Science.gov

Sample records for eustatic sea level

  1. Eustatic sea level fluctuations induced by polar wander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabadini, Roberto; Doglioni, Carlo; Yuen, David A.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown here that polar wander of a viscoelastic, stratified earth can induce global sea level fluctuations comparable to the short-term component in eustatic sea-level curves. The sign of these fluctuations, which are very sensitive to the rheological stratification, depends on the geographical location of the observation point; rises and falls in sea level can thus be coeval in different parts of the world. This finding is a distinct contrast to the main assumption underlying the reconstruction of eustatic curves, namely that global sea-level events produce the same depositional sequence everywhere. It is proposed that polar wander should be added to the list of geophysical mechanisms that can control the third-order cycles in sea level.

  2. Modelling sea-level data from China and Malay-Thai Peninsula to infer Holocene eustatic sea-level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, S.; Milne, G.; Zong, Y.; Horton, B.

    2008-12-01

    Late Devensian relative sea-level observations record changes in global sea level driven by a complex interplay between tectonic, isostatic and climatic processes, and as such have been adopted in many previous modelling studies to provide information on spatial and temporal ice sheet history, rheological earth properties, and global meltwater signals. In regions distant from previously glaciated areas (so-called 'far- field sites'), sea-level observations have been used to constrain the rate and magnitude of the global eustatic sea level change, as these data are primarily sensitive to changes in the global meltwater flux (Clark et al. 1978) Constraining the eustatic component of sea level change is useful since it provides a direct measure of past continental ice volume that can be compared to results obtained from oxygen isotope methods. A second application, which is the primary focus of this study, is the inference of eustatic change during the mid-to-late Holocene. Constraining the eustaic signal provides information on both: (i) the rate and timing of major ice melting at the end of the last deglaciation and (ii) the magnitude of melting during the late Holocene. The latter is an important baseline that can be compared to estimates of global sea-level rise in the 20th century. The typical sea-level pattern at far-field locations is characterized by a steady rise to a mid- Holocene highstand, followed by a slow monotonic fall to present day levels. Previous studies have examined the spatial and temporal variations in the Holocene highstand to arrive at estimates of eustatic change in the mid-to-late Holocene (Nadaka and Lambeck 1989; Flemming et al. 1998; Lambeck 2002; Peltier 2002). While the results of these studies are broadly compatible, there remain significant discrepancies and so it is important to consider additional data to improve constraints on the eustatic signal. This study addresses this aim by considering previously un-modelled Holocene sea-level

  3. Synrift sedimentation in the Gulf of Suez rift controlled by eustatic sea level variations

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Laterally persistent stratigraphic variations in the southern Gulf of Suez rift indicate that eustatic variations in sea level predominate over local tectonic effects in controlling Neogene basin-fill sedimentation. Low sea level allows extensive erosion of tilt-block crests and rift shoulders, sending clastic aprons into the intervening subbasins and allowing evaporite deposition. High sea level minimizes clastic input, allowing marls and shales to build up off structure and reefs to form on and around tilt blocks. Thus variations in sediment character indicate relative sea level. Early rifting events in the upper Oligocene are marked by deposition of continental red beds. Overlying lowest Miocene clastics and evaporites are cut by a lower Burdigalian unconformity, indicating a minor transgression in the Aquitanian. Above a disconformity, laterally varying clastics and evaporites suggest regression followed by intermittent shallow-water conditions. A higher unconformity is overlain by thick cyclic evaporites representing periodic flooding and drying of the rift, a result of sea level remaining close to the height of the Suez sill to the north. A major Messinian unconformity cuts the section, indicating major regression, and is overlain by largely clastic sediments of both continental and marine affinities, showing rapid sea level fluctuations. Regional synrift sedimentation has been controlled more by eustatic sea level change, modified by the Suez sill to the north, than by tectonic movements within the rift.

  4. The role of tectonics in the estimation of mid-Pliocene eustatic sea level history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandan, Deepak; Peltier, William Richard

    2014-05-01

    The availability of accurate records of sea-level history is important to the understanding of past climate conditions as eustatic sea level is strongly related to the extent of continental ice cover. Therefore, the possible contamination of proxy based local records of relative sea-level height by tectonic processes that have been active subsequent to the formation of the sea level indicator presents a significant challenge to the inference of eustatic level (eg. Rowley et al, 2013). The uncertainty introduced by tectonic processes has become a significant obstacle to the success of the PlioMIP program, which is an ongoing international collaboration devoted to understand the climate of the most recent period (~3 Mya - mid-Pliocene) when trace gas concentrations where essentially equal to modern. At this time it has nevertheless been suggested that eustatic sea level was significantly higher than present implying that slow feedbacks in the climate system, given sufficient time to operate, must have led to a significant diminution of polar land ice. The ongoing PlioMip program is devoted to understanding the climate of this era and the quantity of the constraints that can be brought to bear upon eustatic sea level are clearly important to the success of this program. The Orangeburg Scarp along the U.S. east coast is a palaeo-shoreline that is dated to have formed during the mid-Pliocene. Therefore it continues to be a significant source for the mid-Pliocene eustatic sea-level record. An initial estimate of local relative sea level was provided by Dowsett and Cronin (1990) who suggested on the basis of their analysis that sea-level was 35m higher than present at that time and this estimate has continued to play an important role in the ongoing "Pliocene Debate". Here we employ a nonlinear 3D mantle convection model (Shahnas and Peltier, 2010, 2011) to investigate the time-dependent change in the dynamic surface topography forced by mantle convection over the past 3

  5. New constraints on late Holocene eustatic sea-level changes from Mahé, Seychelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Sarah A.; Long, Antony J.; Milne, Glenn A.; Bryant, Charlotte L.; Thomas, Alexander L.

    2015-05-01

    This study provides new estimates of globally integrated ice sheet melt during the late Holocene (since 4 ka BP) from Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean, a tectonically stable, far field location where the necessary Glacial-Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) correction is small and is relatively insensitive to predictions using different Earth viscosity profiles. We compare sea level data from Seychelles to estimates of eustasy from two GIA models, ICE-5G and EUST3, which represent end-members in the quantity of global melt during the late Holocene. We use data from a range of coastal environments including fringing reef, present day beaches, fossil plateau and mangrove deposits on the largest island of the Seychelles archipelago, Mahé to reconstruct relative sea-level changes. Our data suggest that extensive coastal deposits of carbonate-rich sands that fringe the west coast formed in the last 2 ka and the horizontal nature of their surface topography suggests RSL stability during this period. Mangrove sediments preserved behind these deposits and in river mouths date to c. 2 ka and indicate that RSL was between -2 m and present during this interval. Correcting the reconstructed sea level data using a suite of optimal GIA models based on the two ice models mentioned above and a large number (c. 350) of Earth viscosity models gives a result that is consistent with the sedimentological constraints. When uncertainties in both model results and data are considered, it is possible to rule out eustatic sea levels below c. 2 m and more than a few decimetres above present during the past two millennia. This uncertainty is dominated by error in the reconstructions rather than the model predictions. We note, however, that our estimates of eustasy are more compatible with the EUST3 model compared to the ICE-5G model during the late Holocene (2-1 ka BP). Our evidence from Seychelles shows that the timing of when eustatic sea level first rose close to present is between the

  6. Mid-Cretaceous Eustatic sea level fall: magnitude and timing in Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vierbuchen, R.C.; Oestmann, M.A.; Greenlee, S.M.

    1987-05-01

    The magnitude and timing of a mid-Cretaceous sea level fall have been documented on the margins of the Gulf of Mexico in east Texas. Analysis of seismic, log, and paleontologic data from east Texas demonstrates that a fall of 60 to 100 m occurred at the end of Washita (mid-Cenomanian) time. This sea level fall has been identified elsewhere on the shelves of the Gulf of Mexico and is proposed to have caused the mid-Cretaceous unconformity of the deep sea and the termination of Washita carbonate deposition. They conclude that this sea level fall is of regional significance and eustatic origin. The magnitude and timing of the fall agree with those postulated by Vail and others, and Haq and others, who recognized a major sea level fall in mid-Cenomanian time. The magnitude of sea level fall is estimated from the difference in elevation between carbonate buildups on the Buda margin, which accumulated at or near sea level, and fluvial deposits in the lower Woodbine, which immediately overlie Buda carbonates and have been drilled up to 20 km basinward of the shelf margin. After constructing a datum along the preexisting Buda shelf, they measure the thickness of sediment from this datum to the onlapping fluvial, lower Woodbine siliciclastics. This measurement is then corrected for compaction, isostatic subsidence due to sediment loading, and thermotectonic subsidence. The result, 60 m, is considered a minimum estimate. A similar measurement to the lowest seismically identified coastal onlap in the lower Woodbine yields an estimate of 100 m.

  7. Effects of tectonism, eustatic sea level fluctuations, and climatic changes on Paleogene sedimentation in California

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, T.H.

    1988-03-01

    Paleogene sedimentation in California was strongly influenced by syndepositional tectonism, eustatic sea level changes, and variations in climate. Tectonic activity was most important in controlling sedimentation in basins that developed in mobile areas such as the Salinian block, Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, southern California borderland, and along the continental slope adjacent to the trench that formed the California plate margin. Although plutonism had largely terminated in California by Paleogene time, continued uplift of the Mesozoic batholithic complexes of the Klamath Mountains, Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert, and Salinian block yielded abundant plutoniclastic detritus to paleogene basins. Accretion of exotic terranes during the Paleocene and early eocene, major uplift of the Franciscan assemblage in various parts of California during the Eocene, syndepositional faulting in numerous areas, angular unconformities, and coarse clastic sequences that include alluvial-fan and fault-scarp breccias are features that indicate major tectonic control of sedimentation in Paleogene basins. Renewed volcanism, starting during the late Eocene in northern California in the ancestral Cascade volcanic arc, and in the late Oligocene in many other parts of California, began to supply abundant volcaniclastic sediments locally. In some relatively stable areas, such as the flanks of the Peninsular Ranges and parts of the San Joaquin and Sacramento basins, the effects of global sea level changes on the sedimentary record are easily discerned. Climatic cycles had significant control over Paleogene sedimentation in some of these stable areas.

  8. The high tide of the warm Pliocene: Implications of ~20 m Peak Eustatic Sea-Levels for Antarctic Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. G.; Browning, J. V.; Kulpecz, A. A.; Kominz, M. A.; Naish, T.; Rosenthal, Y.; Peltier, W. R.; Sosdian, S. M.; Wright, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    The eustatic peak of the Pliocene (ca. 3 Ma) allows evaluation of sea-level response to conditions warmer than present and with atmospheric carbon dioxide levels similar to the early 21st century. We provide new eustatic estimates for the Pliocene from backstripping shallow-marine, siliciclastic sections in Virginia, U.S.A., and New Zealand, accounting for the effects of compaction, Airy loading, and thermal subsidence. We compare our backstripped eustatic estimates with previously published estimates from a carbonate atoll (Enewetak), deep sea benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes, Mg-Ca, and uplifted marine terraces in the Carolinas and Alaska and conclude that the peak was 19±5 m, significantly lower than previously published estimates of 30-40 m derived from uplifted terraces. The 19-m peak implies not only the loss of the total equivalent of Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets, but suggests volume loss of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) of ~4 m of sea-level equivalent. Our estimates provide helps resolve the long-standing controversy of the stability of the EAIS during the warmer-than-present Pliocene climatic optimum. The sea-level fall at MIC 100 (ca. 2.7 Ma) associated with the growth of large northern hemisphere ice sheets was remarkably large (~100 m) and may have cause a glacial isotostatic adjustment the resulted in uplift of the otherwise tectonically stable New Jersey coastal plain. Despite uncertainties in pre-ice core CO2 and global temperature measurements, the Pliocene provides a critical sea level-atmospheric CO2 calibration point for climates significantly warmer than the last major interglacial, MIC 5e.

  9. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for relative and eustatic sea levels changes in Eocene to Oligocene carbonates in Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.S.; Humphrey, J.D. ); Baum, G.R. ); Thompson, P.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Eocene to Oligocene marine shelf carbonates cored in Baldwin County, Alabama, were subdivided into a sequence stratigraphic framework and sampled at closely spaced intervals to determine characteristic geochemical and mineralogical responses to fluctuations in eustatic and relative sea level. Except for the Eocene/Oligocene boundary interval, the carbonates were deposited landward of their respective depositional shelf edges. Sequence boundaries, transgressive surfaces, and surfaces of maximum starvation were delineated by lithologic and textural variations and gamma logs. Comparison of the Baldwin County core data with correlative Deep Sea Drilling Project/Ocean Drilling Program (DSDWODP) records reveal more clearly defined stable isotopic data trends due to greater sampling density per unit time. In the sequence stratigraphic framework the {delta}{sup 13}C signature mimics relative sea level changes (paleobathymetry) and changes in the O{sub 2} minimum; whereas, the {delta}{sup 18}O signature records the eustatic sea level history. Because the stable isotopes are recording different aspects of sea level history, it is necessary to evaluate isotopic signatures independently. Although minor diagenetic perturbations in the stable isotopic signals are found, the depositional signal clearly dominates the diagenetic signal. The paleogeographic position of this core gives a more accurate sea level record than either more landward sections presently exposed in outcrop that have undergone intense subaerial alteration and erosion or DSDP/ODP records that may be so condensed that the record appears incomplete in conventional sampling schemes . Authigenic mineralization related to sea level changes can be used to characterize surfaces within the depositional sequence framework. Trace elemental data shows that hydrologic flow, porosity, and cementation trends are subsequently controlled by the sequence framework.

  10. Effect of eustatic sea-level changes on saltwater-freshwater relations in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold; Leahy, P. Patrick; Knobel, LeRoy L.

    1984-01-01

    A finite-difference computer model was used to analyze the effect of eustatic sea-level changes on the development of the transition zone between fresh ground water and underlying saltwater in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain. The model simulates, in cross section, the sedimentary wedge from the Delaware River estuary in New Jersey to the Continental Slope. Simulated steady-state freshwater flow is separated from static saltwater by a sharp interface. The model was used to test the sensitivity of the simulated interface position to anisotropy as well as to sea-level elevation. Increasing anisotropy causes the interface to be shallower and extend farther offshore. Lowering sea level causes the interface to be deeper and to extend farther offshore. Simulations using hydraulic conductivities based on available data suggest that the transition zone is not in equilibrium with present sea level. The position of the transition zone probably reflects a long-term average sea level of between 50 and 100 ft below present sea level. The cyclic movement of salty ground water in response to sea-level fluctuations during the Quaternary and Late Tertiary caused the saltwater to mix with freshwater, thus producing a broad transition zone. The freshwater is predominantly sodium bicarbonate in character. The saltwater, from New Jersey to Virginia, probably is a sodium calcium chloride brine. In North Carolina, it is primarily seawater.

  11. Glaciers dominate eustatic sea-level rise in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, Mark Frederick; Dyurgerov, M.B.; Rick, Ursula K.; Pfeffer, William Tad; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Glazovsky, Andrey F.

    2007-01-01

    Ice loss to the sea currently accounts for virtually all of the sea-level rise that is not attributable to ocean warming, and about 60% of the ice loss is from glaciers and ice caps rather than from the two ice sheets. The contribution of these smaller glaciers has accelerated over the past decade, in part due to marked thinning and retreat of marine-terminating glaciers associated with a dynamic instability that is generally not considered in mass-balance and climate modeling. This acceleration of glacier melt may cause 0.1 to 0.25 meter of additional sea-level rise by 2100.

  12. Tectonic imprints upon inferences of eustatic sea level history: the Pliocene warm period and the Orangeburg Scarp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandan, D.; Peltier, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    The issue of tectonic contamination of geological inferences of relative sea level history is an important one. The issue arises on timescales that range from the 21-26 kyrs that have passed since the Last Glacial Maximum, to the most recent time when periods as warm as the present are expected to have existed, such as the mid-Pliocene. The coral based record from Barbados, for example, is known to be contaminated by continuing tectonic uplift of the island at a rate of approximately 0.34 mm/yr. For the Pliocene warm period at ~3 Myr, records from geological sites, such as the Orangeburg Scarp in North Carolina, have played a prominent role in arguments underpinning the design of the ongoing international PlioMIP program. In connection with the latter site, Rowley et al (2013) have recently argued that this record is contaminated by a tectonic imprint sufficiently strong to suggest that the usual inferences of Pliocene eustatic sea level based upon it (eg. Miller et al, 2012) must be seen as highly suspect. Here we employ a tomographically constrained model of the mantle convection process to revisit the issue of the tectonic imprint on relative sea level at the Orangeburg site, as well as other similar locations. Our analysis is based upon the inferred time dependence of dynamic topography forced by the mantle's internal density heterogeneities delivered by the S20RTS seismic tomography model. We begin by comparing the static, present day dynamic topography predicted by the (linear) internal loading theory based on the formalism of Pari and Peltier (2000) with that predicted using using a full three dimensional version of the nonlinear time-dependent mantle convection model of Shahnas and Peltier (2010, 2011). We demonstrate first that these two methodologies produce extremely similar results for the static field. We then proceed to run the nonlinear convection model in data assimilation mode while continuously nudging the internal density field back towards the

  13. Monitoring Global Sea Level: Eustatic Variations, Local Variations, and Solid Earth Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Project BIFROST (Baseline Inferences for Fennoscandian Rebound Observations. Sea-level and Tectonics) combines networks of continuously operating CPS receivers in Sweden and Finland to measure ongoing crustal deformation due to glacial isostatic adjustment, (CIA). We present an analysis of data collected in the years 1993-1998. We compare the CPS determinations of three-dimensional crustal motion to predictions calculated using the high resolution Fennoscandian deglaciation model recently proposed by Lambeck et al. We find that the the maximum observed uplift rate (approx. 10 mm/ yr) and the maximum predicted uplift rate agree to better than 1 mm/ yr. The patterns of uplift also agree quite well, although differences are discernible. The chi(exp 2) difference between predicted and GPS-observed radial rates is reduced by a factor of 5-6 compared to that for the "null" (no uplift) model, depending on whether a mean difference is first removed. The north components of velocity agree at about the same relative level. whereas the agreement for the east components is worse, a problem possibly related to the lack of bias fixing. We have also compared the values for the observed radial deformation rates to those based on sea-level rates from Baltic tide gauges. The weighted RMS difference between CPS and tide-gauge rates (after removing a mean) is 0.6 mm/ yr, giving an indication of the combined accuracy of the CPS and tide-gauge measurement systems. Spectral analysis of the time series of position estimates yields spectral indices in the range -1 to -2. An EOF analysis indicates, however, that much of this power is correlated among the sites. The correlation appears to be regional and falls off only slightly with distance. Some of this correlated noise is associated with snow accumulation on the antennas or, for those antennas with radomes, on the radomes. This problem has caused us to modify the radomes used several times, leading to one of our more significant sources

  14. Gulf of Suez-Rift basin stratigraphy: an interplay of subsidence and Eustatic sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.; Arthur, M.A.

    1987-05-01

    The Gulf of Suez and Red Sea rift basin underwent a period of rapid subsidence from the early Miocene to the Pliocene during which time a thick (up to 4 km) series of marine evaporites accumulated within the basin. The evaporitic sequence interfingers with carbonates and clastics over structural highs within and along the margins of the basin. Evaporite deposition was also interrupted basin wide by short periods of normal marine sedimentation. Timing and paleo-oceanographic aspects of evaporite deposition within the rift is controversial. A change over of marine source waters within the basin from the Mediterranean Sea to an opening of the rift to the Indian Ocean occurred sometime between the earliest Messinian and earliest Pliocene. Preliminary data suggests that anhydrites from this evaporite sequence retain original Miocene sea water Sr/sup 87//Sr/sup 86/ values which can be compared to Neogene strontium isotope versus time curves in order to further constrain the age of the nonfossiliferous evaporite group. This, combined with currently accepted biostratigraphies for the normal marine strata, enable us to refine rift stratigraphy in order to examine basin subsidence, evaporite accumulation rates, and the correlation of rift tectonics, sedimentation, and associated paleo-oceanographic events. Initial fragmentation and subsidence propagated from the south to the north in the Gulf of Suez during the Aquitanian to Burdigalian (20-25 Ma), and mixed clastic, carbonate, and evaporitic sediments (Nukhul Formation) up to 700 m thick were deposited in isolated subbasins within the rift. This episode was followed by renewed uplift of the rift shoulders, rapid subsidence, and increased clastic influx (late Rudeis Formation) during the Burdigalian (ca. 20-17 Ma).

  15. Type 1 and Type 2 unconformity development in response to differential subsidence rates and eustatic sea level fluctuations, Pletmos basin, offshore South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jollands, A. )

    1989-03-01

    The Pletmos basin, offshore South Africa, has had variable subsidence rates from mid-Valanginian to mid-Campanian times. During this period, third-, fourth-, and fifth-order sea level fluctuations occurred. The interplay of eustasy and differential subsidence rates caused 67 unconformities. Seventeen are major type 1 unconformities, 44 are minor type 1 unconformities, and 3 are type 2 unconformities. A further three exhibit type 2 characteristics and grade laterally into equivalent type 1 unconformities. Slow subsidence rates permitted fourth- and fifth-order eustatic variations to move sea level below the shelf edge and to erode minor type 1 unconformities. Periodically, when higher order cycles coincided with the trough of a third-order cycle, major type 1 unconformities occurred. Later periods of rapid subsidence precluded fourth- and fifth-order cycles being recorded in the stratigraphic section, and only third-order cycles were interpreted. When the rate of third-order eustatic falls were of the same order of magnitude as subsidence rates, relative sea level did not shift beyond the shelf edge, resulting in type 2 erosion. Deep-seated growth faulting established differential subsidence rates in the central Pletmos basin. In areas of slow subsidence the effects of eustatic variations were amplified relative to areas of rapid subsidence. This resulted in enhanced erosion associated with the former where major and minor type 1 unconformities coalesce and type 2 unconformities grade laterally into equivalent type 1 unconformities.

  16. Albian to Santonian carbon isotope excursions and faunal extinctions in the Canadian Western Interior Sea: Recognition of eustatic sea-level controls on a forebulge setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Herrle, Jens O.; Tu, Qiang

    2012-12-01

    The forebulge region of the Cretaceous Canadian Western Interior Sea (CWIS) was susceptible to subaerial exposure and marine erosion during sea level lowstands. The middle Albian to Santonian record as cored at Cold Lake, east-central Alberta, Canada documents numerous disconformities that are expressed in bioclastic concentration horizons and faunal extinctions and turnovers. Detailed comparison between a newly established δ13Corg. record measured on bulk sediment at Cold Lake and a combined δ13Ccarb. reference curve based on the Cretaceous English chalk and SE France hemipelagic marlstones highlights missing positive and negative δ13C excursions at the CWIS forebulge and thus missing sections that precisely corroborate with sequence boundaries. Disconformable boundaries correlate closely with global sea-level lowstands as established for the Cretaceous North Atlantic suggesting a pronounced eustatic influence on the CWIS forebulge setting. Sequence boundaries occur in the uppermost Middle Albian, lowermost Upper Albian, Albian/Cenomanian boundary, Cenomanian/Turonian boundary, middle Turonian to lower Coniacian and uppermost Middle Santonian, each followed by a positive δ13C excursion. Oceanic anoxic events 1d, 2 and 3 are recognized and linked to major faunal and floral assemblage changes. Of these the Albian/Cenomanian biotic turnover is the most severe in the CWIS marked by the total loss of Albian benthic foraminifera species. Causes of this benthic extinction might be linked to a period of anoxia (OAE 1d) during the latest Albian followed by sea-level controlled basin restriction.

  17. Glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve for Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata based on outcrops in the North American Midcontinent and North-Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, D.R. . School of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Based on lithologic and faunal analysis of uppermost Carboniferous through Lower Permian strata (Wabaunsee through lower Chase groups) exposed from southeastern Nebraska through north-central Oklahoma, a preliminary glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve is presented herein. In addition to the sea-level curve presented for the Midcontinent region, one for coeval outcropping strata (middle and upper Cisco Group) of the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is also presented based on similar criteria. This sea-level curve is derived from new field studies as well as a refinement of earlier curves presented by Harrison (1973), and Boardman and Malinky (1985). The conclusion on the nature of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata cyclothems in the Midcontinent is mirrored by the results of that from North-Central Texas. Each of the primary biostratigraphically-based picks for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary coincide with either intermediate of major cycles in both study areas. Utilization of a glacial-eustatic maximum transgressive event for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary should result in a more correlatable level for intercontinental correlation.

  18. De-confounding of Relations Between Land-Level and Sea-Level Change, Humboldt Bay, Northern California: Uncertain Predictions of Magnitude and Timing of Tectonic and Eustatic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkerson, W.; Leroy, T. H.; Patton, J. R.; Williams, T. B.

    2010-12-01

    Humboldt Bay in Northern California provides a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of relative sea level change on both native flora and maritime aquiculture as influenced by both tectonic and eustatic sea-level changes. This combination of superposed influences makes quantitatively predicting relative sea-level more uncertain and consumption of the results for public planning purposes exceedingly difficult. Public digestion for practical purposes is confounded by the fact that the uncertainty for eustatic sea-level changes is a magnitude issue while the uncertainty associated with the tectonic land level changes is both a magnitude and timing problem. Secondly, the public is less well informed regarding how crustal deformation contributes to relative sea-level change. We model the superposed effects of eustatic sea-level rise and tectonically driven land-level changes on the spatial distribution of habitats suitable to native eelgrass (Zostera marina) and oyster mariculture operations in Humboldt Bay. While these intertidal organisms were chosen primarily because they have vertically restricted spatial distributions that can be successfully modeled, the public awareness of their ecologic and economic importance is also well developed. We employ easy to understand graphics depicting conceptual ideas along with maps generated from the modeling results to develop locally relevant estimates of future sea level rise over the next 100 years, a time frame consistent with local planning. We bracket these estimates based on the range of possible vertical deformation changes. These graphic displays can be used as a starting point to propose local outcomes from global and regional relative sea-level changes with respect to changes in the distribution of suitable habitat for ecologically and economically valuable species. Currently the largest sources of uncertainty for changes in relative sea-level in the Humboldt Bay area are 1) the rate and magnitude of tectonic

  19. An inflection in the rate of early mid-Holocene eustatic sea-level rise: A new sea-level curve from Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, M. I.; Fifield, L. K.; Teh, T. S.; Chang, C. H.; Shirlaw, N.; Lambeck, K.

    2007-02-01

    This study presents a sea-level curve from ˜9500 to ˜6500 cal BP for the farfield location of Singapore, on the Sunda Shelf in southeast Asia. The curve is based on more than 50 radiocarbon dates from elevations of +1.43 m to -15.09 m representing sea-level index points in intertidal mangrove and shallow marine sediments deposited by sea-level rise accompanying deglaciation. The results indicate that mean sea level rose rapidly from around -17 m at 9500 cal BP to around -3 m by 8000 cal BP. After this time, the data suggest (but do not unequivocally prove) that the rate of sea-rise slowed for a period of 300-500 years centred on ˜7700 cal BP, shortly after the cessation of meltwater input to the oceans from the northern hemisphere. Renewed sea-level rise amounting to 3-5 m began around 7400 cal BP and was complete by 7000 cal BP. The existence of an inflection in the rate of sea-level rise, with a slow-down centred on ˜7700 cal BP, is broadly consistent with other available sea-level curves over this interval and is supported by evidence of stable shorelines and delta initiation elsewhere at this time, as well as evidence of comparatively rapid retreat of the West Antarctic ice sheet beginning around 7500 cal BP. 'Stepped' sea-level rise occurring shortly after 7500 cal BP and also earlier during deglaciation may have served to focus significant post-glacial episodes of human maritime/coastal dispersal, into comparatively narrow time intervals.

  20. Evaluating the fate of freshwater lenses on atoll islands after eustatic sea-level rise and cyclone-driven inundation: A modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, James P.; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2012-05-01

    Dispersed human populations inhabiting remote atolls across the tropical Pacific Ocean are reliant on the viability of thin freshwater lenses (FWLs) contained within the island coralline sediments for their survival. Yet FWLs are uniquely fragile and easily damaged by saline intrusion. Eustatic sea-level rise (SLR) and sea flooding generated by intense tropical cyclones therefore pose special perils for continued existence on atolls. In this work, mathematical modelling is used to examine the effects on an atoll freshwater lens of various projected long-term SLR scenarios (10, 20, and 40 cm). A cyclone-driven wave washover event is then simulated in order to observe the responses and recovery of the FWL, subsequent to the SLR scenarios imposed. A key attribute of our model design is the inclusion of a topographic depression containing a low-lying fresh swamp in the atoll islet interior (which is often ignored), where seawater accumulates during inundation. Results indicate that a 40 cm SLR produces a major impact: the FWL decreases in thickness by approximately 50%, develops a brackish centre and contracts to a shrunken 'doughnut' morphology. Following cyclone inundation, observed salinity profiles are illuminating. Steep salinity gradients show how a strong saline plume forms at shallow depths, but also reveal the existence of an undisturbed fresh horizon beneath the salt plume under both present conditions and the modest 10 cm SLR scenario. Within the preserved fresh horizon, salt concentrations are maintained below 1.5 g/L (i.e. within usable limits) for at least a year. In contrast, the diminished freshwater lenses that exist after 20 and 40 cm SLR then exhibit far less resilience to saline damage over comparable post-cyclone timeframes. The findings point towards Pacific atolls becoming increasingly uninhabitable long before their complete submergence by sea-level rise, owing to irrecoverable groundwater salinisation seriously reducing the availability of

  1. Climatic, eustatic, and tectnoic controls on Quarternary deposits and landforms, Red Sea coast, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond; Becker, Richard; Shanabrook, Amy; Luo, Wei; Sturchio, Neil; Sultan, Mohamed; Lofty, Zakaria; Mahmood, Abdel Moneim; El Alfy, Zeinhom

    1994-01-01

    The degree to which local climatic variations, eustatic sea level fluctuations, and tectonic uplift have influenced the development of Quaternary marine and fluvial landforms and deposits along the Red Sea coast, Eastern Desert, was investigated using a combination of remote sensing and field data, age determinations of corals, and numerical simulations. False color composites generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT image data, digital elevation models derived from sterophotogrammetric analysis of SPOT data, and field observations document that a approximately 10-km wide swath inland from the coast is covered in many places with coalescing alluvial fans of Quaternary age. Wadis cutting through the fans exhibit several pairs of fluvial terraces, and wadi walls expose alluvium interbedded with corraline limestone deposits Further, three distinct coral terraces are evident along the coatline. Climatic, eustatic, and tectonic uplift controls on the overall system were simulated using a cellular automata algorithm with the following characteristics: (1) uplift as a function of position and time, as defined by the elevations and ages of corals; (2) climatic variations driven by insolation changes associated with Milankovitch cycles; (3) sea level fluctuations based on U/Th ages of coral terraces and eustatic data; and (4) parametrized fluvial erosion and deposition. Results imply that the fans and coralline limestones were generated in a setting in which the tectonic uplift rate decreased over the Quarternary to negligible values at present. Coralline limestones formed furing eustatic highstands when alluvium was trapped uspstream and wadis filled with debris. During lowstands, wadis cut into sedimentary deposits; coupled with continuing uplift, fans were dissected, leaving remnant surfaces, and wadi-related terraces were generated by down cutting. Only landforms from the past three to four eustatic sea level cycles (i.e., approximately 300 to 400 kyr) are likely

  2. Climatic, eustatic, and tectonic controls on Quaternary deposits and landforms, Red Sea coast, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Arvidson, R.; Becker, R.; Shanabrook, A.; Luo, W.; Sultan, M.; Sturchio, N.; Lotfy, Z.; Mahmood, A.M.; El Alfy, Z.

    1994-06-10

    The degree to which local climatic variations, eustatic sea level fluctuations, and tectonic uplift have influenced the development of Quaternary marine and fluvial landforms and deposits along the Red Sea coast, Eastern Desert, Egypt was investigated using a combination of remote sensing and field data, age determinations of corals, and numerical simulations. False color composites generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT image data, digital elevation models derived from stereophotogrammetric analysis of SPOT data, and field observations document that a {approximately}10-km-wide swath inland from the coast is covered in many places with coalescing alluvial fans of Quaternary age. Wadis cutting through the fans exhibit several pairs of fluvial terraces, and wadi walls expose alluvium interbedded with coralline limestone deposits. Further, three distinct coral terraces are evident along the coastline. Climatic, eustatic, and tectonic uplift controls on the overall system were simulated using a cellular automata algorithm with the following characteristics: (1) uplift as a function of position and time, as defined by the elevations and ages of corals; (2) climatic variations driven by insolation changes associated with Milankovitch cycles; (3) sea level fluctuations based on U/Th ages of coral terraces and eustatic data; and (4) parameterized fluvial erosion and deposition. Results imply that the fans and coralline limestones were generated in a setting in which the tectonic uplift rate decreased over the Quaternary to negligible values at present. During lowstands, wadis cut into sedimentary deposits; coupled with continuing uplift, fans were dissected, leaving remnant surfaces, and wadi-related terraces were generated by down cutting. Only landforms from the past three to four eustatic sea level cycles (i.e., {approximately} 300 to 400 kyr) are likely to have survived erosion and deposition associated with fluvial processes. 33 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Simulation of the response of carbonate sequences to Eustatic Sea level changes (Tertiary, northwest Great Bahama Bank): A scheme for enhancing seismic interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Eberli, G.P.; Moore, P. ); Kendall, C.G.S.C.; Cannon, R. ); Perlmutter, M. ); Biswas, G. ); Bezdek, J.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Seismic lines across northwestern Great Bahama Bank (GBB) show Vograding sequences with patterns most likely controlled by prevailing currents and sea level. To test this interpretation computer simulations were made to obtain a visual match between the seismic line and the SEDPAK simulation output. The initial topography, unidirectional wind, and sea level curve defined by Haq et al. were used as fixed inputs, with carbonate accumulation rate and subsidence as variables. Progradation in a buried, fault-bounded trough (Straits of Andros) began in the middle Oligocene. Simulation produced aggradation from the Late Cretaceous until the middle Oligocene. Afterward, sea level fall shifted the depocenter onto the slopes. Progradation was triggered during the subsequent sea level rise because the upper slope and platform edge remained in the photic zone for an extended period of high carbonate production. This increased rate of sedimentation initiated progradation on the western margin and on the eastern margin sedimentation was damped by intense wave action. On the western margin of GBB, where progradation probably began after the middle Miocene, the best simulation was obtained by incorporating a subsiding normal fault block underlying the Straits of Florida. This subsidence from the Late Cretaceous through middle Oligocene kept the deep shelf in the lower photic zone, preventing progradation during the middle Oligocene sea level lowstand. Simulation produced ongoing infilling of the basin that first flattened the margin into a ramp-type geometry over which margin progradation occurred subsequent to the next major sea level drop in the middle Miocene. This is consistent with the time suggested by seismic stratigraphy.

  4. Paleo-surfaces of glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions in the coastal area of Rome: Assessing interplay between tectonics and sea-level during the last ten interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Florindo, Fabio; Anzidei, Marco; Sepe, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Recently acquired geochronological and stratigraphic data provide new information on the sedimentary successions deposited by the Paleo-Tiber River in the coastal and near-coastal area of Rome in consequence of the glacio-eustatic changes, allowing to better define their inner geometry and palaeogeographic spatial distribution. In the present work we use this revised sedimentary dataset to provide a geochronologically constrained and tectonically adjusted record of paleo sea-level indicators. Aimed at this scope, we review literature data acquired in the last 35 years and using the new geochronological constraints we pinpoint the coastal-to-fluvial terraces of MIS 5 and MIS 7, mapping their relic surfaces in an area of 30 km along the coast north and south of the Tiber River mouth, and 20 km inland of the fluvial valleys of Tiber and Aniene rivers. The geometry of these paleo-surfaces provides constraints on the relative elevation of the sea-level during the last interglacials and on the uplift rates in this region during the last 200 ka. In particular, we recognize the previously undetected terraces of MIS 5.3 and MIS 5.1 interstadials, and we assess their spatial relationship with respect to MIS 5.5, providing important information on sea-level oscillations during this time span. Comparison with sea-level indicators provided by previous aggradational successions deposited during past interglacials spanning MIS 9 through MIS 21 in the coastal area of Rome, also allows us to reconstruct the tectonic history and investigate its relationships with the Middle-Pleistocene volcanic activity of the Roman Comagmatic Region along the Tyrrhenian Sea margin of Italy in the last 900 ka.

  5. Effects of eustatic sea-level change, ocean dynamics, and iron fertilization on atmospheric pCO2 and seawater composition over the last 130 000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmann, K.; Schneider, B.; Sarnthein, M.

    2015-06-01

    We developed and employed an earth system model to explore the forcings of atmospheric pCO2 change and the chemical and isotopic evolution of seawater over the last glacial cycle. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus, reactive nitrogen, molecular oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), 13C-DIC and 14C-DIC were calculated for 24 ocean boxes. The bi-directional water fluxes between these model boxes were derived from a 3-D circulation field of the modern ocean (Opa 8.2, NEMO) and tuned such that tracer distributions calculated by the box model were consistent with observational data from the modern ocean. To model the last 130 kyr, we employed records of past changes in sea-level, ocean circulation, and dust deposition. According to the model, about half of the glacial pCO2 drawdown may be attributed to marine regressions. The glacial sea-level low-stands implied steepened ocean margins, a reduced burial of particulate organic carbon, phosphorus, and neritic carbonate at the margin seafloor, a decline in benthic denitrification, and enhanced weathering of emerged shelf sediments. In turn, they led to a distinct rise in the standing stocks of DIC, TA, and nutrients in the global ocean, promoted the glacial sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the ocean, and added 13C- and 14C-depleted DIC to the ocean as recorded in benthic foraminifera signals. The other half of the glacial drop in pCO2 was linked to reduced deep ocean dynamics, a shoaling of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and a rise in iron fertilization. The increased transit time of deep waters in the glacial ocean led to significant 14C depletions with respect to the atmosphere. The deglacial rapid and stepwise rise in atmospheric pCO2 was induced by upwelling both in the Southern Ocean and subarctic North Pacific and promoted by a drop in dust-borne iron discharge to the Southern Ocean. The deglacial sea-level rise led to a gradual decline in nutrient, DIC, and TA stocks

  6. Eustatic and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea (late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, M.; Kaiser, S. I.; Fischer, J.; Heunisch, C.; Kustatscher, E.; Luppold, F. W.; Berner, U.; Röhling, H.-G.

    2015-12-01

    The Upper Muschelkalk in the Central European Basin (CEB) is a key example of eustatic and climatic controls on inland seas. The late Anisian rapid transgression from Tethyan waters culminated in a large semi-enclosed inland sea stretching across the CEB. Subsequently, the slow but successive retreat in the early Ladinian resulted in a small remnant sea. The pronounced stratal pattern architectures are translated into a framework of 3rd- and 4th-order T-R sequences. The latest Illyrian 3rd-order maximum flooding surface corresponds to maximum abundances of carbonates and marine phytoplankton. An euryhaline marine ecology is indicated by prasinophycean algae dominating over acritarchs and δ18OP values of 18.9-22.4‰ VSMOW corresponding to Tethyan references. During the 3rd-order regressive phase successive freshening up to hyposaline conditions is indicated by up to 3‰ depleted δ18OP values, shifts to more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios and maximum abundances of terrestrial palynomorphs. Likewise, 4th-order T-R sequences are constrained by commutated stratal pattern architectures, palynofacies and geochemistry. The favourable correlation of middle Triassic 3rd-order sequences of Tethyan and peri-Tethyan basins demonstrate the principle control of circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles. 4th-order sequences are evident and, although not yet correlatable in detail, indicate 106-year scale eustatic cycles which may be attributed to glacioeustatic sea-level changes. The subordinated control of arid to semiarid low latitude and semihumid to humid temperate mid latitude climates affected the Upper Muschelkalk Sea in particular during 4th-order sea-level lowstands. Substantial fresh water input from Scandinavian sources caused temporal stratification leading to stagnant bottom waters and/or sediments as indicated by palynofacies and U/Th and Ni/Co redox indices. The herein reconstructed middle Triassic zonal climates are in agreement to previously published Late Triassic zonal

  7. Effects of eustatic sea-level change, ocean dynamics, and nutrient utilization on atmospheric pCO2 and seawater composition over the last 130 000 years: a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmann, K.; Schneider, B.; Sarnthein, M.

    2016-02-01

    We have developed and employed an Earth system model to explore the forcings of atmospheric pCO2 change and the chemical and isotopic evolution of seawater over the last glacial cycle. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (DP), reactive nitrogen, molecular oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), 13C-DIC, and 14C-DIC were calculated for 24 ocean boxes. The bi-directional water fluxes between these model boxes were derived from a 3-D circulation field of the modern ocean (Opa 8.2, NEMO) and tuned such that tracer distributions calculated by the box model were consistent with observational data from the modern ocean. To model the last 130 kyr, we employed records of past changes in sea-level, ocean circulation, and dust deposition. According to the model, about half of the glacial pCO2 drawdown may be attributed to marine regressions. The glacial sea-level low-stands implied steepened ocean margins, a reduced burial of particulate organic carbon, phosphorus, and neritic carbonate at the margin seafloor, a decline in benthic denitrification, and enhanced weathering of emerged shelf sediments. In turn, low-stands led to a distinct rise in the standing stocks of DIC, TA, and nutrients in the global ocean, promoted the glacial sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the ocean, and added 13C- and 14C-depleted DIC to the ocean as recorded in benthic foraminifera signals. The other half of the glacial drop in pCO2 was linked to inferred shoaling of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and more efficient utilization of nutrients in the Southern Ocean. The diminished ventilation of deep water in the glacial Atlantic and Southern Ocean led to significant 14C depletions with respect to the atmosphere. According to our model, the deglacial rapid and stepwise rise in atmospheric pCO2 was induced by upwelling both in the Southern Ocean and subarctic North Pacific and promoted by a drop in nutrient utilization in the Southern Ocean. The deglacial sea-level

  8. A "chaos" of Phanerozoic eustatic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    The knowledge of eustasy has changed during the past two decades. Although there is not any single global sea-level curve for the entire Phanerozoic, new curves have been proposed for all periods. For some geological time intervals, there are two and more alternative reconstructions, from which it is difficult to choose. A significant problem is the available eustatic curves are justified along different geological time scales (sometimes without proper explanations), which permits to correlate eustatic events with the possible error of 1-3 Ma. This degree of error permits to judge about only substage- or stage-order global sea-level changes. Close attention to two geological time slices, namely the late Cambrian (Epoch 3‒Furongian) and the Late Cretaceous, implies that only a few eustatic events (6 events in the case of the late Cambrian and 9 events in the case of the Late Cretaceous) appear on all available alternative curves for these periods, and different (even opposite) trends of eustatic fluctuations are shown on these curves. This reveals significant uncertainty in our knowledge of eustasy that restricts our ability to decipher factors responsible for regional transgressions and regressions and relative sea-level changes. A big problem is also inadequate awareness of the geological research community of the new eustatic developments. Generally, the situation with the development and the use of the Phanerozoic eustatic reconstructions seems to be "chaotic". The example of the shoreline shifts in Northern Africa during the Late Cretaceous demonstrates the far-going consequences of this situation. The practical recommendations to avoid this "chaos" are proposed. Particularly, these claim for good awareness of all eustatic developments, their critical discussion, and clear explanation of the employed geological time scale.

  9. Tors, Eustatic Shorelines, and Mammoths: Evidence Against Ice Sheets on Wrangel Island, East Siberian/Chukchi Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, L.; Vartanyan, S.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Anderson, P.

    2001-12-01

    Assumed glacial flutings on the Chukchi Rise (Polyak et al., 2001) have reinvigorated hypotheses concerning the past presence of the same type of ice sheet or ice shelf on the Chukchi and/or East Siberian Sea shelf. Fieldwork on wrangle Island has been aimed at determining the glacial and sea level history of this geographically strategic island to address these various hypotheses. Cosmogenic isotope ages (Be and Al) on bedrock are all older that 35 ka , at a minimum, the rates of pervasive pariglacial processes. Tors, commonly forming columns 10 m high, are ubiquitous throughout the mountains of Wrangel Island. Eustatic shorelines (and not glacioisostatic shorelines) across the northern tundra plain marked by remnant marine sediments and ancient barrier beaches up to 40 m above seal level are all older than the range of radiocarbon dating and yield amino acid age estimates (D/L Aspartic as well as aIle/Ile) in excess of 400-500 ka, similar to sediments found in the Alaskan North Slope. Radiocarbon dates on mammoth borres, teeth and tusks and other animals (rhinos, bison) yield ages that range continuously through time from >38 ka to 3700 years ago indicating the local presence of large mammals during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and most of the Holocene. These data preclude the presence of an ice sheet during the LGM and probably over the past half million years. Glacial ice extent on the island during the LGM was limited to a few small north facing cirque glaciers. The flutings on the Chukchi Rise could not have been formed by an ice sheet over or near Wrangel Island in at least the last four or five major glacial/interglacial cycles.

  10. Record of glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuations in complex middle to late Pennsylvanian facies in the Northern Appalachian Basin and relation to similar events in the Midcontinent basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, Edward S.; Heckel, Philip H.; Lentz, Leonard J.; Bragonier, William A.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2011-06-01

    Pennsylvanian cycles in the Northern Appalachian Basin (NAB) were historically considered to result from delta-lobe switching, and more recently from sea-level fluctuation with sandy deltas prograding during highstand. These interpretations are revised using new data from cores and outcrop exposures. Thick (> 5 m) channel deposits with a marked erosion surface at their base cutting down across previous cycles are re-interpreted as incised valley fill (IVF) deposits in paleovalleys, because the basal erosion surfaces are widespread, and thus reflect a record of lowstand. Most common are simple paleovalleys that contain mainly sandy fluvial deposits. Compound paleovalleys with sequence boundaries above the basal erosion surface, contain terrestrial, estuarine, and marine deposits. Early to late highstand deposits in interfluvial parts of the cycles are dominated by shale and mudstone, with paleosols, coals, and local non-marine limestone, which reflect floodbasin to lacustrine conditions. These reinterpretations are applied to previously and newly recognized cycles in ascending order: Upper Kittanning, Lower Freeport, Upper Freeport Leader (new), Upper Freeport, Piedmont (new), Mahoning, Mason interval (locally includes Upper New Galilee in the north), and Brush Creek, across a 300-km arc in the Northern Appalachian Basin. These deposits accumulated in a 'high shelf' setting that experienced fewer marine transgressions, and were interrupted by more frequent exposure and downcutting, in contrast to the thicker and more complete succession with more numerous marine units in the Midcontinent. Magnitudes of highstand transgressions into this basin, deduced from the up-dip extent of marine and brackish fossil assemblages, were greatest for the Brush Creek, less so for the Upper Kittanning and Mahoning, and least for the Lower Freeport, Upper Freeport Leader, Piedmont, and Mason. The anomalous basin-wide fresh-water roofshales and equivalents of the Upper Freeport coal may

  11. Sea-Level Changes during the Tertiary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Peter R.; Hardenbol, Jan

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are research procedures undertaken to determine the magnitude and timing of eustatic sea-level changes during the Tertiary Period. Data now becoming available give scientists a knowledge of conditions that may have been conducive to the formation of petroleum. (BT)

  12. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    "No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens

  13. Revisiting Tectonic Corrections Applied to Pleistocene Sea-Level Highstands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creveling, J. R.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hay, C.; Austermann, J.; Kopp, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    The robustness of stratigraphic- and geomorphic-based inferences of Quaternary peak interglacial sea levels — and equivalent minimum continental ice volumes — depends on the accuracy with which highstand markers can be corrected for vertical tectonic displacement. For sites that preserve a Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e sea-level highstand marker, the customary method for estimating tectonic uplift/subsidence rate computes the difference between the local elevation of the highstand marker and a reference eustatic (i.e., global mean) MIS 5e sea-level height, typically assumed to be +6 m, and then divides this height difference by the age of the highstand marker. This rate is then applied to correct the elevation of other observed sea-level markers at that site for tectonic displacement. Subtracting a reference eustatic value from a local MIS 5e highstand marker elevation introduces two potentially significant errors. First, the commonly adopted peak eustatic MIS 5e sea-level value (i.e., +6 m) is likely too low; recent studies concluded that MIS 5e peak eustatic sea level was ~6-9 m. Second, local peak MIS 5e sea level was not globally uniform, but instead characterized by significant departures from eustasy due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in response to successive glacial-interglacial cycles and excess polar ice-sheet melt relative to present day. We present numerical models of GIA that incorporate both of these effects in order to quantify the plausible range in error of previous tectonic corrections. We demonstrate that, even far from melting ice sheets, local peak MIS 5e sea level may have departed from eustasy by 2-4 m, or more. Thus, adopting an assumed reference eustatic value to estimate tectonic displacement, rather than a site-specific GIA signal, can introduce significant error in estimates of peak eustatic sea level (and minimum ice volumes) during Quaternary highstands (e.g., MIS 11, MIS 5c and MIS 5a).

  14. The Sea-Level Fingerprints of Ice-Sheet Collapse During Interglacial Periods (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, C.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Gomez, N. A.; Creveling, J. R.; Austermann, J.; Kopp, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Peak sea-level highstands during previous interglacials provide important insight into the stability of polar ice sheets in a warming world. In most previous analyses of such highstands, site-specific sea-level records are first corrected for the ongoing effects of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The residual sea level is then interpreted as representing the net eustatic signal associated with any excess melting of the polar ice sheets relative to their present-day volumes. However, it is now well understood that the collapse of polar ice sheets produces a distinct geometry, or fingerprint, of sea-level change. These sea-level fingerprints must be accounted for in order to accurately estimate global eustatic sea level from site-specific (GIA-corrected) records. To investigate this issue, we compute fingerprints associated with the collapse of the Greenland Ice Sheet, West Antarctic Ice Sheet, and marine sectors of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. We demonstrate that these fingerprints are, in contrast to those computed for modern melt scenarios, relatively insensitive to the detailed geometry of ice-sheet collapse. Moreover, using these fingerprints, we isolate regions that would have experienced greater-than-eustatic sea-level change regardless of the melt scenario. Finally, we use the fingerprints to demonstrate that some previous analyses of sea-level records from past interglacials may have overestimated peak eustatic sea level (and thus the net excess melting of polar ice sheets) by 1-2 m.

  15. Bajocian-Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) sea-level changes in northeastern Egypt: Synthesis and further implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.; Sallam, Emad S.

    2016-08-01

    The global eustatic developments can benefit significantly from properly acquired regional information. Summarizing the available interpretations of the relative sea-level changes from two areas in northeastern Egypt, namely Gebel Maghara and Khashm El-Galala, allows better understanding of the Middle Jurassic sea-level changes. It is established that the Bajocian-Bathonian relative sea-level changes in these areas were coherent. The magnitude of changes was lower in the Bajocian than in the Bathonian. Significant sea-level rises occurred at the Bajocian-Bathonian and middle-late Bathonian transitions, and there was a clear tendency toward sea-level rise throughout the studied time interval. This evidence favors one of the two alternative global eustatic reconstructions that implies "stable" position of the shoreline in the Bajocian and general tendency to eustatic rise throughout the Jurassic. The tectonic regime of northeastern Egypt in the Middle Jurassic provided for strong eustatic control of the relative sea-level changes. The possible influence of hotspot activity is questionable. Filling the accommodation space with materials derived from the eroded continent may explain some sea-level falls that are regionally documented.

  16. Geodetic observation of sea-level change and crustal deformation in the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Groh, A.; Dietrich, R.

    Based on tide gauge observations spanning almost 200 years, homogeneous time series of the mean relative sea level were derived for nine sites at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Our regionally concentrated data were complemented by long-term relative sea-level records retrieved from the data base of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). From these records relative sea-level change rates were derived at 51 tide gauge stations for the period between 1908 and 2007. A minimum observation time of 60 years is required for the determination of reliable sea-level rates. At present, no anthropogenic acceleration in sea-level rise is detected in the tide gauge observations in the southern Baltic. The spatial variation of the relative sea-level rates reflects the fingerprint of GIA-induced crustal uplift. Time series of extreme sea levels were also inferred from the tide gauge records. They were complemented by water level information from historic storm surge marks preserved along the German Baltic coast. Based on this combined dataset the incidence and spatial variation of extreme sea levels induced by storm surges were analysed yielding important information for hazard assessments. Permanent GPS observations were used to determine recent crustal deformation rates for 44 stations in the Baltic Sea region. The GPS derived height change rates were applied to reduce the relative sea-level changes observed by tide gauges yielding an estimate for the eustatic sea-level change. For 13 tide gauge-GPS colocation sites a mean eustatic sea-level trend of 1.3 mm/a was derived for the last 100 years.

  17. Ice volume and sea level during the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Dutton, A; Lambeck, K

    2012-07-13

    During the last interglacial period, ~125,000 years ago, sea level was at least several meters higher than at present, with substantial variability observed for peak sea level at geographically diverse sites. Speculation that the West Antarctic ice sheet collapsed during the last interglacial period has drawn particular interest to understanding climate and ice-sheet dynamics during this time interval. We provide an internally consistent database of coral U-Th ages to assess last interglacial sea-level observations in the context of isostatic modeling and stratigraphic evidence. These data indicate that global (eustatic) sea level peaked 5.5 to 9 meters above present sea level, requiring smaller ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica relative to today and indicating strong sea-level sensitivity to small changes in radiative forcing.

  18. Lithologic prediction from the stratal architecture of Plio-Pleistocene Gulf of Mexico: Are the eustatic depositional systems tract models adequate

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.L.; Self, G.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Climatic/eustatic cycles of the Plio-Pleistocene have been defined in the northern Gulf of Mexico and precisely tied to their associated sequences and lithologies by means of graphic correlation. This framework has provided the data necessary for a detailed empirical evaluation of the eustatic depositional systems tract models. The key to this evaluation is a eustatic sea-level curve derived from fossil and isotope data. A curve of this type has been defined for several sequences. Using this eustatic curve the actual lithofacies and position of the various systems tracts were directly compared to those predicted by the models. The evaluation of the data with respect to eustatic sea level yielded conclusions that are significantly different from those predicted by the models. The evaluation of the data with respect to eustatic sea level yielded conclusions that are significantly different from those predicted by the model. The most significant of these differences are: (1) significant amounts of sand were deposited in deep water during transgressive and highstand intervals; (2) the observed vertical succession of eustatic depositional systems tracts within a given sequence are transgressive, highstand, and lowstand, and (3) factors other than eustacy have been the dominant influence on facies distribution within the Plio-Pleistocene sequences studied. These results demonstrate that depositional systems tracts and internal facies distribution could not be adequately described by a single model. Therefore, sequence stratigraphic analysis should be empirically based and conducted within the context of the basin, instead of being model driven.

  19. Local sea level change and future of Louisiana coast

    SciTech Connect

    Nummedal, D.

