio and inner-office transmissions. Oklahoma City saved money in reduced design and engineering costs by utilizing the already developed NASA technology.

  18. An Optimum Space-to-Ground Communication Concept for CubeSat Platform Utilizing NASA Space Network and Near Earth Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Yen F.; Kegege, Obadiah; Schaire, Scott H.; Bussey, George; Altunc, Serhat; Zhang, Yuwen; Patel, Chitra

    2016-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) CubeSat missions are expected to grow rapidly in the next decade. Higher data rate CubeSats are transitioning away from Amateur Radio bands to higher frequency bands. A high-level communication architecture for future space-to-ground CubeSat communication was proposed within NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This architecture addresses CubeSat direct-to-ground communication, CubeSat to Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communication, CubeSat constellation with Mothership direct-to-ground communication, and CubeSat Constellation with Mothership communication through K-Band Single Access (KSA).A Study has been performed to explore this communication architecture, through simulations, analyses, and identifying technologies, to develop the optimum communication concepts for CubeSat communications. This paper will present details of the simulation and analysis that include CubeSat swarm, daughter shipmother ship constellation, Near Earth Network (NEN) S and X-band direct to ground link, TDRS Multiple Access (MA) array vs Single Access mode, notional transceiverantenna configurations, ground asset configurations and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) signal trades for daughter mother CubeSat constellation inter-satellite crosslink. Results of Space Science X-band 10 MHz maximum achievable data rate study will be summarized. Assessment of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of current CubeSat communication technologies capabilities will be presented. Compatibility test of the CubeSat transceiver through NEN and Space Network (SN) will be discussed. Based on the analyses, signal trade studies and technology assessments, the functional design and performance requirements as well as operation concepts for future CubeSat end-to-end communications will be derived.

  19. Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

  20. Flight Tunnel Response of Male European Corn Borer Moths to Cross-Specific Mixtures of European and Asian Corn Borer Sex Pheromones: Evidence Supporting a Critical Stage in Evolution of a New Communication System.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nathan; Moore, Kevin; Musto, Callie J; Linn, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Previous flight tunnel studies showed that 3-5 % of male European corn borer (ECB) moths, Ostrinia nubilalis, could fly upwind and make contact with sources releasing the sex pheromone of the closely related Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrina furnacalis, [2:1 (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate (Z12-14:OAc) : (E)-12-teradecenyl acetate (E12-14:OAc)] and that 2-4 % of ACB males could similarly fly upwind to the sex pheromone blends of the ECB Z- [97:3 (Z)-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc) : (E)-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:Ac)] and E-strains (1:99 Z/E11-14:OAc) pheromones. The results supported the hypothesis that the evolution of the ACB pheromone system from an ECB-like ancestor included a stage in which males could be attracted to the unusual females emitting Z12- and E12-14:OAc while retaining their responsiveness to the ancestral pheromone blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc. Here, we showed further that ECB E-strain males exhibited upwind oriented flight and source contacts to sources containing all combinations of ECB and ACB components. Maximal response levels were observed with the E-strain 99:1 E11/Z11-14:OAc blend, and high response levels also were observed with two other blends containing E11-14:OAc as the major component (E11:E12 and E11:Z12). Upwind flight and source contact also occurred at lower levels with the remaining blend combinations in which Z11-, E12-, or Z12-14:OAc was the major component. Our current results support the hypothesis concerning the evolution of ACB from an ECB-like ancester by showing that males were able to respond to females producing either the 12-14:Ac isomers, 11-14:Ac isomers, or even mixtures of all four components.

  1. Bacteria without borders: communicable disease politics in Europe.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L; Mätzke, Margitta

    2012-12-01

    Communicable disease control might be one of the oldest and most important functions of the modern state, but it receives very little attention today. This article introduces a special issue on the Europeanization of communicable disease control politics in Europe. The Europeanization of communicable disease control is a case of both European integration and communicable disease politics. We first analyze the problems and tensions in communicable disease control as a problem of overlapping interprofessional, interorganizational, intergovernmental, and international tensions. We then present the European Union, a new and understudied actor in communicable disease politics, sketching the theoretical background for Europeanization of the field and introducing the articles in the special issue.

  2. Utilization of an ionic liquid in situ preconcentration method for the determination of the 15 + 1 European Union polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water and fruit-tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Germán-Hernández, Mónica; Crespo-Llabrés, Pilar; Pino, Verónica; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2013-08-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) in situ preconcentration method was optimized and applied to the monitoring of the 15 + 1 European Union polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and fruit-tea infusions. The optimized method utilizes 10 mL of water (or infusion) containing 38 μL of the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and a content of 36.1 g/L NaCl, which are mixed with Li-NTf2 (340 μL, 0.2 g/mL), followed by vortex (4 min) and centrifugation (5 min). The obtained microdroplet containing hydrocarbons is diluted with acetonitrile and injected into an HPLC with UV/Vis and fluorescence detection. The method presented average enrichment factors of 127 for water (tap water and bottled water) and 27 for two fruit-tea infusions; with average relative recoveries of 86.7 and 106% for water and fruit-tea infusions, respectively. The method was sensitive, with detection limits ranging from 0.001 to 0.050 ng/mL in water, and from 0.010 to 0.600 ng/mL in fruit-tea infusions, for the fluorescent hydrocarbons. Real extraction efficiencies ranged from 12.7 to 58.7% for water, and from 20.2 to 117% for the infusions. The method was also fast (~12 min) and free of organic solvents in the extraction step.

  3. Utilization of a Text and Translation Application for Communication With a Foreign Deaf Family: A Call for Validation of This Technology-A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Patrick G; Brockel, Megan A; Lipscomb, Lisa L; Ing, Richard J; Tailounie, Muayyad

    2017-04-13

    Effective communication with patients is essential to quality care. Obviously, language barriers significantly impact this and can increase the risk of poor patient outcomes. Smartphones and mobile health technology are valuable resources that are beginning to break down language barriers in health care. We present a case of a challenging language barrier where successful perioperative communication was achieved using mobile technology. Although quite beneficial, use of technology that is not validated exposes providers to unnecessary medicolegal risk. We hope to highlight the need for validation of such technology to ensure that these tools are an effective way to accurately communicate with patients in the perioperative setting.

  4. European Union pharmacovigilance capabilities: potential for the new legislation.

    PubMed

    Borg, John Joseph; Tanti, Amy; Kouvelas, Dimitrios; Lungu, Calin; Pirozynski, Michal; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Aislaitner, George

    2015-08-01

    European Directives and Regulations introduced between late 2010 and 2012 have substantially overhauled pharmacovigilance processes across the European Union (EU). In this review, the implementation of the pharmacovigilance legislative framework by EU regulators is examined with the aim of mapping Directive 2010/84/EU and Regulation EC No. 1235/2010 against their aspired objectives of strengthening and rationalizing pharmacovigilance in the EU. A comprehensive review of the current state of affairs of the progress made by EU regulators is presented in this paper. Our review shows that intense efforts by regulators and industry to fulfil legislative obligations have resulted in major positive shifts in pharmacovigilance. Harmonized decision making, transparency in decision processes with patient involvement, information accessibility to the public, patient adverse drug reaction reporting, efforts in communication and enhanced cooperation between member states to maximize resource utilization and minimize duplication of efforts are observed.

  5. European Union pharmacovigilance capabilities: potential for the new legislation

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, Amy; Kouvelas, Dimitrios; Lungu, Calin; Pirozynski, Michal; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Aislaitner, George

    2015-01-01

    European Directives and Regulations introduced between late 2010 and 2012 have substantially overhauled pharmacovigilance processes across the European Union (EU). In this review, the implementation of the pharmacovigilance legislative framework by EU regulators is examined with the aim of mapping Directive 2010/84/EU and Regulation EC No. 1235/2010 against their aspired objectives of strengthening and rationalizing pharmacovigilance in the EU. A comprehensive review of the current state of affairs of the progress made by EU regulators is presented in this paper. Our review shows that intense efforts by regulators and industry to fulfil legislative obligations have resulted in major positive shifts in pharmacovigilance. Harmonized decision making, transparency in decision processes with patient involvement, information accessibility to the public, patient adverse drug reaction reporting, efforts in communication and enhanced cooperation between member states to maximize resource utilization and minimize duplication of efforts are observed. PMID:26301067

  6. Diagrams of Europeanization: European Education Governance in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuypere, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    European education governance is increasingly affected by and effectuated through digital means. This article presents an analysis of the way in which Europe is increasingly deploying digital technologies, and more specifically websites, in order to shape and communicate its education policies. Drawing on the notion of the diagram as the…

  7. Deriving a preference-based utility measure for cancer patients from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer’s Quality of Life Questionnaire C30: a confirmatory versus exploratory approach

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel SJ; Aaronson, Neil K; Fayers, Peter M; Grimison, Peter S; Janda, Monika; Pallant, Julie F; Rowen, Donna; Velikova, Galina; Viney, Rosalie; Young, Tracey A; King, Madeleine T

    2014-01-01

    Background Multi attribute utility instruments (MAUIs) are preference-based measures that comprise a health state classification system (HSCS) and a scoring algorithm that assigns a utility value to each health state in the HSCS. When developing a MAUI from a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire, first a HSCS must be derived. This typically involves selecting a subset of domains and items because HRQOL questionnaires typically have too many items to be amendable to the valuation task required to develop the scoring algorithm for a MAUI. Currently, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by Rasch analysis is recommended for deriving a MAUI from a HRQOL measure. Aim To determine whether confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is more appropriate and efficient than EFA to derive a HSCS from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer’s core HRQOL questionnaire, Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), given its well-established domain structure. Methods QLQ-C30 (Version 3) data were collected from 356 patients receiving palliative radiotherapy for recurrent/metastatic cancer (various primary sites). The dimensional structure of the QLQ-C30 was tested with EFA and CFA, the latter informed by the established QLQ-C30 structure and views of both patients and clinicians on which are the most relevant items. Dimensions determined by EFA or CFA were then subjected to Rasch analysis. Results CFA results generally supported the proposed QLQ-C30 structure (comparative fit index =0.99, Tucker–Lewis index =0.99, root mean square error of approximation =0.04). EFA revealed fewer factors and some items cross-loaded on multiple factors. Further assessment of dimensionality with Rasch analysis allowed better alignment of the EFA dimensions with those detected by CFA. Conclusion CFA was more appropriate and efficient than EFA in producing clinically interpretable results for the HSCS for a proposed new cancer-specific MAUI. Our findings suggest

  8. Communicating health.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-01-01

    Routine production of communication materials without paying attention to utilization, field test, and impact analysis is ineffective. The concept of information, education, and communication (IEC) should encompass voluntary activity of health education in a tradition of innovation. One seminal factor may be the communication technologies developed by the National Technology Missions. The missions were participatory by seeking solutions among communities and analyzing health issues from the perspective of those directly involved, rather than from the top down. The prime focus of the national drinking water mission was convenience, hence messages concentrating on health advantages were ignored. At this juncture, influencing health behavior required decentralization reflecting local cultures. Thus community-based partners became the foundation of a strategy of communicating safe water. As national strategies emerged in each of the technology missions, communication addressed advocacy of the need for political will, dissemination of technical information, and influencing patterns of behavior. Despite learning a new understanding, the danger exists that IEC remains just another label of mass communication with posters, advertisements, brochures, radio, and television. Decisions on contraceptive choice and use requires more than just accurate information; it requires the power to make such a decision. A new approach demands a priority for communication skills taking into account people's aspirations. The HIV-AIDS crisis underlines the urgency with which communication has to respond to health challenges. A series of experiments facilitated by the World Conservation Union helped build communication capabilities among environmental groups working in Latin America, Africa, and India. The International Reference Center on Water and Sanitation initiated pilot communication projects in West Africa for community health.

  9. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 4:] Technical communications in aerospace: An analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from pilot surveys on the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. and NATO-nation aerospace scientists and engineers, undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. The survey procedures and the demographic characteristics of the 67 scientists and engineers who responded to the survey are summarized, and the results are presented in a series of tables and discussed in detail. Findings emphasized include: (1) both U.S. and NATO respondents spend around 60 percent of their work week producing or using STI products; (2) NATO respondents are more likely than their U.S. counterparts to use 'formal' STI products (like technical reports and papers) and the services of librarians and online data bases; (3) most of the respondents use computers and information technology in preparing STI products; and (4) respondents who had taken courses in technical communication agreed on the value and ideal subject matter of such courses.

  10. Case histories in scientific and pseudo-scientific mass-media communication in energy/heat production from underground (geogas storage, geothermics, hydrocarbons), in the frame of Nimby Sindrome enhancement in Europe: the proposal of a new European Direct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of energy/heat production from underground, the paper considers some European case histories and the needs of a complex and motley stakeholders community, made by scientific-industry-institutions, involved in the difficult task to study and accept (or refuse) projects strongly impacting the lived territory & underground, in densely populate countries, as Italy, in terms of appropriate public communication and sound deontological behaviour. Successively, the paper recalls years of "scientific" communication within the mass-media, highlighting the positive and negative messages, in comparison to the true and objective experimental data gathered by the real scientific work, as perceived by citizens of medium scholastic culture, which not delve the geologic disciplines, but receive simply the journalistic front-end, very often as sensationalist scoop. The authors retrace case histories of heuristic-participatory communication with the citizenship about the scientific results on challenges raised by certain technologies. The objective and rational communication is often impeded by local interests and by local journalism, which prefers to create sensationalist news more than scientific truths. This path progressively tangles as a consequence of the complex and with conflicting use of underground to produce energy (heat as gas storage, geothermical, unconventional gas exploitation, mining, etc…). Even the chain of renewables meets by now serious issues, exacerbated also by the need to start mining and drilling for the smart grids materials too (metals, rare Earths, etc..). A new text for a smart and innovative European Directivity is discussed, starting from the Italian regulatory issue. The review efforts for a "paper" on both a newspaper or a blog could be more difficult than the review a scientific paper, as a consequence of the peculiar situations behind the scenes and the conflicts of interests staying in the nest in a newspaper article or in a blog

  11. Effects of Communication and Transportation on Utilization of Agency Services by Rural Poor People in South Carolina. South Carolina State College Research Bulletin No. 5, January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Marguerite Rogers; Hanna, Kathleen

    Use of five agencies offering adult education, vocational rehabilitation, food stamps, employment, and health services in Orangeburg County by rural poor people in Bowman, Elloree, and North was studied over a two-year period. The study examined whether communication, transportation, or both increased agency use. In Bowman, information about the…

  12. The Development and Utilization of a Scale to Measure Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann R.; Thompson, James R.; Kosuwan, Kullaya; Prochnow, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Study 1 developed the Assessment of Attitudes Toward Augmentative and Alternative Communication-2 (AATAAC-2) to assess adolescents' attitudes toward peers who use AAC. Study 2 used the AATAAC-2 to examine influences of familiarity with people with disabilities; type of AAC device; and various combinations of gender of rater, AAC user, and…

  13. Utilizing Culture to Improve Communication and School Involvement with Parents from Diverse Backgrounds as a Means to Improve Student Achievement Levels in the United States: A National Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    School leadership in communicating to parents and students from diverse backgrounds is a problem in education that must be addressed. As the population of the United States is becoming more and more diverse, school administrators must develop new ways to reach their stakeholders. All families must be involved in their children's academic progress…

  14. Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Multi-Compatible Network Interface Unit (MCNIU) is intended to connect the space station's communications and tracking, guidance and navigation, life support, electric power, payload data, hand controls, display consoles and other systems, and also communicate with diverse processors. Honeywell is now marketing MCNIU commercially. It has applicability in certain military operations or civil control centers. It has nongovernment utility among large companies, universities and research organizations that transfer large amounts of data among workstations and computers. *This product is no longer commercially available.

  15. Non-communicable diseases and the social determinants of health in the Nordic countries: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Balaj, Mirza; Huijts, Tim; McNamara, Courtney L; Stornes, Per; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-03-01

    Comparative studies examining non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and determinants of health in the Nordic countries are scarce, outdated and focus only on a limited range of NCDs and health determinants. This study is the first to present a comprehensive overview of the distribution of social and behavioural determinants of health and of physical and mental NCDs in the Nordic population. We examined regional, country and gender differences for 17 health outcomes and 20 determinants of health. We use data from the 7th wave of the European Social Survey. All results were age-standardised by weighting up or down the unstandardized (crude) prevalence rates for five year age groups in each country to a common standard. We present pooled estimates for the combined regional samples as well as country-specific results for the Nordic region. Overall, the population of the Nordic region reported among the highest prevalence for one or both genders in 10 out of 17 health outcomes. Despite being the region with the highest prevalence for most health outcomes, overall self-rated health levels tend to be better in the Nordic region. Similarly, we found that the Nordic countries adhere to a healthier lifestyle and have better access to health care. Future studies should consider investigating further the association between health outcomes and determinants of health and how they are distributed in the Nordic societies.

  16. ESA's satellite communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  17. Briefcase Communicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo at bottom right, a U.S. Park Police officer is demonstrating a battery-powered communications system, sufficiently compact to be packed in a briefcase-size container, which can send and receive signals over great distances by means of satellite relay. Key to the system's efficacy is the high-powered transmitting and receiving equipment aboard such NASA satellites as the Applications Technology Satellite6 (ATS-6) and the joint U.S.-Canadian Communications Technology Satellite (CTS); this enables the briefcase communicator to pick up satellite-relayed signals by means of the small hook-on antenna shown instead of the more elaborate-ground equipment customarily needed. Developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the communicator is intended for use in emergency situations. It has utility, for example, in disasters, such as floods and hurricanes, where power failure disrupts conventional communications; for on-the-spot transmissions from major accident sites; or in remote areas where no other means of communication exists

  18. Effective Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Sustainable Manpower Development among Computer Educators in Colleges of Education in South East Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olelewe, Chijioke Jonathan; Amaka, Eugenia Ngozi

    2011-01-01

    The challenges for TVET today is to re-orient and redirect its curricula to imbue trainers and trainees on sustainable use of resources to enhance appropriate work skill development as new and employment opportunities emerge such as recycling, ICT, repair, waste management, etc. This paper is therefore focused on the effective utilization of ICT…

  19. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  20. Challenge Me! Communicating in Multicultural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnen, Ulrich; van Egmond, Marieke C.; Haber, Frank; Kuschel, Stefanie; Ozelsel, Amina; Rossi, Alexis L.; Spivak, Youlia

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the value of Socratic classroom communication (e.g., critical debate and challenging each other on content matters) among students from various cultures (clustered into Western Europeans, Eastern Europeans and Non-Europeans) and from members of faculty at an international university in Germany. Students from Western…

  1. Phaeobacter sp. strain Y4I utilizes two separate cell-to-cell communication systems to regulate production of the antimicrobial indigoidine.

