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Sample records for eurycoma longifolia jack

  1. Acute, reproductive toxicity and two-generation teratology studies of a standardized quassinoid-rich extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Low, Bin-Seng; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2014-07-01

    The roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack are popularly sought as herbal medicinal supplements to improve libido and general health amongst the local ethnic population. The major quassinoids of E. longifolia improved spermatogenesis and fertility but toxicity studies have not been well documented. The reproductive toxicity, two generation of foetus teratology and the up-and-down acute toxicity were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats orally treated with quassinoid-rich E. longifolia extract (TAF273). The results showed that the median lethal dose (LD50 ) of TAF273 for female and male rats was 1293 and >2000 mg/kg, respectively. Fertility index and litter size of the TAF273 treated were significantly increased when compared with those of the non-treated animals. The TAF273-treated dams decreased in percentage of pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss and late resorption. No toxic symptoms were observed on the TAF273-treated pregnant female rats and their foetuses were normal. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from reproductive toxicity and teratology studies of TAF273 in rats was 100 mg/kg body weight/day, being more than 10-fold lower than the LD50 value. Thus, any human dose derived from converting the rat doses of 100 mg/kg and below may be considered as safe for further clinical studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The effects of combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack ethanolic extract and doxorubicine on hematological profile in rats given by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurani, L. H.; Mursyidi, A.; Widyarini, S.; Rohman, A.

    2017-11-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is known as anticancer drug commonly used for cancer treatment. Eurycoma longifolia Jack or Pasakbumi was reported to have chemopreventive effect. In cancer patients, there are some dysfunctions of blood parameter, therefore some hematologic tests are needed to monitor cancer patients. In this study, the effects of combination of ethanolic extract of E. longifolia Jack (EEE) and Dox on hematologic profiles were investigated in rats injected by DMBA. Rats were divided into eight groups. Group I was normal group; Group II, rats were treated with extract dose 100 mg/kgbw; Groups III, IV, V, VI, VII and VIII, rats were treated with Dox, DMBA, DMBA+Dox, DMBA+EEE, DMBA+Dox +EEE, and Dox+EEE, respectively. DMBA administration orally was conducted twice a week for 5 weeks. At 16th week of treatments, bloods were taken from orbitalis sinus for hematologicals profile (levels of Hb, erytrocyte, hematocrite, leukocyte, MCV, MCH, and differencial leucocyte count) measurements. These data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by LSD test. DMBA administration significantly decreased the hematological profiles compared to the normal group, except in lymphocyte level. Rats treated with extract and extract+Dox were able to increase the hematological profile compared to rats given by DMBA only. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the combination of EEE and Dox potentially increase hematological profile of rats given by DMBA.

  3. Cytotoxic activity of quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Katsunori; Li, Feng; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2010-07-01

    Twenty-four quassinoids isolated from Eurycoma longifolia Jack were investigated for their cytotoxicity against a panel of four different cancer cell lines, which includes three murine cell lines [colon 26-L5 carcinoma (colon 26-L5), B16-BL6 melanoma (B16-BL6), Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)] and a human lung A549 adenocarcinoma (A549) cell line. Among the tested compounds, eurycomalactone (9) displayed the most potent activity against all the tested cell lines; colon 26-L5 (IC50 = 0.70 microM), B16-BL6 (IC50 = 0.59 microM), LLC (IC50 = 0.78 microM), and A549 (IC50 = 0.73 microM). These activities were comparable to clinically used anticancer agent doxorubicin (colon 26-L5, IC50 = 0.76 microM; B16-BL6, IC50 = 0.86 microM; LLC, IC50 = 0.80 microM; A549, IC50 = 0.66 microM).

  4. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

  5. Comparative study on the effect of Eurycoma longifolia and Smilax myosotiflora on male rats fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Amal Salem Farag; Noor, Mahanem Mat

    2013-11-01

    The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Smilax myosotiflora were studied on sperm quality include sperm count, motility, viability and histology of the testis and pregnancy rate after mating with fertile proved females, as well as litter size on Sprague-Dawley (S-D) adult male rats. After dosing them with distilled water group A, group B 150 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of E. longifolia roots, group C 150 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of S. myosotiflora leaf and group D 150 mg/kg body weight of E. longifolia combined with 150 mg/kg S. myosotiflora body weight daily for 14 days of stage (a) and 28 days for stage (b) of treatments. Results exhibited no significant variation (P>0.05) of stage (a),while results showed that E. longifolia Jack increase (P<0.05) the sperm count, motility, viability and histology of the testis and gender (male) of the litter size respectively of stage (b). This study provides evidence that E. longifolia Jack is a potent stimulator of fertility in male rat.

  6. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Naina Mohamad, Isa; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL), can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis. PMID:22844328

  7. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in elicited hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia

    2016-11-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.

  8. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia provision on blood sugar level, cholesterols, and uric acid of Etawa Crossbreed Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratomo, Hurip

    2018-05-01

    Previous research on male white rat with provision of Eurycoma longifolia until the 3rd days has increased significantly on the formation of final spermatid from spermatozoon, and testosterone, and increase activity of pituitary cell producing the LH hormone. However, these researches yet studied on possibility of side effects caused by provision of Eurycoma longifolia for 6 days on male EC goat. The research aims to measure the effect of Eurycoma longifolia on the levels of: 1). Blood sugar, 2). Cholesterols, and 3). Uric acid of Male Etawa Crossbreed (EC) goat. This research was conducted through two treatment groups, namely : 1). Control group (provision of aquadest) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days, 2) Eurycoma longifolia group with a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight (bb) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days. Measurements on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid level were conducted in the 1st, 2nd and 6th days. The obtained data were analyzed using Duncan test with confidence level by 95% (α=0,05) comparing the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid measured from the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days with the same compound level measured from the Eurycoma longifolia treatment group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. The result obtained there were no significant changes on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid levels between all Eurycoma longifolia treatment groups compared to the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. Thus, the Eurycoma longifolia provision until in the 6th day did not provide any negative side effects and can be applied in the Etawa crossbreed goat farm.

  9. Anti-Tumor Activity of Eurycoma longifolia Root Extracts against K-562 Cell Line: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul; Kit-Lam, Chan; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Zaki, Abdelhamid; Jamal Din, Shah Kamal Khan; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack has been widely used in traditional medicine for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities. Its anticancer activity has also been recently reported on different solid tumors, however no anti-leukemic activity of this plant has been reported. Thus the present study assesses the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative and apoptotic potentials of E. longifolia on K-562 leukemic cell line. The K-562 cells (purchased from ATCC) were isolated from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) were treated with the various fractions (TAF273, F3 and F4) of E. longifolia root methanolic extract at various concentrations and time intervals and the anti-proliferative activity assessed by MTS assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Nude mice injected subcutaneously with 107 K-562 cells were used to study the anti-leukemic activity of TAF273 in vivo. TAF273, F3 and F4 showed various degrees of growth inhibition with IC50 values of 19, 55 and 62 µg/ml, respectively. TAF273 induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. TAF273 arrested cell cycle at G1and S phases. Intraperitoneal administration of TAF273 (50 mg/kg) resulted in a significant growth inhibition of subcutaneous tumor in TAF273-treated mice compared with the control mice (P = 0.024). TAF273 shows potent anti-proliferative activity in vitro and in vivo models of CML and therefore, justifies further efforts to define more clearly the potential benefits of using TAF273 as a novel therapeutic strategy for CML management. PMID:24409284

  10. Polar Quassinoids in Standardized Eurycoma longifolia Extract Formulated into a Lipid-Based Solid Dispersion to Improve Rat Sperm Count.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hai-Qiu; Ebrahimi, Forough; Low, Bin-Seng; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2017-12-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack is popularly sought in Southeast Asian countries for traditional remedies to improve sexual performance and fertility. 13α(21)-Epoxyeurycomanone and eurycomanone, two major quassinoids in a root extract (TAF2) were reported to improve rat spermatogenesis and fertility. Unfortunately, these quassinoids possess low bioavailability because of high aqueous solubility and low lipid membrane permeability. Often, other possible barriers may be P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux in the gut and presystemic hepatic metabolism. The present study attempted to solve these problems by formulating a lipid-based solid dispersion (TAF2-SD) of optimized mixture of TAF2 and emulsifiers, which was then orally administered to rats prior to sperm count analysis. The TAF2-SD-treated rats showed significantly twofold (p < 0.001) and fourfold (p < 0.001) higher sperm count than did TAF2-treated and vehicle-treated (control) rats, respectively. The study also demonstrated no significant in vitro ileal absorption changes of the quassinoids by P-gp efflux inhibitors and concentration change or secondary metabolite formation upon in vitro incubation with rat liver homogenates, suggesting that P-gp-mediated efflux and presystemic metabolism were not limiting their bioavailability. Further study on orally TAF2-treated rats confirmed that the area under the curve and bioavailability curve of each quassinoid in the absence and presence of ketoconazole were unchanged. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Eurycoma Longifolia as a potential adoptogen of male sexual health: a systematic review on clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Thu, Hnin Ei; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Hussain, Zahid; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2017-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been well recognized as a booster of male sexual health. Over the past few decades, numerous in vivo animal studies and human clinical trials have been conducted across the globe to explore the promising role of EL in managing various male sexual disorders, which include erectile dysfunction, male infertility, low libido, and downregulated testosterone levels. The aim of the present review is to analyze and summarize the literature on human clinical trials which revealed the clinical significance and therapeutic feasibility of EL in improving male sexual health. This systematic review is focused on the following databases: Medline, Wiley Online Library, BioMed Central, Hindawi, Web of Knowledge, PubMed Central and Google Scholar, using search terms such as "Eurycoma longifolia", "EL", "Tongkat Ali", "male sexual health", "sexual infertility", "erectile dysfunction", "male libido", and "testosterone levels". Notably, only human clinical studies published between 2000 and 2014 were selected and thoroughly reviewed for relevant citations. Out of 150 articles, 11 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of articles included were randomized placebo-controlled trials, multiple cohort studies, or pilot trials. All these studies demonstrated considerable effects of EL on male sexual health disorders. Among them, 7 studies revealed remarkable association between the use of EL and the efficacy in the treatment of male sexual disorders, and remaining 4 studies failed to demonstrate sufficient effects on male sexual health. In summary, there is convincing evidence for the prominence of EL in improving the male sexual health. The review also substantiates the use of current methodology in the development of novel and more rationale natural herbal medicines for the management of male sexual disorders. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Eurycoma longifolia in Radix for the treatment of ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Qodriyah, H M S; Asmadi, A Y

    2013-12-01

    The effect of treatment with Radix on ethanol-induced gastric lesions was investigated. The main ingredient of Radix is Eurycoma longifolia. Twenty-four rats of the Sprague-Dawley species were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were given 0.5 mL 100% ethanol orally. Another group was used as a control and was given only distilled water orally (control). After 6 h all the rats were fed with normal diet. One group that was administered with ethanol was only given distilled water orally (no treatment). Another two groups that were administered with ethanol were treated with oral Radix 0.128 mg g(-1) b.wt. (Radix) and oral ranitidine 21.4 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (Ranitidine), respectively. After one week, all the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed. The stomach was isolated and examined for the presence and severity of gastric lesions. Measurements for malondialdehyde content and gastric acid concentration were also done. It is found that the ulcer index was lower in the Radix and ranitidine group compared to the no treatment group whereas in the control group there was no lesion. There was no difference in ulcer index between the Radix and ranitidine group. The gastric MDA content was significantly higher in all the groups that were induced with ethanol compared to the control group but no difference between all the ethanol-induced groups. There was no difference in the gastric acid concentration in all groups. Hence it is concluded that Eurycoma longifolia in Radix is as effective as ranitidine in the treatment of ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

  13. The effect of Eurycoma longifolia on sperm quality of male rats.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit-Lam; Low, Bin-Seng; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Das, Prashanta K

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a standardized methanol extract of E. longifolia Jack containing the major quassinoid constituents of 13alpha(21)-epoxyeurycomanone (1), eurycomanone (2), 13alpha,21-dihydroeurycomanone (3) and eurycomanol (4) on the epididymal spermatozoa profile of normal and Andrographis paniculata induced infertile rats. The standardized MeOH extract at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, the EtOAc fraction (70 mg/kg), and standardized MeOH extract at 200 mg/kg co-administered with the EtOAc fraction of A. paniculata at 70 mg/kg were each given orally to male Sprague-Dawley albino rats for 48 consecutive days. The spermatozoa count, morphology, motility, plasma testosterone level and Leydig cell count of the animals were statistically analyzed by ANOVA with a post-hoc Tukey HSD test. The results showed that the sperm count of rats given the standardized MeOH extract alone at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were increased by 78.9, 94.3 and 99.2%, respectively when compared with that of control (p < 0.01). The low count, poor motility and abnormal morphology of the spermatozoa induced by the A. paniculata fraction were significantly reversed by the standardized MeOH extract of E. longifolia (p < 0.001). The plasma testosterone level of the rats treated with the standardized MeOH extract at 200 mg/kg was significantly increased (p < 0.01) when compared with that of the control and infertile animals. The spermatocytes in the seminiferous tubules and the Leydig cells appeared normal. Testosterone level was significantly higher in the testes (p < 0.01) than in the plasma after 30 days of oral treatment with the standardized MeOH extract. Interestingly, eurycomanone (2) alone was detected in the rat testis homogenates by HPLC-UV and confirmed by LC/MS, and may have contributed towards the improvement of sperm quality. Thus, the plant may potentially be suitable for the management of male infertility.

  14. Standardized quassinoid-rich Eurycoma longifolia extract improved spermatogenesis and fertility in male rats via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Low, Bin-Seng; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2013-02-13

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack, a small Simaroubaceae tree, known locally as 'Tongkat Ali' is popularly used as a sexual tonic in traditional medicine for aphrodisiac activity and improvement of fertility and male libido. To investigate the effects of the standardized bioactive fraction of E. longifolia and its chemical constituents on the male fertility and the mechanisms of action involved. The powdered roots of E. longifolia were extracted separately with methanol and water. The organic extract upon further fractionation on HP 20 resin and elution with the methanol/water mixture afforded four fractions (F1-F4). These fractions, together with the crude aqueous (W) and organic extracts were standardized following their respective major quassinoid content and profile. The effects of the fractions on the rat spermatogenesis were compared with that of the aqueous extract (W) to determine the bioactive fraction. The effects of the bioactive fraction on the sperm count and quality, the histological morphometric changes on the spermatogenesis cycle, fertility and hormonal changes of plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estrogen in the animals upon oral administration were determined. The effects of the bioactive quassinoids on the testosterone release from the isolated testicular interstitial cells rich in Leydig cells, were also described. The male rats orally administered with 25mg/kg of F2 and 250mg/kg of W, significantly increased the sperm concentration when compared with that of the control animals (P<0.05). High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that 25mg/kg of F2 and 250mg/kg of W were almost similar in concentration of eurycomanone, the major and most potent quassinoid. Microscopic morphometrical analysis of the rat testis following treatment with F2, showed significant increase in the number of spermatocytes and round spermatids at Stage VII of the spermatogenesis cycle when compared to that of the

  15. NMR-based plasma metabolomic discrimination for male fertility assessment of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extracts.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Forough; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2017-06-01

    Male infertility is one of the leading causes of infertility which affects many couples worldwide. Semen analysis is a routine examination of male fertility status which is usually performed on semen samples obtained through masturbation that may be inconvenient to patients. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, TA), native to Malaysia, has been traditionally used as a remedy to boost male fertility. In our recent studies in rats, upon the administration of high-quassinoid content extracts of TA including TA water (TAW), quassinoid-rich TA (TAQR) extracts, and a low-quassinoid content extract including quassinoid-poor TA (TAQP) extract, sperm count (SC) increased in TAW- and TAQR-treated rats when compared to the TAQP-treated and control groups. Consequently, the rats were divided into normal- (control and TAQP-treated) and high- (TAW- and TAQR-treated) SC groups [Ebrahimi et al. 2016]. Post-treatment rat plasma was collected. An optimized plasma sample preparation method was developed with respect to the internal standards sodium 3- (trimethylsilyl) propionate- 2,2,3,3- d4 (TSP) and deuterated 4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-ammonium trifluoroacetate (DSA). Carr-Purcell-Meibum-Gill (CPMG) experiments combined with orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was employed to evaluate plasma metabolomic changes in normal- and high-SC rats. The potential biomarkers associated with SC increase were investigated to assess fertility by capturing the metabolomic profile of plasma. DSA was selected as the optimized internal standard for plasma analysis due to its significantly smaller half-height line width (W h/2 ) compared to that of TSP. The validated OPLS-DA model clearly discriminated the CPMG profiles in regard to the SC level. Plasma profiles of the high-SC group contained higher levels of alanine, lactate, and histidine, while ethanol concentration was significantly higher in the normal-SC group. This approach might be a new alternative applicable to

  16. Phenolic-rich extracts of Eurycoma longifolia and Cylicodiscus gabunensis inhibit enzymes responsible for the development of erectile dysfunction and are antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Adebayo, Adeniyi A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2018-05-19

    Herbs have been used from ages to manage male sexual dysfunction. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effects of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) and Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) stem bark extracts on some enzymes implicated in erectile dysfunction in vitro. The extracts were prepared, and their effects on phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), arginase, and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) as well as pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation were assessed. Furthermore, phenolic contents were determined, and their components were characterized and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results revealed that the extracts inhibited PDE-5, arginase, and ACE in a concentration-dependent manner. However, IC50 values revealed that CG had higher inhibitory potential on PDE-5 (IC50=204.4 μg/mL), arginase (IC50=39.01 μg/mL), and ACE (IC50=48.81 μg/mL) than EL. In addition, the extracts inhibited pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in penile tissue homogenate. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that CG is richer in phenolic compounds than EL, and this could be responsible for higher biological activities observed in CG than EL. Hence, the observed antioxidant property and inhibitory action of CG and EL on enzymes relevant to erectile dysfunction in vitro could be part of possible mechanisms underlying their involvement in traditional medicine for the management of male sexual dysfunction.

  17. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K.; George, Annie A.; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N.; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

  18. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  19. Jack Pine

    Treesearch

    William Dent Sterrett

    1920-01-01

    Jack pine is a very frugal tree in its climatic and soil requirements. The northern limit of its natural range is within 14 degrees of the Arctic Circle and the southern is marked by the southern shores of Lake Michigan. No other North American pine grows naturally so far north and all the others grow farther south. It develops commercial stands and reproduces itself...

  20. Jack & the Video Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlan, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This article narrates how the use of video camera has transformed the life of Jack Williams, a 10-year-old boy from Colorado Springs, Colorado, who has autism. The way autism affected Jack was unique. For the first nine years of his life, Jack remained in his world, alone. Functionally non-verbal and with motor skill problems that affected his…

  1. Jack R. Ferrell III | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Jack R. Ferrell III Photo of Jack R. Ferrell III Jack Ferrell Research Engineer Jack.Ferrell @nrel.gov | 303-384-7777 Orcid ID http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3041-8742 Research Interests Jack Ferrell works in the Thermochemical Catalysis Research and Development (R&D) group and manages tasks on

  2. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  3. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  4. Cytotoxic Withanolide Constituents of Physalis longifolia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaping; Samadi, Abbas K.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Araya, Juan J.; Tong, Xiaoqin; Day, Victor W.; Cohen, Mark S.; Kindscher, Kelly; Gollapudi, Rao; Timmermann, Barbara N.

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen new withanolides 1-14, named withalongolides A-N, respectively, were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis longifolia together with eight known compounds (15-22). The structures of compounds 1-14 were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods. In addition, the structures of withanolides 1, 2, 3, and 6 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Using a MTS viability assays, eight withanolides (1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 15, 16, and 19) and four acetylated derivatives (1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b) showed potent cytotoxicity against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (JMAR and MDA-1986), melanoma (B16F10 and SKMEL-28), and normal fetal fibroblast (MRC-5) cells with IC50 values in the range between 0.067 and 9.3 μM. PMID:22098611

  5. 20. MANUAL JACKING STATION UNIT 23 GORGE POWERHOUSE. JACKING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MANUAL JACKING STATION UNIT 23 GORGE POWERHOUSE. JACKING FOR UNITS 23, 22, AND 21 HAS BEEN AUTOMATED FOR MANY YEARS BUT THE MANUAL JACKING STATIONS REMAIN IN PLACE AND FUNCTIONAL, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  6. Jack Hills, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-02

    This image acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, shows the oldest material on Earth which has yet been dated by man is a zircon mineral of 4.4 billion years old from a sedimentary gneiss in the Jack Hills of the Narre Gneiss Terrane of Australia.

  7. Jack Dymond's Deep Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, R. E.; Delaney, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Most people do not know that Jack Dymond was a major influence on several aspects of current deep-sea research. Along with Margaret Leinen and Jack, we were part of the first Alvin dive program on the Endeavour hydrothermal field in 1984. Jack was working with Rick, on a sediment-trap study of the overall carbon fluxes in the vicinity of the Endeavour hydrothermal systems in an effort to address a question that Cindy Lee had posed about the overall carbon production from hydrothermal vents. At the time we were recognizing and naming many of the 20- to 40-meter-high sulfide structures in the Endeavour field (Hulk, Grotto, Dante, Dudley, Bastille), Jack commented that it was a shame that the world could not see these magnificent edifices or watch endlessly awesome black smokers. His feeling was that some vent sites should be converted to National Parks to preserve them from invasion by enthusiastic scientists, yet he clearly had the vision that the public should be given a sense of the grandeur involved locally, as well as the vastness of the 70,000-km ridge-crest system running through every ocean. Within a year we started talking about the RIDGE Program, and Jack was an early and enthusiastic participant in the design and development of RIDGE. Jack was among the first to encourage multi-disciplinary research at the hydrothermal vent sites. Recognizing that deep currents are important to vent processes, he urged physical oceanographers to work with the chemists, biologists, and geologists and was personally responsible for Rick becoming interested in studying vents. We, the co-authors of this abstract, became close friends as a result of having been introduced to each other by Jack. Several years ago, we co-authored the first paper ever written on the possible influence of hydrothermal activity on the circulation of the Europan Ocean, a paper that we here dedicate to the memory of Jack. Finally, it was in part because of Jack's conviction that the world should know

  8. Human Keratinocytes Radioprotection with Mentha Longifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Berselli, P.; Zava, S.; Negroni, M.; Corsetto, P.; Montorfano, G.; Bertolotti, A.; Ranza, E.; Ottolenghi, A.; Berra, B.

    Antioxidants are suggested to act as radioprotectors, and dietary supplements based on antiox-idants have been proposed for astronauts involved in long-term space missions. Plant extracts with antioxidant properties may be used in dietetic supplements for astronauts; in fact recent nutritional guidelines suggest that "fruits and vegetables may become as important on space-going vessels as limes were on the sea-going vessels of old". Mint presents a large variety of biological properties, such as antiallergenic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, an-tiviral, gastrointestinal protective, hepatoprotective, chemopreventive activities, most of which are attributable to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant properties and protective bio-efficacy of a phenol enriched Mentha longifolia ex-tract on gamma rays stressed human keratinocytes (NCTC2544). We assessed first the in vitro antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH), and then evaluated different stress markers in order to investigate various oxidative stress targets: cell viability (MTT); retained proliferating ca-pability (CA); DNA damage (histone H2AX) and protein damage (HSP70 induction). Results indicate that this Mint extract has a higher antioxidant activity respect to fresh extracts, that could be responsible of its really interesting radio-protective effects.

  9. Maniac Talk - Dr. Jack Kaye

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-23

    Jack Kaye Maniac Lecture, July 23, 2014 Dr. Jack Kaye, Associate Director for Research at NASA Headquarters presented a Maniac Talk entitled, "An Unlikely but Rewarding Journey--From Quantum Chemistry to Earth Science Research Program Leadership." Jack took stock of his 30+ years at NASA, noting the people, opportunities, lessons learned, and choices that helped him get to where he is today and accomplish what he have.

  10. From Jack to Double Jack Polynomials via the Supersymmetric Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapointe, Luc; Mathieu, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    The Calogero-Sutherland model occurs in a large number of physical contexts, either directly or via its eigenfunctions, the Jack polynomials. The supersymmetric counterpart of this model, although much less ubiquitous, has an equally rich structure. In particular, its eigenfunctions, the Jack superpolynomials, appear to share the very same remarkable combinatorial and structural properties as their non-supersymmetric version. These super-functions are parametrized by superpartitions with fixed bosonic and fermionic degrees. Now, a truly amazing feature pops out when the fermionic degree is sufficiently large: the Jack superpolynomials stabilize and factorize. Their stability is with respect to their expansion in terms of an elementary basis where, in the stable sector, the expansion coefficients become independent of the fermionic degree. Their factorization is seen when the fermionic variables are stripped off in a suitable way which results in a product of two ordinary Jack polynomials (somewhat modified by plethystic transformations), dubbed the double Jack polynomials. Here, in addition to spelling out these results, which were first obtained in the context of Macdonal superpolynomials, we provide a heuristic derivation of the Jack superpolynomial case by performing simple manipulations on the supersymmetric eigen-operators, rendering them independent of the number of particles and of the fermionic degree. In addition, we work out the expression of the Hamiltonian which characterizes the double Jacks. This Hamiltonian, which defines a new integrable system, involves not only the expected Calogero-Sutherland pieces but also combinations of the generators of an underlying affine {widehat{sl}_2} algebra.

  11. JACK CREEK BASIN, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Van Noy, Ronald M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Jack Creek basin area in Montana revealed that phosphate rock underlies the basin. The phosphate rock is in thin beds that dip steeply and are broken and offset by faults. These features plus the rugged topography of the region would make mining difficult; however, this study finds the area to have a probable mineral-resource potential for phosphate. Sedimentary rock formations favorable for oil and gas also underlie the basin. No oil or gas has been produced from the basin or from nearby areas in southwestern Montana, but oil and gas have been produced from the same favorable formations elsewhere in Montana. The possibility of oil and gas being produced from the basin is slight but it cannot be ignored.

  12. Radioprotective activity of Polyalthia longifolia standardized extract against X-ray radiation injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Jothy, Subramanion L; Saito, Tamio; Kanwar, Jagat R; Chen, Yeng; Aziz, Azlan; Yin-Hui, Leong; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Polyalthia longifolia was studied in mice. P. longifolia treatment showed improvement in mice survival compared to 100% mortality in the irradiated mice. Significant increases in hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet counts were observed in the animals pretreated with leaf extract. Pre-irradiation administration of P. longifolia leaf extract also increased the CFU counts of the spleen colony and increased the relative spleen size. A dose-dependent decrease in lipid peroxidation levels was observed in the animals pretreated with P. longifolia. However, although the animals pretreated with P. longifolia exhibited a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, the values remained below normal in both liver and the intestine. Pre-irradiation administration of P. longifolia also resulted in the regeneration of the mucosal crypts and villi of the intestine. Moreover, pretreatment with P. longifolia leaf extract also showed restoration of the normal liver cell structure and a significant reduction in the elevated levels of ALT, AST and bilirubin. These results suggested the radioprotective ability of P. longifolia leaf extract, which is significant for future investigation for human applications in developing efficient, economically viable, non-toxic natural and clinically acceptable novel radioprotectors. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Jacks--A Study of Simple Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Ralph

    This vocational physics individualized student instructional module on jacks (simple machines used to lift heavy objects) contains student prerequisites and objectives, an introduction, and sections on the ratchet bumper jack, the hydraulic jack, the screw jack, and load limitations. Designed with a laboratory orientation, each section consists of…

  14. Erythropoietic activity of Asteracantha longifolia (Nees.) in rats.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Jain, Alok Pal; Lodhi, Santram; Singhai, Abhay K

    2010-05-27

    Asteracantha longifolia Nees. (Family-Acanthaceae) is a wild herb commonly used in traditional ayurvedic medicine as Kokilaaksha and the Unani drug as Talimakhana in India and Srilanka for various medicinal uses as aphrodisiac, tonic, sedative and blood diseases etc. The aim of the current study was to validate and explore the folk use of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. (AL) (Leaf part) on pharmacological grounds using haloperidol induced iron deficiency anemia for the assessment of erythropoietic activity. Determination of iron in plant extracts was carried out using spectrophotometric method. Plant extract was obtained from crude drugs using extraction with ethanol. In vivo study, haloperidol induced iron deficiency anemia model was used in experimental studies. An administration of ethanolic extract of AL at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight, i.p., demonstrated a significant (P<0.05) increase in erythrocyte count, haemoglobin count, serum iron and serum protein etc. This effect may be due to the presence of iron (622 microg/50 mg) in extract estimated by spectrophotometric method. An ethanolic extract of AL effectively restored the hematological parameters, serum iron and serum protein and normalized the microcytic (smaller in size), anisocytosis (disturbed shape) and hypochromic RBCs. These observations could justify the inclusion of this plant in the management of iron deficiency anemia due the presence of iron and other constituents as flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, lupeol and betulin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Jack Stenner: The Lexile King.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Linda J.

    2000-01-01

    Traces the career of Jack Stenner. Stenner made the empirical discovery that observable readability could be entirely predicted from word familiarity and sentence length, and applied this "Lexile Framework"(R) to books and readers. Discusses the use of the Lexile Framework as a way to target specific readers. (SLD)

  16. Fire effects in northeastern forests: jack pine.

    Treesearch

    Cary Rouse

    1986-01-01

    The jack pine ecosystem has evolved through fire. Jack pine, although easily killed by fire, has developed serotinous cones that depend upon high heat to open and release the seeds. Without a fire to enable the cones to open, jack pine would be replaced by another species. Prescribed fire can be an economical management tool for site preparation in either a natural...

  17. 65th birthday Jack Steinberger

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2017-12-09

    Laudatio pour Jack Steinberger né le 25 mai 1921, à l'occasion de son 65me anniversaire et sa retraite officielle, pour sa précieuse collaboration au Cern. Néanmoins son principal activité continuera comme avant dans sa recherche au Cern. Plusieurs orateurs prennent la parole (p.ex. E.Picasso) pour le féliciter et lui rendre hommage

  18. John B. "Jack" Townshend (1927-2012)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Jack Townshend, geophysicist and dedicated public servant, died on 13 August 2012 in Fairbanks, Alaska. He was 85. Jack's career with the federal government, most of it with the national magnetic observatory program, spanned more than six solar cycles of time, and he retired only days before his death. The duration of Jack's career encompassed an important period in the history of the advancement of our understanding of the Earth. Jack's career of contributions, his life, and his personality are worthy of retrospective celebration.

  19. HOW to Manage Jack Pine to Reduce Damage from Jack Pine Budworm

    Treesearch

    Deborah G. McCullough; Steven Katovich; Robert L. Heyd; Shane Weber

    1994-01-01

    Jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman, is a needle feeding caterpillar that is generally considered the most significant pest of jack pine. Vigorous young jack pine stands are rarely damaged during outbreaks. The most vigorous stands are well stocked, evenly spaced, fairly uniform in height, and less than 45 years old. Stands older than 45 years that are...

  20. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Jacking loads. 23.507 Section 23.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... inertia forces so as to result in no change in the direction of the resultant loads at the jack points. (c...

  1. A note on the Goodman Jack

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swolfs, H.S.; Kibler, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A Note on the Goodman Jack: Reconnaissance experiments, performed to evaluate the practical utility of the hard-rock variety of the Goodman Jack, reveal that the Hustrulid-T* correction adequately reconciles the discrepancy between the measured and true deformation modulus of the rock mass in the range of 30 to 50 gigapascals. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Jack Reeves and his science.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lorna G; Grover, Robert F

    2006-04-28

    John T. (Jack) Reeves' science is reviewed across the 37 years of his research career at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, a period which occupied approximately half his remarkable life. His contributions centered on understanding the inter-relatedness as well as the underlying mechanisms controlling the various components of the O(2) transport system. We review here his studies on exercise performance; these encompassed about half his scientific output with the other half being devoted to the study of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Early studies concerned cardiac output, showing how it was a balance between O(2) uptake and O(2) extraction, and that cardiac output during exercise at high altitude was reduced, most likely because of decreased plasma volume and left ventricular filling. Jack's many studies addressed virtually every aspect of the O(2) transport system -- adding significantly to our understanding of the syndromes of altitude illness, the mechanisms by which ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia influenced ventilatory acclimatization, and the contributions of the various limbs of the autonomic nervous system on systemic blood pressure, vascular resistance and substrate utilization. His scientific career ended abruptly in 2004 when struck by a car while biking to work, but his legacy remains in his more than 385+ research articles or chapters, the 40+ fellows he trained, and the countless number of younger (and older) scientists for whom he served as a role model for learning how to scrutinize their data and present their findings in clear and sometimes bold prose. An integral man, he is sorely missed.

  3. Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes.

    PubMed

    Morais, Maria Cristina; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Muscolo, Adele; Freitas, Helena

    2012-06-01

    Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species--Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways. Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. europaeus the effect was not significant. Under salt stress, the root:shoot ratio (W(R):W(S)) and root mass ratio (W(R):W(RS)) increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. longifolia but the same was not observed in U. europaeus. In addition, salt stress caused a significant accumulation of Na+, especially in U. europaeus, and a decrease in K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. longifolia compared to U. europaeus. In A. longifolia, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) activities increased significantly, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities remained unchanged in comparison with the control. In U. europaeus, NaCl concentration significantly reduced APX activity but did not significantly affect CAT, GR and POX activities. Our results suggest that the invasive species copes better with salinity stress in part due to a higher rates of CAT and GR activities and a higher K+/Na+ ratio, which may represent an additional advantage when competing with native species in co-occurring salty habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Follow up of injected polyurethane slab jacking.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-08-01

    GLENN JACKSON BRIDGE FOLLOW-UP REPORT The elevation monitoring in the report entitled Injected Polyurethane Slab Jacking (Soltesz 2000) is continued in this current report. The elevations of the concrete slabs are being monitored to see if polyuretha...

  5. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted by...

  6. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted by...

  7. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted by...

  8. Regeneration of Cutover Jack Pine Stands

    Treesearch

    John W. Benzie

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine can be regenerated on mineral soil seedbeds by scattering cone-bearing branches or repellent-treated seed. On some areas where competition develops, the seedlings may need to be released between the third and fifth years.

  9. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted by...

  10. Quantitative estimation of pulegone in Mentha longifolia growing in Saudi Arabia. Is it safe to use?

    PubMed

    Alam, Prawez; Saleh, Mahmoud Fayez; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad

    2016-03-01

    Our TLC study of the volatile oil isolated from Mentha longifolia showed a major UV active spot with higher Rf value than menthol. Based on the fact that the components of the oil from same plant differ quantitatively due to environmental conditions, the major spot was isolated using different chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic means as pulegone. The presence of pulegone in M. longifolia, a plant widely used in Saudi Arabia, raised a hot debate due to its known toxicity. The Scientific Committee on Food, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate General, European Commission set a limit for the presence of pulegone in foodstuffs and beverages. In this paper we attempted to determine the exact amount of pulegone in different extracts, volatile oil as well as tea flavoured with M. longifolia (Habak) by densitometric HPTLC validated methods using normal phase (Method I) and reverse phase (Method II) TLC plates. The study indicated that the style of use of Habak in Saudi Arabia resulted in much less amount of pulegone than the allowed limit.

  11. LOUSMA, JACK R. - WATER SURVIVAL TRAINING - FL

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-07-31

    S78-34037 (31 July 1978) --- Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, geared with a parachute, is pulled along behind a boat in Gulf waters at Homestead Air Force Base in Florida during a water survival training course attended by several NASA astronauts. The overall course is designed to familiarize astronauts with proper procedures to take in the event of ejection from an aircraft over water. Photo credit: NASA (NOTE: Since this photograph was made, astronaut Jack R. Lousma was named commander of STS-3, scheduled for launch in early spring of 1982.)

  12. Astronaut Jack Fischer at Rock Creek Park

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-04

    NASA astronaut Jack Fischer answers a question from the audience, Saturday, Nov. 4, 2017 at the Rock Creek Park Nature Center and Planetarium in Washington, DC. During his 136 day mission aboard the ISS, Fischer conducted two spacewalks and hundreds of scientific experiments. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  13. Astronaut Jack Fischer at Rock Creek Park

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-04

    NASA astronaut Jack Fischer speaks about his time aboard the International Space Station as part of Expeditions 51 and 52, Saturday, Nov. 4, 2017 at the Rock Creek Park Nature Center and Planetarium in Washington, DC. During his 136 day mission aboard the ISS, Fischer conducted two spacewalks and hundreds of scientific experiments. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  14. Lively Jack-O'-Lantern Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanzaro, Christy

    2010-01-01

    Pumpkin carving is a favorite classroom activity. Around late October, the halls are filled with the sour smell of raw pumpkin innards, as parents, teachers and students are up to their elbows in yellowish strings and slime. These round, orange squash are transformed into jack-o'-lanterns that are placed around the school. The day after Halloween,…

  15. Astronaut Jack R. Lousma and family

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-12-01

    S72-31432 (November 1972) --- Astronaut Jack R. Lousma poses for a family portrait with his wife, Gratia Kay, and their three children, left to right, Mary 4; Timothy, 9; and Matthew, 7. Lousma is the pilot for the Skylab 3 or second manned Skylab mission. Photo credit: NASA

  16. A Bibliographic Tribute to Jack Michael

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Barbara E.; Esch, John W.

    2016-01-01

    "In the late 1950's, Jack Michael, a bright but irritating young psychology instructor, moved from the Universities of Kansas to Houston to Arizona State. Along the way he befriended two nontraditional students, protected them through their Ph.D. programs, and turned them loose on the world: Teodoro Ayllon…and Montrose Wolf…" (Risley,…

  17. Jack Michael's Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on…

  18. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  19. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  20. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of essential oils from Schinus areira L. and Schinus longifolia (Lindl.) Speg.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ana P; Gurovic, Maria S Vela; Rodriguez, Silvana A; Murray, María G; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2009-06-01

    The essential oils of Schinus areira L. and S. longifolia (Lindl.) Speg. (Anacardiaceae) have been studied for their in vitro anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was determined by GC-MS. Fruit and leaf oils of S. areira were analyzed separately. The essential oil from S. longifolia elicited marked enzymatic inhibition (IC50 = 20.0 +/- 1.0 microg/mL) and showed radical scavenger activity (IC50 = 25.2 +/- 2.4 microg/mL). The essential oil from S. areira leaves was more active than that of the fruits in both bioassays.

  1. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Ara, Leila; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Read, Roger W; Arshadi, Sattar; Nikan, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction, while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively). Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml). With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations.

  2. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Ara, Leila; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Read, Roger W.; Arshadi, Sattar; Nikan, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by 1H NMR and 13C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction, while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively). Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml). With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations. PMID:27051429

  3. Identification of a monopartite begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic of Mentha longifolia in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2018-02-01

    Mentha is a very important crop grown and used extensively for many purposes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted viruses causing serious disease in many important plants exhibiting variable symptoms with significant economic loss globally. During farmers' field survey, yellow vein mosaic disease was observed in Mentha longifolia plants growing near tomato fields in Saudi Arabia. The causative agent was identified in 11 out of 19 samples using begomovirus-specific primers and the association of begomovirus with yellow vein mosaic disease in M. longifolia was confirmed. The full-length viral genome and betasatellite were amplified, cloned, and sequenced bidirectionally. The full DNA-A genome was found to have 2785 nucleotides with 1365 bp-associated betasatellite molecule. An attempt was made to amplify DNA-B, but none of the samples produced any positive amplicon of expected size which indicated the presence of monopartite begomovirus. The sequence identity matrix and phylogenetic analysis, based on full genome showed the highest identity (99.6%) with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and in phylogenetic analysis it formed a closed cluster with Tomato leaf curl virus infecting tomato and Corchorus crop in Saudi Arabia. The sequence analysis results of betasatellites showed the highest identity (98.9%) with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites infecting tomato and phylogenetic analysis using betasatellites formed a close cluster with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites infecting tomato and Corchorus crops, which has already been reported to cause yellow vein mosaic and leaf curl disease in many cultivated and weed crops growing in Saudi Arabia. The identified begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease in mentha could be a mutated strain of TYLCV and tentatively designated as TYLCV-Mentha isolate. Based on published data and latest information, this is the first report of identification of Tomato yellow leaf

  4. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  5. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001). The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001). No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. PMID

  6. Generalized clustering conditions of Jack polynomials at negative Jack parameter {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B. Andrei; Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544; Haldane, F. D. M.

    We present several conjectures on the behavior and clustering properties of Jack polynomials at a negative parameter {alpha}=-(k+1/r-1), with partitions that violate the (k,r,N)- admissibility rule of [Feigin et al. [Int. Math. Res. Notices 23, 1223 (2002)]. We find that the ''highest weight'' Jack polynomials of specific partitions represent the minimum degree polynomials in N variables that vanish when s distinct clusters of k+1 particles are formed, where s and k are positive integers. Explicit counting formulas are conjectured. The generalized clustering conditions are useful in a forthcoming description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles.

  7. Antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Madhuca longifolia flower extract as a green resource.

    PubMed

    Patil, Maheshkumar Prakash; Singh, Rahul Dheerendra; Koli, Prashant Bhimrao; Patil, Kalpesh Tumadu; Jagdale, Bapu Sonu; Tipare, Anuja Rajesh; Kim, Gun-Do

    2018-05-25

    The green and one-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been proposed as simple and ecofriendly. In the present study, a flower extract of Madhuca longifolia was used for the reduction of silver nitrate into AgNPs, with phytochemicals from the flower extract as a reducing and stabilizing agents. The synthesized AgNPs were spherical and oval shaped and about 30-50 nm sizes. The appearance of a brown color in the reaction mixture is a primary indication of AgNPs formation, and it was confirmed by observing UV-visible spectroscopy peak at 436 nm. The Energy Dispersive X-ray spectra and X-ray diffraction analysis results together confirm that the synthesized nanoparticles contain silver and silver chloride nanoparticles. The Zeta potential analysis indicates presence of negative charges on synthesized AgNPs. The FT-IR study represents involvement of functional groups in AgNPs synthesis. Synthesized AgNPs shows potential antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. M. longifolia flower is a good source for AgNPs synthesis and synthesized AgNPs are applicable as antibacterial agent in therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Zine, Sandeep Prabhakar; Chaskar, Pratip Kashinath; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves’ ethanolic extract by analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin. PMID:25002804

  9. 46 CFR 134.150 - Liftboat-jacking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liftboat-jacking systems. 134.150 Section 134.150... FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.150 Liftboat-jacking systems. (a) For this subchapter, liftboat jacking systems are vital systems and must comply with Sections 4/1.13.1 through 4/1.13.3 of the ABS's “Rules for...

  10. 46 CFR 134.150 - Liftboat-jacking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liftboat-jacking systems. 134.150 Section 134.150... FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.150 Liftboat-jacking systems. (a) For this subchapter, liftboat jacking systems are vital systems and must comply with Sections 4/1.13.1 through 4/1.13.3 of the ABS's “Rules for...

  11. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to... ingredients prescribed for monterey cheese by § 133.153, except that its moisture content is more than 44...

  12. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to... ingredients prescribed for monterey cheese by § 133.153, except that its moisture content is more than 44...

  13. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to... ingredients prescribed for monterey cheese by § 133.153, except that its moisture content is more than 44...