    1983-09-01

    The relative elevation of sea and land has been changing through time in response to two fundamentally different groups of factors. Global factors include changes in the volume of the ocean basins owing to tectonic processes and changes in the total amount of ocean water due to glaciation. Local factors include subsidence of continental margins and compaction of recent sediments. Over this century, global sea level (eustatic) appears to have been rising at a rate of 1.2 mm per year. Along the south-central Louisiana coast the land surface appears to be sinking at a rate of about 8 mm per year. Recent global climatic modeling suggests strongly that we are about to enter a period of rapidly accelerating warming due to increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. As a consequence, eustatic sea level rise is predicted to accelerate because of both steric expansion of the ocean water and continued melting of polar ice caps. For the next 40 years the eustatic sea level rise may average 10 mm per year. The local relative sea level in coastal Louisiana would therefore rise at about twice its present rate over this time period. The numbers presented above are average value for the Louisiana coastal plain. Local variability in subsidence rate appear to be related to the thickness of Holocene sediments. The highest rates of subsidence are found in the modern Mississippi (birdfoot) delta and in coastal Terrebonne Parish above the late Pleistocene Mississippi trench; in both areas the Holocene section is in excess of 200 m (650 ft) thick. The high rate of local sea level rise along the Louisiana coast makes it imperative that plans for coastal development and protection consider the long-term consequences of sea level change.

  20. Sea level data and techniques for detecting vertical crustal movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennon, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to survey problems, requirements, and the outlook for the future in the study of sea level time series so as to determine the relative movement of land and sea levels. The basic aim is to eliminate from the record the contributions from whatever marine dynamic phenomena respond to treatment, allowing the secular element to be identified with optimum clarity. Nevertheless the concept of sea level perturbation varies according to regional experience. The recent work of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level helps to eliminate geodetic noise from the series and makes it possible, perhaps, to treat the global mean sea level data bank so as to define eustatic changes in ocean volume which, in the present context, may be regarded as the final goal, allowing the identification of vertical crustal motion itself.

  1. Can eustatic charts go beyond first-order? Insights from the Permo-Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Benjamin; Monteux, Julien; Pochat, Stéphane; Husson, Laurent; Choblet, Gaël

    2016-04-01

    To the first order, eustatic charts are in accord with our understanding of the geodynamic processes that control sea level. By extrapolation, second-order features are also thought to obey to the same rules, and are thus often taken for granted. But this assumption may be jeopardized by a close examination of a characteristic example. The Permo-Triassic period is characteristic for both its purported eustatic signal and its geodynamic and climatic setting are well defined and contrasted. Both the fragmentation of the Pangean supercontinent and the late Paleozoic melting of ice sheets argue for a rise of the eustatic sea level (ESL) whereas eustatic charts show the opposite. Here we review the possible mechanisms that could explain the apparent sea level low, and find that some of them do lower the ESL while others instead only modify the referential, either uplifting continents or tilting the margins where the control points are located. In the first category, we find that (i) dynamic deflections of the Earth surface above subduction zones and their location with respect to continents primarily control absolute sea level while the Pangean supercontinent forms and breaks up, (ii) endorheism that ubiquitously developed at the time of Pangean aggregation also contributed to lowering the ESL by storing water out of the oceanic reservoir. In the second category, we show that (i) the thermal uplift associated to supercontinental insulation and (ii) the dynamic uplift associated with the emplacement of a superplume both give rates of change in the range of long-term changes of ESL. We also show that (iii) the dynamic tilting of continental margins not only produces apparent sea level changes, but also modifies the absolute sea level, which in turn may end up in the paradoxical situation wherein fingerprints of ESL drop are found in the geological record whereas ESL is actually rising. We conclude that the establishment of second to third order absolute sea level changes

  2. New evidence for the Holocene sea-level high from the inner shelf, central Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Beaman, R.; Larcombe, P.; Carter, R.M. . Marine Geophysical Lab.)

    1994-10-03

    Radiocarbon dates from fossil oyster beds of intertidal origin on Magnetic island, north Queensland indicate that the local Holocene maximum of relative sea level was attained no later than 5660 [+-] 50 B.P. (conventional uncorrected age) and remained at 1.6--1.7 m above modern levels until 4040 [+-] 50 B.P. Given the tectonic stability of the area, this implies that eustatic sea level remained at its Holocene peak for at least ca. 1600 yr. The new high-precision sea-level data indicate sea levels 1--5 m higher than those of the same age inferred from buried mangrove deposits on the inner shelf in north Queensland. Uncertainties in deriving relative sea level from such mangrove deposits may be a significant source of error in worldwide attempts to distinguish the eustatic and crustal warping components of relative sea-level change, especially in the tropics.

  3. Twentieth century sea level: an enigma.

    PubMed

    Munk, Walter

    2002-05-14

    Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): zeta(t) = zeta(steric)(t) + zeta(eustatic)(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 x 10(23) J (compared to 0.1 x 10(23) J of atmospheric storage), which corresponds to zeta(greenhouse)(2000) = 3 cm. The greenhouse-related rate is accelerating, with a present value zeta(greenhouse)(2000) approximately 6 cm/century. Tide records going back to the 19th century show no measurable acceleration throughout the late 19th and first half of the 20th century; we take zeta(historic) = 18 cm/century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes about 6 cm/century to melting and other eustatic processes, leaving a residual of 12 cm of 20th century rise to be accounted for. The Levitus compilation has virtually foreclosed the attribution of the residual rise to ocean warming (notwithstanding our ignorance of the abyssal and Southern Oceans): the historic rise started too early, has too linear a trend, and is too large. Melting of polar ice sheets at the upper limit of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates could close the gap, but severe limits are imposed by the observed perturbations in Earth rotation. Among possible resolutions of the enigma are: a substantial reduction from traditional estimates (including ours) of 1.5-2 mm/y global sea level rise; a substantial increase in the estimates of 20th century ocean heat storage; and a substantial change in the interpretation of the astronomic record.

  4. Sea level controls on carbonate facies associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic hydrocarbon fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, C.G.S.C. ); Alsharhan, A. ); Stoudt, D. ); Bowen, B.

    1990-05-01

    Abundant subsurface data for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic sections of the Gulf Coast of the US and the Middle East makes it possible to track the relationship of shelf carbonates and evaporites with minor clastics to eustatic sea level. Since sedimentary stratigraphy for both regions was driven by gentle tectonic subsidence punctuated by eustatic sea level variations, the major hydrocarbon fields from these areas can be classified in terms of sea level behavior at the time of the deposition of the reservoir section. With the exception of chalks, most of these carbonate hydrocarbon fields can be related to highstand system tracts and include (1) keep-up plays with sheet-like geometry formed when carbonate accumulation matched sea level rise, aggrading to form shoaling-upward cycles during sea level highstands; (2) give-up plays in which carbonate accumulation was unable to match sea level rise and catch-up plays in which carbonate accumulation initially was unable to keep pace with the sea level rise, but then aggraded to sea level forming lense-like geometry on drowned shelves downslope from carbonate margins during and following rapid sea level rises; and (3) plays with the prograded discontinuous clinoform geometry of the platform margin, formed during stillstands by carbonate accumulation that not only kept-up with the sea level rise but accumulated in a seaward direction. Source rocks for these carbonate reservoirs often formed during rapid sea level rises whereas the reservoir seals are usually shales, dense limestones and/or evaporites.

  5. Sea level change: a philosophical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinfelder, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1993-07-01

    The present Cenozoic era is an ‘icehouse’ episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year 2050, accompanied by a rise of about 30 cm in sea level. However, the prediction of future climatic conditions and sea level is hampered by the difficulty in modelling the interactions between the lithosphere, kryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere; in addition, the buffering capacity of our planet is still poorly understood. As scientists cannot offer unambiguous answers to simple questions, sorcerer's apprentices fill in the gaps, presenting plans to save planet without inconveniencing us. The geological record can help us to learn about the regulation mechanisms of our planet, many of which are connected with or expressed as sea level changes. Global changes in sea level are either tectono-eustatic or glacioeustatic. Plate tectonic processes strongly control sea levels and climate in the long term. There is a strong feed-back mechanism between sea level and climate; both can influence and determine each other. Although high sea levels are a powerful climatic buffer, falling sea levels accelerate climatic accentuation, the growth of the polar ice caps and will hence amplify the drop in sea level. Important sources of fossil greenhouse gases are botanic CO2 production, CO2 released by volcanic activity, and water vapour. The latter is particularly important when the surface area of the sea increases during a rise in sea level (‘maritime greenhouse effect’). A ‘volcanogenic greenhouse effect’ (release of volcanogenic CO2) is possibly not equally important, as intense volcanic activity may take place both during icehouse episodes as well as during greenhouse episodes. The hydrosphere

  6. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  7. Eustatic, volcanic, and tectonic controls on redeposition of shallow-water carbonate: A reanalysis of Pacific DSDP examples

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, J.F. )

    1990-05-01

    On the basis of comparisons between eustatic sea level curves and occurrences of displaced shallow marine carbonate sediment in deep water Pacific DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) cores, several previous workers have proposed that most displaced neritic carbonate is redeposited in the deep sea during eustatic sea level lowstands in a manner similar to siliciclastic sediment. However, reanalysis of these same DSDP data indicates a much more complex set of controls on redeposition including eustatic, volcanic, and tectonic effects. Of the 43 occurrences identified in 20 DSDP sites, eight (including all occurrences of true allodapic calcarenites) were deposited either during eustatic highstands or immediately after cessation of island-building volcanism; establishment of a shallow-water source area probably represents the dominant control on this type of deposition. Twenty-three other occurrences contain volcanic detritus mixed with minor amounts of reworked carbonate. Of these occurrences eight contain volcaniclastic sediment and exhibit no clear correlation with sea level, indicating probable redeposition of shelf carbonate during volcanic events as a result of either gravitational or seismic instability of the shelf. In contrast, the 15 other mixed volcanic/carbonate occurrences represent lowstand deposit and contain epiclastic volcanic detritus, suggesting lowstand erosion of mixed volcanic/carbonate shelf sediments. Five other lowstand occurrences contain only reworked carbonate sediment and probably record either continued outer shelf/slope lowstand carbonate deposition or minor mechanical erosion of shelf carbonate. Six occurrences contain only reworked Inoceramus fragments, which are not necessarily indicative of a shelf source area.

  8. Sea level variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect

  9. History of coral reefs and sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbridge, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Charles Darwin proposed crustal subsidence for atoll growth, on the Beagle, between England and Brazil, before even seeing a coral reef, on the basis of charts and discussions with Captain Fitzroy. Relative change of sea level due to crustal movements was then well-accepted from evidence of raised strandlines in Scandinavia and Scotland and sunken forests in England. Darwin added global change of sea level (tectonoeustasy) caused by remote tectonic activity, as explained by Robert Chambers (1848, p. 319). The glacioeustasy concept was mooted soon afterwards, though the term itself came later. When Suess in 1888 proposed eustatic change, he had in mind Archimedian displacement of water by sediment or lava accumulation on the sea floor. Integrated ideas of reef development also came in the 20th century. The powerful arguments against Darwin were led by Murray with his solution hypothesis, which can not be judged as good observation but from a narrow viewpoint. The Royal Society reef borings at Funafuti were heroic but at the same time misread. Subsequently came isotopic geochemistry, absolute dating, the Milankovitch insolation theory, and plate tectonics. And much more field work. The result is an integrated reef growth theory.

  10. Sea level change

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Deglacial sea-level history of the Sunda Shelf region, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stattegger, K.; Tjallingii, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    A unique relative sea-level record of intertidal deposits from incised valley infill was retrieved from the paleo-Mekong and the paleo-North Sunda rivers in the southwestern South China Sea. This flooding history from the Sunda-Shelf system is presently the only sea-level record recovered from siliciclastic coastal deposits that covers the complete deglacial sea-level history of the last 20000 years. Three meltwater pulses (MWP) mark periods of highly accelerated sea-level rise in comparison to the average rate of 0.93 cm/yr. Initial MWP 0 (19400 - 18700 cal yr BP) was the first step of deglacial sea-level rise with a rate of 1.57 cm/yr. MWP 1A (14800 - 14200 cal yr BP), and MWP 1C (8800 - 8200 cal yr BP) have highly accelerated rates up to 5 cm/yr, whereas there is no evidence of MWP 1B around 11300 cal yr BP. Sea-level rise decreased sharply after 8200 cal yr BP when sea level stood at -7 m and modern shorelines evolved. Mid-Holocene highstand above +1.4 m was reached between 6400 and 5200 cal yr BP with a peak value of +1.5 m. These results improve the present perception of eustatic deglacial sea-level rise. The relative contributions of ice melt from the northern hemisphere and Antarctic ice sheets providing the huge water-volumes of MWPs need to be clarified.

  12. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  13. Evidence for sediment fan deposition on outer Texas Shelf during Miocene Eustatic Sea level highstands

    SciTech Connect

    Riese, W.C.; Olson, R.S.; Rosen, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    Four types of data were reviewed in an attempt to clearly define the environments of deposition for reservoir sands in the Matagorda 668 field; well log curve shapes, seismic amplitude responses, micropaleontology, and thin section sedimentary petrology. All four lines of evidence support the interpretation that these lower Miocene sands were deposited as fan complexes. The sands exhibit three distinctive curve forms: coarsening upward, fining upward, and cylindrical-serrate. These represent respectively fringe settings around the perimeter of the fan where deposition from turbid flow dominates, proximal fan settings where settling from suspension is the more dominant process, and a collection of environments in medial settings intermediate between the two end members just described.

  14. Evidence for sediment fan deposition on outer Texas shelf during Miocene eustatic sea level highstands

    SciTech Connect

    Riese, W.C.; Olsen, R.S.; Rosen, R.N.

    1988-02-01

    Four types of data were reviewed in an attempt to clearly define the environments of deposition for reservoir sands in the Matagorda 668 field: well log curve shapes, seismic amplitude responses, micropaleontology, and thin section sedimentary petrology. All four lines of evidence support the interpretation that these lower Miocene sands were deposited as fan complexes.

  15. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  16. Closing the Global Sea Level Rise Budget with GRACE, Argo, and Altimetry Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuliette, E. W.; Miller, L.

    2008-12-01

    An important goal of climate studies is to determine the relative contribution of steric (heating and salinty) and eustatic (melting ice, runoff) sea level rise and to understand how and why these contributions vary. Concurrent measurements from the Argo array of profiling floats and the GRACE gravity mission, which respectively measure steric and eustatic changes, provide an independent measure of total sea level change. An analysis of the steric and ocean mass components of sea level shows that the sea level rise budget for the period January 2004 to December 2007 can be closed. Using corrected and verified Jason-1 and Envisat altimetry observations of total sea level, upper ocean steric sea level from the Argo array, and ocean mass variations inferred from GRACE gravity mission observations, we find that the sum of steric sea level and the ocean mass component has a trend of 1.5 ± 1.5 mm/year over the period, in agreement with the total sea level rise observed by either Jason-1 (2.2 ± 1.6 mm/year) or Envisat (1.7 ± 1.8 mm/year). This provides verification that the altimeters, Argo buoys, and GRACE are providing consistent results and opens the way to routine monitoring of the major components of sea level rise.

  17. A method for detecting rapid mass flux of small glaciers using local sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamisiea, Mark E.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Davis, James L.

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that the global reservoir of small (or mountain) glaciers is presently experiencing an accelerated phase of net melting, perhaps linked to climatic warming. We argue that relative sea level and sea surface fingerprints local to such events provide a potentially powerful, integrated diagnostic for the mass imbalance. For example, we demonstrate, using an inference of glacier mass balance near Alaska over the last 50 years, that the present-day relative sea level fall at nearby sites can reach amplitudes that are ∼2 orders of magnitude greater than the ongoing eustatic sea level rise associated with the melting. The peak sea surface subsidence is a factor of ∼15 greater than the eustatic amplitude. We find that the predicted present-day sea surface change arising from the 50-year loading history is sensitive only to the ongoing rate of accelerated melting. In contrast, the present-day relative sea level fingerprint becomes increasingly sensitive to the ‘history’ of the recent loading when the viscosity of the asthenosphere adopted in the prediction is progressively reduced below 1020 Pa s. Specifically, the relative sea level fingerprint becomes more localized, and reaches higher amplitudes, close to the glacier system as viscous effects become active. Our results have application in efforts to constrain small glacier mass balance using tide gauge records of relative sea level change or satellite-derived constraints on sea surface (geoid) rates.

  18. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  19. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  20. Evidence from the Seychelles of Last Interglacial Sea Level Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyverberg, K.; Dutton, A.; Dechnik, B.; Webster, J.; Zwartz, D.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies indicate that sea level oscillated during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, but the details of these scenarios, including the number of sea level oscillations, are still debated. We lack a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of the large polar ice sheets to changes in temperature that could result in eustatic sea level oscillations. Because the Seychelles are located far from the margins of the Last Glacial Maximum northern hemisphere ice sheets, they have not been subjected to glacial isostatic adjustment, and have been tectonically stable since the Last Interglacial period; therefore, they provide a robust record of eustatic sea level during MIS 5e. All of the outcrops we examined contain unconformities and/or sharp transitions between facies, though the nature of these boundaries varies between sites. In some outcrops we observed a hardground comprising fine-grained, mollusc-rich sediment layer between distinct generations of in situ coralgal framework. In one outcrop, this succession was observed twice, where two generations of reef growth were each capped by a strongly indurated fine-grained, mollusc-rich sediment layer. At the site with the greatest vertical extent of outcrop, there is a marked difference in the taxonomic composition of the coral community above and below an unconformable surface, but the indurated fine-grained, sediment layer observed elsewhere was absent. Most of the other outcrops we studied contained a common succession of facies from in situ reef units overlain by cemented coral rubble. In two dated outcrops, the age of corals above and below the rubble layer are the same age. The hardgrounds and rubble layers may represent ephemeral exposure of the reef units during two drops in sea level. The inference of multiple meter-scale oscillations during the MIS 5e highstand indicates a more dynamic cryosphere than the present interglacial, although the climatic threshold for more volatile polar ice sheets is not yet clear.

  1. Fluvial response to tectonics and sea level change in foreland basins

    SciTech Connect

    Angevine, C.L. ); Posmentier, H.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Fluvial responses to a variety of tectonic and sea level variations have been modeled for foreland sedimentary basins. Sea level cycles encompass three orders of magnitude: fifth-order cycles ({approximately} 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yr), fourth-order cycles ({approximately} 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} yr), and third-order cycles ({approximately}10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} yr). For cycles in the fourth- to fifth-order range, the rates of eustatic change overwhelm the rates of subsidence and, consequently, tectonic considerations are insignificant. However, during third-order cycles of sea level change, the rates of sea level change and tectonic subsidence may be comparable, and the evolution of the fluvial section can be complicated. Two end-member responses to eustatic fall are considered: (1) the situation where the point to which the streams are adjusted (i.e., the shoreline) is located seaward of the zone of maximum subsidence rate due to flexural loading by the fold and thrust belt, and (2) the situation where the shoreline lies within the zone of maximum subsidence rate. In the first case, modeling suggests that fluvial aggradation continues, unaffected by eustatic change. Consequently, sequence boundaries associated with sea level change are not recognized here. In the second case, the response is more complex, and a variety of responses are possible depending on rates of subsidence and sediment flux, and the slope of the profile exposed by relative sea level fall. Under most circumstances, fluvial aggradation will continue, albeit at lower rate than had sea level remained constant.

  2. Antarctic glacio-eustatic contributions to late Miocene Mediterranean desiccation and reflooding.

    PubMed

    Ohneiser, Christian; Florindo, Fabio; Stocchi, Paolo; Roberts, Andrew P; DeConto, Robert M; Pollard, David

    2015-11-10

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) was a marked late Neogene oceanographic event during which the Mediterranean Sea evaporated. Its causes remain unresolved, with tectonic restrictions to the Atlantic Ocean or glacio-eustatic restriction of flow during sea-level lowstands, or a mixture of the two mechanisms, being proposed. Here we present the first direct geological evidence of Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) expansion at the MSC onset and use a δ(18)O record to model relative sea-level changes. Antarctic sedimentary successions indicate AIS expansion at 6 Ma coincident with major MSC desiccation; relative sea-level modelling indicates a prolonged ∼50 m lowstand at the Strait of Gibraltar, which resulted from AIS expansion and local evaporation of sea water in concert with evaporite precipitation that caused lithospheric deformation. Our results reconcile MSC events and demonstrate that desiccation and refilling were timed by the interplay between glacio-eustatic sea-level variations, glacial isostatic adjustment and mantle deformation in response to changing water and evaporite loads.

  3. Antarctic glacio-eustatic contributions to late Miocene Mediterranean desiccation and reflooding

    PubMed Central

    Ohneiser, Christian; Florindo, Fabio; Stocchi, Paolo; Roberts, Andrew P.; DeConto, Robert M.; Pollard, David

    2015-01-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) was a marked late Neogene oceanographic event during which the Mediterranean Sea evaporated. Its causes remain unresolved, with tectonic restrictions to the Atlantic Ocean or glacio-eustatic restriction of flow during sea-level lowstands, or a mixture of the two mechanisms, being proposed. Here we present the first direct geological evidence of Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) expansion at the MSC onset and use a δ18O record to model relative sea-level changes. Antarctic sedimentary successions indicate AIS expansion at 6 Ma coincident with major MSC desiccation; relative sea-level modelling indicates a prolonged ∼50 m lowstand at the Strait of Gibraltar, which resulted from AIS expansion and local evaporation of sea water in concert with evaporite precipitation that caused lithospheric deformation. Our results reconcile MSC events and demonstrate that desiccation and refilling were timed by the interplay between glacio-eustatic sea-level variations, glacial isostatic adjustment and mantle deformation in response to changing water and evaporite loads. PMID:26556503

  4. Antarctic glacio-eustatic contributions to late Miocene Mediterranean desiccation and reflooding.

    PubMed

    Ohneiser, Christian; Florindo, Fabio; Stocchi, Paolo; Roberts, Andrew P; DeConto, Robert M; Pollard, David

    2015-01-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) was a marked late Neogene oceanographic event during which the Mediterranean Sea evaporated. Its causes remain unresolved, with tectonic restrictions to the Atlantic Ocean or glacio-eustatic restriction of flow during sea-level lowstands, or a mixture of the two mechanisms, being proposed. Here we present the first direct geological evidence of Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) expansion at the MSC onset and use a δ(18)O record to model relative sea-level changes. Antarctic sedimentary successions indicate AIS expansion at 6 Ma coincident with major MSC desiccation; relative sea-level modelling indicates a prolonged ∼50 m lowstand at the Strait of Gibraltar, which resulted from AIS expansion and local evaporation of sea water in concert with evaporite precipitation that caused lithospheric deformation. Our results reconcile MSC events and demonstrate that desiccation and refilling were timed by the interplay between glacio-eustatic sea-level variations, glacial isostatic adjustment and mantle deformation in response to changing water and evaporite loads. PMID:26556503

  5. Late Quaternary sea-level changes of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen W.; Bateman, Mark D.; Larkin, Nigel R.; Rye, Philip; Stewart, John R.

    2015-07-01

    Late Quaternary reflooding of the Persian Gulf climaxed with the mid-Holocene highstand previously variously dated between 6 and 3.4 ka. Examination of the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental context of a mid-Holocene whale beaching allows us to accurately constrain the timing of the transgressive, highstand and regressive phases of the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand in the Persian Gulf. Mid-Holocene transgression of the Gulf surpassed today's sea level by 7100-6890 cal yr BP, attaining a highstand of > 1 m above current sea level shortly after 5290-4570 cal yr BP before falling back to current levels by 1440-1170 cal yr BP. The cetacean beached into an intertidal hardground pond during the transgressive phase (5300-4960 cal yr BP) with continued transgression interring the skeleton in shallow-subtidal sediments. Subsequent relative sea-level fall produced a forced regression with consequent progradation of the coastal system. These new ages refine previously reported timings for the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand published for other regions. By so doing, they allow us to constrain the timing of this correlatable global eustatic event more accurately.

  6. Quaternary climates and sea levels of the u.s. Atlantic coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Cronin, T M; Szabo, B J; Ager, T A; Hazel, J E; Owens, J P

    1981-01-16

    Uranium-series dating of corals from marine deposits of the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain coupled with paleoclimatic reconstructions based on ostracode (marine) and pollen (continent) data document at least five relatively warm intervals during the last 500,000 years. On the basis of multiple paleoenvironmental criteria, we determined relative sea level positions during the warm intervals, relative to present mean sea level, were 7 +/- 5 meters at 188,000 years ago, 7.5 +/- 1.5 meters at 120,000 years ago, 6.5 +/- 3.5 meters at 94,000 years ago, and 7 +/- 3 meters at 72,000 years ago. The composite sea level chronology for the Atlantic Coastal Plain is inconsistent with independent estimates of eustatic sea level positions during interglacial intervals of the last 200,000 years. Hydroisostatic adjustment from glacial-interglacial sea level fluctuations, lithospheric flexure, and isostatic uplift from sediment unloading due to erosion provide possible mechanisms to account for the discrepancies. Alternatively, current eustatic sea level estimates for the middle and late Quaternary may require revision.

  7. Sea-level rise in New Jersey over the past 5000 years: Implications to anthropogenic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Kenneth G.; Sugarman, Peter J.; Browning, James V.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Stanley, Alissa; Kahn, Alicia; Uptegrove, Jane; Aucott, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present a mid to late Holocene sea-level record derived from drilling the New Jersey coast that shows a relatively constant rise of 1.8??mm/yr from ~ 5000 to 500 calibrated calendar years before present (yrBP). This contrasts with previous New Jersey estimates that showed only 0.5??mm/yr rise since 2000??yrBP. Comparison with other Mid-Atlantic sea-level records (Delaware to southern New England) indicates surprising uniformity considering different proximities to the peripheral bulge of the Laurentide ice sheet, with a relative rise throughout the region of ~ 1.7-1.9??mm/yr since ~ 5000??yrBP. This regional sea-level rise includes both: 1) global sea-level (eustatic) rise; and 2) far-field geoidal subsidence (estimated as ~ 0.8-1.4??mm/yr today) due to removal of the Laurentide ice sheet and water loading. Correcting for geoidal subsidence, the U.S. east coast records suggest a global sea-level (eustatic) rise of ~ 0.4-1.0??mm/yr (with a best estimate of 0.7 ?? 0.3??mm/yr) since 5000??yrBP. Comparison with other records provides a best estimate of pre-anthropogenic global sea-level rise of < 1.0??mm/yr from 5000 until ~ 200??yrBP. Tide gauge data indicate a 20th century rate of eustatic rise of 1.8??mm/yr, whereas both tide gauge and satellite data suggest an increase in the rate of rise to ~ 3.3??mm/yr from 1993-2006 AD. This indicates that the modern rise (~ 3.3??mm/yr) is significantly higher than the pre-anthropogenic rise (0.7 ?? 0.3??mm/yr). ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Future sea-level rise in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    Secular sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea are the result of a number of processes characterized by distinct time scales and spatial patterns. Here we predict the future sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea to year 2050 combining the contributions from terrestrial ice melt (TIM), glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and the ocean response (OR) that includes the thermal expansion and the ocean circulation contributions. The three contributions are characterized by comparable magnitudes but distinctly different sea-level fingerprints across the Mediterranean basin. The TIM component of future sea-level rise is taken from Spada et al. (2013) and it is mainly driven by the melt of small glaciers and ice caps and by the dynamic ice loss from Antarctica. The sea-level fingerprint associated with GIA is studied using two distinct models available from the literature: ICE-5G(VM2) (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model progressively developed at the Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES) of the National Australian University (KL05) (see Fleming and Lambeck, 2004 and references therein). Both the GIA and the TIM sea-level predictions have been obtained with the aid of the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007). The spatially-averaged OR component, which includes thermosteric and halosteric sea-level variations, recently obtained using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model (Carillo et al., 2012), vary between 2 and 7 cm according to scenarios adopted (EA1B and EA1B2, see Meehl at al., 2007). Since the sea-level variations associated with TIM mainly result from the gravitational interactions between the cryosphere components, the oceans and the solid Earth, and long-wavelength rotational variations, they are characterized by a very smooth global pattern and by a marked zonal symmetry reflecting the dipole geometry of the ice sources. Since the Mediterranean Sea is located in the intermediate far-field of major ice sources, TIM sea-level changes have sub-eustatic

  9. New constraints on MIS 7 and 5 relative sea-level at Bermuda: a speleothem approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainer, Karine; Henderson, Gideon; Mason, Andrew; Thomas, Alexander; Williams, Bruce; Rowe, Mark; van Hengstum, Peter; Chandler, Robert

    2014-05-01

    It is now widely accepted that a sea-level rise is associated with global warming [1]. However, its rate, and the height it might reach by the end of the century remain poorly constrained. This study aims to provide better information and precision on the rates and magnitudes of past sea-level change, for periods when sea-level is close to its modern value, using speleothems from Bermudian caves. Speleothems interrupt their growth when they are submerged by sea-water, so U-Th dating periods of growth in coastal sites allows the reconstruction of past sea-level variation versus absolute time [e.g. 2,3,4]. We will present new MC-ICP-MS U-Th ages, trace elements and isotopic data from a set of speleothems (stalagmites, stalactites, flowstones) collected from -14 to +12 m versus modern sea level from several caves in this northern Atlantic archipelago. Relative sea-level (RSL) at Bermuda is of particular interest because it is at a distance from northern hemisphere ice sheets where the isostatic response to ice-unloading is uncertain. RSL reconstruction therefore provides both an indicates of possible rates of sea level change, and a test for glacial-isostatic-adjustment (GIA) models. We will present new relative sea level data for late MIS7, and the different highstands of MIS5. The RSL at Bermuda for these episodes appears to be higher than present. For MIS5a, this is significantly distinct from what is expected from the eustatic sea level. These results will be considered in the context of previous assessments of eustatic change, and of GIA models. [1] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report, Cambridge Univ. Press. [2] Harmon et al. (1981) Nature 289, 357-360. [3] Richards et al. (1994) Nature 367, 481-483. [4] Bard (2002) EPSL 196, 135-146.

  10. Holocene sea level variations on the basis of integration of independent data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Sahagian, D.; Berkman, P. . Dept. of Geological Sciences and Byrd Polar Research Center)

    1992-01-01

    Variations in sea level through earth history have occurred at a wide variety of time scales. Sea level researchers have attacked the problem of measuring these sea level changes through a variety of approaches, each relevant only to the time scale in question, and usually only relevant to the specific locality from which a specific type of data are derived. There is a plethora of different data types that can and have been used (locally) for the measurement of Holocene sea level variations. The problem of merging different data sets for the purpose of constructing a global eustatic sea level curve for the Holocene has not previously been adequately addressed. The authors direct the efforts to that end. Numerous studies have been published regarding Holocene sea level changes. These have involved exposed fossil reef elevations, elevation of tidal deltas, elevation of depth of intertidal peat deposits, caves, tree rings, ice cores, moraines, eolian dune ridges, marine-cut terrace elevations, marine carbonate species, tide gauges, and lake level variations. Each of these data sets is based on particular set of assumptions, and is valid for a specific set of environments. In order to obtain the most accurate possible sea level curve for the Holocene, these data sets must be merged so that local and other influences can be filtered out of each data set. Since each data set involves very different measurements, each is scaled in order to define the sensitivity of the proxy measurement parameter to sea level, including error bounds. This effectively determines the temporal and spatial resolution of each data set. The level of independence of data sets is also quantified, in order to rule out the possibility of a common non-eustatic factor affecting more than one variety of data. The Holocene sea level curve is considered to be independent of other factors affecting the proxy data, and is taken to represent the relation between global ocean water and basin volumes.

  11. Holocene Relative Sea-Level Changes from Near-, Intermediate-, and Far-Field Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. S.; Khan, N.; Shaw, T.; Ashe, E.; Vacchi, M.; Peltier, W. R.; Kopp, R. E.; Horton, B.

    2015-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records exhibit spatial and temporal variability that arises mainly from the interaction of eustatic (land ice volume and thermal expansion) and isostatic (glacio- and hydro-) factors. We fit RSL histories from near-, intermediate-, and far-field locations with noisy-input Gaussian process models to assess rates of RSL change from selected study areas. Records from near-field regions (e.g., Antarctica, Greenland, Canada, Sweden, and Scotland) reveal a complex pattern of RSL fall from a maximum marine limit due to the net effect of eustatic sea-level rise and glacial-isostatic uplift with rates of RSL fall as great as -69 ± 9 m/ka. Intermediate-field regions (e.g., mid-Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States, Netherlands, Southern France, St. Croix) display variable rates of RSL rise from the cumulative effect of isostatic and eustatic factors. Fast rates of RSL rise (up to 10 ± 1 m/ka) are found in the early Holocene in regions near the center of forebulge collapse. Far-field RSL records exhibit a mid-Holocene highstand, the timing (between 8 and 4 ka) and magnitude (between <1 and 6 m) of which varies across South America, Africa, Asia and Australia regions.

  12. Upper Cretaceous sequences and sea-level history, New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.G.; Sugarman, P.J.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.A.; Olsson, R.K.; Feigenson, M.D.; Hernandez, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a Late Cretaceous sealevel estimate from Upper Cretaceous sequences at Bass River and Ancora, New Jersey (ODP [Ocean Drilling Program] Leg 174AX). We dated 11-14 sequences by integrating Sr isotope and biostratigraphy (age resolution ??0.5 m.y.) and then estimated paleoenvironmental changes within the sequences from lithofacies and biofacies analyses. Sequences generally shallow upsection from middle-neritic to inner-neritic paleodepths, as shown by the transition from thin basal glauconite shelf sands (transgressive systems tracts [TST]), to medial-prodelta silty clays (highstand systems tracts [HST]), and finally to upper-delta-front quartz sands (HST). Sea-level estimates obtained by backstripping (accounting for paleodepth variations, sediment loading, compaction, and basin subsidence) indicate that large (>25 m) and rapid (???1 m.y.) sea-level variations occurred during the Late Cretaceous greenhouse world. The fact that the timing of Upper Cretaceous sequence boundaries in New Jersey is similar to the sea-level lowering records of Exxon Production Research Company (EPR), northwest European sections, and Russian platform outcrops points to a global cause. Because backstripping, seismicity, seismic stratigraphic data, and sediment-distribution patterns all indicate minimal tectonic effects on the New Jersey Coastal Plain, we interpret that we have isolated a eustatic signature. The only known mechanism that can explain such global changes-glacio-eustasy-is consistent with foraminiferal ??18O data. Either continental ice sheets paced sea-level changes during the Late Cretaceous, or our understanding of causal mechanisms for global sea-level change is fundamentally flawed. Comparison of our eustatic history with published ice-sheet models and Milankovitch predictions suggests that small (5-10 ?? 106 km3), ephemeral, and areally restricted Antarctic ice sheets paced the Late Cretaceous global sea-level change. New Jersey and Russian eustatic estimates

  13. Sea-level changes and the Middle-Upper Devonian sequence in the Baltic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukševičs, E.; Stinkulis, Ä.¢.

    2012-04-01

    Lithostratigraphic succession of the Middle-Upper Devonian of Baltic, represented by siliciclastic and carbonate deposits of the wide shallow epeiric sea, is well-established. The sequence of biotic and sea-level changes has been studied in detail for about half a century. However, it was rarely tried to compare the sea-level curve for the Baltic with the curve of the global sea-level changes and correlate the succession with the sequence of the Devonian global events well established mainly in the marine record. New facies analysis and biostratigraphical and taphonomical studies together with the re-evaluation of signatures of the world-wide events using sedimentological and palaeontological data enables better understanding of the development of the Middle-Late Devonian basins of the Baltic area. Indications of such events as eustatic fall of the sea-level close to the Givetian-Frasnian and Frasnian-Famennian boundaries, several small-scale transgressions during Famennian interglacials are rather clearly traceable within the sequence. Distribution of deposits, biotas and facies suggests diminishing of the depositional area since the maximum transgression in the earliest Frasnian thus demonstrating good coincidence with the global sea level curve (Haq & Schutter 2008). The retreat of depocentre of the palaeobasin in westerly direction during the late Frasnian and the Famennian likely was caused by tectonic subsidence at the western part of the east Baltics. The most significant event levels identified within the section are the extended Taghanic onlap (middle Givetian) evidenced by dolocretes in the upper part of the Burtnieki Fm; significant drop of the sea level during the earliest Frasnian indicated by widely distributed dolocretes in the top of the Amata Fm that points to the possible position of the Givetian/Frasnian boundary below the Amata; level of the Dubnik RS with extensive gypsum deposits and non-oxidised organic matter of the Salaspils Fm evidencing

  14. First order sea-level cycles and supercontinent break up

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, P.L.; Angevine, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have developed a model that successfully predicts the approximate magnitude and timing of long term sea-level change without relying on short term increases in global spreading rates. The model involves the following key assumptions. (1) Ocean basins have two types of area/age distributions; Pacific ocean basins are rimmed by subduction zones and have triangular distributions; and Atlantic ocean basins which open at constant rates, have no subduction, and so have rectangular distributions. (2) The total area of the global ocean is constant so that the Pacific basin must close as the Atlantic opens. These assumptions approximate modern global ocean basin conditions. The model begins with supercontinent break up. As the Atlantic begins to open, the mean age of the global ocean decreases, the mean depth of the sea floor shallows, and sea level, therefore, rises. Once the Atlantic occupies more than 8 to 10% of the global ocean area, the mean age and depth of the ocean floor increases resulting in a sea-level fall. The model can be applied to the mid-Cretaceous sea-level high stand which followed break up of Pangea by 80 to 100 Ma. Based on average Atlantic opening rates, sea level rises to a peak of 44 m at 80 Ma after opening began and then falls by 84 m to the present. Thus the model is capable of explaining approximately half of the total magnitude of the post-mid-Cretaceous eustatic fall without invoking short-term changes in global spreading rates. In addition, the model predicts the observed time lag between supercontinent break up and sea-level high stand for both Mesozoic as well as early Paleozoic time.

  15. Weighing small glacier mass balance using local sea-level fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamisiea, M.; Mitrovica, J.; Davis, J.

    2003-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that the global reservoir of small (or mountain) glaciers is presently experiencing an accelerated phase of net melting. Recent research has demonstrated that rapid melting of a large ice sheet produces a distinct signature, or `fingerprint', in the global sea level record [e.g., Mitrovica et al., 2001; Plag and Jüttner, 2001]. We argue that sea-level and sea-surface fingerprints local to small glaciers provide a potentially powerful, integrated diagnostic for their mass imbalance. As an illustration, we demonstrate, using an inference of glacier mass balance near Alaska over the last 50 years [Arendt et al., 2002], that the present-day sea-level fall at nearby sites can reach amplitudes that are ˜ 2 orders of magnitude greater than the ongoing eustatic sea-level rise associated with the melting event. The peak sea-surface (or geoid) subsidence is a factor of ˜ 15 greater than the eustatic amplitude. We find that the predicted present-day sea-surface change arising from the 50-year loading history is sensitive only to the ongoing rate of accelerated melting. In contrast, the present-day sea-level fingerprint becomes increasingly sensitive to the `history' of the recent loading when the viscosity of the upper mantle adopted in the prediction is progressively reduced below 1020~Pa~s. Our results have application in efforts to constrain small glacier mass balance using tide gauge records of sea-level change or satellite-derived constraints on sea-surface (geoid) rates.

  16. Late Holocene sea level variability and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Farmer, Jesse R.; Marzen, R. E.; Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-twentieth century sea level (SL) variability remains poorly understood due to limits of tide gauge records, low temporal resolution of tidal marsh records, and regional anomalies caused by dynamic ocean processes, notably multidecadal changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). We examined SL and AMOC variability along the eastern United States over the last 2000 years, using a SL curve constructed from proxy sea surface temperature (SST) records from Chesapeake Bay, and twentieth century SL-sea surface temperature (SST) relations derived from tide gauges and instrumental SST. The SL curve shows multidecadal-scale variability (20–30 years) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA), as well as the twentieth century. During these SL oscillations, short-term rates ranged from 2 to 4 mm yr−1, roughly similar to those of the last few decades. These oscillations likely represent internal modes of climate variability related to AMOC variability and originating at high latitudes, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Results imply that dynamic ocean changes, in addition to thermosteric, glacio-eustatic, or glacio-isostatic processes are an inherent part of SL variability in coastal regions, even during millennial-scale climate oscillations such as the MCA and LIA and should be factored into efforts that use tide gauges and tidal marsh sediments to understand global sea level rise.

  17. Regional sea level change in the Thailand-Indonesia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Becker, M. H.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is expected that the regional sea level rise will strongly affect particular regions with direct impacts including submergence of coastal zones, rising water tables and salt intrusion into groundwaters. It can possibly also exacerbate other factors as floodings, associated to storms and hurricanes, as well as ground subsidence of anthropogenic nature. The Thailand-Vietnam-Indonesian region is one of those zones. On land, the Chao-Praya and Mekong Delta are fertile alluvial zones. The potential for sea level increases and extreme floodings due to global warming makes the Deltas a place where local, regional, and global environmental changes are converging. We investigate the relative roles of regional and global mechanisms resulting in multidecadal variations and inflections in the rate of sea level change. Altimetry and GRACE data are used to investigate the variation of land floodings. The land surface water extent is evaluated at 25 km sampling intervals over fifteen years (1993-2007) using a multisatellite methodology which captures the extent of episodic and seasonal inundations, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and irrigated agriculture, using passive and active (microwaves and visible observations. The regional sea level change is analysed during the period 1993-2012 using satellite altimetry, wind and ocean model data, tide gauge data and GPS. The rates of absolute eustatic sea level rise derived from satellite altimetry through 19-year long precise altimeter observations are in average higher than the global mean rate. Several tide gauge records indicate an even higher sea level rise relative to land. We show that the sea level change is closely linked to the ENSO mode of variability and strongly affected by changes in wind forcing and ocean circulation. We have determined the vertical crustal motion at a given tide gauge location by differencing the tide gauge sea level time-series with an equivalent time-series derived from satellite altimetry and by computing

  18. Carbonate-slope failures as indicators of sea-level lowerings

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, H.E. ); Taylor, M.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Occasionally, carbonate-slope failures of such a magnitude occur that immense volumes of material move downslope as submarine slides and boulder-bearing debris flows. These spectacular deposits can be triggered by earthquakes or tsunamis. However, when such deposits are regionally widespread or are on separate lithospheric plates, at times of sea-level lowering, trigger mechanism is most likely eustatic sea-level fluctuations. The authors propose that during the initial phases of a sea-level lowering, slope and/or platform-margin collapse can happen, owing to gravitational instability of partially cemented carbonates. Fragments of the margins of the early Paleozoic proto-Pacific Ocean are found in widely separated terranes, including western North America and southern Kazakhstan (USSR). Coeval carbonate-slope and platform-margin failures occurred in both areas during the Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician. Up to 75-km-long segments of these carbonate slopes and platform margins collapsed and were transported seaward as submarine slides and megabreccia debris flows. These catastrophic events contributed to the development of 500-m-thick carbonate submarine fans and aprons. Slope and platform-margin failures also correlate with solution breccia and faunal disconformities in platform-interior sites. They interpret these widely separated yet coeval mass-transport processes to have happened during rapid oceanward progradation of their respective carbonate margins, in combination with several eustatic sea-level lowerings.

  19. Early-mid-Cretaceous evolution in Tethyan reef communities and sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The replacement of corals by rudists in Early Cretaceous reefal communities spanned a 30-m.y. period when sea level rose and drowned continental shelves. During this time corals formed communities in the deeper parts of reefs and rudists occupied the shallow, high-energy habitats. By Aptian time rudists dominated reefs that fringed interior shelf basins and corals formed reefs with rudists on the outer shelf margins. By late Albian coral communities had virtually disappeared, presumably because of complex environmental changes and cycles of organic productivity. Two important events of eustatic sea level rise are represented by unconformities separating carbonate depositional sequences on the Arabian platform that correlate with sequence boundaries on the Gulf Coast platform. Graphic correlation techniques test the synchroneity of these events. A composite standard time scale dates these sea level rises at 115.8 Ma and 94.6 Ma; a third, intra-Albian event at 104.3 Ma is present in many places and may also be eustatic. Associated with these sea level rises were apparent changes in ocean water chemistry as evidenced by changes in isotopes and trace elements, where diagenetic effects can be discounted. During this time the climate became more humid and atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increased. The concomitant environmental changes in the oceanic conditions presumably stressed the deeper coral communities on reefs. The emergence of rudists as reef contributors had a profound effect on Late Cretaceous depositional conditions and the development of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  20. Early-mid-Cretaceous evolution in Tethyan reef communities and sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.W.

    1988-02-01

    The replacement of corals by rudists in Early Cretaceous reefal communities spanned a 30-m.y. period when sea level rose and drowned continental shelves. During this time corals formed communities in the deeper parts of reefs and rudists occupied the shallow, high-energy habitats. By Aptian time rudists dominated reefs that fringed interior shelf basins and corals formed reefs with rudists on the outer shelf margins. By late Albian coral communities had virtually disappeared, presumably because of complex environmental changes and cycles of organic productivity. Two important events of eustatic sea level rise are represented by unconformities separating carbonate depositional sequences on the Arabian platform that correlate with sequence boundaries on the Gulf Coast platform. Graphic correlation techniques test the synchroneity of these events. A composite standard time scale dates these sea level rises at 115.8 Ma and 94.6 Ma; a third, intra-Albian event at 104.3 Ma is present in many places and may also be eustatic. Associated with these sea level rises were apparent changes in ocean water chemistry as evidenced by changes in isotopes and trace elements, where diagenetic effects can be discounted. During this time the climate became more humid and atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increased. The concomitant environmental changes in the oceanic conditions presumably stressed the deeper coral communities on reefs. The emergence of rudists as reef contributors had a profound effect on Late Cretaceous depositional conditions and the development of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  1. Relative Importance of Mass and Volume Changes to Global Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Moore, J.; Grinsted, A.

    2008-12-01

    Sea level is an integrated indicator of climate variability, reflecting changes in the dynamic and thermodynamic in atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere. The rate of sea level rise and its causes is a topic of active debate. We examine the relationship between 50 year long records of global sea level (GSL) calculated from 1023 tide gauge stations and global ocean heat content (GOHC), glacier and ice sheet melting. The lack of consistent correlation between changes in GOHC and GSL during the period 1955-2003 argues against GOHC being the dominant factor in GSL as is often thought. We provide clear evidence of the substantial and increasing role in GSL from the eustatic component (47 per cent) compared with the contribution from increasing heat content (25 per cent), suggesting that the primary role is being played by the melting glaciers and ice sheets. There remains about 23 per cent of GSL rise unaccounted for by the best estimates of both eustatic and thermosteric effects. This fraction also exhibits large variability that is not readily associated with known causes of sea level variability. The most likely explanation of this unknown fraction is underestimated melting, climate- driven changes in terrestrial storage components and decadal time scale variability in global water cycle. This argues for a concerted effort to quantify changes in these reservoirs.

  2. Eustatic control of tertiary hydrocarbon deposits, Central California borderline basins

    SciTech Connect

    Cousminer, H.L. )

    1994-04-01

    In the central California borderland basins, the Vail-Haq Cenozoic Global Eustatic Cycle appears to have influenced depositional patterns that have fundamental significance in the present distribution of hydrocarbon source and reservoir beds. Coupled with tectonic events, traps were created that now control the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulations. Seismic data combined with subsurface lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and log data from wells drilled on the central California outer continental shelf (OCS) were used to date and correlate Tertiary stratigraphic sequences in the Santa Maria, Bodega-La Honda, and Point Arena basins. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages also served to reconstruct each basin's paleobathymetric history. The west coast benthic foram stages, commerically used to solve subsurface stratigraphic problems for over 60 yr, occur with planktonic microfossil groups that now serve to calibrate the provincial stages with the absolute geologic time scale. The Miocene through Pliocene stratigraphic sequences in these three depocenters are markedly similar, and record a parallel marine onlap and offlap pattern that correlates closely with the Vail-Haq Cenozoic Global Eustatic Cycle. The highstand depositional cycles are generally dominated by organic-rich sediments of good to excellent are generally dominated by organic-rich sediments of good to excellent source-bed potential. Lowstand regressive to transgressive clastic deposits have good reservoir potential. The middle Miocene siliceous Monterey Formation was deposited during maximum Tertiary global sea levels and is present in all of these basins. In addition to being a prolific source bed, the Monterey is unique in that when diagnetically altered, it fractures and also becomes an excellent hydrocarbon reservoir.

  3. The late Silurian-Middle Devonian long-term eustatic cycle as a possible control on the global generic diversity dynamics of bivalves and gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2013-09-01

    A long-term eustatic cycle (fall and subsequent rise of the global sea level) embraced the late Silurian-Middle Devonian time interval. Potentially, these sea-level changes could drive global biodiversity. The stratigraphic ranges of 204 bivalve genera and 279 gastropod genera included into the famous Sepkoski database allow reconstructing changes in the total diversity and the number of originations and extinctions of these important groups of marine benthic macro- -invertebrates during this interval. None of the recorded parameters coincided with the long-term global sea-level cycle. It cannot be not excluded, however, that the global sea-level changes did not affect the regions favourable for bivalve and gastropod radiation because of regional tectonic mechanisms; neither can it be excluded that the eustatic control persisted together with many other extrinsic and intrinsic controls. Interestingly, the generic diversity of gastropods increased together with a cooling trend, and vice versa. Additionally, the Ludlow, Eifelian, and Givetian biotic crises affected, probably, both fossil groups under study. There was also a coincidence of the relatively high bivalve generic diversity, initial radiation of gastropods and the entire biota, and the diversification of brachiopods with the Early Devonian global sea-level lowstand, and this may be interpreted as evidence of a certain eustatic control on the marine biodiversity.

  4. Relative sea level changes during the Cretaceous in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Flexer, A.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lipson-Benitah, S.; Honigstein, A.

    1986-11-01

    Detailed lithologic, microfaunal, and biometric investigations, using relative abundances, diversity indexes, and duration charts of ostracods and foraminifera, allowed the recognition of sea level changes during the Cretaceous of Israel. Three major transgressive-regressive sedimentation cycles occur on the northwest margins of the Arabian craton. These cycles are the Neocomian-Aptian, which is mostly terrigenous sediments; the Albian-Turonian, which is basin marls and platform carbonates; and the Senonian, which is uniform marly chalks. The cycles are separated by two major regional unconformities, the Aptian-Albian and Turonian-Coniacian boundaries. The sedimentary cycles are related to regional tectonic and volcanic events and eustatic changes. The paleodepth curve illustrates the gradual sea level rise, reaching its maximum during the Late Cretaceous, with conspicuous advances during the late Aptian, late Albian-Cenomanian, early Turonian, early Santonian, and early Campanian. Major lowstands occur at the Aptian-Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian, Turonian-Coniacian, and Campanian-Maastrichtian boundaries. This model for Israel agrees well with other regional and global sea level fluctuations. Four anoxic events (black shales) accompanying transgressions correspond to the Cretaceous oceanic record. They hypothesize the presence of mature oil shales in the present-day eastern Mediterranean basin close to allochthonous reef blocks detached from the Cretaceous platform. 11 figures.

  5. The Paleozoic world: Continental flooding, hypsometry, and sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Algeo, T.J. . Dept. of Geology); Seslavinsky, K.B. ); Wilkinson, B.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Absolute amplitudes of Paleozoic sea-level fluctuations are poorly known: two major curves show eustatic maxima of +300 m (Vail et al. 1977) and +600 m (Hallam 1984). Based on analysis of the flooding records of thirteen Paleozoic landmasses, the authors estimate that sea-level elevations were substantially lower than previously thought, ca. 50--220 m for most of the Paleozoic. The analysis also shows that: (1) small continents are inherently more floodable than large continents, (2) there is no difference in mean flooding of continents of a given size between the Early and Late Paleozoic, and (3) reduced global flooding during the Late Paleozoic is primarily attributable to the existence of a few large continents, rather than many small ones as during the Early Paleozoic. Global sea-level trends reflect the division of the Paleozoic into two geotectonic subcycles comprising the Cambro-Silurian (terminated by the Taconic/Caledonian Orogeny). Deviations of individual continents from the mean global curve are due to changes in hypsometry associated with tectonic/epeirogenic events. For example, a major Early Silurian regression on Laurentia resulted from the Taconic Orogeny, while large Early Ordovician and Middle-Late Devonian regressions on Gondwana are associated with rifting of the North China and South China/Indochina blocks.

  6. Late Holocene land- and sea-level changes in the British Isles: implications for future sea-level predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, W. Roland

    2010-07-01

    Four decades of palaeosea-level research in the British Isles have produced a large dataset of age-altitude curves of postglacial sea-level changes. Patterns of late Holocene relative sea-level change reveal the persistent influence of the British/Irish Ice Sheet and the larger Scandinavian Ice Sheet on contemporary rates of vertical land movements. The Shennan and Horton (2002) map of late Holocene relative land movements has been used in future sea-level rise predictions by the United Kingdom Climate Impact Programme in their 2002 assessment (UKCIP02), but has been mistaken for a map of absolute land movements. In this paper, land-motion data for Britain are extracted from the Shennan and Horton (2002) relative sea-level data, and a new map of crustal land movements is presented which also includes Ireland. This procedure takes into account the regional 20th century sea-level rise (˜0.14 m) and the process of ocean syphoning ( i.e. a global fall in sea level of ˜0.3 mm/yr due to GIA induced ocean-floor lowering and re-distribution of ocean mass). The calculated land-motion rates also depend on the global late Holocene ice-equivalent sea-level change, given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as 0.0-0.2 mm/yr. Accounting for these processes reduces the misfit between geological observations of vertical land motion and those independently derived from gravity-aligned Global Positioning System (AG GPS) measurements and shows that UKCIP02 has underestimated land subsidence in southern Britain and over-estimated land uplift in Scotland, both by 0.1-0.2 mm/yr. A best fit between GPS and geological estimates of land movements in Britain is achieved for a global long-term eustatic sea-level fall of ca 0.2 mm/yr, suggesting some global ice expansion in the late Holocene, rather than melt. If this is correct, uplift rates in Scotland would be lower and subsidence rates in southern Britain would be faster (by 0.4-0.5 mm/yr) than estimated by UKCIP02. More

  7. A new Holocene relative sea-level curve for Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Carlo; Hall, Brenda L.

    2004-05-01

    More than 100 radiocarbon dates of penguin guano and remains, shells and seal skin afford ages for raised beaches adjacent to Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. These dates permit construction of a new relative sea-level curve that bears on the timing of deglaciation. Recession of the Ross Sea ice-sheet grounding line from Terra Nova Bay occurred no earlier than 7200 14C yr (8000 cal. yr) BP. Retreat along the Victoria Land coast may have been rapid, possibly contributing to eustatic sea-level rise centred at ca. 7600 cal. yr BP. The presence of a significant amount of ice remaining in the Ross Sea Embayment in Holocene time lessens the chance that Antarctica contributed significantly to meltwater pulse 1A several thousand years earlier. Copyright

  8. A fractal analysis of quaternary, Cenozoic-Mesozoic, and Late Pennsylvanian sea level changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsui, Albert T.; Rust, Kelly A.; Klein, George D.