    PubMed

    Cude, W Nathan; Prevatte, Carson W; Hadden, Mary K; May, Amanda L; Smith, Russell T; Swain, Caleb L; Campagna, Shawn R; Buchan, Alison

    2015-02-01

    The marine roseobacter Phaeobacter sp. strain Y4I synthesizes the blue antimicrobial secondary metabolite indigoidine when grown in a biofilm or on agar plates. Prior studies suggested that indigoidine production may be, in part, regulated by cell-to-cell communication systems. Phaeobacter sp. strain Y4I possesses two luxR and luxI homologous N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated cell-to-cell communication systems, designated pgaRI and phaRI. We show here that Y4I produces two dominantAHLs, the novel monounsaturated N-(3-hydroxydodecenoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OHC(12:1)-HSL) and the relatively common N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), and provide evidence that they are synthesized by PhaI and PgaI, respectively.A Tn5 insertional mutation in either genetic locus results in the abolishment (pgaR::Tn5) or reduction (phaR::Tn5) of pigment production. Motility defects and denser biofilms were also observed in these mutant backgrounds, suggesting an overlap in the functional roles of these systems. Production of the AHLs occurs at distinct points during growth on an agar surface and was determined by isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (ID-HPLC-MS/MS) analysis.Within 2 h of surface inoculation, only 3OHC(12:1)-HSL was detected in agar extracts. As surface-attached cells became established (at approximately 10 h), the concentration of 3OHC(12:1)-HSL decreased, and the concentration of C8-HSL increased rapidly over 14 h.After longer (>24-h) establishment periods, the concentrations of the two AHLs increased to and stabilized at approximately 15 nM and approximately 600 nM for 3OHC12:1-HSL and C8-HSL, respectively. In contrast, the total amount of indigoidine increased steadily from undetectable to 642 Mby 48 h. Gene expression profiles of the AHL and indigoidine synthases (pgaI, phaI, and igiD) were consistent with their metabolite profiles. These data provide evidence that pgaRI and phaRI play overlapping roles

  2. Knowledge Production and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, George M.; Meehan, Peter

    The study of knowledge production and utilization deals with the problems of how to translate theoretical concepts and knowledge into practical solutions to people's problems. Many criticisms have been leveled at aspects of previous information system models, including their linearity, one-way communication paths, overdependence on scientific…

  3. Communication Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham Elementary School, Pompano Beach, FL.

    The communications program developed by Markham Elementary School personnel of Pompano Beach, Florida, is planned so as to utilize fully the diagnostic and team approach to learning. Instruction in communications skills (reading, listening, speaking, writing, handwriting, and spelling) is structured by sequential achievement phases which allow the…

  4. Labview utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun

    2011-09-30

    The software package provides several utilities written in LabView. These utilities don't form independent programs, but rather can be used as a library or controls in other labview programs. The utilities include several new controls (xcontrols), VIs for input and output routines, as well as other 'helper'-functions not provided in the standard LabView environment.

  5. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Alaska Railroad: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloch, David S.; Bonilla, Manuel G.

    1970-01-01

    In the 1964 Alaska earthquake, the federally owned Alaska Railroad sustained damage of more than $35 million: 54 percent of the cost for port facilities; 25 percent, roadbed and track; 9 percent, buildings and utilities; 7 percent, bridges and culverts; and 5 percent, landslide removal. Principal causes of damage were: (1) landslides, landslide-generated waves, and seismic sea waves that destroyed costly port facilities built on deltas; (2) regional tectonic subsidence that necessitated raising and armoring 22 miles of roadbed made susceptible to marine erosion; and (3), of greatest importance in terms of potential damage in seismically active areas, a general loss of strength experienced by wet waterlaid unconsolidated granular sediments (silt to coarse gravel) that allowed embankments to settle and enabled sediments to undergo fiowlike displacement toward topographic depressions, even in fiat-lying areas. The term “landspreading” is proposed for the lateral displacement and distension of mobilized sediments; landspreading appears to have resulted largely from liquefaction. Because mobilization is time dependent and its effects cumulative, the long duration of strong ground motion (timed as 3 to 4 minutes) along the southern 150 miles of the rail line made landspreading an important cause of damage. Sediments moved toward natural and manmade topographic depressions (stream valleys, gullies, drainage ditches, borrow pits, and lakes). Stream widths decreased, often about 20 inches but at some places by as much as 6.5 feet, and sediments moved upward beneath stream channels. Landspreading toward streams and even small drainage ditches crushed concrete and metal culverts. Bridge superstructures were compressed and failed by lateral buckling, or more commonly were driven into, through, or over bulkheads. Piles and piers were torn free of superstructures by moving sediments, crowded toward stream channels, and lifted in the center. The lifted piles arched the

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 9 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications. Sec. 9 Section 9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS RESTRICTIONS UPON THE TRANSFER OR CHANGE IN USE OR IN TERMS GOVERNING UTILIZATION OF PORT FACILITIES Sec. 9 Communications....

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 9 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications. Sec. 9 Section 9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS RESTRICTIONS UPON THE TRANSFER OR CHANGE IN USE OR IN TERMS GOVERNING UTILIZATION OF PORT FACILITIES Sec. 9 Communications....

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 9 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications. Sec. 9 Section 9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS RESTRICTIONS UPON THE TRANSFER OR CHANGE IN USE OR IN TERMS GOVERNING UTILIZATION OF PORT FACILITIES Sec. 9 Communications....

  9. A novel set of microsatellite markers for the European Grapevine Moth Lobesia botrana isolated using next-generation sequencing and their utility for genetic characterization of populations from Europe and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Reineke, A; Assaf, H A; Kulanek, D; Mori, N; Pozzebon, A; Duso, C

    2015-08-01

    Using a high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing approach a novel set of microsatellite markers was developed for one of the key grapevine insect pests, the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). 20 primer pairs flanking a microsatellite motif were designed based on the sequences obtained and were subsequently evaluated in a sample of 14 L. botrana populations from Europe and the Middle East. 11 markers showed stable and reproducible amplification patterns; however, one of the 11 markers was monomorphic in all L. botrana populations analysed. Estimated frequencies of null alleles of more than 20% were evident for two of the markers tested, but varied substantially depending on the respective L. botrana population. In 12 of the 14 L. botrana populations observed heterozygosities were lower to those expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, indicating a deficiency of heterozygotes in the respective populations. The overall F ST value of 0.075 suggested a moderate but significant genetic differentiation between the L. botrana populations included in this study. In addition, a clear geographic structure was detected in the set of samples, evident through a significant isolation by distance and through results from structure analysis. In structure analysis, L. botrana populations were grouped in two clearly separated clusters according to their European (Spain, Italy, Germany) or Middle Eastern (Israel, Syria, Turkey) origin. This novel set of microsatellite markers can now be applied to study the evolutionary ecology of this species including host shifts and host adaptation as well as spread of individuals across worldwide viticulture.

  10. Land mobile communications satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.

    1986-09-01

    The economic value and salient technical and operational characteristics of a European Land Mobile Communication Satellite (LMCS) to complement and supplement the demand for mobile services of Western European countries in the 1995 to 2005 time frames were assessed. A significant future expansion of demand for LCMS services on the part of the public is anticipated. Important augmentations of current service capabilities could be achieved by a satellite service, improving the overall system performances and/or assisting the PTT's in containing their investments in the required infrastructure. The satellite service itself could represent a profitable revenue producer.

  11. Communications systems checkout study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginter, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The results and conclusions of an engineering study of Space Station communications subsystem checkout are reported. The primary purpose of the study is to recommend specific guidelines and constraints for the design and utilization of the communications subsystem leading to a practical and effective means of onboard checkout implementation. Major study objectives are as follows: (1) identify candidate communications subsystem checkout concepts, (2) determine implementation impacts of feasible concepts, (3) evaluate practicality and effectiveness of alternative concepts, (4) propose baseline modifications to accommodate preferred concepts, and (5) recommend areas for additional investigation. In addition, study results are interpreted, where appropriate, in terms of their applicability to checkout of Shuttle-Orbiter communications subsystem.

  12. Health care utilization by immigrants in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giuliana; Ponzo, Michela; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare utilization studies show how well documented disparities between migrants and non-migrants. Reducing such disparities is a major goal in European countries. However, healthcare utilization among Italian immigrants is under-studied. The objective of this study is to explore differences in healthcare use between immigrant and native Italians. Cross-sectional study using the latest available (2004/2005) Italian Health Conditions Survey. We estimated separate hurdle binomial negative regression models for GP, specialist, and telephone consultations and a logit model for emergency room (ER) use. We used logistic regression and zero-truncated negative binomial regression to model the zero (contact decision) and count processes (frequency decisions) respectively. Adjusting for risk factors, immigrants are significantly less likely to use healthcare services with 2.4 and 2.7 % lower utilization probability for specialist and telephone consultations, respectively. First- and second-generation immigrants' probability for specialist and telephone contact is significantly lower than natives'. Immigrants, ceteris paribus, have a much higher probability of using ERs than natives (0.7 %). First-generation immigrants show a higher probability of visiting ERs (1 %). GP visits show no significant difference. In conclusion Italian immigrants are much less likely to use specialist healthcare and medical telephone consultations than natives but more likely to use ERs. Hence, we report an over-use of ERs and under-utilization of preventive care among immigrants. We recommend improved health policies for immigrants: promotion of better information dissemination among them, simplification of organizational procedures, better communications between providers and immigrants, and an increased supply of health services for the most disadvantaged populations.

  13. Transracial Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur L.

    This book explores and explains communication among different racial groups within the scope of existing communication theory. Following a brief introduction, chapters cover "Directions in Transracial Communication" (definitions, process, structurization, and purpose); "Culture and Transracial Communication" (a viewpoint on…

  14. European Education in a World Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jose Luis Garcia

    1992-01-01

    Discusses problems facing European education as the world continues to become more interconnected through politics, communication, and economics. Stresses the need to maintain national values without regressing to nationalism. Examines teacher training, history instruction, and television as areas where divisions can be lessened. Warns against…

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 21: Technological innovation and technical communications: Their place in aerospace engineering curricula. A survey of European, Japanese, and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Holland, Maurita Peterson; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Aerospace engineers and scientists from Western Europe, Japan, and the United States were surveyed as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Questionnaires were used to solicit their opinions regarding the following: (1) the importance of technical communications to their profession; (2) the use and production of technical communications; and (3) their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The ability to communicate technical information effectively was very important to the aerospace engineers and scientists who participated in the study. A considerable portion of their working week is devoted to using and producing technical information. The types of technical communications used and produced varied within and among the three groups. The type of technical communication product used and produced appears to be related to respondents' professional duties. Respondents from the three groups made similar recommendations regarding the principles, mechanics, and on-the-job communications to be included in an undergraduate technical communications course for aerospace majors.

  16. Utilizing NASA EOS, European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 & 2), and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) to Create a Methodology for Monitoring Marine Debris Dispersal to Coastal Areas by Examining the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reahard, R. R.; Albin, A.; Barrett, S.; Brooks, C.; Lee, L.; Mallett, C.; Pezold, B.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this project is to apply satellite data to model surface circulation in the Gulf of Mexico as a means to aid in the monitoring of marine debris dispersal and the regulation of marine debris practices. Marine debris is a persistent problem for coastal areas throughout the world. In the Gulf of Mexico, the Loop Current flows north through the Yucatan Channel, loops east, then south, exiting through the Florida Straits. Clockwise-rotating areas of warm water, known as eddies, periodically separate from the Loop Current. These eddies have the potential to trap and transport debris onto shores, such as the Padre Island National Seashore. The latter is a 68 mile long barrier island beach in southeastern Texas, and is the longest undeveloped beach in the world. This naturally formed beach can accumulate up to one ton of marine debris per linear mile. This project used sea surface height and height anomaly data based on NASA RADAR altimeter satellites TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason 1, and Jason 2; as well as European RADAR altimeters onboard ERS-1, ERS-2 (European Remote Sensing Satellite), and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite). This project also employed MODIS sea surface temperature (SST) data to aid in monitoring and visualizing the Loop Current. The sea surface height and height anomaly data were processed to calculate geostrophic flow velocities and predict particle paths. This research provided NOAA's Marine Debris Program and the Padre Island National Seashore with a better understanding of how the Loop Current and surface circulation patterns disperse marine debris to the region. A methodology to monitor Gulf of Mexico surface circulation and predict particle paths by using RADAR altimeter data were provided to partnering agencies. The project provided maps of debris trajectories and geostrophic currents that demonstrate the usefulness of satellite altimetry data to monitor oceanographic processes which in turn affect the distribution of marine debris.

  17. Advanced quantum communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Evan Robert

    Quantum communication provides several examples of communication protocols which cannot be implemented securely using only classical communication. Currently, the most widely known of these is quantum cryptography, which allows secure key exchange between parties sharing a quantum channel subject to an eavesdropper. This thesis explores and extends the realm of quantum communication. Two new quantum communication protocols are described. The first is a new form of quantum cryptography---relativistic quantum cryptography---which increases communication efficiency by exploiting a relativistic bound on the power of an eavesdropper, in addition to the usual quantum mechanical restrictions intrinsic to quantum cryptography. By doing so, we have observed over 170% improvement in communication efficiency over a similar protocol not utilizing relativity. A second protocol, Quantum Orienteering, allows two cooperating parties to communicate a specific direction in space. This application shows the possibility of using joint measurements, or projections onto an entangled state, in order to extract the maximum useful information from quantum bits. For two-qubit communication, the maximal fidelity of communication using only separable operations is 73.6%, while joint measurements can improve the efficiency to 78.9%. In addition to implementing these protocols, we have improved several resources for quantum communication and quantum computing. Specifically, we have developed improved sources of polarization-entangled photons, a low-loss quantum memory for polarization qubits, and a quantum random number generator. These tools may be applied to a wide variety of future quantum and classical information systems.

  18. Individualized Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  19. Satellite communication and navigation for mobile users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts made to utilize space technology for solving communication and navigation problems faced by mobile users in earth orientated situations are outlined. Applications include transoceanic airline communications, reliable long range ship-shore communications, emergency communications in regions with rough terrain, and military operations.

  20. Eliminating Language Barriers Online at European Prisons (ELBEP): A Case-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip

    2011-01-01

    ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…

  1. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  2. On the Creation, Utility and Sustaining of Rare Diseases Research Networks: Lessons learned from the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium, the Japanese Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium and the European Registry and Network for Intoxication Type Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Summar, Marshall L.; Endo, Fumio; Kölker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades has seen a rapid expansion in the scientific and public interest in rare diseases and their treatment. One consequence of this has been the formation of registries/longitudinal natural history studies for these disorders. Given the expense and effort needed to develop and maintain such programs, we describe our experience with three linked registries on the same disease group, urea cycle disorders. The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) was formed in the U.S. in 2003 in response to a request for application from the National Institutes of Health (NIH); the European Registry and Network for Intoxication Type Metabolic Diseases (E-IMD) was formed in 2011 in response to a request for applications from the Directorate-General for Health and Consumers (DG SANCO) of the EU; and the Japanese Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (JUCDC) was founded in 2012 as a sister organization to the UCDC and E-IMD. The functions of these groups are to collect natural history data, educate the professional and lay population, develop and test new treatments, and establish networks of excellence for the care for these disorders. The UCDC and JUCDC focus exclusively on urea cycle disorders while the E-IMD includes patients with urea cycle disorders and organic acidurias. More than 1400 patients have been enrolled in the three consortia, and numerous projects have been developed and joint meetings held including an international UCDC/E-IMD/JUCDC Urea Cycle meeting in Barcelona in 2013. This article summarizes some of the experiences from the three groups regarding formation, funding, and models for sustainability. PMID:25261246

  3. Overcoming Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.

    2004-01-01

    Many large distributed system are characterized by having a large number of components (eg., agents, neurons) whose actions and interactions determine a %orld utility which rates the performance of the overall system. Such collectives are often subject to communication restrictions, making it difficult for components which try to optimize their own private utilities, to take actions that also help optimize the world utility. In this article we address that coordination problem and derive four utility functions which present different compromises between how aligned a component s private utility is with the world utility and how readily that component can determine the actions that optimize its utility. The results show that the utility functions specifically derived to operate under communication restrictions outperform both traditional methods and previous collective-based methods by up to 75%.

  4. Mobile/personal communication systems in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafazolli, R.; Evans, B. G.

    1992-03-01

    An examination is conducted of the terrestrial and satellite-based land mobile communication systems which will be developed or introduced into service in the 1990s. These systems encompass, in addition to Inmarsat standards C and M, the pan-European digital cellular radio system 'GSM', the UK's Personal Communications Network, Digital European Cordless Telecommunications, the pan-European paging system, 'PRODAT', and 'EutelTRACS'. Attention is presently given to those common aspects of these systems which can serve as bases for their further integration.

  5. EST: The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.

    2008-09-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project for a 4 meter-class ground-based telescope, to be located in the Canary Islands. The project is promoted by the European Association for Solar Telescopes (EAST), a consortium formed by research organizations from 15 European countries. EST will be optimized for studies of magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. The project has been approved for funds by the European Union, within the FP-7 framework, to produce the design of all systems and subsystems of the telescope during the next three years. This includes the optical and optomechanical design of the telescope itself and of the instruments and their control. MCAO will be included in the optical path in a natural way to compensate for atmospheric disturbances in an optimum way. The design of EST will strongly emphasize the use of a large number of visible and near-infrared instruments simultaneously which will influence the telescope design from the very beginning. This communication will center mainly on the scientific objectives that EST will address. Generally speaking, they involve understanding how the magnetic field emerges through the solar surface, interacts with the plasma dynamics to transfer energy between different regions, and finally releases it in the form of heat or as violent events in the solar chromosphere and corona. Among the many topics of interest, one may cite, as described in the EST Science Requirements Document: small-scale flux emergence in quiet sun regions, large-scale magnetic structures, magnetic flux cancellation processes, polar magnetic fields, magnetic topology of the photosphere and chromosphere, conversion of mechanical to magnetic energy in the photosphere, wave propagation from photosphere to chromosphere, energy dissipation in the chromosphere at small and large scales, etc. The present status and future perspectives of the project will also be outlined.

  6. Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

  7. Overview of European technology in computers, telecommunications, and electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1990-05-01

    The emergence of the personal computer, the growing use of distributed systems, and the increasing demand for supercomputers and mini-supercomputers are causing a profound impact on the European computer market. An equally profound development in telecommunications is the integration of voice, data, and images in the public network systems - the Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN). The programs being mounted in Europe to meet the challenges of these technologies are described. The Europe-wide trends and actions with respect to computers, telecommunications, and microelectronics are discussed, and the major European collaborative programs in these fields are described. Specific attention is given to the European Strategic Programme for Research and Development in Information (ESPRIT); Research in Advanced Communications for Europe (RACE); European Research Coordination Agency (Eureka) programs; Joint European Submicron Silicon Initiative (JESSI); and the recently combined programs Basic Research Industrial Technologies in Europe/European Research in Advanced Materials (BRITE/EURAM).

  8. Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…

  9. Similarities in pheromonal communication of flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze and Ph. vittula Redtenbacher (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkable similarities have been found in the pheromonal communication of Phyllotreta vittula Redtenbacher and of Ph. cruciferae Goeze (European population) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). In previous European field tests with Ph. cruciferae, only the major male-produced sesquiterpene identified from ...

  10. Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, William D.

    Presented in this book is a view of speech communication which enables an individual to become fully aware of his or her role as both initiator and recipient of messages. Communication is treated broadly with emphasis on the understanding and skills relating to various types of speech communication across the broad spectrum of human communication.…

  11. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia

    1990-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  12. Why Audit Communication in Organizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Noel D.; Greenbaum, Howard H.

    The purpose of this paper is to present a common sense proposal, as opposed to a documented proposal, arguing for the adoption of a periodic communication audit procedure in organizations. The paper presents an approach and information the communication consultant can utilize in addressing management practitioners on the topic: "Why Audit…

  13. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  14. SUTIL: system utilities routines programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, D.