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 NORTHEAST (BACK) AND SOUTHEAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Franklin Park Zoo, Elephant House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 SOUTHWEST (FRONT) AND SOUTHEAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Franklin Park Zoo, Elephant House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 NORTHEAST (BACK) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Franklin Park Zoo, Elephant House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 SOUTHWEST (FRONT) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Franklin Park Zoo, Elephant House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 NORTHEAST (BACK) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATION - Franklin Park Zoo, Feline House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 SOUTHWEST (FRONT) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATION - Franklin Park Zoo, Feline House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 SOUTHWEST (FRONT) AND SOUTHEAST (SIDE) ELEVATION - Franklin Park Zoo, Feline House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. Effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia on glucose tolerance in normal human subjects and in maturity-onset diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Fernando, M R; Wickramasinghe, N; Thabrew, M I; Ariyananda, P L; Karunanayake, E H

    1991-03-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effects of hot-water extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves and Asteracanthus longifolia whole plant material on the glucose tolerance of normal human subjects and maturity-onset diabetic patients. The extracts of both Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia significantly improved glucose tolerance in the normal subjects and the diabetic patients when investigated at oral doses equivalent to 20 g/kg of starting material.

  2. Jack mechanism having positive stop means for its crank handle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Watkins, IV; Baird, Bernard W.

    1995-04-01

    A jack mechanism having a crank handle that drives a linear motion control ball nut and threaded screw is presented. Two rods are included to provide a positive stop in each direction of the jack's limit so as to prevent overrun of the mechanism.

  3. Transitional Experiences of Post-16 Sports Education: Jack's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, David C. R.; Sparkes, Andrew C.; Brown, David H. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the layered transitional experiences of a semi-professional athlete named Jack (a pseudonym) between the fields of professional sport and further and higher education. Our analysis is framed by the quadripartite framework of structuration and focuses on Jack's "in-situ" practices at his college and university in order…

  4. Isolation and identification of antimicrobial compound from Mentha longifolia L. leaves grown wild in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2009-06-12

    Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae) leaves have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation by the indigenous people of Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In the present study, an antimicrobial compound was isolated and characterized, and its biological activity was assessed. The compound was isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oil using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of the compound was assessed using both disc diffusion and microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. A known compound was isolated from the essential oil of the plant and was identified as (-) menthol. The isolated compound was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against seven selected pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast Candida albicans. Menthol at different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20) was active against all tested bacteria except for P. aeruginosa, and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against S. mutans (zone of inhibition: 25.3 mm) using the disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration MIC values ranged from 15.6-125.0 microg/ml, and the most promising results were observed against S. aureus and S. mutans (MIC 15.6 microg/ml) while, S. faecalis, S. pyogenis and L. acidophilus ranked next (MIC 31.2 microg/ml). Furthermore, menthol achieved considerable antifungal activity against the yeast C. albicans (zone of inhibition range: 7.1-18.5 mm; MIC: 125.0). The isolation of an antimicrobial compound from M. longifolia leaves validates the use of this plant in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation.

  5. Adaptation of the Long-Lived Monocarpic Perennial Saxifraga longifolia to High Altitude1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Melanie; Fleta-Soriano, Eva; Garcia, Maria B.

    2016-01-01

    Global change is exerting a major effect on plant communities, altering their potential capacity for adaptation. Here, we aimed at unveiling mechanisms of adaptation to high altitude in an endemic long-lived monocarpic, Saxifraga longifolia, by combining demographic and physiological approaches. Plants from three altitudes (570, 1100, and 2100 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) were investigated in terms of leaf water and pigment contents, and activation of stress defense mechanisms. The influence of plant size on physiological performance and mortality was also investigated. Levels of photoprotective molecules (α-tocopherol, carotenoids, and anthocyanins) increased in response to high altitude (1100 relative to 570 m a.s.l.), which was paralleled by reduced soil and leaf water contents and increased ABA levels. The more demanding effect of high altitude on photoprotection was, however, partly abolished at very high altitudes (2100 m a.s.l.) due to improved soil water contents, with the exception of α-tocopherol accumulation. α-Tocopherol levels increased progressively at increasing altitudes, which paralleled with reductions in lipid peroxidation, thus suggesting plants from the highest altitude effectively withstood high light stress. Furthermore, mortality of juveniles was highest at the intermediate population, suggesting that drought stress was the main environmental driver of mortality of juveniles in this rocky plant species. Population structure and vital rates in the high population evidenced lower recruitment and mortality in juveniles, activation of clonal growth, and absence of plant size-dependent mortality. We conclude that, despite S. longifolia has evolved complex mechanisms of adaptation to altitude at the cellular, whole-plant and population levels, drought events may drive increased mortality in the framework of global change. PMID:27440756

  6. Adaptation of the Long-Lived Monocarpic Perennial Saxifraga longifolia to High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Cotado, Alba; Morales, Melanie; Fleta-Soriano, Eva; Villellas, Jesús; Garcia, Maria B

    2016-10-01

    Global change is exerting a major effect on plant communities, altering their potential capacity for adaptation. Here, we aimed at unveiling mechanisms of adaptation to high altitude in an endemic long-lived monocarpic, Saxifraga longifolia, by combining demographic and physiological approaches. Plants from three altitudes (570, 1100, and 2100 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) were investigated in terms of leaf water and pigment contents, and activation of stress defense mechanisms. The influence of plant size on physiological performance and mortality was also investigated. Levels of photoprotective molecules (α-tocopherol, carotenoids, and anthocyanins) increased in response to high altitude (1100 relative to 570 m a.s.l.), which was paralleled by reduced soil and leaf water contents and increased ABA levels. The more demanding effect of high altitude on photoprotection was, however, partly abolished at very high altitudes (2100 m a.s.l.) due to improved soil water contents, with the exception of α-tocopherol accumulation. α-Tocopherol levels increased progressively at increasing altitudes, which paralleled with reductions in lipid peroxidation, thus suggesting plants from the highest altitude effectively withstood high light stress. Furthermore, mortality of juveniles was highest at the intermediate population, suggesting that drought stress was the main environmental driver of mortality of juveniles in this rocky plant species. Population structure and vital rates in the high population evidenced lower recruitment and mortality in juveniles, activation of clonal growth, and absence of plant size-dependent mortality. We conclude that, despite S. longifolia has evolved complex mechanisms of adaptation to altitude at the cellular, whole-plant and population levels, drought events may drive increased mortality in the framework of global change. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Isolation and identification of antimicrobial compound from Mentha longifolia L. leaves grown wild in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2009-01-01

    Background Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae) leaves have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation by the indigenous people of Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In the present study, an antimicrobial compound was isolated and characterized, and its biological activity was assessed. Methods The compound was isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oil using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of the compound was assessed using both disc diffusion and microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Results A known compound was isolated from the essential oil of the plant and was identified as (-) menthol. The isolated compound was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against seven selected pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast Candida albicans. Menthol at different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20) was active against all tested bacteria except for P. aeruginosa, and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against S. mutans (zone of inhibition: 25.3 mm) using the disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration MIC values ranged from 15.6–125.0 μg/ml, and the most promising results were observed against S. aureus and S. mutans (MIC 15.6 μg/ml) while, S. faecalis, S. pyogenis and L. acidophilus ranked next (MIC 31.2 μg/ml). Furthermore, menthol achieved considerable antifungal activity against the yeast C. albicans (zone of inhibition range: 7.1–18.5 mm; MIC: 125.0). Conclusion The isolation of an antimicrobial compound from M. longifolia leaves validates the use of this plant in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation. PMID:19523224

  8. AmeriFlux CA-SJ3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Jack Pine forest harvested in 1975 (BOREAS Young Jack Pine)

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Alan

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SJ3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Jack Pine forest harvested in 1975 (BOREAS Young Jack Pine). Site Description - 53.87581° N, 104.64529° W, BOREAS 1994, 1996, BERMS climate and flux measurements to begin Spring 2003

  9. Jack D. Fellows: Congressional Science Fellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack D. Fellows has been selected as the 1983-84 AGU Congressional Science Fellow. Last week he began his 1-year stint on Capitol Hill as AGU's seventh Congressional Science Fellow.Fellows received his Ph.D. earlier this year from the civil engineering department at the University of Maryland, College Park. For his dissertation he developed a management system using regional geographic information for hydrologic models. His work applied remote sensing data to the decision-making processes of regional planning organizations concerned with hydrology and natural resource management. The Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission has integrated Fellows' work into their programs on water resource and environmental planning; his approach also is being used for forest and water resource planning near Freiburg, Baden-Wurtemberg, West Germany.

  10. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  11. Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.

    1997-03-10

    A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs,more » coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.« less

  12. Quercetin and quercetin 3-O-glycosides from Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. show anti-Mayaro virus activity.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alda E; Kuster, Ricardo M; Yamamoto, Kristie A; Salles, Tiago S; Campos, Renata; de Meneses, Marcelo D F; Soares, Márcia R; Ferreira, Davis

    2014-03-28

    The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes 'Mayaro fever', a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. Currently, there are no licensed drugs against most mosquito-transmitted viruses. Here, we investigated the in vitro anti-MAYV activity of the flavonoids quercetin and its derivatives from the Brazilian shrub Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. Flavonoids were purified by chromatographic fractionation from leaf extracts of B. longifolia and chemically identified as quercetin and quercetin glycosides using spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity of purified flavonoids and of EtOAc- and n-BuOH-containing flavonoid mixtures was measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. The following flavonoids were purified from B. longifolia leaves: non-glycosylated quercetin and its glycosides guaijaverin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and hyperin. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions containing these flavonoids demonstrated the highest antiviral activity of all tested substances, while quercetin had the highest antiviral activity amongst purified flavonoids. Quercetin, EtOAc, or n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 25 μg/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. A mixture of the isomers isoquercitrin and hyperin had a modest antiviral effect (IC90 = 104.9), while guaijaverin and quercitrin did not show significant antiviral activity. B. longifolia is a good source of flavonoids with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report of the activity of quercetin and its derivatives against an alphavirus.

  13. Quercetin and quercetin 3-O-glycosides from Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. show anti-Mayaro virus activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes ‘Mayaro fever’, a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. Currently, there are no licensed drugs against most mosquito-transmitted viruses. Here, we investigated the in vitro anti-MAYV activity of the flavonoids quercetin and its derivatives from the Brazilian shrub Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. Methods Flavonoids were purified by chromatographic fractionation from leaf extracts of B. longifolia and chemically identified as quercetin and quercetin glycosides using spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity of purified flavonoids and of EtOAc- and n-BuOH-containing flavonoid mixtures was measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. Results The following flavonoids were purified from B. longifolia leaves: non-glycosylated quercetin and its glycosides guaijaverin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and hyperin. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions containing these flavonoids demonstrated the highest antiviral activity of all tested substances, while quercetin had the highest antiviral activity amongst purified flavonoids. Quercetin, EtOAc, or n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 25 μg/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. A mixture of the isomers isoquercitrin and hyperin had a modest antiviral effect (IC90 = 104.9), while guaijaverin and quercitrin did not show significant antiviral activity. Conclusions B. longifolia is a good source of flavonoids with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report of the activity of quercetin and its derivatives against an alphavirus. PMID:24678592

  14. 2. EAST SIDE OF SLAVE QUARTERS (Jack E. Boucher, photgrapher, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST SIDE OF SLAVE QUARTERS (Jack E. Boucher, photgrapher, April/May, 1986) - Felix & Odile Pratt Valle Slave Quarters, Southeast corner of Merchant & Second Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  15. Manager's handbook for jack pine in the north central states.

    Treesearch

    John W. Benzie

    1977-01-01

    Provides a key for the resource manager to use in choosing silvicultural practices for the management of jack pine. Control of stand composition, growth, and stand establishment for timber production, water, wildlife, and recreation are discussed.

  16. HOW to Identify and Control Stem Rusts of Jack Pine

    Treesearch

    Kathryn Robbins; Dale K. Smeltzer; D. W. French

    Damage to jack pine caused by rust fungi includes growth reduction, cankers, death (by girdling or wind breakage), and creation of entryways for other fungi and insects. Seedlings and saplings are more seriously affected than older trees.

  17. 19. Jack E, Boucher, Photographer, May 1974. CLOSEUP DETAIL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Jack E, Boucher, Photographer, May 1974. CLOSE-UP DETAIL VIEW OF PAULI-LENTICULAR TRUSS SYSTEM, CENTRAL AREA. - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 4. View looking north showing bridge in elevation. Jack Boucher, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View looking north showing bridge in elevation. Jack Boucher, photographer, 1977 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

  19. 20. Jack E. Boucher, Photogtapher, May 1974. CLOSEUP VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Jack E. Boucher, Photogtapher, May 1974. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF PAULI-LENTICULAR TRUSS SYSTEM, CENTRAL AREA. - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 7. Straighton view of east portal. Jack Boucher, photographer, 1977 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Straight-on view of east portal. Jack Boucher, photographer, 1977 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

  1. 9. View looking east down cantilevered walkway. Jack Boucher, photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View looking east down cantilevered walkway. Jack Boucher, photographer, 1977 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

  2. A Heavy-Duty Jack for a Giant Task

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-03

    A major refurbishment of the giant Mars antenna at NASA Deep Space Network Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in California Mojave Desert required workers to jack up millions of pounds of delicate scientific equipment.

  3. Nutrient accumulation in planted red and jack pine.

    Treesearch

    David H. Alban

    1988-01-01

    Compares nutrient accumulation in adjacent plantations of red and jack pine in the upper Great Lakes. Describes equations developed to predict biomass and nutrient accumulation based on stand basal area and height.

  4. Alternate Host of Jack Pine Needle rust in Northern Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Ralph L. Anderson; Neil A. Anderson

    1978-01-01

    The pine needle rust of jack pine on the Little Sioux Burn in northeastern Minnesota infected large-leaf aster but not goldenrod. The rust was most severe when asters were abundant on the plots. Les than 10 percent of the jack pine were infected over a 3-year period when asters were more than 10 feet (3.05 m) from the mil-acre plots

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Arnica longifolia, Aster hesperius, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Crockett, Sara L; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Wedge, David E

    2007-10-17

    Essential oils from three different Asteraceae obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Main compounds obtained from each taxon were found as follows: Arnica longifolia carvacrol 37.3%, alpha-bisabolol 8.2%; Aster hesperius hexadecanoic acid 29.6%, carvacrol 15.2%; and Chrysothamnus nauseosus var. nauseosus beta-phellandrene 22.8% and beta-pinene 19.8%. Essential oils were also evaluated for their antimalarial and antimicrobial activity against human pathogens, and antifungal activities against plant pathogens. No antimalarial and antimicrobial activities against human pathogens were observed. Direct bioautography demonstrated antifungal activity of the essential oils obtained from three Asteraceae taxa and two pure compounds, carvacrol and beta-bisabolol, to the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Subsequent evaluation of antifungal compounds using a 96-well micro-dilution broth assay indicated that alpha-bisabolol showed weak growth inhibition of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea after 72 h.

  6. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of the essential oils of Schinus longifolia (Lindl.) speg., Schinus fasciculata (Griseb.) I. M. Johnst., and Schinus areira L.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ana P; Frontera, María A; Tomas, María A; Mulet, María C

    2005-01-01

    The essential oil composition from the aerial parts of three Anacardiaceae growing in Bahía Blanca, Argentina was studied by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oils of S. longifolia and S. fasciculata have been studied for the first time. The major constituents were alpha-pinene (46.5%), beta-pinene (15.1%) and alpha-phellandrene (10.1%) for S. longifolia and limonene (10.9%), beta-phellandrene (6.16%) and alpha-phellandrene (5.6%) for S. fasciculata. The major components of the essential oil of S. areira were limonene (28.6%), alpha-phellandrene (10.1%), sabinene (9.2%) and camphene (9.2%) differing from the literature data. The essential oils from S. areira and S. longifolia exhibited a high biotoxicity in a brine shrimp assay with Artemia persimilis.

  7. 50 Years of ``Scaling'' Jack Kilby's Invention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, Robert

    2008-03-01

    This year is the 50th anniversary of Jack Kilby's 1958 invention of the integrated circuit (IC), for which he won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics. Since that invention in a laboratory at Texas Instruments, IC components have been continuously miniaturized, which has resulted in exponential improvement trends in their performance, energy efficiency, and cost per function. These improvements have created a semiconductor industry that has grown to over 250B in annual sales. The process of reducing integrated-circuit component size and associated parameters in a coordinated fashion is traditionally called ``feature-size scaling.'' Kilby's original circuit had active (transistor) and passive (resistor, capacitor) components with dimensions of a few millimeters. Today, the minimum feature sizes on integrated circuits are less than 30 nanometers for patterned line widths and down to about one nanometer for film thicknesses. Thus, we have achieved about five orders of magnitude in linear-dimension scaling over the past fifty years, which has resulted in about ten orders of magnitude increase in the density of IC components, a representation of ``Moore's Law.'' As IC features are approaching atomic dimensions, increasing emphasis is now being given to the parallel effort of further diversifying the types of components in integrated circuits. This is called ``functional scaling'' and ``more then Moore.'' Of course, the enablers for both types of scaling have been developed at many laboratories around the world. This talk will review a few of the highlights in scaling and its applications from R&D projects at Texas Instruments.

  8. JACK - ANTHROPOMETRIC MODELING SYSTEM FOR SILICON GRAPHICS WORKSTATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B.

    1994-01-01

    JACK is an interactive graphics program developed at the University of Pennsylvania that displays and manipulates articulated geometric figures. JACK is typically used to observe how a human mannequin interacts with its environment and what effects body types will have upon the performance of a task in a simulated environment. Any environment can be created, and any number of mannequins can be placed anywhere in that environment. JACK includes facilities to construct limited geometric objects, position figures, perform a variety of analyses on the figures, describe the motion of the figures and specify lighting and surface property information for rendering high quality images. JACK is supplied with a variety of body types pre-defined and known to the system. There are both male and female bodies, ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentile, based on NASA Standard 3000. Each mannequin is fully articulated and reflects the joint limitations of a normal human. JACK is an editor for manipulating previously defined objects known as "Peabody" objects. Used to describe the figures as well as the internal data structure for representing them, Peabody is a language with a powerful and flexible mechanism for representing connectivity between objects, both the joints between individual segments within a figure and arbitrary connections between different figures. Peabody objects are generally comprised of several individual figures, each one a collection of segments. Each segment has a geometry represented by PSURF files that consist of polygons or curved surface patches. Although JACK does not have the capability to create new objects, objects may be created by other geometric modeling programs and then translated into the PSURF format. Environment files are a collection of figures and attributes that may be dynamically moved under the control of an animation file. The animation facilities allow the user to create a sequence of commands that duplicate the movements of a

  9. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  10. Vector-valued Jack polynomials and wavefunctions on the torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkl, Charles F.

    2017-06-01

    The Hamiltonian of the quantum Calogero-Sutherland model of N identical particles on the circle with 1/r 2 interactions has eigenfunctions consisting of Jack polynomials times the base state. By use of the generalized Jack polynomials taking values in modules of the symmetric group and the matrix solution of a system of linear differential equations one constructs novel eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian. Like the usual wavefunctions each eigenfunction determines a symmetric probability density on the N-torus. The construction applies to any irreducible representation of the symmetric group. The methods depend on the theory of generalized Jack polynomials due to Griffeth, and the Yang-Baxter graph approach of Luque and the author.

  11. Mentha longifolia protects against acetic-acid induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Murad, Hussam A S; Abdallah, Hossam M; Ali, Soad S

    2016-08-22

    Mentha longifolia L (Wild Mint or Habak) (ML) is used in traditional medicine in treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders. This study aimed to evaluate potential protecting effect of ML and its major constituent, eucalyptol, against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats, a model of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Rats were divided into ten groups (n=8) given orally for three days (mg/kg/day) the following: normal control, acetic acid-induced colitis (un-treated, positive control), vehicle (DMSO), sulfasalazine (500), ML extract (100, 500, 1000), and eucalyptol (100, 200, 400). After 24h-fasting, two ML of acetic acid (3%) was administered intrarectally. On the fifth day, serum and colonic biochemical markers, and histopathological changes were evaluated. Colitis significantly increased colonic myeloperoxidase activity and malonaldehyde level, and serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and malonaldehyde levels while significantly decreased colonic and serum glutathione levels. All treatments (except ML 100, ML 1000, and eucalyptol 100) significantly reversed these changes where eucalyptol (400) showed the highest activity in a dose-dependent manner. The colitis-induced histopathological changes were mild in sulfasalazine and eucalyptol 400 groups, moderate in ML 500 and eucalyptol 200 groups, and severe in ML 100, ML 1000, and eucalyptol 100 groups nearly similar to colitis-untreated rats. ML (in moderate doses) and eucalyptol (dose-dependently) exerted protective effects against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats possibly through antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties suggesting a potential benefit in treatments of IBD. To our knowledge this is the first report addressing this point. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 4. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Oil Jacking Pump and Wicket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Oil Jacking Pump and Wicket Gate Linkages, view to the north. The jacking pump, located along the wall on the left side of photograph, is used for pumping oil to lift the thrust bearing prior to starting the unit. Note the wicket gate linkages attached to the operating ring and visible in the lower center of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  13. Developing Political Activism Awareness: An Interview with Jack Trammell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetron, Tamara Harper

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Jack Trammell, whose contributions in the field of education have encompassed a variety of areas with one common denominator: equal access to higher education for all. He serves as the director of Disability Support Services at Randolph-Macon College in Ashland, Va, where he is also an assistant professor,…

  14. The late Quaternary history of lodgepole and jack pines

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1985-01-01

    Lodgepole and jack pines (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud, and Pinus banksiana Lamb.), components of the North American boreal forest, have pioneering roles after major disturbances such as fire or glaciation. These species are closely related and hybridize in western Canada, but their fossil records and contemporary variation...

  15. Practical breeding programs for jack pine in the Lake States

    Treesearch

    James P. King

    1973-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is the most common pine in the Lake States and is expected to play an increasingly important role in Lake States planting programs. This species is easy to plant successfully even on dry, sandy soils. Its rapid growth during the first 30 years makes it suitable for intensive-culture, short-rotation forestry. And it...

  16. Geographic variation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Treesearch

    Jung Oh Hyun

    1977-01-01

    Ten traits were measured on 10-year-old jack pine grown at Cloquet, Minnesota, from seed collected from 90 provenances. The traits were examined by using analysis of variance and computing correlations for all combinations of 9 traits plus latitude , longitude, and elevation of the seed sources and cluster analyses using the D2 values from the...

  17. Heritability and intertrait correlations in breeding subpopulations of jack pine

    Treesearch

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1985-01-01

    Twenty breeding populations of jack pine were established in 1979 and 1980 in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Four populations were index populations and were each established at 4 locations by research cooperators. Sixteen populations were applied breeding populations and were established at single locations by public and private cooperators. Combined analysis of...

  18. Forest floor fuels in red and jack pine stands

    Treesearch

    James K. Brown

    1966-01-01

    An investigation to determine the quantity and density of forest floor fuels in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) stands was conducted on National Forests in Michigan and Minnesota. The study was designed to answer three questions: How much fuel per acre exits in individual layers of the forest floor? How reliably can weight of...

  19. Kraft pulp from budworm-infested jack pine

    Treesearch

    J. Y. Zhu; Gary C. Myers

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of kraft pulp from bud-worm-infested jack pine. The logs were classified as merchantable live, suspect, or merchantable dead. Raw materials were evaluated through visual inspection, analysis of the chemical composition, SilviScan measurement of the density, and measurement of the tracheid length. Unbleached pulps were then refined using...

  20. Sphaeropsis Collar Rot of Red and Jack Pines

    Treesearch

    Glen Stanosz; Linda Haugen; Joseph O' Brien

    2002-01-01

    Sphaeropsis collar rot has been detected in red and jack pines in Wisconsin and Michigan, and it could be affecting pines in other states. This disease may be less familiar than Sphaeropsis shoot blight, but both the incidence and the distribution of collar rot appear to be increasing.

  1. Full scale load testing of sand-jacks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-06-01

    A sand-jack is a sand filled container used as a component of cast-in-place bridge false-work. The sand filler facilitates the removal of the false-work by allowing slow and controlled lowering of the bracing that has become wedged beneath the new br...

  2. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey; Jack E. Boucher, photographer; Sept. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey; Jack E. Boucher, photographer; Sept. 1969 Copy of measured drawing, 1st floor plan, 1925 (From file of Wash. D.C. Board of Education, office of buildings and grounds) - Jackson (Public) School, R Street & Avon Place Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Jack Pine and Aspen Forest Floors in Northeastern Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Loomis

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of upland forest floors under mature jack pine and aspen in northeastern Minnesota were investigated. These fuel measurements were needed as inputs for fire behavior prediction models -- useful for fire management decisions. The forest floor weight averaged 33,955 kg/ha and depth averaged 7.1 cm. Bulk density averaged 17 kg/m3 for the L (litter)...

  4. Jack Colby Continues Stellar Legacy of APPA Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    This article profiles 2011 APPA Fellow Jack K. Colby, assistant vice chancellor for facilities operations at North Carolina State University. Colby has a history of nonstop service to his profession and to APPA that makes that ever-active, never-stop rabbit look like a piker. Like previous APPA Fellows, Colby could easily rest on his laurels of…

  5. Filling Holes with Words: An Interview with Jack Gantos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Joel

    2003-01-01

    This interview with Jack Gantos, an author who writes books for young adults, focuses on how he uses his own personal experiences in his books. Discusses memories of his father and his childhood, drug-smuggling activities and the resulting jail time, and student reactions to his books. (LRW)

  6. Stereo photos for evaluating jack pine slash fuels.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Blank

    1982-01-01

    Describes a quick, visual method for estimating jack pine logging residue and other fuels. The method uses a series of large color photographs and stereo pairs as well as data sheets that detail size classes and loadings of the logging slash and other fuels.

  7. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  8. Recollections of Jack Michael and the Application of Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Jack Michael offered a course on verbal behavior almost every year throughout his teaching career. Jack was also interested in the application of Skinner's work and in 1976 began to offer a graduate course at Western Michigan University titled Verbal Behavior Applications. Jack and his students pursued the application of Skinner's work on verbal…

  9. Load capacity, failure mode and design criteria investigation of sand jacks : full scale load testing of sand jacks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    A sand-jack is a sand filled container used as a component of cast-in-place bridge false-work. The sand filler facilitates the removal of the false-work by allowing slow and controlled lowering of the bracing that has become wedged beneath the new br...

  10. Herbs in exercise and sports

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size. PMID:22738233

  11. ASTRONAUT LOUSMA, JACK - EGRESS - SKYLAB 3 COMMAND MODULE - PACIFIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-09-25

    S73-36435 (25 Sept. 1973) --- Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, egresses the Skylab 3 Command Module aboard the prime recovery ship, USS New Orleans, during recovery operations in the Pacific Ocean. Astronauts Lousma; Alan L. Bean, commander; and Owen L. Garriott, science pilot, had just completed a successful 59-day visit to the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Skylab 3 spacecraft splashed down in the Pacific about 230 miles southwest of San Diego, California. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Astronaut Jack Lousma - Inflight Medical Support System (IMSS) - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-01-01

    S73-28423 (16 June 1973) --- Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, reaches into a medical kit, part of the Inflight Medical Support System (IMSS), during training for the second manned Skylab Earth-orbital mission. This activity took place in the OWS trainer in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Other Skylab 3 crewmen are astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, and scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Astronaut Jack Fischer at Air and Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-03

    NASA astronaut Jack Fischer conducts an experiment during a Stem in 30 segment, Friday, Nov. 3, 2017 at Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum in Washington. During Expedition 52, Fischer completed hundreds of scientific experiments and two spacewalks, and concluded his 136-day mission onboard the International Space Station, when he landed in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan in September 2017. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  14. Astronaut Jack Fischer at Air and Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-03

    NASA astronaut Jack Fischer sticks his finger in a liquid that was just boiling by vacuum, during a Stem in 30 experiment, Friday, Nov. 3, 2017 at Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum in Washington. During Expedition 52, Fischer completed hundreds of scientific experiments and two spacewalks, and concluded his 136-day mission onboard the International Space Station, when he landed in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan in September 2017. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  15. ADVANCED DESIGNS OF MAGNETIC JACK-TYPE CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.N.

    1959-11-01

    The magnetic jack is a device for positioning the control rods In a nuclear reactor, especially in a reactor containing water under pressure. Magnetic actuation precludes the need for shaft seals and eliminates the problems associated with mechanisms operating in water. It consists of a pressure shell, four sets of external stationary magnet coils (hold, grip, lift, pull down), and one Internal moving part (ammature) that impants linear motion to a cluster of rods. (W.L.H.)

  16. Astronaut Jack Fischer at Air and Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-03

    NASA astronaut Jack Fischer speaks about his time onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during Expeditions 51/52, Friday, Nov. 3, 2017 at Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum in Washington. During Expedition 52, Fischer completed hundreds of scientific experiments and two spacewalks, and concluded his 136-day mission when he landed in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan in September 2017. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  17. Astronaut Jack Fischer at Air and Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-03

    An audience member asks a question after a presentation by NASA astronaut Jack Fischer about his time onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during Expeditions 51/52, Friday, Nov. 3, 2017 at Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum in Washington. During Expedition 52, Fischer completed hundreds of scientific experiments and two spacewalks, and concluded his 136-day mission when he landed in a remote area near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan in September 2017. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. Hydraulically-operated pump jack with chain drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ratell Jr., R. E.

    1985-02-05

    My invention relates to pumping apparatus, particularly to a hydraulically-operated pump jack for oil, brine water and the like. The apparatus is fabricated from steel plate to make a strong, but light-weight tower which may be easily transported from one site to another by a small boom truck or gin pole truck. In contrast to pump jacks of the walking beam type which are massive in size, my improved pump jack is compact and is seated on and secured directly to the head of an oil well casing. A vertically-arranged hydraulic cylinder has its piston rod connected to a crossmore » head on which a pair of sprockets are journalled. Chains pass around respective sprockets, one reach of each chain extending upwardly and is anchored to a stationary part of the tower. The other reach of each chain extends upwardly and over and around an upper sprocket journalled on a shaft carried by the upper end of the tower, each chain then extending downwardly to a yoke to which the polish rod is connected. This arrangement will result in a 2 to 1 ratio between the movement of the polish rod and the stroke of the hydraulic cylinder.« less

  19. Students Learning Physics While Lifting Themselves: A Simple Analysis of a Scissors Jack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2017-01-01

    Every time I have to jack up my car, I am a bit surprised by how slowly the scissors jack works the higher I raise it, and close to maximum height I need very little force to turn the crank. This agrees well with the principle of simple machines. Since I have to jack up my car at least twice a year to change between winter tires and summer tires,…

  20. AmeriFlux US-NMj Northern Michigan Jack Pine Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-NMj Northern Michigan Jack Pine Stand. Site Description - The jack pine site is owned by Michigan Technological University. The stand is managed, and thus thinned and harvested depending on stand age. This jack pine site is naturally regenerating following a clearcut around 1989. Heavy snow in December 2001 c

  1. The influence of musical cadence into aquatic jumping jacks kinematics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mário J; Oliveira, Cristiana; Teixeira, Genoveva; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between the head-out aquatic exercise "Jumping jacks" kinematics and the musical cadence in healthy and fit subjects. Five young women, with at least one year of experience conducting head- out aquatic programs were videotaped in the frontal plane, with a pair of cameras providing a double projection (above and below the water surface). Subjects performed an incremental protocol of five bouts (120 b·min(-1), 135 b·min(-1), 150 b·min(-1), 165 b·min(-1) and 180 b·min(-1)) with 16 full cycles of the "Jumping jacks" exercise. Data processing and calculation of upper limbs' (i.e. hands), lower limbs' (i.e. feet) and center of mass' 2D linear velocity and displacement were computed with the software Ariel Performance Analysis System and applying the 2D-DLT algorithm. Subjects decreased the cycle period during the incremental protocol. Significant and negative relationships with the musical cadence were verified for the center of mass and upper limbs vertical displacement. On the other hand, for the lower limbs lateral velocity, a significant and positive relationship was observed. It is concluded that expert and fit subjects increase the lower limb's velocity to maintain the range of motion, while the upper limb's displacement is reduced to coupe the music cadence. Key pointsWhile performing the Jumping Jacks, expert and fit subjects increase their lower limbs segmental velocity to maintain the range of motion.The upper limbs displacement is reduced to maintain the music cadence.Expert and fit subjects present similar response for alternating or simultaneously head-out aquatic exercises when increasing the music cadence.

  2. Prediction methods of spudcan penetration for jack-up units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-xia; Duan, Meng-lan; Li, Hai-ming; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Jian-jun

    2012-12-01

    Jack-up units are extensively playing a successful role in drilling engineering around the world, and their safety and efficiency take more and more attraction in both research and engineering practice. An accurate prediction of the spudcan penetration depth is quite instrumental in deciding on whether a jack-up unit is feasible to operate at the site. The prediction of a too large penetration depth may lead to the hesitation or even rejection of a site due to potential difficulties in the subsequent extraction process; the same is true of a too small depth prediction due to the problem of possible instability during operation. However, a deviation between predictive results and final field data usually exists, especially when a strong-over-soft soil is included in the strata. The ultimate decision sometimes to a great extent depends on the practical experience, not the predictive results given by the guideline. It is somewhat risky, but no choice. Therefore, a feasible predictive method for the spudcan penetration depth, especially in strata with strong-over-soft soil profile, is urgently needed by the jack-up industry. In view of this, a comprehensive investigation on methods of predicting spudcan penetration is executed. For types of different soil profiles, predictive methods for spudcan penetration depth are proposed, and the corresponding experiment is also conducted to validate these methods. In addition, to further verify the feasibility of the proposed methods, a practical engineering case encountered in the South China Sea is also presented, and the corresponding numerical and experimental results are also presented and discussed.

  3. Teaching Scientists to Fish, as Inspired by Jack Dymond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    It is almost inconceivable that as Jack Dymond's graduate student for eight years, I never mastered the skill of fly-fishing, a pursuit so near and dear to his heart. In fact, Jack did inspire me, not to tie flies and cast, but eventually to teach fellow scientists to fish. The work I'll present - connecting scientists and educators to achieve societal benefit - is profoundly influenced by Jack's dedication to applying scientific understanding and critical thinking to societal issues. With colleagues in the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), http://www.cosee.net/, I enable scientists to efficiently make meaningful contributions to educational outreach. A key goal of the multi-Center, national COSEE Network is helping scientists build the skills and acquire the resources needed to share their science with diverse audiences. At Scripps, we are piloting an innovative approach to helping scientists meet funding agencies' broader impact requirements. Key elements of the approach include: 1) services to identify educational outreach options that best fit scientists' research and preferences; 2) assistance establishing partnerships with educational outreach providers who have the skills and resources to develop and implement effective programs and exhibits; and 3) nuts and bolts (line and fly) assistance writing proposal text, drafting budgets, and coordinating with institutional business offices to ensure that the proposed educational outreach effort is compelling and sufficiently funded. Where does the fishing lesson come in? We facilitators of scientist-educator partnerships empower scientists to launch enduring collaborations. Once comfortable working with top-notch educational organizations, scientists can tap these resources, project after project, often with little or no additional involvement on our part. Our initial investment in brokering the relationships is richly rewarded. By helping scientists get started, it's as if we are teaching

  4. Tough new jack-up for rough seas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Rowan Company's new deepwater jack-up, Rowan Gorilla I, is scheduled to spud its initial well off the east coast of Canada later this month for a consortium of oil companies including Bow Valley-Husky and ATS Exploration Ltd. The new rig's class designation--Gorilla--reflects designers' expectations for the drilling unit that is suited to work in virtually all ice-free hostile environmental areas of the world. Rowan's confidence in the design, built by Marathon LeTourneau's Vicksburg, Mississippi yard, is reiterated by the fact that two additional rigs in the Gorilla class are being built. Rowan Gorilla II is being constructed at Marathon's Singaporemore » yard, and the Rowan Gorilla III is in early construction stages at the firm's Vicksburg yard. The three Gorilla-class rigs will cost in excess of $85 million each, including owner-furnished drilling equipment. This, according to owners, will make them among the costliest jack-ups in the world. Another record being claimed by the Gorilla-class drilling units is that they are the largest jack-ups in the world. Fully outfitted, a Gorilla contains 16,000 tons of steel. Its triangular hull measures 297 ft from bow to stern and 292 ft across the stern. The rig has a variable load of 2,750 tons for drilling consumables and 42,265 sq ft of deck space. Its ample storage capacity, along with its 503-ft leg length and certain design features, makes the rig compatible with hostile offshore areas, where it can continue drilling for long periods unattended.« less

  5. Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Conti, Barbara; Benelli, Giovanni; Leonardi, Michele; Afifi, Fatma U; Cervelli, Claudio; Profeti, Raffaele; Pistelli, Luisa; Canale, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) has been one of the fastest spreading insects over the past 20 years. Its medical importance is due to the aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and the ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, Eastern Equine encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In this research, the essential oils (EOs) extracted from fresh air dried leaves of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) were evaluated for their repellent activity against A. albopictus by using the human-bait technique. The EOs chemical composition was also investigated, and EOs were divided in three different profiles on the basis of their chemical composition: EO with large amount of monoterpenes from S. sclarea, EO rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes from S. dorisiana, and S. longifolia EO characterized by similar percentages of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The efficacy protection from S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs, at dosages ranging from 0.004 to 0.4 μL cm(-2) of skin, was evaluated during 120 min of observation. Results indicated that S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs had a significant repellent activity (RD(50) =0.00035, 0.00049, and 0.00101 μL cm(-2), respectively), with differences in repellency rates, as a function of oil, dosage, and observation time. S. dorisiana was the most effective oil: at the two higher dosages, it gave almost complete protection (with a protective efficacy of 90.99% and 95.62%, respectively) for 90 min. The best protection time was achieved with S. dorisiana essential oil. It ranged from 9.2 to 92.4 min. Protection times of S. longifolia and S. sclarea oils ranged from 3.2 to 60 min, and from 3.6 to 64.2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  6. Forest Modeling of Jack Pine Trees for BOREAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghhadam, Mahta; Saatchi, Sasan

    1994-01-01

    As a part of the intensive field campaign for the Boreal forest ecosystem-atmosphere research (BOREAS) project in August 1993, the NASA/JPL AIRSAR covered an area of about 100 km by 100 km near the Prince Albert National Park in Saskatchewan, Canada. At the same time, ground-truth measurements were made in several stands which have been selected as the primary study sites, as well as in some auxiliary sites. This paper focuses on an area including Jack Pine stands in the Nipawin area near the park.

  7. Skylab (SL)-3 - Astronaut Jack R. Lousma - Utensils

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-09-19

    S73-34198 (1 Aug. 1973) --- A close-up view of the hands of astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, using a silverware utensil to gather food at the food station, in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, had just zoomed the TV camera in for this close-up of the food tray following a series of wide shots of Lousma at the food station. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Astronaut Jack Lousma in Lower Body Negative Pressure Device

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-09

    S73-34180 (7 Aug. 1973) --- A medium close-up view of astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, in the Lower Body Negative Pressure Device (LBNPD), as astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, works around the leg band area. This portion of the LBNPD MO-92 experiment was televised on Aug. 7, 1973. The LBNPD experiment is to provide information concerning the time course of cardiovascular adaptation during flight, and to provide in-flight data for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerence and impairment of physical capacity to be expected upon returning to Earth environment. The bicycle ergometer is in the background, partially visible behind Bean. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-06

    S73-31976 (5 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the Aug. 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participated in the EVA with Lousma. During the EVA the two crewmen deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Orthopaedic jack for scoliosis surgery purposes: Concept and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriadi, Sugeng; Radhana, Rakha M.; Hidayanto, Taufik Eko; Whulanza, Yudan; Ali, Notario, Nanda; Rahyussalim

    2017-02-01

    Scoliosis surgery is one of the most difficult orthopedic surgery that have been committed today as the failure rate of orthopedic surgery for adult patients is 15%. Aside from the long duration of surgery, this surgical failure is caused by failure in biomedical instrumentation. Furthermore, this kind of failure is causing inefficiency of the surgery. With current known orthopedic surgery method, three surgeons are needed in a single orthopedic surgery. In fact, a single surgery can take up to 8 hours to be done, which increases the risk of surgical failure. Based on this problem, authors hope that our orthopedic jacks could solve the problem.

  11. CoJACK: A High-Level Cognitive Architecture with Demonstrations of Moderators, Variability, and Implications for Situation Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    defined, to CoJACK (Ritter, Reifers, Klein, & Schoelles, 2007) based on task appraisal theory (e.g., Cannon, 1932; Lazarus & Folkman , 1984; Selye...Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Lazarus , R. S., & Folkman , S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer Publishing. Lovett, M. C., Daily, L...promising. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Java JACK Default CoJack CoJack Caffeine CoJack Challenged CoJack Threatened Agent Type Ta n k s D es tr o y e d

  12. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. 133.153... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.153 Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. (a) Description...

  13. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. 133.153... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.153 Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. (a) Description...

  14. Using Black Light to Find Jack-Pine Budworm Egg Masses

    Treesearch

    Daniel T. Jennings

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine foliage infested with jack-pine budworm egg masses was examined under two kinds of light -- black light and a combination of natural and fluorescent light. Black light significantly increased the accuracy of count but not the efficiency of examination.

  15. Investigating the Jack the Ripper Case: Engaging Students in a Criminal Investigations Class through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Kazmi, Syed

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the utilization of a class project involving the Jack the Ripper murders. Students enrolled in a criminal investigations class were required to investigate the five canonical murders associated with the infamous serial killer known as Jack the Ripper and the murders that occurred in London during 1888. This paper…

  16. Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis): nutrition related aspects and needed nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Akpapunam, M A; Sefa-Dedeh, S

    1997-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics and food potentials of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) have been reviewed. The bean is a good sources of protein, 23% to 34%, and carbohydrate 55%. It is also a good source of Ca, Zn, P, Mg, Cu and Ni. Jack bean protein is adequate in most essential amino acids with the exception of methionine and cystine which may be nutritionally limiting. Antinutritional and toxic factors including trypsin inhibitors, hemagglutinins, cyanogen glucosides, oligosaccharides and others are present in jack bean. Properly processed jack bean could be used to prepare some of the popular dishes made from cowpea, peanut, pigeon pea and soybean. Industrial products such as protein concentrates and isolates, starch, flakes, grits and flours can be produced from the bean. Further research is needed to identify varieties with high protein and nutritional quality. Development of new highly nutritious food products based on whole or processed jack bean should increase production and expand use.

  17. 75 FR 32357 - Gallatin National Forest; Montana; Jack Rabbit to Big Sky Meadow Village 161 kV Transmission Line...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Gallatin National Forest; Montana; Jack Rabbit to Big Sky... electric transmission line. The upgraded 161-kV transmission line would connect the existing Jack Rabbit... with eight regional entities to improve the reliability of the bulk power system. The Jack Rabbit to...