    1993-01-01

    Sea level changes are related to both climatic variations and tectonic movements. The fractal dimensions of several sea level curves were compared to a modern climatic fractal dimension of 1.26 established for annual precipitation records. A similar fractal dimension (1.22) based on delta(O-18/O-16) in deep-sea sediments has been suggested to characterize climatic change during the past 2 m.y. Our analysis indicates that sea level changes over the past 150,000 to 250,000 years also exhibit comparable fractal dimensions. Sea level changes for periods longer than about 30 m.y. are found to produce fractal dimensions closer to unity and Missourian (Late Pennsylvanian) sea level changes yield a fractal dimension of 1.41. The fact that these sea level curves all possess fractal dimensions less than 1.5 indicates that sea level changes exhibit nonperiodic, long-run persistence. The different fractal dimensions calculated for the various time periods could be the result of a characteristic overprinting of the sediment recored by prevailing processes during deposition. For example, during the Quaternary, glacio-eustatic sea level changes correlate well with the present climatic signature. During the Missourian, however, mechanisms such as plate reorganization may have dominated, resulting in a significantly different fractal dimension.

  9. Onshore-offshore biofacies patterns, Greenhorn eustatic cycle, western interior Cretaceous epicontinental seaway, North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, E.G.; Sageman, B.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The Cretaceous Western Interior foreland basin provides an ideal testing ground for models of evolution and dispersion among benthic communities. Biological patterns of adaptation, diversity, life habit, population structure, trophic strategies, community composition/structure, and biogeography define biofacies in this epeiric sea. Biofacies distributions are documented for the 6-m.y. Greenhorn eustatic cyclothem (latest Albian-middle Turonian). Two high-resolution cross sections provide a stratigraphic framework: (1) Utah/Arizona to Minnesota, transecting diverse tectonic/sedimentologic provinces within the same warm temperate climatic zone and (2) Alberta to Oklahoma/New Mexico, crossing three biogeographic subprovinces within basinal facies. Plotting biofacies distributions on the cross sections allows the spatial and temporal evolution of Western Interior benthic communities to be studied. Resulting patterns suggest four points. (1) Onshore-offshore and latitudinal trends in shell size, thickness, and ornamentation, community diversity/structure, and the development and dispersion of adaptive characters reflect changes in temperature, benthic oxygen levels, and substrate characteristics. (2) These trends indicate that diverse short-term and long-term oxygen depletion events occurred during Greenhorn deposition, modifying community structure and reflecting dynamic paleooceanographic changes in the seaway. (3) Biofacies/lithofacies data in conjunction with paleogeographic reconstructions allow modeling of community dispersion in response to trends in chemical and physical sedimentologic events. (4) Integration of community data and paleooceanographic models with latest Albian through middle Turonian eustatic history furthers their understanding of the relationship between sea level changes and community evolution in epeiric seas.

  10. Sea Level Rise in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. C.; Ho, C. R.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Most people, especially for Pacific Islanders, are aware of the sea level change which may caused by many factors, but no of them has deeper sensation of flooding than Tuvaluan. Tuvalu, a coral country, consists of nine low-lying islands in the central Pacific between the latitudes of 5 and 10 degrees south, has the average elevation of 2 meters (South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project, SPSLCMP report, 2006) up to sea level. Meanwhile, the maximum sea level recorded was 3.44m on February 28th 2006 that damaged Tuvaluan's property badly. Local people called the flooding water oozes up out of the ground "King Tide", that happened almost once or twice a year, which destroyed the plant, polluted their fresh water, and forced them to colonize to some other countries. The predictable but uncontrollable king tide had been observed for a long time by SPSLCMP, but some of the uncertainties which intensify the sea level rise need to be analyzed furthermore. In this study, a span of 18 years of tide gauge data accessed from Sea Level Fine Resolution Acoustic Measuring Equipment (SEAFRAME) are compared with the satellite altimeter data accessed from Archiving Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Data in Oceanography (AVISO). All above are processed under the limitation of same time and spatial range. The outcome revealed a 9.26cm difference between both. After the tide gauge data shifted to the same base as altimeter data, the results showed the unknown residuals are always positive under the circumstances of the sea level rise above 3.2m. Apart from uncertainties in observing, the residual reflected unknown contributions. Among the total case number of sea level rise above 3.2m is 23 times, 22 of which were recorded with oceanic warm eddy happened simultaneously. The unknown residual seems precisely matched with oceanic warm eddies and illustrates a clear future approach for Tuvaluan to care for.

  11. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  12. Mesozoic sea level fluctuations documented on Exmouth Plateau off northwestern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Blome, C.D.; Bralower, T.J.; Brenner, W.; Oda, M.; Siesser, W.; Wonders, A.A.H.

    1989-03-01

    The Exmouth Plateau is uniquely suited to the study of sea level changes because of the existence of an extensive seismic grid and industry well sites, an extended Mesozoic stratigraphic record punctuated with several major unconformities, and the relatively protected position of this high plateau. Thus, documenting sea level fluctuations was one of the major objectives of drilling on the Exmouth Plateau. This documentation depends on their ability to (1) isolate the tectonic overprint from the eustatic signal by retracing the subsidence histories of the drill sites and (2) accurately date the unconformities. Two transects of sites were drilled, one with four sites on the Wombat Plateau and the other with two sites on the central Exmouth Plateau, with one site located relatively proximally and another distally to the source of sediment supply. Preliminary shipboard work indicates that the age of Mesozoic unconformities can be accurately constrained and the subsidence-related tectonic events can be effectively isolated from sea level fluctuations. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of seismic, lithofacies, biofacies, and well-log data document important Upper Triassic sequence boundaries on the Wombat Plateau between the middle and upper Carnian (Norian-Rhaetian boundary) and in the upper most Rhaetian, whose timing and relative magnitude conform well with the eustatic cycle chart. The sequence boundary and systems tracts recognized in the central Exmouth Plateau Barrow Group equivalent strata (Berriasian-Valanginian) also correspond well with the global cycle chart. These preliminary results are of considerable importance in providing a test of the validity of the eustatic model.

  13. Late Cretaceous chronology of large, rapid sea-level changes: Glacioeustasy during the greenhouse world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.G.; Sugarman, P.J.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.A.; Hernandez, J.C.; Olsson, R.K.; Wright, J.D.; Feigenson, M.D.; Van Sickel, W.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a record of global sea-level (eustatic) variations of the Late Cretaceous (99-65 Ma) greenhouse world. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 174AX provided a record of 11-14 Upper Cretaceous sequences in the New Jersey Coastal Plain that were dated by integrating Sr isotopic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy. Backstripping yielded a Late Cretaceous eustatic estimate for these sequences, taking into account sediment loading, compaction, paleowater depth, and basin subsidence. We show that Late Cretaceous sea-level changes were large (>25 m) and rapid (??? m.y.), suggesting a glacioeustatic control. Three large ??18O increases are linked to sequence boundaries (others lack sufficient ??18O data), consistent with a glacioeustatic cause and with the development of small (<106 km3) ephemeral ice sheets in Antarctica. Our sequence boundaries correlate with sea-level falls recorded by Exxon Production Research and sections from northwest Europe and Russia, indicating a global cause, although the Exxon record differs from backstripped estimates in amplitude and shape.

  14. Post-glacial sea-level changes around the Australian margin: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Stephen E.; Sloss, Craig R.; Murray-Wallace, Colin V.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Smithers, Scott G.

    2013-08-01

    It has been known since Rhodes Fairbridge's first attempt to establish a global pattern of Holocene sea-level change by combining evidence from Western Australia and from sites in the northern hemisphere that the details of sea-level history since the Last Glacial Maximum vary considerably across the globe. The Australian region is relatively stable tectonically and is situated in the 'far-field' of former ice sheets. It therefore preserves important records of post-glacial sea levels that are less complicated by neotectonics or glacio-isostatic adjustments. Accordingly, the relative sea-level record of this region is dominantly one of glacio-eustatic (ice equivalent) sea-level changes. The broader Australasian region has provided critical information on the nature of post-glacial sea level, including the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum when sea level was approximately 125 m lower than present around 21,000-19,000 years BP, and insights into meltwater pulse 1A between 14,600 and 14,300 cal. yr BP. Although most parts of the Australian continent reveals a high degree of tectonic stability, research conducted since the 1970s has shown that the timing and elevation of a Holocene highstand varies systematically around its margin. This is attributed primarily to variations in the timing of the response of the ocean basins and shallow continental shelves to the increased ocean volumes following ice-melt, including a process known as ocean siphoning (i.e. glacio-hydro-isostatic adjustment processes). Several seminal studies in the early 1980s produced important data sets from the Australasian region that have provided a solid foundation for more recent palaeo-sea-level research. This review revisits these key studies emphasising their continuing influence on Quaternary research and incorporates relatively recent investigations to interpret the nature of post-glacial sea-level change around Australia. These include a synthesis of research from the Northern

  15. Paleodepth variations on the Eratosthenes Seamount (Eastern Mediterranean): sea-level changes or subsidence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzaferri, S.; Tamburini, F.

    2007-09-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount (Eastern Mediterranean) is interpreted as a crustal block in process of break up in response to subduction and incipient collision of the African and Eurasian Plates. Subsidence is considered to be the mechanism triggering the Messinian to Pleistocene water deepening above this unique structure. However, the application of a recently developed transfer equation of depth range distribution of benthic foraminifera indicates that sea-level changes may also have played a role, although it was generally minor. In particular, we suggest that across the Miocene/Pliocene boundary and during the Pliocene-Pleistocene, the eustatic signal is frequently coupled with uplifts and subsidence. The uplift of Cyprus across the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition is clearly recorded in the paleodepth curve. Micropaleontological studies and the use of this transfer equation based on the distribution of benthic foraminifera proves to be useful when studying the paleodepth history of complex sites, where tectonic and eustatic signals combine. We also show that marginal seas record global sea-level changes that can be identified even in tectonically active settings.

  16. Mid-Carboniferous eustatic event

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, W.B.; Ramsbottom, W.H.C.

    1986-03-01

    Stratigraphic and paleontologic evidence from mid-Carboniferous (Namurian) basin and shelf successions in widely scattered parts of the world indicates that a major eustatic event occurred about 330 Ma. The event began with a regression that is recorded in most shelf sequences, the regression was followed by a brief transgression about 328 Ma, and the event ended with a transgression that flooded large shelf areas about 325 Ma. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity in North America is a well-known product of this event, but equally prominent and contemporaneous unconformity surfaces are also present in Europe, North Africa, and elsewhere. The event is believed to have caused numerous extinctions, and it resulted in marked fluctuations in faunal diversity. 94 references, 2 figures.

  17. Post-glacial sea-level change along the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugar, Dan H.; Walker, Ian J.; Lian, Olav B.; Eamer, Jordan B. R.; Neudorf, Christina; McLaren, Duncan; Fedje, Daryl

    2014-08-01

    Sea-level history since the Last Glacial Maximum on the Pacific margin of North America is complex and heterogeneous owing to regional differences in crustal deformation (neotectonics), changes in global ocean volumes (eustasy) and the depression and rebound of the Earth's crust in response to ice sheets on land (isostasy). At the Last Glacial Maximum, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet depressed the crust over which it formed and created a raised forebulge along peripheral areas offshore. This, combined with different tectonic settings along the coast, resulted in divergent relative sea-level responses during the Holocene. For example, sea level was up to 200 m higher than present in the lower Fraser Valley region of southwest British Columbia, due largely to isostatic depression. At the same time, sea level was 150 m lower than present in Haida Gwaii, on the northern coast of British Columbia, due to the combined effects of the forebulge raising the land and lower eustatic sea level. A forebulge also developed in parts of southeast Alaska resulting in post-glacial sea levels at least 122 m lower than present and possibly as low as 165 m. On the coasts of Washington and Oregon, as well as south-central Alaska, neotectonics and eustasy seem to have played larger roles than isostatic adjustments in controlling relative sea-level changes.

  18. Possible Evidence of Multiple Sea Level Oscillations in the Seychelles During the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, A. L.; Vyverberg, K.; Webster, J.; Dechnik, B.; Zwartz, D.; Lambeck, K.

    2013-12-01

    In search of a eustatic sea level signal on glacial-interglacial timescales, the Seychelles ranks as one of the best places on the planet to study. Owing to its far-field location with respect to the former margins of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, glacio-hydro-isostatic models predict that relative sea level in the Seychelles should lie within a few meters of the globally averaged eustatic signal during interglacial periods. We have surveyed and dated fossil coral reefs from the last interglacial period to determine the magnitude of peak sea level and to assess sedimentologic evidence of potential sea level oscillations. Numerous outcrops we studied in detail exhibit a stratigraphic sequence comprised of in situ coralgal framework at the base, capped by thick coralline algae crusts, and overlain by coral rubble deposits. We also observed a succession of three stacked coralgal reefs within a single outcrop, separated by hardgrounds that have been bored by molluscs. In general, the succession within each reef unit consists of interlayered corals and crusts of coralline algae-vermetid gastropods-encrusting foraminifera. The lower two reef units are capped by a well-cemented 5 to 10 cm thick carbonate mud layer that is heavily bored by molluscs. These two surfaces may represent exposure surfaces during brief sea level oscillations, where sea level fell and exposed the top of the reef sequence, which was subsequently bored when sea level rose again and reef growth resumed. The elevations of the corals in each reef unit provide minimum elevations of sea level during each of the three pulses of sea level highstands during the last interglacial period. Significantly, since many of these corals are capped by thick coralline algae layers that contain vermetid gastropods and encrusting foraminifera that are indicative of the intertidal zone, there is strong evidence that these corals grew in extremely shallow water, providing a robust indication of sea level position. These

  19. Constraining mid to late Holocene sea level change of Society Islands, French Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juma Rashid, Rashid; Eisenhauer, Anton; Liebetrau, Volker; Fietzke, Jan; Dullo, Christian; Camoin, Gilbert; Hallmann, Nadine

    2013-04-01

    In global average rising eustatic sea level of several centimeters per decade is predicted for the near future as a consequence of seawater warming and partial melting of the Greenland ice cap (Milne et al., 2009). Beside CO2 induced ocean warming local sea-level amplitudes may also vary although no extra water has been added to or extracted from the ocean due to post-glacial geoid reorganization, as a consequence of the emergence of the once glaciated areas and the ocean siphoning effect (Milne et al., 2009; Mitrovica and Peltier, 1991; Mitrovica and Milne, 2002). However, previous research on sea level change was focused on sea-level rise that occurred between the "Last Glacial Maximum, LGM" ~18ka before present (BP) and the so called "Holocene Sea Level Maximum, HSLM" ~6ka BP. Information about sea-level change after the HSLM are rare because the Late Holocene was considered to be climatically stable with minor to negligible sea-level oscillations and amplitudes. Here we present U/Th dated fossil corals from conglomerate reef platforms of three islands (Moorea, Huahine and Bora Bora) of the Society Islands, French Polynesia. The fossil coral data constrain the timing and amplitude of sea-level variations after the HSLM. We found that sea level reached a subsidence corrected minimum position of ~1.5±0.2m above present sea level (apsl) at ~5.4ka. Sea level then remained at this position with probably minor amplitudinal variations for ~3ka and then dropped to the present position at ~1.9ka. Note, that our study does not provide any data on sea-level position from ~1.8ka to the Present. Theoretical predictions (Mitrovica and Milne, 2002) taking the ocean siphoning effect into account predicted a sea level of ~3m apsl at ~5ka and a constantly decreasing sea level from 5ka to the present. This is in contrast to our observations indicating a more or less constant sea level between 5ka and 1.9ka followed by a abrupt drop of sea level to the present position. Although

  20. Relative sea-level changes during Middle Ordovician through Mississippian deposition in the Iowa area, North American craton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witzke, B.J.; Bunker, B.J.; ,

    1996-01-01

    The Tippecanoe and Kaskaskia cratonic megasequences in the Iowa area are subdivided into a succession of third-order transgressive-regressive (T-R) depositional cycles of ~1 to 3 m.y. duration. Cratonic deposition in the Iowa area is categorized into two broad-scale facies groupings, each dominated by shallowing-upward patterns: 1) an inner shelf with shallow subtidal to peritidal facies, and 2) a middle shelf dominated by subtidal facies. Relative changes in sea level, as documented in the cycles, are considered primarily to reflect eustatic patterns, but local variations in subsidence history and sedimentation rates complicate interpretations of the eustatic signal. Minor modification of certain sequence stratigraphic paradigms that were developed originally for continental margin settings is suggested for application to the Iowa cratonic cycles.

  1. Changes in extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Christian; Gröger, Matthias; Andersson, Helén; Nerheim, Signild; Jönsson, Anette

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed shallow water model for the Baltic Sea and North Sea is presented. The model is validated by means of a comparison with hindcast simulations with observational data sets. The aim of the development is to provide and apply a modelling tool to model extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. The model approach will support the direct analysis of extreme sea level observations in the past and provide the possibility to extend the statistical data base by producing very long time series or very large ensembles of coastal sea levels. This effort is intended to contribute to an assessment of risks due to storm surges and coastal flooding in the 21st century along the coast of Sweden. By using different RCP climate scenarios downscaled with a regional, coupled climate model atmospheric forcing is available to project possible changes in extreme sea levels into the future. Projected sea level rise, changes in dynamical sea level in the North East Atlantic and tidal forcing in the northern North Sea are applied as boundary condition which allows to investigate their impact on the dynamics of regional sea level variability. Initial experiments focus on the impact of model resolution, resolution in the atmospheric forcing and the amount of details necessary in the bathymetry to faithfully model coastal sea level in the Baltic Sea and North Sea.

  2. Sedimentary architecture of the Bohai Sea China over the last 1 Ma and implications for sea-level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xuefa; Yao, Zhengquan; Liu, Qingsong; Larrasoaña, Juan Cruz; Bai, Yazhi; Liu, Yanguang; Liu, Jihua; Cao, Peng; Li, Xiaoyan; Qiao, Shuqing; Wang, Kunshan; Fang, Xisheng; Xu, Taoyu

    2016-10-01

    Sedimentary architecture dominated by transgression-regression cycles in the shallow Bohai shelf region contains information about global sea-level, climate and local tectonics. However, previous studies of transgression-regression cycles in this region at orbital timescales that extend back to the early Pleistocene are sparse, mainly because of the shortage of well-dated long cores. Although transgression-regression sedimentary cycles in the region have been interpreted in terms of local tectonics, sea-level, and climate change, the detailed structure of marine transgressions and their significance for Quaternary global sea-level variations remains to be examined. In this study, we present an integrated sedimentological, geochemical and paleontological study of a 212.4 m (∼1 Ma) core (BH08) recovered from the Bohai Sea, China, for which an astronomically-based age model is available. Correspondence between marine-terrestrial sedimentary cycles and global sea-level fluctuations suggests that stacking of marine and terrestrial sediments was driven mainly by glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations in a context in which tectonic subsidence was largely balanced by sediment supply over the last ∼1 Ma. We report a dominant 100-kyr cycle beginning at ∼650 ka, which reflects the worldwide influence of the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) in sea-level records. We find that neritic deposits after the MPT were relatively thicker than before the MPT, which indicates an important control of the MPT on sedimentary architecture through lengthening of the duration of sea-level highstands.

  3. Steric Sea Level Trends in the Northeast Pacific Ocean: Possible Evidence of Global Sea Level Rise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Richard E.; Tabata, Susumu

    1989-06-01

    %. With the exception of stations 5 and 6, trends for line P' stations are no longer significant above the 70% level. The lower statistical reliability in the line P' trends is due, in part, to the sparse sampling rate relative to station P'. We conclude that steric sea levels in the northeast Pacific are rising, at approximately 1 mm yr1 and that this increase may be associated with a combined regional warming of the deeper waters and dilution of the surface waters. Although the observed trends appear to be linked to climate-induced eustatic changes in global sea level, the records are not of adequate length or spatial coverage to rule out effects of shifting regional circulation patterns.

  4. Sea level change since the Pliocene - a new formalism for predicting sea level in the presence of dynamic topography and isostasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Rovere, Alessio; Moucha, Robert; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Rowley, David B.; Forte, Alessandro M.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic topography (DT), as reflected in local sea level change, provides a unique lens for studying the imprint of deep Earth dynamics on the Earth's surface. The elevation of paleo-shorelines over long time scales is, however, not only perturbed by DT but also by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and eustatic changes in sea level. Isolating these contributions is essential for efforts to constrain past changes in ice volume or mantle convection models. Previous studies have performed this separation by modeling dynamic topography and superimposing the signal on the elevation of a GIA-corrected paleo-shoreline. However, this approach neglects deformation of the Earth in response to changes in the ocean load and geometry driven by DT. We describe a generalized, gravitationally self-consistent framework for computing sea-level changes that incorporates DT and GIA. The formalism is based on a sea-level theory developed within the GIA community that takes accurate account of viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, perturbations in the gravity field, migration of shorelines and the feedback into sea-level of contemporaneous (load-induced) changes in Earth rotation. Specifically, dynamic topography is introduced as a perturbation to the elevation of the solid surface that does not load the Earth because it is dynamically supported. However, water that is displaced by DT is allowed to redistribute, perturb the gravitational field and load (or unload) the ocean floor wherever the water column is increased (or decreased). The problem is complicated by plate tectonics, which (in a tectonic reference frame) leaves changes in topography and DT undefined in areas of the ocean floor where plates have been subducted. We interpolate these regions by imposing mass conservation of both the solid Earth and water on the reconstructed topography. We use the new formalism to calculate sea level change since the mid-Pliocene (3 Ma) using recent global simulations of dynamic

  5. Disentangling Middle Paleozoic sea level and tectonic events in cratonic margins and cratonic basins of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Gerard C.; Kominz, Michelle A.

    1991-04-01

    The cratonic margins and basins of North America contain evidence of distinct changes in relative sea level, one of the most intriguing of which occurred in middle Paleozoic time. The change in relative sea level began in Frasnian time (Late Devonian) and continued through Visean time (Middle Mississippian) in the Cordilleran miogeocline, in the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, in the Appalachian miogeocline and in the Michigan, Illinois, and Williston basins. The synchroneity and wide geographic distribution of this event are striking and would seem to argue for an eustatic mechanism. An estimate of the middle Paleozoic sea level rise relative to the stable craton in Iowa suggests that while a large sea level rise occurred, it is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence in the cratonic basins and margins. Flexural foreland basin models do not appear to account for the all of the events in the cratonic margins, and thermal subsidence mechanisms do not seem appropriate for the subsidence in the cratonic basins. The middle Paleozoic stratigraphic record from the North American craton and its margins, therefore, poses a basic problem of identifying a mechanism for producing a large-amplitude rise in sea level relative to the stable craton at the same time as a synchronous onset of tectonic subsidence in widespread basinal and marginal settings of diverse tectonic origin. One plausible mechanism for the tectonic subsidence in the basins and margins is a pulse of intraplate compressive stress. The origin of the large sea level rise relative to the stable craton could reflect an unusually large eustatic sea level change, but we cannot eliminate the possibility of a small component of subsidence or change in dynamic topography of the North American craton. The synchroneity of the sea level rise relative to the craton with the subsidence of basins and margins may be fortuitous, but it is also predicted by recent mantle convection models for the early stages of accretion of

  6. Implications of accelerated sea-level rise on Louisiana coastal environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Karen E.; Penland, Shea; Roberts, Harry H.

    1991-01-01

    Natural and human-induced processes have combined to produce high rates of relative sea-level rise and coastal land loss in Louisiana. This paper presents historical trends in sea-level rise and the implication of predicted accelerated rise scenarios on Louisiana's coastal environments. Mean eustatic sea-level in the Gulf of Mexico is 0.23 cm/yr. In Louisiana, relative sea-level rise, which combines eustacy and subsidence, averages from 0.50 cm/yr in the chenier plain to 1.0 cm/yr in the delta plain. Subsidence due to the compaction of Holocene sediments is believed to be the major component influencing these high rates of rise. Subsidence contributes up to 80% of the observed relative sea-level rise in coastal Louisiana. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) predicts the rate of sea-level rise to increase over the next century due to global climate change. If these predictions are accurate, a dramatic increase in the coastal land loss conditions in Louisiana can be expected.

  7. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  8. Deciphering the mid-Carboniferous eustatic event in the central Appalachian foreland basin, southern West Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blake, B.M.; Beuthin, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    A prominent unconformity, present across shallow shelf areas of the Euramerican paleoequatorial basins, is used to demark the boundary between the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian subsystems. This unconformity, the mid-Carboniferous eustatic event, is generally attributed to a major glacio-eustatic sea-level fall. Although a Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity is recognized throughout most of the Appalachian region, the record of the mid-Carboniferous eustatic event in the structurally deepest part of the basin has been controversial. Based on early reports that suggested the most complete Pennsylvanian section was present in southern West Virginia, various conceptual depositional models postulated continuous sedimentation between the youngest Mississippian Bluestone Formation and the oldest Penn-sylvanian Pocahontas Formation. In contrast, tabular-erosion models envisioned axial drainage systems that evolved in response to changing basin dynamics. These models predicted a Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity. All these models suffered from a lack of biostratigraphic control. The presence of a sub-Pocahontas paleovalley, herein named the Lashmeet paleovalley, has been confirmed in southern West Virginia. The Lashmeet paleovalley was incised over 35 m into Bluestone strata and filled by lithic sands derived from the Appalachian orogen to the northeast and east. The polygenetic Green Valley paleosol complex marks the Bluestone-Pocahontas contact on associated interfluves. Together, these features indicate a substantial period of subaerial exposure and argue strongly in favor of a Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity. Paleontologic data from the Bluestone Formation, including marine invertebrates and conodonts from the marine Bramwell Member and paleofloral data, support a late, but not latest, Arnsbergian age assignment. Marine fossils are not known from the Pocahontas Formation, but macrofloral and palynomorph taxa support a Langsettian age for most of

  9. Seismic sequence stratigraphy of Miocene deposits related to eustatic, tectonic and climatic events, Cap Bon Peninsula, northeastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharsalli, Ramzi; Zouaghi, Taher; Soussi, Mohamed; Chebbi, Riadh; Khomsi, Sami; Bédir, Mourad

    2013-09-01

    The Cap Bon Peninsula, belonging to northeastern Tunisia, is located in the Maghrebian Alpine foreland and in the North of the Pelagian block. By its paleoposition, during the Cenozoic, in the edge of the southern Tethyan margin, this peninsula constitutes a geological entity that fossilized the eustatic, tectonic and climatic interactions. Surface and subsurface study carried out in the Cap Bon onshore area and surrounding offshore of Hammamet interests the Miocene deposits from the Langhian-to-Messinian interval time. Related to the basin and the platform positions, sequence and seismic stratigraphy studies have been conducted to identify seven third-order seismic sequences in subsurface (SM1-SM7), six depositional sequences on the Zinnia-1 petroleum well (SDM1-SDM6), and five depositional sequences on the El Oudiane section of the Jebel Abderrahmane (SDM1-SDM5). Each sequence shows a succession of high-frequency systems tract and parasequences. These sequences are separated by remarkable sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces (SB and MFS) that have been correlated to the eustatic cycles and supercycles of the Global Sea Level Chart of Haq et al. (1987). The sequences have been also correlated with Sequence Chronostratigraphic Chart of Hardenbol et al. (1998), related to European basins, allows us to arise some major differences in number and in size. The major discontinuities, which limit the sequences resulted from the interplay between tectonic and climatic phenomena. It thus appears very judicious to bring back these chronological surfaces to eustatic and/or local tectonic activity and global eustatic and climatic controls.

  10. Glacial eustatic mechanism (marine ice sheet decoupling) for isolation of shelf sand bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Bartek, L.R.; Thomas, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of shelf sand bodies requires a mechanism for delivering sand to the offshore environment (below wave base or ravinement depth). The distribution of these sand bodies (sheetlike versus patchy distribution) is greatly influenced by the rate of shoreline translation. Holocene sand bodies of the north Texas shelf illustrate these influences well, as does a map depicting the thickness and lateral extent of sand bodies that would be formed were sea level to rise rapidly again. Preliminary observations imply that wave-dominated deltas have actively (via plume mechanisms) and passively (via transgressions) been key factors in delivering very fine to fine sands to the offshore environment. Other sand bodies may be relict shoreline deposits that, like the modern Galveston Island barrier, prograded into the offshore environment so that their roots were preserved beneath the ravinement surface. Recently gathered evidence from the Antarctic continental shelf indicates that ice sheets were formerly grounded to the shelf edge and that the retreat of these ice sheets from the shelf was rapid but sporadic. The subsequent ''drawdown'' of marine ice sheets and the associated eustatic rise in sea level during any single event was probably on the order of 5-10 m in a few centuries. Such a sea level rise would manifest itself in rapid translations of the shoreline of about 10-25 km on the Texas shelf. Several of these eustatic events are believed to have occurred during the Holocene, and were probably instrumental in isolating shelf sand bodies. Sand bodies associated with the most recent rapid rise occur within 30 km of the present shoreline and their origin is being investigated using high-resolution seismic (uniboom) profiling and coring.

  11. Climatic-eustatic control of Holocene nearshore parasequence development, southeastern Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Stewart, Laura B.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores, seismic profiles, radiocarbon dates, and faunal assemblages were used to interpret the depositional setting and geological evolution of the southeastern Texas coast during the last glacio-eustatic cycle. Discrete lithofacies and biofacies zones in the ebb-dominated Sabine Lake estuary and adjacent chenier plain record alternating periods of rapid marine flooding and gradual shoaling related to linked climatic/eustatic fluctuations. Monospecific zones of the mollusks Rangia cuneata and Crassostrea virginica, respectively, indicate high fresh water outflow followed by invasion of marine water, whereas intervening organic-rich zones record bayhead delta deposition. High-frequency parasequence stacking patterns within the valley fill and across the adjacent interfluve reflect an initial rapid rise in sea level about 9 ka that flooded abandoned alluvial terraces and caused onlap of Holocene marsh in the incised valley. The rapid rise was followed by slowly rising and oscillating sea level that filled the deepest portions of the incised valleys with fluvially dominated estuarine deposits, and then a maximum highstand (+1 m msl) about 5 ka that flooded the former subaerial coastal plain between the incised valleys and constructed the highest beach ridges. Between 3.5 and 1.5 ka, sea level oscillated and gradually fell, causing a forced regression and rapid progradation of both the chenier plain and accretionary barrier islands. The only significant sands in the valley fill are (1) falling-stage and lowstand-fluvial sediments between the basal sequence boundary and transgressive surface unconformity, and (2) highstand beach-ridge sediments of the chenier plain.

  12. Do the Available Data Permit Clarifcation of the Possible Dependence of Palaeozoic Brachiopod Generic Diversity Dynamics on Global Sea-Level Changes? A Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2014-10-01

    At a glance, progress in palaeontology and eustatic reconstructions in the past decade permits to prove or to disprove the possible dependence of Palaeozoic brachiopod generic diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes. However, the available diversity curve is of much lower resolution than the eustatic curve. This problem can be resolved by decreasing the resolution of the latter. The other restriction linked to the chronostratigraphical incompatibility of the available data allows to focus on the Middle Palaeozoic only. A series of mass extinctions and other biotic crises in the Silurian-Devonian does not allow to interpret correctly the results of direct comparison of the brachiopod generic diversity dynamics with global sea-level changes. With the available data, it is only possible to hypothesize that the eustatic control was not playing a major part in diversity dynamics of Middle Palaeozoic brachiopods. The resolution of the stratigraphic ranges of Palaeozoic brachiopods should be increased signifcantly, and these ranges should be plotted against the most up-to-date geologic time scale. Until this task will be achieved, it is impossible to judge about the existence of any dependence (either full or partial) of the Palaeozoic brachiopod diversity dynamics on global sea-level changes.

  13. Delayed Postglacial Uplift and Synglacial Sea Levels in Coastal Central New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koteff, C.; Robinson, G.R.; Goldsmith, R.; Thompson, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    The postglacial uplift pattern indicated by elevations of ice-marginal glaciomarine deltas in coastal New England, deposited between approximately 15,000 and 14,000 yr B.P. during ice retreat from northeastern Massachusetts into southwestern Maine, is very similar to that previously recorded for glaciolacustrine deltas of similar age from inland areas of New England. Multiple regression analyses of elevations from both sets of deltas show an extremely close fit to tilted flat surfaces that rise 0.852 m/km to the N 28.5??W along the coast and 0.889 m/km to the N 20.5??W in western New England. The close similarity of uplift pattern in areas where elevation data are from different base-level media, along with additional shore-line evidence, indicates (1) that both areas are part of the same crustal postglacial uplift block, (2) that postglacial uplift was delayed until after 14,000 yr B.P., and (3) that little or no eustatic sea-level change occurred between 15,000 and 14,000 yr B.P., during which time the margin of the late Wisconsinan Laurentide ice sheet retreated about 100 km from Boston, Massachusetts, into southwestern Maine. Elevation data from even younger glaciomarine deltas in the coastal area indicate that soon after the ice margin reached southwestern Maine and adjacent New Hampshire (ca, 14,000 yr B.P.), eustatic sea level rose rapidly 7-10 m during the time that the ice margin retreated 5-10 km, which may have occurred during an interval of only 50-100 yr, Our new data not only confirm the delayed postglacial uplift model previously described for western New England, but also indicate that little or no eustatic sea-level change occurred during a substantial period of early deglaciation. However, at about 14,000 yr B.P., sea level rose rapidly. Postglacial uplift in the region apparently began between 14,000 and 13,300 yr B.P., before the retreating ice margin reached eastern Maine.

  14. Cold climate deglaciation prior to termination 2 implied by new evidence for high sea-levels at 132 KA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.G. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    Radioisotope dating of corals from reefs and beaches suggests a high sea stand just prior to termination 2. Lack of precision in the ages, stratigraphic uncertainties, and possible diagenetic alterations in the corals have prevented a widespread acceptance of this sea stand. These disadvantages can be avoided by an approach that uses differential uplift measurements to determine the duration of the interval of generally high sea-levels. The last interglacial terrace on Barbados has features indicating two intervals of constant sea-level: an older wave-cut at the inshore edge of the terrace, and a younger cut formed near present eustatic sea-level, below the crest, and just before the earliest Wisconsin glacial buildup. The differential uplift between these two features, measured at five locations having uplift rates between 0.18 and 0.39m/ka, yields a eustatic sea-level differences of 5.4m and a minimal duration of 12.1 [+-] 0.6ka between the two still stands. The assigned age of the younger wave-cut is 120 [+-] 0.5ka, based on sea-level regression due to ice sheet buildup implied by a Little Ice Age analog and rapidly falling Milankovitch summer insolation. The resulting minimal age of the first high sea-stand is 132.1 [+-] 1.1ka, about 7ka before termination 2. This age implies a major early deglaciation caused by a deficit of moisture transported to the great ice sheets, and occurring under relatively cold climate conditions.

  15. Eustatic and tectonic control of sedimentation in the Pennsylvanian strata of the Central Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.R. Jr. . Kentucky Geological Survey)

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the Breathitt Group of the Central Appalachian Basin reveals three orders of depositional cycles or trends. The Breathitt coarsening-upward trend (20 million years (my)) represents increasing intensity of the Alleghenian Orogeny. The major transgression (MT) cycle (2.5 my) was controlled by an unknown eustatic or tectonic mechanism. The major coal beds and intervening strata make up the coal-clastic cycle (CC cycle) (=Appalachian cyclothem) which has a 0.4 my periodicity. This periodicity supports eustatic control of sedimentation modulated by an orbital periodicity. Extensive coastal peats deposited at lowstand (CC cycle) were preserved as coals, whereas highstand peats were eroded during the subsequent drop in sea level. Autocyclic processes such as delta switching and avulsion occurred within CC cycles. An Early Pennsylvanian unconformity represents uplift and erosion of mid-Carboniferous foreland basin deposits. Alluvial deposits (Breathitt Group) derived from the highlands were transported to the northwest toward the forebulge. During lowstand, the only outlet available to further sediment transport (Lee sandstones) was toward the southwest (Ouachita Trough), along the Black Warrior-Appalachian foreland basins. The Middle Pennsylvanian marks a period of intermittent overfilling of the foreland basin and cresting of the forebulge. Marine transgressions entered through the foreland basins and across saddles in the forebulge. After the Ouachita Trough was destroyed during the late Middle Pennsylvanian, marine transgressions migrated only across saddles in the forebulge. In the Late Pennsylvanian, marine waters entered the basin only across the diminished forebulge north of the Jessamine Dome.

  16. Sea-Level Projections from the SeaRISE Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) is a community organized modeling effort, whose goal is to inform the fifth IPCC of the potential sea-level contribution from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the 21st and 22nd century. SeaRISE seeks to determine the most likely ice sheet response to imposed climatic forcing by initializing an ensemble of models with common datasets and applying the same forcing to each model. Sensitivity experiments were designed to quantify the sea-level rise associated with a change in: 1) surface mass balance, 2) basal lubrication, and 3) ocean induced basal melt. The range of responses, resulting from the multi-model approach, is interpreted as a proxy of uncertainty in our sea-level projections. http://websrv.cs .umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.

  17. Clathrate eustasy: Methane hydrate melting as a mechanism for geologically rapid sea-level fall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bratton, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Although submarine methane hydrates or clathrates have been highlighted as potential amplifiers of modern global climate change and associated glacio-eustatic sea-level rise, their potential role in sea-level fall has not been appreciated Recent estimates of the total volume occupied by gas hydrates in marine sediments vary 20-fold, from 1.2 ?? 1014 to 2.4 ?? 1015 m3. Using a specific volume change on melting of-21%, dissociation of the current global inventory of hydrate would result in a decrease of submarine hydrate volume of 2.4 ?? 1013 to 5.0??1014 m3. Release of free gas bubbles present beneath hydrates would increase these volumes by 1.1-2.0 ?? 1013 m3. The combined effects of hydrate melting and subhydrate gas release would result conservatively in a global sea-level fall of 10-146 cm. Such a mechanism may offset some future sea-level rise associated with thermal expansion of the oceans. It could also explain anomalous sea-level drops during ice-free periods such as the early Eocene, the Cretaceous, and the Devonian.

  18. Late Quaternary variations in relative sea level due to glacial cycle polar wander

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, B.G.; James, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Growth and decay of continental ice sheets can excite significant motion of the Earth's rotation pole and cause a complex spatio-temporal pattern of changes in relative sea level. These two effects have generally been considered separately, but may interact in important ways. In particular, a simple model of the melting of the Laurentide ice sheet causes a uniform eustatic sea level rise of 55 m, and also induces a motion of the rotation pole by 0.1 to 1 degree, depending on viscosity structure in the mantle. This motion produces a secular pole tide, which is a spherical harmonic degree 2, order 1 component of the relative sea level pattern, with peak-to-peak amplitude of 20 to 40 m. The maximum effect is along the great circle passing through the path of the pole and at latitudes of ??45??. This secular pole tide has been ignored in most previous attempts to estimate ice sheet loading history and mantle viscosity from global patterns of relative sea level change. It has a large influence along the East coast of North America and the West coast of South America, and significantly contributes to present day rates of relative sea level change.

  19. Clathrate eustasy: Methane hydrate melting as a mechanism for geologically rapid sea-level fall

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, J.F.

    1999-10-01

    Although submarine methane hydrates or clathrates have been highlighted as potential amplifiers of modern global climate change and associated glacio-eustatic sea-level rise, their potential role in sea-level fall has not been appreciated. Recent estimates of the total volume occupied by gas hydrates in marine sediments vary 20-fold, from 1.2 x 10{sup 14} to 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup 3}. Using a specific volume change on melting of {minus}21%, dissociation of the current global inventory of hydrate would result in a decrease of submarine hydrate volume of 2.4 x 10{sup 13} to 5.0 x 10{sup 14} m{sup 3}. Release of free gas bubbles present beneath hydrates would increase these volumes by 1.1 --2.0 x 10{sup 13} m{sup 3}. The combined effects of hydrate melting and subhydrate gas release would result conservatively in a global sea-level fall of 10--146 cm. Such a mechanism may offset some future sea-level rise associated with thermal expansion of the oceans. It could also explain anomalous sea-level drops during ice-free periods such as the early Eocene, the Cretaceous, and the Devonian.

  20. Comment [on “Sea level rise shown to drive coastal erosion”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Young, Robert S.; Bush, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Leatherman et al. [2000] (Eos, Trans., AGU, February 8, 2000, p.55) affirm that global eustatic sea-level rise is driving coastal erosion. Furthermore, they argue that the long-term average rate of shoreline retreat is 150 times the rate of sea-level rise. This rate, they say, is more than a magnitude greater than would be expected from a simple response to sea-level rise through inundation of the shoreline. We agree that sea-level rise is the primary factor causing shoreline retreat in stable coastal areas.This is intuitive. We also believe, however, that the Leatherman et al. [2000] study has greatly underestimated the rate of coastal recession along most low slope shorelines. Slopes along the North Carolina continental shelf/coastal plain approach 10,000:1. To us, this suggests that we should expect rates of shoreline recession 10,000 times the rate of sea-level rise through simple inundation of the shoreline.

  1. Carbonate Platform Record of Miocene Sea Level Fluctuations and Paleoceanographic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, C.; Betzler, C.

    2001-05-01

    Shallow-water carbonate systems are reliable recorders of sea level fluctuations and changes in ambient seawater conditions. Drilling results from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 133 and 166 indicate that the timing of late Neogene sedimentary breaks triggered by sea level lowerings is synchronous in the sedimentary successions of the Queensland Plateau and the Great Bahama Bank. This synchrony indicates that these sea level changes were eustatic in origin. Five orders of sea-level changes are recorded in the slope sediments of Great Bahama Bank: the second order middle Miocene sea-level fall, third order changes with a duration of 0.5 to approximately 1.5 Ma, fourth order changes with durations of possibly 100.000 a, fifth order changes with durations of 40.000 a, and sixth order changes with a duration of 23.000 a. The carbonate platforms were also affected by paleoceanographically controlled fluctuations in carbonate production at 10.7, 3.6, and 1.7 - 2.0 Ma.

  2. Freeboard, sea level and dynamic topography during aggregation of a supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, B.; Husson, L.; Choblet, G.

    2012-04-01

    The long-term evolution of sea level is a combination of eustatic mechanisms (tectono-eustatism, distribution of continental masses through orogenesis and sedimentation) and non-uniform processes (dynamic topography, geoid, wander of the Earth rotation pole). Given the potentially similar amplitude of both factors, there is a bias in the observation of absolute sea level. Moreover, over large time-scales, and more specifically over the Wilson cycle time-scale, plate aggregation and separation are associated both with (i) variations of the flow pattern and (ii) thermal state in the mantle, which in turn may induce specific vertical motions of the surface. By changing the size of the oceanic and continental water reservoirs, large-scale dynamic topography associated with subduction or the presence of mantle plumes controls rises or drops of sea level, which in turn controls part of the stratigraphic record. The Earth has known periods of continental aggregation and fragmentation that redistribute the location of plate boundaries, especially the location and the length of subduction zones, that could potentially affect sea level. The distribution of mass anomalies in the mantle with respect to continents may therefore have a significant impact. To test the possible correlation between sea level changes and the Wilson cycle, we decide to first focus on the Pangea, which is known to be a period during which most subductions took place beneath continents. We run a set of Earth-like instantaneous flow model using the OEDIPUS (Origin, Evolution and Dynamics of the Interiors of Planets Using Simulation) tool, which allows spherical geometries with lateral viscosity variations. In these models, Pangea is modeled by a spherical continental cap, covering 29% of the planet surface, and floating above a two-layered viscous mantle. We vary parameters such as the dip of the subducting panel, the depth reached by the slab, the viscosity structure and the plate thickness within

  3. Diagenesis and porosity development associated with major sea level fluctuations, Upper Permian, Jameson land, east Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. ); Stemmerik, L. )

    1990-05-01

    The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two major carbonate sequences, represented by the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The initial Karstryggen transgression led to the development of a shallow marine platform with structurally controlled evaporite basins (salinas) separated by stromatolitic, peloidal, or micritic carbonate depositional areas. The Wegener Havloe sequence reflects more rapid and extensive transgression with the deposition of three subcycles of fully marine, platform, or biohermal carbonates containing minor evaporites near the basin margins. Bioherms (bryozoan-brachiopod-marine cement mounds) show > 100 m of relief, indicating that large relative sea level changes were involved. Both the Karstryggen and Wgener Havloe cycles were terminated by major regressions, which led to karstic and/or fluvial incision of the underlying sequences. Not surprisingly, carbonate and evaporite diagenesis was greatly affected by these regional or eustatic sea level fluctuations. Evaporites dissolved or were replaced by calcite and celestite under the influence of meteoric waters. Limestones show collapse brecciation, grain leaching, soil development, and characteristic vadose and phreatic cements. Most significantly meteoric flushing led to massive dissolution of botryoidal marine cements (aragonite and probable high-Mg calcite) within biohermal facies on the Wegener Peninsula. This early porosity resurrection led to the preservation of porous bioherm core zones until hydrocarbon migration. Only late (posthydrocarbon), probably hydrothermal fluid flow led to cementation of the bioherm cores while expelling most of the reservoired hydrocarbons. If the sea level changes affecting the Greenlandic Permian are eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin.

  4. Late Pleistocene Sea level on the New Jersey Margin: Implications to eustasy and deep-sea temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, J.D.; Sheridan, R.E.; Miller, K.G.; Uptegrove, J.; Cramer, B.S.; Browning, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    We assembled and dated a late Pleistocene sea-level record based on sequence stratigraphy from the New Jersey margin and compared it with published records from fossil uplifted coral reefs in New Guinea, Barbados, and Araki Island, as well as a composite sea-level estimate from scaling of Red Sea isotopic values. Radiocarbon dates, amino acid racemization data, and superposition constrain the ages of large (20-80??m) sea-level falls from New Jersey that correlate with Marine Isotope Chrons (MIC) 2, 3b, 4, 5b, and 6 (the past 130??kyr). The sea-level records for MIC 1, 2, 4, 5e, and 6 are similar to those reported from New Guinea, Barbados, Araki, and the Red Sea; some differences exist among records for MIC 3. Our record consistently provides the shallowest sea level estimates for MIC3 (??? 25-60??m below present); it agrees most closely with the New Guinea record of Chappell (2002; ??? 35-70??m), but contrasts with deeper estimates provided by Araki (??? 85-95??m) and the Red Sea (50-90??m). Comparison of eustatic estimates with benthic foraminiferal ??18O records shows that the deep sea cooled ??? 2.5????C between MIC 5e and 5d (??? 120-110??ka) and that near freezing conditions persisted until Termination 1a (14-15??ka). Sea-level variations between MIC 5b and 2 (ca. 90-20??ka) follow a well-accepted 0.1???/10??m linear variation predicted by ice-growth effects on foraminiferal ??18O values. The pattern of deep-sea cooling follows a previously established hysteresis loop between two stable modes of operation. Cold, near freezing deep-water conditions characterize most of the past 130??kyr punctuated only by two warm intervals (the Holocene/MIC 1 and MIC 5e). We link these variations to changes in Northern Component Water (NCW). ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Late Pleistocene Sea level on the New Jersey Margin: Implications to eustasy and deep-sea temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, James D.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Miller, Kenneth G.; Uptegrove, Jane; Cramer, Benjamin S.; Browning, James V.

    2009-03-01

    We assembled and dated a late Pleistocene sea-level record based on sequence stratigraphy from the New Jersey margin and compared it with published records from fossil uplifted coral reefs in New Guinea, Barbados, and Araki Island, as well as a composite sea-level estimate from scaling of Red Sea isotopic values. Radiocarbon dates, amino acid racemization data, and superposition constrain the ages of large (20-80 m) sea-level falls from New Jersey that correlate with Marine Isotope Chrons (MIC) 2, 3b, 4, 5b, and 6 (the past 130 kyr). The sea-level records for MIC 1, 2, 4, 5e, and 6 are similar to those reported from New Guinea, Barbados, Araki, and the Red Sea; some differences exist among records for MIC 3. Our record consistently provides the shallowest sea level estimates for MIC3 (˜ 25-60 m below present); it agrees most closely with the New Guinea record of Chappell (2002; ˜ 35-70 m), but contrasts with deeper estimates provided by Araki (˜ 85-95 m) and the Red Sea (50-90 m). Comparison of eustatic estimates with benthic foraminiferal δ18O records shows that the deep sea cooled ˜ 2.5 °C between MIC 5e and 5d (˜ 120-110 ka) and that near freezing conditions persisted until Termination 1a (14-15 ka). Sea-level variations between MIC 5b and 2 (ca. 90-20 ka) follow a well-accepted 0.1‰/10 m linear variation predicted by ice-growth effects on foraminiferal δ18O values. The pattern of deep-sea cooling follows a previously established hysteresis loop between two stable modes of operation. Cold, near freezing deep-water conditions characterize most of the past 130 kyr punctuated only by two warm intervals (the Holocene/MIC 1 and MIC 5e). We link these variations to changes in Northern Component Water (NCW).

  6. Tectonic vs. eustatic controls on Ordovician deposition in the Alabama Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The Lower Ordovician section consists of a thick (> 1,500 ft.) sequence of peritidal to shallow subtidal carbonates deposited on a broad, stable platform. Initial Taconic orogenic activity during Late Canadian time downwarped the southeastern margin of the continent and resulted in deposition of a unique subtidal unit. A fall in eustatic sea level during Early Whiterockian time exposed the majority of the platform and produced the Post-Knox unconformity, a major regional unconformity that truncates Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician carbonates across the Alabama Appalachians. Middle Ordovician deposition began as a result of eustatic sea level rise and continued downwarping of the SE margin of the North American continent. Initial Middle Ordovician deposits are peritidal carbonates that onlap the Post-Knox unconformity from SE to NW. Continued loading of the margin of the continent led to formation of a deep-water basin to the SE and the concurrent development of a peripheral bulge in the vicinity of what is now the Birmingham anticlinorium. Peritidal carbonates to the SE pass upward into shallow ramp carbonates, deep-ramp mixed carbonate/clastic deposits, and, finally, basinal organic shales. As the deep-water basin evolved, shallow ramp carbonates onlapped the peripheral bulge to the NW. The rapidly evolving basin trapped terrigeneous deposits shed from tectonic highlands to the E and SE permitting deposition of shallow to deep ramp, skeletal carbonates to the NW. Continued tectonic loading led to migration and the ultimate inundation of the peripheral bulge. By Late Mohawkian time, filling of the basin allowed terrigeneous sediments derived from the tectonic highlands to prograde westward, onlap and carbonate ramp, and, finally, terminate carbonate deposition.

  7. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  8. Late Cretaceous to Miocene sea-level estimates from the New Jersey and Delaware coastal plain coreholes: An error analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kominz, M.A.; Browning, J.V.; Miller, K.G.; Sugarman, P.J.; Mizintseva, S.; Scotese, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Sea level has been estimated for the last 108 million years through backstripping of corehole data from the New Jersey and Delaware Coastal Plains. Inherent errors due to this method of calculating sea level are discussed, including uncertainties in ages, depth of deposition and the model used for tectonic subsidence. Problems arising from the two-dimensional aspects of subsidence and response to sediment loads are also addressed. The rates and magnitudes of sea-level change are consistent with at least ephemeral ice sheets throughout the studied interval. Million-year sea-level cycles are, for the most part, consistent within the study area suggesting that they may be eustatic in origin. This conclusion is corroborated by correlation between sequence boundaries and unconformities in New Zealand. The resulting long-term curve suggests that sea level ranged from about 75-110 m in the Late Cretaceous, reached a maximum of about 150 m in the Early Eocene and fell to zero in the Miocene. The Late Cretaceous long-term (107 years) magnitude is about 100-150 m less than sea level predicted from ocean volume. This discrepancy can be reconciled by assuming that dynamic topography in New Jersey was driven by North America overriding the subducted Farallon plate. However, geodynamic models of this effect do not resolve the problem in that they require Eocene sea level to be significantly higher in the New Jersey region than the global average. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  9. Climate-induced variations in lake levels: A mechanism for short-term sea level change during non-glacial times

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, D. ); Sahagian, D. . Dept of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Variations in insolation due to periodic orbital parameters can cause climatic changes and associated variations in the intensity of monsoonal circulation. This can lead to significant variations in the levels of internally draining lakes on timescales of 10,000 to 100,000 years in regions affected by the monsoon (20,000 years for orbital precession). These variations may be responsible for small scale (few meters) eustatic sea level changes in an ice-free Earth, and may contribute to sea level changes in the presence of ice as well. The authors have estimated the volume of empty present lake basins in the regions of Asia and North Africa influenced by the monsoon. The surface water volume alone of these basins is equivalent to a two meter difference in sea level, but is considerably augmented by groundwater associated with an increase in lake level. The lake variation mechanism for sea level change has its basis in the Quaternary record of climate change and associated explanatory models. However, the argument also applies to earlier, non-glacial periods of geologic time. Clear evidence for the presence of ice in the Triassic is lacking. However, there is evidence for short-term periodic fluctuations of lake levels as well as sea level during that time. These sea level changes, as well as those in the Devonian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous, may be driven by periodic fluctuation in lacustrine and groundwater storage resulting from orbitally forced changes in monsoon intensity, even in the absence of significant glacial ice.

  10. Dynamic Topography and Sea Level Change Inferred from Dipole and Quadrupole Moments of Plate Tectonic Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, C. P.; Steinberger, B. M.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Although constraints on the history of mantle flow are difficult to obtain, tectonic reconstructions contain information about the longest wavelength patterns of mantle flow that drove plate motions in the past. To examine the influence of this long-wavelength flow on global geodynamics, we computed the dipole and quadrupole moments (harmonic degrees 1 and 2) of the spherical vector fields associated with tectonic reconstructions of plate motions back to 250 Ma. Areas of dipole or quadrupole divergence lie above regions of major mantle upwelling, and convergence regions reside atop major mantle downwellings. To constrain the time-dependence of dynamic topography associated with these upwellings and downwellings, we used a numerical model of present-day mantle flow to relate degree-1 and degree-2 patterns of dynamic topography to the orientations and amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments of present-day plate motions. We then apply this relationship to the dipole and quadrupole moments of past plate motions to compute the long-wavelength components of dynamic topography for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Continental motions over this time-evolving dynamic topography predict patterns of continental uplift and subsidence that can be related to geological observations of continental surfaces relative to sea level. Net uplift or subsidence of the global seafloor can also induce eustatic sea level changes. We infer that dispersal of the Pangean supercontinent away from upwelling beneath Africa may have exposed the seafloor to an increasingly larger area of positive dynamic topography since the early Mesozoic that has caused up to 100 m of sea level rise during this time period. This component of sea level change helps to balance observations of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sea level change with an estimated total sea level budget that includes concurrent tectonic and climatic influences that produce sea level drop of up to ~250 m.