    1976-01-01

    A package of FORTRAN callable subroutines which allows efficient communication of data between users and programs is described. Proper utilization of the SUTIL package to reduce program core requirements and expedite program development is emphasized.

  15. The Independent European Force: Costs of Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    cost method of obtaining the intelligence that a new military force might need. In particular, we have not considered all the nonsatellite ways of...system to eavesdrop on communications from geosynchrnus orbit, a system to detect ballistic missile launches, and a duplicate of the United States...for a short time. But if the contingpicy is extended and a lasting European presence is needed, support forces and resupply capabilities would have

  16. Communicative Competence: Existing Concepts and Prospects for Further Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Communicative competence is set out to be of the eight key competences which individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment (European Commission 2004, p. 3). The success of the sustainable development of communicative competence requires existing concepts of communicative competence…

  17. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  18. Health communication and vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Susan; MacDonald, Noni E; Guirguis, Sherine

    2015-08-14

    Health communication is an evolving field. There is evidence that communication can be an effective tool, if utilized in a carefully planned and integrated strategy, to influence the behaviours of populations on a number of health issues, including vaccine hesitancy. Experience has shown that key points to take into account in devising and implementing a communication plan include: (i) it is necessary to be proactive; (ii) communication is a two-way process; (iii) knowledge is important but not enough to change behaviour; and (iv) communication tools are available and can be selected and used creatively to promote vaccine uptake. A communication strategy, incorporating an appropriate selection of the available communication tools, should be an integral part of every immunization programme, addressing the specific factors that influence hesitancy in the target populations.

  19. Lightwave Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheam, Harry

    1993-01-01

    Describes simple and inexpensive labs for introducing students to fiber optic communications. Students investigate light as a carrier wave; look into the difficulties associated with "light" communication; and learn about modulation, optical fibers, and critical angles. (PR)

  20. Data communications

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability.

  1. Communicating science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farris, Gaye S.

    2005-01-01

    For science to have an impact, it must be communicated and easily accessible. The USGS National Wetlands Research Center communicates its research findings through several ways: publishing, the Web, the library, and education and outreach.

  2. Communication (action with communicative content).

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term Communication generally designate the transmission of a message of concepts, feelings or needs from a speaker to a receiver by means of verbal or no verbal language. The pragmatic approach to human communication has put in evidence a further implication of this concept: every behaviour therefore has a value even when it is not intentional. Recently, a more dynamic concept of communication has been elaborated where communication means communicative action. This interpretation is the starting point for the theory of the "communicative acting" and subsequently of the so called discourse ethic elaborated by J. Habermas.

  3. Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jamie J.; DeAngelo, Samantha; Mack, Nancy; Thompson, Claudia; Cooper, Jennifer; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined gains undergraduate students made in their communication and collaboration skills when they served as peer teachers, i.e., laboratory instructors (LIs), for a General Psychology laboratory. Self-ratings of communication and collaboration skills were completed before and after teaching the laboratory. When compared to before the…

  4. Ripple Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, R. Stimson

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how surface-dwelling animals use the water surface as a mode of communication by making ripple signals while they swim about. Provides information about surfaces and surface waves, ripple communication in water striders, ripple signal characteristics, sensing and orienting, other modes of communication, and evolution of ripple…

  5. Communicating Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Joyce

    1993-01-01

    Communicating the environmental risk involved in projects like public incinerators is part of the education of the community. Presents an outline for communicating with the community that includes communication within the project office; solicitation of public input; development of small group informational activities; shared responsibilities;…

  6. Existential Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Charles C.

    Focusing on the seminal work "Being and Nothingness," this paper explores the implications of the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre for the study of communication in society. The paper redefines communication from an existential point of view, explores some implications of this redefinition for the study of communication within the social…

  7. 14 CFR 431.41 - Communications plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... communications during launch and reentry; (3) A protocol is established for utilizing defined radio... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications plan. 431.41 Section 431.41... Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431.41 Communications plan. (a) An applicant...

  8. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization....

  9. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization....

  10. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization....

  11. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization....

  12. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization....

  13. TV In the Classroom; Utilization Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Elmer E., Jr.

    Designed to aid the classroom teacher in the improvement of instruction through television, this manual consists of two parts: program utilization guide and equipment utilization guide. The first part introduces the jargon and history of this system of mass communication, and discusses the appropriate ways to incorporate TV into the classroom.…

  14. Wilderness communications.

    PubMed

    Worley, Gordon H

    2011-09-01

    When an emergency situation arises in a remote location, the ability to communicate with outside sources of assistance can prove very valuable. This article reviews the different types of communications technologies available to individuals in remote locations, including satellite telephones, personal locator beacons, satellite messengers, cellular telephones, and the different licensed and non-licensed 2-way radio services available for personal use. It also discusses basic radio communications techniques, emergency communication, requesting ground or air casualty evacuation, and selecting communications devices for different applications.

  15. The European experience.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Rahmel, Axel

    2011-04-01

    This mini-review on European experiences with tackling the problem of organ shortage for transplantation was based on a literature review of predominantly European publications dealing with the issue of organ donation from deceased donors. The authors tried to identify the most significant factors that have demonstrated to impact on donation rates from deceased donors and subsequent transplant successes. These factors include legislative measures (national laws and European Directives), optimization of the donation process, use of expanded criteria donors, innovative preservation and surgical techniques, organizational efforts, and improved allocation algorithms.

  16. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  17. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  18. A Study of the IEEE 802.16 MAC Layer and its Utility in Augmenting the ADNS Architecture to Provide Adaptable Intra-Strike Group High-Speed Packet Switched Data, Imagery, and Voice Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    MAC) of the IEEE 802.16 Wireless standard and its utility in augmenting the IP (Internet Protocol) router based Automated Digital Network System (ADNS...evaluates the Medium Access Control Layer (MAC) of the IEEE 802.16 wireless standard and its utility in augmenting the IP (Internet Protocol) router based ...ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode BE Best Effort BR Bandwidth Request BS Base Station BW Bandwidth C2 Command and Control CDMA Code

  19. Potentials of RF/FSO Communication in UAS Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Heine, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) has gained particular attention during the past few years and is progressing continuously. With the successful in-orbit verification of a Laser Communication Terminal (LCT), the coherent homodyne BPSK scheme advanced to a standard for Free-Space Optical Communication (FSOC) which now prevails more and more. The LCT is presently operated on satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In the near future, the LCT will be operated in Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) onboard the ALPHASAT-TDP and the European Data Relay System (EDRS). In other words, the LCT has reached a point of maturity to realize its practical application. With existence of such space assets the time has come for other utilization beyond that of optical Inter-Satellite Links (ISL). Aeronautical applications, as for instance High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) or Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have to be addressed. This is caused due to an extremely high demand for bandwidth. Driving factors and advantages of FSOC in HALE/MALE UAS missions are highlighted. Numerous practice-related issues are described concerning the space segment, the aeronautical segment as well as the ground segment. The advantages for UAS missions are described resulting from the utilization of FSOC exclusively for wideband transmission of sensor data while vehicle Command & Control (C2) can be maintained, as before, via RF communication. Moreover, the paper discusses FSOC as an enabler for the integration of air and space-based wideband Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) systems into existent military command and control networks. From the given information it can be concluded that FSOC contributes to the future increase of air-and space power.

  20. What is being measured, and by whom? Facilitation of communication on technical measures amongst competent authorities in the implementation of the European Union Broiler Directive (2007/43/EC).

    PubMed

    Butterworth, A; de Jong, I C; Keppler, C; Knierim, U; Stadig, L; Lambton, S

    2016-02-01

    The European Union (EU) Broiler Directive (2007/43/EC) is unique amongst current EU Directives, which address animal welfare, in that it uses outcome data collected at abattoirs and on farm to monitor on-farm broiler welfare and vary the maximum permitted stocking density on farm. In this study, we describe how, by bringing together personnel from the competent authorities in 22 member states (MSs) who have responsibility for implementing the Directive, and engaging in exchange of information and technical methods regarding the Broiler Directive, it has been possible to identify differences in approach with regard to 'what data is being collected, and by whom' across EU MSs. Online questionnaires and workshop exercises enabled us to identify priority areas for knowledge transfer and training. For example, foot pad dermatitis, hock burn, dead on arrival and total rejections (birds rejected as unfit for human consumption by the meat inspection staff at slaughter) were identified by the MSs as measures of medium-to-low priority in terms of knowledge transfer because there are assessment methods for these conditions that are already well accepted by competent authorities. On the other hand, breast lesions, cellulitis, emaciation, joint lesions, respiratory problems, scratches, wing fractures and a number of environmental measures were identified as having high priority in terms of knowledge transfer. The study identified that there is significant variability in the stage of implementation between MSs, and responses from the participating MSs indicated that sharing of guidance and technical information between MSs may be of value in the future set-up process for those MSs engaged in implementation of the Directive.

  1. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  2. Biosynthetic infochemical communication.

    PubMed

    Olsson, S B; Challiss, R A J; Cole, M; Gardeniers, J G E; Gardner, J W; Guerrero, A; Hansson, B S; Pearce, T C

    2015-07-09

    There is an ever-increasing demand for data to be embedded in our environment at ever-decreasing temporal and spatial scales. Whilst current communication and storage technologies generally exploit the electromagnetic properties of media, chemistry offers us a new alternative for nanoscale signaling using molecules as messengers with high information content. Biological systems effectively overcome the challenges of chemical communication using highly specific biosynthetic pathways for signal generation together with specialized protein receptors and nervous systems. Here we consider a new approach for information transmission based upon nature's quintessential example of infochemical communication, the moth pheromone system. To approach the sensitivity, specificity and versatility of infochemical communication seen in nature, we describe an array of biologically-inspired technologies for the production, transmission, detection, and processing of molecular signals. We show how it is possible to implement each step of the moth pheromone pathway for biosynthesis, transmission, receptor protein binding/transduction, and antennal lobe processing of monomolecular and multimolecular signals. For each implemented step, we discuss the value, current limitations, and challenges for the future development and integration of infochemical communication technologies. Together, these building blocks provide a starting point for future technologies that can utilize programmable emission and detection of multimolecular information for a new and robust means of communicating chemical information.

  3. Asteroid exploration and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radovich, Brian M.; Carlson, Alan E.; Date, Medha D.; Duarte, Manny G.; Erian, Neil F.; Gafka, George K.; Kappler, Peter H.; Patano, Scott J.; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar

    1992-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources possessed by asteroids have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on mining an asteroid and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plan for humans to utilize asteroid resources. Project STONER is divided into two parts: asteroid selection and explorer spacecraft design. The spacecraft design team is responsible for the selection and integration of the subsystems: GNC, communications, automation, propulsion, power, structures, thermal systems, scientific instruments, and mechanisms used on the surface to retrieve and store asteroid regolith. The sample return mission scenario consists of eight primary phases that are critical to the mission.

  4. Land mobile satellite communications systems and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, E.

    1992-07-01

    An overview of existing and planned land mobile satellite communications systems and services is given. Operational and planned global systems such as Inmarsat, Iridium, and Globalstar, are highlighted, and the main technical details are listed. European and U.S. concepts are discussed. Applications for land mobile satellite communications are addressed, such as fleet management and global personal communications. The main technological challenges which are important for the future development of mobile communications, such as efficient use of spectrum, use of higher frequency bands, processing satellites with multiple beams, and suitable satellite orbits, are identified.

  5. Internal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    A school system must be concerned with both the formal and informal communication systems. (Available from Buckeye Association of School Administrators, 750 Brooksedge Blvd., Westerville, Ohio 43081) (Author)

  6. [Verbal communication].

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Fulvio; Panini, Roberta; Ameri, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    The communication is an action that occupies a lot of part of the life of every individual and understands a whole activity that the purpose has to reach a preset goal: the communication obligatorily foresees the presence of a recipient/receiving.During communication we used both the word, but also the gesture and the way of do/say. The oral communication represents the most complete system however, evolved, end and thin to communicate, able to also express concepts and thoughts and not only behaviors: with it he can also lie and to supply misinformation. The oral communication also possesses an important temporal value, in how much you/he/she can define him now, the before and the then, but also the ability to determine the human relationships, because it participates in to define the different roles in which broadcasting station and receiver are found at that time. The truest power of the words is that to create, to maintain, to modify other people's behaviors; a natural correlation exists that is between communication and behavior. The final objective of the communication results therefore that to create or to modify the relationships and the human behaviors; in other terms we can be affirmed that the words can determine the reality. The true ragion to be to communicate is the purpose however, that who speaks he/she wants to reach: it is a voluntary, both mental and physical effort, that originates from a need both explicit and implicit of whom sends forth the message.

  7. 47 CFR 80.505 - Points of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.505 Points of communication. (a) Private coast stations and marine utility stations are authorized to communicate: (1) With any mobile... associated marine utility stations serving and located on a shipyard regularly engaged in construction...

  8. Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

  9. Self-Regulated and Technology-Enhanced Learning: A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, Ton; Steffens, Karl; Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulation of learning, learning to learn, and their potential stimulation by specific information and communication technologies (ICTs) are main topics in European policy. This issue of the European Educational Research Journal (EERJ) focuses on research to develop, integrate and evaluate self-regulation of learning and the potential and…

  10. Joining Forces: A Response to Kathy Rentz from the European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to Kathy Rentz. She happily joins forces for pedagogically defensible teaching conditions and gives a brief "activist" account from the European perspective. However, rather than "European," she emphasizes that for the most part, this response looks at business communication teachers'…

  11. Language Educational Policy and Language Learning Quality Management: The "Common European Framework of Reference"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenfanger, Olaf; Tschirner, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    The major goal of the Council of Europe to promote and facilitate communication and interaction among Europeans of different mother tongues has led to the development of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment" (CEFR). Among other things, the CEFR is intended to help language…

  12. A European Unit/Credit System for Modern Language Learning by Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    An editorial and articles are presented on a European unit/credit system for modern language learning by adults. The contents are as follows: "A European Unit Credit System" by J. L. M. Trim; "The Analysis of Language Needs: Illusion--Pretext--Necessity" by Rene Richterich; "Learning a Language Is Learning to Communicate" by D. A. Wilkins; "The…

  13. Interracial Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    This course explores the inextricable and multidimensional relationships among race, culture, and communication by providing students with an extensive theoretical framework to enhance their understanding of interracial communication. Specific attention is geared toward the construction of one's own racial and ethnic identity as well as those of…

  14. Communicator, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortolussi, Vicki, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The CAG "Communicator" focus is on serving gifted students in California. This document consists of the four issues of "communicator" issued during 1997. Featured articles include: (1) "The Gifted Student At Risk. It Can't Be True" (Judy Roseberry); (2) "Tech Net-Technology and At-Risk Students" (Judy Lieb); (3) "Reviving Ophelia: Saving the…

  15. Communicating up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Chief communicators at many U.S. institutions are interested in forging closer ties with governing boards. Proponents say such relationships can increase board trust and confidence in communicators before a crisis occurs, making it easier to manage the institution's reputation and limit negative publicity when one does. At some institutions, such…

  16. A Trans-European Network for Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Antonio Dias de; Steele, Rosalind

    This paper proposes a communication network for the European Community and beyond which would provide a unique meeting point for participants from the fields of education, training, technology, research, industry, and service to engage in productive forms of dialogue and collaboration; which would be financially self-supporting after a few years;…

  17. The European Union, Education Governance and International Education Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volante, Louis; Ritzen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The European Union--comprising 28 member states with individual sovereignty in the formation and implementation of education policy--has developed research and communication strategies to facilitate the exchange of best practices, gathering and dissemination of education statistics and, perhaps most importantly, advice and support for national…

  18. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Southern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Southern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Spain, France,…

  19. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Northern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Northern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Scandinavia, the Soviet…

  20. Distributed Recognition of Natural Songs by European Starlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Daniel; Thompson, Jason V.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2010-01-01

    Individual vocal recognition behaviors in songbirds provide an excellent framework for the investigation of comparative psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that support the perception and cognition of complex acoustic communication signals. To this end, the complex songs of European starlings have been studied extensively. Yet, several…

  1. European Managers' Interpretations of Participation: A Semantic Network Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohl, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Explores cultural variations in managers' interpretations of a key communicative process: worker participation. Finds that semantic patterns derived from structural analyses indicate cultural differences in meanings managers from five European Community nations attach to the term "participation." Supports two of G. Hofstede's dimensions…

  2. European aerospace science and technology, 1992: A bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography contains 1916 annotated references to reports and journal articles of European intellectual origin entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during 1992. Representative subject areas include: spacecraft and aircraft design, propulsion technology, chemistry and materials, engineering and mechanics, earth and life sciences, communications, computers and mathematics, and the natural space sciences.

  3. Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Three 34m (110 ft.) diameter Beam Waveguide antennas located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, situated in the Mojave Desert in California. This is one of three complexes which comprise NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The DSN provides radio communications for all of NASA's interplanetary spacecraft and is also utilized for radio astronomy and radar observations of the solar system and the universe.

  4. Impact of information and communications technologies on residental customer energy services

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.; Kempton, W.; Eide, A.; Iyer, M.

    1996-10-01

    This study analyzes the potential impact of information and communications technologies on utility delivery of residential customer energy services. Many utilities are conducting trials which test energy-related and non-energy services using advanced communications systems.

  5. Communication: Are Australians Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the question of the distinctive nature of communication in Australia. Discusses nonverbal messages, gender concerns, historical influences on communication, the Australian accent, communication with indigenous persons, communication apprehension, and classroom communication. Argues that Australians' communication is relatively similar to…

  6. 47 CFR 80.517 - Time limitation on communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.517 Time limitation on communication. All communication engaged in by private coast stations and marine...

  7. European Composite Honeycomb Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschepe, Christoph; Sauerbrey, Martin; Klebor, Maximillian; Henriksen, Torben

    2014-06-01

    A European CFRP honeycomb material for high demanding structure applications like antenna reflectors and optical benches was developed in the frame of an ESA GSTP project.The composite honeycomb was designed according to requirements defined by the European space industry. A developed manufacturing technique based on prepreg moulding enables the production of homogeneous CFRP honeycomb blocks. All characteristic material properties, including compression, tension and shear strength and CTE, were determined in a comprehensive verification test campaign. Competitiveness to comparable products was further verified by a representative breadboard.

  8. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  9. Team Formation and Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Adrian K.; Turner, Kagan

    2003-01-01

    A collective of agents often needs to maximize a "world utility" function which rates the performance of an entire system, while subject to communication restrictions among the agents. Such communication restrictions make it difficult for agents which try to pursue their own "private" utilities to take actions that also help optimize the world utility. Team formation presents a solution to this problem, where by joining other agents, an agent can significantly increase its knowledge about the environment and improve its chances of both optimizing its own utility and that its doing so will contribute to the world utility. In this article we show how utilities that have been previously shown to be effective in collectives can be modified to be more effective in domains with moderate communication restrictions resulting in performance improvements of up to 75%. Additionally we show that even severe communication constraints can be overcome by forming teams where each agent of a team shares the same utility, increasing performance an additional 25%. We show that utilities and team sizes can be manipulated to form the best compromise between how "aligned" an agent s utility is with the world utility and how easily an agent can learn that utility.