  18. Applying the vantage PDMS to jack-up drilling ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Peng; Chen, Yuan-Ming; Cui, Tong-Kai; Wang, Zi-Shen; Gong, Li-Jiang; Yu, Xiang-Fen

    2009-09-01

    The plant design management system (PDMS) is an integrated application which includes a database and is useful when designing complex 3-D industrial projects. It could be used to simplify the most difficult part of a subsea oil extraction project—detailed pipeline design. It could also be used to integrate the design of equipment, structures, HVAC, E-ways as well as the detailed designs of other specialists. This article mainly examines the applicability of the Vantage PDMS database to pipeline projects involving jack-up drilling ships. It discusses the catalogue (CATA) of the pipeline, the spec-world (SPWL) of the pipeline, the bolt tables (BLTA) and so on. This article explains the main methods for CATA construction as well as problem in the process of construction. In this article, the authors point out matters needing attention when using the Vantage PDMS database in the design process and discuss partial solutions to these questions.

  19. A possible role of partially pyrolysed essential oils in Australian Aboriginal traditional ceremonial and medicinal smoking applications of Eremophila longifolia (R. Br.) F. Muell (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Sadgrove, N J; Jones, G L

    2013-06-03

    Eremophila longifolia is one of the most respected of the traditional medicines used by Australian Aboriginal people. Customary use involves smoldering the leaves over hot embers of a fire to produce an acrid smoke, believed to have therapeutic effects broadly consistent with antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory capacity. The current study aims to examine the contribution of partially pyrolysed and non-pyrolysed essential oils in traditional usage of Eremophila longifolia. Non-pyrolysed and partially pyrolysed essential oils were produced by hydrodistillation and part-wet/part-dry distillation, respectively. All samples were tested for antimicrobial activity by broth dilution. Some of these samples were further treated to an incrementally stepped temperature profile in a novel procedure employing a commercial thermocycler in an attempt to mimic the effect of temperature gradients produced during smoking ceremonies. Components from the pyrodistilled oils were compared with the non-pyrodistilled oils, using GC-MS, GC-FID and HPLC-PAD. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, was used to compare free radical scavenging ability. Partially pyrolysed oils had approximately three or more times greater antimicrobial activity, enhanced in cultures warmed incrementally to 60°C and held for 30s and further enhanced if held for 2 min. Partially pyrolysed oils showed a radical scavenging capacity 30-700 times greater than the corresponding non-pyrolysed oils. HPLC-PAD revealed the presence of additional constituents not present in the fresh essential oil. These results, by showing enhanced antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, provide the first known Western scientific justification for the smoking ceremonies involving leaves of Eremophila longifolia. During customary use, both partially pyrolysed as well as non-pyrolysed essential oils may contribute significantly to the overall intended medicinal effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  20. 3-D habitat suitability of jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in the Southeastern Pacific, a comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Habasque, Jérémie; Hattab, Tarek; Hintzen, Niels T.; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Demarcq, Hervé; Gerlotto, François

    2016-08-01

    South Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, has an ocean-scale distribution, from the South American coastline to New Zealand and Tasmania. This fish, captured by Humans since the Holocene, is nowadays heavily exploited and its population has decreased substantially since the mid-1990s. The uncertainty associated to jack mackerel population structure currently hampers management. Several hypotheses have been proposed from a single population up to several discrete populations. Still no definitive answer was given. Determining how environmental conditions drive jack mackerel distribution can provide insights on its population structure. To do so, here we performed in three steps. First, we used satellite data to develop a statistical model of jack mackerel horizontal habitat suitability. Model predictions based on interaction between temperature and chlorophyll-a match the observed jack mackerel distribution, even during extreme El Niño event. Second, we studied the impact of oxygen and show that jack mackerel distribution and abundance is correlated to oxygen over a wide variety of scales and avoid low oxygen areas and periods. Third, on the basis of the above we built a conceptual 3D model of jack mackerel habitat in the Southeastern Pacific. We reveal the presence of a low suitable habitat along the Chilean and Peruvian coast, figuratively presenting a closed door caused by a gap in the horizontal habitat at ∼19-22°S and a shallow oxycline off south-centre Peru. This kind of situation likely occurs on a seasonal basis, in austral summer but also at longer temporal scales. A lack of exchanges at some periods/seasons partially isolate jack mackerel distributed off Peru. On the other hand the continuity in the habitat during most of the year explains why exchanges occur. We conclude that the more likely population structure for jack mackerel is a pelagic metapopulation.

  1. Jack Rabbit Pretest Shadowplate Drawings For TATB IHE Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; McDaniel, D W

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) series consisted of 5 focused hydrodynamic experiments 2021E PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT7. They were fired in March and April of 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. These experiments measured deadzone formation and impulse gradients created during the detonation of TATB based insensitive high explosive. When setting up computer simulations of the Jack Rabbit Pretest series, the modeler or code developer can execute simulations with increasing degrees of refinement using detail found in the shadowplate design. The easiest way to get started is by treating themore » shadowplate in each experiment as a monolithic homogeneous piece of stainless steel. The simulation of detonation would begin as a point initiation below the center, bottom surface of the shadowplate. The detonation running through the ultrafine TATB booster can be simulated using program burn and then switched over to a reactive flow detonation model as the detonation front crosses the boundary into the main charge LX-17 IHE. A modeler wanting to further refine the simulation and progression of shock through the shadowplate can use the more detailed shadowplate design information presented in this document. The source drawings are included in Appendix A of this document. Their titles and drawing numbers are listed. Each experiment's shadowplate consists of two major components. A 303 stainless steel shape that defines the outer dimensions of shadowplate and a cylindrical 303 stainless steel detonator housing that is located in a closely machined pocket in the shape. The SIMPLE ASSY drawing accurately represents the dimensions of the outer shape, it's machined cylindrical pocket, and detonator body which is treated as a monolithic, homogeneous piece of stainless steel. The detonator body cross section shows an accurately dimensioned void where the slapper flyer barrel, LX-16 (pressed PETN) pellet, and

  2. An experimental study of the mechanism of failure of rocks under borehole jack loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van, T. K.; Goodman, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests with an experimental jack and an NX-borehole jack are reported. The following conclusions were made: Under borehole jack loading, a circular opening in a brittle solid fails by tensile fracturing when the bearing plate width is not too small. Two proposed contact stress distributions can explain the mechanism of tensile fracturing. The contact stress distribution factor is a material property which can be determined experimentally. The borehole tensile strength is larger than the rupture flexural strength. Knowing the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stress field, borehole jack test results can be used to determine the borehole tensile strength. Knowing the orientation of the in situ stress field and the flexural strength of the rock substance, the magnitude of the in situ stress components can be calculated. The detection of very small cracks is essential for the accurate determination of the failure loads which are used in the calculation of strengths and stress components.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and... of slippage of the metal cap of the jack, a wood block shall be placed between the cap and the load...

  4. Students Learning Physics While Lifting Themselves: A Simple Analysis of a Scissors Jack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2017-02-01

    Every time I have to jack up my car, I am a bit surprised by how slowly the scissors jack works the higher I raise it, and close to maximum height I need very little force to turn the crank. This agrees well with the principle of simple machines. Since I have to jack up my car at least twice a year to change between winter tires and summer tires, I thought it was time to take a closer look at the physics behind the process. And like most physics teachers, I am always looking for new ideas for my teaching. In this note I will present a few ideas on how a jack can be a topic in physics teaching.

  5. 5. 3/4 view looking southwest. Jack Boucher, photographer, 1977 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 3/4 view looking southwest. Jack Boucher, photographer, 1977 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

  6. A-jacks and Aquawrap installations in Utah : scour revetment performance evaluation, final report, December 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-01

    This is a performance evaluation report for A-Jacks, an articulated concrete block designed to protect bridge elements exposed to the river scouring forces, and for Aquawrap, a glass fiber reinforced polymer designed to protect and strengthen bridge ...

  7. Heavy duty precision leveling jacks expedite setup time on horizontal boring mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellenbaugh, W.; Jones, C.

    1966-01-01

    Leveling jack is a precise alignment tool which expedites the setup of components or assemblies up to 2500 pounds on horizontal boring mills. This tool eliminates the necessity of wedges and blocks to shim the components to proper position.

  8. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in... “monterey cheese” or alternatively, “monterey jack cheese”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients...

  9. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in... “monterey cheese” or alternatively, “monterey jack cheese”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients...

  10. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in... “monterey cheese” or alternatively, “monterey jack cheese”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients...

  11. AmeriFlux US-Wi5 Mixed young jack pine (MYJP)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi5 Mixed young jack pine (MYJP). Site Description - The Wisconsin Mixed Young Jack Pine site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. As an assemblage, the ten Wisconsin sites aremore » indicative of the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. Clearcut on 40 to 70 year intervals, jack pine stands occupy approximately 13% of the region.« less

  12. Topological color codes on Union Jack lattices: a stable implementation of the whole Clifford group

    SciTech Connect

    Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich; Bombin, H.

    We study the error threshold of topological color codes on Union Jack lattices that allow for the full implementation of the whole Clifford group of quantum gates. After mapping the error-correction process onto a statistical mechanical random three-body Ising model on a Union Jack lattice, we compute its phase diagram in the temperature-disorder plane using Monte Carlo simulations. Surprisingly, topological color codes on Union Jack lattices have a similar error stability to color codes on triangular lattices, as well as to the Kitaev toric code. The enhanced computational capabilities of the topological color codes on Union Jack lattices with respectmore » to triangular lattices and the toric code combined with the inherent robustness of this implementation show good prospects for future stable quantum computer implementations.« less

  13. AmeriFlux US-Wi9 Young Jack pine (YJP)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi9 Young Jack pine (YJP). Site Description - The Wisconsin Young Jack Pine site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. As an assemblage, the ten Wisconsin sites are indicative ofmore » the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. Clearcut on 40 to 70 year intervals, jack pine stands occupy approximately 13% of the region.« less

  14. Modeling of the jack rabbit series of experiments with a temperature based reactive burn model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbiens, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The Jack Rabbit experiments, performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, focus on detonation wave corner turning and shock desensitization. Indeed, while important for safety or charge design, the behaviour of explosives in these regimes is poorly understood. In this paper, our temperature based reactive burn model is calibrated for LX-17 and compared to the Jack Rabbit data. It is shown that our model can reproduce the corner turning and shock desensitization behaviour of four out of the five experiments.

  15. Jack Rabbit Pretest Data For TATB Based IHE Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest series consisted of 5 focused hydrodynamic experiments, 2021E PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT7. They were fired in March and April of 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. These experiments measured dead-zone formation and impulse gradients created during the detonation of TATB based insensitive high explosive. This document contains reference data tables for all 5 experiments. These data tables include: (1) Measured laser velocimetry of the experiment diagnostic plate (2) Computed diagnostic plate profile contours through velocity integration (3) Computed center axis pressures through velocity differentiation. All timesmore » are in microseconds, referenced from detonator circuit current start. All dimensions are in millimeters. Schematic axi-symmetric cross sections are shown for each experiment. These schematics detail the materials used and dimensions of the experiment and component parts. This should allow anyone wanting to evaluate their TATB based insensitive high explosive detonation model against experiment. These data are particularly relevant in examining reactive flow detonation model prediction in computational simulation of dead-zone formation and resulting impulse gradients produced by detonating TATB based explosive.« less

  16. Multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, L.R.; Crawford, D.C.

    1983-10-06

    A multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor is provided. The mechanism includes an elongate pressure housing in which a plurality of closely spaced drive rods are located. Each drive rod is connected to a rod which is insertable in the reactor core. An electromechanical stationary latch device is provided which is actuatable to hold each drive rod stationary with respect to the pressure housing. An electromechanical movable latch device is also provided for each one of the drive rods. Each movable latch device is provided with a base and is actuatable to hold a respective drive rod stationary with respect to the base. An electromechanical lift device is further provided for each base which is actuatable for moving a respective base longitudinally along the pressure housing. In this manner, one or more drive rods can be moved in the pressure housing by sequentially and repetitively operating the electromechanical devices. Preferably, each latch device includes a pair of opposed latches which grip teeth located on the respective drive rod. Two, three, or four drive rods can be located symmetrically about the longitudinal axis of the pressure housing.

  17. Multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, Lawrence R.; Crawford, Donald C.

    1986-01-01

    A multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor is provided. The mechanism includes an elongate pressure housing in which a plurality of closely spaced drive rods are located. Each drive rod is connected to a rod which is insertable in the reactor core. An electromechanical stationary latch device is provided which is actuatable to hold each drive rod stationary with respect to the pressure housing. An electromechanical movable latch device is also provided for each one of the drive rods. Each movable latch device is provided with a base and is actuatable to hold a respective drive rod stationary with respect to the base. An electromechanical lift device is further provided for each base which is actuatable for moving a respective base longitudinally along the pressure housing. In this manner, one or more drive rods can be moved in the pressure housing by sequentially and repetitively operating the electromechanical devices. Preferably, each latch device includes a pair of opposed latches which grip teeth located on the respective drive rod. Two, three, or four drive rods can be located symmetrically about the longitudinal axis of the pressure housing.

  18. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A jacking mechanism for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns have a pin structure which rides up and down in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring bolt holes through the locking plates into alignment with a set of bolt holes in the housing, there being a set of such housing bolt holes corresponding to both a raised and a lowered position of the support column. When the locking plate is so aligned, a surface of the locking plate mates with a surface in the housing such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball jacks. Since the locking plates are to be installed and bolted to the housing during periods of reactor operation, the ball jacks need not be sized to react the large forces which occur or potentially could occur on the upper internals structure of the reactor during operation. The locking plates react these loads. The ball jacks, used only during refueling, can be smaller, which enable conventionally available equipment to fulfill the precision requirements for the task within available space.

  19. Comparative analysis of a jack-up drilling unit with different leg systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiangang; Bai, Yong; Jia, Lusheng

    2012-09-01

    The jack-up unit is one of the best drilling platforms in offshore oil fields with water depth shallower than 150 meters. As the most pivotal component of the jack-up unit, the leg system can directly affect the global performance of a jack-up unit. Investigation shows that there are three kinds of leg structure forms in the world now: the reverse K, X, and mixing types. In order to clarify the advantage and defects of each one, as well as their effect on the global performance of the jack-up unit, this paper commenced to study performance targets of a deepwater jack-up unit with different leg systems (X type, reverse K type, and mixing type). In this paper a typical leg scantling dimension and identical external loads were selected, detailed finite element snalysis (FEA) models were built to simulate the jack-up unit's structural behavior, and the multi-point constraint (MPC) element together with the spring element was used to deal with the boundary condition. Finally, the above problems were solved by comparative analysis of their main performance targets (including ultimate static strength, dynamic response, and weight).

  20. Identification of the seasonal conditions required for dormancy break of Persoonia longifolia (Proteaceae), a species with a woody indehiscent endocarp.

    PubMed

    Chia, K A; Sadler, R; Turner, S R; Baskin, C C

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in breaking seed dormancy in species with woody endocarps are poorly understood. In a landmark study examining the role of endocarps in regulating germination, our aim was to investigate the effects of the natural sequence of environmental conditions on dormancy break of a species with a woody endocarp (Persoonia longifolia). The role of the endocarp in germination was investigated through imbibition and endocarp removal germination tests. The use of burial to break dormancy was examined and results from these experiments were used to guide laboratory investigations into the use of wet/dry cycling and stratification to break dormancy. Endocarps were water-permeable. Germination increased from 0 to 92·5 % when endocarps were removed. During burial in the field and nursery, 41·6 and 63·7 % of the endocarps germinated, respectively, after 36 months. Ex situ post-burial germination was cyclical and highest after 30 months of burial (45·4 % nursery and 31·8 % field). Highest germination occurred in wet/dry trials when the dry summer was long (20 weeks), had fluctuating temperatures (30/50 °C) and two long (7 d) wet cycles and was followed by moist winters at 10/20 °C. A stratification trial found that highest germination occurred following incubation for 12 weeks at 30 °C (including 2 weeks moist) + 6 weeks moist at 8 °C then placement at 20/10 °C for germination. Summer conditions break physiological dormancy of the embryo and promote opening of the endocarp, allowing seeds to germinate during winter conditions. By closely monitoring the environment that endocarps are exposed to in nature, dormancy breaking mechanisms can be identified and used to improve germination. These results outline for the first time how dormancy and germination are regulated in a species with a hard woody endocarp, insights which will significantly improve our understanding of other species with similar reproductive features. © The Author 2016

  1. Crassulacean acid metabolism in the shade. Studies on an epiphytic fern, Pyrrosia longifolia, and other rainforest species from Australia.

    PubMed

    Winter, K; Osmond, C B; Hubick, K T

    1986-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was studied in a tropical epiphytic fern, Pyrrosia longifolia, from a fully sun-exposed and from a very shaded site in Northern Queensland, Australia. Measurements of instantaneous net CO 2 exchange showed carbon gain via CO 2 dark fixation with some net CO 2 uptake also occuring during late afternoon, in both sun and shade fronds. Maximum rates of net CO 2 uptake and the nocturnal increase in titratable acidity were lower in shade than in sun fronds. δ 13 C values of sun and shade fronds were not significantly different, and ranged between-14 and-15‰ suggesting that, in the long term, carbon gain was mainly via CO 2 dark fixation. Sun fronds had a higher light compensation point of photosynthesis than shade fronds but the same quantum yield. Yet there was no acclimation of photosynthetic O 2 evolution, (measured at 5% CO 2 ) in sun and shade fronds and photosynthesis saturated at between 200 and 400 μmol quanta m -2 s -1 . Use of higher light intensities for photosynthesis of sun fronds was probably precluded by low nutrient availability. Total nitrogen was less than 1% of dry weight in fully expanded sun and shade fronds. Exposure of shade fronds to full sunlight for 6 h led to a 60% decline in the quantum yield of photosynthesis and to a decline in variable fluorescence measured at room temperature. Photoinhibition by high light was also observed in Hoya nicholsoniae, a rainforest climber growing in deep shade. This species also exhibited CAM as demonstrated by nocturnal net CO 2 uptake, nocturnal acidification and a δ 13 C value of-14‰. Photosynthetic O 2 evolution in this species was saturated at 2.5% of full sunlight. Two species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) from sun-exposed sites, one species exhibiting CAM and the other one exhibiting net CO 2 uptake exclusively during daytime via conventional C 3 photosynthesis, showed similar light response curves and the same quantum yield for photosynthetic O 2 evolution.

  2. Additive and non-additive genetic components of the jack male life history in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Forest, Adriana R; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Heath, Daniel D; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2016-08-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, exhibit alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) where males exist in two phenotypes: large "hooknose" males and smaller "jacks" that reach sexual maturity after only 1 year in seawater. The mechanisms that determine "jacking rate"-the rate at which males precociously sexually mature-are known to involve both genetics and differential growth rates, where individuals that become jacks exhibit higher growth earlier in life. The additive genetic components have been studied and it is known that jack sires produce significantly more jack offspring than hooknose sires, and vice versa. The current study was the first to investigate both additive and non-additive genetic components underlying jacking through the use of a full-factorial breeding design using all hooknose sires. The effect of dams and sires descendant from a marker-assisted broodstock program that identified "high performance" and "low performance" lines using growth- and survival-related gene markers was also studied. Finally, the relative growth of jack, hooknose, and female offspring was examined. No significant dam, sire, or interaction effects were observed in this study, and the maternal, additive, and non-additive components underlying jacking were small. Differences in jacking rates in this study were determined by dam performance line, where dams that originated from the low performance line produced significantly more jacks. Jack offspring in this study had a significantly larger body size than both hooknose males and females starting 1 year post-fertilization. This study provides novel information regarding the genetic architecture underlying ARTs in Chinook salmon that could have implications for the aquaculture industry, where jacks are not favoured due to their small body size and poor flesh quality.

  3. Polyalthia longifolia Methanolic Leaf Extracts (PLME) induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial potential depolarization by possibly modulating the redox status in hela cells.

    PubMed

    Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Oon, Chern Ein; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2017-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been accepted as a gold mine, with respect to the diversity of their phytochemicals. Many medicinal plants extracts are potential anticancer agents. Polyalthia longifolia var. angustifolia Thw. (Annonaceae) is one of the most significant native medicinal plants and is found throughout Malaysia. Hence, the present study was intended to assess the anticancer properties of P. longifolia leaf methanolic extract (PLME) and its underlying mechanisms. The Annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis showed that PLME induces apoptosis in HeLa cells in dose-dependent manner whereas the PI flow cytometric analysis for cell cycle demonstrated the accumulation of cells at sub G0/G1, G0/G1 and G2/M phases. Investigation with JC-1 flow cytometry analysis indicated increase in mitochondria membrane potential depolarisation corresponding to increase in PLME concentrations. PLME was also shown to influence intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by exerting anti-oxidant (half IC 50 ) and pro-oxidant (IC 50 and double IC 50 ) affect against HeLa cells. PLME treatment also displayed DNA damage in HeLa cells in concentration depended fashion. The proteomic profiling array exposed the expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins upon PLME treatment at IC 50 concentration in HeLa cells. Pro-apoptotic proteins; BAX, BAD, cytochrome c, caspase-3, p21, p27 and p53 were found to be significantly up-regulated while anti-apoptotic proteins; BCL-2 and BCL-w were found to be significantly down-regulated. This investigation postulated the role of p53 into mediating apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial potential depolarisation by modulating the redox status of HeLa cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of metal magnetic memory technology on defects detection of jack-up platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Changhang; Cheng, Liping; Xie, Jing; Yin, Xiaokang; Chen, Guoming

    2016-02-01

    Metal magnetic memory test (MMMT), which is an effective way in evaluating early damages of ferrimagnets, can determine the existence of material stresses concentration and premature defects. As one of offshore oil exploration and development equipment, jack-up platform always generate stress concentration during its life-cycle due to complicated loading condition and the hash marine environment, which will decline the bearing capacity and cause serious consequences. The paper conducts in situ experiments of defects detection on some key structural components of jack-up platform using MMMT. The signals acquired by MMM-System are processed for feature extraction to evaluate the severity of structure stress concentration. The results show that the method presented in this paper based on MMMT can provide an effective and convenient way of defect detection and structural health monitoring for Jack-up Platform.

  5. Jack Dymond's "Fingerprints" on Sediment Chemistry, Biogeochemical Fluxes, and my Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinen, M.

    2004-12-01

    I first met Jack Dymond as a graduate student at Oregon State University. He wasn't my thesis advisor. He wasn't even on my committee. But his ever so gentle counsel and his low key advice did much to shape my career, as a student, as a scientist, and later as an administrator of science. At the time, Jack was wading through the analysis of a very large number of surface sediment samples from the Nazca Plate as part of an IDOE project. The number and density of sampling was extraordinary for the time and his work showed that the geochemistry of the sediments could be deconvolved to understand the contributions of sediment sources over the entire plate. I had been planning to analyze DSDP samples from the equatorial Pacific to understand the history of siliceous sedimentation in that region and I began to talk with Jack about how I could use geochemical signatures to estimate the non-biogenic fraction of the sediment. When Jack's Nazca Plate paper came out, Debra Stakes and I decided to analyze all of my sample residues for the same elements that Jack had studied. In the only piece of bad advice that he ever gave me, Jack told me that it was a waste of time because there wouldn't be high enough concentrations of transition metals in the calcareous and siliceous sediments to measure. We insisted and Jack, in typical fashion, agreed to pay for reagents and give us instrument time without charge anyway. The larger than expected concentrations, and the even more surprising match between the accumulation rates of some the metals and the accumulation rates of biogenic sediment were the subject of many discussions, all of which ended in the need for more information on the composition, fluxes and transformations of biogenic sediment in the water column and in recent sediments. This, of course, became another of Jack's specialties: his designs for sediment traps were important contributions to the evolution of this important sampling device. His studies of fluxes in a wide

  6. Structure and biomass production of one- to seven-year-old intensively cultured jack pine plantation in Wisconsin.

    Treesearch

    J. Zavitkovski; David H. Dawson

    1978-01-01

    Spacing and rotation length effects were studied for 7 years in intensively cultured jack pine stands. Production culminated at age 5 in the densest planting and progressively later in more open spacing. Biomass production was two to several times higher than in jack pine plantations grown under traditional silvicultural systems.

  7. The Bildungsroman Tradition: The Philosophical Maturation of Jack Burden in "All The King's Men"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shraah, Bassam M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to sketch out the transformation that Jack Burden--the main character in the novel--had gone through. With all the political leanings in Warren's "All the king's Men," Jack Burden seems to have had developed his own theories of dealing with life and people all through his life. He has always suffered an inferiority…

  8. Jack Michael's Musings on the 60th Anniversary of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Barbara E.; Esch, John W.; Palmer, David C.

    2017-01-01

    When the B. F. Skinner Foundation reprinted Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" in 1992, Jack Michael wrote one of its two forewords, a detailed outline of the book's purpose and scope. On the 60th anniversary of the first publication (1957) of "Verbal Behavior", Jack reflects on the book's impact and its importance to the…

  9. Jack Mezirow's Conceptualisation of Adult Transformative Learning: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleja, Colin

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of Jack Mezirow's transformative learning theory and its conceptualisation. It discusses the three major influences, namely Thomas Khun's philosophical conception of paradigm, Freire's conception of conscientisation and consciousness growth, and Habermas' domains of learning and the discussion of…

  10. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  11. Comparing jack pine slash and forest floor moisture contents and National Fire Danger Rating System predictions.

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Loomis; William A. Main

    1980-01-01

    Relations between certain slash and forest floor moisture contents and the applicable estimated time lag fuel moistures of the National Fire Danger Rating System were investigated for 1-year-old jack pine fuel types in northeastern Minnesota and central Lower Michigan. Only approximate estimates of actual fuel moisture are possible fore the relations determined, thus...

  12. Jack Nicholson: A Reel and Real-Life Contribution to Neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Manjul; Purkayastha, Moushumi; Rai, Ashutosh; Mukherjee, Kanchan K

    2017-05-01

    Though primarily considered entertainment, cinema is a mirror of society. The portrayal of neurosciences is common in cinema, but none could do it better than Jack Nicholson. We give a brief overview of his contribution to neurosciences by analyzing his acting skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ten-year height growth variation in Lake States jack pine

    Treesearch

    James P. King

    1966-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is one of the major pulpwood producing species in the Lake States. It is found on a variety of sites, but its outstanding characteristic is its ability to make early rapid growth on dry sandy soils.

  14. Development of a well-behaved site index equation: jack pine in north central Ontario

    Treesearch

    J. C. G. Goelz; T. E. Burke

    1992-01-01

    A base-age invariant site index equation for jack pine based on the Chapman-Richards function was produced that satisfied nine criteria of preferred behavior for site index equations. A difference form of the Chapman-Richards equation produced the best behavior; height equaled site index at base age, and the shape of the curves reflected the data. The data structure...

  15. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction...: (i) The airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical reaction...

  16. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction...: (i) The airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical reaction...

  17. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction...: (i) The airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical reaction...

  18. Astronaut Jack Lousma looks at map of Earth in ward room of Skylab cluster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-01

    S73-34193 (1 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, looks at a map of Earth at the food table in the ward room of the Orbital Workshop (OWS). In this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Height and seasonal growth pattern of jack pine full-sib families

    Treesearch

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1981-01-01

    Total tree height, seasonal shoot elongation, dates of growth initiation and cessation, and mean daily growth rate were measured and analyzed for a population of jack pine full-sib families derived from inter-provenance crosses. Parental provenance had no effect on these variables although this may have been due to small sample size. Progenies differed significantly...

  20. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronauts Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the Apollo Telescope Mount and the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  1. The Future of the American Faculty: An Interview with Martin J. Finkelstein and Jack H. Schuster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, R. Eugene

    2004-01-01

    Martin J. Finkelstein and Jack H. Schuster have teamed up to continue tracing the changes taking place in faculty work with their Project on the American Faculty. They have published The New Academic Generation: A Profession in Transformation (1998), co-authored with Robert Seal, and are preparing a new manuscript to appear in 2004 with a working…

  2. Mosaic Stunting in jack pine seedlings in a northern Michigan bareroot nursery

    Treesearch

    Lynette Potvin; R. Kasten Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Dana Richter

    2010-01-01

    Mosaic, or patchy, stunting of bareroot conifer seedlings is thought to be caused by deficiencies of mycorrhizal fungi following fumigation, resulting in reduced nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorus. Mosaic stunting of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings was observed in 2005 at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. We initiated a study to...

  3. AmeriFlux CA-Ojp Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Jack Pine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Black, Andrew T. [University of British Columbia

    2017-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Ojp Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Jack Pine. Site Description - 53.91634° N, 104.69203° W, elavation of 579.27 m, BOREAS 1994, BERMS climate measurements began Mar. 1997 and flux measurements Aug. 1999

  4. Impacts of fiber orientation and milling on observed crystallinity in jack pine

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Richard S. Reiner; Roderquita K. Moore; Carlos Baez

    2014-01-01

    Influences of fiber orientation and milling on wood cellulose crystallinity were studied using jack pine wood. The fiber orientation effects were measured by sampling rectangular wood blocks in radial, tangential, and cross-sectional orientations. The influence of milling was studied by analyzing the unsieved and sieved milled wood fractions (all

  5. AmeriFlux CA-SJ1 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Jack Pine forest harvested in 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Alan

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SJ1 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Jack Pine forest harvested in 1994. Site Description - 53.908408° N, 104.655885° W, elavation of 580m, BERMS climate and flux measurements began in Spring 2001

  6. AmeriFlux CA-SJ2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Jack Pine forest harvested in 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Alan; Black, Andrew T.

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SJ2 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Jack Pine forest harvested in 2002. Site Description - 53.944737° N, 104.649340° W, BERMS flux and climate measurements to begin by Mar 2003

  7. Growth of hybrid poplars, white spruce, and jack pine under various artificial lights.

    Treesearch

    Pamela S. Roberts; J. Zavitkovski

    1981-01-01

    Describes the energy consumption and biological effects of fluorescent, incandescent, and high pressure sodium lighting on the growth of poplars, white spruce, and jack pine in a greenhouse. At similar light levels the biological effects of all three light sources were similar. The incandescent lamps consumed several times more energy than the other two light...

  8. From Word to World: Reflections on the Ezra Jack Keats Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Juan Felipe

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the author's Ezra Jack Keats Award for "Calling the Doves/El Canto de las Palomas" (1995), a bilingual picture book based on his childhood in the farm working camps of Central California. Concludes that writers must stay true to the deep sources of multicultural experience, for positive change, and for the magical pictures and poems. (SG)

  9. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction...: (i) The airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical reaction...

  10. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction...: (i) The airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical reaction...

  11. Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 2c8-catalyzed Amodiaquine N-desethylation: Effect of Five Traditionally and Commonly Used Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Muthiah, Yasotha Devi; Ong, Chin Eng; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Ismail, Rusli

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbs commonly used in Southeast Asia on activity of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), an important human hepatic enzyme in drug metabolism. Materials and Methods: The selected herbs, such as Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ), Labisia pumila (LP), Echinacea purpurea (EP), Andrographis paniculata (AP), and Ginkgo biloba (GB), were subjected to inhibition studies using an in vitro CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylase assay. Inhibition parameters, inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50), and Ki values were determined to study the potency and mode of inhibition. Results: All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 with the following order of potency: LP > ELJ > GB > AP > EP. LP and ELJ inhibited potently at Ki's of 2 and 4 times the Ki of quercetin, the positive control. The inhibition by LP was uncompetitive in nature as compared to competitive or mixed type inhibition observed with other herbs. GB exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at a Ki6 times larger than quercetin Ki. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition. Conclusion: The herbs we chose represented the more commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia where collision of tradition and modernization in healthcare, if not properly managed, may lead to therapeutic misadventures. We conclude that concurrent consumption of some herbs, in particular, LP and ELJ, may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition in vivo. SUMMARY Herbs are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicines nowadays. In this study five commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia region, ELJ, LP, EP, AP and GB, were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potency on CYP2C8, an important drug-metaboliz-ing human hepatic enzyme. All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylation, with potency order of LP > ELJ > GB >AP

  12. Effects of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil and nisin alone and in combination on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis in a food model and bacterial ultrastructural changes.

    PubMed

    Pajohi, Mohamad Reza; Tajik, Hossein; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Hadian, Mojtaba

    2011-02-01

    In the face of emerging new pathogens and ever-growing health-conscious customers, food preservation technology remains on the top agenda of food industry. This study was aimed at determining the effects of the essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., alone and in combination with nisin, on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis at 8°C and 25°C in a food model (commercial barley soup) during 15 days. The essential oil alone at 8°C inhibited bacterial growth significantly compared with the control (p < 0.05). However, at 25°C, none of the concentrations of the essential oil alone showed inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. At 8°C, the combination effect of the essential oil and nisin on bacteria was noted at 0.25 μg mL(-1) for nisin and 0.05 μL mL(-1) for the essential oil (p < 0.05). The combination of nisin and the essential oil demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on the vegetative forms of bacteria at 25°C, although it was comparable to that of nisin alone at the same concentrations. Electron microscopy studies revealed a great deal of damage to B. cereus treated with a combination of nisin and the essential oil. However, the combination of nisin with the essential oil led to a complete destruction of cell wall and cytoplasm of vegetative cells of B. subtilis.

  13. Standardized Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract (PLME) inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis: The anti-cancer study with various microscopy methods.

    PubMed

    Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2017-07-01

    Over the years a number of microscopy methods have been developed to assess the changes in cells. Some non-invasive techniques such as holographic digital microscopy (HDM), which although does not destroy the cells, but helps to monitor the events that leads to initiation of apoptotic cell death. In this study, the apoptogenic property and the cytotoxic effect of P. longifolia leaf methanolic extract (PLME) against the human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) was studied using light microscope (LM), holographic digital microscopy (HDM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average IC 50 value of PLME against HeLa cells obtained by MTT and CyQuant assay was 22.00μg/mL at 24h. However, noncancerous Vero cells tested with PLME exhibited no cytotoxicity with the IC 50 value of 51.07μg/mL at 24h by using MTT assay. Cytological observations showed nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage, multinucleation, abnormalities of mitochondrial cristae, membrane blebbing, disappearance of microvilli and filopodia, narrowing of lamellipodia, holes, formation of numerous smaller vacuoles, cytoplasmic extrusions and formation of apoptotic bodies as confirmed collectively by HDM, LM, SEM and TEM. In conclusion, PLME was able to produce distinctive morphological features of HeLa cell death that corresponds to apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).

    PubMed

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Scott, Karen C; Gerlach, Trevor; Sirois, Paul; Reuter, Mike; Crewz, David W; Hill, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], nonfiber carbohydrate [NFC], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (DE) of sea grasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (Chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia). Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (L) measured after ash-extraction were also compared. Results of statistical tests (C = 0.01) revealed DM content was higher in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce (P = 0.0001), but NDF and ADF were up to threefold greater, EE (P = 0.00001) and CP (P = 0.00001) were 2-9 times less, and NFC (P = 0.0001) was 2-6 times lower in sea grass than in lettuce, on a DM basis. Chara was lower in NDF, ADF, L, EE, CP, and NFC relative to lettuce on a DM basis. Ash content (DM basis) was higher (P = 0.0001), and DE was 2-6 times lower in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce. Sea grass rhizomes had lower L and higher ash contents (DM basis) than sea grass leaves. Based on the nutrient analyses, romaine lettuce and sea grasses are not equivalent forages, which suggests that the current diet of captive Florida manatees should be reassessed.

  15. JackIn Head: Immersive Visual Telepresence System with Omnidirectional Wearable Camera.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Shunichi; Nagai, Shohei; Rekimoto, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Sharing one's own immersive experience over the Internet is one of the ultimate goals of telepresence technology. In this paper, we present JackIn Head, a visual telepresence system featuring an omnidirectional wearable camera with image motion stabilization. Spherical omnidirectional video footage taken around the head of a local user is stabilized and then broadcast to others, allowing remote users to explore the immersive visual environment independently of the local user's head direction. We describe the system design of JackIn Head and report the evaluation results of real-time image stabilization and alleviation of cybersickness. Then, through an exploratory observation study, we investigate how individuals can remotely interact, communicate with, and assist each other with our system. We report our observation and analysis of inter-personal communication, demonstrating the effectiveness of our system in augmenting remote collaboration.

  16. Cluster analysis on a sphere: Application to magnetizations from metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, Richard K.; Tarduno, John A.; Dare, Matthew S.; Mitra, Gautam; Cottrell, Rory D.

    2018-02-01

    Metasediments of the Jack Hills contain the oldest known terrestrial minerals in the form of zircons nearly 4.4 billion years old. Paleointensity data from these zircons provide evidence for a Hadean geodynamo as old as 4.2 billion years old. Given the importance of these zircons for constraining the earliest history of the core, it is vital to understand the fidelity of the zircon record. A fundamental aspect providing context for the preservation of primary magnetic signals is the nature of overprints predicted to have been imparted on rocks of the Jack Hills due to Archean to Proterozoic metamorphic events. To be viable magnetic records of a Hadean geodynamo, zircon magnetization directions should differ from these secondary magnetizations. To evaluate these secondary magnetizations, we report paleomagnetic analyses of a comprehensive sampling of 68 quartzite cobble-sized clasts from the Jack Hills metasediments ∼0.5 to 1.0 km from the Discovery Site (which has yielded the oldest zircons and paleofield estimates). While application of standard paleomagnetic tests suggests that the ensemble of cobble directions cannot be distinguished from those drawn from a random distribution, a new cluster analysis of directions on a sphere and non-parametric resampling approaches reveal significant directions amongst subsets of the data. One, isolated at the lowest temperature analyzed [200 to 300 °C, Declination (Dec.) = 316.8°, Inclination (Inc.) = - 51.1 °] appears to be dominated by the present day field. Another, isolated at higher (but still relatively low unblocking temperatures that we call "intermediate", of ∼350-500 °C, Dec. = 243.8°, Inc. = 9.5°) agrees with a magnetic overprint isolated from the secondary Cr-Fe mica fuchsite isolated from the Jack Hills Discovery site, passing a field test at the 80% confidence level. No evidence is found in our data, or in the data of others collected on similar Jack Hills lithologies, for a widespread 1 Ga

  17. Southwestern Surgical Congress Jack A. Barney award competition presenters - Where are they now?

    PubMed

    Kothari, Shanu N; Kallies, Kara J

    2017-12-01

    Resident research presentations at surgical conferences may encourage future research endeavors. 2010-2016 SWSC annual meeting programs were reviewed for presenters eligible for the Jack Barney award. Award recipients from 1987 to 2016 were included. There were 100 unique presenters eligible for the Jack Barney award, and 28 unique award recipients. Thirty-six (82%) presenters currently practice in a community setting, 5 (11%) at a university hospital, 2 (5%) internationally, and 1 (2%) in a military hospital. Scholarly articles were published by 41% of presenters. Sixteen of the 28 recipients (57%) practice in community hospitals, and 9 (32%) practice in university settings; 3 are still in training. Twenty recipients (71%) published after residency. Thirty percent and 25% of presenters and recipients are SWSC members, respectively. Peer-reviewed publications were frequent among eligible presenters and award recipients. Encouraging presenters to become SWSC members provides an opportunity for improved retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seismic analysis of the frame structure reformed by cutting off column and jacking based on stiffness ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. K.; Xu, X. S.

    2017-11-01

    The cutting off column and jacking technology is a method for increasing story height, which has been widely used and paid much attention in engineering. The stiffness will be changed after the process of cutting off column and jacking, which directly affects the overall seismic performance. It is usually necessary to take seismic strengthening measures to enhance the stiffness. A five story frame structure jacking project in Jinan High-tech Zone was taken as an example, and three finite element models were established which contains the frame model before lifting, after lifting and after strengthening. Based on the stiffness, the dynamic time-history analysis was carried out to research its seismic performance under the EL-Centro seismic wave, the Taft seismic wave and the Tianjin artificial seismic wave. The research can provide some guidance for the design and construction of the entire jack lifting structure.

  19. The Jack Wills crowd: towards a sociology of an elite subculture.

    PubMed

    King, Anthony; Smith, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    British sociologists have long been interested in youth sub-cultures. However British sociologists have tended to focus on working class subcultures and avoided engagement with exclusive sub-cultures of elite social groups. This article seeks to attend to this gap by examining the subculture of a British elite: ex-public school students at select universities in the UK in the twenty-first century. This group consists of a relatively small group of young adults, aged between 18 and 23, who attended public schools, especially one of the nine Clarendon schools (Eton, Winchester, Westminster, St. Paul's, Merchant Taylor's, Shrewsbury, Rugby, Harrow and Charterhouse), and were students at a selective group of British universities, primarily Oxford and Cambridge, Durham, Bristol, Exeter, Bath, Manchester, St Andrews and Edinburgh. The article examines the way in which this group has reconfigured and re-constituted itself in the face of globalizing challenges. Specifically, it examines the way in which participation of ex-public school students in events run by and under the patronage of the high street retailing company, Jack Wills, has played a galvanising role for this group in the last decade. The Jack Wills crowd is an example of how some young adults form exclusive social networks and reproduce prevailing forms of privilege. The social networks built around the Jack Wills subculture is likely to provide them with advantages in the job market through a prodigious network of connections and patrons. The Jack Wills subculture potentially contributions to the socio-economic reproduction of the higher professional middle classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  20. Astronaut Jack Lousma hooks up cable for rate gyro six pack during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, hooks up a 23 ft. 2 in. connecting cable for the rate gyro six pack during extravehicular activity (EVA) on August 24, 1973, as senn in this photographic reproduction taken from a color television tranmsission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The rate gyros were mounted inside the Multiple Docking Adapter opposite the Apollo Telescope Mount control and display console.

  1. Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushikubo, Takayuki; Kita, Noriko T.; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Valley, John W.

    2008-08-01

    In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60 ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically < 2 ppb). High Li concentrations in zircons (10 to 250 ppm) have also been found in igneous zircons from three continental parent rocks: granites, Li-rich pegmatites, and migmatites in pelitic metasediment. The substitution of trivalent cations (REEs and Y) in zircon correlates with Li + 1 and P + 5 , suggesting that an interstitial site for Li, as well as the xenotime substitution for P, provides charge balance for REEs. Li is thus fixed in the zircon structure by coupled substitutions, and diffusive changes in [Li] composition are rate-limited by slow diffusion of REEs. The Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios ( δ7Li = - 19 to + 13‰) about five times more variable than those recorded in primitive ocean floor basalts (2 to 8‰), but similar to continental crust and its weathering products. Values of δ7Li below - 10‰ are found in zircons that formed as early as 4300 Ma. The high Li compositions indicate that primitive magmas were not the source of Jack Hills zircons and the fractionated values of δ7Li suggest that highly weathered regolith was sampled by these early Archean magmas. These new Li data provide evidence that the parent magmas of ancient zircons from Jack Hills incorporated materials from the surface of the Earth that interacted at low temperature with liquid water. These data support the hypothesis that continental-type crust and oceans existed by 4300 Ma, within 250 million years of the formation of Earth and the low values of δ7Li suggest that weathering was extensive in the early Archean.

  2. View of Jack Lousma's hands using silverware to gather food at food station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A close-up view of Skylab 3 pilot Jack Lousma's hands using a silverware utensil to gather food at the food station, in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, had just zoomed the TV camera in for this closeup of the food tray following a series of wide shots of Lousma at the food station.