  11. Scientific reticence and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.

    2007-04-01

    I suggest that a 'scientific reticence' is inhibiting the communication of a threat of a potentially large sea level rise. Delay is dangerous because of system inertias that could create a situation with future sea level changes out of our control. I argue for calling together a panel of scientific leaders to hear evidence and issue a prompt plain-written report on current understanding of the sea level change issue.

  12. Analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature changes in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betul Avsar, Nevin; Jin, Shuanggen; Kutoglu, Hakan; Erol, Bihter

    2016-07-01

    The Black Sea is a nearly closed sea with limited interaction with the Mediterranean Sea through the Turkish Straits. Measurement of sea level change will provide constraints on the water mass balance and thermal expansion of seawaters in response to climate change. In this paper, sea level changes in the Black Sea are investigated between January 1993 and December 2014 using multi-mission satellite altimetry data and sea surface temperature (SST) data. Here, the daily Maps of Sea Level Anomaly (MSLA) gridded with a 1/8°x1/8° spatial resolution from AVISO and the NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Anomaly data set are used. The annual cycles of sea level and sea surface temperature changes reach the maximum values in November and January, respectively. The trend is 3.16±0.77 mm/yr for sea level change and -0.06±0.01°C/yr for sea surface temperature during the same 22-year period. The observed sea level rise is highly correlated with sea surface warming for the same time periods. In addition, the geographical distribution of the rates of the Black Sea level and SST changes between January 1993 and December 2014 are further analyzed, showing a good agreement in the eastern Black Sea. The rates of sea level rise and sea surface warming are larger in the eastern part than in the western part except in the northwestern Black Sea. Finally, the temporal correlation between sea level and SST time series are presented based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis.

  13. On sea level - ice sheet interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Natalya Alissa

    This thesis focuses on the physics of static sea-level changes following variations in the distribution of grounded ice and the influence of these changes on the stability and dynamics of marine ice sheets. Gravitational, deformational and rotational effects associated with changes in grounded ice mass lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. I outline a revised theory for computing post-glacial sea-level predictions and discuss the dominant physical effects that contribute to the patterns of sea-level change associated with surface loading on different timescales. I show, in particular, that a large sea-level fall (rise) occurs in the vicinity of a retreating (advancing) ice sheet on both short and long timescales. I also present an application of the sea-level theory in which I predict the sea-level changes associated with a new model of North American ice sheet evolution and consider the implications of the results for efforts to establish the sources of Meltwater Pulse 1A. These results demonstrate that viscous deformational effects can influence the amplitude of sea-level changes observed at far-field sea-level sites, even when the time window being considered is relatively short (≤ 500 years). Subsequently, I investigate the feedback of sea-level changes on marine ice-sheet stability and dynamics by coupling a global sea-level model to ice-sheet models of increasing complexity. To begin, I incorporate gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into an equilibrium marine ice-sheet stability theory to show that the sea-level changes have a stabilizing influence on ice-sheet retreat. Next, I consider the impact of the stabilizing mechanism on the timescale of ice-sheet retreat using a 1D dynamic coupled ice sheet - sea level model. Simulations with the coupled model, which incorporate viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, show that local sea-level changes at the grounding line act to slow, and in some cases, halt

  14. Last interglacial (MIS5e) sea-levels and uplift along the north-east Gulf of Aqaba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BAR (KOHN), N.; Stein, M.; Agnon, A.; Yehudai, M.; Lazar, B.; Shaked, Y.

    2014-12-01

    An uplifted flight of coral reef terraces, extending along the north-east margin of the Gulf of Aqaba (GOA), provides evidence for uplift rates and sea level high stands. GOA fills a narrow and deep tectonic depression lying along the southern sector of the Dead Sea Transform where it meets the Red Sea. This special configuration of the GOA and its latitude turn it into a dependable paleo-sea level monitor, sensitive only to global eustatic changes and local tectonic movements. A sequence of five uplifted coral reef terraces were mapped and characterized on basis of morphology and reef-facies, and their elevation above the present sea level was determined. The fossil reefs studied comprise fringing reefs, some with clear reef-structure that includes a reef flat and a shallow back lagoon. Most outcrops in the study area represent a transgressive sequence in which, during its highest stand, formed fringing reef terraces. We use U-Th ages of fossil corals samples found in growth position at various terraces. Corals from three uplifted reef terraces, R1, R2, and R3 were dated to the last interglacial period particularly to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e. These ages were achieved from mainly calcitic corals (recrystallized in a freshwater phreatic environment). A few ages were derived from aragonite corals. The three terraces represent three sub-stages within MIS5e: R3 formed during a short standstill at ~130 ka BP; R2 formed during a long and steady standstill between ~128 to ~121 ka BP; and R1 represents a short standstill at ~117 ka BP. Assuming that terrace reef flats represent past sea level high stands, we calculated the coast average uplift rate and constrained the original terraces elevations. The reconstructed eustatic sea level variation during MIS 5e at GOA resembles observations from reef terraces in other locations. Combined, all indicate a significant sea-level rise from the MIS 6 low stand at ~134-130 ka and followed by a long and stable sea level high

  15. Sea level regulated tetrapod diversity dynamics through the Jurassic/Cretaceous interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, Jonathan P.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing deep time trends in biodiversity remains a central goal for palaeobiologists, but our understanding of the magnitude and tempo of extinctions and radiations is confounded by uneven sampling of the fossil record. In particular, the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary, 145 million years ago, remains poorly understood, despite an apparent minor extinction and the radiation of numerous important clades. Here we apply a rigorous subsampling approach to a comprehensive tetrapod fossil occurrence data set to assess the group's macroevolutionary dynamics through the J/K transition. Although much of the signal is exclusively European, almost every higher tetrapod group was affected by a substantial decline across the boundary, culminating in the extinction of several important clades and the ecological release and radiation of numerous modern tetrapod groups. Variation in eustatic sea level was the primary driver of these patterns, controlling biodiversity through availability of shallow marine environments and via allopatric speciation on land.

  16. Sea level regulated tetrapod diversity dynamics through the Jurassic/Cretaceous interval.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing deep time trends in biodiversity remains a central goal for palaeobiologists, but our understanding of the magnitude and tempo of extinctions and radiations is confounded by uneven sampling of the fossil record. In particular, the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary, 145 million years ago, remains poorly understood, despite an apparent minor extinction and the radiation of numerous important clades. Here we apply a rigorous subsampling approach to a comprehensive tetrapod fossil occurrence data set to assess the group's macroevolutionary dynamics through the J/K transition. Although much of the signal is exclusively European, almost every higher tetrapod group was affected by a substantial decline across the boundary, culminating in the extinction of several important clades and the ecological release and radiation of numerous modern tetrapod groups. Variation in eustatic sea level was the primary driver of these patterns, controlling biodiversity through availability of shallow marine environments and via allopatric speciation on land. PMID:27587285

  17. Sea level regulated tetrapod diversity dynamics through the Jurassic/Cretaceous interval.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul

    2016-09-02

    Reconstructing deep time trends in biodiversity remains a central goal for palaeobiologists, but our understanding of the magnitude and tempo of extinctions and radiations is confounded by uneven sampling of the fossil record. In particular, the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary, 145 million years ago, remains poorly understood, despite an apparent minor extinction and the radiation of numerous important clades. Here we apply a rigorous subsampling approach to a comprehensive tetrapod fossil occurrence data set to assess the group's macroevolutionary dynamics through the J/K transition. Although much of the signal is exclusively European, almost every higher tetrapod group was affected by a substantial decline across the boundary, culminating in the extinction of several important clades and the ecological release and radiation of numerous modern tetrapod groups. Variation in eustatic sea level was the primary driver of these patterns, controlling biodiversity through availability of shallow marine environments and via allopatric speciation on land.

  18. Sea level regulated tetrapod diversity dynamics through the Jurassic/Cretaceous interval

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Jonathan P.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing deep time trends in biodiversity remains a central goal for palaeobiologists, but our understanding of the magnitude and tempo of extinctions and radiations is confounded by uneven sampling of the fossil record. In particular, the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary, 145 million years ago, remains poorly understood, despite an apparent minor extinction and the radiation of numerous important clades. Here we apply a rigorous subsampling approach to a comprehensive tetrapod fossil occurrence data set to assess the group's macroevolutionary dynamics through the J/K transition. Although much of the signal is exclusively European, almost every higher tetrapod group was affected by a substantial decline across the boundary, culminating in the extinction of several important clades and the ecological release and radiation of numerous modern tetrapod groups. Variation in eustatic sea level was the primary driver of these patterns, controlling biodiversity through availability of shallow marine environments and via allopatric speciation on land. PMID:27587285

  19. Impact of sea level rise on the sedimentology and stratigraphy of estuarine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Kearney, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Drowned-river valley estuaries are characteristic features of trailing-edge continental margins, as exemplified by the United States Atlantic Coast. During marine transgressions, the classic cycle of estuarine development is one of initial submergence and subsequent infilling, with the latter stages marked by extensive accumulations of fine-grained sediments in expanding marshes, deltas, and floodplains. Seismic surveys, vibracoring, and radiocarbon dating in the estuarine tributaries in middle Chesapeake Bay (The largest estuary along the Atlantic Coast), indicate that thick accumulations (>25 m) of organic-rich fine-grained sediments have been deposited since the middle Holocene. However, studies of recent accretion rate (based on pollen and radionuclide analyses) suggest the marshes, which represent a near-end member of the estuarine depositional sequence, may no longer be accumulating significant volumes of sediment. Relatively rapid crustal subsidence plus eustatic sea level rise produces a local submergence of approx. 4 mm/yr. Although marsh accretion rates in the upper estuarine tributaries approach 1 cm/yr, marsh accretion rates in the middle and lower reaches are significantly less (<2 mm/yr) than submergence. Here, numerous marshes are converting to open water as they become increasingly flooded by the tides. This change in depositional regime is also reflected in the carbon content (decreasing) and grain size (coarsening) of the marsh sediments and tidal channel migrations. In the coming decades, the rate of the world sea level rise is projected to increase significantly. This acceleration in the global eustatic trend together with lower sediment inputs from surrounding watersheds may reverse the historic trend of estuarine infilling.

  20. Impact of sea level rise don the sedimentology and stratigraphy of estuarine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, L.G.; Kearney, M.S.

    1988-02-01

    Drowned-river valley estuaries are characteristic features of trailing-edge continental margins, as exemplified by the US Atlantic Coast. During marine transgressions, the classic cycle of estuarine development is one of the initial submergence and subsequent infilling, with the latter stages marked by extensive accumulations of fine-grained sediments in expanding marshes, deltas, and floodplains. Seismic surveys, vibracoring, and radiocarbon dating in the estuarine tributaries in middle Chesapeake Bay (the largest estuary along the Atlantic Coast) indicate that thick accumulations (> 25 m) of organic-rich fine-grained sediments have been deposited since the middle Holocene. However, studies of recent accretion rates (based on pollen and radionuclide analyses) suggest the marshes, which represent a near-end member of the estuarine depositional sequence, may no longer be accumulating significant volumes of sediment. Relatively rapid crustal subsidence plus eustatic sea level rise produces a local submergence of /approximately/4 mm/yr. Although marsh accretion rates in the upper eustarine tributaries approach 1 cm/yr, marsh accretion rates in the middle and lower reaches are significantly less (< 2 mm/yr) than submergence. Here, numerous marshes are converting to open water as they become increasingly flooded by the tides. This change in depositional regime is also reflected in the carbon content (decreasing) and grain size (coarsening) of the marsh sediments and tidal channel migrations. In the coming decades, the rate of the world sea level rise is projected to increase significantly. This acceleration in the global eustatic trend together with lower sediment inputs from surrounding watersheds may reverse the historic trend of estuarine infilling.

  1. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    PubMed

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  2. Ancient sea-level swings confirmed

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1996-05-24

    Geologic benchmarks long touted and documented by Exxon scientists along the edges of continents record changes in global sea levels. However the driving force behind the holdest sea-level shifts remains mysterious, including ice sheet melting and forming and climatic change. This article discussed both the findings and the speculation about why the fluctuations took place.

  3. Stratigraphic signature of sub-orbital climate and sea-level changes in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, S. P.; Bassetti, M. A.; Baumann, J.; Dennielou, B.; Jouet, G.; Mauffrey, M.; Sierro, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Promess boreholes in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) provide precise chrono-stratigraphic constraints of the last ca 500 ky, that were nicely preserved at the shelf edge due to high accommodation and important sediment supply from the Rhone River. The major stratigraphic elements in this physiographic domain are Falling Stage Systems Tracts (in the sense of SEPM) linked to 100-ky eustatic cycles. They form wedges pinching out on the middle shelf, and thickening seaward on the outer shelf/upper slope (about 30-40m thick on the outer shelf). Within the uppermost sequence, linked to the last Glacial-Interglacial cycle, internal discontinuities were long described, but they were assigned to autogenic processes such as lobe avulsion or bedform migration. However, careful interpretation of a dense grid of very high resolution seismic data, together with precise chronostratigraphic constraints from borehole data and long piston cores, reveal that distinct parasequences, correlable at the regional scale, correspond to relatively minor sea-level changes linked (a) to Bond Cycles during the end of the Last Glacial, and (b) to an early Melt Water Pulse at the onset of Deglacial sea-level rise. These regressive and transgressive (respectively) parasequences are particularly well preserved in canyon heads, due to better accommodation. We propose that such features are important building blocks of the stratigraphic record, that might be recognized elsewhere on modern continental margins, as well as in the rock record.

  4. Quaternary Sea-Level History from the US Atlantic Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, R. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Katz, M. E.; Browning, J. V.; Miller, K. G.; Willard, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Analyses of emerged Quaternary paleo-shorelines and marine deposits aid in the reconstruction of environmental conditions and variability surrounding recent ice volume and sea-level histories derived from oxygen isotope records. We present preliminary results from a project designed to analyze the age, elevation, and paleoclimate history of Quaternary sediments deposited during sea level highstands along the United States Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) from Maryland to Florida. Prior studies have shown that, depending on the region, ACP sediments correlate with past interglacial periods corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 7, possibly 9, and 11. Stratigraphy, marine micropaleontology, and palynology indicate at least two major marine transgressive sequences on the Delmarva Peninsula in Virginia corresponding to MIS 5a and 11, the Nassawadox Formation and Accomack beds of the Omar Formation, respectively. These depositional sequences represent sea-level positions of approximately +10m and +15m, relative to today. Despite generally corresponding to glacio-eustatic sea levels of +5-9m for MIS 5a-e (Potter & Lambeck, 2003; Kopp et al., 2009), and of +6-13m for MIS 11 (Raymo & Mitrovica, 2012), the relative sea-level positions during both interglacial periods were likely affected by glacio-isostatic adjustment in the region. Corresponding marine units and paleo-shorelines, identified by pronounced inland scarps separated by intermittent terraces on the western side of the Chesapeake Bay, are likely from MIS 5, 7, and 11. Ostracode and foraminifera assemblages identify significant environmental variability within these transgressive interglacial deposits, likely driven by relatively minor, suborbital climatic and sea-level oscillations.

  5. Sea level and climate forcing of the Sr isotope composition of late Miocene Mediterranean marine basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Frijia, G.; Castorina, F.; Dudas, F. Ö.; Iadanza, A.; Sampalmieri, G.; Cipollari, P.; Caruso, A.; Bowring, S. A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2014-07-01

    isotope records from marginal marine basins track the mixing between seawater and local continental runoff, potentially recording the effects of sea level, tectonic, and climate forcing in marine fossils and sediments. Our 110 new 87Sr/86Sr analyses on oyster and foraminifera samples from six late Miocene stratigraphic sections in southern Turkey, Crete, and Sicily show that 87Sr/86Sr fell below global seawater values in the basins several million years before the Messinian Salinity Crisis, coinciding with tectonic uplift and basin shallowing. 87Sr/86Sr from more centrally located basins (away from the Mediterranean coast) drop below global seawater values only during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. In addition to this general trend, 55 new 87Sr/86Sr analyses from the astronomically tuned Lower Evaporites in the central Apennines (Italy) allow us to explore the effect of glacio-eustatic sea level and precipitation changes on 87Sr/86Sr. Most variation in our data can be explained by changes in sea level, with greatest negative excursions from global seawater values occurring during relative sea level lowstands, which generally coincided with arid conditions in the Mediterranean realm. We suggest that this greater sensitivity to lowered sea level compared with higher runoff could relate to the inverse relationship between Sr concentration and river discharge. Variations in the residence time of groundwater within the karst terrain of the circum-Mediterranean region during arid and wet phases may help to explain the single (robust) occurrence of a negative excursion during a sea level highstand, but this explanation remains speculative without more detailed paleoclimatic data for the region.

  6. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  7. Patch-reef morphology as a proxy for Holocene sea-level variability, Northern Florida Keys, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, J.C.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, M.; Wright, C.W.; Nayegandhi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A portion of the northern Florida Keys reef tract was mapped with the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) and the morphology of patch reefs was related to variations in Holocene sea level. Following creation of a lidar digital elevation model (DEM), geospatial analyses delineated morphologic attributes of 1,034 patch reefs (reef depth, basal area, height, volume, and topographic complexity). Morphometric analysis revealed two morphologically different populations of patch reefs associated with two distinct depth intervals above and below a water depth of 7.7 m. Compared to shallow reefs, the deep reefs were smaller in area and volume and showed no trend in topographic complexity relative to water depth. Shallow reefs were more variable in area and volume and became flatter and less topographically complex with decreasing water depth. The knoll-like morphology of deep reefs was interpreted as consistent with steady and relatively rapidly rising early Holocene sea level that restricted the lateral growth of reefs. The morphology of shallow 'pancake-shaped' reefs at the highest platform elevations was interpreted as consistent with fluctuating sea level during the late Holocene. Although the ultimate cause for the morphometric depth trends remains open to interpretation, these interpretations are compatible with a recent eustatic sea-level curve that hindcasts fluctuating late Holocene sea level. Thus it is suggested that the morphologic differences represent two stages of reef accretion that occurred during different sea-level conditions. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  8. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (< 1.2 mm yr-1) due the water loading following the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet. We construct two catalogues: one of published Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  9. Sequence stratigraphy and a revised sea-level curve for the Middle Devonian of eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, Carlton E.; Baird, G.C.; Bartholomew, A.J.; DeSantis, M.K.; Ver Straeten, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The well-exposed Middle Devonian rocks of the Appalachian foreland basin (Onondaga Formation; Hamilton Group, Tully Formation, and the Genesee Group of New York State) preserve one of the most detailed records of high-order sea-level oscillation cycles for this time period in the world. Detailed examination of coeval units in distal areas of the Appalachian Basin, as well as portions of the Michigan and Illinois basins, has revealed that the pattern of high-order sea-level oscillations documented in the New York-Pennsylvania section can be positively identified in all areas of eastern North America where coeval units are preserved. The persistence of the pattern of high-order sea-level cycles across such a wide geographic area suggests that these cycles are allocyclic in nature with primary control on deposition being eustatic sea-level oscillation, as opposed to autocylic controls, such as sediment supply, which would be more local in their manifestation. There is strong evidence from studies of cyclicity and spectral analysis that these cycles are also related to Milankovitch orbital variations, with the short and long-term eccentricity cycles (100. kyr and 405. kyr) being the dominant oscillations in many settings. Relative sea-level oscillations of tens of meters are likely and raise considerable issues about the driving mechanism, given that the Middle Devonian appears to record a greenhouse phase of Phanerozoic history. These new correlations lend strong support to a revised high-resolution sea-level oscillation curve for the Middle Devonian for the eastern portion of North America. Recognized third-order sequences are: Eif-1 lower Onondaga Formation, Eif-2: upper Onondaga and Union Springs formations; Eif-Giv: Oatka Creek Formation; Giv-1: Skaneateles, Giv-2: Ludlowville, Giv-3: lower Moscow, Giv-4: upper Moscow-lower Tully, and Giv-5: middle Tully-Geneseo formations. Thus, in contrast with the widely cited eustatic curve of Johnson et al. (1985), which

  10. Late Holocene Sea-Level Changes in French Polynesia, South-Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camoin, G.; Hallmann, N.; Eisenhauer, A.; Samankassou, E.; Milne, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Camoin, G.1, Hallmann, N.1, Eisenhauer, A.2, Vella, C.1, Samankassou, E.3, Fietzke, J.2, Milne, G.A.4 1 Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, CEREGE UM34, Europôle Méditerranéen de l'Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence cedex 4, France 2 Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung GEOMAR, Kiel, Wischhofstrasse 1-3, 24148 Kiel, Germany 3 University of Geneva, Rue des Maraîchers 13, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland 4 University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada Knowledge of the timing and course of sea-level changes provides an essential framework for conceptual models aimed at understanding the dynamics of melting of large ice sheets and their effects on the isostasy of the Earth. The marked variability of local Holocene sea levels, responding both to ice-sheet unloading and the redistribution of water masses in the global ocean, demonstrates the need to constrain geophysical processes that include hydro-isostasy, equatorial ocean syphoning and tectonic movements affecting relative sea-level positions. A regional reconstruction of Late Holocene sea-level changes (i.e., the last 6,000 yrs) in French Polynesia is based on the accurate U-series dating of in situ sea-level indicators (coral colonies including microatolls; bivalves) and their precise vertical and horizontal GPS positioning in five atolls (Fakarava, Hao, Manihi, Rangiroa, Tikehau) from the Tuamotu Archipelago and six high islands (Bora Bora, Mangareva, Maupiti, Moorea, Raivavae, Rurutu) from the Society, Gambier and Austral Archipelagos. These islands provide the opportunity to reconstruct accurately Late Holocene sea-level changes that are well-suited to estimate eustatic and isostatic changes because : 1) they exhibit unique coral reef records including valuable sea-level indicators, such as corals and bivalves in growth position, emerged coral conglomerates and beachrocks, 2) their subsidence rates are negligible for the Late Holocene period, thus excluding any tectonic

  11. Mid Pliocene sea levels along the southeast US coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Hearty, P. J.; Raymo, M. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Inglis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Proxy data suggest that during the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP) atmospheric CO2 levels were roughly similar to today (between 350 and 450 ppmv) and that global average temperature was elevated by as much as 3°C with respect to preindustrial values. Estimates of sea level (SL) during the MPWP range from +10 m to >+40 m relative to present, reflecting uncertainties in our knowledge of the sensitivity to modest climate warming of the East Antarctic, West Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. A primary objective of the PLIOMAX project (www.pliomax.org) is to combine models of paleosea-level signals with geological observations to significantly improve constraints on eustatic sea level during the MPWP. In this regard, the southeast US coastal plain is of strategic importance in MPWP sea level studies (Dowsett and Cronin, Geology, 1990). In fact, it is one of the few places where predicted glacio-isostatic effects are expected to exhibit a significant geographic variation (in this case, north-to-south). The coastal plain may also be influenced by dynamic topography driven by mantle convective flow. In this area, two factors drive the up-to-the-west dynamic tilting of the coast. The first is the descent of the Farallon slab, now located under the mid-part of the North American continent. The other is upwelling return flow under the east coast (Moucha et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2008). That is, over the last few million years, dynamic topography is responsible for potentially tens of meters of uplift (sea-level fall) of the Pliocene shoreline along the southeast US coastal plain. We have mapped an almost continuous MPWP shoreline cut into Miocene and older formations. However, as a result of multiple inter-state investigations extending over the last century, both the geomorphic escarpment and the associated deposits have been named differently across the region. In Virginia, the Chippenham Thornburg scarp is associated with the Moore House formation; in North and

  12. Sea-level changes over the past 6,000 years in the Society and Tuamotu Islands, French Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallmann, N.; Camoin, G.; Eisenhauer, A.; Vella, C.; Samankassou, E.; Fietzke, J.; Milne, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical coral reefs are unique recorders of sea-level and environmental changes. They are therefore of pivotal importance to resolving the rates of millennial-scale eustatic changes, to clarifying the mechanisms that drive glacial-interglacial cycles and to constraining geophysical models. A detailed regional study of Late Holocene (i.e., the past 6,000 years) relative sea-level changes is based on coral reef records of two high islands from the Society Islands (Bora Bora, Moorea) and two atolls from the Tuamotu Archipelago (Rangiroa, Tikehau), French Polynesia, South-Central Pacific. Different sea-level indicators, such as in situ coral colonies, bivalves and exposed coral conglomerates, were used in order to reconstruct relative sea-level changes. A special attention has been given to microatolls which are circular coral colonies that grow predominantly laterally as their upward growth is constrained by the water level, thus providing an accurate record of the low-tide level. The reconstruction of sea-level changes has been based on the accurate dating (U/Th (MC-ICPMS) dating with a 2σ error of 3-36 years) of pristine coral and bivalve samples and the precise measurement of their position (especially altitude) via GPS (vertical and horizontal precision of 1-3 cm and a few millimetres, respectively). Former studies have reported that sea level in French Polynesia was approximately 1 m higher than present between 5,000 and 1,250 yrs BP and that a highstand was reached between 2,000 and 1,500 yrs BP (Pirazzoli and Montaggioni, 1988) and persisted until 1,200 yrs BP in the Tuamotu Archipelago (Pirazzoli and Montaggioni, 1986). In contrast to these former studies, our study reveals that sea level reached its present level at around 5,000 yrs BP and continued to rise from at least 4,951 to 2,535 yrs BP when it was at least 1.3 m above the present level. These results will be integrated in a regional study of Late Holocene sea-level changes in various islands from

  13. 2D Backstripping Applied to Measuring Sea Level History at the New Jersey Margin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, G. S.; Steckler, M. S.; Katz, M. E.; Browning, J. V.; Miller, K. G.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 313 cored and logged three sites in 33-35 m of water on the New Jersey inner shelf, targeting the rollover of buried clinothems where the imprint of past sea-level variation is especially well expressed and accessible to drilling. We report results of 2D backstripping along a seismic profile linking these sites and we show seafloor reconstructions that constrain the magnitudes of lower and mid-Miocene eustatic changes. 2D backstripping consists of five steps that sequentially remove the accumulated effects of subsidence and deformation, and reconstructs a seafloor transect at time intervals of one's choosing. We began by removing sediment above each of several dozen horizons previously mapped throughout a grid of high quality seismic data, allowing the underlying layers to unload using flexural isostasy with an elastic plate thickness of 23 to 30 km. We then made corrections for compaction due to the weight of overlying sediments removed in previous steps. These corrections were based on the exponential decrease in porosity with depth derived from log measurements within the boreholes, from MultiSensorCoreLogger measurements of unsplit cores, and from discrete samples extracted from each 1.5 m core section. Lateral changes in lithofacies/compaction between sites were estimated based on seismic facies and horizon geometry, and decompacted layers were restored to their original porosities and thicknesses. Corrections for thermal subsidence from the Oligocene to the present were made using a 2D thermal model for the New Jersey margin, based on knowledge of the sedimentary and lithospheric structure that provided estimates of the overall tectonic subsidence. Estimates for change in sea level since the time of each reconstruction were made by computing the paleobathymetry and adjusting the sea level height to optimally match the estimates of paleobathymetry, which were based on integrated litho- and biofacies of the relevant deposits at all three Exp

  14. Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

  15. Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Milly, P C D; Cazenave, A; Gennero, C

    2003-11-11

    Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

  16. Late Pleistocene Sea-level and Deep-sea Temperature Changes Constrained by U.S. Mid-Atlantic Margin Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. D.; Miller, K. G.; Sheridan, R. E.; Cramer, B. S.

    2004-12-01

    We assembled and dated a late Pleistocene (last 130 kyr) sea-level record based on sequence stratigraphy from the U.S. middle Atlantic margin. The timing and magnitude of these sea-level changes are similar to those reported from uplifted coral terraces in New Guinea and Barbados, suggesting that we have established a global record of late Pleistocene sea-level change. Comparison of this eustatic record with benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope records shows that the deep sea cooled ~2.5\\deg C between Marine Isotope Chrons (MIC) 5e and 5d (~120-110 ka) and that near freezing conditions persisted until Termination 1a (14-15 ka). The pattern of deep-sea cooling follows a hysteresis loop between two stable modes of operation. Cold, near freezing deep-water conditions characterize most of the past 130 kyr. In contrast, two warm intervals (the Holocene/MIC 1 and MIC 5e) resulted from rapid warming during the terminations; rapid cooling followed the peak warmth of 5e and presumably the same would be beginning today if not for anthropogenic warming.

  17. Common Era Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Kemp, A.; Kopp, R. E., III

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic coast of North America provides a sedimentary record of Common Era sea levels with the resolution to identify the mechanisms that cause spatial variability in sea-level rise. This coast has a small tidal range, improving the precision of sea-level reconstructions. Coastal subsidence (from glacial isostatic adjustment, GIA) creates accommodation space that is filled by salt-marsh peat and preserves accurate and precise sea-level indicators and abundant material for radiocarbon dating. In addition, the western North Atlantic Ocean is sensitive to spatial variability in sea-level change, because of static equilibrium effects from melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, ocean circulation and wind-driven variability in the Gulf Stream and GIA induced land-level change from ongoing collapse of Laurentide forbuldge. We reveal three distinct patters in sea-level during the Common Era along the North American Atlantic coast, likely linked to wind-driven changes in the Gulf Stream: (1) Florida, sea level is essentially flat, with the record dominated by long-term geological processes; (2) North Carolina, sea level falls to a minimum near the beginning of the second millennium, climbing to an early Little Ice Age maximum in the fifteenth century, and then declining through most of the nineteenth century; and (3) New Jersey, a sea-level maximum around 900 CE, a sea-level minimum around 1500 CE, and a long-term sea-level rise through the second half of the second millennium. We combine the salt-marsh data from North American Atlantic coast with tide-gauge records and lower resolution proxies from the northern and southern hemispheres. We apply a noisy-input Gaussian process spatio-temporal modeling framework, which identifies a long-term falling global mean sea-level (GMSL), interrupted in the middle of the 19th century by an acceleration yielding a 20th century rate of rise extremely likely (probability P = 0:95) faster than any previous century in the Common Era.

  18. Reconstruction of Late Holocene sea-level change in French Polynesia, South Pacific, based on coral reef records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallmann, Nadine; Camoin, Gilbert; Eisenhauer, Anton; Vella, Claude

    2013-04-01

    Fossil reefs provide valuable sea-level indicators, which help to improve the understanding of past sea-level fluctuations and the prediction of future changes. Recent sea-level changes were reconstructed from emerged reef platforms of two high islands from the Society Islands (Bora Bora, Moorea) and two atolls from the Tuamotu Archipelago (Rangiroa, Tikehau), French Polynesia. These mid-ocean islands can be regarded as tectonically stable for the past few thousand years. Therefore, they are well suited for sea-level studies because they register Holocene eustatic changes, which are not overprinted by tectonic changes. Furthermore, the study sites are located distant from former ice sheets (far field location), which reduces the influence of the glacio-isostatic rebound. Several sea-level indicators, such as in situ coral colonies, including coral microatolls (Porites sp.), bivalves (mainly Tridacna sp.), conglomerates, beachrock, and sediments were analyzed in order to reconstruct Late Holocene relative sea-level changes. Microatolls are discoid corals that develop laterally when upward growth is limited by sea-level. Therefore, they are very accurate recorders of past sea-level. This study provides a detailed sea-level history for French Polynesia using high-precision U/Th (TIMS) dating and GPS measurements with a vertical and horizontal precision of 1-3 cm and a few millimetres, respectively. All samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and examined petrographically to exclude diagenetically altered material. The Holocene mean sea level in French Polynesia was thought to have been higher than present (+0.8/+1.0 m) between 5000 and 1250 yr BP, reached a highstand between 2000 and 1500 yr BP and then decreased to the present level (Pirazzoli and Montaggioni, 1988). The highstand has been reported until 1200 yr BP in the Tuamotu Archipelago (Pirazzoli and Montaggioni, 1986). However, sea-level indicators analyzed in this study reveal a highstand of at least 1.5 m

  19. Sequence-stratigraphic implications of glacial-eustatic Pennsylvanian cyclothems in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Heckel, P.H. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Only glacial eustasy accounts for all characteristics of Pennsylvanian northern Midcontinent cyclothems that consist of transgressive limestone, offshore ( core') shale, regressive limestone, and variable nearshore to terrestrial shale. Because of the rapidity of glacial eustatic fluctuations of sea level relative to tectonic movements of the shelf or to sediment filling of the large accommodation space provided by sea-level highstand, sequence-stratigraphic concepts and terminology require modification for these cyclothems. It is mainly the condensed intervals of sediment-starved, phosphate- and conodont-rich core shales that represent true highstand deposits on the mid to lower shelf (which is all that is presently preserved). The basic cyclothem was modified in Texas and Illinois by detrital overwhelming of regressive limestone deposition from nearer sources, but similar widespread condensed intervals still represent most of highstand. Higher shelf deposits are preserved in the Appalachian basin where phosphate- glaucony- and conodont-rich Conemaugh marine limestones represent highstand deposits in shallower water. These are penetrated locally eastward by deltaic clastics, which also represent highstand as well as early regression. Later regression involved greater fluvial incision, local terrestrial deposition and widespread paleosol formation, which continued through lowstand and early transgression. Late transgression produced widespread coal swamps, migrating ahead of inundation as a result of rising water table and increasing source of rainfall.

  20. Eustatic and tectonic control on localization of porosity and permeability, Mid-Permian, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, S.P.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Goose Egg Formation of the northeastern Bighorn basin was deposited in an arid shoreline (sabkha) environment during a time of global cyclic sea level variations and local tectonic uplift Eustatic sea level lows are represented by terrestrial red beds (seals), whereas highs resulted in the deposition of supratidal to shallow subtidal carbonates (reservoirs). Pennsylvanian and Permian differential uplift along the present basin margin localized a broken chain of barrier islands and shoals during deposition of the Ervay and earlier carbonate members, as recognized in outcrop at Sheep and Little Sheep Mountain anticlines. The Ervay Member on these paleohighs is typified by fenestral dolomite, containing abundant tepees and pisoids. This fabric is interpreted to have folded in the highest intertidal to supratidal sabkha environment which developed on the leeward shores of these islands. The fenestral carbonates grade basinward (westward) into narrow bioclastic grainstone beach deposits and then to open-shelf fossiliferous packstones and wackestone. To the east lie laminated lagoonal micritic limestones and dolomites. Outcrop and core study has shown the fenestral facies to be limited to areas coincident with present-day basin margin anticlines. Not only are these the locations of the most porous facies, but tight Laramide folding of the Goose Egg carbonates resulted in pervasive fracturing and thus very high permeabilities in the same structures. The close association of Laramide folds and productive Permian carbonate horizons in the northeast Bighorn basin could well be characteristic for other yet to be explored structures along the basin-margin trend.

  1. Eustatic and structural control of submarine-fan sedimentation, Conception fan, Santa Barbara basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Thor, D.R.

    1984-04-01

    Eustatic sea level lows provide an opportunity for submarine-fan development; topography and structure, however, can control depositional-sequence geometry. Analysis of high-resolution seismic data provides a basis to evaluate to the evolution and geometry of the Pleistocene-Holocene Conception fan. The fan formed in the restricted, tectonically active Santo Barbara basin. It consists of 4 vertically stacked depositional sequences, each bounded by nondepositional unconformities. The unconformities are defined by seismic-sequence boundaries and were formed during sea-level falls that are related to Pleistocene glacioeustatic changes. Each depositional sequence consists of lowstand, sandrich facies (fan channel, levee, and lobe) topped by highstand, mud-rich facies. The geometry of the depositional sequences tends to be rectilinear, not arcuate, because lateral progradation is restricted by topographically high structures. The modern fan surface and the Holocene depositional sequence provide a good analog for the older, underlying depositional sequences. The fan surface is characterized by 4 main channels, 2 of which head into submarine canyons incised into the shelf. Submarine canyons that fed the other 2 channels are now filled and have no topographic expression. In addition, numerous partially buried channel segments occur in the interchannel areas. The Holocene depositional sequence consists of lenticular and sheet-drape deposits interpreted to be channel, levee, and lobe facies. The facies geometry suggests that Mutti's topographic compensation, channel migration, and avulsion were typical processes on Conception fan.

  2. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  3. As the sea level rises the Earth does not stand still

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, S. C.; Alizad, K.; Bilskie, M. V.; Hovenga, P. A.; Medeiros, S. C.; Passeri, D. L.; Wang, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global mean sea level rise was largely linear over the 20th century; however, according to global satellite altimetry, the rate of rise has increased from approximately 1.6 to 3.4 mm/year. It is clear that this eustatic sea level rise has been predominantly caused by thermal expansion of ocean water (i.e., it is a manifestation of an increase in the average annual global temperature). Future projections of increased global temperatures, among others, introduce additional contributions (e.g., land ice loss and changes in land water storage) resulting in higher sea level rise that can only be accommodated by accelerations in the rate of the rise. Increased temperatures lead to changes in evapotranspiration rates, precipitation rates and patterns, etc. As the sea level changes the Earth experiences many other directly or indirectly related processes (e.g., population growth and migration, local variation in subsidence, etc.). Proper assessment of the local, regional and global impacts of relative sea level rise should include as many of these linear and nonlinear processes as possible. This presentation will explain our approach to understanding the relationships between these processes and their impacts to better equip adaptation strategies and enhance coastal resiliency. References Bilskie, M. V., et al. "Dynamics of sea level rise and coastal flooding on a changing landscape." Geophys. Res. Lett., 41(3), 2014, 927-934, doi:10.1002/2013GL058759 Church, J. A. and N. J. White, "A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise." Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(1), 2006, L01602 Passeri, D.L., et al. "The dynamic effects of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes: a review." Earth's Future, Online, 2015. doi:10.1002/2015EF000298 Passeri, D.L., et al. "On the significance of incorporating shoreline changes for evaluating coastal hydrodynamics under sea level rise scenarios." Nat. Haz., 75 (2), 2015, 1599-1617. doi:10.1007/s11069-014-1386-y Wang, D., et al. "Climate

  4. Ice Age Sea Level Change: Lessons From Studies of the Mid-Pliocene Climate Optimum, the Last Glacial Maximum and the 20th Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Raymo, M. E.; Morrow, E.; Hay, C.

    2011-12-01

    Renewed interest in geophysical models of ice age sea-level change has been motivated by three factors. First, the theory underlying these models has been progressively improved to take into account more complex viscoelastic Earth models and processes such as shoreline migration, changes in the extent of grounded marine-based ice sectors, and the impact on sea level of contemporaneous perturbations in the Earth's rotation. Second, results generated from these state-of-the-art models have highlighted the important information inherent to the geographic variability of sea-level change - information that is lost in analyses that are based on global (i.e., eustatic) averages. Third, there has been growing appreciation, through the application of the geophysical models, that accurate analyses of ancient sea level data sets can help to inform our understanding of future ice sheet stability in a warming world. In this talk we begin by summarizing a series of recent improvements in post-glacial sea-level theory and describe several applications that highlight important pitfalls in any effort to map sea-level measurements into estimates of past ice volumes. These applications include, in particular, studies of sea-level records from the mid-Pliocene climate optimum and the Last Glacial Maximum. We end by discussing an ongoing effort to use the geographic variability of rates obtained from tide gauge data and satellite altimetry records to estimate the dominant contributors to modern sea-level change.

  5. Development of the Bulgarian Sea Level Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas

    2013-04-01

    Systematic sea level measurements have been started in Bulgaria in the beginning of 20th century and nowadays there are 16 coastal sea level stations in operation. Operators of sea level stations are: National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH) - 6 stations, Cadastre Agency, Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works (CA) - 4 stations, Port Infrastructure (PI) - 5 stations and Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IO-BAS) - 1 station. Six of them are able to provide real time data. The sea level observations in the network of NIMH, performed at six main Bulgarian ports using standard poles, started in 1910. The program, implemented on the NIMH stations, includes daily measurements of the sea level with water gauges (poles). The position of a zero mark of the water gauge is checked once per year. The sea level network of the CA consists of 4 stations: Varna and Burgas (operational since 1928), Irakly and Ahtopol (since 1971). These stations are equipped with stilling-well tide gauges and with mechanical writing devices which draws sea level changes on paper. A mechanical paper writing instruments were installed in Varna and Burgas during 1928 and in 1971, a new paper writing instruments of type SUM (Russian) were installed in the stations of Irakly and Ahtopol. A set of five sea level stations in the ports of Balchik, Varna west, Pomorie, Burgas and Oil port Burgas was build during 2009 in the frame of Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS), equipped with high accuracy microwave instruments and operated by PI. In 2010 a new sea level station was set up in the IO-BAS coastal research base Shkorpolovtci. The station is equipped with high accuracy microwave instrument. These six stations are providing real time data. According to the decision of the Council of Ministers in 2012 sea level stations in Varna, Irakly, Burgas and Ahtopol will be operated jointly by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and

  6. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I.

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  7. Radiocarbon Ages from Two Submerged Strandline Features in the Western Gulf of Maine and a Sea-Level Curve for the Northeastern Massachusetts Coastal Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.; Colman, Steven M.; Jones, Glenn A.

    1993-01-01

    New radiocarbon dates provide ages for two submerged strandline features on the Massachusetts inner shelf. These ages provide limited control on a relative sea-level (RSL) curve for the late Wisconsinan and Holocene. The curve indicates a late Wisconsinan high stand of RSL of +33 m about 14,000 yr ago and a very short-lived relative low stand of about -43 m at about 12,000 yr ago followed by a rise to present sea level. Rapid changes of RSL around 12,000 yr ago may be related to changes in global glacial meltwater discharge and eustatic sea-level change shown by dated corals off Barbados. Variations in the magnitude and timing of RSL change from south to north along the coast of the western Gulf of Maine are due to greater crustal depression and later deglaciation to the north.

  8. Variability In The Solomon Sea From Altimetric Sea Level Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melet, A.; Gourdeau, L.; Kessler, W.; Verron, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the southwest tropical Pacific, subtropical waters from the SEC flow in the Solomon Sea, mainly through the western boundary New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, and join the equatorial western Pacific by three narrow straits. The NGCU transports part of the spiciness anomalies generated in the South East Pacific and subducted in the thermocline. Because the NGCU is a primary source of the EUC, variations of its characteristics are expected to play a role in the equatorial thermocline features and more generally on decadal climate variability. Therefore, the study of the Solomon Sea is a key issue of the SPICE program. In this study, we focus on the variability of the Solomon Sea in term of sea level. The Solomon Sea is semi closed with a complex topography and numerous islands. Thus, the use of classical gridded altimetric products is inadequate. Consequently, this work is based on original along track Topex/Poseidon data. New data processing (CTOH/LEGOS) has been applied to recover proper data and to gain more information on the altimetric signal in this region. A track-by-track specific and customized post processing has been used to finalize the dataset. These new altimetric data have been assessed against tide gauge data. The analysis of the resulting sea level anomalies exhibits the highest variability observed in the tropical Pacific in an area centred near 8°S and expanding from each side of the Solomon Islands, outside of the WBC. Sea level variability presents a wide temporal spectrum, from intraseasonal to interannual ranges with the notable influence of the monsoon and of ENSO. In the Solomon Sea, three frequencies emerge : 60, 365 and 2000 days. The 60-days frequency seems particularly important in the Solomon Sea compared with the surrounding waters and an EOF analysis is used to understand its features. We also depict the signature of the New Guinea Coastal Current (NGCC), the western boundary current flowing north along the eastern coast of Papua

  9. Geophysical Implications of a Late Quaternary Sea-Level Curve from Delaware: Comparison to Other Northeastern States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, S. E.; Horton, B. P.; Peltier, W. R.; Ramsey, K. W.; Thieler, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    High quality relative sea-level (RSL) data reveal spatial and temporal variations in crustal movements since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Current concerns regarding the potential eustatic sea-level rise associated with anthropogenic warming of the atmosphere and oceans and its impacts on coastal resources have resulted in increased interest in former RSL fluctuations. Rates of sea-level rise obtained since the LGM represent the fundamental basis for comparison with the historical and present day changes. Reconstructions through the Holocene allow modellers to quantify lithospheric thickness and mantle viscosity and establish lateral variations in mantle structure across the continental/oceanic margin. There is an urgent need to re-evaluate the quality of the United States Atlantic coast RSL record, because of the apparent inability of the best currently available Glacial Isostatic Adjustment models to fit the earliest portions of the Holocene records at most sites south of Boston. From an initial database of 212 samples spanning a temporal period of 20000 years (145±145 cal yrs BP to 20150±700 cal yrs BP), we have compiled a quality-controlled database of sea-level index points for the state of Delaware following established protocols for judging the reliability of sea-level observations. The index points demonstrate the rise in sea-level from the termination of the LGM through to the present day. We further explored the geophysical implications of this validated sea-level curve through the comparison of this record to sea-level curves from additional northeastern states.

  10. Sea Level Rise Impacts On Infrastructure Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Mccown, A. W.; Backhaus, S.; Urban, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Increase of global sea level is one of the potential consequences of climate change and represents a threat for the U.S.A coastal regions, which are highly populated and home of critical infrastructures. The potential danger caused by sea level rise may escalate if sea level rise is coupled with an increase in frequency and intensity of storms that may strike these regions. These coupled threats present a clear risk to population and critical infrastructure and are concerns for Federal, State, and particularly local response and recovery planners. Understanding the effect of sea level rise on the risk to critical infrastructure is crucial for long planning and for mitigating potential damages. In this work we quantify how infrastructure vulnerability to a range of storms changes due to an increase of sea level. Our study focuses on the Norfolk area of the U.S.A. We assess the direct damage of drinking water and wastewater facilities and the power sector caused by a distribution of synthetic hurricanes. In addition, our analysis estimates indirect consequences of these damages on population and economic activities accounting also for interdependencies across infrastructures. While projections unanimously indicate an increase in the rate of sea level rise, the scientific community does not agree on the size of this rate. Our risk assessment accounts for this uncertainty simulating a distribution of sea level rise for a specific climate scenario. Using our impact assessment results and assuming an increase of future hurricanes frequencies and intensities, we also estimate the expected benefits for critical infrastructure.

  11. Post-Cromerian rise in sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Olausson, E.

    1992-03-01

    The intensified cooling in the northern hemisphere during the Elsterian-Saalian ice ages (isotopic stages 22-6) resulted in a reduction of the Antarctic ice sheet by 10-15 x 106 km3, equal to a rise in sea level by about 40 m. This rise in sea level changed the hydrography of the Black Sea during the late Pleistocene warmer times, caused anoxic conditions in the eastern Mediterranean during the corresponding warming-up phases, and enhanced water transport of less saline water from the Pacific into the Arctic Ocean (the present sill depth of the Bering Strait is about 50 m). The increased supply of less saline water strengthened the halocline in the Arctic Ocean, increasing the sea ice there and, by higher albedo, its cooling effect on the adjacent continents.

  12. Solution notches, earthquakes, and sea level, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, C. R.; Mildor, B. S.; Bilham, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Shortly after the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake, we installed an array of five tide gauges to determine sea level and its variability in the region of uplifted corals on the coast SW of Leogane, Haiti, that had been uplift ≤30 cm during the earthquake. Each gauge consists of a pressure transducer bolted 50-80 cm below mean sea level, which samples the difference between atmospheric pressure and sea pressure every 10 minutes. The data are transmitted via the Iridium satellite and are publically available with a latency of 10 minutes to 2 hours. The measurements reveal a maximum tidal range of ≈50 cm with 2-4 week oscillations in mean sea level of several cm. Sea slope, revealed by differences between adjacent gauges, varies 2-5 cm per 10 km at periods of 2-5 weeks, which imposes a disappointing limit to the utility of the gauges in estimating post seismic vertical motions. A parallel study of the form and elevation of coastal notches and mushroom rocks (rocks notched on all sides, hence forming a mushroom shape), along the coast west of Petit Goave suggests that these notches may provide an uplift history of the region over the past several hundreds of years. Notch sections in two areas were contoured, digitized, and compared to mean sea level. The notches mimic the histogram of sea level, suggesting that they are formed by dissolution by acidic surface waters. Notches formed two distinct levels, one approximately 58 cm above mean sea level, and the other approximately 157 cm above mean sea level. Several landslide blocks fell into the sea during the 2010 earthquake, and we anticipate these are destined for conversion to future mushroom rocks. Surfaces have been prepared on these blocks to study the rate of notch formation in situ, and samples are being subjected to acid corrosion in laboratory conditions, with the hope that the depth of notches may provide an estimate of the time of fall of previous rocks to help constrain the earthquake history of this area

  13. Shallow stratigraphy and sedimentation history during high-frequency sea-level changes on the central California shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, E.E.; Eittreim, S.L.; Field, M.E.; Wong, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Analyses of high-resolution seismic-reflection data and sediment cores indicate that an extensive sediment deposit on the central California continental shelf is comprised of several late-Pleistocene to Holocene age facies. Offshore of the littoral zone, in water depths of 30-90 m, a 3-6 m thick veneer of fine sediment referred to as the mid-shelf mudbelt has formed along 50-100 km of the coast. The mudbelt drapes a parasequence characterized by prograding clinoforms that in places overlies a 1-3 m thick basal transgressive lag deposit. These facies overlie a prominent erosional unconformity that extends from the shore to the outer shelf. Eighteen calibrated 14CAMS ages of marine molluscs and terrestrial wood detritus sampled in cores range 15,800 yr BP to modern indicating a postglacial age for these sediments (one >55,000 yr BP represents relict sand). We model accumulation of these facies using (1) the topography of the underlying erosional unconformity interpreted from seismic reflection profiles, (2) observed sediment facies (grain size) distribution across the shelf (a proxy for wave/current sediment partitioning), and published estimates of (3) eustatic sea-level history, and (4) regional tectonics. Our model and data indicate that deposition of the transgressive lag began during early, slow postglacial sea-level rise and that a notable change in depositional environment occurred across an area of more than 200 km2 of the outer shelf likely in response to abrupt drowning during Meltwater Pulse 1B (11,500 yr BP). We propose that rapid progradation of clinoforms may have occurred during transgression because of the unique interaction of modest rates of sediment input and tectonic uplift, variable rates of eustatic sea-level rise and a complex stepped antecedent topography.

  14. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Rachel M.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.

    2016-04-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal component analysis (PCA) on seven records from 0 to 430 ka and five records from 0 to 798 ka. The first principal component, which we use as the stack, describes ˜ 80 % of the variance in the data and is similar using either five or seven records. After scaling the stack based on Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sea level estimates, the stack agrees to within 5 m with isostatically adjusted coral sea level estimates for Marine Isotope Stages 5e and 11 (125 and 400 ka, respectively). Bootstrapping and random sampling yield mean uncertainty estimates of 9-12 m (1σ) for the scaled stack. Sea level change accounts for about 45 % of the total orbital-band variance in benthic δ18O, compared to a 65 % contribution during the LGM-to-Holocene transition. Additionally, the second and third principal components of our analyses reflect differences between proxy records associated with spatial variations in the δ18O of seawater.

  15. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  16. Tectono-eustatic controls on carbonate platform development, Permian basin outcrop-subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Sarg, J.F.; Romine, K.; Vail, P.R.

    1987-05-01

    Integration of seismic stratigraphic concepts, detailed field studies, and geohistory analysis provides powerful interpretation leverage for deciphering the geologic history of the Permian carbonate platform complexes. The structural history of the Permian basin during the Permian shows two subsidence cycles of 10 to 20 m.y. duration. These subsidence cycles played a major role in the long-term (millions to tens of millions of years) development of the Permian carbonate platforms. During periods of relatively rapid subsidence, aggradation was dominant; during times of slow subsidence, major basinward platform progradation occurred. Superimposed on the long-term tectonic cycles are a series of third-order eustatic cycles (0.5-3 m.y.) which controlled development of 23 depositional sequences. Each sequence is composed of three depositional systems tracts: (1) a lower basin-restricted wedge interpreted to have been deposited during a relative fall and lowstand of sea level; (2) a transgressive systems tract of variable thickness; and (3) an upper aggradational to progradational carbonate platform system interpreted to have been deposited during a relative highstand in sea level. The lowstand systems tracts are composed dominantly of quartz sandstone, commonly intercalated with carbonate debris beds at the toe-of-slope. Two highstand depositional styles are differentiated here: (1) a keep-up system which maintains pace with periodic rises in relative sea level and displays a mounded-oblique stratal geometry at the platform margin and (2) a catch-up system which represents a relatively slow rate of accumulation and displays a sigmoid profile at the platform margin. Sequence boundaries display erosional truncation (subaerial on shelf or at shelf edge; subaqueous on slope) and/or subaerial exposure.

  17. Estimating the sources of global sea level rise with data assimilation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Carling C.; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.

    2013-01-01

    A rapidly melting ice sheet produces a distinctive geometry, or fingerprint, of sea level (SL) change. Thus, a network of SL observations may, in principle, be used to infer sources of meltwater flux. We outline a formalism, based on a modified Kalman smoother, for using tide gauge observations to estimate the individual sources of global SL change. We also report on a series of detection experiments based on synthetic SL data that explore the feasibility of extracting source information from SL records. The Kalman smoother technique iteratively calculates the maximum-likelihood estimate of Greenland ice sheet (GIS) and West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) melt at each time step, and it accommodates data gaps while also permitting the estimation of nonlinear trends. Our synthetic tests indicate that when all tide gauge records are used in the analysis, it should be possible to estimate GIS and WAIS melt rates greater than ∼0.3 and ∼0.4 mm of equivalent eustatic sea level rise per year, respectively. We have also implemented a multimodel Kalman filter that allows us to account rigorously for additional contributions to SL changes and their associated uncertainty. The multimodel filter uses 72 glacial isostatic adjustment models and 3 ocean dynamic models to estimate the most likely models for these processes given the synthetic observations. We conclude that our modified Kalman smoother procedure provides a powerful method for inferring melt rates in a warming world. PMID:22543163

  18. Estimating the sources of global sea level rise with data assimilation techniques.

    PubMed

    Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2013-02-26

    A rapidly melting ice sheet produces a distinctive geometry, or fingerprint, of sea level (SL) change. Thus, a network of SL observations may, in principle, be used to infer sources of meltwater flux. We outline a formalism, based on a modified Kalman smoother, for using tide gauge observations to estimate the individual sources of global SL change. We also report on a series of detection experiments based on synthetic SL data that explore the feasibility of extracting source information from SL records. The Kalman smoother technique iteratively calculates the maximum-likelihood estimate of Greenland ice sheet (GIS) and West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) melt at each time step, and it accommodates data gaps while also permitting the estimation of nonlinear trends. Our synthetic tests indicate that when all tide gauge records are used in the analysis, it should be possible to estimate GIS and WAIS melt rates greater than ∼0.3 and ∼0.4 mm of equivalent eustatic sea level rise per year, respectively. We have also implemented a multimodel Kalman filter that allows us to account rigorously for additional contributions to SL changes and their associated uncertainty. The multimodel filter uses 72 glacial isostatic adjustment models and 3 ocean dynamic models to estimate the most likely models for these processes given the synthetic observations. We conclude that our modified Kalman smoother procedure provides a powerful method for inferring melt rates in a warming world.