  10. European Science Notes. Volume 39, number 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, L. E.

    1985-12-01

    Progress in European science and technology is reported. Topics discussed in this issue include: bioelectromagnetic featured at ONRL Minisymposium on the influence of electric and electromagnetic fields on organized biological structures; neurobiology research at the universities of Stockholm, Lund, and Goeteborg (Sweden); conference on parallel computing; General Electric Co. (UK) research at Hirst and Marconi; research centres--information technology, image processing and analysis, radars communications, and semiconductors; and fatigue research at the Univ. of Vienna on short crack (less than 0.5 mm).

  11. Science communication as political communication

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  12. Science communication as political communication.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  13. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, Richard T.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was conceived to help maintain U.S. leadership in the world's communications-satellite market. This experimental satellite is expected to be launched by NASA in 1992 and to furnish the technology necessary for establishing very small aperture terminal digital networks which provide on-demand full-mesh connectivity, and 1.544-MBPS services with only a single hop. Utilizing on-board switching and processing, each individual voice or data circuit can be separately routed to any location in the network. This paper provides an overview of the ACTS and discusses the value of the technology for future communications systems.

  14. European Commission activities in eHealth.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Silas; Lymberis, Andreas; Whitehouse, Diane

    2004-12-01

    Health-care is an information-intensive and knowledge-demanding sector, which is why eHealth solutions are so important in this field. The European Commission (EC) has been initiating and funding research and development activities regarding Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for health, or "eHealth", since 1988. These programmes covered priority topics like electronic health-care records, regional and national health networks, telemedicine in homecare and care-at-the-point-of-need to support continuity of care concepts, systems to support people to stay healthy, and systems and tools to support health professionals to work more efficiently and safely on patients. During the 15-year span of the programmes, the European Union (EU) has contributed about 500 million Euro to approximately 400 R&D projects, support activities, best practice and studies covering technical, clinical, ethical, legal, organisational and market issues. eHealth has shown proven benefits in application fields like improved access to care, care at the point-of-need, citizen-centred care, improved quality and cost containment. Such applications were on show at the EU High Level eHealth Conferences in Brussels, Belgium, in 2003, and in Cork, Ireland, in 2004. eHealth is now on the governmental agenda of EU Member States to be implemented on a broader scale. In line with this development, the Commission has taken a number of policy initiatives. A European Union Action Plan for a European eHealth Area was published by the Commission in April 2004 and endorsed by the EU health ministers in June 2004. This means that, for the first time, Europe has a coherent agenda for the implementation of eHealth. This report will concentrate on eHealth activities initiated by the Information Society Directorate-General of the European Commission.

  15. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  16. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  17. European Study Tour Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Vicki L.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.

    Guidelines are presented for planning and financing European study tours at the community college level. First, a rationale for incorporating study tours of Europe within the community college curriculum is presented and the benefits of such tours in providing students with experiences they could not normally have are outlined. Next, the paper…

  18. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  19. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  20. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  1. Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Judy; Calder, Neil

    2007-11-01

    Few would dispute that the science of particle physics in the United States has reached a crossroads. Policies, decisions, and events of the coming decade will be critical in determining whether the United States continues to carry out a competitive program of leadership in this field of fundamental science. The field of particle physics has responded to this reality by fundamentally changing its model of communication from “business as usual” to a strategic and collaborative method that is clearly focused on achieving a healthy future for the science. Over the past half-dozen years, the particle physics community has gone from being an oft-cited example of how not to communicate effectively, to a frequently cited—and emulated—model for science communication. This review outlines the new approach toward communication in particle physics and then goes into detail about three case studies.

  2. Communication fail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    In response to Matin Durrani's editorial “Conference thoughts” (April p15), which bemoaned poor communication and limited social media use by physicists at the March meeting of the American Physical Society (APS).

  3. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases. PMID:12571722

  4. European symposium on precision medicine in allergy and airways diseases: report of the European Union parliament symposium (October 14, 2015).

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W

    2015-12-01

    On 14 October 2015, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, underlined the importance of the need for a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for patients with Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases, and encouraged a joint initiative to control the epidemic of Allergy and Asthma in Europe. The socio-economic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic non-communicable diseases in the EU. Despite the fact that 30% of the total European population is nowadays suffering from allergies and asthma, more than half of these patients are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision Medicine represents a novel approach in medicine, embracing 4 key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision making process of therapeutic actions, and taking into account predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of Precision Medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the Epidemic of Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases. This report summarizes the key messages delivered during the symposium by the speakers, including the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vitenys Andriukaitis. The

  5. Preliminary Component Integration Utilizing Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K.; Salvail, P.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most costly errors committed during the development of an element to be used in the space industry is the lack of communication between design and manufacturing engineers. A very important tool that should be utilized in the development stages by both design and manufacturing disciplines is rapid prototyping. Communication levels are intensified with the injection of functional models that are generated from a drawing. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, this discipline is utilized on a more frequent basis as a manner by which hardware may be tested for design and material compatibility.

  6. Communications and Tracking of Visiting Vehicles near ISS: The Design of the Reusable Launch Vehicle Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillwagen, Frederic H.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide for the visitation of various vehicles such as the Shuttle, Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), Crew Return Vehicle (CRV), Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) and Soyuz. These vehicles will provide for crew replacement, consumables resupply, and equipment delivery. In order for these vehicles to approach and eventually dock with the ISS, there must be near continuous communications coverage between the visiting vehicle and the ISS, as well as communications between the vehicle and a Mission Control Center (MCC). Since the ISS communications systems are already designed and scheduled for ISS activation, the vehicles must either utilize these communications systems or provide their own. There are two means of two-way communications with the ISS. These are (1) S-Band communications using TDRSS, and (2) UHF communications using some form of the Space to Space Station Radio (SSSR) link. The RLV utilizes ISS compatible communications systems to communicate with both the ISS and a Mission Control Center. Since all vehicles must adhere to the Visiting Vehicle Interface requirements given in reference 1, the RLV communications system design must meet these requirements during entry into the ISS Approach Ellipsoid (AE) and during Proximity Operations. Included in this paper are descriptions of these communications approaches as well as their potential utilization in the ISS communications system.

  7. Use of communications. [satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the field of satellite communications is reviewed, and useful services which may be provided by future satellite communications systems are considered. Recommendations are made with regard to mobile communications for use on land and at sea, position determination, mineral and energy exploration, the possibility of using electronic means to assist in main delivery, education and health-care experiments, and the use of satellite telecommunications to enhance the quality of life in rural areas by making available a full range of educational and entertainment programs. The needs of the amateur radio community are also considered.

  8. Teacher Professionalism beyond Numbers: A Communicative Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In the European neo-liberal policy context, there has been an increase in pressure on teachers to exercise a type of professional responsibility that contributes to the development of a competitive knowledge-based economy. From a communication theory perspective, this paper examines if it is at all possible to talk of professional responsibility…

  9. The Technical Communicator and ISO 9000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Edmond H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the complexities of ISO 9000, a set of generic quality standards to which any commercial firm wishing to do business with a member firm of the European Economic Community will have to comply. Describes opportunities for professional technical communicators in providing the required product documentation. (SR)

  10. 3D Geological modelling - towards a European level infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.

    2013-04-01

    The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving 3D geological models and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate models at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative model delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering 3D geological model data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring 3D geological models? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large

  11. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    NASA recently restructured its Space Communications Program to emphasize the development of high risk communication technology useable in multiple frequency bands and to support a wide range of future communication needs. As part of this restructuring, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project will develop and experimentally verify the technology associated with multiple fixed and scanning beam systems which will enable growth in communication satellite capacities and more effective utilization of the radio frequency spectrum. The ACTS requirements and operations as well as the technology significance for future systems are described.

  12. Human Images: Teaching the Communication of Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    1977-01-01

    Reports how a communications perspective and visual materials have been utilized to revitalize introductory area anthropology courses. Discusses what might be done to incorporate a contextual understanding of mass media into classroom instruction. (Author/JM)

  13. Development Communication Report. No. 47, Autumn 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This newsletter describes development projects that utilize varied media, including microcomputers, videotape, and print materials, and discusses development communications issues. Specific articles are as follows: "Microcomputers for Education in the Developing World" (Kurt D. Moses); "Social Marketing: Two Views, Two…

  14. Analyzing Distributed Processing For Electric Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Stanley A.; Kirkham, Harold; Beardmore, Julie A.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed Processing Trade-Off Model for Electric Utility Operation computer program based upon study performed at California Institute of Technology for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Study presented technique addressing question of tradeoffs between expanding communications network or expanding capacity of distributed computers in energy-management systems (EMS) of electric utility. Gives EMS planners macroscopic tool for evaluation of architectures of distributed-processing systems and major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within systems.

  15. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  16. Education and European integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, John

    1992-11-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss the implications for education and training of the movement towards integration in Europe in the historic context of the creation of a single market within the European Community (EC) and the end of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. The experience of the EC is used to illustrate trends and problems in the development of international cooperation in education and training. Common concerns and priorities throughout the new Europe are then identified and discussed. These include the pursuit of quality in schooling, efforts to serve the interests of disadvantaged learners, and the treatment of European Studies in the curriculum, including the improvement of the teaching of foreign languages.

  17. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  18. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.; Satogata, T

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  19. Why Communicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    "Half the world is composed of people who have something to say and can't, and the other half who have nothing to say and keep on saying it." - Robert Frost In this age of digital soap boxes and half-truths, the importance of geoscientists as communicators cannot be underestimated, nor has there been a more important time for researchers to stand up and demand to be heard. So why is there still such an overwhelming public perception that scientists are poor communicators, and what can we do to change this? In this work I will present an overview of a number of successful initiatives that have been developed at Manchester Metropolitan University, and beyond, to ensure that science is communicated to a large variety of people, from policy makers to members of the local community. I will also present an overview of the emerging field of Science Communication, how it has changed in the past few decades from a one-way diatribe to a two-way discussion, and how this represents a possible new direction and career path for geoscientists. Anne Roe, the noted American psychologist, told us, "nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." As geoscientists, we have a professional and moral obligation to ensure that we not only research the facts, but that we also present them in an informative and engaging manner, so that the rest of humanity can benefit from the fruits of our labour.

  20. NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.

  1. Guidelines for Planning in Colleges and Universities. Volume 5: Physical Plant Planning, Utilities Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnell, Charles; Wacholder, Michael

    The fifth and final volume of a series concerned with higher educational facilities planning expands the discussion of the utilities planning process initiated in the overview of volume one. Three major classes of utilities--energy utilities, service utilities, and communications utilities are studied. Their influences on the overall physical…

  2. Central Computational Facility CCF communications subsystem options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, K. B.

    1979-01-01

    A MITRE study which investigated the communication options available to support both the remaining Central Computational Facility (CCF) computer systems and the proposed U1108 replacements is presented. The facilities utilized to link the remote user terminals with the CCF were analyzed and guidelines to provide more efficient communications were established.

  3. Hermes - A manned European system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretenet, J.-C.

    Features of a European hypersonic winged reentry vehicle, Hermes, are presented, together with the technology requirements for its development and the missions it would serve. LEO is beginning to hold promise for the manufacture of materials in microgravity and/or vacuum conditions in orbiting facilities which need to be serviced. A manned, reusable, winged reentry vehicle would permit the delivery and return of payloads from space, recovery of the first stage of the Ariane V rocket for reuse, and return of the Hermes to a landing at the Kourou launch site. The avionics would be similar to those of modern aircraft, as would the landing system. In-orbit operational techniques would be needed, as would an internal environment similar to Spacelab, a rigid turnaround time, high utilization rate, and a 10 yr lifetime. The length of the Hermes is projected as 12.5 m, wingtip to wingtip breadth of 7.4 m, and a total mass of 11,400 kg for a heliosynchronous orbit mission, while 15,400 kg are available for a circular, 490 m/sec orbit.

  4. The Communication of Information Such as Evacuation Orders at the Time of a Nuclear Power Station Accident: -Recommendations for responses by the national government and electric power utilities to the "Information Disaster".

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takashi; Yoshida, Sumito; Ojino, Mayo; Ishii, Masami

    2014-12-01

    This research was carried out from the perspective that the damage to the people of Fukushima and others from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) accident was an "information disaster." It evaluated the critical problems raised by and actual condition analysis on the process of events in the Fukushima Daiichi NPS disaster and responses of the governments and others, notification of the occurrence of the accident and evacuation order by the national and local governments and the evacuation of residents, and guidance for distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets. The research aimed to provide a basis for the implementation of effective distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets and responses to the "information disaster" in the nuclear power disaster. On March 15 at the time that the most radioactive substances were dispersed, even when the average wind speed at the site area was 1.6 m/s, the radioactive substances had reached the outer boundary of Urgent Protective action planning Zone (UPZ, the region with a radius of 30 km) within about five hours. Because of this, every second counted in the provision of information about the accident and the issuance of evacuation orders. This study evaluated the actual condition of information provision by the national government and others from the perspective of this awareness of the importance of time. On the basis of the results of this kind of consideration, we come to the following recommendations: The Nuclear Emergency Response Guidelines and the system for communication of information to medical providers should be revised. The national government should make preparations for the effective advance distribution and intake of stable iodine tablets.

  5. Crisis Communication: The Business Communicator's Strategies for Communicating under Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vielhaber, Mary E.

    1990-01-01

    Uses the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident to illustrate the communication problems embedded in a crisis. Describes the reactions created by the stress related to crisis. Suggests business communication strategies for improving communication to the public. (SR)

  6. Communicator, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosfield, Margaret, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These four 1999 issues of the "Communicator" address reading needs of gifted children, middle schools, parenting the gifted, and the needs of young gifted children. Featured articles include: (1) "Academic Advocacy for the Forgotten Readers--Gifted and Advanced Learners" (Reading Task Force of the California Association for the…

  7. Communications Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorderstrasse, Ron; Siebert, Leo

    This module is the third in a series of electronics publications and serves as a supplement to "General Electronics Technician." It is designed to provide students with an overview of the broad field of communications. Included are those tasks above the basic skills level that allow students to progress to a higher level of competency in the…

  8. Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Lynn

    This document presents one module in a set of training resources for trainers to use with parents and/or professionals serving children with disabilities; focus is on communication skills. The modules stress content and activities that build skills and offer resources to promote parent-professional collaboration. Each training module takes about 2…

  9. Communications technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloski, Martin M.

    1988-09-01

    The objective of the Communications Technology Program is to enable data transmission to and from low Earth orbit, geostationary orbit, and solar and deep space missions. This can be achieved by maintaining an effective, balances effort in basic, applied, and demonstration prototype communications technology through work in theory, experimentation, and components. The program consists of three major research and development discipline areas which are: microwave and millimeter wave tube components; solid state monolithic integrated circuit; and free space laser communications components and devices. The research ranges from basic research in surface physics (to study the mechanisms of surface degradation from under high temperature and voltage operating conditions which impacts cathode tube reliability and lifetime) to generic research on the dynamics of electron beams and circuits (for exploitation in various micro- and millimeter wave tube devices). Work is also performed on advanced III-V semiconductor materials and devices for use in monolithic integrated analog circuits (used in adaptive, programmable phased arrays for microwave antenna feeds and receivers) - on the use of electromagnetic theory in antennas and on technology necessary for eventual employment of lasers for free space communications for future low earth, geostationary, and deep space missions requiring high data rates with corresponding directivity and reliability.

  10. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  11. Communication Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Don M.

    Aware of the societal problems stemming from a lack of communication skills, the American public is pressing for instruction in speaking and listening in the schools. This response is reflected in the speaking and listening competency recommendations in many national reform reports. Such reports include "A Nation at Risk" by the National…

  12. Communication Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Margaret

    1976-01-01

    Basic to Library-College thought is the Communication Way. Such a construct is theoretical in the sense it combines the structure of a discipline and the structure of a literature into a system which enables the learner to see that finding and thinking about given subject matter is a unified process. (Author)

  13. Core Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Greg; Ross, J. D.; Mulder, David

    2011-01-01

    The website--it is where people go to find out anything and everything about a school, college, or university. In the relatively short life of the Internet, institutional websites have moved from the periphery to center stage and become strategically integral communications and marketing tools. As the flow of information accelerates and new…

  14. Magnetostatic communication

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.

    2008-02-26

    A system for providing communication of information by modulating a magnetostatic field with a magnetostatic transmitter that modulates said magnetostatic field to contain the information and detecting the information in the modulated field at a distance with a magnetostatic detector that detects the modulated magnetic field containing the information.

  15. Communicator, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Marta Perez, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Communicator" is the newsletter of the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS). Each issue contains an article on a featured topic and information about the activities and programs of the CGS. Each issue also contains profiles and notes about CGS personnel and academic appointments at member institutions. Meetings and conferences are…

  16. Theme Issue: European Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this document separate articles deal with the following topics: recommendations for future British broadcasting policies that recently were proposed to the British Parliament by the Committee on the Future of Broadcasting; specific media goals set by the Swedish Committee on Broadcasting; communications policy making in Austria; a new…

  17. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  18. Astronomy Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  19. Commercial satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolin, C.

    1991-09-01

    Telespazio provides satellites services for fixed and mobile telecommunications utilizing the space segments of INTELSAT, EUTELSAT and INMARSAT since inception. Telespazio's main facilities are located in the three centers of Fucino (central Italy), Lario (northern Italy) and Scanzano (Sicily) for a total of 7 stations operating traffic for a number of Italian and Foreign Telecommunications organizations. As at December 31, 1990 a total of 4500 voice grade and data circuits were in operations connecting Italy to nearly a hundred Overseas and European destinations. Over 400,000 and 530,000 minutes of telephone and telex were transmitted, respectively, through Fucino Coast Earth Station via INMARSAT satellite during 1990 to and from ships and other mobile vehicles. Both occasional and regular television services are broadcast and received. The total number of hours of TV services broadcast in 1990 reached the record figure of more than 5500.

  20. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  1. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  2. Multimedia Astronomy Communication: Effectively Communicate Astronomy to the Desired Audience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of our jobs as scientists is communicating our work to others. In this, the field of astronomy holds the double-edged sword of ubiquitous fascination: the topic has been of interest to nearly the entire global population at some point in their lives, yet the learning curve is steep within any subfield and rife with difficult-to-synthesize details. Compounding this issue is the ever-expanding array of methods to reach people in today's Communications Era. Each communication medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, is appropriate in different situations, and requires its own specific skillset in order to maximize its functionality. Despite this, little attention is given to training astronomers in effective communication techniques, often relying on newcomers to simply pick up the ability by mimicking others and assuming that a firm grasp on the subject matter will make up for deficiencies in communication theory. This can restrict astronomers to a narrow set of communication methods, harming both the communicators and the audience who may struggle to access the information through those media.Whether writing a research paper to academic peers or giving an astronomy talk to a pubic audience, successfully communicating a scientific message requires more than just an expert grasp on the topic. A communicator must understand the makeup and prior knowledge of the desired audience, be able to break down the salient points of the topic into pieces that audience can digest, select and maximize upon a medium to deliver the message, and frame the message in a way that hooks the audience and compels further interest. In this work we synthesize the requirements of effective astronomy communication into a few key questions that every communicator needs to answer. We then discuss some of the most common media currently used to communicate astronomy, give both effective and poor examples of utilizing these media to communicate astronomy, and provide key

  3. 29 CFR 1910.302 - Electric utilization systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recreational vehicles; (ii) Installations underground in mines; (iii) Installations of railways for generation, transformation, transmission, or distribution of power used exclusively for operation of rolling stock or... utilities for the purpose of communication or metering; or for the generation, control,...