  3. A kinetic study of jack-bean urease denaturation by a new dithiocarbamate bismuth compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, D. C.; Borges, E.; Torres, M. F.; Braga, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    A kinetic study concerning enzymatic inhibitory effect of a new bismuth dithiocarbamate complex on jack-bean urease is reported. A neural network approach is used to solve the ill-posed inverse problem arising from numerical treatment of the subject. A reaction mechanism for the urease denaturation process is proposed and the rate constants, relaxation time constants, equilibrium constants, activation Gibbs free energies for each reaction step and Gibbs free energies for the transition species are determined.

  4. Rereading "The Jack-Roller:" Hidden Histories in Sociology and Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ian

    2009-01-01

    I revisit one of the iconic Chicago School studies, Clifford Shaw's "The Jack-Roller". A naive reading of Shaw's book leaves the reader with a sense of having been inducted into a melange of what we now know as "sociology" and "social work," but which to Shaw seems a coherent stance. I suggest that this is close to the heart of how things were,…

  5. Climate-diameter growth relationships of black spruce and jack pine trees in boreal Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Nirmal; Sharma, Mahadev

    2013-02-01

    To predict the long-term effects of climate change - global warming and changes in precipitation - on the diameter (radial) growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) trees in boreal Ontario, we modified an existing diameter growth model to include climate variables. Diameter chronologies of 927 jack pine and 1173 black spruce trees, growing in the area from 47°N to 50°N and 80°W to 92°W, were used to develop diameter growth models in a nonlinear mixed-effects approach. Our results showed that the variables long-term average of mean growing season temperature, precipitation during wettest quarter, and total precipitation during growing season were significant (alpha = 0.05) in explaining variation in diameter growth of the sample trees. Model results indicated that higher temperatures during the growing season would increase the diameter growth of jack pine trees, but decrease that of black spruce trees. More precipitation during the wettest quarter would favor the diameter growth of both species. On the other hand, a wetter growing season, which may decrease radiation inputs, increase nutrient leaching, and reduce the decomposition rate, would reduce the diameter growth of both species. Moreover, our results indicated that future (2041-2070) diameter growth rate may differ from current (1971-2000) growth rates for both species, with conditions being more favorable for jack pine than black spruce trees. Expected future changes in the growth rate of boreal trees need to be considered in forest management decisions. We recommend that knowledge of climate-growth relationships, as represented by models, be combined with learning from adaptive management to reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with forest management decisions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-06

    SL3-115-1833 (6 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the Aug. 6, 1973, extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the striking reflection of the Earth in Lousma?s helmet visor. This photograph was taken with a 70mm hand-held Hasselblad camera. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Variation of Time Domain Failure Probabilities of Jack-up with Wave Return Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Ahmad; Harahap, Indra S. H.; Ali, Montassir Osman Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated failure probabilities of jack up units on the framework of time dependent reliability analysis using uncertainty from different sea states representing different return period of the design wave. Surface elevation for each sea state was represented by Karhunen-Loeve expansion method using the eigenfunctions of prolate spheroidal wave functions in order to obtain the wave load. The stochastic wave load was propagated on a simplified jack up model developed in commercial software to obtain the structural response due to the wave loading. Analysis of the stochastic response to determine the failure probability in excessive deck displacement in the framework of time dependent reliability analysis was performed by developing Matlab codes in a personal computer. Results from the study indicated that the failure probability increases with increase in the severity of the sea state representing a longer return period. Although the results obtained are in agreement with the results of a study of similar jack up model using time independent method at higher values of maximum allowable deck displacement, it is in contrast at lower values of the criteria where the study reported that failure probability decreases with increase in the severity of the sea state.

  8. Jack Polynomials as Fractional Quantum Hall States and the Betti Numbers of the ( k + 1)-Equals Ideal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamaere, Christine Berkesch; Griffeth, Stephen; Sam, Steven V.

    2014-08-01

    We show that for Jack parameter α = -( k + 1)/( r - 1), certain Jack polynomials studied by Feigin-Jimbo-Miwa-Mukhin vanish to order r when k + 1 of the coordinates coincide. This result was conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane, who proposed that these Jack polynomials are model wavefunctions for fractional quantum Hall states. Special cases of these Jack polynomials include the wavefunctions of Laughlin and Read-Rezayi. In fact, along these lines we prove several vanishing theorems known as clustering properties for Jack polynomials in the mathematical physics literature, special cases of which had previously been conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane. Motivated by the method of proof, which in the case r = 2 identifies the span of the relevant Jack polynomials with the S n -invariant part of a unitary representation of the rational Cherednik algebra, we conjecture that unitary representations of the type A Cherednik algebra have graded minimal free resolutions of Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand type; we prove this for the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement in the case when the number of coordinates n is at most 2 k + 1. In general, our conjecture predicts the graded S n -equivariant Betti numbers of the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement with no restriction on the number of ambient dimensions.

  9. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  10. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.

  11. Is the lateral jack-knife position responsible for cases of transient neurapraxia?

    PubMed

    Molinares, Diana Margarita; Davis, Timothy T; Fung, Daniel A; Liu, John Chung-Liang; Clark, Stephen; Daily, David; Mok, James M

    2016-01-01

    The lateral jack-knife position is often used during transpsoas surgery to improve access to the spine. Postoperative neurological signs and symptoms are very common after such procedures, and the mechanism is not adequately understood. The objective of this study is to assess if the lateral jack-knife position alone can cause neurapraxia. This study compares neurological status at baseline and after positioning in the 25° right lateral jack-knife (RLJK) and the right lateral decubitus (RLD) position. Fifty healthy volunteers, ages 21 to 35, were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group A (RLD) and Group B (RLJK). Motor and sensory testing was performed prior to positioning. Subjects were placed in the RLD or RLJK position, according to group assignment, for 60 minutes. Motor testing was performed immediately after this 60-minute period and again 60 minutes thereafter. Sensory testing was performed immediately after the 60-minute period and every 15 minutes thereafter, for a total of 5 times. Motor testing was performed by a physical therapist who was blinded to group assignment. A follow-up call was made 7 days after the positioning sessions. Motor deficits were observed in the nondependent lower limb in 100% of the subjects in Group B, and no motor deficits were seen in Group A. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between the 2 groups with respect to the performance on the 10-repetition maximum test immediately immediately and 60 minutes after positioning. Subjects in Group B had a 10%-70% (average 34.8%) decrease in knee extension strength and 20%-80% (average 43%) decrease in hip flexion strength in the nondependent limb. Sensory abnormalities were observed in the nondependent lower limb in 98% of the subjects in Group B. Thirty-six percent of the Group B subjects still exhibited sensory deficits after the 60-minute recovery period. No symptoms were reported by any subject during the follow-up calls 7 days after positioning. Twenty

  12. Do Jack Hills Detrital Zircons Contain Records of the Early Geodynamo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Maloof, A. C.; Tailby, N. D.; Ramezani, J.; Fu, R. R.; Glenn, D. R.; Kehayias, P.; Walsworth, R. L.; Hanus, V.; Trail, D.; Watson, E. B.; Harrison, T. M.; Bowring, S. A.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Coe, R. S.; Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is unknown when Earth's dynamo magnetic field originated. With crystallization ages ranging from 3.0-4.38 Ga, detrital zircon crystals found in the Jack Hills of Western Australia might preserve a record of the missing first billion years of Earth's magnetic field history. Recently, Tarduno et al. (2015) argued that magnetization in Jack Hills zircons provides evidence for a substantial geomagnetic field dating back to their U/Pb formation ages (3.3 and 4.2 Ga). However, the identification of such ancient field records requires establishing that the zircons have avoided remagnetization since their formation. At a minimum, it should be demonstrated that they have not been remagnetized since being deposited at ~3.0 Ga. To establish the timing and intensity of the metamorphic and alteration events experienced by the zircon, we conducted 12 paleomagnetic field tests in combination with U-Pb geochronology on their host rocks (see Weiss et al. 2015, EPSL). Our data show that the Hadean zircon-bearing rocks and surrounding region have been pervasively remagnetized, with the final major overprinting likely from emplacement of the Warakurna large igneous province at 1.1 Ga (see Figure). Even if some Jack Hills zircons do record a pre-depositional magnetization, they still could have been remagnetized sometime during the 1.4 Gy between their crystallization and their deposition. First, the temperatures capable of remagnetizing magnetite inclusions are well below those that could reset a U-Pb date or result in significant discordance. Therefore, thermal events capable of completely remagnetizing Jack Hills zircons could be undetected by the techniques reported by Tarduno at al. (2015). Second, the zircons' magnetization might be dominated by secondary ferromagnetic inclusions or contamination. To address the latter possibility, we are conducting electron microscopy, x-ray tomography, and magnetic field mapping on the zircons. Our initial quantum diamond magnetometry high

  13. The use of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2017-10-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  14. Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar) and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fillets.

    PubMed

    Bastías, José M; Balladares, Pamela; Acuña, Sergio; Quevedo, Roberto; Muñoz, Ociel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of four cooking methods was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid, calcium, iron, and zinc content in salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. The moisture content of steamed salmon decreased (64.94%) compared to the control (68.05%); a significant decrease was observed in Chilean jack mackerel in all the treatments when compared to the control (75.37%). Protein content in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel significantly increased under the different treatments while the most significant decrease in lipids was found in oven cooking and canning for salmon and microwaving for Chilean jack mackerel. Ash concentration in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel did not reveal any significant differences. Iron and calcium content only had significant changes in steaming while zinc did not undergo any significant changes in the different treatments. Finally, no drastic changes were observed in the fatty acid profile in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel.

  15. Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar) and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fillets

    PubMed Central

    Balladares, Pamela; Acuña, Sergio; Quevedo, Roberto; Muñoz, Ociel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of four cooking methods was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid, calcium, iron, and zinc content in salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. The moisture content of steamed salmon decreased (64.94%) compared to the control (68.05%); a significant decrease was observed in Chilean jack mackerel in all the treatments when compared to the control (75.37%). Protein content in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel significantly increased under the different treatments while the most significant decrease in lipids was found in oven cooking and canning for salmon and microwaving for Chilean jack mackerel. Ash concentration in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel did not reveal any significant differences. Iron and calcium content only had significant changes in steaming while zinc did not undergo any significant changes in the different treatments. Finally, no drastic changes were observed in the fatty acid profile in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. PMID:28686742

  16. Tall oil precursors and turpentine in Jack and Eastern White Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    The tall oil precursors and turpentine from jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were investigated. The tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and unsaponifiables were determined by chemical fractionation of the nonvolatile diethyl ether extractives (NVEE) of these speices: (approximate % resin acids, % fatty acids, % unsaponifiables, and % acids other that fatty and resin acids) - jack pine sapwood (10, 60, 10, 20%), heartwood (38, 12, 6, 44%); eastern white pine sapwood (11, 57, 9, 22%), and heartwood (11, 18, 10, 62%). The resin acids were a mixture of the pimaricmore » and abietic acids common to pines. In addition, eastern white pine contained major amounts of the resin acid, anticopalic acid. The fatty acids were predominately oleic, linoleic, and 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acids. The unsaponsiables were a complex mixture of diterpenes and sterols (mainly campesterol and sitosterol). On treating these species with paraquat, lightwood occurred in the sapwood but not in the heartwood areas as we have oberved with other pines. The NVEE of the lightwood areas contained increased amounts of resin acids, unsaponifiables, and acids other than fatty and resin acids. The total fatty acid content was essentially unchanged. Since fatty acid components are preferentially lost by esterification with neutral alcoholic constituents in the unsaponifiables during the distillation refining of crude tall oil, the increased unsaponifiables relative to the constant fatty acid content might result in a net reduction in fatty acid recovery from lightered trees. The turpentine content of both jack and eastern white pine increased on lightering and was primarily a mixture of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-pinene.« less

  17. BOREAS RSS-4 1994 Southern Study Area Jack Pine LAI and FPAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Plummer, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The RSS-4 team collected several data sets related to leaf, plant, and stand physical, optical, and chemical properties. This data set contains leaf area indices and FPAR measurements that were taken at the three conifer sites in the BOREAS SSA during August 1993 and at the jack pine tower flux and a subset of auxiliary sites during July and August 1994. The measurements were made with LAI-2000 and Ceptometer instruments. The measurements were taken for the purpose of model parameterization and to test empirical relationships that were hypothesized between biophysical parameters and remotely sensed data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  18. A sperm-agglutinating lectin from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus).

    PubMed

    Namjuntra, P; Muanwongyathi, P; Chulavatnatol, M

    1985-04-30

    A lectin specific for N-acetylgalactosamine was isolated from seed extract of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by affinity chromatography on a Affigel-galactosamine-agarose column. The lectin possessed agglutinating activities for human and rat sperm as well as human red blood cells. It was found to have Mr = 62,000 consisting of two dissimilar subunits of Mr = 18,000 and 13,000. It also cross-reacted with an antibody against the lectin of Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera).

  19. Cross-Reactivity of Polyclonal Antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) Urease and Helicobacter pylori Urease Subunit A Fragments.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Zbigniew Jerzy; Relich, Inga; Konieczna, Iwona; Kaca, Wieslaw; Kolesinska, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Overlapping decapeptide fragments of H. pylori urease subunit A (UreA) were synthesized and tested with polyclonal antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) urease. The linear epitopes of UreA identified using the dot blot method were then examined using epitope mapping. For this purpose, series of overlapping fragments of UreA, frameshifted ± four amino acid residues were synthesized. Most of the UreA epitopes which reacted with the Jack bean urease polyclonal antibodies had been recognized in previous studies by monoclonal antibodies against H. pylori urease. Fragments 11 - 24, 21 - 33, and 31 - 42 were able to interact with the Jack bean urease antibodies, giving stable immunological complexes. However, the lack of recognition by these antibodies of all the components in the peptide map strongly suggests that a non-continuous (nonlinear) epitope is located on the N-terminal domain of UreA. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Semen characteristics, extension, and cryopreservation of Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis)

    PubMed Central

    Fitri, Wan-Nor; Wahid, Haron; Rosnina, Yusoff; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Aimi-Sarah, Zainal Abidin; Mohd-Azmi, Mohd Lila; Azlan, Che’ Amat; Azrolharith, Muhammad Rashid; Peter, Innocent Damudu; Ali Baiee, Falah Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this research is to report parameters for breeding soundness evaluation, semen extension, and cryopreservation in Rusa timorensis. Materials and Methods: Seven healthy stags were chosen for semen collection using an electroejaculator. The collections were performed twice in a breeding season between February and June 2016. Samples were collected between 2 and 3 weeks interval, collected twice for each animal. Semen was evaluated, extended, and cryopreserved using four different extenders; Andromed®, BioXcell®, Triladyl®, and a modified Tris-egg yolk combined with Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Results: R. timorensis semen characteristics according to volume (ml), color, sperm concentration (106/ml), general motility (%), progressive motility (%), and % morphology of normal spermatozoa are 0.86±0.18 ml, thin milky to milky, 1194.2±346.1 106/ml, 82.9±2.8%, 76.1±4.8%, and 83.9±4.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Semen characteristics of R. timorensis collected by electroejaculation is good allowing for cryopreservation and future artificial insemination work. The most suitable extender for Rusa deer semen is Andromed®. PMID:28831222

  1. Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) inhibits jack bean urease activity due to methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone.

    PubMed

    Rückriemen, Jana; Klemm, Oliver; Henle, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) exerts a strong antibacterial effect. Bacterial enzymes are an important target for antibacterial compounds. The enzyme urease produces ammonia and enables bacteria to adapt to an acidic environment. A new enzymatic assay, based on photometric detection of ammonia with ninhydrin, was developed to study urease activity. Methylglyoxal (MGO) and its precursor dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which are naturally present in manuka honey, were identified as jack bean urease inhibitors with IC 50 values of 2.8 and 5.0mM, respectively. Urease inhibition of manuka honey correlates with its MGO and DHA content. Non-manuka honeys, which lack MGO and DHA, showed significantly less urease inhibition. MGO depletion from manuka honey with glyoxalase reduced urease inhibition. Therefore, urease inhibition by manuka honey is mainly due to MGO and DHA. The results obtained with jack bean urease as a model urease, may contribute to the understanding of bacterial inhibition by manuka honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity–ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C.; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, ‘complementarity' and ‘selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the ‘jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity–multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems. PMID:27010076

  3. Effects of a clear-cut harvest on soil respiration in a jack pine - Lichen woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    Quantification of the components of ecosystem respiration is essential to understanding carbon (C) cycling of natural and disturbed landscapes. Soil respiration, which includes autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration from throughout the soil profile, is the second largest flux in the global carbon cycle. We measured soil respiration (soil CO2 emission) at an undisturbed mature jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) stand in Saskatchewan (old jack pine, OJP), and at a formerly continuous portion of the stand that was clear-cut during the previous winter (clear-cut, CC). Tree harvesting reduced soil CO2 emission from ???22.5 to ???9.1 mol CO2??m2 for the 1994 growing season. OJP was a small net sink of atmospheric CO2, while CC was a net source of CO2. Winter emissions were similar at both sites. Reduction of soil respiration was attributed to disruption of the soil surface and to the death of tree roots. Flux simulations for CC and OJP identify 40% of CO2 emission at the undisturbed OJP site as near-surface respiration, 25% as deep-soil respiration, and 35% as tree-root respiration. The near-surface component was larger than the estimated annual C input to soil, suggesting fast C turnover and no net C accumulation in these boreal uplands in 1994.

  4. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity-ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-03-24

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, 'complementarity' and 'selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the 'jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity-multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems.

  5. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species.

  6. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  7. Ecological Responses to Five Years of Experimental Nitrogen Application in an Upland Jack-pine Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melaschenko, N.; Berryman, S.; Straker, J.; Berg, K.; McDonough, A.; Watmough, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    A five-year experimental study was conducted to evaluate the response of an upland jack-pine (Pinus banksiana) forest to elevated levels of nitrogen (N) deposition in Northern Alberta. N deposition in the region is expected to increase with industrial expansion of oil sands activity, and there is regional interest to set N critical loads for sensitive ecosystems. In this study, N was applied as NH4NO3 above a jack-pine canopy via helicopter, annually for five years (2010-2015) at dosages equivalent to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Approximately 35% of the applied N was retained in the canopy while 65% reached understory vegetation dominated by lichens and mosses. We measured a significant increase in tissue N concentrations of common ground lichens (Cladonia mitis and C. stellaris) and ground moss (Pleurozium schreberi) as well as epiphytic lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha). On an annual basis, the applied N was primarily captured in the lichen and moss understory, dominated by C. mitis. In the highest treatments, N concentrations in C. mitis were 1.5-2.5 times greater than pre-treatment values. Peak N concentrations in the ground moss Pleurozium schreberi (1.4%) indicate that a threshold of N saturation was reached by year 3. We observed no changes in community composition of vascular and non-vascular plants, or changes in vascular plant tissue N. Chlorophyll levels in C. mitis increased with N treatment, but there was no indication of toxicity or changes to decomposition and growth. After five years of N application, only Peltigera polydactylon, a ground cyanolichen, appeared to be negatively impacted where the thalli showed necrosis at deposition loads >10kg N ha-1 yr-1. No changes to biomass or N ecosystem processes were observed. Based on these observations, we provide evidence that the first adverse ecological effects of N deposition in jack-pine stands occurred at deposition rates of 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1.

  8. Jack-knife stretching promotes flexibility of tight hamstrings after 4 weeks: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sairyo, Koichi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Hada, Yasushi; Sakai, Toshinori; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Dezawa, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Tight hamstrings are reported to be one of the causes of low back pain. However, there have been few reports on effective stretching procedures for the tight hamstrings. The so-called jack-knife stretch, an active-static type of stretching, can efficiently increase the flexibility of tight hamstrings. To evaluate hamstring tightness before and after the 4-week stretching protocol in healthy volunteer adults and patients aged under 18 years with low back pain. For understanding the hamstrings tightness, we measured two parameters including (1) finger to floor distance (FFD) and (2) pelvis forward inclination angle (PFIA). Eight healthy adult volunteers who had no lumbar or hip problems participated in this study (mean age: 26.8 years). All lacked flexibility and their FFD were positive before the experiment. Subjects performed 2 sets of the jack-knife stretch every day for 4 weeks. One set consisted of 5 repetitions, each held for 5 s. Before and during the 4-week experiment, the FFD and PFIA of toe-touching tests were measured weekly. For 17 of the sports players aged under 18, only FFD was measured. In adult volunteers, FFD was 14.1 ± 6.1 cm before the experiment and decreased to -8.1 ± 3.7 cm by the end of week 4, indicating a gain in flexibility of 22.2 cm. PFIA was 50.6 ± 8.2 before the experiment and 83.8 ± 5.8 degrees after. Before and after the experiment, the differences were significant (p < 0.05). For those aged under 18, FFD was 8.1 ± 8.0 and -9.6 ± 6.8, before and after the stretching, respectively. This difference was significant (p < 0.05). The jack-knife stretch is a useful active-static stretching technique to efficiently increase flexibility of tight hamstrings.

  9. Recovering the primary geochemistry of Jack Hills zircons through quantitative estimates of chemical alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark

    2016-10-01

    Despite the robust nature of zircon in most crustal and surface environments, chemical alteration, especially associated with radiation damaged regions, can affect its geochemistry. This consideration is especially important when drawing inferences from the detrital record where the original rock context is missing. Typically, alteration is qualitatively diagnosed through inspection of zircon REE patterns and the style of zoning shown by cathodoluminescence imaging, since fluid-mediated alteration often causes a flat, high LREE pattern. Due to the much lower abundance of LREE in zircon relative both to other crustal materials and to the other REE, disturbance to the LREE pattern is the most likely first sign of disruption to zircon trace element contents. Using a database of 378 (148 new) trace element and 801 (201 new) oxygen isotope measurements on zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, we propose a quantitative framework for assessing chemical contamination and exchange with fluids in this population. The Light Rare Earth Element Index is scaled on the relative abundance of light to middle REE, or LREE-I = (Dy/Nd) + (Dy/Sm). LREE-I values vary systematically with other known contaminants (e.g., Fe, P) more faithfully than other suggested proxies for zircon alteration (Sm/La, various absolute concentrations of LREEs) and can be used to distinguish primary compositions when textural evidence for alteration is ambiguous. We find that zircon oxygen isotopes do not vary systematically with placement on or off cracks or with degree of LREE-related chemical alteration, suggesting an essentially primary signature. By omitting zircons affected by LREE-related alteration or contamination by mineral inclusions, we present the best estimate for the primary igneous geochemistry of the Jack Hills zircons. This approach increases the available dataset by allowing for discrimination of on-crack analyses (and analyses with ambiguous or no information on spot placement or

  10. Variability and persistence of post-fire biological legacies in jack pine-dominated ecosystems of northern Lower Michigan

    Treesearch

    Daniel M. Kashian; R. Gregory Corace; Lindsey M. Shartell; Deahn M. Donner; Philip W. Huber

    2012-01-01

    On the dry, flat, jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)-dominated ecosystems of the northern Lake States and eastern Canada, wildfire behavior often produces narrow, remnant strips of unburned trees that provide heterogeneity on a landscape historically shaped by stand-replacing wildfires. We used landscape metrics to analyze a chronosequence of aerial...

  11. Seed source variation in tracheid length and specific gravity of five-year-old jack pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    James P. King

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is widely used in Lake States reforestation because of its ability to make rapid early growth on relatively infertile sites. It is a major pulpwood producing species. Since the quality and yield of pulp are so strongly influenced by tracheid length and specific gravity, information on genetic variation in these...

  12. Jack Michael's Appointments at the University of Houston and Arizona State University: Reflections from a Former Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Jack Michael was an early enthusiast for what is now called applied behavior analysis. His many seminal contributions were through early publications in applied behavior analysis and the work of the students he trained (e.g., T. Ayllon, M. M. Wolf). His close mentorship of students earned him acclaim as a teacher along with his many theoretical…

  13. Doubletalk: A Literary Pairing of "The Giver" and "We Are All in the Dumps with Jack and Guy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Barbara A.; Crook, Patricia R.

    1998-01-01

    Pairs two books that might stimulate children's literary awareness--Lois Lowry's fantasy novel, "The Giver," and Maurice Sendak's picture book, "We Are All in the Dumps with Jack and Guy." Finds that the pairing and comparisons increased understandings about each work and how complementary they really are. (PA)

  14. We Are All in the Dumps with Jack and Guy: Two Nursery Rhymes with Pictures by Maurice Sendak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Peter F.

    1994-01-01

    Describes and critiques Maurice Sendak's newest book, "We Are All in the Dumps with Jack and Guy," which includes nursery rhymes and pictures. Relates Sendak's book to the poetry of William Blake. Suggests possible readings for the book and approaches to teaching it. (HB)

  15. Effect of average growing season temperature on seedling germination, survival and growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Treesearch

    A. David; E. Humenberger

    2017-01-01

    Because jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is serotinous, it retains multiple years of cones until environmental conditions are favorable for releasing seed. These cones, which contain seed cohorts that developed under a variety of growing seasons, can be accurately aged using bud scale scars on twigs and branches. By calculating the average daily...

  16. Variability and persistence of post-fire biological legacies in jack pine-dominated ecosystems of northern Lower Michigan

    Treesearch

    Daniel Kashian; Gregory Corace; Lindsey Shartell; Deahn M. Donner; Philip Huber

    2011-01-01

    Stand-replacing wildfires have historically shaped the forest structure of dry, sandy jack pine-dominated ecosystems at stand and landscape scales in northern Lower Michigan. Unique fire behavior during large wildfire events often preserves long strips of unburned trees arranged perpendicular to the direction of fire spread. These biological legacies create...

  17. Magic Words, Magic Brush: The Art of William Butler and Jack Yeats. ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Jayne

    This curriculum unit, designed for grades 7-12, integrates various artistic disciplines with geography, history, social studies, media, and technology. This unit on William Butler Yeats, the writer, and Jack Yeats, the painter, seeks to immerse students in a study of the brothers as voices of Ireland and as two of the most renowned artists of the…

  18. Healing of the Acutely Injured Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Functional Treatment with the ACL-Jack, a Dynamic Posterior Drawer Brace

    PubMed Central

    Reischl, Nikolaus; Rönn, Karolin; Magnusson, Robert A.; Gautier, Emanuel; Jakob, Roland P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has a limited healing capacity leading to persisting instability. Hypothesis/Purpose. To study if the application of a brace, producing a dynamic posterior drawer force, after acute ACL injury reduces initial instability. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace were compared to controls treated with primary ACL reconstruction und controls treated nonsurgically with functional rehabilitation. Measurements included anterior laxity (Rolimeter), clinical scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and IKDC), and MRI evaluation. Patients were followed up to 24 months. Results. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace showed a significant improvement of anterior knee laxity comparable to patients treated with ACL reconstruction, whereas laxity persisted after nonsurgical functional rehabilitation. The failure risk (secondary reconstruction necessary) of the ACL-Jack group was however 21% (18 of 86) within 24 months. Clinical scores were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion. Treatment of acute ACL tears with the ACL-Jack brace leads to improved anterior knee laxity compared to nonsurgical treatment with functional rehabilitation. PMID:28053787

  19. Survival and growth of two intensively cultured jack pine provenances raised in Tubepak and Jiffy 7 containers

    Treesearch

    J. Zavitkovski; Howard M. Phipps

    1983-01-01

    Container type, provenance, and spacing affect survival, height and d.b.h, growth, and biomass production of intensively cultured jack pine. The Lower Michigan provenance and Tubepak grown plants performed better than the local (Wisconsin) provenance and plants raised in Jiffy 7 pellets. At age 5, biomass of Tubepak plantings was more than 100% higher than that of...

  20. Multi-gene phylogeny of jacks and pompanos (Carangidae), including placement of monotypic vadigo Campogramma glaycos.

    PubMed

    Damerau, M; Freese, M; Hanel, R

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the phylogenetic trees of jacks and pompanos (Carangidae), an ecologically and morphologically diverse, globally distributed fish family, are inferred from a complete, concatenated data set of two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I, cytochrome b) loci and one nuclear (myosin heavy chain 6) locus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences are largely congruent and show a clear separation of Carangidae into the four subfamilies: Scomberoidinae, Trachinotinae, Naucratinae and Caranginae. The inclusion of the carangid sister lineages Coryphaenidae (dolphinfishes) and Rachycentridae (cobia), however, render Carangidae paraphyletic. The phylogenetic trees also show with high statistical support that the monotypic vadigo Campogramma glaycos is the sister to all other species within the Naucratinae. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. AmeriFlux CA-Qcu Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Black Spruce/Jack Pine Cutover

    DOE Data Explorer

    Margolis, Hank A. [Université Laval

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Qcu Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Black Spruce/Jack Pine Cutover. Site Description - The ground is gently rolling with a weak slope (<5%). In mesic areas (designated as well to moderately well drained areas, according to the Canadian System of Soil Classification (Agriculture Canada Expert Committee on Soil Survey, 1983)), the soil is a ferro-humic to humic podzol covered by an organic layer having an average depth of 26 cm (Fig. 1). In humid areas, the soil is organic (imperfectly to poorly drained) with an average organic layer of 125 cm. Mesic areas accounted for approximately 75% of the total surface area of the footprint and humid areas accounted for 25%. Full-time continuous measurements eneded in 2011. Intermittent measurements are on-going as resources permit.

  2. [Malignant narcissism and sexual homicide--exemplified by the Jack Unterweger case].

    PubMed

    Haller, R

    1999-01-01

    With the syndrome of malignant narcissism, which is characterised by narcissistic personality disorder, anti-social behaviour, sadism and a marked tendency to paranoid reactions, Kernberg (1985, 1996) describes an independent form of pathological narcissism. According to Stone (1996) this is found in many mass-murderers and serial killers. On the basis of the example of Jack Unterweger the connection between malignant narcissism and sexual offence is discussed as to psychodynamic development, personality structure and psychopathology. Unterweger, who was convicted to lifelong imprisonment in 1976 for sadistic sexual murder, became a wellknown writer in prison and was released prematurely in 1990 as the Austria case of successful rehabilitation. As stated in the sentence passed against him he killed 11 prostitutes in Europe and the USA within the next 18 months, but never pleaded guilty. Psychiatric examination revealed numerous elements of malignant narcissism and the constellation of his development and life was typical of serial offenders.

  3. BOREAS RSS-4 1994 Jack Pine Leaf Biochemistry and Modeled Spectra in the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Plummer, Stephen; Lucas, Neil; Dawson, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-4 team focused its efforts on deriving estimates of LAI and leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations from remotely sensed data for input into the Forest BGC model. This data set contains measurements of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) needle biochemistry from the BOREAS SSA in July and August 1994. The data contain measurements of current and year-1 needle chlorophyll, nitrogen, lignin, cellulose, and water content for the OJP flux tower and nearby auxiliary sites. The data have been used to test a needle reflectance and transmittance model, LIBERTY (Dawson et al., in press). The source code for the model and modeled needle spectra for each of the sampled tower and auxiliary sites are provided as part of this data set. The LIBERTY model was developed and the predicted spectral data generated to parameterize a canopy reflectance model (North, 1996) for comparison with AVIRIS, POLDER, and PARABOLA data. The data and model source code are stored in ASCII files.

  4. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Gastrodia elata Bl. and Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Mori, A

    1992-12-01

    Gastrodia elata Bl. (GE) and Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks (UR) are two traditional Chinese medicinal herbal drugs, used for the treatment of convulsions and epilepsy. Their antioxidant effects in vivo and their free radical scavenging effects in vitro were investigated. Epileptogenic foci in the lateral brain of the rat were induced by the injection of ferric chloride into the lateral cortex. Both extracts significantly inhibited the increase in levels of lipid peroxide in the ipsilateral cortex, at all times observed. In addition, the two extracts also induced an early increase of activity of superoxide dismutase in the mitochondrial fraction of the ipsilateral cortex. In in vitro experiments, the two extracts exhibited significant dose-dependent scavenging effects on free radicals, using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These results suggest that the proposed antiepileptic effects of GE and UR may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of the active components in these two medicinal herbs.

  5. Kinetics and Mechanism Study of Competitive Inhibition of Jack-Bean Urease by Baicalin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lirong; Su, Jiyan; Wu, Dianwei; Yu, Xiaodan; Su, Zuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Kong, Songzhi; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Ji; Su, Ziren

    2013-01-01

    Baicalin (BA) is the principal component of Radix Scutellariae responsible for its pharmacological activity. In this study, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition by BA against jack-bean urease were investigated for its therapeutic potential. It was revealed that the IC50 of BA against jack-bean urease was 2.74 ± 0.51 mM, which was proved to be a competitive and concentration-dependent inhibition with slow-binding progress curves. The rapid formation of initial BA-urease complex with an inhibition constant of K i = 3.89 × 10−3 mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with an overall inhibition constant of K i* = 1.47 × 10−4 mM. High effectiveness of thiol protectors against BA inhibition indicated that the strategic role of the active-site sulfhydryl group of the urease was involved in the blocking process. Moreover, the inhibition of BA was proved to be reversible due to the fact that urease could be reactivated by dithiothreitol but not reactant dilution. Molecular docking assay suggested that BA made contacts with the important activating sulfhydryl group Cys-592 residues and restricted the mobility of the active-site flap. Taken together, it could be deduced that BA was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration-dependently, serving as a promising urease inhibitor for treatments on urease-related diseases. PMID:24198731

  6. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT3 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 3 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT3 was fired on March 12, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT3, 120 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the centralmore » axis and at 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 41.7 microseconds at 30 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 65.0 microseconds at 10 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 40 millimeters at 10.9 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1636 meters per second. At 40 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2056 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.80. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 64.6 kilobars at 15.7 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 2.2 microseconds.« less

  7. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT4 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 4 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT4 was fired on March 19, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT4, 120 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the centralmore » axis and at 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 64 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 44.9 microseconds at 30 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 69.5 microseconds at 10 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 50 millimeters at 13.3 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1558 meters per second. At 40 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2019 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.77. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 98.6 kilobars at 15.0 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 0.7 microseconds.« less

  8. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT5 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 5 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT5 was fired on March 17, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT5, 160 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the centralmore » axis and at 20, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 40.0 microseconds at 45 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 64.9 microseconds at 20 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 55 millimeters at 12.8 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1877 meters per second. At 65 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2277 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.82. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 78 kilobars at 11.9 and 21.2 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 4.1 microseconds.« less

  9. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT7 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 7 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT7 experiment was fired on April 3, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT7, 160 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on themore » central axis and at 20, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The PDV earliest signal extinction was 50.7 microseconds at 45 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 65.0 microseconds at 20 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 55 millimeters and at 15.2 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1447 meters per second. At 65 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2360 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.61. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 49 kilobars at 23.3 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 4.6 microseconds.« less

  10. Paleomagnetism of Hadean and Archean Detrital Zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Lima, E. A.; Alexander, E.; Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Wielicki, M. M.; Harrison, M.; Fu, R. R.; Kehayias, P.; Glenn, D. R.; Walsworth, R. L.; Araujo, J. F. D.; Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R.; Trail, D.; Watson, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    Determining the history of Earth's dynamo prior to the oldest known well-preserved rock record is one of the ultimate challenges in the field of paleomagnetism. The dynamo's early history has major implications for the evolution of the core, the initiation of plate tectonics, the physics of magnetic field generation, and the habitability of the early Earth. The only known minerals that might retain paleomagnetic records from well before 3.5 billion years ago (Ga) are detrital zircon crystals found in sedimentary rocks in Western Australia. Ranging up to 4.38 Ga in age, they are the oldest known terrestrial minerals. Tarduno et al. (2015) argued that detrital zircons contain records of an active dynamo dating back to 4.2 Ga. However, it has not been demonstrated that the zircons have escaped remagnetization during the intervening time since their formation (Weiss et al. 2016). Therefore, the age of magnetization in the Jack Hills zircons and the existence of a dynamo prior to 3.5 Ga have yet to be established. To address this issue, we have been studying the magnetism and thermal and aqueous alteration histories of single Archean and Hadean Jack Hills zircon crystals. Peak unblocking temperatures combined with electron backscatter diffraction indicate that the zircons contain inclusions of magnetite and hematite. Electron microscopy, X-ray tomography, and quantum diamond magnetometry indicate that much of the iron oxides in the zircons are associated with cracks and are therefore likely secondary. However, our newly developed Li-in-zircon geospeedometry technique shows for the first time that a small fraction of Hadean zircons retain sharp gradients in Li concentration (see figure), indicating they likely have never heated above the magnetite Curie temperature since their formation at >4 Ga. We describe thermal demagnetization and Thellier-Thellier paleointensity studies of these zircons and implications for the existence of a Hadean dynamo.

  11. Analysis of the car body stability performance after coupler jack-knifing during braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lirong; Wang, Kaiyun; Chen, Zaigang; Shi, Zhiyong; Lv, Kaikai; Ji, Tiancheng

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to improve car body stability performance by optimising locomotive parameters when coupler jack-knifing occurs during braking. In order to prevent car body instability behaviour caused by coupler jack-knifing, a multi-locomotive simulation model and a series of field braking tests are developed to analyse the influence of the secondary suspension and the secondary lateral stopper on the car body stability performance during braking. According to simulation and test results, increasing secondary lateral stiffness contributes to limit car body yaw angle during braking. However, it seriously affects the dynamic performance of the locomotive. For the secondary lateral stopper, its lateral stiffness and free clearance have a significant influence on improving the car body stability capacity, and have less effect on the dynamic performance of the locomotive. An optimised measure was proposed and adopted on the test locomotive. For the optimised locomotive, the lateral stiffness of secondary lateral stopper is increased to 7875 kN/m, while its free clearance is decreased to 10 mm. The optimised locomotive has excellent dynamic and safety performance. Comparing with the original locomotive, the maximum car body yaw angle and coupler rotation angle of the optimised locomotive were reduced by 59.25% and 53.19%, respectively, according to the practical application. The maximum derailment coefficient was 0.32, and the maximum wheelset lateral force was 39.5 kN. Hence, reasonable parameters of secondary lateral stopper can improve the car body stability capacity and the running safety of the heavy haul locomotive.

  12. Finite elements analysis of an underground collector installed by pipe-jacking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Omer, Joshua; Arias, Daniel; Pando, Luis

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a useful analysis method for estimating simultaneously the stability, stress distribution and groundwater seepage as micro - tunnel is being advanced into the ground. The research is mainly concerned with the results of a case study conducted on a project to create a long industrial collector of effluent network in the east bank of the river Avilés (north coast of Spain). This coastal city has significant port and industrial installations in its environs. The geology of the location comprises Quaternary deposits on both flanks of the estuary and includes different highly variable geotechnical behavior. The industrial effluent network, constructed in the year 2010, has a length of 13.087 km and consists of 1.5 m diameter pipes, reaching a maximum depth of 5.8 m below the surface. Only the first 7.0 km of the collector (south area) were formed using pipe-jacking method whilst the rest were formed in open excavations or surface laid. Using the commercial software RS2, a 2D finite element program for soil and rock application, the ground response to pipe jacking in pipeline installation in Avilés was analyzed. Both axi-symmetric and plane strain analyses were carried out in RS2 to simulate in 3D the ground response to pipe advancement. The results demonstrate how much of deformation there is at ground surface in the immediate vicinity of the pipeline. The main objective is to show the possible patterns of ground subsidence and tunnel stresses to inform designers as to whether the tunnel will be stable and safe.

  13. Using Transom Jack in the Human Engineering Analysis of the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and Quench Module Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Mariea C.; Alves, Jeffrey R.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the human engineering analysis performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and Quench Module Insert (MSRR-1/QMI) using Transom Jack (Jack) software. The Jack software was used to model a virtual environment consisting of the MSRR-1/QMI hardware configuration and human figures representing the 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female. The purpose of the simulation was to assess the human interfaces in the design for their ability to meet the requirements of the Pressurized Payloads Interface Requirements Document - International Space Program, Revision C (SSP 57000). Jack was used in the evaluation because of its ability to correctly model anthropometric body measurements and the physical behavior of astronauts working in microgravity, which is referred to as the neutral body posture. The Jack model allows evaluation of crewmember interaction with hardware through task simulation including but not limited to collision avoidance behaviors, hand/eye coordination, reach path planning, and automatic grasping to part contours. Specifically, this virtual simulation depicts the human figures performing the QMI installation and check-out, sample cartridge insertion and removal, and gas bottle drawer removal. These tasks were evaluated in terms of adequate clearance in reach envelopes, adequate accessibility in work envelopes, appropriate line of sight in visual envelopes, and accommodation of full size range for male and female stature maneuverability. The results of the human engineering analysis virtual simulation indicate that most of the associated requirements of SSP 57000 were met. However, some hardware design considerations and crew procedures modifications are recommended to improve accessibility, provide an adequate work envelope, reduce awkward body posture, and eliminate permanent protrusions.

  14. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  15. Analytical results and sample locality maps of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the Little Jacks Creek (ID-111-006), Big Jacks Creek (ID-111-007C), Duncan Creek (ID-111-0007B), and Upper Deep Creek (ID-111-044) Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.S.; Gent, C.A.; Bradley, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report detailing the analytical results and sample locality maps of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the Little Jacks Creek, Big Jacks Creek, Duncan Creek, and Upper Deep Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

  16. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT6 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 6 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT6 experiment was fired on April 1, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT6, 160 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on themore » central axis and at 20, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 54.2 microseconds at 30 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 64.5 microseconds at the central axis. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 55 millimeters at 14.1 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1860 meters per second. At 55 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2408 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.77. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 227 kilobars at 20.1 microseconds, indicating a late time chemical reaction in the LX-17 dead-zone. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 1.7 microseconds.« less

  17. Melting depths associated with Jack Hills zircons crystallization as revealed by in situ trace element measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profeta, L.; Ducea, M. N.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Jack Hills zircons hosted within the Narryer Gneiss Complex, Yilgarn craton have ages from 4.4 Ga up to Mesoarchean. These zircons crystallized from low temperature granitoid magmas (Harrison, 2009). Here, we use trace element measurements obtained simultaneously with U-Pb ages using LA-ICP-MS on 276 Jack Hills zircons in order to estimate the depth of melting. La/Yb are converted to whole rock equivalent values using newly determined REE -whole rock partition coefficients (Chapman et al., 2016). La/Yb are subsequently transformed into depth estimates using the correlation between whole rock La/Yb and crustal thickness put forward in Profeta et al. (2015) for modern arcs. Our data pertains to 4.2 to 3.2 Ga zircons, which are supplemented with previously published data on 4.4.-4.3 Ga zircons (Peck et al. 2001). Depth estimates are averaged over 100 Ma bins, revealing a remarkably constant trend throughout the investigated period with values around 50 ± 10 km. We interpret that these depths may not be the result of a thick continental crust, as is the case for modern arcs, but rather the existence of different melting conditions during the Hadean and Paleoarchean due to elevated thermal regimes within the mantle. The high La/Yb whole rock ratios (with computed values greater than 10) coupled with elevated mantle temperatures point towards granitoid generation from partial melting of hydrated basalts (e.g. Martin et al., 2014). [1] Harrison, T.M., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 37, 479-505 (2009). [2] Chapman, J. B. et al., Chem. Geol. 439, 59-70 (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.06.014. [3] Profeta, L. et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 17786 (2015). doi: 10.1038/srep17786 [4] Peck, W. et al., Cosmochim. Acta 65, 4215-4229 (2001). doi: 10.1016/S0016-7037(01)00711-6 [5] Martin, H. et al. Lithos 198, 1-13 (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2014.02.017

  18. New Hf isotope data from the Jack Hills zircons: constraints on the Hadean crustal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelin, Y.; Davis, D.; Lee, D.