  19. Did Changes in Antarctic Ice Volume Influence Late Holocene Sea-Level Lowering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Ian D.

    There has been great debate over the last few decades on the magnitude and causes of relative sea-level lowering during the late Holocene. The principal attributed causes are geodynamic rather than glacio-eustatic. An alternative partial cause is an increase in Antarctic ice volume. Glaciological and glacial geological field evidence indicates that during the late Holocene, the Antarctic alpine glaciers, ice sheet margins and outlet glaciers have expanded, and the ice sheet interior has thickened. This is attributed to: (i) an ice thickening in central East Antarctica throughout the Holocene, which was caused by the 50% higher Holocene snow accumulation rates than those during the glacial stage, coupled with the slow reaction time for ice sheet velocities to respond to the increased accumulation and temperature; and (ii) increased ice volume supplied by higher than mean Holocene accumulation rates, associated with a warmer climatic period between 4000 to 2500 years B.P. It is estimated that these effects could account for ˜1.0±0.2 m of the interpreted sea-level lowering on mid-oceanic islands, with ˜0.7±0.1 m of lowering occurring between 4000 and 2500 years B.P.

  20. Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milesi, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Presentation by Cristina Milesi, First Author, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA at the "Meeting the Challenge of Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County" on June 19, 2005 Santa Clara County, bordering with the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay, is highly vulnerable to flooding and to sea level rise (SLR). In this presentation, the latest sea level rise projections for the San Francisco Bay will be discussed in the context of extreme water height frequency and extent of flooding vulnerability. I will also present preliminary estimations of levee requirements and possible mitigation through tidal restoration of existing salt ponds. The examples will draw mainly from the work done by the NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators at NASA Ames.

  1. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  2. The Sea Level Fingerprints of Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Hay, C.; Kopp, R. E., III; Morrow, E.

    2014-12-01

    It may be difficult to persuade those living in northern Europe that the sea level changes that their coastal communities face depends less on the total melting of polar ice sheets and glaciers than on the individual contributions to this total. In particular, melting of a specific ice sheet or mountain glacier drives deformational, gravitational and rotational perturbations to the Earth system that are manifest in a unique geometry, or fingerprint, of global sea level change. For example, melting from the Greenland Ice Sheet equivalent to 1 mm/yr of global mean sea level (GMSL) rise will lead to sea level rise of ~0 mm/yr in Dublin, ~0.2 mm/yr in Amsterdam, ~0.4 mm/yr in Boston and ~1.2 mm/yr in Cape Town. In contrast, if the same volume of ice melted from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, all of the above sites would experience a sea level rise in the range 1.1-1.2 mm/yr. These fingerprints of modern ice melting, together with ocean thermal expansion and dynamic effects, and the ongoing signal from glacial isostatic adjustment in response to the last ice age, combine to produce a sea level field with significant geographic variability. In this talk I will highlight an analysis of global tide gauge records that takes full advantage of this variability to estimate both GMSL and the sources of meltwater over the last century, and to project GMSL to the end of the current century.

  3. Biostratigraphic correlation of Pleistocene marine deposits and sea levels, Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Marine ostracodes from 50 localities were studied to determine the age and elevation of Pleistocene sea levels in the Atlantic coastal plain from Maryland to northern Florida. Using ostracode taxon and concurrent ranges, published planktic biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and radiometric data, ostracode assemblage zones representing early (1.8-1.0 my), middle (0.7-0.4 my), and late (0.3-0.01 my) Pleistocene deposition were recognized and used as a basis for correlation. Ostracode biofacies signifying lagoonal, oyster bank, estuarine, open sound, and inner sublittoral environments provided estimated ranges of paleodepths for each locality. From these data the following minimum and maximum Pleistocene sea-level estimates were determined for the southeastern coastal plain: late Pleistocene, 2-10 m from Maryland to northern Florida; middle Pleistocene, 6-15 m in northern South Carolina; early Pleistocene, 4-22 m in central North Carolina, 13-35 m in southern North Carolina, and 6-27 m in South Carolina. Climatically induced glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations adequately account for the late Pleistocene sea-level data, but other factors, possibly differential crustal uplift, may have complicated the early Pleistocene record. ?? 1980.

  4. Sea Level Variability in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, S.; Bruni, S.; del Conte, S.; Errico, M.; Petracca, F.; Prati, C.; Raicich, F.; Santi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Tide gauges measure local sea-level relative to a benchmark on land, therefore the interpretation of these measurements can be limited by the lack of appropriate knowledge of vertical crustal motions. The oldest sea-level records date back to the 18th century; these observations are the only centuries-old data source enabling the estimate of historical sea-level trends/variations. In general, tide gauge benchmarks were not frequently levelled, except in those stations where natural and/or anthropogenic subsidence was a major concern. However, in most cases, it is difficult to retrieve the historical geodetic levelling data. Space geodetic techniques, such as GNSS, Doris and InSAR are now providing measurements on a time and space-continuous basis, giving rise to a large amount of different data sets. The vertical motions resulting from the various analyses need to be compared and best exploited for achieving reliable estimates of sea level variations. In the Mediterranean area, there are a few centennial tide gauge records; our study focuses, in particular, on the Italian time series of Genoa, Marina di Ravenna, Venice and Trieste. Two of these stations, Marina di Ravenna and Venice, are affected by both natural and anthropogenic subsidence, the latter was particularly intense during a few decades of the 20th century because of ground fluids withdrawal. We have retrieved levelling data of benchmarks at and/or close to the tide gauges from the end of 1800 and, for the last couple of decades, also GPS and InSAR height time series in close proximity of the stations. By using an ensemble of these data, modelling of the long-period non-linear behavior of subsidence was successfully accomplished. After removal of the land vertical motions, the linear long period sea-level rates of all stations are in excellent agreement. Over the last two decades, the tide gauge rates were also compared with those obtained by satellite radar altimetry data.

  5. Tectonic and glacio-eustatic influences on Late Cambrian-Early Devonian first-order stratigraphic and faunal suites in the Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.B.N. )

    1991-02-01

    The Late Cambrian to middle Devonian stratigraphic and faunal record i the western United States may be divided into at least five first-order or primary depositional cycles delimited by tectonically controlled sea level changes. These tectonically controlled sea level changes essentially are changes in rate of platform subsidence. Rate of platform subsidence is reflected in changes in the succession of depositional environments. Tectonically controlled sea level changes are reflected in the succession of faunas as well as in the depositional environment record. The primary rate of subsidence-related sea level changes took place at the following times: latest Cambrian, latest Ibexian (Early Ordovician), and late Early Devonian. A prominent set of glacio-eustatic sea level changes occurred in the latest Ordovician-earliest Silurian. That glacial interval was one in which significant mass mortalities and subsequent re-radiations took place among marine invertebrates. Although the boundaries of the first-order cycles, both in the stratigraphic depositional cycles appear to be diachronous across the Great Basin, the rock suites comprising the cycles are delimited clearly. Second-order cycles may be recognized within the first-order cycles, both in the stratigraphic and faunal record. The second-order cycles also reflect sea level changes. Major oceanic surface water currents were deflected around plate and related platform margins during intervals of regression from the platform, enhancing upwelling along the plate margins during such intervals.

  6. Aptian-Albian sea level history from Guyots in the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RöHl, Ursula; Ogg, James G.

    1996-10-01

    Relative sea level fluctuations are an important control on patterns of sedimentation on continental margins and provide a valuable tool for regional correlations. One of the main objectives of combined Ocean Drilling Program Legs 143 and 144 was drilling the thick carbonate caps of a suite of seamounts, called guyots, scattered over the northwestern Pacific. The array of drowned Cretaceous banks includes four carbonate banks of Aptian-Albian age. These particular carbonate banks display emergent surfaces if regional sea level falls faster than the rate of guyot subsidence, or intervals of condensed parasequences and well-cemented peritidal crypto-algal flats if the rate of sea level fall is slightly less than guyot subsidence. Rapid rises of sea level following these sequence boundaries are recorded as drowning of the emergent horizons or as pronounced deepening of facies. The cored lithologies and downhole geophysical and geochemical logs were used to identify depositional sequences and surfaces of exceptional shallowing or deepening. A combination of biostratigraphic datums, carbon and strontium isotope curves, relative magnitude of surfaces of emergence, relative thicknesses of depositional sequences, sea level events, and counts of upward shallowing cycles or parasequences were used to correlate sequences among the four sites. After compensating for thermal subsidence rates at each guyot, an identical pattern of major Aptian-Albian eustatic sea level events is evident throughout this large portion of the Pacific Ocean. There are approximately 12 Aptian and 12 Albian significant sequence boundaries, of which a third were associated with major episodes of emergence. When these events are compared with Aptian-Albian relative sea level changes observed in European shelf successions, the major sequence boundaries and transgressive surges can be easily correlated, and it appears that both regions also display the same number of minor events. Therefore we can apply

  7. Sea Level Records from Geodetic GPS Receivers: a New Coastal Sea Level Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, J. S.; Haas, R.; Larson, K. M.; Scherneck, H.

    2012-12-01

    Global sea level rise and local sea level variations due to climate change has the potential for a significant impact on coastal societies. Thus, it is of great importance to monitor and understand how the sea level is changing. Existing techniques to measure sea level have provided important insights in this field during the last decades. However, further observations are necessary in order to fully understand the underlying processes. We present the possibility of a new coastal sea level dataset based on analysis of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data from existing permanent GPS stations at the coast. For a GPS antenna close enough to the ocean, the multipath signals, reflected off the sea surface, interfere with the direct satellite signals. This becomes especially visible as oscillations in the recorded SNR data. The analysis of the SNR oscillations provides the distance between the sea surface and the GPS antenna phase center. Thus, such an installation can be called a GPS tide gauge and can be used to monitor sea level. The advantage of a GPS tide gauge is that it allows both determination of the sea level and determination of the position with respect to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, using a single geodetic instrument. This is particularly valuable in areas with land surface motion where the usefulness of traditional tide gauges is restricted. The technique has been verified through comparison to traditional tide gauges at two sites. The comparison of more than three months long time series resulted in correlation coefficients of better than 0.97 for both sites. For the station with low and high tidal range, the root-mean-square agreement between the GPS results and the tide gauge records were better than 5 and 10 cm, respectively. In this presentation we show preliminary results for sea level records world wide by applying this technique to several existing permanent GPS stations.

  8. Trends in UK mean sea level revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, P. L.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Shennan, I.; Williams, S. D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of rates of mean sea level (MSL) change around the UK, based on a larger tide gauge data set and more accurate analysis methods than have been employed so far. The spatial variation of the trend in MSL is found to be similar to that inferred from geological information and from advanced geodetic techniques, which is a similar conclusion to that arrived at in the previous studies. The tide gauge MSL trends for 1901 onwards are estimated to be 1.4 +/- 0.2 mm yr-1 larger than those inferred from geology or geodetic methods, suggesting a regional sea level rise of climate change origin several one-tenths of mm per year lower than global estimates for the 20th century. However, UK MSL change cannot be described in terms of a simple linear increase alone but includes variations on interannual and decadal timescales. The possible sources of variation in a `UK sea level index' are explored. Air pressure is clearly one such possible source but its direct local forcing through the `inverse barometer' accounts for only one-third of the observed variability. A number of larger scale atmospheric and ocean processes must also play important roles, but modelling them satisfactorily and separating the individual contributions present a major challenge. As regards future regional UK sea level changes, we conclude that there is no basis for major modification to existing projections for the 2080s included in the 2002 UK Climate Impacts Programme studies.

  9. Sea Grant Education at the University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Shirley J.

    1998-01-01

    Sea Grant's investment in university-level education shows a diversity of avenues for supporting students from experience-based internships, merit scholarships, and fellowships to team-based multidisciplinary undergraduate education. Describes such programs as Undergraduate Research Opportunities in ocean engineering, graduate research…

  10. Sea Level Rise National Coastal Property Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of sea level rise on coastal properties depends critically on the human response to the threat, which in turn depends on several factors, including the immediacy of the risk, the magnitude of property value at risk, options for adapting to the threat and the cost of th...

  11. Diagenesis in limestone-dolostone successions after 1 million years of rapid sea-level fluctuations: A case study from Grand Cayman, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Min; Jones, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Meteoric diagenesis in young marine carbonate sediments has commonly been linked to fluctuations in Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea levels. The extent to which these sea-level changes are recorded in these carbonate successions, however, remains questionable. This is amply demonstrated by the diagenetic record found in the limestones and dolostones of the Cayman Formation (Miocene) on the Cayman Islands. On the eastern part of Grand Cayman, dolomitization that ceased by 1 million years ago created an architecture whereby the limestones in the central part of the island were surrounded by dolostones in coastal areas of the island. Since then, the upper 90 m of the Cayman Formation has been repeatedly cycled through many different marine and meteoric diagenetic zones as large, rapid eustatic oscillations in sea level affected the island. The records of these diagenetic cycles in the dolostones and limestones are, however, different and impossible to match to the cyclic changes in sea level. In the peripheral dolostones, post-dolomitization diagenetic features are sparse. In contrast, the limestones in the interior of the island exhibit a wider variety of meteoric diagenetic features, including extensive dissolution and calcite cementation. The dolostones have low porosity (< 10%) and permeability, whereas the limestones are characterized by high porosity (up to 50%), especially in the lower and middle parts of the studied limestone succession. The different phases of diagenesis found in the limestones, however, cannot be specifically matched to any sea-level fluctuations that have affected these successions. This issue is further exemplified by the fact that that the last marine transgression over the last ~ 16,000 years ago appears to have left no tangible record. The analysis of this succession clearly demonstrates that not all diagenetic regimes will be recorded in the fabrics of limestones or dolostones.

  12. Synchroneity of major Late Neogene sea level fluctuations and paleoceanographically controlled changes as recorded by two carbonate platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Christian; Kroon, Dick; Reijmer, John J. G.

    2000-12-01

    Shallow-water carbonate systems are reliable recorders of sea level fluctuations and changes in ambient seawater conditions. Drilling results from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 133 and 166 indicate that the timing of late Neogene sedimentary breaks triggered by sea level lowerings is synchronous in the sedimentary successions of the Queensland Plateau and the Great Bahama Bank. This synchrony indicates that these sea level changes were eustatic in origin. The carbonate platforms were also affected by contemporary, paleoceanographically controlled fluctuations in carbonate production. Paleoceanographic changes are recorded at 10.7, 3.6, and 1.7-2.0 Ma. At the Queensland Plateau, sea surface temperature shifts are documented by shifts from tropical to temperate carbonates (10.7 Ma) and vice versa (3.6 Ma); the modern tropical platform was established at 2.0-1.8 Ma. At Great Bahama Bank, changes were registered in compositional variations of platform-derived sediment, such as major occurrence of peloids (3.6 Ma) and higher rates of neritic carbonate input (1.7 Ma). The synchroneity of these changes attests to the far-field effects of modifications in the oceanographic circulation on shallow-water, low-latitude carbonate production.

  13. Late Cretaceous sea level from a paleoshoreline

    SciTech Connect

    McDonough, K.J.; Cross, T.A. )

    1991-04-10

    The contemporary elevation of a Late Cenomanian ({approx}93 Ma) shoreline was determined at five localities along the tectonically stable, eastern margin of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, North America. This shoreline, represented by marine-to-nonmarine facies transitions in strata of the Greenhorn sequence (UZA-2 cycle of Haq et al. (1987)), was identified from outcrop and borehole data. Biostratigraphic zonations constrained the geologic age at each locality. Sequence stratigraphic correlations, based on identifying discrete progradational units and the surfaces that separate them, were used to refine age correlations to better than 100 kyr between localities. A single Cenomanian shoreline was correlated within a single progradational unit, and its elevation was determined at five localities. This paleostrandline occurs 265-286m above present-day sea level, at an average elevation of 276 m. Isostatic and flexural corrections were applied to remove the effects of postdepositional vertical movement, including sediment compaction by loading, uplift due to erosion, and glacial loading and rebound. Errors inherent in each measurement and each correction were estimated. Corrections and their cumulative error estimates yield a Late Cenomanian elevation of 269{plus minus}87 m above present sea level. The corrected elevation approximates sea level at 93 Ma and provides a measure of Late Cenomanian eustasy prior to the Early Turonian highstand. Establishing the absolute value for eustasy at a single point in geologic time provides a frame of reference for calibrating relative sea level curves, as well as constraining the magnitudes of tectonic subsidence, sediment flux, and other variables that controlled water depth and relative sea level.

  14. Sea level and shoreline reconstructions for the Red Sea: isostatic and tectonic considerations and implications for hominin migration out of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambeck, Kurt; Purcell, Anthony; Flemming, Nicholas. C.; Vita-Finzi, Claudio; Alsharekh, Abdullah M.; Bailey, Geoffrey N.

    2011-12-01

    The history of sea level within the Red Sea basin impinges on several areas of research. For archaeology and prehistory, past sea levels of the southern sector define possible pathways of human dispersal out of Africa. For tectonics, the interglacial sea levels provide estimates of rates for vertical tectonics. For global sea level studies, the Red Sea sediments contain a significant record of changing water chemistry with implications on the mass exchange between oceans and ice sheets during glacial cycles. And, because of its geometry and location, the Red Sea provides a test laboratory for models of glacio-hydro-isostasy. The Red Sea margins contain incomplete records of sea level for the Late Holocene, for the Last Glacial Maximum, for the Last Interglacial and for earlier interglacials. These are usually interpreted in terms of tectonics and ocean volume changes but it is shown here that the glacio-hydro-isostatic process is an additional important component with characteristic spatial variability. Through an iterative analysis of the Holocene and interglacial evidence a separation of the tectonic, isostatic and eustatic contributions is possible and we present a predictive model for palaeo-shorelines and water depths for a time interval encompassing the period proposed for migrations of modern humans out of Africa. Principal conclusions include the following. (i) Late Holocene sea level signals evolve along the length of the Red Sea, with characteristic mid-Holocene highstands not developing in the central part. (ii) Last Interglacial sea level signals are also location dependent and, in the absence of tectonics, are not predicted to occur more than 1-2 m above present sea level. (iii) For both periods, Red Sea levels at 'expected far-field' elevations are not necessarily indicative of tectonic stability and the evidence points to a long-wavelength tectonic uplift component along both the African and Arabian northern and central sides of the Red Sea. (iv) The

  15. Inconsistencies in sea level pressure trends between different atmospheric products. Impact on sea level trend estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, D.; Jordà, G.

    2012-04-01

    Long term climate datasets are of great importance to understand the processes behind climate variability, to evaluate the performance of climate models and to identify signals of climate change. Among the different atmospheric variables, sea level pressure (SLP) is the basic dynamical variable and is the most widely analyzed quantity. From the ocean perspective, SLP is of crucial importance for a dynamical interpretation of sea level records. In order to isolate the contribution to sea level variability of circulation and heat and freshwater contents, a common practice is to remove the sea level fluctuations induced by SLP. At seasonal and longer time scales, sea level is expected to react as an inverted barometer (IB) to changes in SLP. Therefore, provided that accuracy of available SLP data is high enough, the atmospheric contribution to sea level variability can be isolated and removed from sea level records. This is routinely done for tide gauge records, altimetry or sea level reconstructions. Different atmospheric gridded products spanning the last decades are nowadays available. On the one hand, there are historical SLP datasets where observations from land stations and ocean observations have been interpolated into a regular grid. On the other hand, there are reanalyses where an atmospheric model is run assimilating the historical data. Both kind of products have been extensively used in recent years either directly (i.e. to analyse the SLP evolution) or indirectly (i.e. through the removal of IB effect on sea level records). However, it is well known that the quality of those products may not be homogeneous on time. In this contribution, we compare long term SLP trends from different atmospheric products (reanalysis and gridded historical datasets), and evaluate the uncertainties introduced by them in the sea level trend estimations. The results show that discrepancies between datasets can induce an uncertainty up to 0.5 mm/yr for the period 1958-2001 on

  16. A NOAA/NOS Sea Level Advisory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, W.

    2011-12-01

    In order for coastal communities to realize current impacts and become resilient to future changes, sea level advisories/bulletins are necessary that systematically monitor and document non-tidal anomalies (residuals) and flood-watch (elevation) conditions. The need became apparent after an exceptional sea level anomaly along the U.S. East Coast in June - July of 2009 when higher than normal sea levels coincided with a perigean-spring tide and flooded many coastal regions. The event spurred numerous public inquiries to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) from coastal communities concerned because of the lack of any coastal storm signatures normally associated with such an anomaly. A subsequent NOAA report provided insight into some of the mechanisms involved in the event and methods for tracking their reoccurrences. NOAA/CO-OPS is the U.S. authority responsible for defining sea level datums and tracking their relative changes in support of marine navigation and national and state land-use boundaries. These efforts are supported by the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON), whose long-term and widespread observations largely define a total water level measurement impacting a coastal community. NWLON time series provide estimates of local relative sea level trends, a product increasingly utilized by various stakeholders planning for the future. NWLON data also capture significant short-term changes and conveyance of high-water variations (from surge to seasonal scale) provides invaluable insight into inundation patterns ultimately needed for a more comprehensive planning guide. A NOAA/CO-OPS Sea Level Advisory Project will enhance high-water monitoring capabilities by: - Automatically detecting sea level anomalies and flood-watch occurrences - Seasonally calibrating the anomaly thresholds to a locality in terms of flood potential - Alerting for near

  17. Ice sheet systems and sea level change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Modern views of ice sheets provided by satellites, airborne surveys, in situ data and paleoclimate records while transformative of glaciology have not fundamentally changed concerns about ice sheet stability and collapse that emerged in the 1970's. Motivated by the desire to learn more about ice sheets using new technologies, we stumbled on an unexplored field of science and witnessed surprising changes before realizing that most were coming too fast, soon and large. Ice sheets are integrant part of the Earth system; they interact vigorously with the atmosphere and the oceans, yet most of this interaction is not part of current global climate models. Since we have never witnessed the collapse of a marine ice sheet, observations and exploration remain critical sentinels. At present, these observations suggest that Antarctica and Greenland have been launched into a path of multi-meter sea level rise caused by rapid climate warming. While the current loss of ice sheet mass to the ocean remains a trickle, every mm of sea level change will take centuries of climate reversal to get back, several major marine-terminating sectors have been pushed out of equilibrium, and ice shelves are irremediably being lost. As glaciers retreat from their salty, warm, oceanic margins, they will melt away and retreat slower, but concerns remain about sea level change from vastly marine-based sectors: 2-m sea level equivalent in Greenland and 23-m in Antarctica. Significant changes affect 2/4 marine-based sectors in Greenland - Jakobshavn Isb. and the northeast stream - with Petermann Gl. not far behind. Major changes have affected the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica since the 1980s. Smaller yet significant changes affect the marine-based Wilkes Land sector of East Antarctica, a reminder that not all marine-based ice is in West Antarctica. Major advances in reducing uncertainties in sea level projections will require massive, interdisciplinary efforts that are not currently in place

  18. Eustatic and tectonic controls on development and demise of Waulsortian carbonate buildups, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Precht, W.F.; Shepard, W.

    1989-03-01

    Deeper water Waulsortian carbonate buildups of Kinderhookian age are known from four localities in Montana. These buildups are situated within rhythmically bedded carbonate mudstones in the Paine Member of the Lodgepole formation. These buildups are mud-rich, byrozoan-crinoid mounds which contain abundant stromatactoid-like spar-filled cavities. The buildups are located along downdropped blocks on bounding faults of the Central Montana trough related to reactivation of a middle Proterozoic intracratonic rift margin (aulacogen). Sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Lodgepole throughout central Montana forms the basis for interpretation of buildup development and demise. Opening of the trough coupled with sea level rise formed three distinct members of the Lodgepole, including (1) a transgressive surface marked by shallow-water deposits of the Cottonwood Canyon Member, (2) a transgressive systems tract of the Paine Member which can be separated into two distinct facies - a condensed section of deeper water carbonate mudstones to wackestones and the Waulsortian buildup facies which are encased within these rhythmically bedded deposits, and (3) a high-stand systems tract characterized by high-energy, cyclic, shoaling-upward crinoidal grainstones and oolites of the Woodhurst Member. Rapid eustatic rise and syntectonic subsidence during the transgressive systems tract outpassed buildup development and led to subsequent drowning. The lack of rapid reef building metazoans during the Mississippian is also suspect in explaining Waulsortian buildup demise.

  19. Soil Accretionary Dynamics, Sea-Level Rise and the Survival of Wetlands in Venice Lagoon: A Field and Modelling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. W.; Rybczyk, J.; Scarton, F.; Rismondo, A.; Are, D.; Cecconi, G.

    1999-11-01

    Over the past century, Venice Lagoon (Italy) has experienced a high rate of wetland loss. To gain an understanding of the factors leading to this loss, from March 1993 until May 1996 the soil accretionary dynamics of these wetlands were studied. Vertical accretion, short term sedimentation, soil vertical elevation change and horizontal shoreline change were measured at several sites with varying sediment availability and wave energy. Short term sedimentation averaged 3-7 g dry m -2day -1per site with a maximum of 76 g m -2 day -1. The highest values were measured during strong pulsing events, such as storms and river floods, that mobilized and transported suspended sediments. Accretion ranged from 2-23 mm yr -1and soil elevation change ranged from -32 to 13·8 mm yr -1. The sites with highest accretion were near a river mouth and in an area where strong wave energy resuspended bottom sediments that were deposited on the marsh surface. A marsh created with dredged spoil had a high rate of elevation loss, probably due mainly to compaction. Shoreline retreat and expansion of tidal channels also occurred at several sites due to high wave energy and a greater tidal prism. The current rate of elevation gain at some sites was not sufficient to offset relative sea-level rise. The results suggest that reduction of wave energy and increasing sediment availability are needed to offset wetland loss in different areas of the lagoon. Using the data collected as part of this project, we developed a wetland elevation model designed to predict the effect of increasing rates of eustatic sea-level rise on wetland sustainability. The advantage of this model, in conjunction with measured short-term rates of soil elevation change, to determine sustainability is that the model integrates the effects of long term processes (e.g. compaction and decomposition) and takes into account feedback mechanisms that affect elevation. Specifically, changes in elevation can result in changes in

  20. The future for the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Sea Level Data Rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Matthews, Andrew; Rickards, Lesley; Aarup, Thorkild

    2016-04-01

    Historical sea level data are rare and unrepeatable measurements with a number of applications in climate studies (sea level rise), oceanography (ocean currents, tides, surges), geodesy (national datum), geophysics and geology (coastal land movements) and other disciplines. However, long-term time series are concentrated in the northern hemisphere and there are no records at the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) global data bank longer than 100 years in the Arctic, Africa, South America or Antarctica. Data archaeology activities will help fill in the gaps in the global dataset and improve global sea level reconstruction. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is an international programme conducted under the auspices of the WMO-IOC Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology. It was set up in 1985 to collect long-term tide gauge observations and to develop systems and standards "for ocean monitoring and flood warning purposes". At the GLOSS-GE-XIV Meeting in 2015, GLOSS agreed on a number of action items to be developed in the next two years. These were: 1. To explore mareogram digitisation applications, including NUNIEAU (more information available at: http://www.mediterranee.cerema.fr/logiciel-de-numerisation-des-enregistrements-r57.html) and other recent developments in scanning/digitisation software, such as IEDRO's Weather Wizards program, to see if they could be used via a browser. 2. To publicise sea level data archaeology and rescue by: • maintaining and regularly updating the Sea Level Data Archaeology page on the GLOSS website • strengthening links to the GLOSS data centres and data rescue organisations e.g. linking to IEDRO, ACRE, RDA • restarting the sea level data rescue blog with monthly posts. 3. Investigate sources of funding for data archaeology and rescue projects. 4. Propose "Guidelines" for rescuing sea level data. These action items will aid the discovery, scanning, digitising and quality control

  1. Geochronology and subsurface stratigraphy of Pukapuka and Rakahanga atolls, Cook Islands: Late Quaternary reef growth and sea level history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, S.C.; Hein, J.R.; Hausmann, R.; Radtke, U.

    1992-01-01

    Eustatic sea-level cycles superposed on thermal subsidence of an atoll produce layers of high sea-level reefs separated by erosional unconformities. Coral samples from these reefs from cores drilled to 50 m beneath the lagoons of Pukapuka and Rakahanga atolls, northern Cook Islands give electron spin resonance (ESR) and U-series ages ranging from the Holocene to 600,000 yr B.P. Subgroups of these ages and the stratigraphic position of their bounding unconformities define at least 5 periods of reef growth and high sea-level (0-9000 yr B.P., 125,000-180,000 yr B.P., 180,000-230,000 yr B.P., 300,000-460,000 yr B.P., 460,000-650,000 yr B.P.). Only two ages fall within error of the last interglacial high sea-level stand (???125,000-135,000 yr B.P.). This paucity of ages may result from extensive erosion of the last intergracial reef. In addition, post-depositional isotope exchange may have altered the time ages of three coral samples to apparent ages that fall within glacial stage 6. For the record to be preserved, vertical accretion during rising sea-level must compensate for surface lowering from erosion during sea-level lowstands and subsidence of the atoll; erosion rates (6-63 cm/1000 yr) can therefore be calculated from reef accretion rates (100-400 cm/1000 yr), subsidence rates (2-6 cm/1000 yr), and the duration of island submergence (8-15% of the last 600,000 yr). The stratigraphy of coral ages indicates island subsidence rates of 4.5 ?? 2.8 cm/1000 yr for both islands. A model of reef growth and erosion based on the stratigraphy of the Cook Islands atolls suggests average subsidence and erosion rates of between 3-6 and 15-20 cm/1000 yr, respectively. ?? 1992.

  2. Reconstruction of Sea/Lake-Level Changes in an Active Strike-Slip Basin (Gulf of Cariaco, NE Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Daele, M.; Audemard, F.; Beck, C.; de Batist, M.; van Welden, A.; Moernaut, J.; 2006 Shipboard Party, G.

    2008-05-01

    In January 2006, 76 high-resolution reflection seismic profiles were acquired in the Gulf of Cariaco, Northeast Venezuela. In the upper 100 m of sedimentary infill, 17 unconformity-bounded sequences were identified and mapped throughout the basin. Up to now, no core or borehole information is available to provide age constraints on these units. The sedimentary infill is cut by several faults, Riedel faults in the central part and the El Pilar fault (one of the main faults of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary) in the southern part of the gulf. The connection of the Gulf of Cariaco with the adjacent Cariaco Basin occurs at a present-day water depth of ~ 55 m. This implies that the gulf was disconnected from the world ocean and functioned as a lake during a large part of the last glacial. The main rivers entering the gulf drain the coastal mountain ranges and tend to form pronounced deltas at their inlet. During times when the gulf was a lake, periods with a dry climate resulted in dramatic lake-level lowstands and even complete desiccation/evaporation. The present-day depths of delta offlap breaks and the presence of lowstand/evaporite deposits can thus be used to estimate sea/lake level at the time of their formation. Detailed analysis of these stratigraphic sea/lake-level indicators allowed reconstructing the sea/lake-level history for the period encompassed by the 17 identified sequences. This sea/lake-level reconstruction also needed to be corrected for tectonic subsidence, affecting different parts of the gulf with different intensity. The reconstructed sea/lake-level curve of the Gulf of Cariaco was compared with the eustatic sea-level curve and with results of previous paleoclimate studies in Venezuela. The striking coherence between the eustatic curve and the amplitudes and absolute heights of successive reconstructed lowstands and highstands compelled us to tune our record to the eustatic curve in order to achieve a rough age estimate for our units

  3. Eustatic and tectonic control of deposition of the lower and middle Pennsylvanian strata of the Central Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesnut, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    . Previously, tectonic subsidence of the basin was considered to be the dominant control on deposition of the coal-bearing rocks of the basin. However, new calculations show that eustatic rates are more significant than averaged subsidence rates for the Pennsylvanian Appalachian Basin. Accordingly, sea-level changes are considered to be a dominant control on coastal sedimentation during the Pennsylvanian. However, tectonic subsidence created the accomodation space for preservation of various orders of cyclic sedimentation; the preserved order of cycles was dependent upon the rate of subsidence from basin margin to axis.

  4. Sea level changes in the Holocene

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, W.F. )

    1993-03-01

    Beach ridge data provide much information on the history of sea level changes through all of Holocene time. Two data sets start at about 12,000 B.P., one of them essentially continuous to now with data every 40--50 yrs. Another starting at 7,600 B.P. is continuous to the present. Others span the last 3,200 years. These records agree reasonably closely, and show the Little Ice Age (since 1,200 A.D.). The sea level changes in these data include the following: (a) Early Holocene crisis, about 8,000 B.P. The Swedish (Baltic Sea) record ends about this time, the Hudson Bay record starts at roughly this time, and the Danish record has a 300--500-year gap at about this time. From the latter, it appears that sea level rose sharply, shortly before 8,000 B.P., and fell again shortly after 8,000 B.P. These were the largest changes in Holocene time. The vertical change may have been as much as 12--18 meters, and the rate of change as much as 5--8 cm/yr, perhaps the maximum possible. In stable areas, evidence for these changes are now 25--30 meters below sea level. (b) Early Holocene general rise, up to about 8,000 B.P. Evidence for this is now known only on uplifted coasts. (c) Middle Holocene high, 2 m above present MSL 7,000--5,500 B.P. (d) Middle Holocene low, 3--4 m below present MSL 5,000--3,500 B.P. (e) Several changes up to 2 meters, especially since 3,000 B.P. In general, rates of change have been close to 1 cm/yr (major exceptions noted above). The only persistent interval was that between beach ridges; each ridge and its associated swale seem to have been built by a sea-level rise-and-fall couplet, having dimensions so small (perhaps 5--30 cm) that they could be overlooked easily on tide-gauge records. The average apparent time interval was 35--50 years.

  5. Consequences of sea level variability and sea level rise for Cuban territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, M.; Martínez, C. A.; Marzo, O.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was to determine a first approximation of coastal zone flooding by 2100, taking into account the more persistent processes of sea level variability and non-accelerated linear sea level rise estimation to assess the main impacts. The annual linear rate of mean sea level rise in the Cuban archipelago, obtained from the longest tide gauge records, has fluctuated between 0.005 cm/year at Casilda and 0.214 cm/year at Siboney. The main sea level rise effects for the Cuban coastal zone due to climate change and global warming are shown. Monthly and annual mean sea level anomalies, some of which are similar to or higher than the mean sea level rise estimated for halfway through the present century, reinforce the inland seawater penetration due to the semi-daily high tide. The combination of these different events will result in the loss of goods and services, and require expensive investments for adaption.

  6. Comparisons of various sea level reconstructions and sea level from data synthesis products: 1960-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Mark; Stammer, Detlef; Köhl, Armin; Meyssignac, Benoit; Church, John; Schröter, Jens; Wenzel, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    We investigate sea level trends and variability as reconstructed from tide gauge data and ocean data assimilations (ODA) over the last 60 years. Tide gauge reconstructions (TGR) are mostly based on statistical approaches using selected EOFs, or trained from variability patterns, from altimetric sea level and tide gauge data to extrapolate regional sea level evolution backward in time. Reconstructions also exist from dynamical ocean modeling approaches with and without data assimilation. We intercompare all results and provide ensemble mean and ensemble spreads to describe estimates of past regional sea level changes and their uncertainties. While tide gauge reconstructions match tide gauge data better than ODA, they exhibit less variability in the open ocean. TGRs match the trends and variability better during the satellite-altimetry era than for the entire period from 1960-2012, whereas the ODAs mostly do not. An average of all products produces the best statistics for comparing to the set of tide gauges. The results are mixed. The TGRs and ODAs can be useful in some respects, such as calculating a global sea-level signal, and matching altimetric data, and each other, well in the Pacific. But the regional open-ocean sea-level change and variability found from altimetric data are not well reproduced over substantial portions of the ocean. Over periods earlier than the satellite era, these reconstructed regional patterns may not be trustworthy, nor can they be verified.

  7. Long-term sea level and the cycle of supercontinent formation and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seton, M.; Muller, R. D.

    2012-04-01

    The main drivers of global long-term sea level fluctuations include changes in seafloor spreading, mid-ocean ridge length, continental area, sedimentation and large igneous provinces, which contribute to defining the volume of the ocean basins. Changes in the volume of ice-sheets affects the amount of water available to fill the ocean basins through time but its effect is smaller. In order to quantify the contribution of ocean volume change to global sea level, we build a plate motion model back through time based on the present day preserved seafloor spreading record, an interpretation of the spatio-temporal record of plate boundaries, simple assumptions regarding spreading symmetry and triple junction closure. We reconstruct the now subducted portions of oceanic lithosphere and compute grids of the age-area distribution of ocean lithosphere from the time of Pangea assembly to supercontinent break up and dispersal (200-0 Ma). Our model includes a merged moving hotspot and true polar-wander corrected reference frame, a revised history for the formation of Panthalassa, a model for the break-up of the Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi plateaus between 120-86 Ma and includes the seafloor spreading history in the Tethys and Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. We estimate the contribution of deep-sea sedimentation to ocean basin volume using a predictive age-latitude-sedimentation relationship. The eruption and subduction/accretion of large igneous provinces based on a newly compiled age-coded large igneous province data set is incorporated in our workflow to estimate their relative input to sea level change. A similar approach was successfully applied to predict the magnitude and pattern of eustatic sea level change since the Cretaceous (Müller et. al. 2008) but this study was unable to capture the full cycle of supercontinent amalgamation and dispersal. Our results suggest that old mid-ocean ridge flanks in the proto-Pacific and the Tethys oceans were gradually destroyed during the

  8. Coastal subsidence and relative sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface fluid-pressure declines caused by pumping of groundwater or hydrocarbons can lead to aquifer-system compaction and consequent land subsidence. This subsidence can be rapid, as much as 30 cm per year in some instances, and large, totaling more than 13 m in extreme examples. Thus anthropogenic subsidence may be the dominant contributor to relative sea-level rise in coastal environments where subsurface fluids are heavily exploited. Maximum observed rates of human-induced subsidence greatly exceed the rates of natural subsidence of unconsolidated sediments (~0.1–1 cm yr−1) and the estimated rates of ongoing global sea-level rise (~0.3 cm yr−1).

  9. Sea-level changes before large earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyss, M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in sea level have long been used as a measure of local uplift and subsidence associated with large earthquakes. For instance, in 1835, the British naturalist Charles Darwin observed that sea level dropped by 2.7 meters during the large earthquake in Concepcion, CHile. From this piece of evidence and the terraces along the beach that he saw, Darwin concluded that the Andes had grown to their present height through earthquakes. Much more recently, George Plafker and James C. Savage of the U.S Geological Survey have shown, from barnacle lines, that the great 1960 Chile and the 1964 Alaska earthquakes caused several meters of vertical displacement of the shoreline. 

  10. Hurricanes, sea level rise, and coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Wang, Ping; Rosati, Julie D.; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen hurricanes have made landfall along the U.S. east and Gulf coasts over the past decade. For most of these storms, the USGS with our partners in NASA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have flown before and after lidar missions to detect changes in beaches and dunes. The most dramatic changes occurred when the coasts were completely submerged in an inundation regime. Where this occurred locally, a new breach was cut, like during Hurricane Isabel in North Carolina. Where surge inundated an entire island, the sand was stripped off leaving marshy outcrops behind, like during Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Sea level rise together with sand starvation and repeated hurricane impacts could increase the probabilities of inundation and degrade coasts more than sea level rise alone.

  11. Rising Sea Levels: Truth or Scare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Alan

    2007-01-01

    When "ITV News" ran an item that shocked the author, about rising sea levels that will have caused the entire evacuation of the islands by the end of this year, he began to wonder whether the Pacific Ocean is really rising as fast as this. The media reporting of such things can be a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it brought to the author's…

  12. Identifying the sea level signal: Surf's up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Of all the dire consequences of the greenhouse effect, global sea level rise is potentially the most destructive to human life and property. But the processes that increase the volume of the oceans are so poorly understood that theoreticians are taking their lead from scientists trying to actually measure current changes in sea level that might be caused by the greenhouse effect. As with surface temperature, precipitation, and other measures of climate change, identifying the greenhouse signal is a daunting problem.Climate models that predict mean temperature increases around the world of up to several degrees C in the next 50-100 years in response to human-induced global warming have given rise to a scientific consensus that mountain glaciers and ice sheets will begin to melt and the water in oceans will slightly expand, raising sea level. Such increases would inundate some of the most densely populated and highly cultivated areas on the planet, displacing and endangering many millions of people at a devastating economic and social cost.

  13. Internal and external forcing of sea level variability in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Denis L.; Landerer, Felix W.

    2015-11-01

    The variability of sea level in the Black Sea is forced by a combination of internal and external processes of atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial origin. We use a combination of satellite altimetry and gravity, tide gauge, river discharge, and atmospheric re-analysis data to provide a comprehensive up-to-date analysis of sea level variability in the Black Sea and to quantify the role of different environmental factors that force the variability. The Black Sea is part of a large-scale climatic system that includes the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic. The seasonal sea level budget shows similar contributions of fresh water fluxes (precipitation, evaporation, and river discharge) and the Black Sea outflow, while the impact of the net surface heat flux is smaller although not negligible. We find that the nonseasonal sea level time series in the Black and Aegean seas are significantly correlated, the latter leading by 1 month. This lag is attributed to the adjustment of sea level in the Black Sea to externally forced changes of sea level in the Aegean Sea and to the impact of river discharge. The nonseasonal sea level budget in the Black Sea is dominated by precipitation and evaporation over the sea itself, but external processes such as river discharge and changes in the outflow can also cause some large synoptic-scale sea level anomalies. Sea level is strongly coupled to terrestrial water storage over the Black Sea drainage basin, which is modulated by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We show that during the low/high NAO southwesterly/northeasterly winds near the Strait of Gibraltar and southerly/northerly winds over the Aegean Sea are able to dynamically increase/decrease sea level in the Mediterranean and Black seas, respectively.

  14. Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, M.; Nowak, K.; Berner, U.; Heunisch, C.; Bandel, K.; Röhling, H.-G.; Wolfgramm, M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of the Stuttgart Formation ('Schilfsandstein'), commonly considered as a type-example of the Carnian Pluvial Event, was controlled by high frequent 4th order sequences that resulted in pre-, intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions from Tethyan waters into the epicontinental Central European Basin (CEB). The pre-Schilfsandstein transgression flooded the CEB trough gates to the Southeast and resulted in a wide-spread inland sea that was characterised by increased biological productivity, predominantly oxic conditions and enabled the immigration of euryhaline marine fauna with plankton, ostracodes, fishes, bivalves and the gastropods Omphaloptychia suebica n. sp. and Settsassia stuttgartica n. sp. The rather short-term intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions flooded the CEB from the Southwest and Southeast and established a shallow brackish inland sea that stretched up to North Germany. Both, the 4th and 3rd order sequences derived from the succession in the CEB correlate well with those derived from successions of Tethyan shelfs. Therefore pronounced circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles are evidenced and may have had considerable impact on prominent middle Carnian events: Reingraben turnover, Carnian Pluvial Event, Carnian Crisis and Mid Carnian Wet Intermezzo. The broad circum-Tethyan evidence of 106-year scale cycles suggests glacioeustatic sea-level changes even in the Triassic Greenhouse period.

  15. Upper Cretaceous Ferron-Frontier clastic wedge, Utah and Wyoming - interplay between sea level, sediment supply, and subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Ryer, T.A.

    1986-08-01

    The Ferron-Frontier clastic wedge is among the most widespread in the Cretaceous System of North America. Some writers have emphasized the role of eustatic sea level in forming this clastic wedge; others have emphasized tectonics and variations in sediment supply. The evidence indicates that both were important, but to varying degrees and at different times. The Greenhorn regression was rapid, spanning only the middle part of Turonian time. It was caused primarily by lowering of sea level. Vast tracts of the sea floor that had previously been below wave base shoaled and became areas of accumulation of sandy and/or bioclastic-rich sediments. Sea level began to rise during late Turonian time. Subwave-base conditions returned to much of the sea floor, and the shoreline transgressed westward. It was during the Niobrara trangression that uplift in the Sevier orogenic belt and within the western part of the foreland basin caused a large volume of sediment to be carried eastward through the Ferron-Frontier river systems. In southwestern Wyoming, the influx of sediment slowed the transgression and resulted in stacking of shoreline sandstone units. The influx of sediment in central Utah was even greater - so much so that the shoreline once again prograded seaward. Late Turonian time marked the peak regression of the shoreline in that area. The tectonically induced influx of sediment appears to have been short-lived. A continued rise of sea level, combined with renewed downwarping of the foreland basin and trapping of sediment within it, led to abrupt westward transgression of the shoreline during Coniacian time.

  16. Eustatic controls on stratification and facies associations in deep-water deposits, Great Valley sequence, Sacramento Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, S.R.; Campion, K.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Great Valley sequence consists of submarine fan deposits that are divided into laterally persistent sandstones and conglomerates separated by thick shaly intervals. The frequency of sandstone-shale successions in the Great Valley closely corresponds to the occurrence of major eustatic falls observed elsewhere in the world during the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous. This close correspondence between the number of observed fans and sea level cycles has implications for the timing of fan development and facies models of deep-water deposits. On the basis of seismic expression, deep-water deposits from various basins have been divided by Mitchum into a sand-prone lower fan, which has a sharp basal contact, and a younger upper fan, which exhibits downlap onto and over the lower fan. Sand-prone members of the Great Valley (e.g., Venado and Forbes) are sharp-based, fining-upward units that have an aggradational or retrogradational stacking pattern of fan lobes. Massive sandstone, pebbly sandstone, conglomerate, pebbly mudstone, turbidites, and lenticular turbidites compose the fan lithologies. These rocks are typically referred to as inner fan channel or midfan lobes. In contrast, shale-dominated sections with thin-bedded turbidites (e.g., Boxer and Yolo) that have been variously described as basin plain, outer fan, inner fan levee, and slope correspond to the upper fan. Sharp basal fan contacts, textural contrasts between the lower and upper fans, and encasement of sand-prone fans in thick shaly sections indicate that fan development is an episodic rather than a continuous process. Rapid eustatic fall causing stream incision and shelf bypass is a likely mechanism for basin-wide and interbasinal fan development. Lithofacies encountered in fan deposits are related to grain size in the source area; specific lithologies in Great Valley fans (e.g., conglomerate) may be absent in other basins.

  17. Probabilistic assessment of sea level during the last interglacial stage.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Robert E; Simons, Frederik J; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Maloof, Adam C; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-17

    With polar temperatures approximately 3-5 degrees C warmer than today, the last interglacial stage (approximately 125 kyr ago) serves as a partial analogue for 1-2 degrees C global warming scenarios. Geological records from several sites indicate that local sea levels during the last interglacial were higher than today, but because local sea levels differ from global sea level, accurately reconstructing past global sea level requires an integrated analysis of globally distributed data sets. Here we present an extensive compilation of local sea level indicators and a statistical approach for estimating global sea level, local sea levels, ice sheet volumes and their associated uncertainties. We find a 95% probability that global sea level peaked at least 6.6 m higher than today during the last interglacial; it is likely (67% probability) to have exceeded 8.0 m but is unlikely (33% probability) to have exceeded 9.4 m. When global sea level was close to its current level (>or=-10 m), the millennial average rate of global sea level rise is very likely to have exceeded 5.6 m kyr(-1) but is unlikely to have exceeded 9.2 m kyr(-1). Our analysis extends previous last interglacial sea level studies by integrating literature observations within a probabilistic framework that accounts for the physics of sea level change. The results highlight the long-term vulnerability of ice sheets to even relatively low levels of sustained global warming.

  18. Synsedimentary tectonics, mud-mounds and sea-level changes on a Palaeozoic carbonate platform margin: a Devonian Montagne Noire example (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrouilh, Robert; Bourque, Pierre-André; Dansereau, Pauline; Bourrouilh-Le Jan, Françoise; Weyant, Pierre

    1998-06-01

    The Devonian sedimentary succession of the southern flank of the Montagne Noire (France) was deposited along a divergent margin. This paper is a contribution to describe and evaluate biogenic, sedimentary, geochemical and micropalaeontological features as indicators of sea-level changes and global history of the Devonian in this area. Following transgression and shallow-water environments during Early Devonian time (Lochkovian to early Emsian), biogenic mud-rich mounds with stromatactis developed during latest Emsian at the platform margin. The depth of the Devonian sea was increasing and the seafloor passed below the photic zone and the lower limit of storm wave base during the Emsian. Growth and seismic faults affected the mounds and created Neptunian cracks and crevices, quickly filled with sedimentary material (pisoids) and cements (Neptunian dykes and veins). Light and CL-microscopy, and stable isotope geochemistry show that stromatactis, cements of Neptunian dykes, veins and pisoid cortices are early marine, whereas the red finely crystalline material that forms the bulk of the mound has been cemented in the near-surface diagenetic environment, after the early marine cementation of stromatactis and Neptunian dykes and veins, by meteoric or hydrothermal fluids. The sedimentary rocks overlying the stromatactis mounds exhibit regularly condensed iron and manganese-rich layers, interrupted by the Kellwasser hypoxic horizon. These condensed deposits developed up to the Famennian in a context of carbonate gravity sedimentation and became more and more rhythmic and frequent up section. The occurrence and irregular distribution of large-scale submarine mass flows during Frasnian and Famennian times can be related to block faulting on which Lower Devonian stromatactis mounds could have been uplifted by this block faulting to form seamounts. The sea-level fluctuations detected in the southern flank of Montagne Noire are compared to the Devonian eustatic sea-level curve

  19. The Cenomanian/Turonian carbon burial event, Bass River, NJ, USA: Geochemical, paleoecological, and sea-level changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarman, P.J.; Miller, K.G.; Olsson, R.K.; Browning, J.V.; Wright, J.D.; De Romero, L. M.; White, T.S.; Muller, F.L.; Uptegrove, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bass River borehole (ODP Leg 174AX) recovered approximately 200 ft (61 m) of upper Cenomanian to lower Turonian strata from the New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA, including the expression of a global carbon burial event. The Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T) boundary is recognized at Bass River at ???1935.5 ft (589.9 m) based on the contact of nannofossil Microstaurus chiastius and Eiffellithus eximius Subzones of the Parhabdolithus asper Zone. Carbon isotopic records of both Gavelinella and Epistomina show a large (>2???) increase immediately below the C/T boundary, with maximum values of 6??? in Epistomina and 4.3??? in Gavelinella. The ??13C offset between these taxa is constant and we conclude that Epistomina, like Gavelinella, faithfully records seawater ??13C changes. Above the sharp ??13C increase, elevated ??13C and sedimentary organic carbon (>0.9%) values continue into the lower Turonian, culminating in a sharp ??13C decrease. High ??13C values in the uppermost Cenomanian-lower Turonian at Bass River correlate with a global carbon burial event recorded in Europe and the U.S. Western Interior; we estimate the duration of this event at Bass River as 400-500 k.y. Although the carbon burial event occurred during a long-term eustatic rise (10 m.y. scale), it occurs within a 1-2 m.y. long sequence at Bass River that indicates no relationship with sea-level lowering on the m.y. scale. The carbon burial event does not appear to be associated with maximum flooding either, indicating little correlation with sea-level rise on a m.y. scale. Within the sequence spanning the carbon event, there are at least 4 shallowing-upward parasequences (durations ???350-460 k.y.) indicated by changes in abundance and type of Epistomina species, ??18O variations, and minor lithologic variations. The highest occurrences of 6 Epistomina species and the origination of Epistomina sliteri Olsson n. sp. are associated with the parasequences and possibly with higher ??18O values. There is no

  20. Global increasing of mean sea level and erroneous treatment of a role of thermal factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite methods of studies of the ocean surface - methods of altimetry - have been obtained intensive development in the last decades (since 1993). However, altimetry studies with the help of special satellites such as TOPEX-Poseidon not only have not cleared up understanding of the phenomenon of increase of sea level (SLR), but have even more confused and without that a complex question on the reasons of increase of sea level. Appeared, that classical determinations of average velocity of increase of sea level on coastal observations (1.4-1.7 mm / yr) approximately for 0.8-1.0 mm / yr it is less, rather than by modern satellite determinations of satellites TOPEX - Poseidon etc. (2.5 - 2.8 mm / yr). On the basis of the data of altimetry observations of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason for the period 1993-2003 for geocentric velocity of increase of sea level (of global ocean) the value 2.8+/-0.4 mm / yr [1] has been obtained. In the given report the full answer is actually is given to a question put by leading experts on research of the sea level: "The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter missions provided a 12 year record of sea level change, which show increase of global mean sea level of 2.8+/-0.4 mm/yr, with considerable geographic variation. An important question for climate studies is to determine the cause of this change - specifically how much of the change is due to steric (heating) versus eustatic (runoff, melting ice, etc.) contribution?" [1]. There is, a big value of average velocity of increase of the sea level on the satellite data, it is possible to explain only by kinematical effect in data of observations. The motion of the satellite "is concerned" to the centre of mass of our planet, and its position is determined by a geocentric radius - vector. Therefore northern drift of the centre of mass in the Earth body [2] as though results in reduction of distances from the satellite up to the sea surface in the southern hemisphere and to their reduction

  1. Palynological tracers of eustatic and climatic changes in the Late Ordovician on the North Gondwanan Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hérissé, A.; Vecoli, M.