  4. Sea & Space: a New European Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    , on Mars, in comets, in stars, in the Universe? SEA & SPACE will use the Internet and the WWW to transport teaching resources so that teachers and pupils can communicate with the organisers and among themselves. To this end, the National Committees of the European Association for Astronomy Education will operate sites onto which the information and resources provided by ESA and ESO are loaded. The Contest, in which pupils will write and design a poster or a newspaper on a subject related to SEA & SPACE, will be organised simultaneously in most European countries and will not require Internet access. SEA & SPACE will start as from 1 March 1998. Further information is provided on the Home Pages of ESA, ESO and EAAE. In early February, a dedicated joint SEA & SPACE Home Page will be operational where schools can register for the project and for regular mailing of new information: * http://www.esa.int/seaspace * http://www.eso.org/seaspace * http://www.algonet.se/~sirius/eaae/seaspace Note: [1] This press release is published jointly by ESA, ESO and EAAE. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  5. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public

  6. The European cooperative approach to securing critical information infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Purser, Steve

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of the EU approach to securing critical information infrastructure, as defined in the Action Plan contained in the Commission Communication of March 2009, entitled 'Protecting Europe from large-scale cyber-attacks and disruptions: enhancing preparedness, security and resilience' and further elaborated by the Communication of May 2011 on critical Information infrastructure protection 'Achievements and next steps: towards global cyber-security'. After explaining the need for pan-European cooperation in this area, the CIIP Action Plan is explained in detail. Finally, the current state of progress is summarised together with the proposed next steps.

  7. 47 CFR 80.505 - Points of communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.505 Points of communication. (a... station in the maritime mobile service for the exchange of safety communications; (2) With any land... repair of commercial transport vessels or Government vessels are authorize to communicate...

  8. Is European Defense a Bridge too Far?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-08

    Defense, European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified During the last several decades the European Union has not paid much...obvious European defense shortcomings. Then, after the Cologne European Council of June 1999, the European Union launched the European Security and...considerably and the military capabilities of the European Union have been strengthened with initiatives such as the battlegroup concept and the development of

  9. Standardization in library and information science in selected European countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysek, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Standardization plays an important role in library and information science (LIS), because it gives rules to identify, classify, access, select, exploit, communicate, exchange and preserve information. Standards are developed by national, European and international organizations. The objective of the study is to present the situation of standardization in library and information science in the countries that joined the European Union in 2004. The research covered Technical Committees that take the problems of LIS, their cooperation with European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The second part of the study is an analysis of LIS standards published in the last 10 years. Data on published documents were gathered from online standards directories. The documents were searched using International Classification for Standards. Retrieved standards were analyzed for their origin and status. The research illustrates the changes in the national standardization, most popular topics and the growing importance of international cooperation in standardization.

  10. Benthic algal assessment of ecological status in European lakes and rivers: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Poikane, Sandra; Kelly, Martyn; Cantonati, Marco

    2016-10-15

    This opinion paper introduces a special series of articles dedicated to freshwater benthic algae and their use in assessment and monitoring. This special series was inspired by talks presented at the 9th International Congress on the Use of Algae for Monitoring Rivers and Comparable Habitats (Trento, Italy, 2015), the latest of a series of meetings started in 1991. In this paper, we will first provide a brief overview of phytobenthos methods in Europe. Then, we will turn towards the 'dark side' of phytobenthos and describe four particular problems for phytobenthos assessment in the European Union: (1) over-reliance on a single group of algae (mostly diatoms) to the exclusion of other groups; (2) relatively low adoption of benthic algae for ecological assessments in lakes; (3) absence of measures of phytobenthos abundance; (4) approaches used to define boundaries between ecological classes. Following this, we evaluate the strengths and limitations of current phytobenthos assessment methods against 12 criteria for method evaluation addressing four areas: ecological rationale, performance, feasibility of implementation, and use in communication and management. Using these criteria, we identify and discuss three general challenges for those developing new methods for phytobenthos-based assessment: a weak ecological rationale and insufficient consideration of the role of phytobenthos as a diagnostic tool and for communicating ecosystem health beyond a narrow group of specialists. The papers in the special series allow a comparison with the situation and approaches in the USA, present new methods for the assessment of ecological status and acidification, provide tools for an improved management of headwaters and petrifying springs, discuss the utility of phytobenthos for lake assessments, and test the utility of functional measures (such as biofilm phosphorus uptake capacity, PUC).

  11. A New Impetus for European Youth. European Commission White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    Despite their highly divergent situations, young people largely share the same values, ambitions, and difficulties. Despite the more complex social and economic context in which young Europeans are currently living, they are well equipped to adapt. National and European policymakers must facilitate this process of change by making young people…

  12. The Nature of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillman, Russell J.

    1975-01-01

    Examines types of communication processes, means of communication, barriers to effective communication, skills to improve the accuracy of communication, and implications for the administrator. (Available from Buckeye Association of School Administrators, 750 Brooksedge Blvd., Westerville, Ohio 43081) (Author)

  13. Crew/computer communications study. Volume 1: Final report. [onboard computerized communications system for spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannes, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques, methods, and system requirements are reported for an onboard computerized communications system that provides on-line computing capability during manned space exploration. Communications between man and computer take place by sequential execution of each discrete step of a procedure, by interactive progression through a tree-type structure to initiate tasks or by interactive optimization of a task requiring man to furnish a set of parameters. Effective communication between astronaut and computer utilizes structured vocabulary techniques and a word recognition system.

  14. European Cenozoic rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Peter A.

    1992-07-01

    The European Cenozoic rift system extends from the coast of the North Sea to the Mediterranean over a distance of some 1100 km; it finds its southern prolongation in the Valencia Trough and a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic chain crossing the Atlas ranges. Development of this mega-rift was paralleled by orogenic activity in the Alps and Pyrenees. Major rift domes, accompanied by subsidence reversal of their axial grabens, developed 20-40 Ma after beginning of rifting. Uplift of the Rhenish Shield is related to progressive thermal lithospheric thinning; the Vosges-Black Forest and the Massif Central domes are probably underlain by asthenoliths emplaced at the crust/mantle boundary. Evolution of this rift system, is thought to be governed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and by early phases of a plate-boundary reorganization that may lead to the break-up of the present continent assembly.

  15. Optranet: a European project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanjean, Marie

    2003-10-01

    In a situation where curricula did not adjust at the required pace and many students are getting attracted out of science and technology, the shortage of skilled workers at the technician and engineer level is known to be a threat to development. In spite of a serious crisis in 2001, the trend of an increased presence of optical technologies remains unchanged and is bound to remain part of the landscape for decades. The level of investment required and the markets make Europe the best scale to plan for unified curricula and a global analysis of the human resources needs. There is no agreement on the definition of a trained optician, and European countries differ in the way they educate opticians, source of a lack of clarity and visibility which is detrimental to attracting good students and to the job market. Through its closely work with companies, OPTRANET will propose measures to enhance the adequacy and the visibility of the training offer.

  16. The Experienced Utility of Expected Utility Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    than one using unit weights. Similarly, goods obtained with high probability should be valued more than those obtained with low probability. Therefore...consequences are added, low or negative utility associated with one conse- quence can, in principle, be compensated for by sufficiently high utility on...calibrated probability assessor should have more true statements associated with high than with low probabilities. Specifically, XX% of the statements

  17. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  18. Utilization and utility of immunohistochemistry in dermatopathology.

    PubMed

    Naert, Karen A; Trotter, Martin J

    2013-02-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is considered a valuable ancillary tool for dermatopathology diagnosis, but few studies have measured IHC utilization by dermatopathologists or assessed its diagnostic utility. In a regionalized, community-based dermatopathology practice, we measured IHC utilization (total requests, specific antibodies requested, and final diagnosis) over a 12-month period. Next, we assessed diagnostic utility by comparing a preliminary "pre-IHC" diagnosis based on routine histochemical staining with the final diagnosis rendered after consideration of IHC results. The dermatopathology IHC utilization rate was 1.2%, averaging 3.6 stains requested per case. Melanocytic, hematolymphoid, and fibrohistiocytic lesions made up 23%, 18%, and 16%, respectively, of the total cases requiring IHC. S100 and Melan A were the most frequently requested stains, ordered on 50% and 34% of IHC cases, respectively. The utility study revealed that IHC changed the diagnosis in 11%, confirmed a diagnosis, or excluded a differential diagnosis in 77%, and was noncontributory in 4% of cases. Where IHC results prompted a change in diagnosis, 14% were a change from a benign to malignant lesion, whereas 32% changed from one malignant entity to another. IHC is most commonly used in cutaneous melanocytic and hematolymphoid lesions. In 11% of dermatopathology cases in which IHC is used, information is provided that changes the H&E diagnosis. Such changes may have significant treatment implications. IHC is noncontributory in only a small percentage of cases.

  19. European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

  20. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the…

  1. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  2. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the

  3. Utilities Expense Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Deborah P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines how deregulation has affected school district utility costs. Offers ideas that can help school districts save money and energy. Provides several examples of state-wide initiatives intended to help school districts control utility costs. (GR)

  4. Vascular surgery: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1999-09-01

    Isaac Newton, among others, observed that 'we see so far because we are standing upon the shoulders of giants'. In vascular surgery most of the giants have been European, and this is a heritage which we as Europeans can take pride in and build upon if we chose to do so. As in other areas of life, commitment is essential in order to influence the future. For vascular surgeons in Europe this means active participation in the European scientific societies for vascular surgery and in the UEMS. The main value of the EBSQ.VASC assessments to date has been to expose the uneven standards of training in vascular surgery within the European Union. Only if action follows to address these inequalities will the tactics of the European Board of Vascular Surgery be vindicated.

  5. Risk assessment of biological hazards in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Hugas, Marta; Tsigarida, Eirini; Robinson, Tobin; Calistri, Paolo

    2007-11-30

    International, community and national food safety law and any subsequent decision-making practices aim to be based on risk analysis--a process consisting of risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. With the appointment of the European Food Safety Authority as an independent scientific point of reference in risk assessment, there is a clear functional separation between risk assessment and risk management in the European Union food safety context. When a food safety question on microbiological hazards is to be answered--which is under the remit of the EFSA's Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ)--extensive dialogue and interactions covering the clarity of the question, the acceptability of the deadline and the availability of all necessary information take place with both the risk managers who ask the question and the stakeholders. During the first mandate of the BIOHAZ Panel (2003-2006), the scientific opinions were mainly based on qualitative and in some cases semi-quantitative microbiological risk assessment. In the second mandate of the BIOHAZ Panel, and as a first step towards developing a European approach on Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA), EFSA is preparing to carry out a QMRA on Salmonella in pigs, at European level through a consortium of European institutes.

  6. A Global Information Utility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    High-powered satellites, along with other existing technologies, make possible a world information utility that could distribute virtually limitless information to every point on earth. The utility could distribute information for business, government, education, and entertainment. How the utility would work is discussed. (RM)

  7. Sourcebook on Research Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen, Ed.; Rosenblatt, Aaron, Ed.

    Major papers presented at the Conference on Research Utilization in Social Work Education are compiled in this sourcebook. The conference focused on six topics that reviewed the state of the art of research utilization and suggested directions for the future. The papers included are: Understanding Research Utilization in Social Work (Stuart A.…

  8. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    DOE PAGES

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; ...

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study thatmore » contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.« less

  9. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Goodell, David; Miller, Douglas; Snir, Marc; Thakur, Rajeev

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study that contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.

  10. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Eklutna Hydroelectric Project, Anchorage, Alaska, with a section on television examination of earthquake damage to underground communication and electrical systems in Anchorage: Chapter A in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logan, Malcolm H.; with a section on Television Examination of Earthquake Damage to Underground Communication and Electrical Systems in Anchorage by Burton, Lynn R.

    1967-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, Alaska earthquake and its associated aftershocks caused damage requiring several million dollars worth of repair to the Eklwtna Hydroelectric Project, 34 miles northeast of Anchorage. Electric service from the Eklutna powerplant was interrupted during the early phase of the March 27 earthquake, built was restored (intermittently) until May 9,1964, when the plant was closed for inspection and repair. Water for Eklutna project is transported from Eklutna Lake to the powerplant at tidewater on Knik Arm of Cook Inlet by an underwater intake connected to a 4.46-mile tunnel penstock. The primary damage caused by the earthquake was 1at the intake structure in Eklutna Lake. No damage to the power tunnel was observed. The piles-supported powerplant and appurtenant structures, Anchorage and Palmer substations, and the transmission lines suffered minor dammage. Most damage occurred to facilities constructed on un-consolidated sediments and overburden which densified and subsided during the earthquake. Structures built on bedrock experienced little or no damage. Underground communication and electrical systems in Anchorage were examined with a small-diameter television camera to locate damaged areas requiring repair. Most of the damage was concentrated at or near valley slopes. Those parts of the systems within the major slide areas of the city were destroyed.

  11. Study on underwater wireless communication system using LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Hyun-Joong; Choi, Hyeung-Sik; Tran, Ngoc-Huy; Ha, Ji-Hoon; Ji, Dae-Hyeung; Kim, Joon-Young

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new variable-focus LED light device is developed for underwater communication. Usually used as an underwater lighting fixture, the LED light device in this study is utilized as an underwater communication device (UCD) by controlling the distance between light source and lens when communication is needed. A transmission and a receiving part of LED light for communication using photoelectric sensor and Fresnel lens are also developed. The communication system was tested in fresh water and sea water to verify its communication performance; results of which are presented in this study.

  12. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling.

    PubMed

    Feraco, Angela M; Brand, Sarah R; Mack, Jennifer W; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Block, Susan D; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology.

  13. Creativity in clinical communication: from communication skills to skilled communication.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Peter; Young, Bridget

    2011-03-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 217-226 Objectives  The view that training in communication skills produces skilled communication is sometimes criticised by those who argue that communication is individual and intuitive. We therefore examine the validity of the concept of communication as a skill and identify alternative principles to underpin future development of this field. Methods  We critically examine research evidence about the nature of clinical communication, and draw from theory and evidence concerning education and evaluation, particularly in creative disciplines. Results  Skilled communication cannot be fully described using the concept of communication skills. Attempts to do so risk constraining and distorting pedagogical development in communication. Current education practice often masks the difficulties with the concept by introducing subjectivity into the definition and assessment of skills. As all clinical situations differ to some extent, clinical communication is inherently creative. Because it is rarely possible to attribute specific effects to specific elements of communication, communication needs to be taught and evaluated holistically. Conclusions  For communication teaching to be pedagogically and clinically valid in supporting the inherent creativity of clinical communication, it will need to draw from education theory and practice that have been developed in explicitly creative disciplines.

  14. Molecular diagnostics clinical utility strategy: a six-part framework.

    PubMed

    Frueh, Felix W; Quinn, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    The clinical utility of a molecular test rises proportional to a favorable regulatory risk/benefit assessment, and clinical utility is the driver of payer coverage decisions. Although a great deal has been written about clinical utility, debates still center on its 'definition.' We argue that the definition (an impact on clinical outcomes) is self-evident, and improved communications should focus on sequential steps in building and proving an adequate level of confidence for the diagnostic test's clinical value proposition. We propose a six-part framework to facilitate communications between test developers and health technology evaluators, relevant to both regulatory and payer decisions.

  15. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  16. Communication spaces

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Discussion Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, ‘programming through annotation’. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment. PMID:24005797

  17. Digital Performance Learning: Utilizing a Course Weblog for Mediating Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novakovich, Jeanette; Long, Erin Cramer

    2013-01-01

    Two sections of university-level technical writing courses were given an authentic task to write an article for publication for an outside stakeholder. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine the differences in learning outcomes between students using traditional writing methods and those using social media to generate articles. One…

  18. Utilizing Social Media and Blogging to Teach Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesee, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Science Foundation presented the Science: Becoming the Messenger Workshop at my university in Fall 2011. Following the workshop, I started a blog (http://plasma.physics.wvu.edu/), Facebook page (WVU Plasma Physics), and Twitter feed (@WVUPlasma) to promote the West Virginia University Plasma Physics Research Groups. Faculty, postdocs, and graduate students in plasma physics are assigned the task of writing a blog post on a rotating basis as one of three elements for our monthly Journal Club. Our Facebook page and Twitter feed are used to announce new blog posts and accomplishments by group members. We have found this process to be a good way for students to learn to describe their research to people outside of their field of expertise. Details on establishing and maintaining these resources and specific examples will be presented. Follow me @plasmaphysmom.

  19. Communications-Electronics Utilization Field AFSC 30XX.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    needed modification in the type and amount of electronics principles training given to entry-level officers. This finding has not changed over the...intervening 10 years. The 1984 survey indicates a need to review the electronics principles blocks of instruction. While there can be no argument that

  20. A Space-Based Optical Communication System Utilizing Fiber Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-09

    single mode elliptic core fibers," Opt. Commun., 49, 3, 178-183 (1984). 35 15. B.J. Klein and J.J. Degnan, " Optical antenna gain. 1: Transmitting...antennas," Appl. Opt., 13,9,2134- 2141 (1974). 16. B.J. Klein and J.J. Degnan, " Optical antenna gain. 2: Receiving antennas," Appl. Opt., 13, 10,2397- 2401...1974). 17. B.J. Klein and J.J. Degnan, " Optical antenna gain. 3: The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain," Appl. Opt., 15

  1. Battlefield connectivity via airborne communications nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Charles W.

    1997-06-01

    Communications are essential to support today's information- rich tactics with distributed forces in a non-linear battlespace. Rapid deployment requirements and limited air/sea lift capability makes it difficult to transport and emplace communications infrastructure equipment in a timely manner. Furthermore, mobile forces quickly out-run fixed communications infrastructure and lose contact with command, support, and intelligence sources. What is needed is a reliable, easily deployed theater-wide communications network to provide the connectivity to separated forces; a mechanism for supplying this is a network of airborne communications nodes. A UAV flying at high altitude (65,000 ft) can provide line of sight connectivity (at up to 150 mi radius) between users that are not within line of sight of each other, and could relay communications through ground or on-board satellite gateways to provide world-wide connectivity. Since a high-altitude, long-endurance UAV (such as the Global Hawk) self-deploys from a great distance, there is no local infrastructure burden to provide this capability. Furthermore, since the range to the ground is relatively short, communications links can be established with even hand-held, low-power radios; heavy ground communications gear is not needed. This paper explores the utility of the UAV communication node concept, discussing applications, capabilities, and networking possibilities. In particular, UAVs, other aircraft, and selected ground sites could provide a backbone network for data communications on a 'warfighter's Internet.'

  2. Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health

  3. Improving VHF Spectrum Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andro, Monty; Orr, Richard; Foore, Larry; Sheehe, Charles; Freeman, Mark; Nguyen, Thanh; Bretmersky, Steven; Laberge, Chuck; Buchanan, David

    2004-01-01

    Limited VHF communications system capacity and increasing air traffic results in congestion of the aviation VHF spectrum. The voice communications errors and delayed channel access create system congestion and air traffic delays. Regulatory subdivision of bands for specific functions limits flexibility in the frequency usage. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to identify near/mid/far term technologies to improve the performance and spectrum efficiency of current and emerging VHF communications systems. Select technologies with the highest potential, perform research and development to bring them to implementation stage.