    2004-05-01

    Here we present a follow-up of our study of the "older" population of detrital zircons from the Jack Hills metaconglomerate W-74 [1]. We report Lu-Hf data for zircon grains, which have been previously analyzed with a number of techniques: BSE and CL imaging, detailed U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology, trace element concentrations, and oxygen isotopic compositions. After completion of non-destructive SIMS analyses and imaging, the zircons were extracted from the mounts, dissolved and analyzed for U-Pb and Lu-Hf using isotope dilution. Twenty five grains were air abraded before digestion, and eight grains were digested without abrasion. Four grains were cut, and the fragments were analyzed for U-Pb and Lu-Hf separately. The 207Pb/206Pb ages determined by isotope dilution vary between 3788-4186 Ma; the maximum SHRIMP spot 207Pb/206Pb ages of the same grains are between 3871-4276 Ma. The spot 207Pb/206Pb ages averaged over each grain are close to the whole grain isotope dilution values. The U-Pb discordance depends mainly on whether the grains were abraded: the median discordance of 27 abraded grains and fragments is 2.7 (the range is -0.4 to 20.2), whereas the median discordance of 11 unabraded grains and fragments is 66.5 (the range is 20.5 to 83.5). The epsilon176Hf values, calculated using the whole grain TIMS 207Pb/206Pb ages and the 176Lu decay constant of 1.865*10-11, are between -1.4 and -10.6. Using maximum SHRIMP spot 207Pb/206Pb ages and the same decay constant yields the range of epsilon176Hf of 0.1 to -8.6. If the decay constant of 1.983*10-11 is used instead, then the range of epsilon176Hf becomes 4.7 to -5.0 using the whole grain ages, or 6.3 to -3.0 using the maximum SHRIMP spot ages. Grain fragment analyses show internal variations of initial 176Hf/177Hf in three grains out of five. This observation is consistent with multi-episodic zircon growth rather than with ancient Pb loss. In the presentation we shall discuss the prospect of reliable interpretation of

  19. A Change in Igneous Activity of the Jack Hills Zircon Sources ca. 3.9 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    New Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperature (Txlln) data for <4 Ga Jack Hills zircons reveal that the tight clustering of Hadean grains around a Txlln of 680°C, possibly indicative of felsic-to-intermediate minimum melting conditions, continues to ~3.92 Ga. Between 3.92-3.82 Ga the 680°C clustering ceases and most concordant grains cluster around an apparent Txlln of 610°C. A small group of zircons with higher Txlln (~750°C), present during the Hadean, is also observed during this period. After 3.82 Ga a Hadean-like distribution resumes for ~100 Ma. This large, concordant, low-Ti group at ~3.9 Ga is statistically distinct from the Hadean distribution and appears to be unique in the Jack Hills zircon record. The existence of coeval high- and low-Ti groups suggests that two distinct zircon-forming processes are distinguishable ~3.9 Ga, unlike during the Hadean. The significant numbers of zircons with apparent Txlln below 600°C may be suggestive of subsolidus formation, since igneous units with solidii below 600°C are relatively rare. The higher-Ti group is more consistent with an intermediate to mafic igneous origin but metamorphic overprinting or subsolidus formation at granulite grade cannot be ruled out by Txlln alone. A substantial proportion of the high-Ti group display oscillatory and disrupted oscillatory zoning in cathodoluminescence images, usually indicative of igneous origins and later metamorphism, respectively; most low-Ti grains are homogeneous. Several of each group display patchy zonation indicative of metamorphic overprinting. Although several grains with apparent Txlln >600°C display oscillatory zonation, the majority of the low-Ti group do not show textural evidence for igneous origins. We interpret these results to indicate the transition from a mechanism(s) that produced dominantly 680°C apparent zircon temperatures at ca. 3.9 Ga to include a new zircon-forming process in the sediment source(s), likely a protracted period of metamorphism

  20. Jack'd, a Mobile Social Networking Application: A Site of Exclusion Within a Site of Inclusion.

    PubMed

    Bartone, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    User-generated smartphone applications have created a new level of virtual connectivity for gay males, one in which users can create profiles and meet other users as nearby or as far away as possible. For those within close proximity, the other users can be considered their "virtual neighbors." Although the applications are theoretically designed to be places of inclusion and not exclusion, where any gay male with economic means can download an application, many profiles have been created that exclude other users. Through an examination of profiles on one such application, Jack'd, exclusion is found in the way users celebrate and reinforce ideas of traditional masculinity and denigrate and reinforce stereotypic ideas of femininity embodied by some gay men. Jack'd, and other user-generated smartphone applications, can be read as virtual neighborhoods where one is excluded based on their gender performance.

  1. On the Eicosanoid Trail with John Vane and Jack McGiff: 1974-1976. A personal reminiscence.

    PubMed

    Flower, R J

    2015-07-01

    In this brief personal reminiscence I comment upon the friendship and mutual understanding that arose between two great scientists and co-travellers, John Vane and Jack McGiff. I relate the events that led up to their meeting and focus on the brief period of time when they worked together on eicosanoid pharmacology in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  3. Non-reef environments impact the diversification of extant jacks, remoras and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Marramà, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Giorgio; Santini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the exception of requiem sharks, all the groups showing a higher level of diversity in reefs than in non-reef habitats have diets based predominantly on plankton, algae or benthic invertebrates. Here we explore the pattern of diversification of carangoid fishes, a clade that includes numerous piscivorous species (e.g. trevallies, jacks and dolphinfishes), using time-calibrated phylogenies as well as ecological and morphological data from both extant and fossil species. The study of carangoid morphospace suggests that reef environments played a role in their early radiation during the Eocene. However, contrary to the hypothesis of a reef-association-promoting effect, we show that habitat shifts to non-reef environments have increased the rates of morphological diversification (i.e. size and body shape) in extant carangoids. Piscivory did not have a major impact on the tempo of diversification of this group. Through the ecological radiation of carangoid fishes, we demonstrate that non-reef environments may sustain and promote processes of diversification of different marine fish groups, at least those including a large proportion of piscivorous species. PMID:27807262

  4. An Audio Jack-Based Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Sensor for Point-of-Care Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haowei; Sun, Alex; Venkatesh, A G; Hall, Drew A

    2017-02-01

    Portable and easy-to-use point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices hold high promise for dramatically improving public health and wellness. In this paper, we present a mobile health (mHealth) immunoassay platform based on audio jack embedded devices, such as smartphones and laptops, that uses electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to detect binding of target biomolecules. Compared to other biomolecular detection tools, this platform is intended to be used as a plug-and-play peripheral that reuses existing hardware in the mobile device and does not require an external battery, thereby improving upon its convenience and portability. Experimental data using a passive circuit network to mimic an electrochemical cell demonstrate that the device performs comparably to laboratory grade instrumentation with 0.3% and 0.5° magnitude and phase error, respectively, over a 17 Hz to 17 kHz frequency range. The measured power consumption is 2.5 mW with a dynamic range of 60 dB. This platform was verified by monitoring the real-time formation of a NeutrAvidin self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a gold electrode demonstrating the potential for POC diagnostics.

  5. Composition and Biological Activities of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack Essential Oil from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dosoky, Noura S.; Satyal, Prabodh; Gautam, Tilak P.; Setzer, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, a small tropical evergreen shrub growing in Nepal, has numerous uses in traditional medicine for treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, stomach ache, headache, edema, thrombosis, and blood stasis. The present study investigated the chemical composition and bioactivities of the leaf essential oil from M. paniculata from Nepal. The essential oil from leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and a detailed chemical analysis was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was screened for antimicrobial activity using the microbroth dilution test, for nematicidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans, and for lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). A total of 76 volatile components were identified from the essential oil. The major components were methyl palmitate (11.1%), isospathulenol (9.4%), (E,E)-geranyl linalool (5.3%), benzyl benzoate (4.2%), selin-6-en-4-ol (4.0%), β-caryophyllene (4.0%), germacrene B (3.6%), germacrene D (3.4%), and γ-elemene (3.2%). The essential oil showed no antibacterial activity, marginal antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 313 μg/mL), a moderate activity against A. salina (LC50 = 41 μg/mL), and a good nematicidal activity against C. elegans (LC50 = 37 μg/mL). PMID:28930117

  6. Development of observational learning during school formation in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohji; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

    2014-03-01

    We assessed whether the development of observational learning in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles corresponds with that of their schooling behaviour. Schooling behaviour was quantitatively analyzed by nearest neighbour distance and separation angle in two size classes of fish, 20-mm and 40-mm in body length. Observer and non-observer fish with matching sizes were conditioned to pellets by temporarily stopping aeration. Observer fish were provided with five observation trials of other individuals feeding near an air stone when aeration was stopped. After the observation trial, fish were conditioned to pellets with the stop of aeration, and then the learning process was evaluated by the increase in the association with the feeding area when aeration was stopped. In 20-mm fish, which were at an immature stage of schooling behaviour, there was no difference in the learning process between observer and non-observer fish. In contrast, 40-mm fish were confirmed to have a well-developed schooling behaviour, and the observer learnt the feeding area more efficiently than the non-observer. This study provides evidence that observational learning develops along with the development of the social interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Purification and general properties of argininosuccinate lyase from jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Gerald A.; Naylor, Aubrey W.

    1969-01-01

    1. Argininosuccinate lyase (EC 4.3.2.1) from jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC] seeds was purified 532-fold from an acetone–butanol-dried powder. 2. The enzyme functions reversibly and exhibits maximum stability at 16°. 3. At 16° it has a half-life (t½) of 263min. 4. The enzyme is both cold-labile (t½ 131min. at 0°) and heat-inactivated (t½ 74min. at 38°); inactivation appears to be irreversible. 5. Treatment of the acetone–butanol-extracted powder with sodium dodecyl sulphate increased the sensitivity of the enzyme to temperature (t½ 70min. at 0°; t½ 23min. at 38°). 6. Addition, to the purified enzyme, of a fraction containing lipid from the seed increased the half-life to about 510min. at either 0° or 38°. 7. Arginine or homoarginine, and to a smaller extent some other amino acids or fumarate, protected the enzyme from cold-inactivation. 8. Reactivation attempts with both the cold- and heat-inactivated enzyme failed. 9. The Km value for argininosuccinate at pH7·5 is 1·3×10−4. 10. The enzyme was inactivated completely within 15min. at 16° by 0·5mm-p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and subsequent exposure to 5mm-cysteine had no restorative effect. PMID:5801668

  8. Within crown variation in the relationship between foliage biomass and sapwood area in jack pine.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Robert; Berninger, Frank; Ung, Chhun-Huor; Mäkelä, Annikki; Swift, D Edwin; Zhang, S Y

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between sapwood area and foliage biomass is the basis for a lot of research on eco-phyisology. In this paper, foliage biomass change between two consecutive whorls is studied, using different variations in the pipe model theory. Linear and non-linear mixed-effect models relating foliage differences to sapwood area increments were tested to take into account whorl location, with the best fit statistics supporting the non-linear formulation. The estimated value of the exponent is 0.5130, which is significantly different from 1, the expected value given by the pipe model theory. When applied to crown stem sapwood taper, the model indicates that foliage biomass distribution influences the foliage biomass to sapwood area at crown base ratio. This result is interpreted as being the consequence of differences in the turnover rates of sapwood and foliage. More importantly, the model explains previously reported trends in jack pine sapwood area at crown base to tree foliage biomass ratio.

  9. Non-reef environments impact the diversification of extant jacks, remoras and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha).

    PubMed

    Frédérich, Bruno; Marramà, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Giorgio; Santini, Francesco

    2016-11-16

    Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the exception of requiem sharks, all the groups showing a higher level of diversity in reefs than in non-reef habitats have diets based predominantly on plankton, algae or benthic invertebrates. Here we explore the pattern of diversification of carangoid fishes, a clade that includes numerous piscivorous species (e.g. trevallies, jacks and dolphinfishes), using time-calibrated phylogenies as well as ecological and morphological data from both extant and fossil species. The study of carangoid morphospace suggests that reef environments played a role in their early radiation during the Eocene. However, contrary to the hypothesis of a reef-association-promoting effect, we show that habitat shifts to non-reef environments have increased the rates of morphological diversification (i.e. size and body shape) in extant carangoids. Piscivory did not have a major impact on the tempo of diversification of this group. Through the ecological radiation of carangoid fishes, we demonstrate that non-reef environments may sustain and promote processes of diversification of different marine fish groups, at least those including a large proportion of piscivorous species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Uncaria rhynchophylla (miq) Jack plays a role in neuronal protection in kainic acid-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Su, Shan-Yu; Jan, Ya-Min; Hsieh, Ching-Tou; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack (UR) is one of many Chinese herbs. Our previous studies have shown that UR has both anticonvulsive and free radical-scavenging activities in kainic acid (KA)-treated rats. The aim of the present study was to use the effect of UR on activated microglia, nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic cells to investigate its function in neuroproction in KA-treated rats. UR of 1.0 or 0.5 g/kg was orally administered for 3 days (first day, second day, and 30 min prior to KA administration on the third day), or 10 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 30 min prior to KA (2 microg/2 microl) was injected into the right hippocampus region of Sprague-Dawly rats. ED1 (mouse anti rat CD68), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells were observed in the hippocampus region. The results indicated that 1.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg of UR and 10 mg/kg of L-NAME reduced the counts of ED1, nNOS, iNOS immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells in KA-treated rats. This study demonstrates that UR can reduce microglia activation, nNOS, iNOS and apoptosis, suggesting that UR plays a neuro-protective role against neuronal damage in KA-treated rats.

  11. Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Carpenter, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Caranx hippos species complex comprises three extant species: crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) (Linnaeus, 1766) from both the western and eastern Atlantic oceans; Pacific crevalle jack (Caranx caninus) Gu??nther, 1868 from the eastern Pacific Ocean; and longfin crevalle jack (Caranx fischeri) new species, from the eastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea and Ascension Island. Adults of all three species are superficially similar with a black blotch on the lower half of the pectoral fin, a black spot on the upper margin of opercle, one or two pairs of enlarged symphyseal canines on the lower jaw, and a similar pattern of breast squamation. Each species has a different pattern of hyperostotic bone development and anal-fin color. The two sympatric eastern Atlantic species also differ from each other in number of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and in large adults of C. fischeri the lobes of these fins are longer and the body is deeper. Caranx hippos from opposite sides of the Atlantic are virtually indistinguishable externally but differ consistently in the expression of hyperostosis of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore. The fossil species Caranx carangopsis Steindachner 1859 appears to have been based on composite material of Trachurus sp. and a fourth species of the Caranx hippos complex. Patterns of hyperostotic bone development are compared in the nine (of 15 total) species of Caranx sensu stricto that exhibit hyperostosis.

  12. Physical and Chemical Characterization Of Greater Yam (Dioscorea Alata) And Jack Bean (Canavalia Ensiformis) - Based Composite Flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affandi, D. R.; Praseptiangga, D.; Nirmala, F. S.; Sigit Amanto, B.; Atmaka, W.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is a tropical country that has great potential in agriculture. Tubers and legumes as examples of the potential commodities are needed to be more developed. Flour production is one of the best alternatives to be chosen as the downstream stage of the tubers and legumes utilization. Greater yam (Dioscorea alata) and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) were used in this study. This study was conducted to determine best formula of composite flour based on physical, chemical, and functional characterization of composite flour produced. Variations of formula used was the ratio of greater yam flour and jack bean flour, which were 85:15 (F1), 70:30 (F2), 55:45 (F3), respectively, and this study was conducted using completely randomized design (CRD). The formula variations didn’t show any significant effect on the water absorption capability, water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), swelling power, and starch content of the composite flour. However, the formula variations had a significant influence on the colour, proximate parameters, amylose and amylopectin content, resistant starch content, dietary fibre, total phenol, and antioxidant activity of the composite flour produced. Considering the results of physical, chemical, and functional characteristics of composite flour, formula (F1) was selected as the best composite flour developed from greater yam and jack bean flours.

  13. Observed chlorine concentrations during Jack Rabbit I and Lyme Bay field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph; Huq, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    As part of planning for a series of field experiments where large quantities (up to 20 tons) of pressurized liquefied chlorine will be released, observations from previous chlorine field experiments are analyzed to estimate the ranges of chlorine concentrations expected at various downwind distances. In five field experiment days during the summer 2010 Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field trials, up to two tons of chlorine were released and concentrations were observed at distances, x, from 25 to 500 m. In the 1927 Lyme Bay (LB) experiments, there were four days of trials, where 3-10 tons of chlorine were released in about 15 min from the back of a ship. Concentrations were sampled at LB from four ships sailing across the cloud path at downwind distances in the range from about 350 to 3000 m. Thus, the distances from which JR I concentrations were available slightly overlapped the LB distances. One-minute arc-maximum chlorine concentrations, C (g/m3), were analyzed from four JR I trials and two LB trials. Normalized concentrations (Cu/Q) were plotted versus x (m), where u (m/s) is measured wind speed at heights of 2-10 m and Q (g/s) is continuous mass release rate. It is found that the JR I and LB Cu/Q observations smoothly merge with each other and fall along a line with approximate slope of -2 at distances beyond about 200 m (i.e., Cu/Q is proportional to x-2). At x < 200 m, where dense gas effects are more important, the slope is less (about -1.5). Most of the data points are within a factor of two of the "best-fit" line.

  14. Multiple Hadean crystallization and reworking events preserved in individual Jack Hills zircon grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Jeremy; Nemchin, Alexander; Whitehouse, Martin; Snape, Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Five Hadean (>3.9 Ga) aged zircon grains from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt have been investigated by an improved secondary ion mass spectrometry scanning ion image technique. This technique has the ability to obtain accurate and precise full U-Pb systematics on a scale <5 μm, as well as document the spatial distribution of U, Th and Pb. All five of the grains investigated here have complex cathodoluminescence patterns that correlate to different U, Th, and Pb concentration domains. The age determinations for these different chemical zones indicate multiple reworking events that are preserved in each grain and have affected the primary crystalized zircon on the scale of <10 μm, smaller than traditional ion microprobe spot analyses. These new scanning ion images and age determinations suggest that roughly half, if not all, previous analyses, including those of trace elements and various isotope systems, could have intersected several domains of unfractured zircon, thus making the interpretation of any trace element, Hf, or O isotopic data tenuous. Lastly, all of the grains analyzed here preserve at least two distinguishable 207Pb/206Pb ages. These ages are preserved in core-rim and/or complex internal textural relationships. These secondary events took place during at ca. 4.3, 4.2, 4.1, 4.0, and 3.7 Ga potentially indicating a sequence of magmatic and/or metamorphic events that recycled some volume of early crust during the Hadean and into Paleo- to Mesoarchean several times with an apparent periodicity of ca. 100 Ma.

  15. Evaluating the Feasibility of Five Candidate DNA Barcoding Loci for Philippine Lasianthus Jack (Lasiantheae: Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Arshed, Muhammad Jefte C; Valdez, Marcos B; Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    The pantropical genus Lasianthus Jack is identified for high phenotypic plasticity making traditional taxonomic identification difficult. Having some members with important medicinal properties, a precise complimentary identification through DNA barcoding is needed for species delineation. In this study, 12 samples representing six Philippine Lasianthus species were used to determine the most efficient barcoding loci among the cpDNA markers ( mat K, rbc L, rps 16, and trn T-F) and nrDNA (ITS) based on the criteria of universality, discriminatory power, and resolution of species. The results revealed that ITS has the recommended primer universality, greatest interspecific divergences, and average resolution of species. Among the cpDNA markers, mat K and rbc L are recommended but with minimal resolution of species. While trn T-F showed moderate interspecific variations and resolution of Lasianthus species, rps 16 has the lowest interspecific divergence and resolution of species. Consequently, ITS is the potential ideal DNA barcode for Lasianthus species. ITS, mat K, and rps 16 markers have the excellent amplification and sequence qualityITS marker has the highest interspecific divergence with the maximum values, followed by mat K, rbc L, trn T-F, and rps 16, respectivelyAll markers except rps 16 yielded average resolution to Lasianthus speciesITS marker is the most ideal locus in terms of excellent universality, high interspecific discriminatory ability, and average species resolution. Abbreviations used: ITS: Internal Transcribe Spacer, mat K: maturase K, rbc L: ribulose-1,5-biphospahte-carboxylase, rps 16: ribosomal protein 16 small subunit gene.

  16. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  17. Simultaneous estimation of 16α-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14) Z-dien-15,16-olide from Polyalthia longifolia and its metabolite in hamster plasma: application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, R S; Kumar, Devendra; Chhonker, Y S; Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Suriya P; Sashidhara, Koneni V; Jain, G K

    2012-05-01

    A selective and sensitive LC-MS-MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation and pharmacokinetic studies of 16α-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14) Z-dien-15,16-olide (K-09) obtained from Polyalthia longifolia and its metabolite (K-9T), a novel antidyslipidemic agent. Sample clean-up involved liquid-liquid extraction of both the analytes and internal standard (rosuvastatin) from 200 μL of hamster plasma. The analytes were chromatographically separated on a Symmetry-Shield C₁₈ (5 µm, 4.6 × 150 mm) column, using acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous formic acid (92:08, v/v) as the mobile phase. Detection was performed using negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The MS/MS response was linear over the concentration range 1.56-200 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient (r²) of 0.998 or better. The within- and between-batch precisions (relative standard deviation, %RSD) and the accuracy (percentage bias) were within acceptable limits as per FDA guidelines. The validated method was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic parameters of K-09 and metabolite after oral administration. This method will therefore be highly useful for future studies of K-09 and metabolite K-9T pharmacokinetics in preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Differential effects of plant ontogeny and damage type on phloem and foliage monoterpenes in jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Colgan, L Jessie

    2012-08-01

    Coniferous trees have both constitutive and inducible defences that deter or kill herbivores and pathogens. We investigated constitutive and induced monoterpene responses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to a number of damage types: a fungal associate of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey & R.W. Davidson); two phytohormones, methyl jasmonate (MJ) and methyl salicylate (MS); simulated herbivory; and mechanical wounding. We only included the fungal, MJ and mechanical wounding treatments in the field experiments while all treatments were part of the greenhouse studies. We focused on both constitutive and induced responses between juvenile and mature jack pine trees and differences in defences between phloem and needles. We found that phytohormone applications and fungal inoculation resulted in the greatest increase in monoterpenes in both juvenile and mature trees. Additionally, damage types differentially affected the proportions of individual monoterpenes: MJ-treated mature trees had higher myrcene and β-pinene than fungal-inoculated mature trees, while needles of juveniles inoculated with the fungus contained higher limonene than MJ- or MS-treated juveniles. Although the constitutive monoterpenes were higher in the phloem of juveniles than mature jack pine trees, the phloem of mature trees had a much higher magnitude of induction. Further, induced monoterpene concentrations in juveniles were higher in phloem than in needles. There was no difference in monoterpene concentration between phytohormone applications and G. clavigera inoculation in mature trees, while in juvenile trees MJ was different from both G. clavigera and simulated herbivory in needle monoterpenes, but there was no difference between phytohormone applications and simulated herbivory in the phloem.

  19. Zn uptake, physiological response and stress attenuation in mycorrhizal jack bean growing in soil with increasing Zn concentrations.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Sara A L; Gratão, Priscila L; Schiavinato, Marlene A; Silveira, Adriana P D; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2009-06-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on Canavalia ensiformis growth, nutrient and Zn uptake, and on some physiological parameters in response to increasing soil Zn concentrations was studied. Treatments were applied in seven replicates in a 2 x 4 factorial design, consisting of the inoculation or not with the AMF Glomus etunicatum, and the addition of Zn to soil at the concentrations of 0, 100, 300 and 900 mg kg(-1). AMF inoculation enhanced the accumulation of Zn in tissues and promoted biomass yields and root nodulation. Mycorrhizal plants exhibited relative tolerance to Zn up to 300 mg kg(-1) without exhibiting visual symptoms of toxicity, in contrast to non-mycorrhizal plants which exhibited a significant growth reduction at the same soil Zn concentration. The highest concentration of Zn added to soil was highly toxic to the plants. Leaves of plants grown in high Zn concentration exhibited a Zn-induced proline accumulation and also an increase in soluble amino acid contents; however proline contents were lower in mycorrhizal jack beans. Plants in association or not with the AMF exhibited marked differences in the foliar soluble amino acid profile and composition in response to Zn addition to soil. In general, Zn induced oxidative stress which could be verified by increased lipid peroxidation rates and changes in catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. In summary, G. etunicatum was able to maintain an efficient symbiosis with jack bean plants in moderately contaminated Zn-soils, improving plant performance under those conditions, which is likely to be due to a combination of physiological and nutritional changes caused by the intimate relation between fungus and plant. The enhanced Zn uptake by AMF inoculated jack bean plants might be of interest for phytoremediation purposes.

  20. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  1. Was Jack the Ripper a Slaughterman? Human-Animal Violence and the World’s Most Infamous Serial Killer

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Andrew; Watson, Katherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The identity of Jack the Ripper remains one of the greatest unsolved crime mysteries in history. Jack was notorious both for the brutality of his murders and also for his habit of stealing organs from his victims. His speed and skill in doing so, in conditions of poor light and haste, fueled theories he was a surgeon. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch from one of his victims has revealed several key aspects that strongly suggest he had no professional surgical training. Instead, the technique used was more consistent with that of a slaughterhouse worker. There were many small-scale slaughterhouses in East London in the 1880s, within which conditions were harsh for animals and workers alike. The brutalizing effects of such work only add to concerns highlighted by modern research that those who commit violence on animals are more likely to target people. Modern slaughterhouses are more humane in some ways but more desensitizing in others, and sociological research has indicated that communities with slaughterhouses are more likely to experience the most violent of crimes. The implications for modern animal slaughtering, and our social reliance on slaughterhouses, are explored. Abstract Hundreds of theories exist concerning the identity of “Jack the Ripper”. His propensity for anatomical dissection with a knife—and in particular the rapid location and removal of specific organs—led some to speculate that he must have been surgically trained. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch of one of his victims has revealed several aspects of incisional technique highly inconsistent with professional surgical training. Related discrepancies are also apparent in the language used within the only letter from Jack considered to be probably authentic. The techniques he used to dispatch his victims and retrieve their organs were, however, highly consistent with techniques used within the slaughterhouses of the day. East London in the 1880s had

  2. Characterization of inclusions in terrestrial impact formed zircon: Constraining the formation conditions of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltys, J. P.; Wielicki, M. M.; Sizemore, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the discovery and subsequent geochemical analysis of Hadean terrestrial material (e.g. detrital zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia), a dramatic paradigm shift has occurred in the hypothesized near surface conditions of the first 500 million years of Earth's evolution. From a hellish setting riddled with impactors and not fit for life to a much milder environment that may have been uniquely suitable for the origin of life. Geochemical analyses of these ancient materials have been used to suggest the presence of water at or near the surface as well as the existence of continental crust during the Hadean, both of which have been suggested as necessary for the origin of life. However, the intensity of extraterrestrial bombardment during the Hadean and the effects of such events on the origin of life remains poorly understood. Clearly, as evidenced by Phanerozoic impact events, extraterrestrial impactors have the potential to dramatically effect the environment, particularly the biosphere. Early Earth likely experienced multiple large impact events, as evidenced by the lunar record, however whether those impacts were sufficient to frustrate the origin of life remains an open question. Although multiple lines of evidence, including the inclusion population, suggest the formation of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills as crystallizing in an under-thrust environment from S-type magmas, a recent study has suggested their formation in an impact melt environment analogous to a portion of the Sudbury Igneous Complex at the Sudbury impact structure. To determine between these two formation scenarios we have under-taken an inclusion study of terrestrial impact formed zircon from four of the largest terrestrial impact structures (Sudbury, Canada; Manicouagan, Canada; Vredefort, South Africa; Morokweng, South Africa), to compare to the vast inclusion dataset that exists for Jack Hills zircon. Preliminary data suggests a different inclusion population, from Hadean zircon

  3. Automated detection and mapping of crown discolouration caused by jack pine budworm with 2.5 m resolution multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckie, Donald G.; Cloney, Ed; Joyce, Steve P.

    2005-05-01

    Jack pine budworm ( Choristoneura pinus pinus (Free.)) is a native insect defoliator of mainly jack pine ( Pinus banksiana Lamb.) in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. Periodic outbreaks of this insect, which generally last two to three years, can cause growth loss and mortality and have an important impact ecologically and economically in terms of timber production and harvest. The jack pine budworm prefers to feed on current year needles. Their characteristic feeding habits cause discolouration or reddening of the canopy. This red colouration is used to map the distribution and intensity of defoliation that has taken place that year (current defoliation). An accurate and consistent map of the distribution and intensity of budworm defoliation (as represented by the red discolouration) at the stand and within stand level is desirable. Automated classification of multispectral imagery, such as is available from airborne and new high resolution satellite systems, was explored as a viable tool for objectively classifying current discolouration. Airborne multispectral imagery was acquired at a 2.5 m resolution with the Multispectral Electro-optical Imaging Sensor (MEIS). It recorded imagery in six nadir looking spectral bands specifically designed to detect discolouration caused by budworm and a near-infrared band viewing forward at 35° was also used. A 2200 nm middle infrared image was acquired with a Daedalus scanner. Training and test areas of different levels of discolouration were created based on field observations and a maximum likelihood supervized classification was used to estimate four classes of discolouration (nil-trace, light, moderate and severe). Good discrimination was achieved with an overall accuracy of 84% for the four discolouration levels. The moderate discolouration class was the poorest at 73%, because of confusion with both the severe and light classes. Accuracy on a stand basis was also good, and regional and within stand

  4. Carbon combustion in boreal black spruce and jack pine stands of the Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, X. J.; Baltzer, J. L.; Cumming, S.; Day, N.; Goetz, S. J.; Johnstone, J. F.; Rogers, B. M.; Turetsky, M. R.; Mack, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Increased fire frequency, extent, and severity is expected to strongly impact the structure and function of northern ecosystems. One of the most important functions of the boreal forest is its ability to sequester and store carbon (C). Increases in combustion of vegetation and organic soils, associated with an intensifying fire regime, could shift this biome across a C cycle threshold: from net accumulation of C from the atmosphere over multiple fire cycles, to a net loss, which in turn would cause a positive feedback to climate warming. In order for this shift to occur, fires would have to release old carbon that escaped combustion in one or more previous fires. In this study, we examined boreal black spruce and jack pine forests that burned during the 2014 fire season in the Northwest Territories, Canada. We assessed both aboveground and soil organic layer (SOL) combustion, with the goal of determining how fire weather, site environmental conditions, and pre-fire stand characteristics affect total C emissions. On average 3.35 Kg C /m2 was combusted and almost 90% of this can be attributed to combustion of the SOL. Our results indicate that the greatest carbon combustion occurs at mature black spruce sites in intermediately drained landscape positions and that variables associated with fire weather and date of burn are not important predictors of C combustion. We then used radiocarbon dating of the residual soil organic layer to determine the maximum age of soil C lost. Dates of the residual surface organic layers in a low ( 5 cm) and high ( 17 cm) severity burn were approximately 1995 and 1900, respectively. These preliminary results indicate that our metrics of burn depth are related to age of the soil C lost and suggest that high severity burns can result in combustion of old C. Using these data, we aim to determine if there are ecosystem, landscape, or regional controls that either facilitate or protect old C loss from combustion. Estimating changes in C

  5. Epiberberine, a natural protoberberine alkaloid, inhibits urease of Helicobacter pylori and jack bean: Susceptibility and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lihua; Li, Cailan; Chen, Hanbin; Mo, Zhizhun; Zhou, Jiangtao; Liu, Yuhong; Ma, Zhilin; Xu, Yuyao; Yang, Xiaobo; Xie, Jianhui; Su, Ziren

    2017-12-15

    In our previous study, Rhizoma Coptidis extract was found to exert more potent inhibitory effect than its major component berberine towards urease from Helicobacter pylori (HPU) and jack bean (JBU). In continuation of our work, the present study was designed to further comparatively investigate the urease inhibitory activities of five major protoberberine alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis, namely berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorhizine to identify the bioactive constituent, and illuminate the potential mechanism of action. Results indicated that the five protoberberine alkaloids acted as concentration-dependent inactivators of urease with IC 50 values ranging between 3.0 and 5087μM for HPU and 2.3->10,000μM for JBU, respectively. Notably, epiberberine (EB) was found to be the most potent inhibitor against both ureases with IC 50 values of 3.0±0.01μM for HPU and 2.3±0.01μM for JBU, which was more effective than the standard urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (83±0.01μM for HPU and 22±0.01μM for JBU, respectively). Further kinetic analysis revealed that the type of EB inhibition against HPU was slow-binding and uncompetitive, with K i of 10.6±0.01μM, while slow-binding and competitive against JBU with K i of 4.6±0.01μM. Addition of thiol reagents, such as l-cysteine, glutathione and dithiothreitol, significantly abolished the inhibition, while Ni 2+ competitive inhibitors, boric acid and sodium fluoride, synergetically inhibited urease with EB, indicating the obligatory role of the active site sulfhydryl group for the inhibition. In addition, binding of EB with the urease proved to be reversible, as about 65% and 90% enzymatic activity of HPU and JBU, respectively, could be restored by dithiothreitol application. These findings highlighted the potential role of Rhizoma Coptidis protoberberine alkaloids, especially EB, as a lead urease inhibitor in the treatment of diseases associated with ureolytic bacteria. Thus, EB had good

  6. Paleomagnetism and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility study of the Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (Nevada, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, S.; Petronis, M. S.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gordon, L.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (JST) outcrops across the western Mina Deflection accommodation zone, west-central Nevada and into eastern California. Previously, the source location for the JST was unknown, yet recent studies northwest of Mono Lake, CA have identified a relatively un-rotated structural block in which to reference the paleomagnetic data. Although new studies have indicated that this block may be rotated up to 13º, we argue that the probable source area is located near the Bodie Hills, CA. At this site, the paleomagnetic reference direction is D = 353°, I = 43°, α95 = 7.7° (Carlson et al, 2013). Based on these data, the JST can be used to measure absolute vertical-axis rotation as well as enable reconstruction of the paleo-topography using the corrected anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. A total of 19 sites were sampled to constrain Cenozoic to recent vertical axis rotation within the region and AMS experiments were conducted to determine the flow direction of the JST. Curie point estimates indicate that the JST ranges in titanium concentration from 0.042 to 1.10, indicating a low to moderate titanomagnetite phase (Akimoto, 1962). Demagnetization experiments reveal mean destructive fields of the NRM ranging between 15mT and 40mT suggesting that both multi-domain to pseudo-single domain grains are the dominant ferromagnetic phases that carry the remanence and AMS fabric. Preliminary paleomagnetic data yield stable single component demagnetization behavior for most sites that, after structural correction, indicate clockwise vertical axis rotation ranging from +20°± 10° to +60°± 11° between multiple fault blocks. The uncorrected AMS data yield oblate magnetic fabrics that can be used to infer the transport direction, source region, and paleovalley geometry of the JST. These data are tentatively interpreted to indicate west to east transport of the JST across the Mono Basin region into the Mina Deflection that was erupted and

  7. Thirty Years After Jack Eddy at the Big Horn Medicine Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merriot, Ivy

    2017-01-01

    In the thirty years since John (Jack) Eddy’s work on the Big Horn Medicine Wheel, attention to the astronomy of medicine wheels went from high to low, with the lowest moment occurring during the ”welcome” talk of the Oxford IX International Archaeoastronomy (ISAAC) conference in Lima, Peru in 2011 when the wall-size projected image of the Big Horn Wheel carried a thick black “X” across its face. The alignments proposed by Eddy in 1974 and by Robinson in the 1980s have been reviewed and analyzed at the Wheel on Medicine Mountain in situ under bitter cold, clear dark nights at 10,000 feet altitude. Research was conducted using naked eye skywatching, transit surveying, and a Meade Cassegraine 8” electronic telescope. Along with this “review” of 20th century research, new research was conducted Wheel causing the second decade of the 21st century to bring new physical evidence and historical information for consideration.New research at the Big Horn Medicine Wheel gives evidence that the Wheel “mirrors” the night and daytime sky by creating a sky “grid” by its design made of basement and surface stones. The Wheel’s stone design mirrors the precession of the equinoxes by showing positions of all major pole stars over the full precessional cycle. Its twenty-eight sections are useful in the same way the twenty-eight sectioned Stations of the Moon star charts were useful in ancient and historical times. This manner of dividing the sky for tracking celestial objects holds celestial markers in constant position over millennia. This occurs because the Wheel’s center represents the Sun’ ecliptic north pole. Star charts that use the ecliptic pole do not need constant mathematical computation to keep up with current declinations and right ascensions. The Wheel’s twenty-eight sectioned sky chart keeps the same Dec and RA for celestial positions for thousands of years and will more quickly alert the observer to changes due to proper motion than will

  8. Progress report on the Happy Jack mine, Which Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trites, Albert F.; Chew, Randall T.

    1954-01-01

    The Happy Jack mine is in the White Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah. Production is from high-grade uranium deposits in the Shinarump conglomerate of the Triassic age. In this area the Shinarump beds range from about 16 to 40 feet in thickness and the lower part of these beds fills an east-trending channel this is note than 750 feet wide and 10 feet deep. The Shinarump conglomerate consists of beds of coarse- to fine-grained quartzose sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and claystone. Carbonized wood is abundant in these beds, and in the field it was classified as mineral charcoal and coal. Intra-Shinarump channels, cross-stratification, current lineation, and slumping and compaction structures have been recognized in the mine. Steeply dipping fractures have dominant trends in four directions -- N 65°W, N 60°E, N 85°E, and due north. Uranium occurs as bedded deposits, as replacement bodies in accumulations of "trash", and as replacements of larger fragments of wood. An "ore shoot" is formed where the three types of uranium deposits occur together; these ore shoots appear to be elongate masses with sharp boundaries. Uranium minerals include uraninite, sooty pitchblende(?), and the sulfate--betazippeite, johannite, and uranopilite. Associated with the uraninite are the sulfide minerals covellite, bornite, chalcopyritw, and pyrite. Galena and sphalerite have been found in close association with uranium minerals. The gaunge minerals include: limonite and hematite present in most of the sandstone beds throughout the deposit, jarosite that impregnates much of the sandstone in the outer parts of the mine workings, gypsum that fills many of the fractures, and barite that impregnates the sandstone in at least one part of the mine. Secondary copper minerals, mainly copper sulfates, occur throughout the mine, but most abundant near the adits in the outermost 30 feet of the workings. The minerals comprising the bulk of the country rock include quartz, feldspar, and clay

  9. Hydraulic Shearing and Hydraulic Jacking Observed during Hydraulic Stimulations in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir in Pohang, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K. B.; Park, S.; Xie, L.; Kim, K. I.; Yoo, H.; Kim, K. Y.; Choi, J.; Yoon, K. S.; Yoon, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Song, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) relies on sufficient and irreversible enhancement of reservoir permeability through hydraulic stimulation and possibility of such desirable change of permeability is an open question that can undermine the universality of EGS concept. We report results of first hydraulic stimulation campaign conducted in two deep boreholes in fractured granodiorite geothermal reservoir in Pohang, Korea. Borehole PX-1, located at 4.22 km, was subjected to the injection of 3,907 m3 with flow rate of up to 18 kg/s followed by bleeding off of 1,207 m3. The borehole PX-2, located at 4.35 km, was subjected to the injection of 1,970 m3 with flow rate of up to 46 kg/sIn PX-1, a sharp distinct decline of wellhead pressure was observed at around 16 MPa of wellhead pressure which was similar to the predicted injection pressure to induce hydraulic shearing. Injectivity interpretation before and after the hydraulic shearing indicates that permanent increase of permeability was achieved by a factor of a few. In PX-2, however, injectivity was very small and hydraulic shearing was not observed due possibly to the near wellbore damage made by the remedying process of lost circulation such as using lost circulation material during drilling. Flow rate of larger than 40 kg/s was achieved at very high well head pressure of nearly 90 MPa. Hydraulic jacking, that is reversible opening and closure of fracture with change of injection pressure, was clearly observed. Although sharp increase of permeability due to fracture opening was achieved with elevated injection pressure, the increased permeability was reversed with decreased injection pressure.Two contrasting response observed in the same reservoir at two different boreholes which is apart only 600 m apart provide important implication that can be used for the stimulation strategy for EGS.This work was supported by the New and Renewable Energy Technology Development Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology

  10. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination in the water column and streambed sediment of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri - Phase III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jerri V.; Barr, Miya N.

    2006-01-01

    In 1998, a 5 river-mile reach of the Jacks Fork was included on Missouri's list of impaired waters as required by Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act. The identified pollutant on the Jacks Fork was fecal coliform bacteria. The length of the impaired reach was changed to 7 miles on the Missouri 2002 303(d) list because of data indicating the fecal coliform bacteria problem existed over a broader area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a study to better understand the extent and sources of microbiological contamination within the Jacks Fork from Alley Spring to the mouth, which includes the 7-mile 303(d) reach. Ten sites were sampled from June 2003 through October 2003 and from June 2004 through October 2004. Water-column and streambed sediment samples were collected from main-stem and tributary sites mostly during base-flow conditions during a variety of recreational season river uses and analyzed for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria. Isolates of Escherichia coli obtained from water samples collected at five sites were submitted for rep-PCR analysis to identify presumptive sources of fecal indicator bacteria in the Jacks Fork. Results indicate that recreational users (including boaters and swimmers) are not the primary source of fecal coliform bacteria in the Jacks Fork; rather, the presence of fecal coliform bacteria is associated with other animals, of which horses are the primary source. Increases in fecal coliform bacteria densities in the Jacks Fork are associated with cross-country horseback trail-riding events.

  12. Micron-Scale Correlations Among Ti, P, Ce, and Y in Hadean Jack Hills Zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. E.; Cavosie, A. J.; Valley, J. W.; Eiler, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    Detrital zircons and the inclusions found therein are our only mineralogical constraints on geologic events that occurred on the Hadean Earth. These zircons are commonly small (ca. <100 μm in the longest dimension) and preserve micron to sub-micron chemical zonations indicative of a dynamic petrological history. Trace elements within zircon are of particular interest because concentrations and ratios of these elements can provide information regarding chemical and physical conditions during zircon growth. In this study, we analyzed Hadean-age detrital zircons from Archean metasediment in the Jack Hills (Australia) using the Caltech Microanalysis Center Cameca NanoSIMS 50L. Trace elements analyzed included Ti, P, Ce, and Y. Ti- thermometry [1,2,3] can potentially constrain growth and/or re-equilibration temperatures of zircons; P, Ce, and Y are known to enter the zircon lattice by the coupled xenotime-type substitution mechanism: (Y, REE)3+ + P5+ = Zr4+ + Si4+ [5]. The 89Y/28Si ratio was observed to correlate with, and was used as a proxy for, cathodoluminescence (CL) banding. Growth features manifested in CL (e.g., sector, oscillatory zoning) were observed in all zircons analyzed. CL zones vary from <1 μm to several microns in width; therefore, the NanoSIMS---with a beam diameter resolved to ca. 250 nm on the sample surface when operating with an O- primary beam---is uniquely suited for this scale of analysis. Regions displaying CL banding were imaged as 20 x 20 μm areas. All elements were normalized to 28Si; 49Ti/28Si ratios were converted to [Ti] via calibration based on analyses of synthetic, high-Ti zircons (provided by B. Watson) that were independently analyzed on Caltech's JEOL JXA-8200 electron microprobe. We observe three types of relationships between trace element distribution and CL banding in the zircons imaged: 1) strong positive correlations between CL banding, P, Ce, and Ti; 2) subtle positive correlations between CL banding, P, Ce, and Ti; 3) no

  13. Derivation of jack movement influence coefficients as a basis for selecting wall contours giving reduced levels of interference in flexible walled test sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    This report covers work done in a transonic wind tunnel towards providing data on the influence of the movement of wall-control jacks on the Mach number perturbations along the test section. The data is derived using an existing streamline-curvature program, and in application is reduced to matrices of influence coefficients.