    2003-04-01

    The short-lived Hirnantian glacio-eustatic interval (1 My or less) caused about 60 per cent loss of total marine animal genera. This icehouse climate is also responsible for significant changes on the evolution of the plankton and the distribution of related microfossil assemblages, from pre-glacial to post-glacial episodes. This is clearly confirmed on different upper Ordovician sections from various paleogeographic location on the North Gondwanan margin. The effects of the glaciation did not correspond exactly to a cataclysmic event, because the palynomorphs do not show accelerated rates of extinction, in the inhospitable environment. It could also be noted that the origins of the Silurian communities are rooted in the upper Ordovician prior to the glaciation, with appearance of precursors (or -ahead of time-) forms, that diversified later in the Silurian. Nevertheless, the harsh climatic conditions associated to sea-level drop, caused a reduction in the number of taxa, with a scenario composed of three separate critical events: 1. a selective survival of ubiquitous taxa which are tolerant to the sea-level drawdown and of few taxa that appear specifically adapted to cold environments (Rawtheyan-early Hirnantian); 2. an adaptation of the sympagic microflora, to the variations of the sea-ice cover during deglaciation, including polymorphism and speciations (Hirnantian); 3. a slow recovery acompanying the climatic restoration and transgression in the latest Ordovician and early Silurian. Modifications in abundance and diversity of the microfossil assemblages, in the percentages of reworked elements and of amorphic organic matter are interpreted as evidence of a series of advances and retreats of the continental ice, of important changes of sea-surface conditions, of differences in the rate of melting of the icebergs during the deglaciation, as well as post-glacial isostatic rebounds. Our investigation demonstrates that the analysis of the evolution of palynomorph

  2. Interannual and Interdecadal Variability in Sea Level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Yurdanur Sezginer

    The observational data set archived by the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) consists of monthly means of sea-level heights at 846 stations. 213 of them are suitable for our purposes. We identified two dominant time scales of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal, as quasi-biennial and low-frequency (LF) at almost all stations, with the highest amplitudes in the equatorial Pacific and along the west coast of North America. Global sea-level rise, after post-glacial rebound corrections, are 1.620.38 mm/yr. Propagation features of the interannual variability are studied along the coastal sea level stations in five regions: eastern, western, and equatorial Pacific; eastern and western Atlantic. Throughout the Pacific, three dominant spatio-temporal oscillatory patterns are found in the time scales of ENSO variability. In the eastern Pacific, the biennial mode and the 6-yr low-frequency mode propagate poleward. In the western Pacific, interannual oscillation propagates southward in the northern hemisphere but no clear propagation is observed in the southern hemisphere. Equatorward propagation of the biennial signal is very clear in each hemisphere. In the equatorial Pacific, both the quasi -quadrannial and quasi-biennial modes at 10^ circN propagate westward. Strong and weak El Nino years are evident in RSLH reconstructed from the biennial and low-frequency modes. Interannual variability with periods of 3 and 4-8 years is detected in the Atlantic RSLH data. In the eastern Atlantic region, we have found slow propagation of both modes northward and southward, away from 40-45^circN. Sufficiently long and continuous RSLH at 81 stations show interdecadal oscillations with the periods of 9-13 and 18 years. 11.6 and 12.8 years of oscillations are found in the eastern and western Atlantic ocean at latitudes 40^circN-70^ circN and 10^circN -50^circN, respectively. The aforementioned features are simulated with a wind driven ocean model for the periods of 1950 and

  3. Storminess helps coastal marshes withstand sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Rising sea levels are predicted to threaten many coastal sea marshes around the world in the coming decades as the Earth's climate warms. In addition to accelerating sea level rise, global climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of storms in many places around the world. However, few studies have taken into account how an increased storminess might affect the ability of coastal marshes to withstand sea level rise.

  4. MIS 5e sea level: up to what point can we use literature reviews to answer the most pressing questions on the Last Interglacial ice sheets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    During MIS 5e (between ~128 and 116 kyr BP) greenhouse gas concentrations were comparable to pre-industrial levels, summer insolation was higher by ~10% at high latitudes and polar temperatures in both hemispheres were about 3-5 °C warmer than today. Sea level (SL) at this time has been a subject of numerous studies (and some debate) with ~1000 sites with MIS 5e sea level markers recognized worldwide. Recently, Kopp et al. (Nature, 2009) and Dutton & Lambeck (Science, 2012) analyzed worldwide datasets of sea level markers pertaining to the last interglacial. After accounting for GIA, they reached similar conclusions that eustatic (i.e., globally averaged) sea level (ESL) was between +5 and +9.4 m above modern during MIS 5e. Furthermore, Kopp et al. (Nature, 2009; GJI, 2013) suggest that sea level was not uniform during the LIG, but instead underwent at least two rapid oscillations including a rapid late 5e rise first proposed by Hearty et al. (QSR, 2007) and later by O'Leary et al. (Nat. Geo., 2013). Investigating the temporal and geographic variability of MIS 5e sea level opens new lines of research, in particular the possibility to fingerprint (Hay et al., QSR, 2014) the source of the proposed rapid ice sheet collapse near the end of the Last Interglacial. In this presentation we ask: can we use a database of published sea level estimates for this purpose? To answer this question, we built a relative sea level (RSL) database using RSLcalc 2.0; this is a relational database specifically designed to review relative sea level data points while keeping all the relevant information contained in the original publications. RSlcalc allows to estimate the measurement error (on the actual elevation of the SL feature), the error on the indicative range (the elevation range occupied by a sea level indicator) as well as the reference water level (the relationship between the marker and the former sea level). We show that the majority of published data have an accuracy of few

  5. Long-term sea level trends: Natural or anthropogenic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Karpytchev, M.; Lennartz-Sassinek, S.

    2014-08-01

    Detection and attribution of human influence on sea level rise are important topics that have not yet been explored in depth. We question whether the sea level changes (SLC) over the past century were natural in origin. SLC exhibit power law long-term correlations. By estimating Hurst exponent through Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and by applying statistics of Lennartz and Bunde, we search the lower bounds of statistically significant external sea level trends in longest tidal records worldwide. We provide statistical evidences that the observed SLC, at global and regional scales, is beyond its natural internal variability. The minimum anthropogenic sea level trend (MASLT) contributes to the observed sea level rise more than 50% in New York, Baltimore, San Diego, Marseille, and Mumbai. A MASLT is about 1 mm/yr in global sea level reconstructions that is more than half of the total observed sea level trend during the XXth century.

  6. Updating Maryland's sea-level rise projections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boesch, Donald F.; Atkinson, Larry P.; Boicourt, William C.; Boon, John D.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Ezer, Tal; Horton, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Zoe P.; Kopp, Robert E.; Li, Ming; Moss, Richard H.; Parris, Adam; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    With its 3,100 miles of tidal shoreline and low-lying rural and urban lands, “The Free State” is one of the most vulnerable to sea-level rise. Historically, Marylanders have long had to contend with rising water levels along its Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean and coastal bay shores. Shorelines eroded and low-relief lands and islands, some previously inhabited, were inundated. Prior to the 20th century, this was largely due to the slow sinking of the land since Earth’s crust is still adjusting to the melting of large masses of ice following the last glacial period. Over the 20th century, however, the rate of rise of the average level of tidal waters with respect to land, or relative sea-level rise, has increased, at least partially as a result of global warming. Moreover, the scientific evidence is compelling that Earth’s climate will continue to warm and its oceans will rise even more rapidly. Recognizing the scientific consensus around global climate change, the contribution of human activities to it, and the vulnerability of Maryland’s people, property, public investments, and natural resources, Governor Martin O’Malley established the Maryland Commission on Climate Change on April 20, 2007. The Commission produced a Plan of Action that included a comprehensive climate change impact assessment, a greenhouse gas reduction strategy, and strategies for reducing Maryland’s vulnerability to climate change. The Plan has led to landmark legislation to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas emissions and a variety of state policies designed to reduce energy consumption and promote adaptation to climate change.

  7. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  8. Regional, holocene records of the human dimension of global change: sea-level and land-use change in prehistoric Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluyter, Andrew

    1997-02-01

    Regional, Holocene records hold particular relevance for understanding the reciprocal nature of global environmental change and one of its major human dimensions: "sustainable agriculture", i.e., food production strategies which entail fewer causes of and are less susceptible to environmental change. In an epoch of accelerating anthropogenic transformation, those records reveal the protracted regional causes and consequences of change (often agricultural) in the global system as well as informing models of prehistoric, intensive agriculture which, because of long tenures and high productivities, suggest strategies for sustainable agricultural in the present. This study employs physiographic analysis and the palynological, geochemical record from cores of basin fill to understand the reciprocal relation between environmental and land-use change in the Gulf of Mexico tropical lowland, focusing on a coastal basin sensitive to sea-level change and containing vestiges of prehistoric settlement and wetland agriculture. Fossil pollen reveals that the debut of maize cultivation in the Laguna Catarina watershed dates to ca. 4100 BC, predating the earliest evidence for that cultivar anywhere else in the lowlands of Middle America. Such an early date for a cultivar so central to Neotropical agroecology and environmental change, suggests the urgency of further research in the study region. Moreover, the longest period of continuous agriculture in the basin lasted nearly three millennia (ca. 2400 BC-AD 550) despite eustatic sea-level rise. Geochemical fluxes reveal the reciprocity between land-use and environmental change: slope destabilization, basin aggradation, and eutrophication. The consequent theoretical implications pertain to both applied and basic research. Redeploying ancient agroecologies in dynamic environments necessitates reconstructing the changing operational contexts of putative high productivity and sustainability. Adjusting land use in the face of global

  9. On how climate variability influences regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Kusche, Jürgen; Rietbroek, Roelof; Forootan, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    Regional trends in sea level change are strongly influenced by climate variations, such as ENSO (El-Nino Southern Oscillation), the IOD (Indian Ocean Dipole), or the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). Hence, before computing long term regional sea level change, these sea level variations need to be taken into account as they lead to strong dependencies of computed regional sea level trends on the time period of the investigation. In this study, sea level change during the years 1993 to 2013 is analysed to identify the dominant modes of sea level change caused by climate variations. Here, two different gridded altimetry products are analysed, namely ESA's combined CCI SeaLevel v1.1 ECV product (doi: 10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2013-v_1.1-201412), and absolute dynamic topography produced by Ssalto/Duacs and distributed by Aviso, with support from Cnes (http://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/duacs/). Reconstructions using the different decomposition techniques including the standard principle component analysis (PCA), rotated empirical orthogonal functions (REOF) and independent component analysis (ICA) method are analysed. They are compared with sea level change modelled with the global finite-element sea-ice ocean model (FESOM). The results indicate that from the applied methods, ICA is most suitable to separate the individual climate variability signals in independent modes of sea level change. This especially holds for extracting the ENSO contribution in sea level changes, which was better separated by applying ICA, from both altimetry and modelled sea level products. In addition, it is presented how modelled sea level change reflects climate variations compared to that identified in the altimetry products.

  10. Late Glacial to Holocene evolution and sea-level history of Gulf of Gemlik, Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuncu, Asen; Kadir Eriş, K.; Kaslilar, Ayse; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Gasperini, Luca; Filikçi, Betül

    2016-04-01

    The Gulf of Gemlik is an E-W elongated trans-tensional basin with a maximum depth of 113 m, located on the middle strand of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the south eastern part of the Sea of Marmara (SoM). While during the Holocene the sea level in the Gulf of Gemlik changed in tandem with the water level changes in the SoM, it may have been different in the late glacial when the Sea of Marmara was lacustrine. Beside the tectonic activity related to the NAFZ, eustatic sea level changes would have controlled the basin evolution and consequent sedimentary history during the different paleocanographic phases of the SoM. Considering the limited studies on the late glacial-Holocene stratigraph of the Gulf of Gemlik, this study aims to investigate the depositional units and their environments with respect to different allogenic and autogenic controls. For these purposes, we analyzed over 300 2 - 7 kHz bandwidth high-resolution gridded seismic sub-bottom CHIRP profiles together with 70 kHz high resolution multibeam bathymetry with backscatter data. Four seismic stratigraphic units were defined and correlated with chronstratigraphic units in five piston cores covering the last 15.8 ka BP according to radiocarbon ages (14C). The depth-scale accuracy of chronostratigraphic units in cores is of key importance for the precise calculation of sedimentation rates. Correlation between the seismic profiles and cores were made by matching Multi-Sensor Core-Logger (MSCL) data and seismic reflection coefficients and amplitudes for different stratigraphic units. The impedance data derived from the logger were used to generate a synthetic seismogram. We used an approach to display, estimate, and correct the depth-scale discrepancies due to oversampling affecting the upper part of sedimentary series during piston coring. The method is based on the resynchronization of synthetic seismograms computed from high-quality physical property logs to the corresponding CHIRP profiles. Each

  11. Intraplate stresses and continental margin stratigraphy: New constraints on the relative contributions of tectonics and eustasy to the record of sea level changes

    SciTech Connect

    Cloetingh, S.; Kool, H. )

    1990-05-01

    Recent advances in modeling the tectonics of intraplate regions have established a causal relation between changes in plate-tectonic regimes and short-term changes in the orientation and magnitude of stress fields in the lithosphere. These temporal changes in stress produce vertical motions of the crust with a rate and magnitude consistent with magnitudes inferred from records of (apparent) sea level changes. Stress-induced vertical motions of the lithosphere could provide a tectonic explanation of short-term changes in sea level, such as the second-order and third-order Exxon cycles. The sea level record can be used as an independent source of information for the analysis of paleostress fields in the plates. Geodynamic modeling studies were conducted, therefore, to discriminate the relative contributions of tectonics and glacio-eustasy to the apparent sea level record and to discriminate global vs. regional tectonic components in the sea level record. Modeling strongly suggests that even in a passive margin tectonic setting, the effects of tectonics generally overwhelm eustatic contributions to the sea level record. The studies also show a close correlation between changes in intraplate-tectonic regimes in the North Atlantic caused in plate kinematics and plate interactions and the timing of changes in sea level shown in global Exxon charts. These results suggest that the charts, which are based primarily on data from the northern/central Atlantic and the North Sea reflect to a large extent the plate-tectonic evolution of this area. Apart from emphasizing the need to develop further rigorous stratigraphic criteria to separate of tectonics and eustasy on an intrabasinal scale, the studies emphasize the need to test the Vail concept in areas outside the North Atlantic. For this purpose, stratigraphic modeling for continental margins of other ocean basins based on recent ODP (Ocean Drilling Program).

  12. Impact of relative sea level and rapid climate changes on the architecture and lithofacies of the Holocene Rhone subaqueous delta (Western Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Berné, Serge; Jouet, Gwénaël; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Dennielou, Bernard; Maillet, Grégoire M.; Tondut, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    The modern Rhone delta in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) is a typical wave-dominated delta that developed after the stabilization of relative sea level following the last deglacial sea-level rise. Similar to most other deltas worldwide, it displays several stacked parasequences and lobes that reflect the complex interaction between accommodation, sediment supply and autogenic processes on the architecture of a wave-dominated delta. The interpretation of a large set of newly acquired very high-resolution seismic and sedimentological data, well constrained by 14C dates, provides a refined three-dimensional image of the detailed architecture (seismic bounding surfaces, sedimentary facies) of the Rhone subaqueous delta, and allows us to propose a scenario for delta evolution during the last deglaciation and Holocene. The subaqueous delta consists of “parasequence-like” depositional wedges, a few metres to 20-30 m in thickness. These wedges first back-stepped inland toward the NW in response to combined global sea-level rise and overall westward oceanic circulation, at a time when sediment supply could not keep pace with rapid absolute (eustatic) sea-level rise. At the Younger Dryas-Preboreal transition, more rapid sea-level rise led to the formation of a major flooding surface (equivalent to a wave ravinement surface). After stabilization of global sea level in the mid-Holocene, accommodation became the leading factor in controlling delta architecture. An eastward shift of depocentres occurred, probably favoured by higher subsidence rate within the thick Messinian Rhone valley fill. The transition between transgressive (backstepping geometry) and regressive (prograding geometry) (para)sequences resulted in creation of a Maximum Flooding Surface (MFS) that differs from a “classical” MFS described in the literature. It consists of a coarse-grained interval incorporating reworked shoreface material within a silty clay matrix. This distinct lithofacies

  13. Sea level trends for all sections of the Baltic Sea coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Suursaar, Ülo; Knudsen, Per; She, Jun

    2016-04-01

    To better understand influence of sea level rise on societal vulnerability and coastal erosion processes, it is important to know the sea level trend. The coastline of the Baltic Sea is not uniformly exposed, and therefore we will determine the sea level trend of the last 10, 50 and 100 years for all sections of the coastline. The observational record of sea level in the Baltic Sea is quite unique with several records of more than 100 years of data. However, the information is confined to the tide gauge locations. Here, we utilize a statistical method based on least squares regression and originally developed for short term sea level variability (Madsen et al. 2015, JGR, doi:10.1002/2015JC011070) to spread out the sea level information from selected tide gauges to all sections of the Baltic Sea coast. Monthly mean tide gauge observations are retrieved from PSMSL and supplemented with Estonian observations. The spatial distribution of the sea level is obtained from model reanalysis from the Copernicus Marine Service and satellite altimetry observations and land rise information is taken into account. Results are validated against independent tide gauges, providing a consistent record of 20th century sea level trends and variability, including uncertainties, for the entire Baltic Sea coastline. This work is sponsored by the EMODnet project Baltic Checkpoint.

  14. Sea-level rise and coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Blankespoor, Brian; Dasgupta, Susmita; Laplante, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    This paper seeks to quantify the impact of a1-m sea-level rise on coastal wetlands in 86 developing countries and territories. It is found that approximately 68 % of coastal wetlands in these countries are at risk. A large percentage of this estimated loss is found in Europe and Central Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific, as well as in the Middle East and North Africa. A small number of countries will be severely affected. China and Vietnam(in East Asia and the Pacific), Libya and Egypt (in the Middle East and North Africa), and Romania and Ukraine (in Europe and Central Asia) will bear most losses. In economic terms, the loss of coastal wetlands is likely to exceed $703 million per year in 2000 US dollars. PMID:24659473

  15. Sea-level rise and coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Blankespoor, Brian; Dasgupta, Susmita; Laplante, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    This paper seeks to quantify the impact of a1-m sea-level rise on coastal wetlands in 86 developing countries and territories. It is found that approximately 68 % of coastal wetlands in these countries are at risk. A large percentage of this estimated loss is found in Europe and Central Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific, as well as in the Middle East and North Africa. A small number of countries will be severely affected. China and Vietnam(in East Asia and the Pacific), Libya and Egypt (in the Middle East and North Africa), and Romania and Ukraine (in Europe and Central Asia) will bear most losses. In economic terms, the loss of coastal wetlands is likely to exceed $703 million per year in 2000 US dollars.

  16. Eustatic curve for the middle Jurassic-Cretaceous based on Russian platform and Siberian stratigraphy: Zonal resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sahagian, D.; Pinous, O.; Olferiev, A.; Zakharov, V.

    1996-09-01

    We have used the stratigraphy of the central part of the Russian platform and surrounding regions to construct a calibrated eustatic curve for the Bajocian through the Santonian. The study area is centrally located in the large Eurasian continental craton, and was covered by shallow seas during much of the Jurassic and Cretaceous. The geographic setting was a very low-gradient ramp that was repeatedly flooded and exposed. Analysis of stratal geometry of the region suggests tectonic stability throughout most of Mesozoic marine deposition. The paleogeography of the region led to extremely low rates of sediment influx. As a result, accommodation potential was limited and is interpreted to have been determined primarily by eustatic variations. The central part of the Russian platform thus provides a useful frame of reference for the quantification of eustatic variations throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous. The biostratigraphy of the Russian platform provides the basis for reliably determining age and eustatic events. The Mesozoic section of the central part of the Russian platform is characterized by numerous hiatuses. In this study, we filled the sediment gaps left by unconformities in the central part of the Russian platform with data from stratigraphic information from the more continuous stratigraphy of the neighboring subsiding regions, such as northern Siberia. Although these sections reflect subsidence, the time scale of variations in subsidence rate is probably long relative to the duration of the stratigraphic gaps to be filled, so the subsidence rate can be calculated and filtered from the stratigraphic data. We thus have compiled a more complete eustatic curve than would be possible on the basis of Russian platform stratigraphy alone.

  17. Sea Level Rise and Decadal Variations in the Ligurian Sea Inferred from the Medimaremetre Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpytchev, M.; Coulomb, A.; Vallee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Estimations of sea level rise over the last centuries are mostly based on the rare historical sea level records from tide gauge stations usually designed for navigational purposes. In this study, we examine the quality of sea level measurements performed by a mean sea level gauge operated in Nice from 1887 to 1909 and transferred to the nearby town of Villefranche-sur-Mer in 1913 where it stayed in operation untill 1974. The mean sea level gauges, called medimaremetres, were invented for geodetic studies and installed in many French ports since the end of the XIX century. By construction, the medimaremetre was connected to the sea through a porous porcelain crucible in order to filter out the tides and higher frequency sea level oscillations. Ucontrolled properties of the crucible and some systematic errors made the medimaremetre data to be ignored in the current sea level researches. We demonstrate that the Nice-Villefranche medimaremetre measurements are coherent with two available historical tide gauge records from Marseille and Genova and a new century-scale sea level series can be build up by combining the medimaremetre data with the those recorded by a tide gauge operating in Nice since the 1980s. We analyse the low frequency variabilities in Marseille, Nice-Villefranche and Genova and get new insights on the decadal sea level variations in the Ligurian Sea since the end of the XIX century.

  18. Relative sea level and coastal environments in arctic Alaska during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Mann, D. H.; Jones, B. M.; Rittenour, T. M.; Grosse, G.; Groves, P.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 was characterized by marked fluctuations in climate, the warmest being MIS 5e (124-119 ka) when relative sea level (RSL) stood 2-10 m higher than today along many coastlines. In northern Alaska, marine deposits now 5-10 m above modern sea level are assigned to this time period and termed the Pelukian transgression (PT). Complicating this interpretation is the possibility that an intra-Stage 5 ice shelf extended along the Alaskan coast, causing isostatic depression along its grounded margins, which caused RSL highs even during periods of low, global RSL. Here we use optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to date inferred PT deposits on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain. A transition from what we interpret to be lagoonal mud to sandy tidal flat deposits lying ~ 2.75 m asl dates to 113+/-18 ka. Above this, a 5-m thick gravelly barrier beach dates to 95 +/- 20 ka. This beach contains well-preserved marine molluscs, whale vertebrae, and walrus tusks. Pleistocene-aged ice-rich eolian silt (yedoma) blanket the marine deposits and date to 57.6 +/-10.9 ka. Our interpretation of this chronostratigraphy is that RSL was several meters higher than today during MIS 5e, and lagoons or brackish lakes were prevalent. Gravel barrier beaches moved onshore as local RSL rose further after MIS 5e. The error range of the OSL age of the barrier-beach unit spans the remaining four substages of MIS 5; however, the highstand of RSL on this arctic coastline appears to occurr after the warmest part of the last interglacial and appears not to be coeval with the eustatic maximum reached at lower latitudes during MIS 5. One possibility is that RSL along the Beaufort Sea coast was affected by isostatic depression caused by an ice shelf associated with widespread, intra-Stage 5 glaciation that was out of phase with lower latitude glaciation and whose extent and timing remains enigmatic.

  19. Sea-level line extraction based on piecewise line detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Bo; Ren, Tingting; Liu, Yingbin; Yu, Jianwei

    2014-11-01

    In infrared image, sea-level line could be hard to distinguish because of noises caused by wave clutters and sunlight conditions.This paper proposed a fast sea-level line extraction method which could localize the sea-level line in complex infrared sea-sky scenes. First, a down sample operation was performed to obtain a low resolution image which could reduce the time consumption without blurring the sea-level line, and then the Canny edge detection was carried out to extract edges in the scene. Second, the intersecting edges were separated by removing the joints of edges according to a certain rule, and the bounding rectangle of every short edge was obtained which helped to select straight lines, and then a long edge segmentation operation was used to count in possible sea-level line. Third, a line concatenation method was performed by their slopes and intercepts comparison. Finally, for sea-level line verification, the second-order vertical grads are calculated in the two sides of possible sea-level line. Experiments show that the proposed method is fast and effective for various kinds of infrared sea-sky scenes, and it is feasible even for the scenes where the sea-level line is blurring and hard to distinguish.

  20. Evidence for post last-glacial-maximum punctuated sea level rise found on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Oded; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2015-04-01

    The eustatic sea level curve for the eastern Mediterranean presents a general trend characterized by rapid post last-glacial-maximum rise (20,000 years ago), slowing approximately 6000 years ago and stabilizing at current sea-level 4000 years ago. Sea level evidence from portions of the Israeli coastline, suggest minimal to no hydro-glacio-isostatic influence on the local relative sea level curve, and no tectonic offsets for at least the past two thousand years. Recently, a submerged series of relict wave cut notches and erosional pits were identified along a sequence of coastal sites located approximately 20 km from one another (Michmoret, Olga, Caesarea, Dor) at 3 m and 6 m water depths. The features were carved into an upper-Pleistocene to Holocene eolianite sandstone, the age of which was previously constrained by OSL measurements to MIS 1-3. Elsewhere, similar features are widely used as sea-level markers. In this study, at some of the sites, we found a coinciding 3 m to 6 m submerged cliff with overhanging upper part, morphology that is comparable to the morphology of the modern coastal cliff. These submerged features should either suggest a tectonic offset, which is not favorable for the study area, or they might suggest that sea level rise has not been gradual, but rather punctuated, exhibiting pulses of sea level rise followed by periods of sea level stagnation. For the study site, the last stagnation took place at a few meters below current sea-level and enabled the development of the observed wave induced morphology within the eolianite. At present sea level, similar features exist and are being actively formed within the same host rock. At some of the sites, artificially-cut archaeological features from about the last 2000 years present with notches or erosional pits thereby providing insight into the period of time required for their creation due to their archaeological associations. Sea level rise might impacts the coastline significantly, with

  1. Timescales for detecting a significant acceleration in sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Ivan D; Wahl, Thomas; Rohling, Eelco J; Price, René M; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B; Calafat, Francisco M; Dangendorf, Sönke

    2014-04-14

    There is observational evidence that global sea level is rising and there is concern that the rate of rise will increase, significantly threatening coastal communities. However, considerable debate remains as to whether the rate of sea level rise is currently increasing and, if so, by how much. Here we provide new insights into sea level accelerations by applying the main methods that have been used previously to search for accelerations in historical data, to identify the timings (with uncertainties) at which accelerations might first be recognized in a statistically significant manner (if not apparent already) in sea level records that we have artificially extended to 2100. We find that the most important approach to earliest possible detection of a significant sea level acceleration lies in improved understanding (and subsequent removal) of interannual to multidecadal variability in sea level records.

  2. Timescales for detecting a significant acceleration in sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Ivan D; Wahl, Thomas; Rohling, Eelco J; Price, René M; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B; Calafat, Francisco M; Dangendorf, Sönke

    2014-01-01

    There is observational evidence that global sea level is rising and there is concern that the rate of rise will increase, significantly threatening coastal communities. However, considerable debate remains as to whether the rate of sea level rise is currently increasing and, if so, by how much. Here we provide new insights into sea level accelerations by applying the main methods that have been used previously to search for accelerations in historical data, to identify the timings (with uncertainties) at which accelerations might first be recognized in a statistically significant manner (if not apparent already) in sea level records that we have artificially extended to 2100. We find that the most important approach to earliest possible detection of a significant sea level acceleration lies in improved understanding (and subsequent removal) of interannual to multidecadal variability in sea level records. PMID:24728012

  3. Timescales for detecting a significant acceleration in sea level rise

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Ivan D.; Wahl, Thomas; Rohling, Eelco J.; Price, René M.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Calafat, Francisco M.; Dangendorf, Sönke

    2014-01-01

    There is observational evidence that global sea level is rising and there is concern that the rate of rise will increase, significantly threatening coastal communities. However, considerable debate remains as to whether the rate of sea level rise is currently increasing and, if so, by how much. Here we provide new insights into sea level accelerations by applying the main methods that have been used previously to search for accelerations in historical data, to identify the timings (with uncertainties) at which accelerations might first be recognized in a statistically significant manner (if not apparent already) in sea level records that we have artificially extended to 2100. We find that the most important approach to earliest possible detection of a significant sea level acceleration lies in improved understanding (and subsequent removal) of interannual to multidecadal variability in sea level records. PMID:24728012

  4. Recent Global Sea Level Acceleration Started Over 200 Years Ago?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Moore, J.; Grinsted, A.; Woodworth, P.

    2008-12-01

    We present a reconstruction of global sea level (GSL) since 1700 calculated from tide gauge records and analyse the evolution of global sea level acceleration during the past 300 years. We provide observational evidence that sea level acceleration up to the present has been about 0.01 mm/yr2 and appears to have started at the end of the 18th century. Sea level rose by 6 cm during the 19th century and 19 cm in the 20th century. Superimposed on the long-term acceleration are quasi-periodic fluctuations with a period of about 60 years. If the conditions that established the acceleration continue, then sea level will rise 34 cm over the 21st century. Long time constants in oceanic heat content and increased ice sheet melting imply that the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates of sea level are probably too low.

  5. Global sea-level changes during the past century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1987-01-01

    A novel technique, initially developed for climate studies, is used to reevaluate the estimate of relative sea-level change over the past century. The technique produces a composite regional average sea-level curve from the tide-gage data of individual stations. The effects of glacioisostasy and long-term tectonism are accounted for using late Holocene sea-level indicators. Along the east coast of North America, an apparent maximum sea-level rise is detected in both tide-gage and late Holocene sea-level indicators between Chesapeake Bay and New Jersey. Sea-level changes in western North America reveal greater spatial variations than for the east coast, which can be related to more active tectonism in California and British Columbia and to strong localized isostatic rebound in Alaska.

  6. Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of palaeoenvironmental and sea-level change: the Late Cenomanian - Early Coniacian (Cretaceous) of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olde, Kate; Jarvis, Ian; Pearce, Martin; Tocher, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous represented a period of greenhouse climate of Earth history, and was characterised by high temperatures, high atmospheric CO2 and high eustatic sea level, with large areas of shallow, warm, epicontinental sea. Understanding the dynamics of the Late Cretaceous climate is important for understanding the Earth System and the impact of modern climate change. The productive Late Cretaceous oceans led to the deposition of a large portion of the world's oil and gas resources, so reconstruction of depositional environments and refinement of stratigraphic correlation are important for the petroleum industry. Dinoflagellates were a prolific and diverse group within the phyto- and zooplankton throughout Late Cretaceous oceans, and their cysts display good preservation across different facies, and so are a good group for biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental study. Selected results from a high-resolution quantitative study of the palynology from 5 European Upper Cenomanian to the Lower Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) sections are summarised, along with their carbon stable-isotope chemostratigraphy. The sections are from a range of palaeolatitudes and basins, including the North Sea Basin, the Anglo-Paris Basin, the Bohemian Basin, the Polish Trough and the Vocontian Basin. Palynological assemblages differ between sections in the concentration of palynomorphs, proportions of terrestrial and marine palynomorphs, and in the diversity and varying proportions of species of dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). Dinocyst distribution is considered to have been controlled largely by nutrient levels, but was also impacted by temperature, sea level, and water mass changes. Influxes of certain species are related to changes in salinity, changes in temperature, and water mass change, and increased communication between basins. High dinocyst abundance, and particularly a high proportion of peridinioid cysts (which are thought to be derived from eutrophy

  7. Ice-sheet collapse and sea-level rise at the Bølling warming 14,600 years ago.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Pierre; Durand, Nicolas; Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Camoin, Gilbert; Thomas, Alexander L; Henderson, Gideon M; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2012-03-29

    Past sea-level records provide invaluable information about the response of ice sheets to climate forcing. Some such records suggest that the last deglaciation was punctuated by a dramatic period of sea-level rise, of about 20 metres, in less than 500 years. Controversy about the amplitude and timing of this meltwater pulse (MWP-1A) has, however, led to uncertainty about the source of the melt water and its temporal and causal relationships with the abrupt climate changes of the deglaciation. Here we show that MWP-1A started no earlier than 14,650 years ago and ended before 14,310 years ago, making it coeval with the Bølling warming. Our results, based on corals drilled offshore from Tahiti during Integrated Ocean Drilling Project Expedition 310, reveal that the increase in sea level at Tahiti was between 12 and 22 metres, with a most probable value between 14 and 18 metres, establishing a significant meltwater contribution from the Southern Hemisphere. This implies that the rate of eustatic sea-level rise exceeded 40 millimetres per year during MWP-1A. PMID:22460900

  8. Ice-sheet collapse and sea-level rise at the Bølling warming 14,600 years ago.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Pierre; Durand, Nicolas; Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Camoin, Gilbert; Thomas, Alexander L; Henderson, Gideon M; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2012-03-28

    Past sea-level records provide invaluable information about the response of ice sheets to climate forcing. Some such records suggest that the last deglaciation was punctuated by a dramatic period of sea-level rise, of about 20 metres, in less than 500 years. Controversy about the amplitude and timing of this meltwater pulse (MWP-1A) has, however, led to uncertainty about the source of the melt water and its temporal and causal relationships with the abrupt climate changes of the deglaciation. Here we show that MWP-1A started no earlier than 14,650 years ago and ended before 14,310 years ago, making it coeval with the Bølling warming. Our results, based on corals drilled offshore from Tahiti during Integrated Ocean Drilling Project Expedition 310, reveal that the increase in sea level at Tahiti was between 12 and 22 metres, with a most probable value between 14 and 18 metres, establishing a significant meltwater contribution from the Southern Hemisphere. This implies that the rate of eustatic sea-level rise exceeded 40 millimetres per year during MWP-1A.

  9. Using δ18O of Conodont Apatite and Sequence Stratigraphy to Understand Early Triassic (Smithian) Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchyk, S.; Elrick, M.; Atudorei, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Early Triassic climate is conventionally interpreted to have been warm and ice-free. During this time, three globally recognized depositional sequences developed in response to My-scale eustatic sea-level changes. The rates of My-scale sea-level rise and fall are too fast to attribute to changes in mid-ocean ridge activity and too slow to attribute to typical ~20-400 ky orbital cycles that drive glacio-eustasy. Previous studies in the Middle Devonian, Late Cretaceous, and Middle Eocene greenhouse climates have suggested that significant glacio-eustatic sea-level changes were responsible for sequence development. This suggests that these particular greenhouse periods were not uniformly warm and ice-free. We are testing the hypothesis that My- and orbital-scale sea-level changes in the Early Triassic (Smithian) were driven by glacio- and/or thermo-eustasy. To test this hypothesis, Smithian marine successions from two localities in the western United States (Lower Thaynes Formation) were described on a bed-by-bed basis to provide facies and depositional environment interpretations, as well as put the sections into a sequence stratigraphic framework. Samples were collected from both locations for high-resolution (~1-10 m) oxygen isotopic analysis of conodont apatite. Conodont elements are excellent biostratigraphic indicators and the apatite is less susceptible to diagenetic alteration than carbonate minerals, making conodont apatite a reliable proxy for determining changes in ice volume and seawater temperatures in deep time. In northeastern Utah (Weber Canyon), the Smithian sequence (~240 m) is composed of a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic lowstand systems tract (>40 m) and transgressive systems tract (~110 m), a black shale maximum flooding zone (~15 m), and a carbonate-dominated highstand systems tract (~75 m). In western Utah (Confusion Range), the sequence is composed of a coarse-grained, carbonate-dominated transgressive systems tract (>40 m) and a mixed

  10. Probabilistic surface reconstruction of relative sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choblet, Gael; Husson, Laurent; Bodin, Thomas; Capdeville, Yann

    2013-04-01

    Relative sea level is shaped by multiple processes (mantle dynamic topography, plate tectonics, glacio-isostatic adjustment, present day melting of continental ice, anthropogenic causes…), most of which induce spatial gradients in relative sea level fluctuations. The evaluation of the global mean sea level rise is a also a key variable to decipher sea level evolution. Tide gauges represent the only mean to monitor sea-level rise on the scale of the 20th century, while the high quality satellite altimetry era is too short to be immune from short-term fluctuations. Tide gauge data compiled by the Permanent Service for the Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) converts into local estimates of sea level rise. Classically, these in situ observations are averaged spatially in order to infer the global mean sea level trend. However, the strongly heterogeneous distribution of tide gauges (e.g. very sparse in the Southern hemisphere) makes this approach relatively prone to uncertainties, given that sea level rise strongly varies geographically. Last, the societal consequences for coastal communities raise the prominent need for local (rather than global) sea level estimates. An alternative is therefore to provide a global surface reconstruction of relative sea level leading to both local variations and a better constrained global average. Here, we propose such a model from tide gauge records using a probabilistic scheme based on the reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm (as described by Bodin et al., JGR, 2012 for the example of the Australian Moho). This method allows to infer both model and parameter space so that not only the functions within the model but also the number of functions itself are free to vary. This is particulalry relevant to the case of tide gauges that are unevenly distributed on the surface of the Earth and whose record lengths are strongly variable. In addition, Bayesian statistics leads to a probabilistic representation (rather than a best fitting

  11. Monitoring sea level fluctuation in South Aegean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharis, Vangelis; Paradissis, Demitris; Drakatos, George; Marinou, Aggeliki; Melis, Nicolaos; Anastasiou, Demitris; Alatza, Stavroula; Papanikolaou, Xanthos

    2015-04-01

    The complexity of the geological setting of the South Aegean is well-known, among the scientific community. The subduction zone coupled with the latest unrest of the Santorini volcano, as well as the particular morphology of the earth's surface and seabed pose a poorly understood source of tsunami hazard. A sparse network of tide gauges that operate in the area for varying periods of time is strengthened by the establishment of new sensors at carefully selected locations, by the Institute of Geodynamics of the National Observatory of Athens, and the Dionyssos Satellite Observatory and the Laboratory of Higher Geodesy of the National Technical University of Athens. These new instruments, aided by a rather dense network of GNSS receivers, provide a more concrete basis for the development, testing and evaluation of a near real-time model of the sea level changes in the area. Moreover, integration with various other sensors allows to understand and assess the level of tsunami risk in the area.

  12. Sea-level rise and its impact on coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Robert J; Cazenave, Anny

    2010-06-18

    Global sea levels have risen through the 20th century. These rises will almost certainly accelerate through the 21st century and beyond because of global warming, but their magnitude remains uncertain. Key uncertainties include the possible role of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets and the amplitude of regional changes in sea level. In many areas, nonclimatic components of relative sea-level change (mainly subsidence) can also be locally appreciable. Although the impacts of sea-level rise are potentially large, the application and success of adaptation are large uncertainties that require more assessment and consideration.

  13. Demographic responses to sea level rise in California

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, A. |; Van Arsdol, M.D. Jr.; Sherman, D.J.; Wang, J.; McMullin-Messier, P.A.; Rollin, L.

    1996-12-31

    Human consequences of sea level rise in California coastal counties reflect increasing population densities. Populations of coastal counties potentially affected by sea level rise are projected to increase from 26.2 million persons in 1990 to 63.3 million persons in 2040. Urbanization dominates Los Angeles and the South Coast and San Francisco Bay and Delta regions. California shoreline populations subject to potential disruption impacts of sea level rise are increasing rapidly. Enhanced risk zones for sea level rise are specified for the Oxnard Plain of Ventura County on the south coast of California. Four separate sea level rise scenarios are considered: (1) low (sea level rise only); (2) moderate (adding erosion); (3) high (adding erosion and storm surges); and (4) a maximum case, a 3 m enhanced risk zone. Population impacts are outlined for the 3 m zone. More serious impacts from storm surges are expected than from sea level rise and erosion. Stakeholders who support or oppose policies which may expose populations to sea level rise include energy, commercial, financial, industrial, public agency, private interest and governmental organizations. These organizations respond to extreme events from differing positions. Vested interests determine the degree of mitigation employed by stakeholders to defer impacts of sea level rise.

  14. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sonia; Barnett, Jon; Fincher, Ruth; Hurlimann, Anna; Mortreux, Colette; Waters, Elissa

    2013-07-15

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  15. Carbon-isotope composition of Lower Cretaceous fossil wood: Ocean-atmosphere chemistry and relation to sea-level change

    SciTech Connect

    Groecke, D.R.; Hesselbo, S.P.; Jenkyns, H.C.

    1999-02-01

    The carbon-isotope composition of fossil wood fragments, collected through a biostratigraphically well-constructed Aptian (Lower Cretaceous) shallow-marine siliciclastic succession on the Isle of Wight, southern Britain, shows distinct variations with time. The results indicate that the stratigraphic signature of {delta}{sup 13}C{sub wood} through the Aptian was influenced primarily by fluctuations in the isotopic composition of CO{sub 2} in the global ocean-atmosphere system, as registered in marine carbonates elsewhere, and was not governed by local paleoenvironmental and/or paleoecological factors. Negative and positive excursions in {delta}{sup 13}C{sub wood} through the lower Aptian occur in phase with inferred transgressions and regressions, respectively -- a pattern that contrasts with that observed in many previous studies for different time intervals. The relationship between {delta}{sup 13}C variations and relative sea-level change is tentatively interpreted as a response to various climatic and eustatic factors, relating to rapid sea-floor spreading, thermal uplift of ocean floor, emplacement of plateaus, volcanic CO{sub 2} emissions, weathering, and sedimentary rate.

  16. Mean sea level determination from satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.; Agrawal, B. B.; Brown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The primary experiment on the Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite-3 (GEOS-3) is the radar altimeter. This experiment's major objective is to demonstrate the utility of measuring the geometry of the ocean surface; i.e., the geoid. Results obtained from this experiment so far indicate that the planned objectives of measuring the topography of the ocean surface with an absolute accuracy of + or - 5 m can be met and perhaps exceeded. The GEOS-3 satellite altimeter measurements have an instrument precision in the range of + or - 25 cm to + or - 50 cm when the altimeter is operating in the 'short pulse' mode. After one year's operations of the altimeter, data from over 5000 altimeter passes have been collected. With the mathematical models developed and the altimeter data presently available, mapping of local areas of ocean topography has been realized to the planned accuracy levels and better. This paper presents the basic data processing methods employed and some interesting results achieved with the early data. Plots of mean sea surface heights as inferred by the altimeter measurements are compared with a detailed 1 by 1 deg gravimetric geoid.

  17. Detecting anthropogenic footprints in sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Müller, Alfred; Zorita, Eduardo; Riva, Riccardo; Berk, Kevin; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    While there is scientific consensus that global and local mean sea level (GMSL and LMSL) has risen since the late nineteenth century, the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic forcing remains unclear. Here we provide a probabilistic upper range of long-term persistent natural GMSL/LMSL variability (P=0.99), which in turn, determines the minimum/maximum anthropogenic contribution since 1900. To account for different spectral characteristics of various contributing processes, we separate LMSL into two components: a slowly varying volumetric component and a more rapidly changing atmospheric component. We find that the persistence of slow natural volumetric changes is underestimated in records where transient atmospheric processes dominate the spectrum. This leads to a local underestimation of possible natural trends of up to ~1 mm per year erroneously enhancing the significance of anthropogenic footprints. The GMSL, however, remains unaffected by such biases. On the basis of a model assessment of the separate components, we conclude that it is virtually certain (P=0.99) that at least 45% of the observed increase in GMSL is of anthropogenic origin.

  18. Stochastic secular trends in sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, Victor; Zorita, Eduardo; Heimbach, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Global mean sea level (GMSL) has been rising since (at least) the nineteenth century and the rate of rise may be increasing. Several studies that attempt to explain the long-term trend of GMSL during the instrumental record share the common assumption that this trend is deterministic in nature and different from natural variations. Here we show that the trend can alternatively be explained, at least in part, as being caused by random variations within the coupled ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system, and hence not having a deterministic origin. These random trends, which add to externally forced changes (e.g., through anthropogenic climate change), are a consequence of the integrated character of GMSL, which is the cumulative addition of temporal contributions that exhibit random character, and whose integration results in GMSL variations with persistence on decadal-centennial time scales. The generation of trends by integration of random stationary noise (i.e., even in a constant climate) is a robust and fundamental feature of stochastically forced systems with memory. The integrated character of GMSL results in an intrinsic difficulty in distinguishing internal from externally forced trends.

  19. Detecting anthropogenic footprints in sea level rise

    PubMed Central

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Müller, Alfred; Zorita, Eduardo; Riva, Riccardo; Berk, Kevin; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    While there is scientific consensus that global and local mean sea level (GMSL and LMSL) has risen since the late nineteenth century, the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic forcing remains unclear. Here we provide a probabilistic upper range of long-term persistent natural GMSL/LMSL variability (P=0.99), which in turn, determines the minimum/maximum anthropogenic contribution since 1900. To account for different spectral characteristics of various contributing processes, we separate LMSL into two components: a slowly varying volumetric component and a more rapidly changing atmospheric component. We find that the persistence of slow natural volumetric changes is underestimated in records where transient atmospheric processes dominate the spectrum. This leads to a local underestimation of possible natural trends of up to ∼1 mm per year erroneously enhancing the significance of anthropogenic footprints. The GMSL, however, remains unaffected by such biases. On the basis of a model assessment of the separate components, we conclude that it is virtually certain (P=0.99) that at least 45% of the observed increase in GMSL is of anthropogenic origin. PMID:26220773

  20. Timing and Estimates of Plio-Pleistocene Sea-Level Highstands from the Republic of South Africa (RSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Paul; Raymo, Maureen; Sandstrom, Michael; Rovere, Alessio; O'Leary, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid rise in atmospheric CO2 exceeding 400 ppmv is driving an urgent need to better understand past sea level, ice sheet dynamics, and climate change associated with past warmer geological intervals. The LR04 record reveals sustained intervals during the Pliocene (5.6-2.6 Ma) when δ18O exceeded the present levels, indicating a possible decrease in the volume of polar ice sheets. Other shorter intervals of likely decreased ice volume occur during Pleistocene interglacials including MIS 5e, 11, 31, and 37.Here we focus on the middle Pliocene warm period (MPWP; 3.3 to 2.9 Ma), an interval during which Earth experienced CO2 levels around 400 ppmv (Fedorov et al., 2013). The intra-plate coastal margin of western South Africa, a region of relative tectonic stability and relative insensitivity to uncertainty in mantle viscosity as is effects corrections for glacial isostatic adjustment, is a promising region for deriving estimates of eustatic sea level (ESL; thus ice volumes) at the end of the MPWP (Rovere et al., 2014). During a field expedition covering several thousand kilometres along coastlines of western and southern coasts of RSA, we documented the stratigraphy, geomorphology, and geochronology of Pliocene and Pleistocene shorelines with differential GPS providing decimeter scale accuracy to stratigraphic contacts and sea-level indicators. From about twenty sites, precise elevations (as yet uncorrected for GIA) of multiple sea stands were recorded. Strontium isotopes were used to date the shell material from many of the marine sites, but only three sites yielded reliable age data that passed screening criteria for diagenesis. The oldest shoreline evidence, from Cliffs Point on the west coast near the Olifants River, is observed at 34.9 ±0.2 m asl and yields an age 4.70 ± 0.20 Ma; a younger shoreline from the southern coast Bredasdorp site is observed at >24.0 ± 1.5 m asl and yields ages from 3.00 ± 0.45 to 3.55 ± 0.31 Ma, the interval of the MPWP. . A

  1. Wave transformation across coral reefs under changing sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel; Power, Hannah; Vila-Conejo, Ana; Webster, Jody

    2015-04-01

    The transformation of swell waves from deep water across reef flats is the primary process regulating energy regimes in coral reef systems. Coral reefs are effective barriers removing up to 99% of wave energy during breaking and propagation across reef flats. Consequently back-reef environments are often considered low energy with only limited sediment transport and geomorphic change during modal conditions. Coral reefs, and specifically reef flats, therefore provide important protection to tropical coastlines from coastal erosion and recession. However, changes in sea level could lead to significant changes in the dissipation of swell wave energy in coral reef systems with wave heights dependent on the depth over the reef flat. This suggests that a rise in sea level would also lead to significantly higher energy conditions exacerbating the transgressive effects of sea level rise on tropical beaches and reef islands. This study examines the potential implications of different sea level scenarios on the transformation of waves across the windward reef flats of One Tree Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef. Waves were measured on the reef flats and back-reef sand apron of One Tree Reef. A one-dimensional wave model was calibrated and used to investigate wave processes on the reef flats under different mean sea level (MSL) scenarios (present MSL, +1 m MSL, and +2 m MSL). These scenarios represent both potential future sea level states and also the paleo sea level of the late Holocene in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Wave heights were shown to increase under sea level rise, with greater wave induced orbital velocities affecting the bed under higher sea levels. In general waves were more likely to entrain and transport sediment both on the reef flat and in the back reef environment under higher sea levels which has implications for not only forecasted climate change scenarios but also for interpreting geological changes during the late Holocene when sea levels were 1

  2. A search for scale in sea-level studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, C.E.; Clark, I.

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers assume a proportional relationship among the atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature, and sea level. Thus, the rate of sea-level rise should increase in concert with the documented exponential increase in CO2. Although sea surface temperature has increased in places over the past century and short-term sea level rose abruptly during the 1990s, it is difficult to demonstrate a proportional relationship using existing geologic or historic records. Tide gauge records in the United States cover too short a time interval to verify acceleration in the rate of sea-level rise, although multicentury tide gauge and staff records from the Netherlands and Sweden suggest a mid-19th-century acceleration in sea-level rise. Reconstructions of sea-level changes for the past 1000 years derived using benthic foraminifer data from salt marshes along the East Coast of the United States suggest an increased rate of relative sea-level rise beginning in the 1600s. Geologic records of relative sea-level rise for the past 6000 years are available for several sites along the US East Coast from 14C-dated basal peat below salt marshes and estuarine sediments. When these three scales of sea-level variation are integrated, adjusted for postglacial isostatic movement, and replotted, the range of variation in sea level suggested by basal peat ages is within ??1 meter of the long-term trend. The reconstruction from Long Island Sound data shows a linear rise in sea level beginning in the mid-1600s at a rate consistent with the historic record of mean high water. Long-term tide gauge records from Europe and North America show similar trends since the mid-19th century. There is no clear proportional exponential increase in the rate of sea-level rise. If proportionality exists among sea level, atmospheric CO2, and temperature, there may be a significant time lag before an anthropogenic increase in the rate of sea-level rise occurs.

  3. Impact of sea-level rise on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T

    2009-01-01

    Despite its purported importance, previous studies of the influence of sea-level rise on coastal aquifers have focused on specific sites, and a generalized systematic analysis of the general case of the sea water intrusion response to sea-level rise has not been reported. In this study, a simple conceptual framework is used to provide a first-order assessment of sea water intrusion changes in coastal unconfined aquifers in response to sea-level rise. Two conceptual models are tested: (1) flux-controlled systems, in which ground water discharge to the sea is persistent despite changes in sea level, and (2) head-controlled systems, whereby ground water abstractions or surface features maintain the head condition in the aquifer despite sea-level changes. The conceptualization assumes steady-state conditions, a sharp interface sea water-fresh water transition zone, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer properties, and constant recharge. In the case of constant flux conditions, the upper limit for sea water intrusion due to sea-level rise (up to 1.5 m is tested) is no greater than 50 m for typical values of recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and aquifer depth. This is in striking contrast to the constant head cases, in which the magnitude of salt water toe migration is on the order of hundreds of meters to several kilometers for the same sea-level rise. This study has highlighted the importance of inland boundary conditions on the sea-level rise impact. It identifies combinations of hydrogeologic parameters that control whether large or small salt water toe migration will occur for any given change in a hydrogeologic variable.

  4. Impact of sea-level rise on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T

    2009-01-01

    Despite its purported importance, previous studies of the influence of sea-level rise on coastal aquifers have focused on specific sites, and a generalized systematic analysis of the general case of the sea water intrusion response to sea-level rise has not been reported. In this study, a simple conceptual framework is used to provide a first-order assessment of sea water intrusion changes in coastal unconfined aquifers in response to sea-level rise. Two conceptual models are tested: (1) flux-controlled systems, in which ground water discharge to the sea is persistent despite changes in sea level, and (2) head-controlled systems, whereby ground water abstractions or surface features maintain the head condition in the aquifer despite sea-level changes. The conceptualization assumes steady-state conditions, a sharp interface sea water-fresh water transition zone, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer properties, and constant recharge. In the case of constant flux conditions, the upper limit for sea water intrusion due to sea-level rise (up to 1.5 m is tested) is no greater than 50 m for typical values of recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and aquifer depth. This is in striking contrast to the constant head cases, in which the magnitude of salt water toe migration is on the order of hundreds of meters to several kilometers for the same sea-level rise. This study has highlighted the importance of inland boundary conditions on the sea-level rise impact. It identifies combinations of hydrogeologic parameters that control whether large or small salt water toe migration will occur for any given change in a hydrogeologic variable. PMID:19191886

  5. Sea-level variability in the Mediterranean Sea from altimetry and tide gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaduce, Antonio; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Spada, Giorgio; Larnicol, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level variability in the Mediterranean Sea was investigated by means of in-situ (tide-gauge) and satellite altimetry data over a period spanning two decades (from 1993 to 2012). The paper details the sea-level variations during this time period retrieved from the two data sets. Mean sea-level (MSL) estimates obtained from tide-gauge data showed root mean square differences (RMSDs) in the order of 40-50 % of the variance of the MSL signal estimated from satellite altimetry data, with a dependency on the number and quality of the in-situ data considered. Considering the individual time-series, the results showed that coastal tide-gauge and satellite sea-level signals are comparable, with RMSDs that range between 2.5 and 5 cm and correlation coefficients up to the order of 0.8. A coherence analysis and power spectra comparison showed that two signals have a very similar energetic content at semi-annual temporal scales and below, while a phase drift was observed at higher frequencies. Positive sea-level linear trends for the analysis period were estimated for both the mean sea-level and the coastal stations. From 1993 to 2012, the mean sea-level trend (2.44 ± 0.5 mm yr-1) was found to be affected by the positive anomalies of 2010 and 2011, which were observed in all the cases analysed and were mainly distributed in the eastern part of the basin. Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) showed that these events were related to the processes that have dominant periodicities of ˜10 years, and positive residual sea-level trend were generally observed in both data-sets. In terms of mean sea-level trends, a significant positive sea-level trend (> 95 %) in the Mediterranean Sea was found on the basis of at least 15 years of data.

  6. Future extreme sea level seesaws in the tropical Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Widlansky, Matthew J.; Timmermann, Axel; Cai, Wenju

    2015-01-01

    Global mean sea levels are projected to gradually rise in response to greenhouse warming. However, on shorter time scales, modes of natural climate variability in the Pacific, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), can affect regional sea level variability and extremes, with considerable impacts on coastal ecosystems and island nations. How these shorter-term sea level fluctuations will change in association with a projected increase in extreme El Niño and its atmospheric variability remains unknown. Using present-generation coupled climate models forced with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and subtracting the effect of global mean sea level rise, we find that climate change will enhance El Niño–related sea level extremes, especially in the tropical southwestern Pacific, where very low sea level events, locally known as Taimasa, are projected to double in occurrence. Additionally, and throughout the tropical Pacific, prolonged interannual sea level inundations are also found to become more likely with greenhouse warming and increased frequency of extreme La Niña events, thus exacerbating the coastal impacts of the projected global mean sea level rise. PMID:26601272

  7. Does Sea Level Change when a Floating Iceberg Melts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Boon Leong

    2010-01-01

    On the answer page to a recent "Figuring Physics" question, the cute mouse asks another question: "Does the [sea] water level change if the iceberg melts?" The conventional answer is "no." However, in this paper I will show through a simple analysis involving Archimedes' principle that the sea level will rise. The analysis shows the wrong…

  8. Estuaries May Face Increased Parasitism as Sea Levels Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-12-01

    Invertebrates in estuaries could be at a greater risk of parasitism as climate change causes sea levels to rise. A new paper published 8 December in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (doi:10.1073/pnas.1416747111) describes how rapid sea level rise in the Holocene affected the population of parasitic flatworms called trematodes.