  4. ARGE DFC - A European approach to MCFC commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, P.; Huppmann, G.; Heiming, A.

    1996-12-31

    The largest European program for the commercialization of the molten carbonate fuel cell technology is carried out by the European Direct Fuel Cell Consortium (ARGE DFC). The consortium consists of the following companies: (1) MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH (Germany), within the DaimlerBenz Group responsible for off-road propulsion and decentralized energy systems. (2) Haldor Topsoe A/S (Denmark), a plant engineering company and specialist for catalytic processes (3) Elkraft A.m.b.A. (Denmark), one of the countries two utility companies (4) Ruhrgas AG (Germany), the largest German gas company (5) RWE AG (Germany), the largest German electrical utility company MTU acts as a consortium leader. The company shares a license and technology exchange agreement with Energy Research Corporation of Danbury, Connecticut.

  5. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  6. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  7. North European Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland

  8. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  9. Lunar Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Apollo lunar module communications. It describes several changes in terminology from the Apollo era to more recent terms. It reviews: (1) Lunar Module Antennas and Functions (2). Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (3) No Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (4) Lunar Surface Communications Links (5) Signal-Processing Assembly (6) Instrumentation System (7) Some Communications Problems Encountered

  10. Communicating with Villagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.

    Common problems and possible solutions in communication with rural villagers in developing countries are discussed in terms of communication extension strategies, mass communication media, the use of simple communication technology in place of the more sophisticated and expensive methods, a case study of a successful communication project in…

  11. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

    2002-07-08

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. This paper presents a overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  12. Utility Assessment Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Edwards, W., "Behavioral Decision Theory ," Ar -7. Review of Psychology, Vol. 12 (1961), pp. 473-498. 28. Edwards, W., "How to Use Multiattribute Utility ...Economics and Management Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois (1981). 31. Farquhar, P.H., "A Survey of Multiattribute Utility Theory and...89. -43- 32. Farquhar, P.H., "Advances in Multiattribute Utility Theory ," Theory and Decision, Vol. 12 (1980), pp. 381-394. 33. Fischer, G.W

  13. Enhancing the European Union’s Development Strategy in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Program , National Rural Access Program (NRAP), and the Microfinance Program . Thirteen EU member states, as well as the European Commission, use the...Afghanistan, 3. 50 Figure 12. EU Lead Donors – Security Sector Reform141 The primary objective of the Swedish program in Afghanistan is poverty ...Councils could continue to utilize the National Solidarity Program to integrate community poverty reduction plans, but it could also begin to

  14. DIORAMA Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Galassi, Mark C.

    2016-05-24

    Diorama is written as a collection of modules that can run in separate threads or in separate processes. This defines a clear interface between the modules and also allows concurrent processing of different parts of the pipeline. The pipeline is determined by a description in a scenario file[Norman and Tornga, 2012, Tornga and Norman, 2014]. The scenario manager parses the XML scenario and sets up the sequence of modules which will generate an event, propagate the signal to a set of sensors, and then run processing modules on the results provided by those sensor simulations. During a run a variety of “observer” and “processor” modules can be invoked to do interim analysis of results. Observers do not modify the simulation results, while processors may affect the final result. At the end of a run results are collated and final reports are put out. A detailed description of the scenario file and how it puts together a simulation are given in [Tornga and Norman, 2014]. The processing pipeline and how to program it with the Diorama API is described in Tornga et al. [2015] and Tornga and Wakeford [2015]. In this report I describe the communications infrastructure that is used.

  15. Evaluating Internal Communication: The ICA Communication Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Gerald M.

    1978-01-01

    The ICA Communication Audit is described in detail as an effective measurement procedure that can help an academic institution to evaluate its internal communication system. Tools, computer programs, analysis, and feedback procedures are described and illustrated. (JMF)

  16. What Is Communicative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Jeremy

    1982-01-01

    Examines word "communicative" and nature of communication and suggests it should not be applied to a methodology. Draws distinction between "communicative" and "noncommunicative" activities while claims each has its place in balanced approach to language teaching. (Author/BK)

  17. Failure to communicate.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-02-01

    When a medication error is coupled with a communication problem, a patient may experience significant injury. Cases involving communication breakdown, i.e, failure to communicate or listen, are discussed.

  18. Lawmakers vie to let utilities onto the info highway

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, L.A.

    1994-03-15

    Capitol Hill is alive with talk of the information superhighway and the need to amend the antiquated Communications Act of 1936. Electric and gas utilities hope that whatever bill is passed will allow them to provide telecommunications services and take part in the communication revolution. After all, the Clinton Administration's white paper on the issue advocates following a policy that would allow energy utilities to provide telephone services. Rep. Boucher has become a chief advocate of allowing electric utilities to compete in the cable television and telephone industries. Under the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA), electric utility holding companies whose operations cross state lines are prohibited from offering telecommunications services. Boucher's measure would amend PUHCA by removing those restrictions.

  19. International utilization and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Stanley R.

    1989-01-01

    The international framework of the Space Station Freedom Program is described. The discussion covers the U.S. space policy, international agreements, international Station elements, overall program management structure, and utilization and operations management. Consideration is also given to Freedom's user community, Freedom's crew, pressurized payload and attached payload accommodations, utilization and operations planning, user integration, and user operations.

  20. Utilization Research. Chapter 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on utilization research. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Information Equity: A Critical Component of Strong Service Systems" (Catherine Batsche and Allison Metcalf); (2) "Utilization of Children's Mental Health Services: Differentiating…

  1. Tribal water utility management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Contents: primacy program (what is primacy, advantages and disadvantages, treatment as a state, grant applications and funding); safe drinking water act (sampling requirements, coliform standard, public notification, surface water treatment rule impacts, uic and wellhead protection programs, lead/copper rule); water utility management (how is the utility program evaluated, who's responsible, what is the board and tribal council role).

  2. Communication Motives of Assertive and Responsive Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn M.; Martin, Matthew M.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that competent communicators (high assertive, high responsive) communicated from needs for affection, pleasure, and inclusion more than noncompetent (low assertive, low responsive), submissive (low assertive, high responsive), and aggressive (high assertive, low responsive) individuals. Shows that aggressive types communicated more from…

  3. Beyond Visual Communication Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Thomas P.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of visual communication--light, semiotics, codes, photography, typography, and visual literacy--within the context of the communications technology area of technology education. (SK)

  4. The technology management process at the European space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, M.; Williams, E.; Groepper, P.; Lascar, S.

    2010-03-01

    Technology is developed at the European Space Agency (ESA) under several programmes: corporate and domain specific, mandatory and optional, with different time horizons and covering different levels of the TRL scale. To improve the transparency and efficiency of the complete process, it was felt necessary to establish an agreed end to end process for the management of all technology R&D activity that could: Include all ESA programmes and consider the requirements of European users Lead to coordinated multi-year work plan and yearly procurement plans Prepare and enable future European space programmes Be harmonized with national initiatives in Europe Thereby establishing the basis for a product policy to reduce risks to technology users, reduce costs and delays, and enhance industrial competitiveness and non-dependence. In response to the above needs, ESA has developed a technology management process called the ESA End-to-End process (E2E), from establishment of the strategy to the monitoring and evaluation of R&D results. In this paper, the complete process will be described in detail including a discussion on its strengths and limitations, and its links to the wider European Harmonization process. The paper will be concluded with the introduction of the ESA Technology Tree: a basic tool to structure and facilitate communication about technology issues.

  5. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    developing European sub-systems, others have chosen to develop their own novel cell technology. This paper will survey the extent of the fuel cell activities in Europe and emphasise the particular markets which fuel cell manufacturers are targeting. Demand for fuel cells in defence and military applications will be the first sector to be commercially viable — European companies such as Siemens, Elenco and VSEL are already marketing AFC or PEM systems for naval and aerospace applications. The small-scale CHP sector is also a likely early market for fuel cell plant. Co-generation fuel cells are of great interest to gas companies like ENAGAS and British Gas looking to promote sales of gas by installing on-site gas-fired generators on their customers' premises. The market for utility scale fuel cell plants is expected to develop later in the decade. The largest demonstration planned for Europe is the 1 MW PAFC for Milan, due to come onstream in 1992. MBB GmbH is considering developing MW-scale MCFC plants with the US company ERC — a 2 MW demonstration is planned for the end of 1993. The potential market for utility fuel cells is large — installation rates could reach 500-1000 MW/year by the turn of the century. Fuel cells will probably not achieve significant use in transport applications in Europe until after the turn of the century unless very stringent emissions legislation for vehicles is introduced. The likely early markets for fuel cells in the transport sector seem to be for delivery and fleet vehicles. Examples of European projects in this area include the Amsterdam city bus project which will use Elenco's AFC technology and Siemens' fork lift truck which will incorporate a PEM fuel cell. Fuel cells also link conveniently with renewable energy systems — coupled with an electrolyser a fuel cell can store solar, wind or wave power. The electrolysis proces is used to generate hydrogen from water at times of surplus energy while the fuel cell consumes hydrogen fuel

  6. Time stamp services for trustworthy health communications.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Trustworthy communication and co-operation requires in general static TTP services describing status and relation of communicating principals as well as their corresponding keys and attributes. Additional TTP services are needed to provide trustworthy information about dynamic issues of communication and cooperation such as message identifier, time and location of processes, workflow relations and system behaviour. Certified time stamps are important notary's functions dealing with the services mentioned above. Within the European RESHEN project, the ONCONET regional health network for improving cancer care has been moving from system-related to certified time stamps using a local secure time stamp server or deploying remote time stamp services provided by an accredited CA. After implementing such services at the beginning of 2002, an evaluation of the operation modes will be performed during 2002 to derive recommendations for optimisation of these important services in national and international health networks.

  7. The European nuclear power industry: Restructuring for combined strength and worldwide leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Norman, R.E.; Reich, W.J.; Hill, L.J.

    1993-06-18

    The European nuclear power industry is being restructured from an industry drawn along national lines to a European-wide industry. This, in part, reflects growth of the European Economic Community, but it also reflects changes in the international nuclear power industry. The objectives of the participants, beyond better integration of the nuclear industry in Western Europe, are to (1) obtain European leadership of the worldwide commercial nuclear power industry, (2) improve medium- and long-term safety of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) power reactors, and (3) reduce domestic concerns about nuclear power. The activities to achieve these goals include (1) formation of Nuclear Power International (a joint venture of the German and French nuclear power plant vendors for design and construction of nuclear power plants), (2) formation of a utility group to forge agreement throughout Europe on what the requirements are for the next generation of nuclear power plants, and (3) agreement by regulators in multiple European countries to harmonize regulations. This is to be achieved before the end of the decade. These changes would allow a single design of nuclear power plant to be built anywhere in Europe. The creation of European-wide rules (utility requirements, engineering standards, and national regulations) would create strong economic and political forces for other European countries (Eastern Europe and FSU) to meet these standards.

  8. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  9. European consumer response to packaging technologies for improved beef safety.

    PubMed

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-09-01

    Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative (17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits.

  10. Validation of the Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale.

    PubMed

    Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Milhausen, Robin R; Breuer, Rebecca; Bailey, Julia; Pavlou, Menelaos; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed a newly developed Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale designed to measure the sexual communication self-efficacy of adolescent men and women. Three-hundred and seventy-four U.K. adolescents completed this new scale, along with several other validity measures. Factor analysis revealed that the Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale consisted of five underlying factors: contraception communication, positive sexual messages, negative sexual messages, sexual history, and condom negotiation. These factors demonstrated high internal consistency and presents evidence to support construct validity. This scale may have utility in assessing the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance sexual communication and sexual health behaviors among young people.

  11. Electric Utility Observers' Forum

    SciTech Connect

    Smartt, L.E.

    1982-05-13

    This second Observers' Forum of Public Utilities Fortnightly includes invited comments from 19 key legislators, utility consultants, and recognized figures in service industries on any subject to which the contributor wished to direct the attention of the industry leadership and which has a public-interest aspect. Participants were free to point to what they think the industry is doing, either right or wrong, and to areas where the industry might improve its performance. There is no single overriding message, but there is a prevalent mood that the electric-utility industry may have turned a corner despite some remaining problems.

  12. ICT Use and Achievement in Three European Countries: What Does PISA Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens, Karl

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, in many European countries large investments were made to foster the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in education with the expectation that ICT would make teaching and learning more effective. This would, for example, become evident in scores obtained by students in the Programme for International…

  13. The Mythology of Schooling: The Historiography of American and European Education in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Matthew Gardner

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the historiography of American and European education, considering how educational historians communicate powerful messages about the purposes and promises of schooling through their writing. I divide the historiography of American education into four interpretive traditions: traditionalism, radical revisionism, progressive…

  14. Children and ICT European Initiatives and Policies on Protecting Children Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojniak, Justyna; Majorek, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the opportunities of use information and communication technologies for the education purposes. It presents key assumptions of the European Union policy concerning innovative methods of training and the prospects for their further development. As nowadays one can observe increasing activity of the children and young people in…

  15. Managing the Bologna Process at the European Level: Institution and Actor Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazetic, Predrag

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the work of the Bologna Follow Up Group as the main institution of the Bologna Process and the perceptions of the policy actors involved concerning the character of the process in terms of its functioning in contrast to similar multi-level multi-actor European processes, its modes of communication and consensus seeking, as…

  16. European courts and old people.

    PubMed

    Mulley, Graham P

    2013-09-01

    There are two major European Courts, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The ECJ deals with legal matters, mainly involving the interpretation of EU law and ensuring that the law is applied evenly across all 27 EU member states. The ECHR aims to make certain that civil and political rights of citizens in the 46 member states of the Council of Europe are observed. Most cases involving older citizens are about social policy (such as pension arrangements, equality, age discrimination and mandatory retirement). There have been few cases dealing with patients' rights, long-term care or housing. Referrals of selected cases involving old people should be considered if their rights are not being protected. In this Commentary, there is an account of how these Courts have evolved, together with guidance on whom to refer, to which Court, and when and how referrals should be made.

  17. GEO Standard and Interoperability Forum (SIF) European Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    The European GEO SIF has been initiated by the GIGAS project in an effort to better coordinate European requirements for GEO and GEOSS related activities, and is recognised by GEO as a regional SIF. To help advance the interoperability goals of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS), the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Architecture and Data Committee (ADC) has established a Standards and Interoperability Forum (SIF) to support GEO organizations offering components and services to GEOSS. The SIF will help GEOSS contributors understand how to work with the GEOSS interoperability guidelines and how to enter their "interoperability arrangements" (standards or other ad hoc arrangements for interoperability) into the GEOSS registries. This will greatly facilitate the utility of GEOSS and encourage significant increase in participation. To carry out its work most effectively, the SIF promotes to form Regional Teams. They will help to organize and optimize the support coming from the different parts of the World and reach out regional and multi-disciplinary Scientific Communities. This will allow to have true global representation in supporting GEOSS interoperability. A SIF European Team is foreseen. The main role of the SIF is facilitating interoperability and working with members and participating organizations as they offer data and information services to the users of GEOSS. In this framework, the purpose of having a European Regional Team is to increase efficiency in carrying out the work of the SIF. Experts can join the SIF European Team by registering at the SIF European Team wiki site: http://www.thegigasforum.eu/sif/

  18. Utilization management in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Branda, John A; Lewandrowski, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The available literature concerning utilization management in the clinical microbiology laboratory is relatively limited compared with that for high-volume, automated testing in the central Core Laboratory. However, the same strategies employed elsewhere in the clinical laboratory operation can be applied to utilization management challenges in microbiology, including decision support systems, application of evidence-based medicine, screening algorithms and gatekeeper functions. The results of testing in the microbiology laboratory have significant effects on the cost of clinical care, especially costs related to antimicrobial agents and infection control practices. Consequently many of the successful utilization management interventions described in clinical microbiology have targeted not just the volume of tests performed in the laboratory, but also the downstream costs of care. This article will review utilization management strategies in clinical microbiology, including specific examples from our institution and other healthcare organizations.

  19. PAM stack test utility

    SciTech Connect

    Grondona, Mark A.

    2007-08-22

    The pamtest utility calls the normal PAM hooks using a service and username supplied on the command line. This allows an administratory to test any one of many configured PAM stacks as any existing user on the machine.

  20. SPAR data handling utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Haftka, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    The SPAR computer software system is a collection of processors that perform particular steps in the finite-element structural analysis procedure. The data generated by each processor are stored on a data base complex residing on an auxiliary storage device, and these data are then used by subsequent processors. The SPAR data handling utilities use routines to transfer data between the processors and the data base complex. A detailed description of the data base complex organization is presented. A discussion of how these SPAR data handling utilities are used in an application program to perform desired user functions is given with the steps necessary to convert an existing program to a SPAR processor by incorporating these utilities. Finally, a sample SPAR processor is included to illustrate the use of the data handling utilities.

  1. Utility franchises reconsidered

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  2. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C., Ed.; Schmidt, Richard W., Ed.

    A collection of essays addresses the connection between the study of communication and its sociocultural contexts and the approach to second language teaching based on the concept of communicative competence. Essays include: "From Communicative Competence to Communicative Language Pedagogy" (Michael Canale); "The Domain of Pragmatics" (Bruce…

  3. Implementation of Communicative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabeen, Shazi Shah

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary age of high professional requirements such as excellent communicative skills, the need for successful learning of communicative skills of English language suggests communicative ability to be the goal of language teaching. In other words, to teach English language using communicative approach becomes essential. Studies to…

  4. Communication During Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    The physical and psychological difficulties which accompany grief resulting from another's death are described, and the intrapersonal and interpersonal communication behaviors exhibited by bereaved individuals are outlined. The role of intrapersonal communication--the mourner communicating with himself--and interpersonal communication--the mourner…

  5. Development Communication Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Andrea, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The three 1993 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" focus on the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people about various social issues as well as the field of development communication itself. Agricultural communication is the theme of the first issue which contains the…

  6. Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  7. Overview of communications programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the communications program is to advance critical areas of enabling and enhancing communication technologies that support commercial needs, science, and exploration missions for the 1990's and beyond. The technology program consists of research and technology development in the following areas: RF technology; digital technology; optical communications; mobile communications; and systems integration, test, and evaluation.

  8. Animal and Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks…

  9. Internet-Based Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Google the question, "How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?," and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting…

  10. Communication: Concepts and Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Joseph A.

    A mixture of theoretical and practical essays points up the purposes of, barriers to, and means of facilitating communication. Four models of how people communicate are presented. A series of essays describing communication messages and channels include considerations of "gobbledygook," nonverbal communication by touch, smell, or body movement,…

  11. Communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

  12. Ethnicity and Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankwo, Robert L.

    This paper discusses the intercultural communication body of knowledge and focuses on the ethnicity and mass communication. The orientation and tradition of communication research in the United States is discussed; the findings of some mass communication studies that have subject matter or variables related to mass ethnicity are summarized; the…

  13. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  14. Catching utility thieves

    SciTech Connect

    Tankersley, D.; Cooke, L.