  14. Neoarchean metamorphism recorded in high-precision Sm-Nd isotope systematics of garnets from the Jack Hills (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, K. A.; Baxter, E. F.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Marschall, H.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of metasedimentary rocks from the Jack Hills, which host Earth's oldest known detrital minerals, have focused on zircon and occasionally monazite or xenotime, but no attention has been directed toward one of the most common mineral markers of metamorphism: garnet. Garnet can provide a record of the post-depositional, prograde metamorphic history of Archean metasedimentary rocks. Additionally, the use of a newly developed detrital garnet dating technique [1,2] may reveal information about pre-depositional metamorphism that could address lingering questions about the nature and timing of Earth's earliest tectonometamorphic events. Here we investigate garnet from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks to test whether they record in situ metamorphism or are a detrital relict of even older metamorphic events. We identified garnet in two bulk quartz-pebble conglomerate samples collected from the 'discovery' outcrop at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Electron microprobe analyses of polished grains and SEM measurements of unpolished grain surfaces are consistent, revealing garnet composition indicative of a single generation/population of predominantly almandine-spessartine solid solution (~10-35% mole fraction spessartine). Compositional maps of garnet grains reveal little zoning and no discontinuities, most consistent with a single growth event. Dating Jack Hills' garnet via the Sm-Nd system is possible due to continued development of small sample analysis techniques, including running NdO+ TIMS analyses with Ta2O5 activator [3] permitting <50 ppm 2 sigma analytical precision on a 400pg in-house standard and continued improvement in blanks (<15pg full procedural blanks). Additionally, employing a nondestructive chemical prescreening technique (tabletop SEM) allows for grouping of multiple grains based on chemical similarity. Final Nd loads in the 450-750pg range routinely yield dates with precisions <×10Ma for two point isochrons between

  15. What can zircon ages from the Jack Hills detrital zircon suite really tell us about Hadean geodynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    As the only direct sample of the Hadean Earth, detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been the subject of intense investigation over the almost three decades since their discovery. A wide variety of geochemical and isotopic analyses of these grains, as well as their mineral inclusions, have been used variously to support two fundamentally different models for Hadean geodynamics: (i) Some form of (not necessarily modern-style) plate recycling generating felsic (continental-type?) crust at the boundaries [1, 2], or conversely (ii) the persistence of a long-lived, stagnant basaltic lid within which magmatism occurred as a result of internal temperature perturbations and/or impacts [3, 4], a model also generally consistent with a wide range of observations from post-Hadean geochemical reservoirs. Despite the considerable time and resources expended, the majority of these studies uncritically accept the individual U-Pb zircon ages, even though their veracity is key to many of the interpretations [5, 6]. We report here the results of an in-depth evaluation of all published (and new) U-Pb ages from the Jack Hills zircon suite in order to define age populations that can be used with a high degree of confidence in geodynamic interpretations. A notable problem in the interpretation of U-Pb data from ancient zircon grains (including those as young as the Neoarchean) is that disturbance of the systematics even several 100 Ma after crystallization causes data to spread along the concordia curve without becoming discernably discordant within the relatively large error bounds associated with U/Pb ages from in situ dating methods (e.g. SIMS). While 207Pb/206Pb ages are typically more precise, individually they provide no means to detect Pb-loss-induced younging. However, if two or preferably more analyses have been made in the same zircon growth zone, a reasonable evaluation of the possibility of Pb-loss can be made. In the available Jack Hills zircon

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of spine, skin and rind of Jack fruit peel - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Meera, M; Ruckmani, A; Saravanan, R; Lakshmipathy Prabhu, R

    2017-10-09

    The present study was conducted to identify the chemical constituents and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of crude ethanolic extracts of spine, skin and rind of jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) peel. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were assessed using Folin's Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods which revealed 316, 355 and 382 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of polyphenol and 96.7, 131.6 and 164.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of flavonoid in spine, skin and rind, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity of all three extracts was comparable to diclofenac in vitro and in vivo studies. Skin exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity, rind had preferential inhibition on Cyclooxygenase-2 and spine and skin inhibited both Cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 in vitro.

  17. Climatic sensitivity, water-use efficiency, and growth decline in boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forests in Northern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Rachel; Bell, F. Wayne; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Cecile, Alice; Horwath, William R.; Anand, Madhur

    2016-10-01

    Rises in atmospheric carbon dioxide (atmCO2) levels are known to stimulate photosynthesis and increase intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) in trees. Stand-level increases in iWUE depend on the physiological response of dominant species to increases in atmCO2, while tree-level response to increasing atmCO2 depends on the balance between the direct effects of atmCO2 on photosynthetic rate and the indirect effects of atmCO2 on drought conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands in Northern Ontario to changes in atmCO2 and associated climatic change over the past 100 years. The impact of changes in growing season length, temperature, and precipitation, as well as atmCO2 on tree growth, was determined using stable carbon isotopes and dendrochronological analysis. Jack pine stands in this study were shown to be in progressive decline. As expected, iWUE was found to increase in association with rising atmCO2. However, increases in iWUE were not directly coupled with atmCO2, suggesting that the degree of iWUE improvement is limited by alternative factors. Water-use efficiency was negatively associated with tree growth, suggesting that warming- and drought-induced stomatal closure has likely led to deviations from expected atmCO2-enhanced growth. This finding corroborates that boreal forest stands are likely to face continued stress under future climatic warming.

  18. Root mass, net primary production and turnover in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Steele, Sarah J.; Gower, Stith T.; Vogel, Jason G.; Norman, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Root biomass, net primary production and turnover were studied in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forests in two contrasting climates. The climate of the Southern Study Area (SSA) near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan is warmer and drier in the summer and milder in the winter than the Northern Study Area (NSA) near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. Ingrowth soil cores and minirhizotrons were used to quantify fine root net primary production (NPPFR). Average daily fine root growth (m m(-2) day(-1)) was positively correlated with soil temperature at 10-cm depth (r(2) = 0.83-0.93) for all three species, with black spruce showing the strongest temperature effect. At both study areas, fine root biomass (measured from soil cores) and fine root length (measured from minirhizotrons) were less for jack pine than for the other two species. Except for the aspen stands, estimates of NPPFR from minirhizotrons were significantly greater than estimates from ingrowth cores. The core method underestimated NPPFR because it does not account for simultaneous fine root growth and mortality. Minirhizotron NPPFR estimates ranged from 59 g m(-2) year(-1) for aspen stands at SSA to 235 g m(-2) year(-1) for black spruce at NSA. The ratio of NPPFR to total detritus production (aboveground litterfall + NPPFR) was greater for evergreen forests than for deciduous forests, suggesting that carbon allocation patterns differ between boreal evergreen and deciduous forests. In all stands, NPPFR consistently exceeded annual fine root turnover and the differences were larger for stands in the NSA than for stands in the SSA, whereas the difference between study areas was only significant for black spruce. The imbalance between NPPFR and fine root turnover is sufficient to explain the net accumulation of carbon in boreal forest soils.

  19. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle’s historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  20. Re-evaluation of the origin and evolution of > 4.2 Ga zircons from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2006-04-01

    New data are presented on internal structures, U-Pb systematics and oxygen isotope compositions of eight detrital zircons with ages greater than 4.2 Ga, from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Australia. Cathodoluminescence imaging, ion-microprobe U-Pb and oxygen isotope results show evidence for an extensive period of complex zircon growth, secondary reaction and U-Pb isotopic disturbance from 4.36 to 3.90 Ga. In addition many of the zircons have discordant U-Pb systems and excess common Pb indicating a superimposed, relatively recent, reaction between radiation damaged zircon and low temperature fluids. The significance of oxygen isotope compositions for zircons with complex internal structures and U-Pb systems is complicated by uncertainty in the origin of the grains and the unknown effect of later reactions. However, a minority of grains with sharp oscillatory zoning, uniform and concordant U-Pb systems, igneous Th-U ratios and low common Pb contents, are interpreted as undisturbed primary magmatic zircons. The oldest identified, oscillatory zoned, magmatic grain, with an age 4363 ± 20 Ma, is one of a few reported magmatic grains with this age, which is interpreted as the oldest reliable age for Hadean magmatic zircons. Mantle δ18O values are reported for these zircons. Younger oscillatory zoned zircon, including oscillatory zoned cores in complex grains, have δ18O values lower than 6.5‰, which are within the range of ion microprobe analysed δ18O values for zircons in high temperature equilibrium with the normal mantle rocks of 5.3 ± 0.6‰ (2 standard deviations). These values are also within the range of δ18O values found in lunar zircons. The absence of heavy oxygen in the grains that can be interpreted as primary magmatic zircons and the complex history over the period from 4.36 to 3.9 Ga, seen in all other Jack Hills zircons and reflected in the internal structures and U-Pb isotopic systems, questions the model for the early Earth involving long

  1. Pervasive remagnetization of detrital zircon host rocks in the Jack Hills, Western Australia and implications for records of the early geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Maloof, Adam C.; Tailby, Nicholas; Ramezani, Jahandar; Fu, Roger R.; Hanus, Veronica; Trail, Dustin; Bruce Watson, E.; Harrison, T. Mark; Bowring, Samuel A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Coe, Robert S.

    2015-11-01

    It currently is unknown when Earth's dynamo magnetic field originated. Paleomagnetic studies indicate that a field with an intensity similar to that of the present day existed 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). Detrital zircon crystals found in the Jack Hills of Western Australia are some of the very few samples known to substantially predate this time. With crystallization ages ranging from 3.0-4.38 Ga, these zircons might preserve a record of the missing first billion years of Earth's magnetic field history. However, a key unknown is the age and origin of magnetization in the Jack Hills zircons. The identification of >3.9 Ga (i.e., Hadean) field records requires first establishing that the zircons have avoided remagnetization since being deposited in quartz-rich conglomerates at 2.65-3.05 Ga. To address this issue, we have conducted paleomagnetic conglomerate, baked contact, and fold tests in combination with U-Pb geochronology to establish the timing of the metamorphic and alteration events and the peak temperatures experienced by the zircon host rocks. These tests include the first conglomerate test directly on the Hadean-zircon bearing conglomerate at Erawandoo Hill. Although we observed little evidence for remagnetization by recent lightning strikes, we found that the Hadean zircon-bearing rocks and surrounding region have been pervasively remagnetized, with the final major overprinting likely due to thermal and/or aqueous effects from the emplacement of the Warakurna large igneous province at ∼1070 million years ago (Ma). Although localized regions of the Jack Hills might have escaped complete remagnetization, there currently is no robust evidence for pre-depositional (>3.0 Ga) magnetization in the Jack Hills detrital zircons.

  2. Conformational change results in loss of enzymatic activity of jack bean urease on its interaction with silver nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Ponnuvel, Shobana; Subramanian, Balakumar; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2015-10-01

    Urease is an enzyme produced by microbes such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. Plants also produce this enzyme. Urease action splits urea into ammonia and carbamate. This action is having important implications in agro-chemical, medicinal and environment. Therefore there is always a constant search for new and novel compounds which could inhibit this enzyme. Here we have studied the interaction of jack bean urease (JBU) with silver nanoparticle to analyze the influence of the resultant protein corona formation on the catalytic property of JBU. Several techniques like UV-Vis, gel shift assay and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize this interaction. Urease activity assay suggests that the protein corona formation inhibits the enzymatic action of JBU. The loss of enzymatic action could be either due to the nanoparticle blocking the active site of JBU or a conformational change in the protein. The CD spectra of JBU-AgNP complexes clearly revealed significant changes in the secondary structural composition of the JBU and this could be the reason for the loss of enzymatic activity of JBU. This study revealed an interesting observation, where the interaction of AgNP with JBU resulted destabilization of hexameric nature of JBU which is otherwise highly stable. The results of the present study could be useful in the development of nanoparticle based material for inhibiting the ureolytic activity of ureases in different fields.

  3. Population structure and comparative phylogeography of jack species (Caranx ignobilis and C. melampygus) in the high Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Santos, Scott R; Xiang, Yu; Tagawa, Annette W

    2011-01-01

    Members of the family Carangidae are top-level predators and highly prized food and sport fishes. Although ecologically and economically important, little is known about the biology of numerous species in the family. This is particularly true of the jacks Caranx ignobilis and C. melampygus, which have experienced recent population reductions around the high Hawaiian Islands due to overfishing. Previous studies have documented territorial tendencies as well as cases of long-distance excursions in both species, suggesting populations may exhibit a range of structure at the genetic level. To explore this possibility, mitochondrial DNA ATPase6 and ATPase8 gene sequence variation was assessed from 91 individuals (33 C. ignobilis and 58 C. melampygus) spanning the islands of Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i. Although a total of 20 distinct haplotypes (8 for C. ignobilis; 12 for C. melampygus) were recovered, no evidence of population structure was found for either species across the examined geographic range. However, distinct demographic patterns were identified, implying differing evolutionary histories and/or population dynamics. Additionally, ∼ 6% of the examined C. ignobilis were C. ignobilis × C. melampygus hybrids because they harbored mitochondrial haplotypes typical of C. melampygus. These hybrids contribute to measurable gene flow between the species and may play a significant role in the evolution of the genus.

  4. Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (soil respiration), net CO2 exchange after photosynthetic uptake by ground-cover plants, and soil CO2 concentration versus depth below land surface were measured at four ages of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forest in central Saskatchewan. Soil respiration was smallest at a clear-cut site, largest in an 8-year-old stand, and decreased with stand age in 20-year-old and mature (60-75 years old) stands during May-September 1994 (12.1, 34.6, 31.5, and 24.9 mol C??m-2, respectively). Simulations of soil respiration at each stand based on continuously recorded soil temperature were within one standard deviation of measured flux for 48 of 52 measurement periods, but were 10%-30% less than linear interpolations of measured flux for the season. This was probably due to decreased soil respiration at night modeled by the temperature-flux relationships, but not documented by daytime chamber measurements. CO2 uptake by ground-cover plants ranged from 0 at the clear-cut site to 29, 25, and 9% of total growing season soil respiration at the 8-year, 20-year, and mature stands. CO2 concentrations were as great as 7150 ppmv in the upper 1 m of unsaturated zone and were proportional to measured soil respiration.

  5. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  6. White Anglo-Saxon hopes and black Americans' Atlantic dreams: Jack Johnson and the British boxing colour bar.

    PubMed

    Runstedtler, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the controversy surrounding Jack Johnson's proposed world heavyweight title fight against the British champion Bombardier Billy Wells in London (1911). In juxtaposing African Americans' often glowing discussions of European tolerance with the actual white resistance the black champion faced in Britain, including the Home Office's eventual prohibition of the match, the article explores the period's transnational discourses of race and citizenship. Indeed, as white sportsmen on both sides of the Atlantic joined together in their search for a "White Hope" to unseat Johnson, the boxing ring became an important cultural arena for interracial debates over the political and social divisions between white citizens and nonwhite subjects. Although African Americans had high hopes for their hero's European sojourn, the British backlash against the Johnson-Wells match underscored the fact that their local experiences of racial oppression were just one facet of a much broader global problem. At the same time, the proposed prizefight also made the specter of interracial conflict in the colonies all the more tangible in the British capital, provoking public discussions about the merits of U.S. racial segregation, along with the need for white Anglo-Saxon solidarity around the world. Thus, this article not only exposes the underlying connections between American Jim Crow and the racialized fault lines of British imperialism, but it also traces the "tense and tender ties" linking U.S. and African American history with the new imperial history and postcolonial studies.

  7. Ability of L-canavanine to support nitrogen metabolism in the jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis (L. ) DC

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, G.A.; Berge, M.A.; Ozinskas, A.J.

    The ability of L-canavanine, a nonprotein amino acid of certain leguminous plants, to support the nitrogen metabolism of jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis (Leguminosae), was assessed by administration of L-(guanidino-N{sup 3}-{sup 15}N)arginine, L-(guanidinooxy-N{sup 3}-{sup 15}N)canavanine, or L-(guanidinooxy-N{sup 1}-{sup 15}N)canavanine into the cotyledons of 9-day-old plants. A strikingly similar pattern of {sup 15}N assimilation into de novo synthesized amino and imino acids resulted from feeding L-(guanidino-N{sup 3}-{sup 15}N)arginine and L-(guanidinooxy-N{sup 3}-{sup 15}N)canavanine. Glutamic acid plus glutamine and alanine were the most heavily labeled of the detected compounds. Some transfer of {sup 15}N from L-(gluanidino-N{sup 3}-{sup 15}N)arginine to canavanine was noted. This maymore » occur by a transamidination reaction between L-canaline and L-arginine. L-(guanidinooxy-N{sup 1}-{sup 15}N)Canavanine also supported amino and imino acid biosynthesis in this plant, but much more alanine and less glutamic acid and glutamine were labeled. These experiments provide substantive experimental evidence for the long-reputed hypothesis that canavanine functions as a nitrogen-storing metabolite.« less

  8. Catabolism of L-canavanine and L-Canaline in the jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis (L. ) DC. (leguminosae)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, G.A.; Berge, M.A.

    The metabolism of L-canavanine and its primary metabolite L-canaline was investigated in the jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. (Leguminosae). L-(1,2,3,4-{sup 14}C)Canavanine and L-(U-{sup 14}C)canaline were synthesized from L-(U-{sup 14}C)homoserine. After 1.5 h, 35% of the administered radiolabeled canaline was converted to acetone-soluble products; this amount decreased with time to 5.3% at 12 h. This fraction was primarily responsible for respiratory loss of {sup 14}C and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, which reached 52% of the administered canaline after 12 h. The water-soluble, neutral fraction accounted for no more than 10% of the injected canaline. The water soluble, charged materials contained 35-40%more » of the {sup 14}C at each time period; five compounds were identified within this fraction. They are homoserine, phosphohomoserine, lysine, canavanine, and canaline glyoxylate oxime. Canavanine-administered plants provided a degradation pattern remarkably similar to that of canaline-administered plants, indicating the importance of arginase-mediated hydrolysis of canavanine to canaline in the process of canavanine catabolism.« less

  9. Tree rings provide early warning signals of jack pine mortality across a moisture gradient in the southern boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamet, S. D.; Chun, K. P.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Barr, A. G.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2015-08-01

    Recent declines in productivity and tree survival have been widely observed in boreal forests. We used early warning signals (EWS) in tree ring data to anticipate premature mortality in jack pine (Pinus banksiana)—an extensive and dominant species occurring across the moisture-limited southern boreal forest in North America. We sampled tree rings from 113 living and 84 dead trees in three soil moisture regimes (subxeric, submesic, subhygric) in central Saskatchewan, Canada. We reconstructed annual increments of tree basal area to investigate (1) whether we could detect EWS related to mortality of individual trees, and (2) how water availability and tree growth history may explain the mortality warning signs. EWS were evident as punctuated changes in growth patterns prior to transition to an alternative state of reduced growth before dying. This transition was likely triggered by a combination of severe drought and insect outbreak. Higher moisture availability associated with a soil moisture gradient did not appear to reduce tree sensitivity to stress-induced mortality. Our results suggest tree rings offer considerable potential for detecting critical transitions in tree growth, which are linked to premature mortality.

  10. Detrital Zircons From the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer, Western Australia: Geochronological, Morphological, and Geochemical Evidence for Diverse >4000 Ma Source Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, J. L.; Myers, J. S.; Sylvester, P. J.; Cox, R. A.

    2004-05-01

    Detrital zircons from all major clastic units in the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer metasedimentary belts, Western Australia, were analyzed for morphology, internal zoning, inclusion mineralogy, age, and trace element concentrations (latter two obtained by laser-ablation microprobe ICPMS). The results show that zircons were derived from a wide diversity of rocks, including previously described, >4000 Ma grains that are older than any known terrestrial rocks. In three metaconglomerate samples from the western Jack Hills, 4200-3800 Ma zircons ("old grains") comprise 14% of the population, 3800-3600 Ma grains form only 2%, and 3550-3250 Ma zircons ("young grains") are dominant with a significant peak at 3380 Ma. Old and young grains are interpreted as being from similar rock types because they are indistinguishable in trace element concentrations, size (several hundred microns), morphology (subequant, typically fragmented), internal zoning (typically both oscillatory and sector), and U concentration (50-200 ppm). Many of these properties suggest an intermediate plutonic source, whereas an evolved granitic source was previously interpreted from rare-earth element and oxygen isotope data. Detrital zircons in quartzites and metaconglomerates at Mount Narryer differ significantly from zircons from the western Jack Hills. Old grains comprise only 3% (most of which are 4200-4100 Ma), 3800-3600 Ma zircons form 31%, and there are peaks at 3650, 3600, and 3500 Ma. Old and young grains have similar properties that suggest granitic sources, such as elongate prismatic morphology, oscillatory zoning, high U concentrations (100-600 ppm), and xenotime and monazite inclusions. Trace element concentrations are broadly similar to those in Jack Hills zircons, with notable exceptions being generally higher U, smaller Ce and Eu anomalies, and lower Nb/Ta. It is considered unlikely that Jack Hills zircons were derived from granitic gneisses that surround the metasedimentary belts because

  11. Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination and water-quality characteristics of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri; phase II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jerri V.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, an 8-mile reach of the Jacks Fork was included on Missouri?s list of impaired waters as required by Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act. The identified pollutant on the Jacks Fork was fecal coliform bacteria. Potential sources of fecal contamination to the Jacks Fork include a wastewater treatment plant; campground pit-toilet or septic-system effluent; a large commercial, cross-country horseback trail riding facility; canoeists, boaters, and tubers; and cows.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a study to better understand the extent and sources of microbiological contamination within the Jacks Fork from Alley Spring to the mouth, which includes the 8-mile 303(d) reach. Identification of the sources would provide the National Park Service and the State of Missouri with the information needed to craft a solution of abatement, regulation, prevention, and mitigation with the end result being the removal of the Jacks Fork from the 303(d) list. Fifteen sites were sampled from November 1999 through December 2000. An additional site was sampled one time. Samples were collected mostly during base-flow conditions during a variety of nonrecreational and recreational season river uses. Samples were analyzed for selected fecal indicator bacteria, physical properties, nutrients, and wastewater organic compounds. During the sampling period, the whole-body-contact recreation standard for fecal coliform (200 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample) was exceeded at three sites on August 10, 2000, and also at one site on May 11, June 7, and October 3, 2000. Fecal coliform densities and instantaneous loads generally increased from background concentrations at the Eminence site, peaked about 2 river miles downstream, and then decreased until the most downstream site sampled. Generally, the largest densities and loads at sites downstream from Eminence not related to wet-weather flow were observed during a trail ride held

  12. Particle Fluxes in the Marginal Seas of Antarctica: A 20-year Synthesis in Honor of Jack Dymond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, R. B.; Langone, L.

    2004-12-01

    One of Jack Dymond's long-standing scientific passions was the study of particles moving through the ocean water column. Jack's pioneering work in this area in the 1970's and generous mentoring of others throughout his career lead directly to the first authors involvement in sediment trap studies. Here we present a synthesis of 20 years of particle flux studies in coastal Antarctic (including the work of Collier and Dymond et al.) and highlight some of the important features and unresolved issues related to integrating particle trap interceptor data with other measures of production, transport, and deposition. The first sediment trap arrays were deployed on the Antarctic shelf in 1981 and 1982 in the Antarctic Peninsula. Simple instruments were also deployed in 1984 and 1986 in the Ross Sea. Since then, several nations (US, Italy, New Zealand) have recovered time series sediment trap data on moorings in both of these areas. This current synthesis makes use of data from approximately 22 sites, the majority of which are in the Ross Sea, and includes about 900 discrete samples of particles in vertical transit through the water column. We now have many complete time series that extend through the winter, allowing several important generalizations to be made. For example, annual particle-mediated organic C fluxes to below 200 meters in the Ross Sea average 4.4±3.3 g C m-2 yr-1. These values are significantly less than export fluxes calculated using short-term surface water mass balance approaches or Th isotope techniques yet are higher than seabed sediment accumulation rates. Intriguingly, seasonal seabed arrival rates of organic C estimated from in-situ summertime benthic respirometry studies yield C flux values similar in magnitude to those from sediment traps deployed at the same time, lending strong support to trap data. The cause of current disagreements between various methods of flux estimation may in fact not be solved until process studies are accomplished

  13. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Azizan, Nuramirah; Mohd Said, Shahida; Zainal Abidin, Zamirah; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-12-05

    In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus salivarius , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum . Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)). Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively), and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively). Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1%) and eugenol (8.1%), while α-humulene (5.5%) and germacrene D (7.7%) were dominant in F. deltoidea . The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63-2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven strains

  14. Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) urease induces eicosanoid-modulated hemocyte aggregation in the Chagas' disease vector Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Defferrari, M S; da Silva, R; Orchard, I; Carlini, C R

    2014-05-01

    Ureases are multifunctional proteins that display biological activities independently of their enzymatic function, such as induction of exocytosis and insecticidal effects. Rhodnius prolixus, a major vector of Chagas' disease, is a model for studies on the entomotoxicity of jack bean urease (JBU). We have previously shown that JBU induces the production of eicosanoids in isolated tissues of R. prolixus. In insects, the immune response comprises cellular and humoral reactions, and is centrally modulated by eicosanoids. Cyclooxygenase products signal immunity in insects, mainly cellular reactions, such as hemocyte aggregation. In searching for a link between JBU's toxic effects and immune reactions in insects, we have studied the effects of this toxin on R. prolixus hemocytes. JBU triggers aggregation of hemocytes after injection into the hemocoel and when applied to isolated cells. On in vitro assays, the eicosanoid synthesis inhibitors dexamethasone (phospholipase A2 indirect inhibitor) and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) counteracted JBU's effect, indicating that eicosanoids, more specifically cyclooxygenase products, are likely to mediate the aggregation response. Contrarily, the inhibitors esculetin and baicalein were inactive, suggesting that lipoxygenase products are not involved in JBU's effect. Extracellular calcium was also necessary for JBU's effect, in agreement to other cell models responsive to ureases. A progressive darkening of the medium of JBU-treated hemocytes was observed, suggestive of a humoral response. JBU was immunolocalized in the cultured cells upon treatment along with cytoskeleton damage. The highest concentration of JBU tested on cultured cells also led to nuclei aggregation of adherent hemocytes. This is the first time urease has been shown to affect insect hemocytes, contributing to our understanding of the entomotoxic mechanisms of action of this protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouren; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2005-05-01

    One-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and current-year white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were grown in ambient (360 ppm) or twice ambient (720 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and at three soil temperatures (Tsoil = 7, 17 and 27 degrees C initially, increased to 10, 20 and 30 degrees C two months later, respectively) in a greenhouse for 4 months. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 2.5 and 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) in jack pine in both CO2 treatments and g(s) and E in white birch in ambient [CO2], but enhanced instantaneous water-use efficiency (IWUE) in both species after 2.5 months of treatment. Treatment effects on g(s) and E remained significant throughout the 4-month study. Low Tsoil reduced maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax) in jack pine in elevated [CO2] after 2.5 months of treatment, but not after 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil increased actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in the light (DeltaF/Fm') in jack pine, but decreased DeltaF/Fm' in white birch after 4 months of treatment. In response to low Tsoil, photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation (Jc) decreased in jack pine after 2.5 months and in white birch after 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil increased the ratio of the photosynthetic linear electron transport to oxygenation (Jo) to the total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (Jo/J(T)) in both species after 2.5 months of treatment, but the effects became statistically insignificant in white birch after 4 months of treatment. High Tsoil decreased foliar N concentration in white birch. Elevated [CO2] increased Pn, IWUE and Jc but decreased Jo/J(T) in both species at both measurement times except Jc in white birch after 2.5 months

  16. Proterozoic events recorded in quartzite cobbles at Jack Hills, Western Australia: New constraints on sedimentation and source of > 4 Ga zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, Marion L.; Wilde, Simon A.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Pidgeon, Robert T.

    2010-03-01

    Rare heavy mineral bands within quartzite cobbles were identified in two conglomerate units within the Jack Hills belt, Western Australia. Seven zircon-bearing cobbles were analysed from one location (site 152) and three from another (site 154), both approximately 1 km west of the site where zircons in excess of 4 Ga are abundant (W74 'discovery' site). Individual pebbles from the 152 site reveal three distinctive features, containing either zircons > 3.0 Ga in age, < 1.9 Ga in age or a range of ages from ˜ 1.2 to ˜ 3.6 Ga. Those from site 154 are more uniform, containing only zircons with ages between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. Only one grain > 4 Ga was discovered from the entire suite of pebbles, in contrast to the well-studied W74 site. A single detrital zircon with an age of 1220 ± 42 Ma from location 152 is the youngest grain so far reported from sedimentary rocks at Jack Hills. It shows magmatic oscillatory zoning and thus implies at least two sedimentary cycles within the Proterozoic; requiring erosion of an igneous precursor, incorporation into a clastic sediment, induration and subsequent erosion and transport to be hosted in the conglomerate. The nearest source for rocks of this age is the Bangemall Supergroup in the Collier Basin, ˜ 100 km northeast in the Capricorn Orogen. This would imply tectonic interleaving of originally more extensive Bangemall rocks, possibly related to activity along the Cargarah Shear Zone that traverses the Jack Hills belt. The lack of > 4.1 Ga zircons in the pebbles is highly significant, suggesting the immediate source of ancient zircons was no longer present at the Earth's surface. This equates with a general lack of ancient crystals noted in rocks that contain Proterozoic zircons from previous studies and implies that such grains diminish in number as earlier sedimentary rocks were successively recycled.

  17. Analysis of ITER NbTi and Nb3Sn CICCs experimental minimum quench energy with JackPot, MCM and THEA models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagni, T.; Duchateau, J. L.; Breschi, M.; Devred, A.; Nijhuis, A.

    2017-09-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) for ITER magnets are subjected to fast changing magnetic fields during the plasma-operating scenario. In order to anticipate the limitations of conductors under the foreseen operating conditions, it is essential to have a better understanding of the stability margin of magnets. In the last decade ITER has launched a campaign for characterization of several types of NbTi and Nb3Sn CICCs comprising quench tests with a singular sine wave fast magnetic field pulse and relatively small amplitude. The stability tests, performed in the SULTAN facility, were reproduced and analyzed using two codes: JackPot-AC/DC, an electromagnetic-thermal numerical model for CICCs, developed at the University of Twente (van Lanen and Nijhuis 2010 Cryogenics 50 139-148) and multi-constant-model (MCM) (Turck and Zani 2010 Cryogenics 50 443-9), an analytical model for CICCs coupling losses. The outputs of both codes were combined with thermal, hydraulic and electric analysis of superconducting cables to predict the minimum quench energy (MQE) (Bottura et al 2000 Cryogenics 40 617-26). The experimental AC loss results were used to calibrate the JackPot and MCM models and to reproduce the energy deposited in the cable during an MQE test. The agreement between experiments and models confirm a good comprehension of the various CICCs thermal and electromagnetic phenomena. The differences between the analytical MCM and numerical JackPot approaches are discussed. The results provide a good basis for further investigation of CICC stability under plasma scenario conditions using magnetic field pulses with lower ramp rate and higher amplitude.

  18. Revision of the Australian Union-Jack wolf spiders, genus Tasmanicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae, Lycosinae).

    PubMed

    Framenau, Volker W; Baehr, Barbara C

    2016-12-23

    The Australian wolf spider (Lycosidae Sundevall, 1833) genus Tasmanicosa Roewer, 1959 with Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905 as type species is revised to include 14 species: T. godeffroyi (L. Koch, 1865), comb. nov. (= Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.; = Lycosa zualella Strand, 1907, syn. nov.; = Lycosa woodwardi Simon, 1909, syn. nov.); T. fulgor sp. nov.; T. gilberta (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov.; T. harmsi sp. nov.; T. hughjackmani sp. nov.; T. kochorum sp. nov.; T. leuckartii (Thorell, 1870), comb. nov. (= Lycosa molyneuxi Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. musgravei (McKay, 1974) comb. nov.; T. phyllis (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov. (= Lycosa stirlingae Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. ramosa (L. Koch, 1877), comb. nov.; T. salmo sp. nov.; T. semicincta (L. Koch, 1877) comb. nov.; T. stella sp. nov.; and T. subrufa (Karsch, 1878) comb. nov. Within the Australian wolf spider fauna, the genus Tasmanicosa can be diagnosed by the distinct pattern of radiating light and dark lines forming a "Union-Jack" pattern on the carapace. Male pedipalp morphology identifies the genus as part of the subfamily Lycosinae Sundevall, 1833 due to the presence of a transverse tegular apophysis with dorsal groove guiding the embolus during copulation. However, genital morphology is variable and a synapomorphy based on male pedipalp or female epigyne morphology could not be identified. Members of Tasmanicosa are comparatively large spiders (body length ca. 12-30 mm), that build a shallow burrow, which is sometimes covered with a flimsy trapdoor. Species of Tasmanicosa are largely a Bassian faunal element with preference for open woodlands and/or floodplains, although some species can be found into the semi-arid Australian interior. Two Australian wolf spider species may represent Tasmanicosa based on their original descriptions, but due to immature types in combination with the somatic similarities of all Tasmanicosa species, cannot be identified with certainty. They are therefore considered nomina dubia

  19. Jack of all trades masters novel host plants: positive genetic correlations in specialist and generalist insect herbivores expanding their diets to novel hosts

    PubMed Central

    GARCÍA-ROBLEDO, CARLOS; HORVITZ, CAROL C.

    2011-01-01

    One explanation for the widespread host specialization of insect herbivores is the “Jack of all trades-master of none” principle, which states that genotypes with high performance on one host will perform poorly on other hosts. This principle predicts that cross-host correlation in performance of genotypes will be negative. In this study we experimentally explored cross-host correlations and performance among families in four species (two generalist and two specialist) of leaf beetles (Cephaloleia spp.) that are currently expanding their diets from native to exotic plants. All four species displayed similar responses in body size, developmental rates and mortality rates to experimentally controlled diets. When raised on novel hosts, body size of larvae, pupae and adults were reduced. Development times were longer and larval mortality was higher on novel hosts. Genotype × host plant interactions were not detected for most traits. All significant cross-host correlations were positive. These results indicate very different ecological and evolutionary dynamics than those predicted by the “Jack of all trades-master of none” principle. PMID:22022877

  20. The development of pediatric critical care medicine at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: an interview with Dr. John J. 'Jack' Downes.

    PubMed

    Mai, Christine L; Schreiner, Mark S; Firth, Paul G; Yaster, Myron

    2013-07-01

    Dr. John J. 'Jack' Downes (1930-), the anesthesiologist-in-chief at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (1972-1996), has made numerous contributions to pediatric anesthesia and critical care medicine through a broad spectrum of research on chronic respiratory failure, status asthmaticus, postoperative risks of apnea in premature infants, and home-assisted mechanical ventilation. However, his defining moment was in January 1967, when The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia inaugurated its pediatric intensive care unit--the first of its kind in North America. During his tenure, he and his colleagues trained an entire generation of pediatric anesthesiologists and intensivists and set a standard of care and professionalism that continues to the present day. Based on an interview with Dr. Downes, this article reviews a career that advanced pediatric anesthesia and critical care medicine and describes the development of that first pediatric intensive care unit at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Graphene-encapsulated silica as matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction sorbents for the analysis of poly-methoxylated flavonoids in the leaves of Murraya panaculata (L.) Jack.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Li, Xuwen; Yang, Jie; Li, Lanjie; Jin, Yongri; Shi, Xiaolei

    2015-06-01

    In this study, graphene-encapsulated silica was synthesized by a hydrothermal reduction strategy. The presence of silica in graphene was identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The graphene-encapsulated silica subsequently was used as adsorbent for matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of poly-methoxylated flavonoids from the dried leaves of Murraya panaculata (L.) Jack. Compared with the other adsorbents (graphene, silica gel, C18 silica, neutral alumina, diatomaceous earth) and without any adsorbents, better results were obtained. Then a method for analysis of poly-methoxylated flavonoids was established by coupling matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and UV detection. Compared with reflux extraction and ultrasonic extraction, the proposed method is quicker, more efficient and more environmental protection. Less than 10 min is needed from extraction to detection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Environmental DNA as a ‘Snapshot’ of Fish Distribution: A Case Study of Japanese Jack Mackerel in Maizuru Bay, Sea of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohji; Sawada, Hideki; Murakami, Hiroaki; Tsuji, Satsuki; Hashizume, Hiroki; Kubonaga, Shou; Horiuchi, Tomoya; Hongo, Masamichi; Nishida, Jo; Okugawa, Yuta; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Fukuda, Miho; Hidaka, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Keita W.; Miya, Masaki; Araki, Hitoshi; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Maruyama, Atsushi; Miyashita, Kazushi; Masuda, Reiji; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Kondoh, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in streams and ponds have demonstrated that the distribution and biomass of aquatic organisms can be estimated by detection and quantification of environmental DNA (eDNA). In more open systems such as seas, it is not evident whether eDNA can represent the distribution and biomass of aquatic organisms because various environmental factors (e.g., water flow) are expected to affect eDNA distribution and concentration. To test the relationships between the distribution of fish and eDNA, we conducted a grid survey in Maizuru Bay, Sea of Japan, and sampled surface and bottom waters while monitoring biomass of the Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) using echo sounder technology. A linear model showed a high R2 value (0.665) without outlier data points, and the association between estimated eDNA concentrations from the surface water samples and echo intensity was significantly positive, suggesting that the estimated spatial variation in eDNA concentration can reflect the local biomass of the jack mackerel. We also found that a best-fit model included echo intensity obtained within 10–150 m from water sampling sites, indicating that the estimated eDNA concentration most likely reflects fish biomass within 150 m in the bay. Although eDNA from a wholesale fish market partially affected eDNA concentration, we conclude that eDNA generally provides a ‘snapshot’ of fish distribution and biomass in a large area. Further studies in which dynamics of eDNA under field conditions (e.g., patterns of release, degradation, and diffusion of eDNA) are taken into account will provide a better estimate of fish distribution and biomass based on eDNA. PMID:26933889

  3. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  4. Lithotomy versus jack-knife position on haemodynamic parameters assessed by impedance cardiography during anorectal surgery under low dose spinal anaesthesia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borodiciene, Jurgita; Gudaityte, Jurate; Macas, Andrius

    2015-05-06

    Although the prone position providing better exposure for anorectal surgery is required it can cause a reduction of cardiac output and cardiac index. The goal was to compare haemodynamic changes assessed by impedance cardiography during anorectal surgery under low-dose spinal anaesthesia in lithotomy and jack-knife position. The prospective randomized controlled study included 104, ASA I-II adult patients admitted for elective minor anorectal surgery, assigned to be performed in lithotomy (groupL, n = 52) or jack-knife position (groupJ, n = 52). After arrival to operating room the standard monitoring, impedance cardiography device was connected to the patient, and the following variables were recorded: cardiac output, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, stroke index at times of arrival to operating room, placement for, start and end of surgery and placement to bed. Spinal block was made in the sitting position with 4 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 10 μg of Fentanyl injected over 2 min. Comparison was based on haemodynamic changes between and inside groups over time. Student's t, chi square tests were used for statistical analysis with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. The reduction of cardiac output was statistically significant after placement of the patient into the prone position: from baseline 7.4+/-1.6 to 4.9+/-1.2 after placement for and 4.7+/-1.2 at the start and end of surgery (mean +/-SD l/min). The difference of cardiac output between groups was 2.0 l/min after positioning for and the start of surgery and 1.5 l/min at the end of surgery (p < 0.05). Mean cardiac index reduced from baseline 3.9+/-0.8 to 2.6+/-0.7 and 2.4+/-0.6 (mean+/-SD l/min/m(2)) in groupJ and between groups: by 1.0 l/min/m(2) after placement for, 1.1 at the start and 0.8 at the end of surgery (p < 0.05). Systemic vascular resistance increased from baseline 1080+/-338 to 1483+/-479 after placement for, 1523+/-481 at the start and 1525

  5. The effect of weathering on U-Th-Pb and oxygen isotope systems of ancient zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    We report the result of a SIMS U-Th-Pb and O-OH study of 44 ancient zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia with ages ranging from 4.3 Ga to 3.3 Ga. We have investigated the behaviour of oxygen isotopes and water in the grains by determining δ18O and OH values at a number of locations on the polished surfaces of each grain. We have divided the zircons into five groups on the basis of their U-Th-Pb and OH-oxygen isotopic behaviour. The first group has concordant U-Th-Pb ages, minimal common Pb, δ18O values consistent with zircons derived from mantle source rocks and no detectable OH content. U-Th-Pb systems in zircons from Groups 2, 3 and 4 vary from concordant to extremely discordant where influenced by cracks. Discordia intercepts with concordia at approximately zero Ma age are interpreted as disturbance of the zircon U-Th-Pb systems by weathering solutions during the extensive, deep weathering that has affected the Archean Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia since at least the Permian. Weathering solutions entering cracks have resulted in an influx of Th and U. δ18O values of Group 2 grains fall approximately within the "mantle" range and OH is within background levels or slightly elevated. δ18O values of Group 3 grains are characterised by an initial trend of decreasing δ18O with increasing OH content. With further increase in OH this trend reverses and δ18O becomes heavier with increasing OH. Group 4 grains have a distinct trend of increasing δ18O with increasing OH. These trends are explained in terms of the reaction of percolating water with the metamict zircon structure and appear to be independent of analytical overlap with cracks. Group five zircons are characterised by U-Pb systems that appear to consist of more than one age but show only minor U-Pb discordance. Nevertheless trends in δ18O versus OH in this group of grains resemble trends seen in the other groups. The observed trends of δ18O with OH in the Jack Hills zircons are similar

  6. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen conifer Jack pine.

    PubMed

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P A; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22 degrees C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7 degrees C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7 degrees C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22 degrees C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of beta-carotene in the warm autumn

  7. Sulfonamide-Linked Ciprofloxacin, Sulfadiazine and Amantadine Derivatives as a Novel Class of Inhibitors of Jack Bean Urease; Synthesis, Kinetic Mechanism and Molecular Docking.