  9. Future extreme sea level seesaws in the tropical Pacific.

    PubMed

    Widlansky, Matthew J; Timmermann, Axel; Cai, Wenju

    2015-09-01

    Global mean sea levels are projected to gradually rise in response to greenhouse warming. However, on shorter time scales, modes of natural climate variability in the Pacific, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), can affect regional sea level variability and extremes, with considerable impacts on coastal ecosystems and island nations. How these shorter-term sea level fluctuations will change in association with a projected increase in extreme El Niño and its atmospheric variability remains unknown. Using present-generation coupled climate models forced with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and subtracting the effect of global mean sea level rise, we find that climate change will enhance El Niño-related sea level extremes, especially in the tropical southwestern Pacific, where very low sea level events, locally known as Taimasa, are projected to double in occurrence. Additionally, and throughout the tropical Pacific, prolonged interannual sea level inundations are also found to become more likely with greenhouse warming and increased frequency of extreme La Niña events, thus exacerbating the coastal impacts of the projected global mean sea level rise. PMID:26601272

  10. Upper limit for sea level projections by 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Grinsted, A.; Moore, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    We construct the probability density function of global sea level at 2100, estimating that sea level rises larger than 180 cm are less than 5% probable. An upper limit for global sea level rise of 190 cm is assembled by summing the highest estimates of individual sea level rise components simulated by process based models with the RCP8.5 scenario. The agreement between the methods may suggest more confidence than is warranted since large uncertainties remain due to the lack of scenario-dependent projections from ice sheet dynamical models, particularly for mass loss from marine-based fast flowing outlet glaciers in Antarctica. This leads to an intrinsically hard to quantify fat tail in the probability distribution for global mean sea level rise. Thus our low probability upper limit of sea level projections cannot be considered definitive. Nevertheless, our upper limit of 180 cm for sea level rise by 2100 is based on both expert opinion and process studies and hence indicates that other lines of evidence are needed to justify a larger sea level rise this century.

  11. Sea-level Variation Along the Suez Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, F. M.; Sharaf El-Din, S. H.; Alam El-Din, K. A.

    1997-05-01

    The variation of sea level at 11 stations distributed along the Suez Canal was studied during the period from 1980 to 1986. The ranges of variation in daily mean sea level at Port Said and Port Tawfik are about 60 and 120 cm, respectively. The minimum range of daily variation is at Kantara (47 cm). The fluctuations of the monthly mean sea level between the two ends of the Suez Canal vary from one season to another. From July to December, the sea level at Port Said is higher than that at Port Tawfik, with the maximum difference (10·5 cm) in September. During the rest of the year, the mean sea level at Port Tawfik is higher than that at Port Said, with the maximum difference (31·5 cm) in March. The long-term variations of the annual mean sea level at both Port Said and Port Tawfik for the period from 1923 to 1986 showed a positive trend. The sea level at Port Said increased by about 27·8 cm century -1while it increased by only 9·1 cm century -1at Port Tawfik. This indicates that the difference between sea level at Port Said and Port Tawfik has decreased with time.

  12. Future extreme sea level seesaws in the tropical Pacific.

    PubMed

    Widlansky, Matthew J; Timmermann, Axel; Cai, Wenju

    2015-09-01

    Global mean sea levels are projected to gradually rise in response to greenhouse warming. However, on shorter time scales, modes of natural climate variability in the Pacific, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), can affect regional sea level variability and extremes, with considerable impacts on coastal ecosystems and island nations. How these shorter-term sea level fluctuations will change in association with a projected increase in extreme El Niño and its atmospheric variability remains unknown. Using present-generation coupled climate models forced with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and subtracting the effect of global mean sea level rise, we find that climate change will enhance El Niño-related sea level extremes, especially in the tropical southwestern Pacific, where very low sea level events, locally known as Taimasa, are projected to double in occurrence. Additionally, and throughout the tropical Pacific, prolonged interannual sea level inundations are also found to become more likely with greenhouse warming and increased frequency of extreme La Niña events, thus exacerbating the coastal impacts of the projected global mean sea level rise.

  13. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and Contemporary Sea Level Rise: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, Giorgio

    2016-08-01

    Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) encompasses a suite of geophysical phenomena accompanying the waxing and waning of continental-scale ice sheets. These involve the solid Earth, the oceans and the cryosphere both on short (decade to century) and on long (millennia) timescales. In the framework of contemporary sea-level change, the role of GIA is particular. In fact, among the processes significantly contributing to contemporary sea-level change, GIA is the only one for which deformational, gravitational and rotational effects are simultaneously operating, and for which the rheology of the solid Earth is essential. Here, I review the basic elements of the GIA theory, emphasizing the connections with current sea-level changes observed by tide gauges and altimetry. This purpose is met discussing the nature of the "sea-level equation" (SLE), which represents the basis for modeling the sea-level variations of glacial isostatic origin, also giving access to a full set of geodetic variations associated with GIA. Here, the SLE is employed to characterize the remarkable geographical variability of the GIA-induced sea-level variations, which are often expressed in terms of "fingerprints". Using harmonic analysis, the spatial variability of the GIA fingerprints is compared to that of other components of contemporary sea-level change. In closing, some attention is devoted to the importance of the "GIA corrections" in the context of modern sea-level observations, based on tide gauges or satellite altimeters.

  14. Future Extreme Sea Level Variability in the Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widlansky, M. J.; Timmermann, A.; Stuecker, M. F.; McGregor, S.; Cai, W.; Chikamoto, Y.

    2014-12-01

    During strong El Niño events, sea level drops around tropical western Pacific islands by up to 20-30 cm. Such extreme events (referred to in Samoa as 'taimasa') expose shallow reefs, thereby damaging associated coastal ecosystems and contributing to the formation of 'flat topped coral heads' often referred to as microatolls. We show that during the termination of strong El Niño events, a southward movement of weak trade winds prolongs extreme low sea levels in the southwestern Pacific. Whereas future sea levels are projected to gradually rise, recent modeling evidence suggests that the frequency of strong El Niño events (which alter local trade winds and sea level) is very likely to increase with greenhouse warming. Such changes could exacerbate El Niño-related sea level drops, especially in the tropical southwestern Pacific. Using present-generation coupled climate models forced with increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations, we assess how the interplay between global mean sea level rise, on one hand, and more frequent interannual sea level drops, on the other, will affect future coastal sea levels in the tropical Pacific.

  15. Regional Long-Term Sea Level and Sea Surface Temperature Characteristics from Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, O. B.; Knudsen, P.; Beckley, B.

    2006-07-01

    For a the large portion of the world's population liv ing in coastal zones forecasts of long- term sea lev el change is importan t for a var iety of environmen tal and socio- economic r easons. Satellite altimetry offers a unique opportunity for improving our knowledge about glob al and r egional sea level change on bo th global and reg ional scale. Joint TOPEX/PO SEIDON(T/P) +JASON-1 sea level observations and Reyno lds AVH RR sea surface temperature observ ations over th e most recen t 12 years hav e qualitativ ely been used to study regional correlations between long-term changes in sea level and sea surface temper ature. Long-term is here tak en to be lin ear signals in the 12-year time per iod Consistent in creases in both sea level and sea surface temp eratures ar e found in large parts of the world's oceans over this per iod. In the Indian Ocean and particularly th e Pacif ic Ocean , the trends in both sea level and temper ature are domin ated by the larg e changes associated w ith th e El N iño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) . Co mparison with similar trend estimates u sing only 8 years of satellite data shows the incr eased decoupling with ENSO and th e imp act of inter-annual variability on sea lev el tr end estimates.

  16. Late Quaternary depositional history, Holocene sea-level changes, and vertical crustal movement, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.; Helley, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    tectonic subsidence in less than 1.5 million years (<0.07 mm/yr) relative to the likely elevation of the lowest Pleistocene land surface; (2) the deepest Sangamon estuarine deposits subsided tectonically about 20–40 m in about 0.1 million years (0.2±0.1–0.4±0.1 mm/yr) relative to the assumed initial elevations of the thalwegs buried by these sediments; and (3) Holocene salt-marsh deposits have undergone about 5 m of tectonic and possibly isostatic subsidence in about 6,000 years (0.8±.0.7 mm/yr) relative to elevations which might be expected from eustatic sea-level changes alone.

  17. Global sea-level change during the next 10,000 years: the end of an icehouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Breedam, Jonas; Huybrechts, Philippe; Goelzer, Heiko; Loutre, Marie-France; Fichefet, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Because of the long life-time of atmospheric CO2, any realized future warming is likely to persist for many centuries to millennia. As a consequence, sea-level rise will continue on a multi-millennial timescale, especially from the slower components such as oceanic thermal expansion and above all, from melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. The two polar ice sheets have the potential to produce a global eustatic sea-level rise of about 65 m, at least an order of magnitude larger than thermal expansion under extreme forcing scenarios. Other components contributing to sea-level change are the melting of glaciers and ice caps and haline contraction of the ocean from fresh water delivery from land ice, but are less important. We have made projections of future sea-level rise over the next 10,000 years with the Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity LOVECLIM, which includes high resolution models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Four different model parameter sets are considered to explore the model uncertainty. The climate forcing is based on prolonged Radiative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios with an assumed exponential falloff for carbon dioxide concentrations according to global carbon cycle simulations. Six different forcing scenarios are constructed where the highest scenario includes a positive feedback due to the destabilization of methane hydrates and the subsequent emission of methane. By far the largest contribution in the global sea-level projections arises from the polar ice sheets. For the Greenland ice sheet, the ablation is larger than the accumulation for all forcing scenarios shortly after the start of the experiments. The ice sheet continuously melts and nearly disappears in all cases. The Antarctic ice sheet grows during the first decades under low to intermediate forcing scenarios due to increased accumulation. However, the spread between the different scenarios is very large. Under the highest prolonged RCP

  18. Time Scale Dependent SGD due to the Sea Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, E.; Hyun, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is defined as the groundwater outflux across the ocean-land interface. In this study, the variation of amount of SGD due to the sea level change is investigated by means of numerical simulation. Numerical code FEFLOW (Diersh et al., 2005) is used to conduct the simulation and the effect of sea level change on the variation of SGD with different time scales from diurnal cycle to glacial cycle is evaluated. The simulation results indicate that generally, the increase of amplitude of sea level leads to the increase of SGD while the increase of period of sea level change cause more complicated pattern of the variation of SGD. These variations are changed with the aquifer properties, especially, hydraulic conductivity. The simulation results show that the sea level change with different period and amplitude leads to the variation of total SGD and it may explain the unknown source of the unexpectedly high amount of SGD.

  19. The partition of regional sea level variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, Gaël; Ponte, Rui M.

    2015-09-01

    The existing altimetric record offers an unprecedented view of sea level (ζ) variability on a global scale for more than 2 decades. Optimal inference from the data involves appropriate partition of signal and noise, in terms of relevant scales, physical processes and forcing mechanisms. Such partition is achieved here through fitting a general circulation model to altimeter and other datasets to produce a "best" estimate of ζ variability directly forced by the atmosphere-the signal of primary interest here. In this context noise comes primarily from instrument errors and meso-scale eddies, as expected, but spatial smoothing effectively reduces this noise. A separate constraint is thus formulated to measure the fit to monthly, large-scale altimetric variability that unlike the daily, pointwise constraint shows a high signal-to-noise ratio. The estimate is explored to gain insight into dynamics, forcing, and other factors controlling ζ variability. Contributions from thermo-steric, halo-steric and bottom pressure terms are all important depending on region, but slopes of steric spectra (red) and bottom pressure spectra (white) are nearly invariant with latitude. Much ζ variability can be represented by a seasonal cycle and linear trend, plus a few EOFs that can be associated with known modes of climate variability and/or with topographic controls. Both wind and buoyancy forcing are important. The response is primarily basin-bound in nature, but uneven patterns of propagation across basin boundaries are clearly present, with the Pacific being able to affect large portions of the Indian and Atlantic basins, but the Atlantic affecting mostly the Arctic.

  20. Continuous assimilation of simulated Geosat altimetric sea level into an eddy-resolving numerical ocean model. I - Sea level differences. II - Referenced sea level differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren B.; Tai, Chang-Kou; Holland, William R.

    1990-01-01

    The optimal interpolation method of Lorenc (1981) was used to conduct continuous assimilation of altimetric sea level differences from the simulated Geosat exact repeat mission (ERM) into a three-layer quasi-geostrophic eddy-resolving numerical ocean box model that simulates the statistics of mesoscale eddy activity in the western North Pacific. Assimilation was conducted continuously as the Geosat tracks appeared in simulated real time/space, with each track repeating every 17 days, but occurring at different times and locations within the 17-day period, as would have occurred in a realistic nowcast situation. This interpolation method was also used to conduct the assimilation of referenced altimetric sea level differences into the same model, performing the referencing of altimetric sea sevel differences by using the simulated sea level. The results of this dynamical interpolation procedure are compared with those of a statistical (i.e., optimum) interpolation procedure.

  1. Inter-annual sea level variability in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Tkalich, P.

    2015-10-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea in the western Pacific Basin. Sea level anomalies (SLAs) in the southern South China Sea (SSCS) are assumed to be governed by various phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. We have used monthly sea level anomalies obtained from 12 tide gauge stations of PSMSL and UHSLC and merged and gridded AVISO products of SLAs (sea level anomalies) derived from satellite altimeter. We find that IOD-influenced inter-annual variations are found only in the southwestern and southeastern coastal regions of SSCS. Our analysis reveals that inter-annual regional sea level drops are associated with positive phase of the IOD, and the rises with negative phase of the IOD. SLA variations at decadal scale in the southeastern and northern Gulf of Thailand correlate with Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). Multiple linear regression analysis of inter-annual SLAs and climate indices shows that IOD induced inter-annual variations dominate in the southwestern SCS and it contributes to about ~ 40% of inter-annual sea level variation. Meanwhile, ENSO contributes to around ~ 30% variation in sea level in the southwestern and ~ 40% variation in the southeastern SSCS. The present study also suggests that inter-annual SLA variations in the SSCS can occur by ENSO and IOD induced changes in wind stress curl and volume transport variations.

  2. Acceleration of Sea Level Rise Over Malaysian Seas from Satellite Altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, A. I. A.; Din, A. H. M.; Khalid, N. F.; Omar, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS). Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA) are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  3. Monitoring coastal sea level using reflected GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Johan S.; Haas, Rüdiger; Johansson, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous monitoring of coastal sea level changes is important for human society since it is predicted that up to 332 million people in coastal and low-lying areas will be directly affected by flooding from sea level rise by the end of the 21st century. The traditional way to observe sea level is using tide gauges that give measurements relative to the Earth’s crust. However, in order to improve the understanding of the sea level change processes it is necessary to separate the measurements into land surface height changes and sea surface height changes. These measurements should then be relative to a global reference frame. This can be done with satellite techniques, and thus a GNSS-based tide gauge is proposed. The GNSS-based tide gauge makes use of both GNSS signals that are directly received and GNSS signals that are reflected from the sea surface. An experimental installation at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) shows that the reflected GNSS signals have only about 3 dB less signal-to-noise-ratio than the directly received GNSS signals. Furthermore, a comparison of local sea level observations from the GNSS-based tide gauge with two stilling well gauges, located approximately 18 and 33 km away from OSO, gives a pairwise root-mean-square agreement on the order of 4 cm. This indicates that the GNSS-based tide gauge gives valuable results for sea level monitoring.

  4. Sea level rise and variability around Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Luu, Quang-Hung; Tay, Tze-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is bounded from the west by Malacca Strait and the Andaman Sea, both connected to the Indian Ocean, and from the east by South China Sea being largest marginal sea in the Pacific Basin. As a result, sea level along Peninsular Malaysia coast is assumed to be governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. At annual scale, sea level anomalies (SLAs) are generated by the Asian monsoon; interannual sea level variability is determined by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); whilst long term sea level trend is coordinated by the global climate change. To quantify the relative impacts of these multi-scale phenomena on sea level trend and variability surrounding the Peninsular Malaysia, long-term tide gauge record and satellite altimetry are used. During 1984-2011, relative sea level rise (SLR) rates in waters of Malacca Strait and eastern Peninsular Malaysia are found to be 2.4 ± 0.8 mm/yr and 2.7 ± 0.6 mm/yr, respectively. Discounting for their vertical land movements (0.8 ± 2.6 mm/yr and 0.9 ± 2.2 mm/yr, respectively), their pure SLR rates are 1.6 ± 3.4 mm/yr and 1.8 ± 2.8 mm/yr, respectively, which are lower than the global tendency. At interannual scale, ENSO affects sea level over the Malaysian east coast in the range of ± 5 cm with very high correlation coefficient. Meanwhile, IOD modulates sea level anomalies in the Malacca Strait in the range of ± 2 cm with high correlation coefficient. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events and positive phases of the IOD index; while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes and the negative periods of the IOD index. Seasonally, SLAs are mainly monsoon-driven, in the order of 10-25 cm. Geographically, sea level responds differently to the monsoon: two cycles per year are observed in the Malacca Strait, presumably due to South Asian - Indian Monsoon; while single

  5. Satellite Altimeter Observations of Black Sea Level Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotaev, G. K.; Saenko, O. A.; Koblinsky, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Satellite altimeter data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-1 are used to examine seasonal and mesoscale variability of the Black Sea level. Consistent processing procedures of the altimeter measurements make it possible to determine the dynamical Black Sea level with an rms accuracy about 3 cm. It is shown that the Black Sea circulation intensifies in the winter-spring seasons and attenuates in summer-autumn. The seasonal variability of sea level is accompanied by a radiation of Rossby waves from the eastern coast of the basin. Mesoscale oscillations of the dynamical sea level are found to vary spatially and temporarily. Usually, strong eddy intensity is associated with instabilities of the Rim Current. Away from this circulation feature, in the deep basin, mesoscale variability is much smaller. Mesoscale variability has a strong seasonal signal, which is out of phase with the strength of the Rim Current.

  6. A geological constraint on relative sea level in Marine Isotope Stage 3 in the Larsemann Hills, Lambert Glacier region, East Antarctica (31 366-33 228 cal yr BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Dominic A.; Verleyen, Elie; Vyverman, Wim; Sabbe, Koen; Leng, Melanie J.; Pickering, Matthew D.; Keely, Brendan J.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we present geological evidence from the Larsemann Hills (Lambert Glacier - Amery Ice Shelf region, East Antarctica) of marine sediments at an altitude of c. 8 m a.s.l., as revealed by diatom, pigment and geochemical proxies in a lake sediment core. The sediments yielded radiocarbon dates between c. 26 650 and 28 750 14C yr BP (31 366-33 228 cal yr BP). This information can be used to constrain relative sea level adjacent to the Lambert Glacier at the end of Marine Isotope Stage 3. These data are compared with the age and altitude of Marine Isotope Stage 3 marine deposits elsewhere in East Antarctica and discussed with reference to late Quaternary ice sheet history and eustatic sea-level change.

  7. Links between Sea Level in the northern Adriatic sea and large scale patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, L.; Lionello, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study analyzes the link between Northern Adriatic sea level (SL) and three variables: sea level pressure over European and North-Atlantic area (SLP), Mediterranean sea surface temperature (SST) and Mediterranean sea surface salinity (SSS). Sea level data are provided by monthly values recorded at 7 tide gauges stations distributed along the north-Italian and Croatian coasts (available at the PSMSL Permanent Service of Mean Sea Level). SLP data are provided by the EMULATE data set. Mediterranean SST and SSS data are extracted from the MEDATLAS/2002 database. The study shows that annual sea level variations at Northern Adriatic stations are very coherent so that the northern Adriatic sea level can be reconstructed since 1905 on the basis of only two stations: Venice and Trieste, whose data cover almost the entire 20th century (whereas Croatian data cover only the second half of the century). The inverse barometric, thermosteric and halosteric effects provide the physical basis for a local relation of SL with SLP, SST, SSS implying, if other effects are absent, a sea level increase for increasing temperature and decreasing atmospheric pressure and salinity. However, the statistical model used to quantify the link between SL and these three forcings shows that they have produced no important trend and they cannot explain the observed trend of Northern Adriatic Sea level during the second half of the 20th century. The observed trend can therefore be interpreted as the superposition of land movement and a remote cause. Using SLP, SST and SSS from climate model simulations, no trend is obtained during the 20th century, as well. The same model simulations, considering their continuations for the 21st century show that local effects (mainly warming of water masses) are likely to produce an increase of about 10cm (with a large uncertainty) at the end of the century. The global signal and the regional land movements have to be added to this result to obtain the actual

  8. Sea-Level Rise Impacts on Hudson River Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooks, A.; Nitsche, F. O.

    2015-12-01

    The response of tidal marshes to increasing sea-level rise is uncertain. Tidal marshes can adapt to rising sea levels through vertical accretion and inland migration. Yet tidal marshes are vulnerable to submergence if the rate of sea-level rise exceeds the rate of accretion and if inland migration is limited by natural features or development. We studied how Piermont and Iona Island Marsh, two tidal marshes on the Hudson River, New York, would be affected by sea-level rise of 0.5m, 1m, and 1.5m by 2100. This study was based on the 2011-2012 Coastal New York LiDAR survey. Using GIS we mapped sea-level rise projections accounting for accretion rates and calculated the submerged area of the marsh. Based on the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Vegetation 2005 dataset, we studied how elevation zones based on vegetation distributions would change. To evaluate the potential for inland migration, we assessed land cover around each marsh using the National Land Cover Database 2011 Land Cover dataset and examined the slope beyond the marsh boundaries. With an accretion rate of 0.29cm/year and 0.5m of sea-level rise by 2100, Piermont Marsh would be mostly unchanged. With 1.5m of sea-level rise, 86% of Piermont Marsh would be flooded. For Iona Island Marsh with an accretion rate of 0.78cm/year, sea-level rise of 0.5m by 2100 would result in a 4% expansion while 1.5m sea-level rise would cause inundation of 17% of the marsh. The results indicate that Piermont and Iona Island Marsh may be able to survive rates of sea-level rise such as 0.5m by 2100 through vertical accretion. At rates of sea-level rise like 1.5m by 2100, vertical accretion cannot match sea-level rise, submerging parts of the marshes. High elevations and steep slopes limit Piermont and Iona Island Marsh's ability to migrate inland. Understanding the impacts of sea-level rise on Piermont and Iona Island Marsh allows for long-term planning and could motivate marsh conservation programs.

  9. Sea Level Data Archaeology for the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Matthews, Andy; Rickards, Lesley; Jevrejeva, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) was set up in 1985 to collect long term tide gauge observations and has carried out a number of data archaeology activities over the past decade, including sending member organisations questionnaires to report on their repositories. The GLOSS Group of Experts (GLOSS GE) is looking to future developments in sea level data archaeology and will provide its user community with guidance on finding, digitising, quality controlling and distributing historic records. Many records may not be held in organisational archives and may instead by in national libraries, archives and other collections. GLOSS will promote a Citizen Science approach to discovering long term records by providing tools for volunteers to report data. Tide gauge data come in two different formats, charts and hand-written ledgers. Charts are paper analogue records generated by the mechanical instrument driving a pen trace. Several GLOSS members have developed software to automatically digitise these charts and the various methods were reported in a paper on automated techniques for the digitization of archived mareograms, delivered to the GLOSS GE 13th meeting. GLOSS is creating a repository of software for scanning analogue charts. NUNIEAU is the only publically available software for digitising tide gauge charts but other organisations have developed their own tide gauge digitising software that is available internally. There are several other freely available software packages that convert image data to numerical values. GLOSS could coordinate a comparison study of the various different digitising software programs by: Sending the same charts to each organisation and asking everyone to digitise them using their own procedures Comparing the digitised data Providing recommendations to the GLOSS community The other major form of analogue sea level data is handwritten ledgers, which are usually observations of high and low waters, but sometimes contain higher

  10. High-frequency cyclicity in quaternary fan-delta deposits of the Andean fore-arc: Relative sea level changes and aseismic ridge subduction

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S. ); Jolley, E.J.; Turner, P.; Williams, G.D.; Buddin, T. )

    1990-05-01

    The coast of northern Chile comprises Mesozoic magmatic rocks and Cenozoic-Holocene shallow-marine and alluvial fan/fan-delta sediments. The structure, landform development, and sedimentary response of the coast between Antofagasta in the south and Arica (600 km to the north) have been investigated to evaluate the influence of Nazca plate subduction on sea level changes over Quaternary to Holocene times. At Arica the coastal range is in net extension characterized by extensional normal faulting and subsidence, similar to much of Chile. South of Arica, uplift is recorded by marine terrace development and incision of alluvial fan surfaces; uplift reaches a maximum south of Iquiqui. The boundary between regions in net subsidence and net uplift is marked by north-facing neotectonic normal fault scarps. Variations in apparent uplift and subsidence are consistent with recently published oceanographic records on relative sea level changes over a 30 yr period. The authors data suggest that these regionally variable patterns of coastal uplift along the north Chilean coast are controlled by the subduction of an aseismic ridge, which overprints the effect of eustatic sea level fluctuations. Subduction of oceanic plate heterogeneities may provide a mechanism for producing cyclicity in sedimentary sequences at a frequency equal to or higher than glacio-eustacy in fore-arc and possibly back-arc sedimentary basins. These sequences will be neither of global extent nor of global synchroneity.

  11. Sea-level and climate changes in the Northern Calcareous Alps: New insights from the Rhaetian Zlambach Formation of the Hallstatt Basin (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clémence, Marie-Emilie; Mette, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The uppermost Triassic (Rhaetian) Zlambach Formation, as developed in the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria was deposited in the basinal realm of the open marine deeper Hallstatt shelf of the Tethys Ocean. The main part of the Zlambach Formation succession consists of sedimentary sequences, each divided into three parts: (1) a medium-grained intraclastic pack-, grainstone at the base, overlapped by (2) a calcisiltite/calcilutite and finally (3) a calcilutite mudstone at the top of the sequence. Field, microfacies, stable isotope and trace element investigations suggest that the medium-grained intraclastic-bioclastic pack-, grainstones are predominantly allochthonous origin, having been derived as a detrital carbonate signal from the adjacent southern marginal Dachstein reef, while the calcilutite mudstones were mainly composed of pelagic sediments and grains. Thus, the compositional variation of the microfacies inferred to result from gravity-induced carbonate deposits, which are in accordance a distal toe-of-slope setting of the calciturbiditic sequences. In this study, it is postulated that the calciturbidites were deposited in response to regional and/or global eustatic variations. A model is presented in which the basinward export of detrital carbonate was negligible during sea-level lowstands, increasing to a maximum during sea-level highstands. These sea-level variations may be either climate-induced or related to tectonic processes or a combination of both.

  12. Eastern tropical Pacific vegetation response to rapid climate change and sea level rise: A new pollen record from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, I. L.; Minckley, T. A.; Whitlock, C.

    2016-08-01

    A 30,000-year-long pollen record from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico shows the varying influence of air temperature, precipitation and eustatic sea-level rise on changes in coastal and upland vegetation patterns. During the late-glacial period, pine-juniper forests grew in the Sierra Madre del Sur along the Pacific Slope with broadleaf forests present at low elevations. Coastal wetland and riparian vegetation were limited in distribution. Significant cooling associated with Heinrich 1 (17,000-15,000 cal yr BP) resulted in an expansion of pine-juniper woodland. By the time of Bølling-Allerød warming (14,700-13,000 cal yr BP), extensive mangrove forest development was assisted by sea-level rise and reduced precipitation associated with a more southerly position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) than at present. Concurrently, the expansion of oak into pine woodlands was promoted by warmer conditions than before. Increased summer precipitation in the early Holocene and stabilizing sea levels limited mangrove forests along the coast and allowed mixed conifer and hardwood forest to become more widespread inland. The onset of a more seasonal climate, driven by a weakening of the Mexican monsoon and a southerly shift in ITCZ position led to the establishment of modern open forests of pine and oak after 4300 cal yr BP.

  13. On the relationship between sea level and Spartina alterniflora production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Christian, Robert R.; Blum, Linda K.; Brinson, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    A positive relationship between interannual sea level and plant growth is thought to stabilize many coastal landforms responding to accelerating rates of sea level rise. Numerical models of delta growth, tidal channel network evolution, and ecosystem resilience incorporate a hump-shaped relationship between inundation and plant primary production, where vegetation growth increases with sea level up to an optimum water depth or inundation frequency. In contrast, we use decade-long measurements of Spartina alterniflora biomass in seven coastal Virginia (USA) marshes to demonstrate that interannual sea level is rarely a primary determinant of vegetation growth. Although we find tepid support for a hump-shaped relationship between aboveground production and inundation when marshes of different elevation are considered, our results suggest that marshes high in the intertidal zone and low in relief are unresponsive to sea level fluctuations. We suggest existing models are unable to capture the behavior of wetlands in these portions of the landscape, and may underestimate their vulnerability to sea level rise because sea level rise will not be accompanied by enhanced plant growth and resultant sediment accumulation.

  14. Sea level change: lessons from the geologic record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Rising sea level is potentially one of the most serious impacts of climatic change. Even a small sea level rise would have serious economic consequences because it would cause extensive damage to the world's coastal regions. Sea level can rise in the future because the ocean surface can expand due to warming and because polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers can melt, increasing the ocean's volume of water. Today, ice caps on Antarctica and Greenland contain 91 and 8 percent of the world's ice, respectively. The world's mountain glaciers together contain only about 1 percent. Melting all this ice would raise sea level about 80 meters. Although this extreme scenario is not expected, geologists know that sea level can rise and fall rapidly due to changing volume of ice on continents. For example, during the last ice age, about 18,000 years ago, continental ice sheets contained more than double the modem volume of ice. As ice sheets melted, sea level rose 2 to 3 meters per century, and possibly faster during certain times. During periods in which global climate was very warm, polar ice was reduced and sea level was higher than today.

  15. Present-day sea level rise: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, Anny; Lombard, Alix; Llovel, William

    2008-11-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes have improved considerably in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing data sets have become available. Here we report on the current knowledge of present-day sea level change. We briefly present observational results on sea level change from satellite altimetry since 1993 and tide gauges for the past century. We next discuss recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on time scales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion, land ice mass loss and land water storage change. For the 1993-2003 decade, the sum of climate-related contributions agree well (within the error bars) with the altimetry-based sea level, half of the observed rate of rise being due to ocean thermal expansion, land ice plus land waters explaining the other half. Since about 2003, thermal expansion increase has stopped, whereas the sea level continues to rise, although at a reduced rate compared to the previous decade (2.5 mm/yr versus 3.1 mm/yr). Recent increases in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets appear able to account alone for the rise in sea level reported over the last five years.

  16. Precise mean sea level measurements using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Parke, Michael E.; Rocken, Christian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a sea level measurement test conducted off La Jolla, California, in November of 1991. The purpose of this test was to determine accurate sea level measurements using a Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buoy. These measurements were intended to be used as the sea level component for calibration of the ERS 1 satellite altimeter. Measurements were collected on November 25 and 28 when the ERS 1 satellite overflew the calibration area. Two different types of buoys were used. A waverider design was used on November 25 and a spar design on November 28. This provided the opportunity to examine how dynamic effects of the measurement platform might affect the sea level accuracy. The two buoys were deployed at locations approximately 1.2 km apart and about 15 km west of a reference GPS receiver located on the rooftop of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. GPS solutions were computed for 45 minutes on each day and used to produce two sea level time series. An estimate of the mean sea level at both locations was computed by subtracting tide gage data collected at the Scripps Pier from the GPS-determined sea level measurements and then filtering out the high-frequency components due to waves and buoy dynamics. In both cases the GPS estimate differed from Rapp's mean altimetric surface by 0.06 m. Thus, the gradient in the GPS measurements matched the gradient in Rapp's surface. These results suggest that accurate sea level can be determined using GPS on widely differing platforms as long as care is taken to determine the height of the GPS antenna phase center above water level. Application areas include measurement of absolute sea level, of temporal variations in sea level, and of sea level gradients (dominantly the geoid). Specific applications would include ocean altimeter calibration, monitoring of sea level in remote regions, and regional experiments requiring spatial and

  17. Nonlinear trends and multiyear cycles in sea level records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Grinsted, A.; Moore, J. C.; Holgate, S.

    2006-09-01

    We analyze the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database of sea level time series using a method based on Monte Carlo Singular Spectrum Analysis (MC-SSA). We remove 2-30 year quasi-periodic oscillations and determine the nonlinear long-term trends for 12 large ocean regions. Our global sea level trend estimate of 2.4 ± 1.0 mm/yr for the period from 1993 to 2000 is comparable with the 2.6 ± 0.7 mm/yr sea level rise calculated from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter measurements. However, we show that over the last 100 years the rate of 2.5 ± 1.0 mm/yr occurred between 1920 and 1945, is likely to be as large as the 1990s, and resulted in a mean sea level rise of 48 mm. We evaluate errors in sea level using two independent approaches, the robust bi-weight mean and variance, and a novel "virtual station" approach that utilizes geographic locations of stations. Results suggest that a region cannot be adequately represented by a simple mean curve with standard error, assuming all stations are independent, as multiyear cycles within regions are very significant. Additionally, much of the between-region mismatch errors are due to multiyear cycles in the global sea level that limit the ability of simple means to capture sea level accurately. We demonstrate that variability in sea level records over periods 2-30 years has increased during the past 50 years in most ocean basins.

  18. Subsidence and Relative Sea-level Rise in Threatened Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Higgins, S.

    2014-12-01

    In determining the risk lowland deltaic topography, as threatened by sea level rise and land subsidence, a number of important processes must be evaluated. Sea level rise is a global process but with local manifestations. Asian deltas have been experiencing higher rates of sea level rise due to the steric impact on dynamic (ocean) topography. Other large scale geophysical impacts on relative sea level at the local scale include the isostatic and flexural response to Holocene sea level history, Holocene sediment loads, and in former ice sheet zones --- glacial rebound. Tectonism does play a role on relative sea level rise, particularly in South America where the Eastern coastline, particularly Argentina, is rising relative to regional sea levels. Subsidence is impacted by both natural ground compaction, and accelerated compaction due to, for example, peat oxidation that often has a human driver (e.g. swamp reclammation). Subsidence is also impacted by the extraction of deeper deposits of petroleum and water. Rates of delta subsidence vary widely, depending on the magnitude of the anthropogenic driver, from a few mm/y to 100's of mm/y. Ground water withdrawal is the dominant reason behind much of the world's coastal subsidence, with important exceptions. On average subsidence rates (all causes) now contribute to local sea level innundations at rates four times faster then sea level is rising. New technologies, particularly InSAR and GPS methods, can often pin point the local cause (e.g. water withdrawl for agriculture versus for aquaculture). Subsurface soil or rock heterogeneity, and other very local geological patterns such as historical river pathways, also influence the temporal and spatial patterns associated with delta subsidence.

  19. The rising tide: Global warming and world sea levels

    SciTech Connect

    Edgerton, L.T.

    1991-01-01

    The author presents a broad-based and well-written approach to the impacts of sea level rise. Besides chapters on global warming, sources of sea level variability and the future, the effects on coastal nations, the book contains an important action-oriented discussion of proposed legislation and guidelines for planning and management aimed at reducing loss and damage produced by sea-level rise. The list of acknowledgements includes all the leading practitioners in the field. The references and information are current; reports and information from 1989 and 1990 meetings are included.

  20. Sea level trend and variability around Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Q. H.; Tkalich, P.; Tay, T. W.

    2015-08-01

    Sea level rise due to climate change is non-uniform globally, necessitating regional estimates. Peninsular Malaysia is located in the middle of Southeast Asia, bounded from the west by the Malacca Strait, from the east by the South China Sea (SCS), and from the south by the Singapore Strait. The sea level along the peninsula may be influenced by various regional phenomena native to the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific oceans. To examine the variability and trend of sea level around the peninsula, tide gauge records and satellite altimetry are analyzed taking into account vertical land movements (VLMs). At annual scale, sea level anomalies (SLAs) around Peninsular Malaysia on the order of 5-25 cm are mainly monsoon driven. Sea levels at eastern and western coasts respond differently to the Asian monsoon: two peaks per year in the Malacca Strait due to South Asian-Indian monsoon; an annual cycle in the remaining region mostly due to the East Asian-western Pacific monsoon. At interannual scale, regional sea level variability in the range of ±6 cm is correlated with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). SLAs in the Malacca Strait side are further correlated with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in the range of ±5 cm. Interannual regional sea level falls are associated with El Nino events and positive phases of IOD, whilst rises are correlated with La Nina episodes and negative values of the IOD index. At seasonal to interannual scales, we observe the separation of the sea level patterns in the Singapore Strait, between the Raffles Lighthouse and Tanjong Pagar tide stations, likely caused by a dynamic constriction in the narrowest part. During the observation period 1986-2013, average relative rates of sea level rise derived from tide gauges in Malacca Strait and along the east coast of the peninsula are 3.6±1.6 and 3.7±1.1 mm yr-1, respectively. Correcting for respective VLMs (0.8±2.6 and 0.9±2.2 mm yr-1), their corresponding geocentric sea level rise rates

  1. An alternative to reduction of surface pressure to sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardorff, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The pitfalls of the present method of reducing surface pressure to sea level are reviewed, and an alternative, adjusted pressure, P, is proposed. P is obtained from solution of a Poisson equation over a continental region, using the simplest boundary condition along the perimeter or coastline where P equals the sea level pressure. The use of P would avoid the empiricisms and disadvantages of pressure reduction to sea level, and would produce surface pressure charts which depict the true geostrophic wind at the surface.

  2. Sea-level variability over five glacial cycles.

    PubMed

    Grant, K M; Rohling, E J; Ramsey, C Bronk; Cheng, H; Edwards, R L; Florindo, F; Heslop, D; Marra, F; Roberts, A P; Tamisiea, M E; Williams, F

    2014-09-25

    Research on global ice-volume changes during Pleistocene glacial cycles is hindered by a lack of detailed sea-level records for time intervals older than the last interglacial. Here we present the first robustly dated, continuous and highly resolved records of Red Sea sea level and rates of sea-level change over the last 500,000 years, based on tight synchronization to an Asian monsoon record. We observe maximum 'natural' (pre-anthropogenic forcing) sea-level rise rates below 2 m per century following periods with up to twice present-day ice volumes, and substantially higher rise rates for greater ice volumes. We also find that maximum sea-level rise rates were attained within 2 kyr of the onset of deglaciations, for 85% of such events. Finally, multivariate regressions of orbital parameters, sea-level and monsoon records suggest that major meltwater pulses account for millennial-scale variability and insolation-lagged responses in Asian monsoon records.

  3. Sea-level variability over five glacial cycles.

    PubMed

    Grant, K M; Rohling, E J; Ramsey, C Bronk; Cheng, H; Edwards, R L; Florindo, F; Heslop, D; Marra, F; Roberts, A P; Tamisiea, M E; Williams, F

    2014-01-01

    Research on global ice-volume changes during Pleistocene glacial cycles is hindered by a lack of detailed sea-level records for time intervals older than the last interglacial. Here we present the first robustly dated, continuous and highly resolved records of Red Sea sea level and rates of sea-level change over the last 500,000 years, based on tight synchronization to an Asian monsoon record. We observe maximum 'natural' (pre-anthropogenic forcing) sea-level rise rates below 2 m per century following periods with up to twice present-day ice volumes, and substantially higher rise rates for greater ice volumes. We also find that maximum sea-level rise rates were attained within 2 kyr of the onset of deglaciations, for 85% of such events. Finally, multivariate regressions of orbital parameters, sea-level and monsoon records suggest that major meltwater pulses account for millennial-scale variability and insolation-lagged responses in Asian monsoon records. PMID:25254503

  4. Sea water intrusion by sea-level rise: scenarios for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Loáiciga, Hugo A; Pingel, Thomas J; Garcia, Elizabeth S

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a method to assess the contributions of 21st-century sea-level rise and groundwater extraction to sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Sea water intrusion is represented by the landward advance of the 10,000 mg/L iso-salinity line, a concentration of dissolved salts that renders groundwater unsuitable for human use. A mathematical formulation of the resolution of sea water intrusion among its causes was quantified via numerical simulation under scenarios of change in groundwater extraction and sea-level rise in the 21st century. The developed method is illustrated with simulations of sea water intrusion in the Seaside Area sub-basin near the City of Monterey, California (USA), where predictions of mean sea-level rise through the early 21st century range from 0.10 to 0.90 m due to increasing global mean surface temperature. The modeling simulation was carried out with a state-of-the-art numerical model that accounts for the effects of salinity on groundwater density and can approximate hydrostratigraphic geometry closely. Simulations of sea water intrusion corresponding to various combinations of groundwater extraction and sea-level rise established that groundwater extraction is the predominant driver of sea water intrusion in the study aquifer. The method presented in this work is applicable to coastal aquifers under a variety of other scenarios of change not considered in this work. For example, one could resolve what changes in groundwater extraction and/or sea level would cause specified levels of groundwater salinization at strategic locations and times.

  5. Evolution of a Greenland Ice sheet Including Shelves and Regional Sea Level Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Sarah; Reerink, Thomas; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Helsen, Michiel; Goelzer, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and marine sediment cores infer that at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) grounded out across the Davis Strait into Baffin Bay, with fast flowing ice streams extending out to the continental shelf break along the NW margin. These observations lead to a number of questions as to weather the GIS and Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) coalesced during glacial maximums, and if so, did a significant ice shelf develop across Baffin Bay and how would such a configuration impact on the relative contribution of these ice sheets to eustatic sea level (ESL). Most previous paleo ice sheet modelling simulations of the GIS recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilised a simplified marine ice parameterisation to recreate an extended GIS, and therefore did not fully include ice shelf dynamics. In this study we simulate the evolution of the GIS from 220 kyr BP to present day using IMAU-ice; a 3D thermodynamical ice sheet model which fully accounts for grounded and floating ice, calculates grounding line migration and ice shelf dynamics. As there are few observational estimates of the long-term (yrs) sub marine basal melting rates (mbm) for the GIS, we developed a mbm parameterization within IMAU-ice controlled primarily by changes in paleo water depth. We also investigate the influence of the LIS on the GIS evolution by including relative sea level forcing's derived from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model. We will present results of how changes in the mbm directly impacts on the ice sheet dynamics, timing and spatial extent of the GIS at the glacial maximums, but also on the rate of retreat and spatial extent at the Last interglacial (LIG) minimum. Results indicate that with the inclusion of ice shelf dynamics, a larger GIS is generated which is grounded out into Davis strait, up to a water depth of -750 m, but significantly reduces the GIS contribution to Last

  6. Evolution of a Greenland Ice sheet Including Shelves and Regional Sea Level Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, S.; Reerink, T.; Vandewal, R.; Helsen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and marine sediment cores infer that at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) grounded out across the Davis Strait into Baffin Bay, with fast flowing ice streams extending out to the continental shelf break along the NW margin. These observations lead to a number of questions as to weather the GIS and Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) coalesced during glacial maximums, and if so, did a significant ice shelf develop across Baffin Bay and how would such a configuration impact on the relative contribution of these ice sheets to eustatic sea level (ESL). Most previous paleo ice sheet modelling simulations of the GIS recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilised a simplified marine ice parameterisation to recreate an extended GIS, and therefore did not fully include ice shelf dynamics. In this study we simulate the evolution of the GIS from 220 kyr BP to present day using IMAU-ice; a 3D thermodynamical ice sheet model which fully accounts for grounded and floating ice, calculates grounding line migration and ice shelf dynamics. There is few observational estimates of long-term (yrs) sub marine basal melting rates (mbm) for the GIS. Therefore we investigate a range of relationships to constrain the spatial and temporal parameterisation of mbm within IMAU-ice related to changes in paleo water depth, driven by changes in relative sea level and ocean temperature. We will present results of how changes in the mbm directly impacts on the ice sheet dynamics, timing and spatial extent of the GIS at the glacial maximums, but also on the rate of retreat and spatial extent at the Last interglacial (LIG) minimum. Initial results indicate that with the inclusion of ice shelf dynamics, a larger GIS is generated which is grounded out into Davis strait, up to a water depth of -750 m, but the total contribution to LIG ESL is reduced by up to 0.6 m.

  7. Late Holocene Sea-levels, Climate and Ice Sheet Dynamics in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, A. J.; Woodroffe, S. A.; Bryant, C.

    2007-12-01

    At the end of the Holocene altithermal, c. 5 ka cal. yr BP, the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) had retreated 10-30 km inland of its present position. During the subsequent neoglacial, from c. 4 ka cal yr BP onwards, the GIS re-grew, advancing to reach a maximum extent during the "Little Ice Age". This re-growth saw an increase in load on the earth's surface that, throughout West Greenland, was accompanied by a switch from early and mid Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) fall to late Holocene RSL rise. Evidence for this rise includes drowned archaeological sites, submerged freshwater peats and flooded lake basins. Recently collected sediment cores from flooded lake basins in Disko Bugt and Kangerlussuaq (and from elsewhere in West Greenland) define millennial scale trends in mid and late Holocene RSL that reflect increased ice load during the neoglacial. They provide powerful constraints on geophysical models of Holocene ice sheet history. However, such records lack the resolution required to explore the short-term dynamic interactions between the ice sheet and RSL during the last millennia. In this paper we present a high resolution RSL record from Kangerlussuaq from this period. Our approach uses thin, radiocarbon-dated salt marsh deposits that overlie bedrock. We reconstruct RSL change between c. AD 1400 and the present using seventeen radiocarbon dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils, together with an extensive database of fossil and modern diatom assemblages. Our data indicate a long-term rate of RSL rise over this period of c. 1.3 mm yr-1, close to that suggested by recent GPS observations (when corrected for a twentieth century "eustatic" sea-level rise of c. 1.5-2 mm yr-1). We also identify higher frequency variability in our record that may reflect changes in ice load associated with the "Little Ice Age" in West Greenland. High resolution RSL records, such as this, provide a new target for geophysical models of ice sheet mass balance change and a long term

  8. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming.

    PubMed

    Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

    2013-08-20

    Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m °C(-1) and 1.2 m °C(-1) of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m °C(-1) within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales.

  9. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming

    PubMed Central

    Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U.; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A.; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m °C−1 and 1.2 m °C−1 of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m °C−1 within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales. PMID:23858443

  10. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming.

    PubMed

    Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

    2013-08-20

    Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m °C(-1) and 1.2 m °C(-1) of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m °C(-1) within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales. PMID:23858443

  11. Regional patterns of sea level change in the German North Sea in a worldwide context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Thomas; Frank, Torsten; Jensen, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) is one of the major consequences we are facing in times of a warming climate and it is obvious that a higher sea level influences the heights of occurring storm surges and thus results in a higher risk of inundation for the affected coastal areas. Therefore, regional and global sea level rise are subjects to many recent scientific publications. In contrast, the mean sea level (MSL) and its variability over the last centuries in the German North Sea area have not been analysed in detail up to now. A methodology to analyse observed sea level rise (SLR) in the German Bight, the shallow south-eastern part of the North Sea, is presented. The contribution focuses on the description of the methods used to generate and analyse high quality mean sea level (MSL) time series. Parametric fitting approaches as well as non-parametric data adaptive filters, such as Singular System Analysis (SSA) are applied. For padding non-stationary sea level time series, an advanced approach named Monte-Carlo autoregressive padding (MCAP) is introduced. This approach allows the specification of uncertainties of the behaviour of smoothed time series near the boundaries. The results for the North Sea point to a weak negative acceleration of SLR since 1844 with a strong positive acceleration at the end of the 19th century, to a period of almost no SLR around the 1970s with subsequent positive acceleration and to high recent rates. The comparison between the German North Sea and a global sea level reconstruction clearly reveals the existence of different patterns of SLR. A stronger SLR in the German North Sea area is detected for a period covering some decades starting at the end of the 19th century and for another period covering the last ten to fifteen years. These findings and the indications for the natural variability of this complex system and further research topics will be discussed. This is a German Coastal Engineering Research Council (KFKI) project, funded by the

  12. Climate And Sea Level: It's In Our Hands Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Bell, R. E.; Ryan, W. B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in sea level are measurable on both a local and a global scale providing an accessible way to connect climate to education, yet engaging teachers and students with the complex science that is behind the change in sea level can be a challenge. Deciding how much should be included and just how it should be introduced in any single classroom subject area can be an obstacle for a teacher. The Sea Level Rise Polar Explorer App developed through the PoLAR CCEP grant offers a guided tour through the many layers of science that impact sea level rise. This map-based data-rich app is framed around a series of questions that move the user through map layers with just the level of complexity they chose to explore. For a quick look teachers and students can review a 3 or 4 sentence introduction on how the given map links to sea level and then launch straight into the interactive touchable map. For a little more in depth look they can listen to (or read) a one-minute recorded background on the data displayed in the map prior to launching in. For those who want more in depth understanding they can click to a one page background piece on the topic with links to further visualizations, videos and data. Regardless of the level of complexity selected each map is composed of clickable data allowing the user to fully explore the science. The different options for diving in allow teachers to differentiate the learning for either the subject being taught or the user level of the student group. The map layers also include a range of complexities. Basic questions like "What is sea level?" talk about shorelines, past sea levels and elevations beneath the sea. Questions like "Why does sea level change?" includes slightly more complex issues like the role of ocean temperature, and how that differs from ocean heat content. And what is the role of the warming atmosphere in sea level change? Questions about "What about sea level in the past?" can bring challenges for students who have

  13. Eemian sea-level highstand in the eastern Baltic Sea linked to long-duration White Sea connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Arto; Head, Martin J.; Knudsen, Karen Luise

    2014-02-01

    Revised diatom and new dinoflagellate cyst and benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Baltic Sea have refined our understanding of Eemian (Last Interglacial; 131-119.5 ka) sea-level change on the Russian Karelia, a former seaway linking the Baltic to the White Sea. Results from Peski, eastern Baltic show the initiation of marine conditions just before 131 ka in the latest Saalian, after the opening of a connection to the North Sea. Following the onset of the Eemian marine highstand and the opening of the White Sea connection at around 130.25 ka, near-fully marine conditions persisted in the eastern Baltic area for ca 6 kyr, until ca 124 ka. For most of the Eemian, a strong thermal stratification in the eastern Baltic resulted from an Arctic and possible North Atlantic water component from the White Sea merging with warmer waters from the North Sea. From ca 124 ka, decreasing salinity indicates the end of the marine highstand and a simultaneous closure of the Baltic Sea-White Sea connection, i.e. a duration of ca 6 kyr for this seaway. The main influence of White Sea inflow appears to be restricted to the eastern Baltic area, although a large submerged area in the Russian Karelia associated with temperate Atlantic waters could have assisted in creating a more oceanic climate for Central Europe.

  14. Regional patterns of low-frequency sea level variability: case of the Japan/East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusenkova, Olga

    An increasing trend is detected in globally averaged sea level derived from satellite altimetry measurements for the last two decades. Sea level trends in the North Pacific can be attributed to steric expansion, mostly due to the temperature increase, while the spatial distribution resembles the negative phase of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The latter is attributed to water redistribution caused by circulation (Fukumore, Wang, 2013). As for the East Asia marginal seas, there are strong positive sea level trends in the subtropical areas but only weak positive or even negative trends in the subarctic areas (Marcos et al., 2012). Strong seasonal sea level oscillations, with amplitude of 15-25 cm, occur simultaneously in the entire Japan/East Sea, with maxima and minima in October and March, respectively (Choi et al., 2004; Trusenkova et al., 2010). The timing of the extremes can be explained by maximum inflow of warm water through the Korea Strait in October and strong winter cooling. This study is focused on low-frequency sea level variability in the Japan/East Sea, beyond the steric effects. To this purpose, AVISO 0.25 dergee gridded weekly sea level anomalies (SLA) for the period from October 1992 onwards are low-pass filtered, with the cut-off period of 1.3 years. Decomposition to Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) yields the leading mode of synchronous, weak but statistically significant, quasi-biennial oscillations in the entire Sea. They also manifest interannual and decadal variability but no linear trend. This mode should be attributed to variation of water volume in the sea, i.e. transport imbalance through the straits. The strong SLA are timed with the strong anomalies of the inflow transport in the Korea Strait. An out-of-phase relationship of sea level with PDO was found and explained by transport variations in the Korea Strait (Gordon and Giulivi, 2004). However, the alternating out-of-phase and in-phase regimes are detected when the altimetry

  15. The importance of sea-level research (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    200 million people worldwide live in coastal regions less than 5 meters above sea level. By the end of the 21st century, this figure is estimated to increase to 500 million. These low-lying coastal regions are vulnerable to changes in sea level brought about by climate change, storms or earthquakes. But the historic and instrumental record is too short to fully understand the climate relationships and capture the occurrence of the rare, but most destructive events. The coastal sedimentary record provides a long-term and robust paleo perspective on the rates, magnitudes and spatial variability of sea-level rise and the frequency (recurrence interval) and magnitude of destructive events. Reconstructions of paleo sea level are important for identifying the meltwater contributions, constraining parameters in Earth-Ice models, and estimating past and present rates of spatially variable sea-level change associated glacial isostatic adjustment, sediment compaction and tidal range variability. Sea-level reconstructions capture multiple phases of climate and sea-level behavior for model calibration and provide a pre-anthropogenic background against which to compare recent trends. Pre-historic earthquakes (Mw>8.0) are often associated with abrupt and cyclical patterns of vertical land-motion that are manifest in coastal sedimentary archives as abrupt changes in relative sea level. Geologic evidence of paleoearthquakes elucidates characteristic and repeated pattern of land-level movements associated with the earthquake-deformation cycle. Tsunamis and storms leave behind anomalous and characteristic sediment that is incorporated into the coastal sedimentary record often as evidence of a high-energy event affecting a low-energy, depositional environment. Records of tsunamis developed from the sedimentary deposits they leave behind improve understanding of tsunami processes and frequency by expanding the age range of events available for study. Reconstructions of paleo storms

  16. Characterization of extreme sea level at the European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Alberto; Jorda, Gabriel; Mathis, Moritz; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high sea levels arise as a combination of storm surges and particular high tides events. Future climate simulations not only project changes in the atmospheric circulation, which induces changes in the wind conditions, but also an increase in the global mean sea level by thermal expansion and ice melting. Such changes increase the risk of coastal flooding, which represents a possible hazard for human activities. Therefore, it is important to investigate the pattern of sea level variability and long-term trends at coastal areas. In order to analyze further extreme sea level events at the European coast in the future climate projections, a new setup for the global ocean model MPIOM coupled with the regional atmosphere model REMO is prepared. The MPIOM irregular grid has enhanced resolution in the European region to resolve the North and the Mediterranean Seas (up to 11 x 11 km at the North Sea). The ocean model includes as well the full luni-solar ephemeridic tidal potential for tides simulation. To simulate the air-sea interaction, the regional atmospheric model REMO is interactively coupled to the ocean model over Europe. Such region corresponds to the EuroCORDEX domain with a 50 x 50 km resolution. Besides the standard fluxes of heat, mass (freshwater), momentum and turbulent energy input, the ocean model is also forced with sea level pressure, in order to be able to capture the full variation of sea level. The hydrological budget within the study domain is closed using a hydrological discharge model. With this model, simulations for present climate and future climate scenarios are carried out to study transient changes on the sea level and extreme events. As a first step, two simulations (coupled and uncoupled ocean) driven by reanalysis data (ERA40) have been conducted. They are used as reference runs to evaluate the climate projection simulations. For selected locations at the coast side, time series of sea level are separated on its different

  17. Low frequency Sea Level Variability: correlation between altimetry and tide gauges in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaduce, A.; Pinardi, N.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level variability in the Mediterranean Sea over the decadal time scale is studied using a combination of sea level and in-situ observations. A method to decompose the different sea level signals for tide gauges and altimetry is proposed, so that a coherent comparison between the two measurements is possible. The steric component and the atmospheric pressure contribution (inverse barometer) are filtered in order to look at sea level changes over decadal time scales. Low frequency sea level from tide gauges data is found to be representative of a large scale signal and results to be comparable, along all the basin, with satellite altimetry data. In particular the two signals are better correlated in the areas where the continental shelf is extended, such as the northern Adriatic. The same occurs in the case where the tide gauge station is located on an island, such as Malta, where the station is representative of the open ocean sea level signal. Moving towards the Levantin basin, the shelves extension generally decrease and the two data sets tend to be less correlated even if still correlated positively with a root mean square error lower than 5 cm (Hadera, Israel). Looking at the sea level trend, a positive trend of 2.15 ± 0.7 mm yr -1 is observed in the Mediterranean basin considering satellite altimetry during the period from 1993 to 2010 . Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) has been considered correcting sea level data with ICE-5G model data. This value represent just and index of the sea level changes occurring at basin scale. The basin presents a marked trend spatial variability, mainly characterized by strong positive trends in the shelves areas and negative trends in the Ionian sea, due to a strong change in the circulation in this basin. The variability of the trend values as a function of the number of years considered is such that at least 15 years of data are needed in order to obtain a significant and stable positive trend. The total lack of in

  18. Seasonal coastal sea level prediction using a dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Peter C.; Church, John A.; Miles, Elaine R.; Ridgway, Ken; Spillman, Claire M.