    1981-07-01

    Increasing theft of electric power has forced utilities like Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division to employ detectives to identify those who cheat by tampering with their meters or reconnecting disconnected power. Thieves also risk lethal shocks to themselves and the safety of their neighbors. Residential customers are the largest problem and the easiest to detect by watching for billing discrepancies, evidences of meter tampering, and the reports of informers. Both state and city statutes against utility theft impose fines. (DCK)

  15. Measuring Resource Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Laura E.; Khadaroo, Rachel G.; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Hanson, Heather; Wagg, Adrian; Padwal, Raj; Clement, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A variety of methods may be used to obtain costing data. Although administrative data are most commonly used, the data available in these datasets are often limited. An alternative method of obtaining costing is through self-reported questionnaires. Currently, there are no systematic reviews that summarize self-reported resource utilization instruments from the published literature. The aim of the study was to identify validated self-report healthcare resource use instruments and to map their attributes. A systematic review was conducted. The search identified articles using terms like “healthcare utilization” and “questionnaire.” All abstracts and full texts were considered in duplicate. For inclusion, studies had to assess the validity of a self-reported resource use questionnaire, to report original data, include adult populations, and the questionnaire had to be publically available. Data such as type of resource utilization assessed by each questionnaire, and validation findings were extracted from each study. In all, 2343 unique citations were retrieved; 2297 were excluded during abstract review. Forty-six studies were reviewed in full text, and 15 studies were included in this systematic review. Six assessed resource utilization of patients with chronic conditions; 5 assessed mental health service utilization; 3 assessed resource utilization by a general population; and 1 assessed utilization in older populations. The most frequently measured resources included visits to general practitioners and inpatient stays; nonmedical resources were least frequently measured. Self-reported questionnaires on resource utilization had good agreement with administrative data, although, visits to general practitioners, outpatient days, and nurse visits had poorer agreement. Self-reported questionnaires are a valid method of collecting data on healthcare resource utilization. PMID:26962773

  16. Utility straight sections

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, B.; Peggs, S.; Peterson, J.

    1985-10-01

    Utility straight sections are insertions in the SSC lattice to provide relatively free space to facilitate various beam manipulations. These uses include beam-abort, injection (and conceivably ejection), space for the rf system, and collimation. A typical utility straight section is 1500 meters in overall length (ranging from 500 to 1200 meters). It has zero dispersion and high values of the beta functions. The betatron phase shift across the insertion is about 90{degrees} in each plane.

  17. [The European mouflon, Ovis musimon].

    PubMed

    Hermans, W A

    1996-09-15

    Until a couple of decades ago, the European mouflon found on the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Cyprus was considered an independent wild species and last representative of the European wild sheep. However, recent research has shown that there have not been wild sheep in Europe since the late Pleistocene. Archeological investigation in Corsica has shown that the mouflon is not a wild sheep but a primitive domestic sheep brought to the islands by farmers from the Near East and which then became wild (feral).

  18. Interactions between European Citizenship and Language Learning among Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennebry, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) has created debate as to the suitability of current structures and policies for effectively engaging citizens and developing social cohesion. Education and specifically modern foreign language (MFL) teaching are argued by the literature to play a key role in equipping young people to interact and…

  19. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  20. Communications platform payload definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clopp, H. W.; Hawkes, T. A.; Bertles, C. R.; Pontano, B. A.; Kao, T.

    1986-01-01

    Large geostationary communications platforms were investigated in a number of studies since 1974 as a possible means to more effectively utilize the geostationary arc and electromagnetic spectrum and to reduce overall satellite communications system costs. The commercial feasibility of various communications platform payload concepts circa 1998 was addressed. Promising payload concepts were defined, recurring costs were estimated, and critical technologies needed to enable eventual commercialization were identified. Ten communications service aggregation scenarios describing potential groupings of service were developed for a range of conditions. Payload concepts were defined for four of these scenarios: (1) Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) meets 100% of Contiguous United States (CONUS) plus Canada demand with a single platform; (2) Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) (trunking + Customer Premises Service (CPS)), meet 20% of CONUS demand;(3) FSS (trunking + CPS + video distribution), 10 to 13% of CONUS demand; and (4) FSS (20% of demand) + Inter Satellite Links (ISL) + Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)/Tracking and Data Acquisition System (TDAS) Data Distribution.

  1. Satellite communications for the Pacific islands. Second year report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E.; Hurd, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements, options and costs for use of communications satellites in underserved areas of the Pacific Basin are described with emphasis on extended utilization of INTELSAT. The economic structures within and among Pacific Basin entities are examined, particularly the relationship between the growth of regional trade and telecommunications potential for the region. Suitable satellite services are recommended and the financial implications for extended utilization of communications satellites in the Pacific Basin are considered.

  2. Developments of international space communications regulation against the background of progressive commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Traa-Engelman, H. L.

    1991-12-01

    The legal concept of equity has been developed and applied to satellite communications regulation within the ITU. The institutional framework of commercial organizations for satellite communications has been reevaluated in the context of competing systems. The amendments to the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Controls rules regarding the relaxation of export controls on telecommunications and the proposal by a European Economic Community commission contained in the Green Paper on a common approach toward European-wide satellite communications systems and services are considered to be important steps toward a liberalized world market.

  3. Nonverbal Communication and Writing Lab Tutorials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claywell, Gina

    Writing labs should utilize the knowledge gained from a variety of fields to enhance further their programs, particularly with regard to the study of nonverbal communication. Regardless of the sincerity and importance of the tutor's suggestions, nonverbal messages often are sent to the student which undermine the session. Various channels of…

  4. Communication Behavior in a Simulated Organizational Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Claude D.; Jandt, Fred E.

    The nature of the work on an automated assembly line is the major cause of complaint among workers and labor unions. In trying to solve the problem of alienation among American industrial workers, a simulation model, "Kingscity," patterned after the General Motors plant at Lordstown, Ohio, was utilized in a basic interpersonal communication course…

  5. Education and The Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, John J., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph deals with the utilization of modern communicational media as aids to instruction and learning in the English classroom and contains studies pointing the way toward expanding student experience through multimedia instruction. Chapters include "Magazines," which presents objectives for magazine study, discusses students' reading…

  6. Using Commercial Resources in Population Communications Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, William O.

    The author defines populations communications as all information, education, and other activities which can produce changes in attitudes and behavior towards contraception, family planning, and population growth. He discusses in this paper the effort made in 27 nations to utilize commercial, profit-making goods and services for the purpose of…

  7. Conversation Analysis of Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lloret, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The potential of computer-mediated communication (CMC) for language learning resides mainly in the possibility that learners have to engage with other speakers of the language, including L1 speakers. The inclusion of CMC in the L2 classroom provides an opportunity for students to utilize authentic language in real interaction, rather than the more…

  8. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  9. Improving Employee Communications

    SciTech Connect

    A. R. Pomplun; B. J. Kelley; B. L. Schrader; R. C. Christma; R. H. Tucker

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings and recommendation of the Sandia/California Site Communications Team based on activities during FY98. The important conclusions are that effective communications are everyone's business; careful planning and execution are required for effective communications; and communication planning can be described in steps easily understood by everyone. Included in this report is a quick reference (toolkit) for communication planning and implementation.

  10. Amelia Bedelia in the Library or Effective Communication for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Frances Ruth

    This paper discusses ways in which how both formal and informal library leaders can utilize communication principles to persuade, motivate, and build positive employee relations. Noting that effective communication takes time, it is suggested that administrators talk with, not to, individual staff members, and that they (1) use direct eye contact;…

  11. Microwave communication. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-06-01

    Research reports pertinent to the techniques, equipment, reliability, and utilization of microwave communications are cited. Studies on microwaves relays, links, data transmission, telemetry, satellite communications, multiplexing, and propagation are included. This updated bibliography contains 280 abstracts, 46 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  12. A team approach to an undergraduate interprofessional communication course.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Shelley; Buchanan, Judy; Cole, Tricia; McCoy, Carolyn

    2013-05-01

    Interprofessional communication is a team-taught upper-level undergraduate course for Nursing and Health Sciences students. In addition to teaching fundamental communication skills, this course weaves interprofessional competencies into weekly learning activities and assignments. The utilization of the principles and practices of team-based learning in the classroom enhances the attainment and practice of communication and interprofessional collaboration skills. Lessons learned from conducting informal course evaluations and delivering the course multiple times are presented.

  13. Distributed communications resource management for tracking and surveillance networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Edwin K. P.; Brewington, Brian

    2005-09-01

    We present a market-like method for distributed communications resource management in the context of networked tracking and surveillance systems. This method divides communication resources according to the expected utility provided by information of particular types. By formulating the problem as an optimization of the joint utility of information flow rates, the dual of the problem can be understood to provide a price for particular routes. Distributed rate control can be accomplished using primal-dual iteration in combination with communication of these route prices. We extend the previous work on the subject in a few important ways. First, we consider utility functions that are jointly-dependent on flow rates, to properly account for geometric synergy that can occur in sensor fusion problems. Second, we do not require that the rate-update algorithms have explicit knowledge of utility functions. Instead, our update algorithms involve transmitting marginal utility values. We present simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.

  14. The utility`s role in the future of PC services and the NII. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The paper is a report by C3 Communications (formerly CSW Communications) summarizing the experience and lessons learned during an 18 month Department of Energy Grant to evaluate how electric utilities can further the growth of the NII by developing a hybrid Internet-energy management service. In addition, the project was also expanded to include evaluation of residential gateway issues, in particular the energy management aspects of this developing area. The report is broken up into three sections, the first section focuses on the issues surrounding the start-up of a traditional ISP and provides a road map for utilities interested in this area. The second section provides an overview of the Internet energy management projects which were undertaken and the key lessons learned from each. Lastly, the third section outlines the gateway progress made during the grant and provides some of the recommendations which the work produced.

  15. Energy efficiency in wireless communication systems

    DOEpatents

    Caffrey, Michael Paul; Palmer, Joseph McRae

    2012-12-11

    Wireless communication systems and methods utilize one or more remote terminals, one or more base terminals, and a communication channel between the remote terminal(s) and base terminal(s). The remote terminal applies a direct sequence spreading code to a data signal at a spreading factor to provide a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signal. The DSSS signal is transmitted over the communication channel to the base terminal which can be configured to despread the received DSSS signal by a spreading factor matching the spreading factor utilized to spread the data signal. The remote terminal and base terminal can dynamically vary the matching spreading factors to adjust the data rate based on an estimation of operating quality over time between the remote terminal and base terminal such that the amount of data being transmitted is substantially maximized while providing a specified quality of service.

  16. Mathematical Modelling in European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Rita Borromeo

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning of mathematical modelling has become a key competence within school curricula and educational standards in many countries of the world. The term mathematical modelling, its meaning, and how it can be implemented in mathematics lessons have been intensively discussed during several Conferences of the European Society for…

  17. Reconstructing Indo-European Syllabification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Andrew Miles

    2010-01-01

    The chief concern of this dissertation is to investigate a fundamental, yet unsolved problem within the phonology of Proto-Indo-European (PIE): the process of syllabification. I show that by analyzing the much more easily reconstructable word-edge clusters we may predict which types of consonant clusters can occur word-medially, provided that we…

  18. Attitudes of Europeans toward Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageing International, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two Commission of European Communities surveys of people over age 15 and of those over 60 demonstrated a widespread belief that older people deserve public support and services and face employment discrimination. Socioeconomic factors influenced older people's sense of security and life satisfaction. Positive intergenerational attitudes appeared.…

  19. European Year of Languages, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This document is a folder full of brochures describing the activities of Council of Europe and the European Union to celebrate 2001 as a year of languages in order to celebrate the linguistic diversity of Europe and promote the many opportunities available for lifelong language learning. A number of facts and figures about the languages of Europe…

  20. Scholarships for European vet students.

    PubMed

    Egan, Jordon; Takacs, Daniella

    2017-02-25

    Every year, students from European vet schools can apply for $5000 scholarships, which aim to 'enhance the academic experience of students'. Among last year's recipients were Jordon Egan, from the Royal Veterinary College, and Daniella Takács, from the University of Veterinary Medicine in Budapest.

  1. European urology: quality, impact, online.

    PubMed

    Catto, James W F; Montorsi, Francesco; Schulman, Claude

    2013-10-01

    European Urology provides contemporary, cutting-edge urologic research, guidance, and discussion. The journal continues to invite collaborative reviews, to invest in rapid but fair peer review, to seek the best research, and to serve the needs of readers and patients.

  2. Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for…

  3. European tests on materials outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwaal, A.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to international coordination of spacecraft materials, a number of European firms and institutes performed outgassing tests on identical materials at 125 C in high vacuum. The outgassing data obtained with the different types of equipment is presented and both the results and the critical parameters are discussed.

  4. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  5. Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breece, G.A.; Ward, B.J.

    1996-11-01

    Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

  6. Factors impacting participation of European elite deaf athletes in sport.

    PubMed

    Kurková, Petra; Válková, Hana; Scheetz, Nanci

    2011-03-01

    This study examine 53 European elite deaf athletes for their family's hearing status, use of hearing aids, communication preference, education in integrated or segregated settings, family members' encouragement for participation in sports, coach preference (hearing or deaf), and conditions for competitive events with deaf or hearing athletes. These data were gathered through semi-structured interviews administered in the athlete's native language. Deaf athletes reported that when given the opportunity to compete with hearing athletes, it enhanced their opportunity for competition. Participating in sports with hearing athletes played an important role in the integration of deaf athletes into mainstream society. If adaptations to communication can be made in these integrated settings, the ability of deaf athletes to participate in such settings will increase.

  7. Satellite communication for public services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, R. S.; Redisch, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    Public service programs using NASA's ATS-6 and CTS satellites are discussed. Examples include the ATS-6 Health and Education Telecommunications experimental program and the use of CTS to enable students in one university to take courses presented at another distant university. Possible applications of satellite communication systems to several areas of public service are described, and economic and political obstacles hindering the implementation of these programs are considered. It is suggested that a federally sponsored program demonstrating the utility of satellites accomodating a large number of small terminals is needed to encourage commercial satellite operations.

  8. Improving Pathologists' Communication Skills.

    PubMed

    Dintzis, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The 2015 Institute of Medicine report on diagnostic error has placed a national spotlight on the importance of improving communication among clinicians and between clinicians and patients [1]. The report emphasizes the critical role that communication plays in patient safety and outlines ways that pathologists can support this process. Despite recognition of communication as an essential element in patient care, pathologists currently undergo limited (if any) formal training in communication skills. To address this gap, we at the University of Washington Medical Center developed communication training with the goal of establishing best practice procedures for effective pathology communication. The course includes lectures, role playing, and simulated clinician-pathologist interactions for training and evaluation of pathology communication performance. Providing communication training can help create reliable communication pathways that anticipate and address potential barriers and errors before they happen.

  9. The European Arctic policy in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde Pérez, Elena; Yaneva, Zhaklin Valerieva

    2016-09-01

    The geostrategic, political, economic, and scientific relevance of the Arctic is constantly growing due to the complex process of climate change. Accordingly, the European Union-as a global political actor-, is already taking steps to ensure and strengthen its influence in the region while demonstrating readiness to face the many opportunities and challenges ahead in cooperation with the traditional stakeholders. Therefore, in order to reflect the renewed importance of the Arctic transformation, the Union has been designing its Arctic Policy focusing on climate change mitigation and multilateral cooperation as its main strengths. Unfortunately, despite the diligence and impetus that has been invested, this process has been delayed in several occasions as the Union had to deal with internal and external destabilizing factors, such as the later immigration crisis or the lack of uniformity among its member states' foreign policy interests. These factors will be analyzed along with the process of creation and development of the EU's Arctic policy. Despite some delays, on 27 April 2016, the long-awaited third communication was issued and progress has been made: even if, in general terms, the new document remains a political statement, there is also a clear commitment to action.

  10. Kinderet: Developing Training for Early Childhood Educators in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) In Bulgaria, England, Portugal, Spain and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saude, S.; Carioca, V.; Siraj-Blatchford, J.; Sheridan, S.; Genov, K.; Nuez, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the European context the continuing training of early childhood educators in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) remains limited and is in need of development. The KINDERET project has been funded through the European Commission's "Leonardo da Vinci" programme aimed to identify and understand the theoretical and…

  11. New head picked for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The UK physicist John Womersley is to become the next director-general of the €1.8bn European Spallation Source (ESS), which is currently being built in Lund, Sweden, by a 17-member consortium of European countries.

  12. European physics impact - to a first approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starckx, Senne

    2013-05-01

    Physics-based industries contributed around 14%, or €3800bn, to the total value of the European economy in 2010 - exceeding that of the construction and retail sectors combined - according to a report by the European Physical Society (EPS).

  13. Meeting US and European supplier control requirements.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Medical device manufacturers operating under European quality system requirements are sometimes surprised to learn that their supplier control procedures do not fully meet United States (US) requirements. This article discusses important differences between US and European requirements for controlling suppliers.

  14. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The European Space Agency's third Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-3) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from the European space port in Kourou, French Guiana, at 12:34 a.m. EDT Friday, beginning a si...

  15. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Evans, Roger

    2014-11-04

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control was set up in 2005 to strengthen Europe's defences against infectious diseases. The centre is an independent agency of the European Union and is based in Stockholm, Sweden.

  16. Satellite communications for disaster relief operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    The use of existing and planned communication satellite systems to provide assistance in the implementation of disaster relief operations on a global basis was discussed along with satellite communications system implications and their potential impact on field operations in disaster situations. Consideration are given to the utilization of both INTELSAT and MARISAT systems operating at frequencies ranging from 1.5 to 4 GHz and to the size and type of ground terminals necessary for satellite access. Estimates of communication requirements for a global system are given. Some discussion of cost estimates for satellite services to support operations are included. Studies of communication satellites for both pre and post disaster applications conducted for NOAA are included as well as recent experiments conducted in conjunction with the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the Agency for International Development.

  17. Communications platform payload definition study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clopp, H. W.; Hawkes, T. A.; Bertles, C. R.; Pontano, B. A.; Kao, T.

    1986-01-01

    Large geostationary communications platforms have been investigated in a number of studies since 1974 as a possible means to more effectively utilize the geostationary orbital arc and electromagnetic spectrum and to reduce overall satellite communications system costs. This NASA Lewis sponsored study addresses the commercial feasibility of various communications platform payload concepts circa 1998. It defines promising payload concepts, estimates recurring costs and identifies critical technologies needed to permit eventual commercialization. Ten communications service aggregation scenarios describing potential groupings of services were developed for a range of conditions. Payload concepts were defined for four of these scenarios: (1) Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS), meet 100% of CONUS plus Canada demand with a single platform; (2) Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) (Trunking + Customer Premises Service (CPS), meet 20% of CONUS demands; (3) FSS (Trunking + video distribution), 10 to 13% of CONUS demand; and (4) FSS (20% of demand) + Inter Satellite Links (ISL) + TDRSS/TDAS Data Distribution.

  18. European psychotraumatology – alongside the recent European history

    PubMed Central

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a personal reflection of experiences within the field of traumatic stress, especially in relation to specific events, which affected the author's professional life. Conclusions for further challenges for European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) are delineated. ESTSS's role in the global network of traumatic stress societies is discussed. This is a personal view of Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, president of ESTSS on behalf of the 20th birthday of ESTSS. PMID:23755321

  19. Communication: Beyond the Basics: Other Communication Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, J. E.; Gratz, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    In addition to the basic communication skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking, the authors suggest five other levels of communication to help teachers expand students' horizons: kinetic and symbolic; mental; extraterrestrial, biological, and technological; imagery; and perceptual. Each level is briefly discussed. (MF)

  20. Advanced Communications Technology: Mobile Communications Requirements Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    The Coast Guard's mobile communications requirements will outstrip existing system capabilities, available capacity, and affordability by the late 1990s. This will require changes in the mix of mobile communications equipment and services used by operational units. New commercial mobile satellite services are available now, with many others arriving on the market between 1998 and 2003. These new services present unique opportunities to satisfy mission requirements, reduce investment in communications infrastructure, and realize more costeffective communications services. The Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R&DC) has undertaken an effort to identify and evaluate current and emerging satellite services that may be used to satisfy Coast Guard mobile communications requirements. As part of this effort, Anteon Corporation has been tasked by R&DC to collect the mobile communications functional requirements that have been identified by program managers. Anteon analysts have reviewed the Government Furnished Information (GFI) and researched other related documentation to identify and collect the requirements that may be used to describe the needed operating environment. Anteon analysts assessed the functional requirements to develop system requirements that describe the features that a communications system must provide to support the functional requirements. This report presents the current and projected Coast Guard mobile communications system requirements.