    PubMed

    Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Saeed, Aamer; Albericio, Fernando; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Abbas, Qamar; Hassan, Mubashir; Raza, Hussain; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-08-16

    Sulfonamide derivatives serve as an important building blocks in the drug design discovery and development (4D) process. Ciprofloxacin-, sulfadiazine- and amantadine-based sulfonamides were synthesized as potent inhibitors of jack bean urease and free radical scavengers. Molecular diversity was explored and electronic factors were also examined. All 24 synthesized compounds exhibited excellent potential against urease enzyme. Compound 3e (IC 50 = 0.081 ± 0.003 µM), 6a (IC 50 = 0.0022 ± 0.0002 µM), 9e (IC 50 = 0.0250 ± 0.0007 µM) and 12d (IC 50 = 0.0266 ± 0.0021 µM) were found to be the lead compounds compared to standard (thiourea, IC 50 = 17.814 ± 0.096 µM). Molecular docking studies were performed to delineate the binding affinity of the molecules and a kinetic mechanism of enzyme inhibition was propounded. Compounds 3e , 6a and 12d exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, while derivative 9e revealed a non-competitive mode of inhibition. Compounds 12a , 12b , 12d , 12e and 12f showed excellent radical scavenging potency in comparison to the reference drug vitamin C.

  8. Combinational effects of non n-Hexane Fractions of ant-plant (Myrmecodia tuberosa Jack) hypocotyl with doxorubicin against lymphocyte and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sasmito, Ediati; Mulyadi, Sri Mulyani; Hertiani, Triana; Fathdhieny, Annisa Qisthia; Witsqa, Ade Azka Surya; Laksono, Yogi Sotya

    2017-09-01

    Doxorubicin is widely used as a chemotherapeutic drug despite having many side effects. It may cause the dysfunction of macrophage, decreasing proliferation of lymphocytes, decreasing CD4+/CD8+ ratio and inducing hepatotoxicity. Doxorubicin inhibits the growth of Vero, HeLa, and T47D cell lines, and also induces a resistance of MCF-7 cells. Previous studies showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of ant-plant (Myrmecodia tuberose Jack) hipocotyl could increase macrophage phagocytosis activity and lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Therefore, antplant is a potential immune stimulator. Combinational treatment of non n-hexane fraction (NHF) of ant-plant with doxorubicin did not affect the doxorubicin's potency. Nevertheless, increased lymphocyte viability induced by doxorubicin in varied dosages of NHF that lethal to HeLa, MCF-7 and T47D cells. Moreover, on Vero cells, doxorubicin became less toxic when induced together with NHF. Thus, NHF of ant-plant is potential to be proposed as doxorubicin co-chemotherapeutic agent against cancer cells.

  9. Ants with Attitude: Australian Jack-jumpers of the Myrmecia pilosula species complex, with descriptions of four new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert W

    2015-01-21

    The six known "Jack-jumper species Myrmecia pilosula Fr. Smith 1858, M. croslandi Taylor 1991, M. banksi, M. haskinsorum, M. imaii and M. impaternata spp.n. are reviewed, illustrated and keyed. Myrmecia imaii is known only from southwest Western Australia, the others variously from southeastern Australia and Tasmania. These taxa were previously confused under the name M. pilosula (for which a lectotype is designated). Previous cytogenetical findings, which contributed importantly to current taxonomic understanding, are summarized for each species. Eastern and Western geographical races of the widespread M. pilosula are recognized. Myrmecia croslandi is one of only two eukaryote animals known to possess a single pair of chromosomes (2n=2 3 or 4). Myrmecia impaternata is evidentially an allodiploid (n=5 or 14, 2n=19) sperm-dependent gynogenetic hybrid between M. banksi and an element of the eastern race of M. pilosula, or their immediate ancestry. The sting-injected venom of these ants can induce sometimes fatal anaphylaxis in sensitive humans. 

  10. The inverse microconglomerate test: Definition and application to the preservation of Paleoarchean to Hadean magnetizations in metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Rory; Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Dare, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a new paleomagnetic field test, the inverse microconglomerate test. In contrast with traditional conglomerate tests, which target specimens that might preserve primary magnetizations, the inverse microconglomerate test focuses on magnetic carriers having unblocking temperatures less than peak metamorphic temperatures. These mineral carriers are expected to carry a consistent direction of remagnetization. Hence, the inverse microconglomerate test evaluates whether coherent magnetizations are retained on a grain/mineral scale in a given sedimentary rock sample. By defining the remagnetization direction, it also serves as a benchmark for comparison of magnetizations from other grains/minerals having unblocking temperatures higher than peak metamorphic conditions (i.e., potential primary magnetizations). We apply this new test to sediments of the Jack Hills (JH), Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. For the JH sediments we focus on fuchsite, a secondary Cr-mica that contains relict Cr-Fe spinels capable of recording remanent magnetizations. We find that JH fuchsite grains retain consistent magnetic directions at unblocking temperatures between ˜270 and 340 oC, which defines a positive test. This direction does not reproduce a nominal 1078-1070 Ma remagnetization reported by Weiss et al. (EPSL, 2015) that we interpret as an artifact of inappropriate use of averaging and statistics. The thermochemical remanent magnetization recorded by the fuchsite was most likely imparted during peak JH metamorphic conditions at ˜2650 Ma. Our inverse microconglomerate test complements a positive microconglomerate test and large scale positive conglomerate test conducted on JH cobbles (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013), further supporting evidence that JH zircons record Paleoarchean to Hadean primary magnetizations at high (greater than 550 oC) unblocking temperatures (Tarduno et al., Science, 2015). More generally, the new inverse microconglomerate test may aid in

  11. Application of GNSS-RTK derived topographical maps for rapid environmental monitoring: a case study of Jack Finnery Lake (Perth, Australia).

    PubMed

    Schloderer, Glen; Bingham, Matthew; Awange, Joseph L; Fleming, Kevin M

    2011-09-01

    In environmental monitoring, environmental impact assessments and environmental audits, topographical maps play an essential role in providing a means by which the locations of sampling sites may be selected, in assisting with the interpretation of physical features, and in indicating the impact or potential impact on an area due to changes in the system being monitored (e.g., spatially changing features such as wetlands). Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are hereby presented as a rapid method for monitoring spatial changes to support environmental monitoring decisions and policies. To validate the GNSS-based method, a comparison is made of results from a small-scale topographic survey using radio-based real-time kinematic GNSS (GNSS-RTK) and total station survey methods at Jack Finnery Lake, Perth, Australia. The accuracies achieved by the total station in this study were 2 cm horizontally and 6 cm vertically, while the GNSS-RTK also achieved an accuracy of 2 cm horizontally, but only 28 cm vertically. While the GNSS-RTK measurements were less accurate in the height component compared to those from the total station method, it is still capable of achieving accuracies sufficient for a topographic map at a scale of 1:1,750 that could support environmental monitoring tasks such as identifying spatial changes in small water bodies or wetlands. The time taken to perform the survey using GNSS-RTK, however, was much shorter compared to the total station method, thereby making it quite suitable for monitoring spatial changes within an environmental context, e.g., dynamic mining activities that require rapid surveys and the updating of the monitored data at regular intervals.

  12. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Kumar Jaganathan, Saravana; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Hamzehalipour Almaki, Javad; Nasiri, Rozita

    2016-01-01

    Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184). The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract) and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract) and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL) and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL). The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated. PMID:27410459

  13. Evaluation of soil and leaves nutrient on the growth of cultivated tabatbarito (Ficusdeltoidea jack.) in Makroman Village, Sambutan District of East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manurung, H.; Kustiawan, W.; Kusuma, IW; Marjenah

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the soil and leaves nutrient status on the growth of cultivated tabatbarito (Ficusdeltoidea Jack) in various level ages. The field experiment was conducted during December 2015 to November 2016 at Makroman Village, Samarinda-East Kalimantan. On 6, 9, and 12 months old after planting (MAP) the data was collected to evaluate the plant height, leaf number, branch number, biomass, soil and leaves nutrient concentrations. The results showed that the average pH of soil was 3.92±0.06, categorized as a very acid. The concentration of soil nutrients were: nitrogen (1.13±0.31 %), phosphorus (0.01±0.01 ppm), potassium (297.60±50.11 ppm), calcium (2.97±1.79 cmol(+)Kg-1), and magnesium (3.69±2.30 cmol(+)Kg-1). The leaf nutrient concentration was 1.74±1.42 % (N), 0.25±0.19 % (P), 1.86±0.15 % (Ca), 1.88±0.29 % (Mg). The soil nutrients concentration (N, P, Mg) and the leaf nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) has a correlates with plant height increment, branch number increment, and biomass increment. The results indicated that the N, P, K, Ca, Mg played an important role in the growth of F. deltoidea and this nutrient should be considered well when this plant will be cultivated as a source of the medicinal plant on a large scale.

  14. Diet diversity of jack and chub mackerels and ecosystem changes in the northern Humboldt Current system: A long-term study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Espino, Marco; Espinoza, Pepe; Dioses, Teobaldo; Ñiquen, Miguel; Navarro, Iván; Simier, Monique; Ménard, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (JM) and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (CM) are medium size pelagic fish predators and highly exploited resources. Here we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of JM and CM diet composition using a large dataset of stomach samples collected from 1973 to 2013 along the Peruvian coast. In total 47,535 stomachs (18,377 CM and 29,158 JM) were analysed, of which 23,570 (12,476 CM and 11,094 JM) were non-empty. Results show that both species are opportunistic and present a trophic overlap. However, despite their smaller maximal size, CM consumed more fish than JM. Both diets presented high spatiotemporal variability. Spatially, the shelf break appears as a strong biogeographical barrier affecting prey species distribution and thus CM and JM diet. Opportunistic foragers are often considered as actual indicators of ecosystem changes; we show here that diet composition of CM and JM reveal ecosystem changes but is not always a good indicator of changes in prey biomass as prey accessibility and energy content can also play an important role. In addition we found that El Niño events have a surprisingly weak effect on stomach fullness and diet. Finally our results show that the classic paradigm of positive correlation between diversity and temperature is unlikely to occur in the Humboldt Current system where productivity seems to be the main driver. We show how energy content of forage species and the strength of the oxygen minimum zone most likely play an important role prey diversity and accessibility, and thus in fish foraging behaviour.

  15. Antioxidant activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit) leaf extracts: remarkable attenuations of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Omar, Haidy S; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Moussa, Ziad; Taha, Kamilia F; Singab, Abdel Nasser B

    2011-04-05

    The present study examines the antioxidative, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit) leaf extracts (JFEs). The 70% ethanol (JFEE), n-butanol (JFBE), water (JFWE), chloroform (JFCE), and ethyl acetate (JFEAE) extracts were obtained. Both JFEE and JFBE markedly scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical and chelate Fe+2 in vitro. A compound was isolated from JFBE and identified using 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR. The administration of JFEE or JFBE to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) from 200 to 56 and 79 mg%, respectively; elevated insulin from 10.8 to 19.5 and 15.1 µU/ml, respectively; decreased lipid peroxides from 7.3 to 5.4 and 5.9 nmol/ml, respectively; decreased %glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (%HbA1C) from 6.8 to 4.5 and 5.0%, respectively; and increased total protein content from 2.5 to 6.3 and 5.7 mg%, respectively. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio significantly declined by -37, -19, -23, -37, and -39%, respectively, in the case of JFEE; and by -31, -14, -17, -31, and -25%, respectively, in the case of JFBE; as compared to diabetic rats. HDL-C increased by +37% (JFEE) and by +11% (JFBE). Both JFEE and JFBE have shown appreciable results in decreasing FBG, lipid peroxides, %HbA1C, TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, and increasing insulin, HDL-C, and protein content. The spectrometric analysis confirmed that the flavonoid isolated from JFBE was isoquercitrin. We can conclude from this study that JFEE and JFBE exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an antioxidative pathway that might be referred to their flavonoid contents.

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit) Leaf Extracts: Remarkable Attenuations of Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Haidy S.; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A.; Moussa, Ziad; Taha, Kamilia F.; Singab, Abdel Nasser B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the antioxidative, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit) leaf extracts (JFEs). The 70% ethanol (JFEE), n-butanol (JFBE), water (JFWE), chloroform (JFCE), and ethyl acetate (JFEAE) extracts were obtained. Both JFEE and JFBE markedly scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical and chelate Fe+2in vitro. A compound was isolated from JFBE and identified using 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR. The administration of JFEE or JFBE to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) from 200 to 56 and 79 mg%, respectively; elevated insulin from 10.8 to 19.5 and 15.1 μU/ml, respectively; decreased lipid peroxides from 7.3 to 5.4 and 5.91 nmol/ml, respectively; decreased %glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (%HbA1C) from 6.8 to 4.5 and 5.0%, respectively; and increased total protein content from 2.5 to 6.3 and 5.7 mg%, respectively. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio significantly declined by -37, -19, -23, -37, and -39%, respectively, in the case of JFEE; and by -31, -14, -17, -31, and -25%, respectively, in the case of JFBE; as compared to diabetic rats. HDL-C increased by +37% (JFEE) and by +11% (JFBE). Both JFEE and JFBE have shown appreciable results in decreasing FBG, lipid peroxides, %HbA1C, TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, and increasing insulin, HDL-C, and protein content. The spectrometric analysis confirmed that the flavonoid isolated from JFBE was isoquercitrin. We can conclude from this study that JFEE and JFBE exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an antioxidative pathway that might be referred to their flavonoid contents. PMID:21479350

  17. X-ray absorption spectroscopic evidence for binding of the competitive inhibitor 2-mercaptoethanol to the nickel sites of Jack bean urease. A new Ni-Ni interaction in the inhibited enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, P.A.; Wilcox, D.E.; Scott, R.A.

    The enzyme Jack bean urease has been identified as the first nickel-containing metalloenzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to carbon dioxide and ammonia. Competitive inhibitors such as 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) have been shown to dramatically affect the ground-state electronic properties of the urease Ni(II) ions. Results of preliminary structural investigations using x-ray absorption spectroscopy of the nickel salts of urease in its native and 2-ME bound forms are presented. The binding of 2-ME to Ni(II) through the thiolate sulfur is confirmed by the results of this study. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging actions of two herbs, Uncaria rhynchophylla (MIQ) Jack and Gastrodia elata Bl., in kainic acid-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, C L; Tang, N Y; Chiang, S Y; Hsieh, C T; Lin, J G

    1999-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jack (UR) and Gastrodia elata BI. (GE) are traditional Chinese herbs that are usually used in combination to treat convulsive disorders, such as epilepsy, in China. The aim of this study was to compare the anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging activities of UR alone and UR in combination with GE in rats. For the in vitro studies, brain tissues from 6 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with 120 microg/ml kainic acid (KA), with or without varied concentrations of UR or UR plus GE. For the in vivo studies, male SD rats (6 per group) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of KA 12 mg/kg to induce epileptic seizures and generation of free radicals, with or without oral administration of UR 1 g/kg alone or UR 1 g/kg plus GE 1 g/kg. Epileptic seizures were verified by behavioral observations, and electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings. These results showed that UR alone decreased KA-induced lipid peroxide levels in vitro, whereas UR plus GE did not produce a greater effect than UR alone. UR significantly reduced counts of wet dog shakes (WDS), paw tremor (PT) and facial myoclonia (FM) in KA-treated rats and significantly delayed the onset time of WDS, from 27 min in the control group to 40 min in the UR group. UR plus GE did not inhibit seizures more effectively than UR alone, but did further prolong the onset time of WDS to 63 min (P < 0.05 vs. UR alone). UR alone reduced the levels of free radicals in vivo, as measured by lipid peroxidation in the brain and luminol-chemiluminescence (CL) counts and lucigenin-CL counts in the peripheral whole blood, but the combination of GE and UR did not reduce free radical levels more markedly than UR alone. In conclusion, our results indicate that UR has anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging activities, and UR combined with GE exhibit greater inhibition on the onset time of WDS than UR alone. These findings suggest that the anticonvulsive effects of UR and

  19. X-15 #2 on lakebed after engine failure forced pilot Jack McKay to make an emergency landing at Mud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    On 9 November 1962, an engine failure forced Jack McKay, a NASA research pilot, to make an emergency landing at Mud Lake, Nevada, in the second X-15 (56-6671); its landing gear collapsed and the X-15 flipped over on its back. McKay was promptly rescued by an Air Force medical team standing by near the launch site, and eventually recovered to fly the X-15 again. But his injuries, more serious than at first thought, eventually forced his retirement from NASA. The aircraft was sent back to the manufacturer, where it underwent extensive repairs and modifications. It returned to Edwards in February 1964 as the X-15A-2, with a longer fuselage (52 ft 5 in) and external fuel tanks. The basic X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable horizontal stabilizers to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - James Harrison (left), Jack Nowling (center) and Amy Norris (right) pack up part of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - James Harrison (left), Jack Nowling (center) and Amy Norris (right) pack up part of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Jack Nowling moves a box filled with part of the Columbia debris. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Jack Nowling moves a box filled with part of the Columbia debris. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - James Harrison (left), Jack Nowling (center) and Amy Norris (right) pack up some of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - James Harrison (left), Jack Nowling (center) and Amy Norris (right) pack up some of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  3. 4,5,7,8,17-Penta-hydr-oxy-14,18-dimethyl-6-methyl-ene-3,10-dioxapenta-cyclo-[9.8.0.0.0.0]nona-dec-14-ene-9,16-dione methanol solvate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Teh, Chin Hoe; Teoh, Siew Chin; Yeap, Chin Sing; Chan, Kit Lam; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2009-03-28

    The title quassinoid compound, C(20)H(24)O(9)·CH(3)OH·2H(2)O, is a natural eurycomanone isolated from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. The mol-ecules contain a fused five-ring system, with one tetra-hydro-furan ring adopting an envelope conformation, one tetra-hydro-pyran-2-one ring in a screw boat conformation, one cyclo-hexenone ring in a half-chair conformation and two cyclo-hexane rings in chair conformations. Intra-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions generate S(5) ring motifs and an O-H⋯O inter-action generates an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via inter-molecular O-H⋯O inter-actions along the b axis and further stacked along a axis. The absolute configuration of the title compound was inferred from previously solved structures of its analogues.

  4. Simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids in Tongkat Ali dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Min; Jang, Moonhee; Kim, In Sook; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is one of the most popular traditional herbs in Southeast Asia and generally consumed as forms of dietary supplements, tea, or drink additives for coffee or energy beverages. In this study, the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids of Tongkat Ali (eurycomanone, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone, 14,15β-dihydroxyklaineanone, eurycomalactone, and longilactone) was developed and validated. Using the developed method, the content of the six quassinoids was measured in Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplement tablets or capsules, and the resulting data were used to confirm the presence of Tongkat Ali in those products. Among the six quassinoids, eurycomanone was the most abundant quassinoid in all samples tested. The developed method would be useful for the quality assessment of Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplements. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Analytical results for Bullion Mine and Crystal Mine waste samples and bed sediments from a small tributary to Jack Creek and from Uncle Sam Gulch, Boulder River watershed, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Church, Stan E.; Finney, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    Metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana affect water quality as a result of acid-generation and toxic-metal solubilization. Mine waste and tailings in the unnamed tributary to Jack Creek draining the Bullion mine area and in Uncle Sam Gulch below the Crystal mine are contributors to water quality degradation of Basin Creek and Cataract Creek, Montana. Basin Creek and Cataract Creek are two of three tributaries to the Boulder River in the study area. The bed sediment geochemistry in these two creeks has also been affected by the acidic drainage from these two mines. Geochemical analysis of 42 tailings cores and eleven bed-sediment samples was undertaken to determine the concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn present in these materials. These elements are environmentally significant, in that they can be toxic to fish and/or the invertebrate organisms in the aquatic food chain. Suites of one-inch cores of mine waste and tailings material were taken from two breached tailings impoundments near the site of the Bullion mine and from Uncle Sam Gulch below the Crystal mine. Forty-two core samples were taken and divided into 211 subsamples. The samples were analyzed by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) using a mixed-acid (HC1-HNO3-HC1O4-HF) digestion. Results of the core analyses show that some samples contain moderate to very high concentrations of arsenic (as much as 13,000 ppm), silver (as much as 130 ppm), cadmium (as much as 260 ppm), copper (as much as 9,000 ppm), lead (as much as 11,000 ppm), and zinc (as much as 18,000 ppm). Eleven bed-sediment samples were also subjected to the mixed-acid total digestion, and a warm (50°C) 2M HC1-1% H2O2 leach and analyzed by ICP-AES. Results indicate that bed sediments of the Jack Creek tributary are impacted by past mining at the Bullion and Crystal mines. The contaminating metals are mostly contained in the 2M HC1-1% H2O2

  6. Increased Air Temperature during Simulated Autumn Conditions Does Not Increase Photosynthetic Carbon Gain But Affects the Dissipation of Excess Energy in Seedlings of the Evergreen Conifer Jack Pine1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P.A.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22°C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7°C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7°C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22°C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of β-carotene in the warm autumn treatment as well as by changes in

  7. An official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report: presentations and discussion of the fifth Jack Pepys Workshop on Asthma in the Workplace. Comparisons between asthma in the workplace and non-work-related asthma.

    PubMed

    Malo, Jean-Luc; Tarlo, Susan M; Sastre, Joaquin; Martin, James; Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Le Moual, Nicole; Heederik, Dick; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Blanc, Paul D; Vandenplas, Olivier; Moscato, Gianna; de Blay, Frédéric; Cartier, André

    2015-07-01

    The fifth Jack Pepys Workshop on Asthma in the Workplace focused on the similarities and differences of work-related asthma (WRA) and non-work-related asthma (non-WRA). WRA includes occupational asthma (OA) and work-exacerbated asthma (WEA). There are few biological differences in the mechanisms of sensitization to environmental and occupational allergens. Non-WRA and OA, when due to high-molecular-weight agents, are both IgE mediated; it is uncertain whether OA due to low-molecular-weight agents is also IgE mediated. Risk factors for OA include female sex, a history of upper airway symptoms, and a history of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Atopy is a risk factor for OA due to high-molecular-weight agents, and exposure to cleaning agents is a risk factor for both OA and non-WRA. WEA is important among workers with preexisting asthma and may overlap with irritant-induced asthma, a type of OA. Induced sputum cytology can confirm airway inflammation, but specific inhalation challenge is the reference standard diagnostic test. Inhalation challenges are relatively safe, with the most severe reactions occurring with low-molecular-weight agents. Indirect health care costs account for about 50% of total asthma costs. Workers with poor asthma control (WRA or non-WRA) are less likely to be employed. Income loss is a major contributor to the indirect costs of WRA. Overall, asthma outcomes probably are worse for adult-onset than for childhood-onset asthma but better for OA than adult-onset non-WRA. Important aspects of management of OA are rapid and proper confirmation of the diagnosis and reduction of exposure to sensitizers or irritants at work and home.

  8. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report: Presentations and Discussion of the Fifth Jack Pepys Workshop on Asthma in the Workplace. Comparisons between Asthma in the Workplace and Non–Work-related Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Jean-Luc; Sastre, Joaquin; Martin, James; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.; Le Moual, Nicole; Heederik, Dick; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Blanc, Paul D.; Vandenplas, Olivier; Moscato, Gianna; de Blay, Frédéric; Cartier, André

    2015-01-01

    The fifth Jack Pepys Workshop on Asthma in the Workplace focused on the similarities and differences of work-related asthma (WRA) and non–work-related asthma (non-WRA). WRA includes occupational asthma (OA) and work-exacerbated asthma (WEA). There are few biological differences in the mechanisms of sensitization to environmental and occupational allergens. Non-WRA and OA, when due to high-molecular-weight agents, are both IgE mediated; it is uncertain whether OA due to low-molecular-weight agents is also IgE mediated. Risk factors for OA include female sex, a history of upper airway symptoms, and a history of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Atopy is a risk factor for OA due to high-molecular-weight agents, and exposure to cleaning agents is a risk factor for both OA and non-WRA. WEA is important among workers with preexisting asthma and may overlap with irritant-induced asthma, a type of OA. Induced sputum cytology can confirm airway inflammation, but specific inhalation challenge is the reference standard diagnostic test. Inhalation challenges are relatively safe, with the most severe reactions occurring with low-molecular-weight agents. Indirect health care costs account for about 50% of total asthma costs. Workers with poor asthma control (WRA or non-WRA) are less likely to be employed. Income loss is a major contributor to the indirect costs of WRA. Overall, asthma outcomes probably are worse for adult-onset than for childhood-onset asthma but better for OA than adult-onset non-WRA. Important aspects of management of OA are rapid and proper confirmation of the diagnosis and reduction of exposure to sensitizers or irritants at work and home. PMID:26203621

  9. Factors influencing the quality of Myrmecia pilosula (Jack Jumper) ant venom for use in in vitro and in vivo diagnoses of allergen sensitization and in allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wanandy, T; Dwyer, H E; McLean, L; Davies, N W; Nichols, D; Gueven, N; Brown, S G A; Wiese, M D

    2017-11-01

    Allergen immunotherapy uses pharmaceutical preparations derived from naturally occurring source materials, which contain water-soluble allergenic components responsible for allergic reactions. The success of in vivo and in vitro diagnoses in allergen sensitization and allergen immunotherapy largely depends on the quality, composition and uniformity of allergenic materials used to produce the active ingredients, and the formulation employed to prepare finished products. We aimed to examine the factors influencing batch-to-batch consistency of Jack Jumper (Myrmecia pilosula) ant venom (JJAV) in the form of active pharmaceutical ingredient (AI) and informed whether factors such as temperature, artificial light and container materials influence the quality of JJAV AIs. We also aimed to establish handling and storage requirements of JJAV AIs to ensure preservation of allergenic activities during usage in the diagnosis of allergen sensitization and in allergen immunotherapy. The quality and consistency of JJAV AIs were analysed using a combination of bicinchoninic acid assay for total protein quantification, HPLC-UV for JJAV allergen peptides quantification, ELISA inhibition for total allergenic potency, SDS-PAGE, AU-PAGE and immunoblot for qualitative assessment of JJAV components, and Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay for the quantification of endotoxin concentration. API-ZYM and Zymogram assays were used to probe the presence of enzymatic activities in JJAV. Pharmaceutical-grade JJAV for allergen immunotherapy has good batch-to-batch consistency. Temporary storage at 4°C and light exposure do not affect the quality of JJAV. Exposure to temperature above 40°C degrades high MW allergens in JJAV. Vials containing JJAV must be stored frozen and in upright position during long-term storage. We have identified factors, which can influence the quality and consistency of JJAV AIs, and provided a framework for appropriate handling, transporting and storage of JJAV to be used

  10. Efforts in Preparation for Jack Validation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    clothing, equipment attached to the body, age, or physical health. The skeleton’s size, structure, and proportions are affected by age, exercise ...things such as genetics, exercise , and dietary habit (Bailey, Malina, & Rasmussen, 1978). VIRTUAL HUMAN MODELS A virtual human models only a subset of...artistically modeled) surfaces. - Somatotype modeling is not considered. To understand what this implies, consider scaling the body using an average

  11. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Jack Human Modelling Tool: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    live” test subjects. In the early 1960s computer aided design (CAD) software became available, and aerospace and automotive manufacturers saw the... design would be assessed using anthropometric mannequins (such as the Society of Automotive Engineers J826B H-Point mannequin) or “live” test subjects...TR-2364 ABSTRACT When evaluating the design of a workstation human factors practitioners have traditionally used a number of different

  13. Looking Back: A Reply to Jack Fraenkel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that concern purely with consequences is an inadequate basis for an ethical theory. Suggests that claims based on rights or standards other than the promotion of the greatest happiness be used to guide decisions. Insists that conflict among rights in no way denies their existence or their essence in determinations of distributive justice.…

  14. Injected polyurethane slab jacking : interim report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-09-01

    Conventional methods for raising in-place concrete slabs to align roadway sections or to counteract subsidence requires pressure-injecting grout under the slab. As other transportation organizations have had success with the URETEK Method, which util...

  15. Black Jack Pershing: Partnerships in Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    polygamy . Finally, he moved about unescorted to show his trust in tribal leaders and their ability to provide for local security. Perhaps the key...understanding to influence behavior and build trust. He avoided taboo issues like slavery and polygamy , and constantly reassured his partners that

  16. The Master's Degree: Jack of All Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joslyn L., Ed.

    The master's degree is discussed in seven papers written by academic officers serving state coordinating and governing boards. In "Toward a New Paradigm," Judith S. Glazer considers changes in the master's degree and suggests that the degree is changing to meet student needs, the job market, and external standards. Martine F. Hammond's…

  17. Jack Steinberger and the Muon-Neutrino

    Science.gov Websites

    Production of Neutral Mesons by Photons, DOE Technical Report, October 1951 Experimental Survey of Strange take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site. Website Policies/Important

  18. Injected polyurethane slab jacking : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-06-01

    Conventional methods for raising in-place concrete slabs to align roadway sections or to counteract subsidence requires pressure-injecting grout under the slab. As other transportation organizations have had success with the URETEK Method, which util...

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Jack Nowling transfers bags with debris pieces into a storage box. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Jack Nowling transfers bags with debris pieces into a storage box. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Amy Norris (left) packs some of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. Jack Nowling works on the computer. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Amy Norris (left) packs some of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. Jack Nowling works on the computer. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour begins rolling out of the Orbiter Processing Facility for temporary transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building. The move allows work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour begins rolling out of the Orbiter Processing Facility for temporary transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building. The move allows work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour rolls into the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for temporary storage. The orbiter has been moved from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour rolls into the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for temporary storage. The orbiter has been moved from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour is towed toward the Vehicle Assembly Building for temporary storage. The orbiter has been moved from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour is towed toward the Vehicle Assembly Building for temporary storage. The orbiter has been moved from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis rolls into the Orbiter Processing Facility after spending 10 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building. The hiatus in the VAB allowed work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-16

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis rolls into the Orbiter Processing Facility after spending 10 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building. The hiatus in the VAB allowed work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour is ready to be rolled out of the Orbiter Processing Facility for temporary transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building. The move allows work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour is ready to be rolled out of the Orbiter Processing Facility for temporary transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building. The move allows work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis is back inside the Orbiter Processing Facility after spending 10 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building. The hiatus in the VAB allowed work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-16

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis is back inside the Orbiter Processing Facility after spending 10 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building. The hiatus in the VAB allowed work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis rolls toward the Orbiter Processing Facility after spending 10 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building. The hiatus in the VAB allowed work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-16

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis rolls toward the Orbiter Processing Facility after spending 10 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building. The hiatus in the VAB allowed work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis rolls out of the Vehicle Assembly Building for transfer back to the Orbiter Processing Facility. Atlantis spent 10 days in the VAB to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-16

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis rolls out of the Vehicle Assembly Building for transfer back to the Orbiter Processing Facility. Atlantis spent 10 days in the VAB to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis is towed back to the Orbiter Processing Facility after spending 10 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building. The hiatus in the VAB allowed work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-16

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis is towed back to the Orbiter Processing Facility after spending 10 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building. The hiatus in the VAB allowed work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour backs out of the Orbiter Processing Facility for temporary transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building. The move allows work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour backs out of the Orbiter Processing Facility for temporary transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building. The move allows work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

  11. Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-10-01

    Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the

  12. Modulation of cell surface hydrophobicity and attachment of bacteria to abiotic surfaces and shrimp by Malaysian herb extracts.

    PubMed

    Hui, Yew Woh; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-08-01

    The use of simple crude water extracts of common herbs to reduce bacterial attachment may be a cost-effective way to control bacterial foodborne pathogens, particularly in developing countries. The ability of water extracts of three common Malaysian herbs (Andrographis paniculata, Eurycoma longifolia, and Garcinia atroviridis) to modulate hydrophobicity and attachment to surfaces of five food-related bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus ATCC 14576, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) were determined. The bacterial attachment to hydrocarbon assay was used to determine bacterial hydrophobicity. Staining and direct microscopic counts were used to determine attachment of bacteria to glass and stainless steel. Plating on selective media was used to determine attachment of bacteria to shrimp. All extracts were capable of either significantly ( P < 0.05) increasing or decreasing bacterial surface hydrophobicity, depending on the herb extract and bacteria combination. Bacterial attachment to all surfaces was either significantly (P < 0.05) increased or decreased, depending on the herb extract and bacteria combination. Overall, hydrophobicity did not show a significant correlation (P > 0.05) to bacterial attachment. For specific combinations of bacteria, surface material, and plant extract, significant correlations (R > 0.80) between hydrophobicity and attachment were observed. The highest of these was observed for S. aureus attachment to stainless steel and glass after treatment with the E. longifolia extract (R = 0.99, P < 0.01). The crude water herb extracts in this study were shown to have the potential to modulate specific bacterial and surface interactions and may, with further work, be useful for the simple and practical control of foodborne pathogens.

  13. Co-composting of invasive Acacia longifolia with pine bark for horticultural use.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale co-composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species with pine bark waste from the lumber industry, in a blend ratio of 60:40 (v:v), was investigated and compared with previous research on the composting of Acacia without additional feedstock, to determine the potential process and end-product quality benefits of co-composting with bark. Pile temperatures rose rapidly to >70 °C and were maintained at >60 °C for several months. Acacia and bark biomass contained a large fraction of mineralizable organic matter (OM) equivalent to approximately 600 g kg(-1) of initial OM. Bark was more recalcitrant to biodegradation compared with Acacia, which degraded at twice the rate of bark. Therefore, incorporating the bark increased the final amount of compost produced compared with composting Acacia residues without bark. The relatively high C/N ratio of the composting matrix (C/N=56) and NH3 volatilization explained the limited increases in NH4+-N content, whereas concentrations of conservative nutrient elements (e.g. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) increased in proportion to OM mineralization, enriching the compost as a nutrient source for horticultural use. Nitrogen concentrations also increased to a small extent, but were much more dynamic and losses, probably associated with N volatilization mechanisms, were difficult to actively control. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilized end-product, such as pH, electrical conductivity and OM content, were improved with the addition of bark to Acacia biomass, and the final compost characteristics were suitable for use for soil improvement and also as horticultural substrate components.

  14. Phytotoxic triterpene saponis from Bellis longifolia, an endemic plant of Crete

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In continuation of our research on discovery of bioactive compounds from plants we have screened extracts of 65 plant species of the Cretan flora for their phytotoxic activity. All plants were extracted successively with CH2Cl2, MeOH and H2O. Phytotoxicity evaluation of the 249 generated extracts wa...

  15. Effect of wild mint (Mentha longifolia) infusion on the over all performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Durrani, F R; Sultan, A; Marri, Muhammad Latif; Chand, N; Durrani, Z

    2007-04-01

    An attempt was made to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of wild mint (Mentha Ingifolia) on the overall performance of broiler chicks at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar in July 2005. Three levels of fresh wild mint infusion at the rate of 50, 40 and 30 mL L(-1) of fresh drinking water were provided to chicks in groups A, B and C, respectively and group D was kept as control, each group was replicated four times with 10 chicks per replicate, reared for 35 days, in an open sided house in cages of the same size. No vaccination was practiced. Data were recorded daily for feed intake, water intake and for weight gain on weekly basis. Feed conversion efficiency, dressing percentage, percent mortality, weight of different body organs (breast, thigh and leg), giblets (liver, heart and gizzard), intestine and economics for each group was calculated at the end of experimental period. It was found that group B receiving 40 mL L(-1) of wild mint infusion in drinking water had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on mean body weight gain, feed intake, water intake, feed conversion efficiency, dressing percentage and weight of different body organs (breast, thigh and leg). Significant (p < 0.05) differences were also found in mortality, highest mortality was observed in group D (10%) as compared with groups A, B and C, however there was no significant effect on giblets (liver, heart, gizzard), intestine and weight of abdominal fat. Mean feed cost and gross return was significantly (p < 0.05) effected for group B. Feed cost was lower and gross return was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for group B than other treated groups and control.

  16. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Adimoelja, A

    2000-01-01

    Traditional herbs have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the management of erectile dysfunction and have become known world-wide as an 'instant' treatment. The modern view of the management of erectile dysfunction subscribes to a single etiology, i.e. the mechanism of erection. A large number of pharmacological agents are orally consumed and vasoactive agents inserted intraurethrally or injected intrapenially to regain good erection. Modern phytochemicals have developed from traditional herbs. Phytochemicals focus their mechanism of healing action to the root cause, i.e. the inability to control the proper function of the whole body system. Hence phytochemicals manage erectile dysfunction in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Protodioscin is a phytochemical agent derived from Tribulus terrestris L plant, which has been clinically proven to improve sexual desire and enhance erection via the conversion of protodioscine to DHEA (De-Hydro-Epi-Androsterone). Preliminary observations suggest that Tribulus terrestris L grown on different soils does not consistently produce the active component Protodioscin. Further photochemical studies of many other herbal plants are needed to explain the inconsistent results found with other herbal plants, such as in diversities of Ginseng, Eurycoma longifolia, Pimpinella pruacen, Muara puama, Ginkgo biloba, Yohimbe etc.

  17. 4,5,7,8,17-Penta­hydr­oxy-14,18-dimethyl-6-methyl­ene-3,10-dioxapenta­cyclo­[9.8.0.01,7.04,19.013,18]nona­dec-14-ene-9,16-dione methanol solvate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Chin Hoe; Teoh, Siew Chin; Yeap, Chin Sing; Chan, Kit Lam; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2009-01-01

    The title quassinoid compound, C20H24O9·CH3OH·2H2O, is a natural eurycomanone isolated from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. The mol­ecules contain a fused five-ring system, with one tetra­hydro­furan ring adopting an envelope conformation, one tetra­hydro­pyran-2-one ring in a screw boat conformation, one cyclo­hexenone ring in a half-chair conformation and two cyclo­hexane rings in chair conformations. Intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions generate S(5) ring motifs and an O—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via inter­molecular O—H⋯O inter­actions along the b axis and further stacked along a axis. The absolute configuration of the title compound was inferred from previously solved structures of its analogues. PMID:21582604

  18. Screening of selected indigenous plants of Cambodia for antiplasmodial activity.

    PubMed

    Hout, Sotheara; Chea, Aun; Bun, Sok-Siya; Elias, Riad; Gasquet, Monique; Timon-David, Pierre; Balansard, Guy; Azas, Nadine

    2006-08-11

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of 117 aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts derived from different parts of 28 indigenous wild plant species was studied. These plants are commonly used in Cambodian traditional medicine. The plant extracts were tested for in vitro activity against a chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain (W2). Nine extracts were moderately active with IC(50) values ranging between 5 and 10 microg/ml, 17 extracts were active with IC(50) values ranging between 1 and 5 microg/ml. These 26 extracts derived from eight plants belong to six families. The most active extracts were dichloromethane and came from Stephania rotunda and Brucea javanica with IC(50) values of 1 microg/ml and a selectivity index > or = 25. It is interesting to note that some aqueous extracts were as active as dichloromethane extracts especially aqueous extracts of Stephania rotunda, Brucea javanica, Phyllanthus urinaria and Eurycoma longifolia with IC(50) values of < or = 4 microg/ml. These results are in agreement with statements of healers on traditional uses of these plants for the treatment of malaria and/or fever. In this study, we report the antiplasmodial potential activity of eight plant species from Cambodia. Among them four are tested for the first time.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis moves into high bay 4 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It was towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis moves into high bay 4 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It was towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis awaits a tow from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis awaits a tow from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is turned into position outside the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) for its tow to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is turned into position outside the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) for its tow to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis awaits transport from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis awaits transport from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers back the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis out of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) for its move to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers back the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis out of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) for its move to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is moved into high bay 4 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It was towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is moved into high bay 4 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It was towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers prepare to tow the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers prepare to tow the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is moments away from a tow from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is moments away from a tow from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers monitor the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis as it is towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers monitor the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis as it is towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis approaches the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) high bay 4. It is being towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis approaches the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) high bay 4. It is being towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis approaches high bay 4 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It was towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis approaches high bay 4 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It was towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers walk with Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) high bay 4. The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers walk with Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) high bay 4. The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis backs out of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) for its move to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis backs out of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) for its move to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis arrives in high bay 4 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It was towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis arrives in high bay 4 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It was towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is almost in position in high bay 4 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It was towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is almost in position in high bay 4 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It was towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is reflected in a rain puddle as it is towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is reflected in a rain puddle as it is towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis is backed out of the Vehicle Assembly Building for transfer back to the Orbiter Processing Facility. Atlantis spent 10 days in the VAB to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-16

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The orbiter Atlantis is backed out of the Vehicle Assembly Building for transfer back to the Orbiter Processing Facility. Atlantis spent 10 days in the VAB to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour settles into place inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it has been moved for temporary storage. It left the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour settles into place inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it has been moved for temporary storage. It left the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis approaches the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It is being towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis approaches the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It is being towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis is towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The move will allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The orbiter Atlantis is backed away from the Vehicle Assembly Building for transfer back to the Orbiter Processing Facility. Atlantis spent 10 days in the VAB to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-16

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The orbiter Atlantis is backed away from the Vehicle Assembly Building for transfer back to the Orbiter Processing Facility. Atlantis spent 10 days in the VAB to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers accompany the orbiter Atlantis as it is towed back to the Orbiter Processing Facility after spending 10 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building. The hiatus in the VAB allowed work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-16

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers accompany the orbiter Atlantis as it is towed back to the Orbiter Processing Facility after spending 10 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building. The hiatus in the VAB allowed work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The orbiter Atlantis is backed out of the Vehicle Assembly Building for transfer back to the Orbiter Processing Facility. Atlantis spent 10 days in the VAB to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-16

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The orbiter Atlantis is backed out of the Vehicle Assembly Building for transfer back to the Orbiter Processing Facility. Atlantis spent 10 days in the VAB to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work included annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Work resumes to prepare Atlantis for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour is towed in front of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is going for temporary storage. The orbiter has been moved from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Endeavour is towed in front of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is going for temporary storage. The orbiter has been moved from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis nears the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It is being towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis nears the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). It is being towed from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to allow work to be performed in the bay that can only be accomplished while it is empty. Work scheduled in the processing facility includes annual validation of the bay's cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms, and jack stands. Atlantis will remain in the VAB for about 10 days, then return to the OPF as work resumes to prepare it for launch in September 2004 on the first return-to-flight mission, STS-114.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- After Endeavour’s rollout from inside the Orbiter Processing Facility, the transporter (foreground) prepares to tow it to the Vehicle Assembly Building for temporary transfer. A protective cover surrounds the nose of Endeavour. The move to the VAB allows work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- After Endeavour’s rollout from inside the Orbiter Processing Facility, the transporter (foreground) prepares to tow it to the Vehicle Assembly Building for temporary transfer. A protective cover surrounds the nose of Endeavour. The move to the VAB allows work to be performed in the OPF that can only be accomplished while the bay is empty. Work scheduled in the OPF includes annual validation of the bay’s cranes, work platforms, lifting mechanisms and jack stands. Endeavour will remain in the VAB for approximately 12 days, then return to the OPF.

  5. HDGF: a novel jack-of-all-trades in cancer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Cihang; Wang, Jianbo; Ma, Wei; Wang, Xintong; Cheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-01

    HDGF is an important regulator of a broad range of cancer cell activities and plays important roles in cancer cell transformation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Such a divergent influence of HDGF on cancer cell activities derives from its multiple inter- and sub-cellular localizations where it interacts with a range of different binding partners. Interestingly, high levels of HDGF could be detected in patients' serum of some cancers. This review is focused on the role of HDGF in tumorigenesis and metastasis, and provides insight for application in clinical cancer therapy as well as its clinical implications as a prognostic marker in cancer progression.