  1. Issues in International Communications: Development Communications Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Thomas

    One debate in the field of development communications research focuses on the type of science that ought to be practiced: empirical or critical. The issues involved are many, but epistemological analysis can shed light on a number of them. Traditional empiricism as embodied in the "classical" development communications work is deserving…

  2. Emergency communications via airborne communications node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Charles W.

    1997-02-01

    Natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes invariably result in disruption of the commercial communications infrastructure and can severely impede the delivery of emergency services by local and federal agencies. In addition, the public's inability to communicate with commercial service providers can substantially slow the recovery process. Since wide-spread destruction of communications plant and distribution systems takes a long time to rebuild, an attractive alternative would be to provide communications connectivity through an airborne platform configured as a communication node. From a high altitude, a single aircraft could provide line of sight connectivity between users that are not within line of sight of each other, and could relay communications through ground or satellite gateways to the national PSTN. This capability could be used to substitute for multiple base stations for fire and police as well as military relief workers using their normal mobile communications gear. The airborne platform could also serve as a wide area base station to replace cellular phone towers that have been destroyed; this would enable civilian access to communications services from existing cellular phones, but could also be used by relief workers carrying low-cost commercial handsets. This paper examines the technical methods for achieving these goals, identifies the equipment needed on the airborne platform, and discusses the performance that could be expected.

  3. Multiple Hub Network Choice in the Liberalized European Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berechman, Joseph; deWit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    . In the meantime, open skies agreements have been concluded between the USA and most of the EU member states to facilitate strategic alliances between airlines of the states involved. As a result of this on-going liberalization the model of the single 'national' carrier using the national home base as its single hub for the designated third, fourth and sixth freedom operations will stepwise disappear. Within the EU the concept of the national carrier has already been replaced by that of the community carrier. State ownership in more and more European carriers is reduced. On the longer run mergers or even bankruptcy will further undermine the "single national carrier - single national hub" model in Europe. In the meantime, strategic alliances between national carriers in Europe will already reduce the airlines' loyalty to a single airport. Profit maximization and accountability to share holders will supersede the loyalty of these newly emerging alliances, probably looking for the opportunities of a multiple hub network to adequately cover the whole European market. As a consequence, some European airports might see a substantial decline in arriving, departing and transfer traffic, thus in revenues and financial solvency, as well as in their connection to other inter-continental and intra-European destinations. At the same time, other airports might realize a significant increase in traffic as they will be sought after by the profit maximizing airlines as their major gateway hubs. Which will be the losing airports and which will be the winning ones? Can airports anticipate the actions of airlines in deregulated markets and utilize policies which will improve their relative position? If so, what should be these anticipatory policies? These questions become the more urgent, since an increasing number of major European airports will be privatized in the near future. Although increasing airport congestion in Europe will also be reflected in a growing demand pressure for

  4. PETALL in Action: Latest Developments and Future Directions of the EU-Funded Project Pan-European Task Activities for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, António

    2016-01-01

    The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) proposes Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) as an important strategy to develop the learners' linguistic competences along with their communicative skills. Since it is learner-centred and relies mostly on engaging learners in meaningful communicative interchanges in a foreign language, it allows…

  5. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  6. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education…

  7. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  8. How Is European Governance Configuring the EHEA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhães, António; Veiga, Amélia; Sousa, Sofia; Ribeiro, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the European dimension driven by the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the development of national reforms to fulfil that objective. On the basis of data gathered in eight countries involved in EuroHESC project TRUE (Transforming European Universities), the curricular and the…

  9. Communicators' perspective on snow avalanche risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charriere, M. K. M.; Bogaard, T.; Mostert, E.

    2014-12-01

    Among all the natural hazards, snow avalanches are the only ones for which a public danger scale is globally used. It consists of 5 levels of danger displayed with a given number and colour and for each of them, behavioural advices are provided. Even though this is standardized in most of the countries affected by this natural hazard, the tools (usually websites or smartphone applications) with which the information is disseminated to the general pubic differs, particularly in terms of target audience and level of details. This study aims at gathering the perspectives of several communicators that are responsible for these communication practices. The survey was created to assess how and why choices were made in the design process of the communication tools and to determine how their effectiveness is evaluated. Along with a review of existing avalanche risk communication tools, this study provides guidelines for communication and the evaluation of its effectiveness.

  10. Module utilization committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  11. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  12. Classroom Use and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations. (EV)

  13. NASA technology utilization house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Following systems and features, which are predicted to save approximately $20,000 in utility costs over twenty year period, are incorporated into single-level, contemporarily designed, energy efficient residential structure: solar heating and cooling; energy efficient appliances; water recycling; security, smoke, and tornado detectors; and flat conductor electrical wiring.

  14. A Classroom Mathematics Utility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Reviews CATUSPLOT, a mathematics utility aimed at high school algebra through college-level calculus. Basic program capabilities include plotting, tabulating, integrating, and locating of intersections of functions composed of combinations of polynomial, trigonometric, and exponential functions. Rated excellent on all areas examined…

  15. Factors controlling oxygen utilization.

    PubMed

    Biaglow, John; Dewhirst, Mark; Leeper, Dennis; Burd, Randy; Tuttle, Steve

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate, theoretically, that oxygen diffusion distance is related to the metabolic rate of tumors (QO2) as well as the oxygen tension. The difference in QO2 rate between tumors can vary by as much as 80-fold. Inhibition of oxygen utilization by glucose or chemical inhibitors can improve the diffusion distance. Combining respiratory inhibitors with increased availability of oxygen will further improve the oxygen diffusion distance for all tumors. A simple means for inhibiting oxygen consumption is the use of glucose (the Crabtree effect). The inhibition of tumor oxygen utilization by glucose occurs in R323OAc mammary carcinoma and 9L glioma cells. However, stimulation of oxygen consumption is observed with glucose in the Q7 hepatoma cell line. MIBG, a known inhibitor of oxygen utilization, blocks oxygen consumption in 9L, but is weakly inhibitory with the Q7. Q7 tumor cells demonstrate an anomalous behavior of glucose and MIBG on oxygen consumption. Our results clearly demonstrate the necessity for comparing effects of different agents on different tumor cells. Generalizations cannot be made with respect to the choice of inhibitor for in vivo use. Our work shows that oxygen consumption also can be inhibited with malonate and chlorosuccinate. These substrates may be effective in vivo, where glucose is low and glutamine is the major substrate. Our results indicate that information about individual tumor substrate-linked metabolic controls may be necessary before attempting to inhibit oxygen utilization in vivo for therapeutic benefit.

  16. Technology utilization program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The application of aerospace technology to the solution of public health and industrial problems is reported. Data cover: (1) development of an externally rechargeable cardiac pacemaker, (2) utilization of ferrofluids-colloidal suspensions of ferrite particles - in the efficient separation of nonferrous metals as Ni, Zn, Cu, and Al from shredded automobile scrap, and (3) development of a breathing system for fire fighters.

  17. Planning Community Information Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackman, Harold, Ed.; Boehm, Barry W., Ed.

    Massive social changes are bound to occur with the extension of mass information utilities: the fundamental question is how shall this massive reconstruction of social information power be designed for the best interest of people. This book grew out of an American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS) conference, and is organized…

  18. Making Citizens, Being European? European Symbolism in Slovenian Citizenship Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banjac, Marinko; Pušnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Citizenship education has been an important part of the European Union's (EU) agenda to integrate a European dimension into schools' curricula. The usage of European symbolism in citizenship education curriculum material has been an especially important (yet understudied) means not only to promote a distinct European identity and increase…

  19. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Continuation of the compendium of applications technology satellite and communications technology satellite user experiments 1967-1977, volume 2. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, N. A.; Nash, J. F.; Strange, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Approximately 453 reports, papers, and articles catalogued into an information retrieval system, covering communications experiments and demonstrations conducted, utilizing the Communications Technology Satellite and the Applications Technology Satellites 1, 3, 5, and 6 are listed.

  1. International Utilization at the Threshold of "Assembly Complete"- Science Returns from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The European Columbus and Japanese Kibo laboratories are now fully operational on the International Space Station (ISS), bringing decades of international planning to fruition. NASA is now completing launch and activation of major research facilities that will be housed in the Destiny U.S. Laboratory, Columbus, and Kibo. These facilities include major physical sciences capabilities for combustion, fluid physics, and materials science, as well as additional multipurpose and supporting infrastructure. Expansion of the laboratory space and expansion to a 6-person crew (planned for May 2009), is already leading to significant increases in research throughput even before assembly is completed. International research on the ISS includes exchanges of results, sharing of facilities, collaboration on experiments, and joint publication and communication of accomplishments. Significant and ongoing increases in research activity on ISS have occurred over the past year. Although research results lag behind on-orbit operations by 2-5 years, the surge of early research activities following Space Shuttle return to flight in 2005 is now producing an accompanying surge in scientific publications. Evidence of scientific productivity from early utilization opportunities combined with the current pace of research activity in orbit are both important parts of the evidence base for evaluating the potential future achievements of a complete and active ISS.

  2. Communication System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A communication system for communicating over high-latency, low bandwidth networks includes a communications processor configured to receive a collection of data from a local system, and a transceiver in communication with the communications processor. The transceiver is configured to transmit and receive data over a network according to a plurality of communication parameters. The communications processor is configured to divide the collection of data into a plurality of data streams; assign a priority level to each of the respective data streams, where the priority level reflects the criticality of the respective data stream; and modify a communication parameter of at least one of the plurality of data streams according to the priority of the at least one data stream.

  3. Paperbacks in Mass Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Hanno

    1978-01-01

    Lists paperback books on mass communication, divided into six categories: history and biography; appraisals of the press, law, and ethics; cultural, psychological, and social aspects; radio, television, film, photography; international communication; and journalism techniques, miscellaneous. (GW)

  4. Communicating with Healthcare Professionals

    MedlinePlus

    ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  5. Communication and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental ... Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Find your local Chapter Zip code: Search ...

  6. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  7. [Leadership and communication].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, R T; Pereira, L L

    1991-08-01

    This study deals with the concepts of leadership and the role of the leader in communicating with his team. It stresses communication's concepts, process and its importance to built all organizations.

  8. Trends In Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  9. Intergenerational cultural dissonance in parent-adolescent relationships among Chinese and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxia; Chao, Ruth K

    2011-03-01

    Generational cultural gaps (assessed as the mismatch between adolescents' ideals and perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship) were investigated among Chinese youth with immigrant parents and their European American counterparts who have been in the United States for generations and assumingly do not have intergenerational cultural gaps. The authors of the study examined the associations of such generational gaps with adolescents' behavioral problems and whether youth's appreciation of Chinese parent-adolescent relationships (parental devotion, sacrifice, thoughtfulness, and guan) described by the notion of qin would moderate the relationship between discrepancies and youth's adjustment. A total of 634 high school students (M = 15.97 years; 95 and 154 first- and second-generation Chinese American respectively, and 385 European Americans) completed measures of parental warmth, parent-adolescent open communication, qin, and psychological adjustment. The U.S.-born Chinese American adolescents' ideals exceeded perceptions of parents' warmth and open communication to a greater degree than it did for European American adolescents (ps < 0.05). Such discrepancies in parental warmth were related to greater internalizing symptoms for second-generation Chinese American youth than for their European American peers. In addition, for second-generation Chinese, their perceptions of qin, particularly parents' devotion and sacrifice, had stronger moderating effects, diminishing the associations between generational cultural gaps and youth's behavioral problems compared with those of European American and first-generation Chinese youth. Parental thoughtfulness also played a similar beneficial role, but did so for all youth.

  10. European Seminar on Neural Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-31

    weights) There are three distinct approaches currently being of the connections between PE’s, analogous to synaptic taken for supporting neural ...for creation of dedicated re- * Connectionist models for artificial intelligence (Al) search centers, analogous to the Computer and Neural System...IONDOIL ONRL Report 8 Oo Ln 0In t m S D TIC European Seminar on Neural Computing 1 IELECTE is MAY 161990 L D % Claire Zomzely-Neurath 31 August 1988

  11. Evaluating the European Defense Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-31

    Union and the European Security and Defense Identity. From its inception following World War II, the WEU has shared a common birthright of sorts...for a merging of monetary, citizenship , and security affairs. The monetary policy is already in effect with the new Euro dollar entering...circulation in 2002. The most dramatic impact of citizenship policies is the idea of dual- citizenship of Europe and its respective states members. Finally

  12. European Science Notes Information Bulletin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Third European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like, and Related Coatings .................. 427 M. N. Yoder, L. Kabacoff, J. E. Butler, K Doverspike, J...tions on the functionf will yield results on the the correlation E(dj[n], dk[m]) depends on H, j, k , analysis and synthesis operators. m, n and the number...structure of fully developed turbulence in the ho- goes like this: Define the functions ,•j..(x) = j , k (x) mogeneous and inhomogeneous, incompressible

  13. Promotional communications for influenza vaccination: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Laura; Cairns, Georgina; Angus, Kathryn; de Andrade, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a systematic review that aimed to map current practice and identify effective practice in promotional communications for seasonal influenza vaccination in Europe. They identified 22 studies from 7 European countries. Included studies were primarily outcome evaluations of communications promoting vaccination to health care workers and elderly adults. Evidence on communications to improve public acceptance was sparse. A range of communication approaches, methods, materials, and channels were used, frequently in combination. All forms of promotional communications have the potential to increase uptake in health care workers and can also improve uptake among patients. There was promising evidence that mass communication methods, delivered as standalone activities or as one component of a communication mix, can improve uptake in target populations. Education for health care workers and improved service delivery are common adjuncts to promotional communications that were associated with effectiveness. The evidence suggests that personalized communications, combined with improved service delivery, might boost rates of uptake among elderly adults. Future development of good practice could be enhanced by more systematic, theory-based intervention design and more detailed reporting of process and outcome evaluations. Vaccine hesitancy is increasingly prevalent; more policy and research to improve public acceptance should therefore be considered.

  14. Characterisation of infant food modifications in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Ashwell, Margaret; Beck, Birgit; Bronner, Andrée; Mathioudakis, Basil

    2002-01-01

    Improvements in the understanding of human milk composition, in dietetic effects on physiological outcomes in infants, and in food technology have lead to modifications in infant formulas and other dietetic products for infants. In Europe, new ingredients may be added to infant formula and follow-on formulas if their suitability for particular use by infants from birth has been established by generally accepted scientific data. However, there is uncertainty as to the nature of the evaluation needed to evaluate whether modifications in dietetic products for infants can be regarded as suitable and safe. Moreover, there is no agreement on the nature of evidence required to justify the scientific validity of potential effects on infant health and well-being, which might provide the basis for the communication of such effects to health professionals and consumers. Therefore, a scientific workshop was held under the auspices of the Child Health Foundation, Munich, Germany, and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to discuss issues arising in this area among participants representing academia, infant food industry, consumer organisations, the European Commission, and food regulatory bodies of some European Union member states. This article summarises the outcomes of this workshop. The participants agreed on general concepts of evaluation of innovations and on establishing evidence for benefits, but felt that further discussion would be necessary on the principles and practicalities involved in setting up a central register of clinical trials and of a central repository of trial data.

  15. A Coarse Pointing Assembly for Optical Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szekely, G.; Blum, D.; Humphries, M.; Koller, A.; Mussett, D.; Schuler, S.; Vogt, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of a contract with the European Space Agency, RUAG Space are developing a Coarse Pointing Assembly for an Optical Communication Terminal with the goal to enable high-bandwidth data exchange between GEO and/or LEO satellites as well as to earth-bound ground stations. This paper describes some development and testing aspects of such a high precision opto-mechanical device, with emphasis on the influence of requirements on the final design, the usage of a Bearing Active Preload System, some of the lessons learned on the BAPS implementation, the selection of a flex print design as rotary harness and some aspects of functional and environmental testing.

  16. Speech Communication in Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-13

    external consultants for their testing purposes. Additionally, the capability of Nacre QUIETPROTM communications earplugs was investigated in preparation...exécutés par les consultants externes. De plus, on a analysé la capacité des bouchons d’oreilles pour communications Nacre QUIETPROMC en vue des essais en...calibration. 2.3 Nacre QUIETPROTM Communications Earplugs During this Call up two sets of Nacre Quietpro communications earplugs were purchased for

  17. International Heliophysical Year: European Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.

    2007-08-01

    The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

  18. Brain death: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Murphy, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    Some of the seminal steps toward the recognition and definition of brain death were European. There is a general consensus on both the medical concept of brain death in Europe as well as the minimum fundamental clinical standards that are required for its diagnosis-the absence of consciousness, brainstem reflexes, and the ability to breathe in the absence of reversible or confounding conditions. Two aspects of brain death determination are addressed in this article. The authors analyze how brain death is diagnosed across Europe, identifying both the similarities and differences that exist between countries (the latter mainly concerning ancillary tests, timing, and the number of physicians involved in the brain death determination). In addition, they describe the very considerable variations in when brain death determinations are made between and within individual European countries, and propose that they are due to differences in the end-of-life care practices in patients with irreversible brain injuries, medical attitudes, and organ donation practices. Although legislation is available to standardize the brain death diagnosis process in most individual European countries, there are still disparities across Europe as a whole. The current variation in practice makes a continental consensus for the definition of brain death imperative.

  19. Laughter, communication problems and dementia.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates how the elderly with dementia and their professional caregivers use laughter as a device to deal with problems related to language production and comprehension. The data consist of two game-playing situations, used to engage the elderly people in memory work. The article shows how the elderly patients recurrently laugh to acknowledge communication difficulties and to show awareness of their potential non-competency. The professional caregivers are shown to use slightly different strategies for responding to laughter segments initiated by the patients, either making the shortcomings part of the conversation or avoiding referring to the lapse explicitly. The laughter strategies used by the patients are compared to those reported in the CA-literature on laughter. It is well known that laughter is used in sequences of trouble and delicacy in both ordinary and institutional contexts, but my study shows that speakers with dementia laugh when they encounter problems related to language production and comprehension. This functional expansion in relation to premorbid occurrence is evidence that laughter fits the definition of compensatory behaviour utilized to overcome communication barriers. Certain conversational skills are preserved in individuals with dementia, but due to their cognitive impairment these resources are utilized in a slightly different way than by healthy speakers.

  20. Diagnosing Communication Pathologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Carol J.

    This paper addresses the concept of the communication audit, i.e., a fact-finding analysis, interpretation, and reporting process that studies the communication philosophy, structure, flow, and practice of the organization. Reasons for doing a communication audit are identified: (1) to uncover information blockages and organizational hindrances;…