  6. All Marketing, No Management Make Jack a Dull Director

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBaugh, Thomas D.

    1976-01-01

    LaBaugh contends that marketing alone is not the answer to filling our college classrooms. Other tools from the business field must be applied to make the marketing machine "go." The article reaches into the doctor's bag of the business world to outline the means for making a marketing plan operational. (Author)

  7. Using Jack Tales in a Second Grade Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Doris

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project in which Kentucky second grades developed puppet shows and photography activities based on traditional Appalachian oral tales. Discusses student progress in language arts skills, creativity, use of audiovisual equipment, and group cooperation. (SV)

  8. Can hi-jacking hypoxia inhibit extracellular vesicles in cancer?

    PubMed

    Lowry, Michelle C; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2018-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key players in undesirable cell-cell communication in cancer. However, the release of EVs is not unique to cancer cells; normal cells release EVs to perform physiological roles. Thus, selective inhibition of EV release from cancer cells is desirable. Hypoxia contributes to tumour development and aggressiveness. EV quantities and thus undesirable communications are substantially increased in hypoxia. Targeting hypoxia could selectively inhibit EV release from tumour cells without disturbing physiologically relevant EVs. The unfavourable association between hypoxia and EV release is evident in multiple tumour types; therefore, targeting hypoxia could have a broad therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aharon Nkwodimmah: A Jack of All Trades (and Careers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandford, Ayoka

    2012-01-01

    Meet 19-year-old barber, artist and soon-to-be college freshman Aharon Nkwodimmah. Nkwodimmah began honing his barbering skills at the age of 12 on his younger brother's head, without permission, of course: that didn't turn out well for either of them. But by the age of 15, Nkwodimmah was known for his "lines." And for that reason, there…

  10. Skylab 3,Astronaut Jack R. Lousma on EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-06

    SL3-122-2612 (6 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, participates in the final Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA), during which a variety of tasks were performed. Here, Bean is near the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) during final film change out for the giant telescope facility. Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, who took the picture, is reflected in Bean's helmet visor. The reflected Earth disk in Bean's visor is so clear that the Red Sea and Nile River area can delineated. Photo credit: NASA

  11. In-Depth Analysis of the JACK Model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-30

    Recently, as part of a comprehensive analysis of budget and funding options, a TxDOT : special task force has examined the agencys current financial forecasting methods and has : developed a model designed to estimate future State Highway Fund rev...

  12. The Drip Impact. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Jack Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudacher, Jack

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for senior high science classes. The primary emphasis of the material is on water, water analysis, and possible methods of watershed management; while the materials were designed for use in and around the Highline Public…

  13. All Work and No PLA Makes Jack a Dull Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova-Gonci, Viktoria

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an assortment of approaches--building blocks--commonly used in Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) practices (this list is certainly not comprehensive): (1) course matching (comparing course requirements to a student's prior learning experiences); (2) student's ability to articulate learning gained from…

  14. Interview with John (Jack) Maguire Chairman, Maguire Associates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Robin Matross

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with the former dean of admissions and dean of enrollment management at Boston College, who pioneered the field of enrollment management in the 1970s. He discusses his background, the history of enrollment management, and trends in the field. (EV)

  15. Morphology of jack pine and tamarack needles in dense stands.

    Treesearch

    Terry F. Strong; J. Zavitkovski

    1978-01-01

    Effects of position in the crown on needle morphology and surface area were studied. Needle length, surface area, and dry weight increased and specific needs area decreased from the lower to the upper third of the crown.

  16. Cracker Jacks: "Finding the Prize" inside Each Adolescent Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl; DiCicco, Michael; Denmon, Jennifer M.; Parke, Erin; Mead, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight several practical classroom examples of asset-driven acts of reciprocal care and content-driven community builders and icebreakers that highlight ways to "find the prize" inside each student by fostering an adolescent-centered community of care that is committed to both relationships and…

  17. You're No Jack Kennedy: Bentsen vs. Quayle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Christa L.; Fadely, Dean

    The 1988 Vice-Presidential debate between candidates Dan Quayle and Lloyd Bentsen served as a rhetorical forum for airing the policies and behaviors of each candidate. Elements of compliance-gaining and apologia were interrelated and overlapped throughout the debate. Both candidates effectively maneuvered these strategies and avoided direct…

  18. Jack Wescott and Donald F. Smith. The Legacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.; Wescott, Jack W.; Smith, Donald F.

    2017-01-01

    This is the tenth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged our profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these leaders and…

  19. Performative Inquiry: Arresting the Villains in "Jack & the Beanstalk"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    From flower arranging to negotiating with a willful cow, an educator stumbles across the threshold into a performative space of learning that invites her to pay attention to what matters when a teacher encounters her students. Performative inquiry in the classroom brings to the curriculum a spirit and practice of inquiry, critical and creative…

  20. Revisiting Jack Goody to Rethink Determinisms in Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2013-01-01

    This article revisits Goody's arguments about literacy's influence on social arrangements, culture, cognition, economics, and other domains of existence. Whereas some of his arguments tend toward technological determinism (i.e., literacy causes change in the world), other of his arguments construe literacy as a force that shapes and is shaped by…

  1. A Rebuttal to Jack Niemonen's "Whither the White Working Class?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2015-01-01

    Prof. Niemonen claims that the concept of white privilege is "anti-sociological" and "mask[s] complex race-class interactions." He highlights the importance of including social class in discussions of white privilege but focuses exclusively on the white working class, neglecting how race and social class also intersect for…

  2. A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals.

    PubMed

    Qinna, N; Taha, H; Matalka, K Z; Badwan, A A

    2009-01-01

    We present herein a new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED). On the basis of the mechanism of action of each of the above, a combination is introduced to overcome several physiological or induced factors of ED. This study was conducted to show an enhancement of erectile function in male rats. The animals were observed for 3 h after each administration for penile erection, genital grooming and copulation mounting, and the penile erection index (PEI) was calculated. The maximum response was observed at the concentration of 7.5 mg kg(-1) of Etana. At a 7.5 mg kg(-1) single dose, the percentage of responding rats was 53+/-7 with a PEI of 337+/-72 compared with 17+/-6 with a PEI of 30+/-10 for control animals. This PEI was significantly (P<0.001) higher than each single component and than the sum of any two herbal components of Etana. When compared with sildenafil citrate, Etana induced more pronounced PEI than 0.36 mg kg(-1), but similar to 0.71 mg kg(-1) of sildenafil. Furthermore, full acute and sub-acute toxicity studies showed no toxic effects of Etana. In conclusion, this study describes a new and safe combination of herbal components that enhance erectile function in male rats. Clinical studies are warranted for evaluating Etana's significance in ED.

  3. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  4. A Response to Jack R. Fraenkel. An Exchange of Views between Edwin Fenton and Jack R. Fraenkel, the Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Edwin

    1977-01-01

    Responses to Fraenkel's 15 criticisms of the author's article about Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental approach to moral education in the April 1976 issue of "Social Education." Three circumstances are stated as reasons for the differences between the two men: (1) staying up-to-date with research and publications, (2) time consumed in refuting…

  5. Light exposure during storage preserving soluble sugar and l-ascorbic acid content of minimally processed romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. longifolia).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Ai, Zhilu; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Zhu, Meiyun

    2013-01-01

    Minimally processed romaine lettuce (MPRL) leaves were stored in light condition (2500lux) or darkness at 4°C for 7d. Light exposure significantly delayed the degradation of chlorophyll and decrease of glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose content, and thus preserved more total soluble solid (TSS) content at the end of storage in comparison with darkness. While, it did not influenced starch content that progressively decreased over time. The l-ascorbic acid (AA) accumulated in light-stored leaves, but deteriorated in dark-stored leaves during storage. The dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) increased in all leaves stored in both light and dark condition, of which light condition resulted in less DHA than darkness. In addition, the fresh weight loss and dry matter significantly increased and these increases were accelerated by light exposure. Conclusively, light exposure in applied intensity effectively alleviated MPRL quality deterioration by delaying the decreases of pigments, soluble sugar, TSS content and accumulating AA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Germinant size of jack pine in relation to seed size and geographic origin

    Treesearch

    C.W. Yeatman

    1966-01-01

    The initial size of conifer seedlings is closely related to seed size (Hadders 1963), and seed size is a maternal characteristic that is highly subject to environmental modification (Mergen et al. 1964; Righter 1945). The effect of seed weight must be accounted for in critical studies of seedlings which attempt to attribute differences in growth to specific genetic or...

  7. Jack the Giant Tamer: Poetry Writing in the Treatment of Paranoid Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Constance

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief case report on the use of poetry writing in the treatment of a patient with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. Notes that, after 23 sessions in which the patient said nothing, the patient brought a poem for the therapist to read at the 24 session. (SR)

  8. THE SNOWY DAY: The Story of a Collaboration (with Apologies to Ezra Jack Keats).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Amy Brook

    1993-01-01

    Describes a collaborative project in which art educators and architects worked together to design a space for educational programs in a museum. Discusses differing views about the space as a classroom or an active studio. Concludes that the collaborative experience heightened creativity among the participants and produced a design for a museum…

  9. Environmental Assessment of Alternate Training Area Jack Pine Flats Idaho Department of Lands Near Coolin, Idaho

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Affected Environment The ROI is within the Eastern Washington -Northern Idaho Interstate Air Quality Control Region. Of the six criteria pollutants...growth. Numerous openings (natural and man-made), wetlands, riparian areas, dry meadow, shrublands, and stands of deciduous trees distributed across... deciduous trees and shrubs or lodge pole pine) to provide food and cover for wintering snowshoe hare. • Denning Cover - generally mature and/or old

  10. Optic neuritis caused by canine distemper virus in a Jack Russell terrier

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Tara R.; Whelan, Nick C.; Pinard, Chantale L.; Alcala, Fernanda Castillo; Wolfe, Katheryn C.

    2011-01-01

    An atypical case of canine distemper (CD) was diagnosed in a vaccinated healthy adult dog. The patient was presented circling, seizuring, and blind. Postmortem examination resulted in a diagnosis of CD. Optic neuritis was diagnosed, a finding not previously described in the context of CD virus infection presenting solely with neurological signs. PMID:21731093

  11. Long-term trends in height growth of jack pine in North Central Ontario

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz; T.E. Burk

    1998-01-01

    Although most investigations of long-term growth trends of trees involve description of radial growth of trees, investigation of height growth of dominant and codominant trees also warrants attention for two significant reasons -- the dependent variable is largely independent of stand density and it represents an index of stand productivity. Residuals from a height...

  12. Teacher in a Problem-Based Learning Environment--Jack of All Trades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahms, Mona Lisa; Spliid, Claus Monrad; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is one among several approaches to active learning. Being a teacher in a PBL environment can, however, be a challenge because of the need to support students' learning within a broad "landscape of learning". In this article we will analyse the landscape of learning by use of the study activity model (SAM)…

  13. Favorite Demonstrations: Simple "Jack-in-the-Box" Demonstrations for Physical Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Theodor C. H.

    1993-01-01

    The demonstrations presented in this article relate to everyday life, address interdisciplinary aspects, and have implications for the life sciences. Topics of the demonstrations are electricity calculations, astronomy, electrolysis of water, ester synthesis from butyric acid and pentanol, catalysis, and minerals. (PR)

  14. 76 FR 60900 - Jack A. Danton, D.O.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... treatment. [Tr. 392]. 7. Dr. Danton described how the human body becomes dependent on pain medications and... presented a medical complaint, identified a specific area of her body that was the cause of pain and... entail touching the body'' as ``in the case of chronic injury `you can't see--whether you're putting your...

  15. 77 FR 42713 - Notice of Intent to Grant an Exclusive License; PadJack, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Security Agency Technology Transfer Program, 9800 Savage Road, Suite 6541, Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755... Savage Road, Suite 6541, Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-6541, telephone (443) 479-9569. Dated: July 17...

  16. Antibacterial properties of parasitic mistletoe - Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser of Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Sheba R.; Amni Adam, Amira; Rajabalaya, Rajan

    2017-12-01

    Natural products especially from plants have become subject of much interest in drug discovery. Scurrula ferruginea is parasitic mistletoe used traditionally to treat various illnesses. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential antibacterial effect of Scurrula ferruginea native to Brunei Darussalam. The plants were collected from Brunei-Muara district air-dried, pulverized into powder, extracted by water maceration and freeze dried. Later, the extract was screened by disc-diffusion assay for two bacterial strains. The positive controls were Gentamycin and Ampicillin for Staphylococcus aureus while Sulphamethoxazole was used for Escherichia coli. Dimethyl sulfoxide was the negative control for both strains. 100, 200 and 500 mg/ml of the extract were used for the assays. The extracts did not show any inhibition activity against Escherichia coli, while sulphamethoxazole, showed inhibition of 24 mm. Ampicillin, Gentamycin, 100 and 500 mg/ml extract exhibited 29, 20, 8.3 and 10.7 mm inhibition zone, respectively against Staphylococcus aureus. There was an increase in zone of inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus strain with increase in extract concentration. Further investigations including Minimum Inhibition Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration methods as well as investigation on additional bacterial strains will be conducted for confirmation of antibacterial effect of the extract.

  17. Creep and Sliding in Clay Slopes: Mutual Effects of Interlayer Swelling and Ice Jacking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-24

    project, swelling and freezing, have been treated as well. The extent of swell heave of the montmorillonite clay under investigation depends on the...the amount of clay size particles: up to 70% and the amount of montmorillonite : up to 35%. 1.2. Grain Size Distribution Twelve hydrometer tests were...in physical conditions and exhibit swelling again upon subsequent wetting. Another important swelling parameter is the montmorillonite content, that

  18. Creep and Sliding in Clay Slopes: Mutual Effects of Interlayer Swelling and Ice Jacking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-24

    calcite and feldspar constituents. Therefore a swelling clay with low diagenetic lithification (matrix forming) e fects. Therefore, the clay shows...were determined quantitatively (Tab. 2). The CEC depends mainly on the montmorillonite content and shows values up to 86 meq/lOOg, which Indicates...high montmorillonite clays. First freezing tests have been performed within a freezer. After freezing, three typical zones within the samples can be

  19. Creep and Sliding in Clays Slopes: Mutual Effects of Interlayer Swelling and Ice Jacking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-11

    chlorite 14% (6-21%) calcite 6,5% (1 - 15%) kaolinite 2% ( 1- 5%) dolomite 0,5% (0 - 4%) montmorillonite 23% (15-35%) Non clay phases 19% (15-30%) Clay...iconcretions, 200 mm coal lenses RE 3 4 Calcite N Quartz Feldspar Illite-muscovite Z Chlorite E Kaolinite montmori 1 loni te Fig. 10: Mineral content... montmorillonite , belong to a fluviatile fresh water cycle and are possibly influenced by volcanic ash falls. The series under investigation belongs to the upper

  20. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-06

    SL3-122-2611 (22 Sept. 1973) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, participates in the final extravehicular activity (EVA) for that mission, during which a variety of tasks were performed. Here, Bean is near the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) during final film change out for the giant telescope facility. Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, who took the picture, is reflected in Bean's helmet visor. The reflected Earth disk in Bean's visor is so clear that the Red Sea and Nile River area can delineated. Photo credit: NASA

  1. A medical economic fairy tale: Jack, the magic beans, Medicare and the US FDA.

    PubMed

    Nusbaum, Neil J

    2006-01-01

    The US Medicare programme, through its new Part D programme, now offers limited coverage for prescription medicines. The coverage is provided via a variety of drug plans and their respective formularies. The federal regulatory scheme generally requires that the formularies contain drugs representative of the various therapeutic classes. On the other hand, the federal government has generally refrained from making specific decisions that specific drug entities are the most cost effective and therefore must be included in the formularies. With the dawn of Medicare Part D in the US, the federal government will be increasingly involved in supporting the cost of medicines, and will need to confront this challenge in the face of tight overall economic constraints on the federal budget. Any spending on medications of questionable efficacy will inevitably compromise the ability to deliver more cost-effective healthcare measures. Laxity in the approval process for ineffective drugs may therefore result in lack of funds to support acquisition of more useful medicines for the elderly.

  2. Trinity's "Legal Detectives" Stalk Jack the Ripper: Would Socrates Have Approved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1989-01-01

    Trinity University's philosophy laboratory provides a think tank for philosophy students, allowing them to practice such skills as logic, critical reasoning, and the application of moral responsibility in decision-making by applying their skills to real-life situations. Students, selected as fellows and paid, are divided into teams for projects.…

  3. Students, Scientists, and Family Commemorate the Life and Diverse Works of Jack Eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Philip

    2011-02-01

    Eddy Cross-Disciplinary Symposium on Sun-Climate Research; Aspen, Colorado, 22-24 October 2010; In 1976, John Allen Eddy published a seminal article (see Science, 192(4245), 1189-1202) revealing a link between the Little Ice Age, which occurred during the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries, and a period of low sunspot activity, which Eddy called the “Maunder Minimum.” This work placed Sun-climate research on a firm scientific footing. Eddy passed away on 10 June 2009. Following Eddy's passions for education and cross-disciplinary research, a symposium was held to expose talented college students to the science and politics of Sun-climate research. Funding from NASA's Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology program and from the High Altitude Observatory, Advanced Study Program, and Integrated Science Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) supported keynote speakers and provided scholarships for 30 students (junior year to Ph.D.) from diverse disciplines. Eddy's wife, Barbara, led a session devoted to personal recollections. Spencer Weart (American Institute of Physics) gave an after-dinner tribute using recordings of Eddy from a 1999 interview.

  4. New Analyses of Diverse Hadean Zircon Inclusions from Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trail, D.; Catlos, E. J.; Harrison, T. M.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The geological record is the only direct source of information regarding physical/chemical processes that may have ultimately been responsible for the origin of life. Known terrestrial rocks have ages that span from present day to approx. 4.0 Ga. This leaves a time gap of more than 500 Myr between lunar formation, and preservation of the oldest terrestrial crust. What were planetary conditions like wherein the prebiotic chemistry leading to life took place? The recent discovery of up to 4.37 Ga detrital zircons from Western Australia represents the only tangible record of the time period termed the Hadean Eon (4.5-4.0 Ga). Knowledge of the paragenesis of the oldest zircons potentially contributes information regarding the origin of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, continental lithosphere and the potential for life on the Hadean Earth.

  5. Donkey in Disguise: Jack Jennings and the Center on Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), the proliferation of high school exit exams, the success of school choice initiatives, and a dozen other smaller if more bitter battles, education has become one of the hottest policy topics in Washington. That means there is a booming market for education experts, especially those who claim…

  6. Tree-mediated interactions between the jack pine budworm and a mountain pine beetle fungal

    Treesearch

    Nadir Erbilgin; Jessie Colgan

    2012-01-01

    Coniferous trees deploy a combination of constitutive (pre-existing) and induced (post-invasion) structural and biochemical defenses against invaders. Induced responses can also alter host suitability for other organisms sharing the same host, which may result in indirect, plant-mediated, interactions between different species of attacking organisms. Current range and...

  7. Transformative Professional Development through the Eyes of Jack Mezirow and Thomas Guskey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    The key to improving education is the classroom teacher. Students must have skillful, highly effective teachers who have consistent access to on going professional development. NCLB offers guidelines for effective professional development. States interpret these guidelines and add their own varied legislative requirements. The current result is an…

  8. Teacher in a problem-based learning environment - Jack of all trades?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Mona Lisa; Spliid, Claus Monrad; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2017-11-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is one among several approaches to active learning. Being a teacher in a PBL environment can, however, be a challenge because of the need to support students' learning within a broad 'landscape of learning'. In this article we will analyse the landscape of learning by use of the study activity model (SAM) developed by the Danish University Colleges, with the aim of investigating to which extent this may lead to explication and clarification concerning the challenges faced by teachers in a PBL environment. In the case study, the SAM is applied to the first semester of an engineering programme at Aalborg University, a university setting where the PBL approach to teaching and learning is dominant. The results of the analysis are presented and discussed, and the conclusion is that the model, in spite of some shortcomings, is useful in clarifying the role of the teacher in a PBL environment.

  9. [Alcoholism and the aesthetics of existence: Jack London and the white logic of John Barleycorn].

    PubMed

    Arantes, Marco Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Employing this theme as a guideline, this article examines how his prose amounts to self-practice in the construction of subjectivity and the organization of existence. It investigates how this work is related to the theme of self-care, analyzed by Michel Foucault in volumes 2 and 3 of the History of sexuality, as regards the aesthetics of existence and the art of living which existed in the Greco-Roman and Hellenistic worlds.

  10. Learning about Workplace Learning and Expertise from Jack: A Discourse Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight some methodological problems concerning the neglect of participants' voices by workplace ethnographers and neglect of the highly interactional and co-constructive nature of research interviewing. The study aims to use discourse analysis, to show the phenomena of workplace learning and expertise to…

  11. Jacks of metal/metalloid chelation trade in plants—an overview

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Naser A.; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Hossain, Mohammad A.; Thangavel, Palaniswamy; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Rodrigo, Miguel A. Merlos; Adam, Vojtěch; Fujita, Masayuki; Kizek, Rene; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Varied environmental compartments including soils are being contaminated by a myriad toxic metal(loid)s (hereafter termed as “metal/s”) mainly through anthropogenic activities. These metals may contaminate food chain and bring irreparable consequences in human. Plant-based approach (phytoremediation) stands second to none among bioremediation technologies meant for sustainable cleanup of soils/sites with metal-contamination. In turn, the capacity of plants to tolerate potential consequences caused by the extracted/accumulated metals decides the effectiveness and success of phytoremediation system. Chelation is among the potential mechanisms that largely govern metal-tolerance in plant cells by maintaining low concentrations of free metals in cytoplasm. Metal-chelation can be performed by compounds of both thiol origin (such as GSH, glutathione; PCs, phytochelatins; MTs, metallothioneins) and non-thiol origin (such as histidine, nicotianamine, organic acids). This paper presents an appraisal of recent reports on both thiol and non-thiol compounds in an effort to shed light on the significance of these compounds in plant-metal tolerance, as well as to provide scientific clues for the advancement of metal-phytoextraction strategies. PMID:25883598

  12. Jack-of-all-trades master of all? Snake vertebrae have a generalist inner organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssaye, Alexandra; Boistel, Renaud; Böhme, Wolfgang; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Snakes are a very speciose group of squamates that adapted to various habitats and ecological niches. Their ecological diversity is of particular interest and functional demands associated with their various styles of locomotion are expected to result in anatomical specializations. In order to explore the potential adaptation of snakes to their environment we here analyze variation in vertebral structure at the microanatomical level in species with different locomotor adaptations. Vertebrae, being a major element of the snake body, are expected to display adaptations to the physical constraints associated with the different locomotor modes and environments. Our results revealed a rather homogenous vertebral microanatomy in contrast to what has been observed for other squamates and amniotes more generally. We here suggest that the near-absence of microanatomical specializations in snake vertebrae might be correlated to their rather homogeneous overall morphology and reduced range of morphological diversity, as compared to lizards. Thus, snakes appear to retain a generalist inner morphology that allows them to move efficiently in different environments. Only a few ecologically highly specialized taxa appear to display some microanatomical specializations that remain to be studied in greater detail.

  13. Allelopathic potential and systematic evaluation of organic extracts from Canavalia ensiformis leaves (Jack beans).

    PubMed

    Santos, Sonia; de Moraes, Maria de Lourdes Leite; da Silva Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the assessment of possible allelopathic potential of organic extracts obtained from leaves of Canavalia ensiformis under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, a systematic evaluation of these extracts was carried out using specific protocols developed in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to determine some groups of secondary metabolites. After the identification and quantification of compounds, the effects of compounds on germination of some common weeds was investigated, which are becoming a real problem in pastures in the state of Pará, Brazil.

  14. Anticonvulsant effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack. in rats with kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, C L; Chen, M F; Li, T C; Li, S C; Tang, N Y; Hsieh, C T; Pon, C Z; Lin, J G

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the anticonvulsant effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and the physiological mechanisms of its action in rats. A total of 70 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected for study. Thirty four of these rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) CONTROL GROUP (n = 6): received intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg); 2) UR1000 group (n = 10), 3) UR500 group (n = 6) 4) UR250 group, received UR 1000, 500, 250 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration, respectively; 5) Contrast group: received carbamazepine 20 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration. Behavior and EEG were monitored from 15 min prior to drug administration to 3 hours after KA administration. The number of wet dog shakes were counted at 10 min intervals throughout the experimental course. The remaining 36 rats were used to measure the lipid peroxide level in the cerebral cortex one hour after KA administration. These rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 rats as follows: 1) Normal group: no treatment was given; 2) CONTROL GROUP: received KA (12 mg/kg) i.p.; 3) UR1000 group, 4) UR500 group, 5) UR250 group, received UR 1000, 500, 250 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration, respectively; 6) Contrast group: received carbamazepine 20 mg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to KA administration. Our results indicated that both UR 1000 and 500 mg/kg decreased the incidence of KA-induced wet dog shakes, no similar effect was observed in the UR 250 mg/kg and carbamazepine 20 mg/kg group. Treatment with UR 1000 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, or 250 mg/kg and carbamazepine 20 mg/kg decreased KA-induced lipid peroxide level in the cerebral cortex and was dose-dependent. These findings suggest that the anticonvulsant effect of UR possibly results from its suppressive effect on lipid peroxidation in the brain.

  15. Expressing the sense of Congress that John Arthur "Jack" Johnson should receive a posthumous pardon for the racially motivated conviction in 1913 that diminished the athletic, cultural, and historic significance of Jack Johnson and unduly tarnished his reputation.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. King, Peter T. [R-NY-2

    2013-03-05

    House - 04/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Pirates and Power: What Captain Jack Sparrow, His Friends, and His Foes Can Teach Us about Power Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer R.

    2006-01-01

    Leadership educators are constantly looking for new and inventive ways to teach leadership theory. Because leadership educators realize principles of androgyny and experiential education work well with leadership theories, instructors find movies are a great way to infuse leadership theory with novel teaching methodology. "Movies, like…

  17. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) reproduction and development in Scots, jack, red and eastern white pine under laboratory conditions

    Treesearch

    Hui Ye; Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2005-01-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is an exotic bark beetle in North America that was first found in the Great Lakes region in 1992. We evaluated T. piniperda reproduction and development in one Eurasian pine (Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.) and three North American...

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungal succession coincides with shifts in organic nitrogen availability and canopy closure in post-wildfire jack pine forests

    Treesearch

    Stephen D. LeDuc; Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas R. Horton; David E. Rothstein

    2013-01-01

    Successional changes in belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities have been observed with increasing forest stand age; however, mechanisms behind this change remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that declines of inorganic nitrogen (N) and increases of organic N influence changes in EMF taxa over forest development. In a post-wildfire chronosequence of...

  19. Correspondence: EPA Administrator to Mr. Jack N. Gerard, President and Chief Executive Officer, American Petroleum Institute, July 23, 2012

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Correspondence is a record of the Administrator's letter to American Petroleum Institute and the Natural Gas Institute about the EPA's study on hydraulic fracturing's possible impact on drinking water.

  20. Jack bean urease: the effect of active-site binding inhibitors on the reactivity of enzyme thiol groups.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Barbara; Zaborska, Wiesława

    2007-10-01

    In view of the complexity of the role of the active site flap cysteine in the urease catalysis, in this work we studied how the presence of typical active-site binding inhibitors of urease, phenylphosphorodiamidate (PPD), acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), boric acid and fluoride, affects the reactivity of enzyme thiol groups, the active site flap thiol in particular. For that the inhibitor-urease complexes were prepared with excess inhibitors and had their thiol groups titrated with DTNB. The effects observed were analyzed in terms of the structures of the inhibitor-urease complexes reported in the literature. We found that the effectiveness in preventing the active site cysteine from the modification by disulfides, varied among the inhibitors studied, even though they all bind to the active site. The variations were accounted for by different extents of geometrical distortion in the active site that the inhibitors introduced upon binding, leaving the flap either open in AHA-, boric acid- and fluoride-inhibited urease, like in the native enzyme or closed in PPD-inhibited urease. Among the inhibitors, only PPD was found to be able to thoroughly protect the flap cysteines from the further reaction with disulfides, this apparently resulting from the closed conformation of the flap. Accordingly, in practical terms PPD may be regarded as the most suitable inhibitor for active-site protection experiments in inhibition studies of urease.

  1. Held Hostage by Our Students, as Told by One of the Hostages: In Memory of Mr. Jack Ellison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The philosopher Emmanuel Levinas suggested that the most ethical act possible is the discovery that one has assumed responsibility for the other. In fact it is the other that makes possible the genuine exploration of the self, an act dominating the adolescent era of development. Although rarely appearing in educational literature, Levinas has…

  2. All Work and No Play Makes Jack a Dull Boy: The Case for Play at All Educational Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Mikkaka

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the author explores the importance of play at various stages of literacy development and contends that play is an essential element of learning. The author begins by defining play and literacy, using examples to theoretically explore the play and literacy interface throughout the life span. Finally, she moves into a policy…

  3. I sell seashells by the seashore and my name is Jack: comment on Pelham, Mirenberg, and Jones (2002).

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Marcello

    2003-11-01

    According to a new hypothesis based on implicit egotism, people gravitate toward cities, states, and careers with names similar to their own names. To support this hypothesis, B. W. Pelham, M. C. Mirenberg, and J. T. Jones (2002) reported a series of results regarding distributions of names in different cities, states, and jobs. In the present article, new analyses of the original data are reported, showing that the hypothesis is not supported for the large majority of names considered by the authors, and for some names even the opposite result is found. In addition, a meta-analysis reveals that either the data are unreliable, or the hypothesis cannot be supported in the whole population of names. Overall, the original data give no support of the idea that implicit egotism influences major life decisions.

  4. Local differentiation and plasticity in size and sex expression in jack-in-the-pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Vitt, Pati; Holsinger, Kent E; Jones, Cynthia S

    2003-12-01

    The size advantage hypothesis suggests that natural selection will favor size-dependent sex expression when one sex gains more than the other by being large. But members of a minority sex will also have a higher reproductive value, on average. Thus, an individual's reproductive success depends on the reproductive decisions made by neighboring individuals. As a result, the optimal relationship between size and sex may differ among populations. In Arisaema triphyllum, the probability for an individual to be female increases with size, regardless of the character measured. A reciprocal transplant experiment showed the relationship between size and sexual expression is environmentally plastic. Plants originating from our two study sites became female at a larger average size when grown at one site than when grown at the other. In addition to environmental influence on sex expression, the experiment demonstrated genetic differences in the relationship between size and sex. Plants collected from one site became female at a larger size than those from the other, regardless of where they were grown. Thus, while the environment in which an individual was grown had a substantial influence on its sex expression, populations only a few kilometers apart have genetically different relationships between size and sex.

  5. Seed production in the first eight years and frequency of natural selfing in a simulated jack pine seedling seed orchard

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Rudolph

    1977-01-01

    Seed production and percent of natural selfing were determined in an 8 x 8-foot, 1200-tree plantation. Actual seed production was determined through age 6; production through age 8 was projected based on first-year cone counts at age 7. The percent of natural self-pollination, production of seedlings from natural selfing, and percent of selfs that were lethal were...

  6. Jack of all trades, master of none?: an alternative to clinical psychology's market-driven mission creep.

    PubMed

    Heesacker, Martin

    2005-09-01

    The authors C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott of this special issue's target article, "Twenty-First Century Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology: A Four Level Matrix Model" (this issue, pp. 1033-1054), are right that scientific distinctions should sometimes be de-emphasized in service of understanding the larger scientific vision. However, they take their combining too far, arrogating unto clinical psychology elements best left to their original scholarly disciplines. Snyder and Elliott simply present the next logical step in clinical psychology's longstanding tradition of "mission creep," broadening its focus to encompass new potential markets. Instead, the keeping and sharpening of disciplinary and subdisciplinary boundaries might best serve clinical psychology. The emphasis would shift from mission creep to building links with complementary disciplines and subdisciplines, to tackle issues that require true interdisciplinary scholarship. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. "Jack Captured the Crown and Jill Came Tumbling After": The Gender Factor in Curriculum Policy 1945-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speck, Phoebe

    The role of gender in curriculum development and the relationship between gender and learning in the female independent secondary schools are examined in this report. Historical methods focused on the years 1945-90. The research was based on an examination of the secondary literature as well as intensive archival research and indepth interviews…

  8. Segregation for chlorophyll deficiencies and other phenodeviants in the x1 and x2 generations of irradiated jack pine

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Rudolph

    1966-01-01

    Readily identifiable phenotypes, such as cotyledonary chlorophyll deficiencies, whose genetic basis can be established, would be highly useful in forest genetics research as genetic markers. In the genus Pinus mutants with severe deficiencies, such as albinos, will die shortly after seed germination while those with less severe deficiencies will not...

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A group of current and former U.S. astronauts are introduced to the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. In the front row, from left, are Owen K. Garriott, Walter Cunningham, Jack R. Lousma, Alfred M. Worden, and Buzz Aldrin. In the back row, from left, are Edgar D. Mitchell, Edward G. Gibson, Fred W. Haise, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and John W. Young. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A group of current and former U.S. astronauts are introduced to the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. In the front row, from left, are Owen K. Garriott, Walter Cunningham, Jack R. Lousma, Alfred M. Worden, and Buzz Aldrin. In the back row, from left, are Edgar D. Mitchell, Edward G. Gibson, Fred W. Haise, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and John W. Young. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  10. Determination and Use of the Local Recovery Factor for Calculating the Effectiveness Gas Temperature for Turbine Blades / Jack B. Esgar and Alfred L. Lea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esgar, Jack B; Lea, Alfred L

    1951-01-01

    In an in experimental investigation of local recovery factors for a blade having a pressure distribution similar to that of a typical reaction-type turbine blade, it a was found that the recovery factors were essentially independent of Mach number, Reynolds number, pressure gradient, and position on the blade surface except for regions where the boundary layer was probably in the transition range from laminar to turbulent. The recommended value of local subsonic recovery factor for use in calculating the effective gas temperature for gas turbine blades was 0.89.

  11. Secondary metabolites constituents and antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm grown in different locations of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Ashkani, Sadegh

    2015-09-23

    Etlingera elatior is a well-known herb in Malaysia with various pharmaceutical properties. E. elatior flowers grown in three different locations of Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang and Johor), were investigated for differences in their content of secondary metabolites (total phenolics [TPC], total flavonoids [TFC], and total tannin content [TTC]) as well as for their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were isolated and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities. The anticancer activity of extracts was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. When extracted with various solvents (aqueous and ethanolic), samples from the different locations yielded significantly different results for TPC, TFC, and TTC as well as antioxidant activity. Aqueous extracts of E. elatior flowers collected from Kelantan exhibited the highest values: TPC (618.9 mg/100 g DM), TFC (354.2 mg/100 g DM), TTC (129.5 mg/100 g DM), DPPH (76.4 %), and FRAP (6.88 mM of Fe (II)/g) activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 μg/mL compared with extracts of flowers collected from the other two locations. The most important phenolic compounds isolated in this study, based on concentration, were: gallic acid > caffeic acid > tannic acid > chlorogenic acid; and the most important flavonoids were: quercetin > apigenin > kaempferol > luteolin > myricetin. Extracts of flowers from Kelantan exhibited potent anticancer activity with a IC50of 173.1 and 196.2 μg/mL against the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 respectively, compared with extracts from Pahang (IC50 = 204.5 and 246.2 μg/mL) and Johor samples (IC50 = 277.1 and 296.7 μg/mL). Extracts of E. elatior flowers also showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 30 to >100 μg/mL. In general, therefore, based on the potent antioxidant and anticancer activity of flower extracts, it appears that E. elatior grown in the North-east of Malaysia (Kelantan) is a potential source of therapeutic compounds with anti-cancer activity.

  12. Jack Healy Remembers - Anecdotal Evidence for the Origin of the Approximate 24-hour Urine Sampling Protocol Used for Worker Bioassay Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-10-01

    The origin of the approximate 24-hour urine sampling protocol used at Hanford for routine bioassay is attributed to an informal study done in the mid-1940s. While the actual data were never published and have been lost, anecdotal recollections by staff involved in the initial bioassay program design and administration suggest that the sampling protocol had a solid scientific basis. Numerous alternate methods for normalizing partial day samples to represent a total 24-hour collection have since been proposed and used, but no one method is obviously preferred.

  13. Seasonal variations in red pine (Pinus resinosa) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) foliar physio-chemistry and their potential influence on stand-scale wildland fire behavior

    Treesearch

    Matt Jolly; John Hintz; Rodman L. Linn; Rachael C. Kropp; Elliot T. Conrad; Russell A. Parsons; Judith Winterkamp

    2016-01-01

    The 'Spring Dip' in conifer live foliar moisture content (LFMC) has been well documented but the actual drivers of these variations have not been fully investigated. Here we span this knowledge gap by measuring LFMC, foliar chemistry, foliar density and foliar flammability on new and old foliage for an entire year from both Pinus resinosa (red pine) and Pinus...

  14. Effect of post-thaw addition of seminal plasma on motility, viability and chromatin integrity of cryopreserved donkey jack (Equus asinus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, C; Mari, G; Mislei, B; Love, Cc; Panzani, D; Camillo, F; Rota, A

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy rates in donkeys after artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen are still low, compared to the horse species. Addition of autologous seminal plasma to frozen-thawed semen appeared to improve pregnancy rates. The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity after thawing (T0) and after one and 2 h (T1 and T2) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0) or 70% (SP70) autologous seminal plasma and (2) sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and DNA quality (%COMP-αt) after thawing (T0) and after 2 and 4 h (T2 and T4) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0), 5% (SP5) or 20% (SP20) homologous seminal plasma. In experiment 1, seminal plasma decreased total and progressive sperm motility and plasma membrane intact spermatozoa immediately after dilution and at all following time points (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, total and progressive motility did not differ between treatments immediately after dilution and between SP0 and SP5 at T2, while they were lower in both SP5 and SP20 than in SP0 at T4. Plasma membrane intact sperm cells did not differ between SP0 and SP5 and were lower in SP20 at all time points. DNA quality was not affected by treatment immediately after dilution and was significantly worse for SP20 after 4 h of incubation (p < 0.05). The post-thaw addition of seminal plasma at the tested concentrations did not improve donkey frozen semen characteristics in vitro over time. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  16. Antiageing Mechanisms of a Standardized Supercritical CO2 Preparation of Black Jack (Bidens pilosa L.) in Human Fibroblasts and Skin Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Dieamant, Gustavo; Pereda, Maria Del Carmen V.; Nogueira, Cecília; Eberlin, Samara; Facchini, Gustavo; Checon, Juliana Tibério; Cesar, Camila Kappke; Mussi, Lilian; Polezel, Márcio Antonio; Martins-Oliveira, Divino; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The use of topical retinoids to treat skin disorders and ageing can induce local reactions, while oral retinoids are potent teratogens and produce several unwanted effects. This way, efforts to explore complementary care resources should be supported. Based on this, we evaluate the antiageing effects of a supercritical CO2 extract from Bidens pilosa L. (BPE-CO2A) containing a standardized multicomponent mixture of phytol, linolenic, palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids. BPE-CO2A was assessed for its effects on human dermal fibroblasts (TGF-β1 and FGF levels using ELISA; collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by colorimetric assays, and mRNA expression of RXR, RAR, and EGFr by qRT-PCR) and human skin fragments (RAR, RXR, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by immunohistochemical analysis). Levels of extracellular matrix elements, TGF-β1 and FGF, and EGFr gene expression were significantly increased by BPE-CO2A. The modulation of RXR and RAR was positively demonstrated after the treatment with BPE-CO2A or phytol, a component of BPE-CO2A. The effects produced by BPE-CO2A were similar to or better than those produced by retinol and retinoic acid. The ability to stimulate extracellular matrix elements, increase growth factors, and modulate retinoid and rexinoid receptors provides a basis for the development of preparation containing BPE-CO2A as an antiageing/skin-repair agent. PMID:25883669

  17. Target-responsive DNA/RNA nanomaterials for microRNA sensing and inhibition: the jack-of-all-trades in cancer nanotheranostics?

    PubMed

    Conde, João; Edelman, Elazer R; Artzi, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) show high potential for cancer treatment, however one of the most significant bottlenecks in enabling miRNA effect is the need for an efficient vehicle capable of selective targeting to tumor cells without disrupting normal cells. Even more challenging is the ability to detect and silence multiple targets simultaneously with high sensitivity while precluding resistance to the therapeutic agents. Focusing on the pervasive role of miRNAs, herein we review the multiple nanomaterial-based systems that encapsulate DNA/RNA for miRNA sensing and inhibition in cancer therapy. Understanding the potential of miRNA detection and silencing while overcoming existing limitations will be critical to the optimization and clinical utilization of this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The earth's oldest known crust - A geochronological and geochemical study of 3900-4200 Ma old detrital zircons from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Roland; Kinny, Peter D.; Williams, Ian S.; Froude, Derek O.; Compston, William

    1992-03-01

    Trace element characteristics were analyzed and inclusions were identified within a suite of pre-3.9 Ga detritral zircons from western Australia representing the earth's oldest-known minerals. A diversity of trace-element compositions was found, particularly in the REE compositions of the old Mt. Narryer zircons, implying a variety of source-rock compositions and hence, the presence of a differentiated crust in the earth 4.15-4.20 Ga ago. Comparisons drawn with data obtained from younger detrital zircons occurring within the same deposits indicate nothing unique about the chemical compositions of the old grains. A number of interelement covariations were observed among the analyzed grains which were independent of age and isotopic characteristics, most notably that occurring between Lu and Hf. A general positive correlation between total LREE and the U + Th contents is also apparent. The findings indicate an origin in felsic igneous rocks, which has implications for early-Archaean crustal evolution.

  19. A Response to Edwin Fenton. An Exchange of Views between Edwin Fenton and Jack R. Fraenkel, the Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, Jack R.

    1977-01-01

    Restatement of the author's criticisms of Fenton's article about Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental approach to moral education in the April 1976 issue of "Social Education." Emphasis is made that (1) Fenton's definitive summations of Kohlberg's works should be more tentative and cautious, because (2) some parts of moral developmental research are…

  20. Flaviviral NS4b, chameleon and jack-in-the-box roles in viral replication and pathogenesis, and a molecular target for antiviral intervention.

    PubMed

    Zmurko, Joanna; Neyts, Johan; Dallmeier, Kai

    2015-07-01

    Dengue virus and other flaviviruses such as the yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses are emerging vector-borne human pathogens that affect annually more than 100 million individuals and that may cause debilitating and potentially fatal hemorrhagic and encephalitic diseases. Currently, there are no specific antiviral drugs for the treatment of flavivirus-associated disease. A better understanding of the flavivirus-host interactions during the different events of the flaviviral life cycle may be essential when developing novel antiviral strategies. The flaviviral non-structural protein 4b (NS4b) appears to play an important role in flaviviral replication by facilitating the formation of the viral replication complexes and in counteracting innate immune responses such as the following: (i) type I IFN signaling; (ii) RNA interference; (iii) formation of stress granules; and (iv) the unfolded protein response. Intriguingly, NS4b has recently been shown to constitute an excellent target for the selective inhibition of flavivirus replication. We here review the current knowledge on NS4b. © 2015 The Authors. Reviews in Medical Virology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.