    2015-08-01

    Sea level varies on a range of time scales from tidal to decadal and centennial change. To date, little attention has been focussed on the prediction of interannual sea level anomalies. Here we demonstrate that forecasts of coastal sea level anomalies from the dynamical Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) have significant skill throughout the equatorial Pacific and along the eastern boundaries of the Pacific and Indian Oceans at lead times out to 8 months. POAMA forecasts for the western Pacific generally have greater skill than persistence, particularly at longer lead times. POAMA also has comparable or greater skill than previously published statistical forecasts from both a Markov model and canonical correlation analysis. Our results indicate the capability of physically based models to address the challenge of providing skillful forecasts of seasonal sea level fluctuations for coastal communities over a broad area and at a range of lead times.

  19. [Book review] Sea level rise: history and consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.

    2004-01-01

    Review of: Sea level Rise: history and consequences. Bruce Douglas, Michael S. Kearney and Stephen P. Leatherman (eds), Sand Diego: Academic Press, 2001, 232 pp. plus CD-RIM, US$64.95, hardback. ISBN 0-12-221345-9.

  20. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Hardenbol, J.; Vail, P.R.

    1987-03-06

    Advances in sequence stratigraphy and the development of depositional models have helped explain the origin of genetically related sedimentary packages during sea level cycles. These concepts have provided the basis for the recognition of sea level events in subsurface data and in outcrops of marine sediments around the world. Knowledge of these events has led to a new generation of Mesozoic and Cenozoic global cycle charts that chronicle the history of sea level fluctuations during the past 250 million years in greater detail than was possible from seismic-stratigraphic data alone. An effort has been made to develop a realistic and accurate time scale and widely applicable chronostratigraphy and to integrate depositional sequences documented in public domain outcrop sections from various basins with this chronostratigraphic framework. A description of this approach and an account of the results, illustrated by sea level cycle charts of the Cenozoic, Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Triassic intervals, are presented.

  1. A global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels.

    PubMed

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel C; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Ward, Philip J

    2016-06-27

    Extreme sea levels, caused by storm surges and high tides, can have devastating societal impacts. To effectively protect our coasts, global information on coastal flooding is needed. Here we present the first global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels (GTSR data set) based on hydrodynamic modelling. GTSR covers the entire world's coastline and consists of time series of tides and surges, and estimates of extreme sea levels. Validation shows that there is good agreement between modelled and observed sea levels, and that the performance of GTSR is similar to that of many regional hydrodynamic models. Due to the limited resolution of the meteorological forcing, extremes are slightly underestimated. This particularly affects tropical cyclones, which requires further research. We foresee applications in assessing flood risk and impacts of climate change. As a first application of GTSR, we estimate that 1.3% of the global population is exposed to a 1 in 100-year flood.

  2. A global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels

    PubMed Central

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme sea levels, caused by storm surges and high tides, can have devastating societal impacts. To effectively protect our coasts, global information on coastal flooding is needed. Here we present the first global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels (GTSR data set) based on hydrodynamic modelling. GTSR covers the entire world's coastline and consists of time series of tides and surges, and estimates of extreme sea levels. Validation shows that there is good agreement between modelled and observed sea levels, and that the performance of GTSR is similar to that of many regional hydrodynamic models. Due to the limited resolution of the meteorological forcing, extremes are slightly underestimated. This particularly affects tropical cyclones, which requires further research. We foresee applications in assessing flood risk and impacts of climate change. As a first application of GTSR, we estimate that 1.3% of the global population is exposed to a 1 in 100-year flood. PMID:27346549

  3. Twenty-two Years of Sea Level Rise

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows total sea level change between the beginning of 1993 and the end of 2014, based on data collected from the TOPEX/Poisedon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 satellites. Blue regions are...

  4. A global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2016-06-01

    Extreme sea levels, caused by storm surges and high tides, can have devastating societal impacts. To effectively protect our coasts, global information on coastal flooding is needed. Here we present the first global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels (GTSR data set) based on hydrodynamic modelling. GTSR covers the entire world's coastline and consists of time series of tides and surges, and estimates of extreme sea levels. Validation shows that there is good agreement between modelled and observed sea levels, and that the performance of GTSR is similar to that of many regional hydrodynamic models. Due to the limited resolution of the meteorological forcing, extremes are slightly underestimated. This particularly affects tropical cyclones, which requires further research. We foresee applications in assessing flood risk and impacts of climate change. As a first application of GTSR, we estimate that 1.3% of the global population is exposed to a 1 in 100-year flood.

  5. Overestimation of marsh vulnerability to sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Temmerman, Stijn; Skeehan, Emily E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Coastal marshes are considered to be among the most valuable and vulnerable ecosystems on Earth, where the imminent loss of ecosystem services is a feared consequence of sea level rise. However, we show with a meta-analysis that global measurements of marsh elevation change indicate that marshes are generally building at rates similar to or exceeding historical sea level rise, and that process-based models predict survival under a wide range of future sea level scenarios. We argue that marsh vulnerability tends to be overstated because assessment methods often fail to consider biophysical feedback processes known to accelerate soil building with sea level rise, and the potential for marshes to migrate inland.

  6. Overestimation of marsh vulnerability to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Temmerman, Stijn; Skeehan, Emily E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Coastal marshes are considered to be among the most valuable and vulnerable ecosystems on Earth, where the imminent loss of ecosystem services is a feared consequence of sea level rise. However, we show with a meta-analysis that global measurements of marsh elevation change indicate that marshes are generally building at rates similar to or exceeding historical sea level rise, and that process-based models predict survival under a wide range of future sea level scenarios. We argue that marsh vulnerability tends to be overstated because assessment methods often fail to consider biophysical feedback processes known to accelerate soil building with sea level rise, and the potential for marshes to migrate inland.

  7. Does Sea Level Change When a Floating Iceberg Melts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong

    2010-05-01

    On the answer page to a recent "Figuring Physics" question, the cute mouse asks another question: "Does the [sea] water level change if the iceberg melts?" The conventional answer2-4 is "no." However, in this paper I will show through a simple analysis involving Archimedes' principle that the sea level will rise. The analysis shows the wrong conventional answer is due to the wrong assumption that water from a melted iceberg has the same density as seawater. An iceberg is freshwater ice.5 The sea level rise is essentially due to the difference in the density of seawater (1024 kg/m3) and freshwater (1000 kg/m3). A simple experiment, suitable as an introductory laboratory exercise, that validates the predicted sea level rise is presented at the end of the paper.

  8. A global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels.

    PubMed

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel C; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Ward, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Extreme sea levels, caused by storm surges and high tides, can have devastating societal impacts. To effectively protect our coasts, global information on coastal flooding is needed. Here we present the first global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels (GTSR data set) based on hydrodynamic modelling. GTSR covers the entire world's coastline and consists of time series of tides and surges, and estimates of extreme sea levels. Validation shows that there is good agreement between modelled and observed sea levels, and that the performance of GTSR is similar to that of many regional hydrodynamic models. Due to the limited resolution of the meteorological forcing, extremes are slightly underestimated. This particularly affects tropical cyclones, which requires further research. We foresee applications in assessing flood risk and impacts of climate change. As a first application of GTSR, we estimate that 1.3% of the global population is exposed to a 1 in 100-year flood. PMID:27346549

  9. SEA-LEVEL RISE. Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods.

    PubMed

    Dutton, A; Carlson, A E; Long, A J; Milne, G A; Clark, P U; DeConto, R; Horton, B P; Rahmstorf, S; Raymo, M E

    2015-07-10

    Interdisciplinary studies of geologic archives have ushered in a new era of deciphering magnitudes, rates, and sources of sea-level rise from polar ice-sheet loss during past warm periods. Accounting for glacial isostatic processes helps to reconcile spatial variability in peak sea level during marine isotope stages 5e and 11, when the global mean reached 6 to 9 meters and 6 to 13 meters higher than present, respectively. Dynamic topography introduces large uncertainties on longer time scales, precluding robust sea-level estimates for intervals such as the Pliocene. Present climate is warming to a level associated with significant polar ice-sheet loss in the past. Here, we outline advances and challenges involved in constraining ice-sheet sensitivity to climate change with use of paleo-sea level records. PMID:26160951

  10. SEA-LEVEL RISE. Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods.

    PubMed

    Dutton, A; Carlson, A E; Long, A J; Milne, G A; Clark, P U; DeConto, R; Horton, B P; Rahmstorf, S; Raymo, M E

    2015-07-10

    Interdisciplinary studies of geologic archives have ushered in a new era of deciphering magnitudes, rates, and sources of sea-level rise from polar ice-sheet loss during past warm periods. Accounting for glacial isostatic processes helps to reconcile spatial variability in peak sea level during marine isotope stages 5e and 11, when the global mean reached 6 to 9 meters and 6 to 13 meters higher than present, respectively. Dynamic topography introduces large uncertainties on longer time scales, precluding robust sea-level estimates for intervals such as the Pliocene. Present climate is warming to a level associated with significant polar ice-sheet loss in the past. Here, we outline advances and challenges involved in constraining ice-sheet sensitivity to climate change with use of paleo-sea level records.

  11. Sea level differences across the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zlotnicki, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The sea level differences between the Sargasso Sea and the slope waters across the Gulf Stream region, averaged between 73 and 61 deg W, and the comparable areas across the Kuroshio extension region, averaged between 143 and 156 deg E, were estimated using the Geosat altimeter data obtained between November 1986 and December 1988. The sea-level differences between the two regions showed a strong correlation between the northwest Atlantic and Pacific, dominated by annual cycles that peak in late-September to mid-October, with about 9 cm (the Gulf Stream region) and about 6.9 cm (Kuroshio region) amplitudes.

  12. Mean annual variation of sea level in the Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrtki, K.; Leslie, W.G.

    1980-08-01

    The mean annual variation of sea level in the Pacific Ocean is documented on the basis of sea level records from 169 stations along the continental margins and on islands. The results are displayed in numerical and graphical form. The data were also subjected to a harmonic analysis to determine the amplitudes and phases of the annual and semi-annual variations. The distribution of the harmonic parameters and of some derived quantities are charted and discussed.

  13. Climate change. How fast are sea levels rising?

    PubMed

    Church, J A

    2001-10-26

    Sea levels are rising as a result of global warming, but assessing the rate of the rise is proving difficult. In his Perspective, Church highlights the report by Cabanes et al., who have reassessed observational data and find that it is closer to model estimates than previously found. However, observational data are still limited and models disagree in their regional projections. With present data and models, regional sea-level changes cannot be predicted with confidence.

  14. Sea-level trends and interannual variability in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

    2013-06-01

    Sea-level trends and their forcing have been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 19 stations. The basin average sea-level rise is 1.7 ± 1.3 mm yr-1 for the period 1993-2010. Significant spatial variability of the trends is found. The steric variability above 800 m combined with the global isostatic adjustment explains the observed trends for the altimetry period in most of the basin. Wind forcing changes causes the trends in the southern part of the basin, modulating the sea level through changes in the ocean circulation. The longest time series (102 years) of Cristobal shows a trend of 1.9 ± 0.1 mm yr-1 insignificantly different from the global mean sea-level rise for the twentieth century. By contrast Cartagena, a world heritage site, has a large trend (5.3 ± 0.3 mm yr-1) significantly affected by local vertical land movements. Stations dominated by the steric contribution have smaller trends (˜1.3 ± 0.2 mm yr-1). Sea-level trends at tide gauges are not affected by atmospheric pressure changes or by the open ocean steric contribution at most stations. Decadal variability in the sea-level trends can partly be explained by steric and wind variability. The decadal variability in the trends is not spatially coherent. Interannual sea-level variability accounts for one third of the total sea-level variability and can be partly explained by the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation at different time and spatial scales. No correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation is found.

  15. Extreme Sea Levels and Approaches to Adaptation in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, R.; Kappenberg, J.; Sothmann, J.

    2014-12-01

    Germany's coastal areas are exposed to extra-tropical storms and related marine hazards such as wind waves and storm surges. About 50% of the coast is below 5 m NN and considerable parts are protected by an almost continuous dike line. Rising mean and extreme sea levels provide substantial threat. In this presentation we briefly review the present situation. Storm related sea level changes are characterized by pronounced inter-annual and decadal variability but do not show a long-term trend over the last century. Mean sea level has increased over the past about 100-150 years at a rate roughly comparable to global mean sea level rise. As a consequence extreme sea levels have increased in the area as increasing mean sea level shifts the baseline for storm surges and wind waves towards higher values. Different approaches for adaptation are investigated in a number ongoing research projects. Some case studies for potential adaptation and challenges are presented. Examples range from detailed analyses of retreat and accommodation strategies to multi-purpose strategies such as concepts for sustainable development of tidal estuaries.

  16. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (<20 m) in this supposedly ice-free world because Eocene sequence boundaries also appear to correlate with minor ??18O increases. Subsidence estimates (backstripping) indicate amplitudes of short-term (million-year scale) lowerings that are consistent with estimates derived from ??18O studies (25-50 m in the Oligocene-middle Miocene and 10-20 m in the Eocene) and a long-term lowering of 150-200 m over the past 65 myr, consistent with estimates derived from volume changes on mid-ocean ridges. Although our results are consistent with the general number and timing of Paleocene to middle Miocene sequences published by workers at Exxon Production Research Company, our estimates of sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist

  17. Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

    2011-01-01

    On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

  18. Experiments in Reconstructing Twentieth-Century Sea Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Douglas, Bruce C.

    2011-01-01

    One approach to reconstructing historical sea level from the relatively sparse tide-gauge network is to employ Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) as interpolatory spatial basis functions. The EOFs are determined from independent global data, generally sea-surface heights from either satellite altimetry or a numerical ocean model. The problem is revisited here for sea level since 1900. A new approach to handling the tide-gauge datum problem by direct solution offers possible advantages over the method of integrating sea-level differences, with the potential of eventually adjusting datums into the global terrestrial reference frame. The resulting time series of global mean sea levels appears fairly insensitive to the adopted set of EOFs. In contrast, charts of regional sea level anomalies and trends are very sensitive to the adopted set of EOFs, especially for the sparser network of gauges in the early 20th century. The reconstructions appear especially suspect before 1950 in the tropical Pacific. While this limits some applications of the sea-level reconstructions, the sensitivity does appear adequately captured by formal uncertainties. All our solutions show regional trends over the past five decades to be fairly uniform throughout the global ocean, in contrast to trends observed over the shorter altimeter era. Consistent with several previous estimates, the global sea-level rise since 1900 is 1.70 +/- 0.26 mm/yr. The global trend since 1995 exceeds 3 mm/yr which is consistent with altimeter measurements, but this large trend was possibly also reached between 1935 and 1950.

  19. Sea level Variability and Juan de Fuca Bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybers, P. J.; Boulahanis, B.; Proistosescu, C.; Langmuir, C. H.; Carbotte, S. M.; Katz, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    That deglaciation influences mid-ocean ridge volcanism is well established for Iceland, where depressurization associated with melting a ~2 km ice cap led to order of magnitude increases in volcanism during the last deglaciation. The case was also made that the more subtle ~100 m changes in sea level that accompany glacial cycles have identifiable implications for undersea mid-ocean ridge systems using both models and data from the Australian-Antarctic Ridge (Crowley et al., 2015). Sea level rising at ~1 cm/year during deglaciation leads to an expectation of ~10% decreases in melt production at ridges, given mantle upwelling rates of ˜3 cm/yr at intermediate spreading ridges and mantle density being ~3 times that of seawater. The implications of variations in melt production for bathymetry, however, involve numerous considerations, including whether melt signals are cancelled within the melt column, appreciably alter accretionary or fault processes, and have identifiable surface expressions. Further empirical assessment of bathymetry is thus useful for purposes of confirming patterns and constraining processes. Here we report on spectral analyses of bathymetry recently acquired from the Juan de Fuca ridge between 44°30'N and 45°15'N during the SeaVOICE expedition. Multibeam swath sonar data were acquired with an EM122 sonar insonfiying seafloor to crustal ages of ˜2 ma with 35 m spatial resolution. We examine (1.) the statistical significance of concentrations of bathymetric variability at the 100 ky, 41 ky, and 23 ky periods characteristic of late-Pleistocene sea level variability; (2.) whether sea level responses are primarily at 41 ky periods in crust accreted during the early Pleistocene, when global sea level variations were primarily at this period; and (3.) if sea level responses are superimposed on bathymetry variations or, instead, align with fault features. We also note that Juan de Fuca's proximity to the Cordilleran Ice Sheet implies that regional

  20. Local Sea Level Derived from Reflected GNSS Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, J. S.; Haas, R.; Scherneck, H.; Bos, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The traditional way to observe sea level is to use tide gauges, resulting in measurements relative to the Earth's crust. However, in order to measure the sea-level change due to changes in ocean water volume and/or other oceanographic phenomena, all types of crustal motion at the measurement site need to be known. We present a remote sensing technique for measuring local sea level using standard geodetic-type Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. The installation consists of a zenith-looking Right Hand Circular Polarized (RHCP) antenna, receiving the direct signals, and a nadir-looking Left Hand Circular Polarized antenna, receiving the signals reflected of the sea surface. Each antenna is connected to a receiver and the antenna pair is deployed back-to-back at a coastal site. Estimating the vertical baseline between the two antennas, using standard geodetic analysis, the local sea level and its temporal variations can be determined. The advantage of this technique is that it allows to measure both sea surface height changes with relative positioning and land surface height changes, e.g., by precise point positioning of the RHCP antenna. Furthermore, the combined measurements of local sea level are automatically corrected for land motion, meaning that this installation could provide continuously reliable sea-level estimates in tectonic active regions. This GNSS-based tide gauge has been operating continuously at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) on the west coast of Sweden since September 2010. We present results from several months of operations and compare them to sea-level measurements from two stilling well gauges about 18 km south and 33 km north of OSO. We find a high degree of agreement between the time series with correlation coefficients of larger than 0.95. The root-mean-square differences between the GNSS-derived sea level and the stilling well gauge measurements are 5.9 cm and 5.5 cm, which is lower than between the two stilling well (6

  1. Impact of Altimeter Data Processing on Sea Level Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. Joana; Barbosa, Susana; Lázaro, Clara

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses the impact of satellite altimetry data processing on sea level studies at regional scale, with emphasis on the influence of various geophysical corrections and satellite orbit on the structure of the derived interannual signal and sea level trend. The work focuses on the analysis of TOPEX data for a period of over twelve years, for three regions in the North Atlantic: Tropical (0°≤φ≤25°), Sub-Tropical (25°≤φ≤50°) and Sub-Arctic (50°≤φ≤65°). For this analysis corrected sea level anomalies with respect to a mean sea surface model have been derived from the GDR-Ms provided by AVISO by applying various state-of-the-art models for the geophysical corrections. Results show that sea level trend determined from TOPEX altimetry is dependent on the adopted models for the major geophysical corrections. The main effects come from the sea state bias (SSB), and from the application or not of the inverse barometer (IB) correction. After an appropriate modelling of the TOPEX A/B bias, the two analysed SSB models induce small variations in sea level trend, from 0.0 to 0.2 mm/yr, with a small latitude dependence. The difference in sea level trend determined by a non IB-corrected series and an IB-corrected one has a strong regional dependence with large differences in the shape of the interannual signals and in the derived linear trends. The use of two different drift models for the TOPEX Microwave Radiometer (TMR) has a small but non negligible effect on the North Atlantic sea level trend of about 0.1 mm/yr. The interannual signals of sea level time series derived with the NASA and the CNES orbits respectively, show a small departure in the middle of the series, which has no impact on the derived sea level trend. These results strike the need for a continuous improvement in the modelling of the various effects that influence the altimeter measurement.

  2. The effect of global climate change on sea level variations along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore

    SciTech Connect

    Mungov, G.; Vesselinov, V.

    1996-12-31

    Data of long-time sea level records along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore are analyzed from the point of view of the global climate change. The analysis of the extreme levels discovers an increase of their appearance during the last 15 years. Two different periods are studied and the recent increases imply the possibility of changes in the regime of the extreme marine events in the Western Black Sea. The cycles in the mean sea levels and the statistical characteristics of the interannual (seasonal) variations are determined. Trends in the sea level records are studied for three basic periods, according the periods in the annual temperature anomalies of the northern hemisphere: 1924--1943; 1944--1973; 1974--1991. The mean sea level rise has maximum value during the first period and minimum during the last third one. This is explained with the decrease of the water inflow into the sea and some initial disturbances in its water balance due to the global climate change. The influence of the global climate change is studied using multiple regression on global environmental data.

  3. How Does the Morphology of Shelf-Margin Deltas Relate to Sea-Level Elevation? Clues From the Modern Mississippi River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, S.; Bart, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Scientists have attempted to precisely determine eustatic changes using various techniques. One of these is the sequence stratigraphic technique which relies on vertical changes in the position of coastal onlap (Vail et al, 1977). In subsequent years, several authors have recognized many limitations in this approach (Christie-Blick et al., 1990). Our ongoing study focuses on the possibility of using the morphology of modern and ancient shelf-margin deltas as sea-level indicators to determine past sea-level elevations. The Mississippi River Delta provides an excellent opportunity to study the precise relationship between shelf-edge delta morphology and sea-level elevation. A morphological analysis of the modern Mississippi River Delta suggests that there may be a direct relationship between the sea-level and the offlap break features of the delta. The offlap break is defined at the intersection of topset and foreset at the location of a marked increase in slope. At this point, the bathymetric curvature (i.e. second derivative of sea-floor) is highest. This is analogous to O'Grady and Syvitski (2002) definition of shelf break offshore Greenland. More than a hundred bathymetric cross sections were made across the modern Balize lobe of the Mississippi River Delta using Rivertools software. The geomorphic analysis showed that there were two distinct morphologic types of the delta. In one type, there is a sharp transition from the topset to the foreset, whereas in a second type, the topset-foreset transition is gradual. It was observed that sharp offlap breaks characterize the eastern part of the delta at water depths of 1 ± 0.3 m. The southern and southwestern parts of the delta are characterized by gradual offlap breaks at water depths of 4 ± 2 m.

  4. Orthogonal stack of global tide gauge sea level data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trupin, A.; Wahr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Yearly and monthly tide gauge sea level data from around the globe are fitted to numerically generated equilibrium tidal data to search for the 18.6 year lunar tide and 14 month pole tide. Both tides are clearly evident in the results, and their amplitudes and phases are found to be consistent with a global equilibrium response. Global, monthly sea level data from outside the Baltic sea and Gulf of Bothnia are fitted to global atmospheric pressure data to study the response of the ocean to pressure fluctuations. The response is found to be inverted barometer at periods greater than two months. Global averages of tide gauge data, after correcting for the effects of post glacial rebound on individual station records, reveal an increase in sea level over the last 80 years of between 1.1 mm/yr and 1.9 mm/yr.

  5. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Tamisiea, Mark E; Hughes, Chris W; Williams, Simon D P; Bingley, Richard M

    2014-09-28

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust.

  6. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Tamisiea, Mark E.; Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Simon D. P.; Bingley, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. PMID:25157196

  7. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Tamisiea, Mark E; Hughes, Chris W; Williams, Simon D P; Bingley, Richard M

    2014-09-28

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. PMID:25157196

  8. The effects of aggressive mitigation on steric sea level rise and sea ice changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körper, J.; Höschel, I.; Lowe, J. A.; Hewitt, C. D.; Salas y Melia, D.; Roeckner, E.; Huebener, H.; Royer, J.-F.; Dufresne, J.-L.; Pardaens, A.; Giorgetta, M. A.; Sanderson, M. G.; Otterå, O. H.; Tjiputra, J.; Denvil, S.

    2013-02-01

    With an increasing political focus on limiting global warming to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial levels it is vital to understand the consequences of these targets on key parts of the climate system. Here, we focus on changes in sea level and sea ice, comparing twenty-first century projections with increased greenhouse gas concentrations (using the mid-range IPCC A1B emissions scenario) with those under a mitigation scenario with large reductions in emissions (the E1 scenario). At the end of the twenty-first century, the global mean steric sea level rise is reduced by about a third in the mitigation scenario compared with the A1B scenario. Changes in surface air temperature are found to be poorly correlated with steric sea level changes. While the projected decreases in sea ice extent during the first half of the twenty-first century are independent of the season or scenario, especially in the Arctic, the seasonal cycle of sea ice extent is amplified. By the end of the century the Arctic becomes sea ice free in September in the A1B scenario in most models. In the mitigation scenario the ice does not disappear in the majority of models, but is reduced by 42 % of the present September extent. Results for Antarctic sea ice changes reveal large initial biases in the models and a significant correlation between projected changes and the initial extent. This latter result highlights the necessity for further refinements in Antarctic sea ice modelling for more reliable projections of future sea ice.

  9. Analysis of the sea levels in Kiribati A Rising Sea of Misrepresentation Sinks Kiribati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Albert

    2016-03-01

    The sea levels of Kiribati have been stable over the last few decades, as elsewhere in the world. The Australian government funded Pacific Sea Level Monitoring (PSLM) project has adjusted sea level records to produce an unrealistic rising trend. Some information has been hidden or neglected, especially from sources of different management. The measured monthly average mean sea levels suffer from subsidence or manipulation resulting in a tilting from the about 0 (zero) mm/year of nearby tide gauges to 4 (four) mm/year over the same short time window. Real environmental problems are driven by the increasing local population leading to troubles including scarcity of water, localized sinking and localised erosion.

  10. Quantitative constraints on the sea-level fall that terminated the Littorina Sea Stage, southern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Murray, Andrew S.; Nielsen, Lars

    2012-04-01

    The island of Anholt in the Kattegat sea (southern Scandinavia) is made up largely of an extensive beach-ridge plain. As a result of post-glacial uplift, the earliest beach-ridge and swale deposits are now raised 8-9 m above present mean sea level. It appears that growth of the plain has been almost uninterrupted over the past 7500 years; here we constrain the evolution of this plain between 6300 and 1300 years ago using optically stimulated luminescence dates. The topography and internal architecture of the fossil shoreline deposits were measured on high-resolution maps and in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data with a vertical resolution of ˜0.25 m. Shoreline topography shows significant changes with time, and it appears that one of the most striking changes took place between 4300 and 3600 years ago; in the shoreline deposits corresponding to this time interval the surface drops by around 3.5 m suggesting a marked fall in relative sea-level. Assuming a constant uplift rate of 1.2 mm/yr, the corresponding drop in absolute sea-level is estimated to be around 2.6 m. This marked sea-level fall in 700 years took place at the transition from the Middle Holocene Thermal Maximum to the Late Holocene Thermal Decline or at the end of the Littorina Sea stage in the Baltic Sea region.

  11. Ice2sea - the future glacial contribution to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, D. G.; Ice2sea Consortium

    2009-04-01

    The melting of continental ice (glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets) is a substantial source of current sea-level rise, and one that is accelerating more rapidly than was predicted even a few years ago. Indeed, the most recent report from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted that the uncertainty in projections of future sea-level rise is dominated by uncertainty concerning continental ice, and that understanding of the key processes that will lead to loss of continental ice must be improved before reliable projections of sea-level rise can be produced. Such projections are urgently required for effective sea-defence management and coastal adaptation planning. Ice2sea is a consortium of European institutes and international partners seeking European funding to support an integrated scientific programme to improve understanding concerning the future glacial contribution to sea-level rise. This includes improving understanding of the processes that control, past, current and future sea-level rise, and generation of improved estimates of the contribution of glacial components to sea-level rise over the next 200 years. The programme will include targeted studies of key processes in mountain glacier systems and ice caps (e.g. Svalbard), and in ice sheets in both polar regions (Greenland and Antarctica) to improve understanding of how these systems will respond to future climate change. It will include fieldwork and remote sensing studies, and develop a suite of new, cross-validated glacier and ice-sheet model. Ice2sea will deliver these results in forms accessible to scientists, policy-makers and the general public, which will include clear presentations of the sources of uncertainty. Our aim is both, to provide improved projections of the glacial contribution to sea-level rise, and to leave a legacy of improved tools and techniques that will form the basis of ongoing refinements in sea-level projection. Ice2sea will provide exciting opportunities for many

  12. Measuring Sea Level Change (Vening Meinesz Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, Philip L.

    2010-05-01

    For over 75 years, the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) at the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory has maintained the global data bank for long term sea level change information from tide gauges. This data set has in recent years received most attention in studies of sea level rise related to climate change. However, it is also valuable in research into ocean circulation variability (oceanography), vertical land movements (geology) and geodetic datums (geodesy). This presentation will review some of the main applications of mean sea level information so far. In addition, it will point to the role of tide gauges within what is becoming a powerful combination of gauges, GPS, absolute gravity, satellite altimetry and space gravity for the study of sea and land level variations on a global basis. However, changes in mean levels are only one part of sea level research. Other topics include changes in extreme sea levels which are of practical importance as well as being interesting scientifically. Recent studies have begun to investigate changes in extremes worldwide, identifying those areas where secular changes in extremes tend to be determined by those in mean values, and areas where they are not. In addition, intriguing recent work has identified regional changes in ocean tides which are larger than expected from secular change in the tidal potential. Such tidal changes are also important within studies of extremes. This presentation will attempt to show the wide range of studies possible with a copious globally-distributed tide gauge data set, many of which are very relevant to the understanding of a changing world.

  13. Sea-level and the `Stage 11 Problem`

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, D. Q.

    2003-12-01

    Estimating an approximate relative sea level for oxygen isotope stage 11 may have a critical bearing on a solution to the `stage 11 problem` that identifies the mismatch between low eccentricity forcing and the disproportionate ice volume response - that also includes a relative sea level response. The perennial problem of separating ice volume from temperature effects has hampered attempts to estimate sea level from delta 18O data sets, even for younger odd numbered stages when comparisons with U-series ages on corals are available. Stage 11 sea levels on `stable` and uplifting coasts are recognised from geomorphic features such as terraces and shoreline angles, sediments and corals, and yield a range of estimates from over 20 m to just below present sea level. Given that the 413 ka Milankovitch pacing provides similar orbital configurations for stage 11 and the Holocene some interest attaches to the potential sea-level similarity between them, especially for the future Holocene. Attempts to derive a stage 11 sea level from coasts uplifting at different rates have used `uplift correction graphs` or uplift correction equations, but a major handicap is the dearth of appropriate geochronologic ages both for stage 11 and substage 5e (5.5) - the base line for estimating average uplift rates. Different estimates for the age of stage 11 and 5e (5.5), and the duration of 5e, have yielded a range of estimates. Earlier estimates relied on single locations or regional evidence, but it is probably misleading to rely on these. To combat this several world-wide locations are assembled and, using locality-specific data, provide a mean estimate for the stage 11 sea level of 11 m, plus-minus 10 m. But by applying a set of standardised parameters (including the peak sea level at 402 ka - event 11.3 of the Bassinott time scale) the mean sea level for stage 11 emerges as 2 m plus-minus 7 m. This closes the gap between inferences from delta 18O variability, the latest of which point

  14. Sea-level-induced seismicity and submarine landslide occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Luttrell, Karen M.; Chaytor, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal coincidence between rapid late Pleistocene sea-level rise and large-scale slope failures is widely documented. Nevertheless, the physical mechanisms that link these phenomena are poorly understood, particularly along nonglaciated margins. Here we investigate the causal relationships between rapid sea-level rise, flexural stress loading, and increased seismicity rates along passive margins. We find that Coulomb failure stress across fault systems of passive continental margins may have increased more than 1 MPa during rapid late Pleistocene–early Holocene sea-level rise, an amount sufficient to trigger fault reactivation and rupture. These results suggest that sea-level–modulated seismicity may have contributed to a number of poorly understood but widely observed phenomena, including (1) increased frequency of large-scale submarine landslides during rapid, late Pleistocene sea-level rise; (2) emplacement of coarse-grained mass transport deposits on deep-sea fans during the early stages of marine transgression; and (3) the unroofing and release of methane gas sequestered in continental slope sediments.

  15. Nordic Sea Level - Analysis of PSMSL RLR Tide Gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole

    2015-04-01

    Tide gauge data from the Nordic region covering a period of time from 1920 to 2000 are evaluated. 63 stations having RLR data for at least 40 years have been used. Each tide gauge data record was averaged to annual averages after the monthly average seasonal anomalies were removed. Some stations lack data, especially before around 1950. Hence, to compute representative sea level trends for the 1920-2000 period a procedure for filling in estimated sea level values in the voids, is needed. To fill in voids in the tide gauge data records a reconstruction method was applied that utilizes EOF.s in an iterative manner. Subsequently the trends were computed. The estimated trends range from about -8 mm/year to 2 mm/year reflecting both post-glacial uplift and sea level rise. An evaluation of the first EOFs show that the first EOF clearly describes the trends in the time series. EOF #2 and #3 describe differences in the inter-annual sea level variability with-in the Baltic Sea and differences between the Baltic and the North Atlantic / Norwegian seas, respectively.

  16. Global coastal hazards from future sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornitz, Vivien

    1991-03-01

    A rise of sea level between 0.3 and 0.9 m by the end of the next century, caused by predicted greenhouse climate warming, would endanger human populations, cities, ports, and wetlands in low-lying coastal areas, through inundation, erosion and salinization. The consequences of a global sea level rise would be spatially non-uniform because of local or regional vertical crustal movements, differential resistance to erosion, varying wave climates, and changeable longshore currents. Although many factors can influence sea level, leading to a noisy record, various studies utilizing tide-gauge data find an average global rate of sea level rise of 1-2 mm/yr, over the last 100 years. This trend is part of a general rise over the last 300 years, since the low point of the Little Ice Age. Sea level rise may accelerate 3-8 times over present rates, within the next century. The permanently inundated coastal zone would extend to a depth equivalent to the vertical rise in sea level. Major river deltas, coastal wetlands and coral islands would be most affected. Episodic flooding by storm waves and surges would penetrate even farther inland. Beach and cliff erosion will be accentuated. Saltwater penetration into coastal aquifers and estuaries could contaminate urban water supplies and affect agricultural production. Research on relative risks and impacts of sea level rise on specific localities is still at an early stage. Development of a global coastal hazards data base, intended to provide an overview of the relative vulnerabilities of the world's coastlines, is described in this paper. To date, information on seven variables, associated with inundation and erosion hazards, has been compiled for the U.S., and parts of Canada and Mexico. A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) has been designed to flag high risk coastal segments. Preliminary results are presented for the eastern United States, as a test case.

  17. Response of the Mediterranean and Dead Sea coastal aquifers to sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yechieli, Y.; Shalev, E.; Wollman, S.; Kiro, Y.; Kafri, U.

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the response of groundwater systems to expected changes in the Mediterranean Sea (rise of <1cm/yr) and Dead Sea levels (decline of ˜1 m/yr). A fast response is observed in the Dead Sea coastal aquifer, exhibited both in the drop of the water levels and in the location of the fresh-saline water interface. No such effect is yet observed in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer, as expected. Numerical simulations, using the FeFlow software, show that the effect of global sea level rise depends on the coastal topography next to the shoreline. A slope of 2.5‰ is expected to yield a shift of the interface by 400 m, after a rise of 1m (˜100 years), whereas a vertical slope will yield no shift. Reduced recharge due to climate change or overexploitation of groundwater also enhances the inland shift of the interface.

  18. The hazard of Sea Level Rise (SLR) in Greece: from scientific knowledge towards risk awareness of main actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandoulaki, Miranda; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Yorgos, Melissourgos; Skordili, Sophia; Valkanou, Kanella

    2014-05-01

    A natural hazard that is expected to affect coastal areas in the near future is Sea-Level Rise (SLR) due to climate change. According to recent reports the eustatic sea-level rise caused by global warming will reach approximately 18-59 cm by the year 2100. Potential impacts of future sea-level rise include coastal erosion, frequent and intensified cyclonic activity and associated storm surge flooding that may affect the coastal zones, saltwater intrusion into groundwater aquifers, the inundation of ecologically significant wetlands, and threats to cultural and historical resources, as well as to infrastructure. The identification of sensitive sections of coasts and the assessment of potential impacts of SLR on these is therefore a fundamental, yet initial, step towards their protection. Greece has the most extensive coastline among all Mediterranean countries with most of the socio-economic activities concentrated along the coastal zone. Almost all big urban centres are coastal ones and the same stands for a great part of infrastructure (ports, airports, roads, electricity and telecommunications network etc). As a result, the impacts of a potential rise of the sea level are expected to seriously affect the entire country. The paper examines the vulnerability to SLR of coastal zones in Greece; however its main focus is how knowledge can lead to policy making and the protection of coastal areas. The main actors in respect to protection from SLR in Greece are identified and there is an attempt to pin point how the knowledge is communicated and shared between them. Barriers, bridges and gaps are detected as regards how information and knowledge lead to risk awareness and finally to the implementation of protection policies. A main finding of the paper is that SLR risk is far from becoming a policy priority in Greece, although steps are taken for addressing impacts attributed to SLR such as coastal erosion. In order to address this risk, there are many potential

  19. History of Aral Sea level variability and current scientific debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretaux, Jean-François; Letolle, René; Bergé-Nguyen, Muriel

    2013-11-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk drastically over the past 50 years, largely due to water abstraction from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers for land irrigation. Over a longer timescale, Holocene palaeolimnological reconstruction of variability in water levels of the Aral Sea since 11,700 BP indicates a long history of alternating phases of regression and transgression, which have been attributed variously to climate, tectonic and anthropogenic forcing. The hydrological history of the Aral Sea has been investigated by application of a variety of scientific approaches, including archaeology, palaeolimnological palaeoclimate reconstruction, geophysics, sedimentology, and more recently, space science. Many issues concerning lake level variability over the Holocene and more recent timescales, and the processes that drive the changes, are still a matter for active debate. Our aim in this article is to review the current debates regarding key issues surrounding the causes and magnitude of Aral Sea level variability on a variety of timescales from months to thousands of years. Many researchers have shown that the main driving force of Aral Sea regressions and transgressions is climate change, while other authors have argued that anthropogenic forcing is the main cause of Aral Sea water level variations over the Holocene. Particular emphasis is made on contributions from satellite remote sensing data in order to improve our understanding of the influence of groundwater on the current hydrological water budget of the Aral Sea since 2005. Over this period of time, water balance computation has been performed and has shown that the underground water inflow to the Aral Sea is close to zero with an uncertainty of 3 km3/year.

  20. Continental Shelf Morphology and Stratigraphy Offshore San Onofre, CA: The Interplay Between Rates of Eustatic Change and Sediment Supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klotsko, Shannon; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham; Brothers, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    New high-resolution CHIRP seismic data acquired offshore San Onofre, southern California reveal that shelf sediment distribution and thickness are primarily controlled by eustatic sea level rise and sediment supply. Throughout the majority of the study region, a prominent abrasion platform and associated shoreline cutoff are observed in the subsurface from ~ 72 to 53 m below present sea level. These erosional features appear to have formed between Melt Water Pulse 1A and Melt Water Pulse 1B, when the rate of sea-level rise was lower. There are three distinct sedimentary units mapped above a regional angular unconformity interpreted to be the Holocene transgressive surface in the seismic data. Unit I, the deepest unit, is interpreted as a lag deposit that infills a topographic low associated with an abrasion platform. Unit I thins seaward by downlap and pinches out landward against the shoreline cutoff. Unit II is a mid-shelf lag deposit formed from shallower eroded material and thins seaward by downlap and landward by onlap. The youngest, Unit III, is interpreted to represent modern sediment deposition. Faults in the study area do not appear to offset the transgressive surface. The Newport Inglewood/Rose Canyon fault system is active in other regions to the south (e.g., La Jolla) where it offsets the transgressive surface and creates seafloor relief. Several shoals observed along the transgressive surface could record minor deformation due to fault activity in the study area. Nevertheless, our preferred interpretation is that the shoals are regions more resistant to erosion during marine transgression. The Cristianitos fault zone also causes a shoaling of the transgressive surface. This may be from resistant antecedent topography due to an early phase of compression on the fault. The Cristianitos fault zone was previously defined as a down-to-the-north normal fault, but the folding and faulting architecture imaged in the CHIRP data are more consistent with a

  1. Lowstand versus highstand eustatic models for peat preservation: The coal-bearing rocks of the Breathitt Group, Eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.R. Jr.; Greb, S.F. . Kentucky Geological Survey)

    1992-01-01

    Stratigraphic and chronologic studies suggest that the alternation between major coal beds and clastic rocks of the Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Group (Central Appalachian Basin) resulted from glacial eustacy. The typical Coal-Clastic cycle starts at the top of a major coal bed and consists of a coarsening-upward sequence of marine or brackish-water strata which is commonly truncated and overlain by a fining-upward sequence. The fining-upward sequence is overlain by a rooted paleosol which is overlain by a coal bed. In one scenario, the peat is deposited during the stable highstand period. Because of subsidence, the highstand peat deposit is drowned and covered by marine sediments. During the subsequent lowstand the marine strata are eroded to varying degrees and bare channels are developed, causing an erosional unconformity surface on the marine strata. During transgression, the rise in base-level causes sediments to aggrade within the channels, creating fining-upward sequences above the marine strata. Paleosol development and peat deposition begin again at the next highstand. In another scenario peats are deposited in a coastal setting during lowstand. As transgression proceeds from lowstand, channels backfill and all low-lying areas including peat are covered by coarsening-upward sequences. Peats are then deposited on exposed platforms during highstand. During the subsequent drop in sea level, channels are incised and highstand peats and part of the coarsening-upward sediment package is eroded. The second scenario implies a preservation bias to cyclothems caused by eustatic rates being greater than subsidence rates. Peats are probably deposited during both lowstand and highstand, but lowstand peats are more likely to be preserved.

  2. Sea level trend and variability around the Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Q. H.; Tkalich, P.; Tay, T. W.

    2014-06-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is bounded from the west by Malacca Strait and the Andaman Sea both connected to the Indian Ocean, and from the east by South China Sea being largest marginal sea in the Pacific Basin. Resulting sea level along Peninsular Malaysia coast is assumed to be governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. At annual scale, sea level anomalies (SLAs) are generated by the Asian monsoon; interannual sea level variability is determined by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); while long-term sea level trend is related to global climate change. To quantify the relative impacts of these multi-scale phenomena on sea level trend and variability around the Peninsular Malaysia, long-term tide gauge record and satellite altimetry are used. During 1984-2011, relative sea level rise (SLR) rates in waters of Malacca Strait and eastern Peninsular Malaysia are found to be 2.4 ± 1.6 mm yr-1 and 2.7 ± 1.0 mm yr-1, respectively. Allowing for corresponding vertical land movements (VLM; 0.8 ± 2.6 mm yr-1 and 0.9 ± 2.2 mm yr-1), their absolute SLR rates are 3.2 ± 4.2 mm yr-1 and 3.6 ± 3.2 mm yr-1, respectively. For the common period 1993-2009, absolute SLR rates obtained from both tide gauge and satellite altimetry in Peninsular Malaysia are similar; and they are slightly higher than the global tendency. It further underlines that VLM should be taken into account to get better estimates of SLR observations. At interannual scale, ENSO affects sea level over the Malaysian coast in the range of ±5 cm with a very high correlation. Meanwhile, IOD modulates sea level anomalies mainly in the Malacca Strait in the range of ±2 cm with a high correlation coefficient. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events and positive phases of the IOD index; while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes and the negative periods of the IOD index

  3. Global mean sea level - Indicator of climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, A.; Hansen, J.; Gornitz, V.; Lebedeff, S.; Moore, E.; Etkins, R.; Epstein, E.

    1983-01-01

    A critical discussion is presented on the use by Etkins and Epstein (1982) of combined surface air temperature and sea level time series to draw conclusions concerning the discharge of the polar ice sheets. It is objected by Robock that they used Northern Hemisphere land surface air temperature records which are unrepresentative of global sea surface temperature, and he suggests that externally imposed volcanic dust and CO2 forcings can adequately account for observed temperature changes over the last century, with global sea level changing in passive response to sea change as a result of thermal expansion. Hansen et al. adduce evidence for global cooling due to ice discharge that has not exceeded a few hundredths of a degree centigrade in the last century, precluding any importance of this phenomenon in the interpretation of global mean temperature trends for this period. Etkins and Epstein reply that since their 1982 report additional evidence has emerged for the hypothesis that the polar ice caps are diminishing. It is reasserted that each of the indices discussed, including global mean sea surface temperature and sea level, polar ice sheet mass balance, water mass characteristics, and the spin rate and axis of rotation displacement of the earth, are physically linked and can be systematically monitored, as is currently being planned under the auspices of the National Climate Program.

  4. Long-period sea-level variations in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, Susanna; Raicich, Fabio; Bruni, Sara; del Conte, Sara; Errico, Maddalena; Prati, Claudio; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of its long-lasting lifetime, the Wegener initiative has devoted careful consideration to studying sea-level variations/changes across the Mediterranean Sea. Our study focuses on several long-period sea-level time series (from end of 1800 to 2012) acquired in the Mediterranean by tide gauge stations. In general, the analysis and interpretation of these data sets can provide an important contribution to research on climate change and its impacts. We have analyzed the centennial sea-level time series of six fairly well documented tide gauges. They are: Marseille, in France, Alicante in Spain, Genoa, Trieste, Venice and Marina di Ravenna (formerly Porto Corsini), in Italy. The data of the Italian stations of Marina di Ravenna and Venice clearly indicate that land subsidence is responsible for most of the observed rate of relative sea level rise. It is well known that, in the two areas, subsidence is caused by both natural processes and human activities. For these two stations, using levelling data of benchmarks at, and/or close to, the tide gauges, and for the recent years, also GPS and InSAR height time series, modelling of the long-period non-linear behavior of subsidence was successfully accomplished. After removing the land vertical motions, the estimate of the linear long-period sea-level rise at all six stations yielded remarkably consistent values, between +1,2 and +1,3 mm/yr, with associated errors ranging from ±0,2 to ±0,3 mm/yr (95% confidence interval), which also account for the statistical autocorrelation of the time series. These trends in the Mediterranean area are lower than the global mean rate of 1,7±0,2 mm/yr (1901-2010) presented by the IPCC in its 5th Assessment Report; however, they are in full agreement with a global mean sea-level rise estimate, over the period 1901-1990, recently published by Hay et al. (2015, doi:10.1038/nature14093) and obtained using probabilistic techniques that combine sea-level records with physics

  5. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J. Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between 42 and 57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  6. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between $42 and $57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  7. Decadal-scale variations of trophic levels at high trophic levels in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Tang, Q.; Jin, X.

    2007-09-01

    A total of 2759 stomachs collected from a bottom trawl survey carried out by R/V "Bei Dou" in the Yellow Sea between 32°00 and 36°30N in autumn 2000 and spring 2001 were examined. The trophic levels (TL) of eight dominant fish species were calculated based on stomach contents, and trophic levels of 17 dominant species in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea reported in later 1950s and mid-1980s were estimated so as to be comparable. The results indicated that the mean trophic level at high trophic levels declined from 4.06 in 1959-1960 to 3.41 in 1998-1999, or 0.16-0.19·decade - 1 (mean 0.17·decade - 1 ) in the Bohai Sea, and from 3.61 in 1985-1986 to 3.40 in 2000-2001, or 0.14·decade - 1 in the Yellow Sea; all higher than global trend. The dominant species composition in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea changed, with the percentage of planktivorous species increases and piscivorous or omnivorous species decreases, and this was one of the main reasons for the decline in mean trophic level at high tropic levels. Another main reason was intraspecific changes in TL. Similarly, many factors caused decline of trophic levels in the dominant fish species in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. Firstly, TL of the same prey got lower, and anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) as prey was most representative. Secondly, TLs of diet composition getting lower resulted in not only decline of trophic levels but also changed feeding habits of some species, such as spotted velvetfish ( Erisphex pottii) and Trichiurus muticus in the Yellow Sea. Thirdly, species size getting smaller also resulted in not only decline of trophic levels but also changed feeding habits of some species, such as Bambay duck ( Harpodon nehereus) and largehead hairtail ( Trichiurus haumela). Furthermore, fishing pressure and climate change may be interfering to cause fishing down the food web in the China coastal ocean.

  8. Trends in Plio-Pleistocene southwest Pacific stable isotope stratigraphy: Implications for orbital forcing of ice sheets and mid-Pliocene sea level estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, M. O.; Mckay, R. M.; Naish, T.; Wilson, G. S.; Ohneiser, C.; Woodard, S. C.; Bostock, H. C.; Caballero-Gill, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new high resolution Early to mid-Pliocene (4.3 to 3.0 Ma) benthic stable isotope record (δ18O and δ13C), a revised magnetostratigraphy and an orbitally tuned age model extending the Early Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (4.3 to 1.2 Ma) record for ODP Site 1123. Placing the δ18O and δ13C time series on an orbital-scale age model provides the chronological basis for high-resolution proxy records spanning the Early Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. By comparison with previous published records (DSDP 607, ODP 1090/704, ODP 849, MV0502-AJC), we examine long-term changes in intra and inter-basinal benthic δ13C records in order to trace the ventilation history of deep-water masses. These comparisons highlight that during the warm Early to mid-Pliocene (3.6 to 2.7 Ma) South Atlantic and southwest Pacific gradients where much larger than during the Pleistocene. These findings are not consistent with Late Pleistocene and modern reconstructions in which South Atlantic δ13C values are slightly lower than south Pacific values at depths bathed by LCDW. Thus, indicating that while LCDW bathing the South Atlantic may have had an enhanced NADW signature, such a situation in the southwest Pacific did not exist during the warm mid-Pliocene. Furthermore, while the δ18O record from Site 1123 demonstrates an overall agreement with the global benthic δ18O stack LR04 exhibiting 40-kyr oscillations in ice volume/temperature, the mid to Late Pliocene interval (~3.3 to 2.8 Ma) demonstrates low frequency ice volume/temperature variability consistent with 100-kyr eccentricity. Eustatic sea-level estimates from δ18O values are consistent with all higher-end (22±10 m compared to modern) values for peak interglacial highstands between 2.9-3.2 Ma. Thus, inferring 100-kyr Antarctic ice sheet variability from marine based margins of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) during the mid to Late Pliocene contributed to sea level, whereas after ~2.9 Ma (post interglacial G17) ODP Site

  9. Sea Level Rise and Subsidence in the Gulf of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemnil, Sommart

    In the Thailand -EC GEO2TECDI-SONG Project we investigate the sea level change and vertical land motion in Thailand. First, Bangkok is situated in river delta and average height is closed to sea level. Second, it is subsiding due to ground water extraction. Third, it is experiencing post-seismic motion due to nearby mega thrust earthquakes and fourth, it suffers from rising of sea levels due to global climate change. This poses a serious threat on Thai society and economy. Before mitigation methods can be devised we aim at charting, qualifying and quantifying all contributing effects by the use of satellite altimetry, GNSS, InSAR techniques and combining results with the in situ observations like tide gauge and with geophysical modeling. Adding GPS based vertical land motion to the tide gauge sea level registration reveals the absolute sea level change, which is nicely confirmed by altimetry. We find an average absolute rise of 3.5 mm/yr + 0.7, but nears mouth of Chao Praya River (Bangkok) and the Mekong delta (Ho Chi Min City), this mounts to 4 to 5 mm/yr, faster than global average. This is reinforced when accounting for the tectonic subsidence that resulted from 2004 9.1Mw Sumatra/Andaman earthquake; from 2005 onwards we find downfall in the order of 10 mm/yr. RADARSAT InSAR analyses show subsidence rates up to 25 mm/yr at many places along coastal Bangkok.

  10. Impact of sea level rise on tide gate function.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sean; Miskewitz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Sea level rise resulting from climate change and land subsidence is expected to severely impact the duration and associated damage resulting from flooding events in tidal communities. These communities must continuously invest resources for the maintenance of existing structures and installation of new flood prevention infrastructure. Tide gates are a common flood prevention structure for low-lying communities in the tidal zone. Tide gates close during incoming tides to prevent inundation from downstream water propagating inland and open during outgoing tides to drain upland areas. Higher downstream mean sea level elevations reduce the effectiveness of tide gates by impacting the hydraulics of the system. This project developed a HEC-RAS and HEC-HMS model of an existing tide gate structure and its upland drainage area in the New Jersey Meadowlands to simulate the impact of rising mean sea level elevations on the tide gate's ability to prevent upstream flooding. Model predictions indicate that sea level rise will reduce the tide gate effectiveness resulting in longer lasting and deeper flood events. The results indicate that there is a critical point in the sea level elevation for this local area, beyond which flooding scenarios become dramatically worse and would have a significantly negative impact on the standard of living and ability to do business in one of the most densely populated areas of America.

  11. Changes in Sea Levels around the British Isles Revisited (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hansen, D. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Williams, S. D.; Woodworth, P. L.; Gehrels, W. R.; Bradley, S. L.; Stocchi, P.

    2009-12-01

    Recently a number of new and/or updated sources for estimates of vertical land movements for the British Isles have become available allowing the relative and average changes in sea levels for this region to be revisited. The geodetic data set stems from a combination of re-processed continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from stations in the British Isles and from a global reference frame network, and absolute gravity (AG) measurements from two stations in the British Isles. The geologic data set of late Holocene sea level indicators has recently been updated, now applying corrections for the 20th century sea level rise, syphoning effect and late Holocene global ice melt, and expanded to Northern Ireland and Ireland. Several new model predictions of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process active in this region form the modelling data set of vertical land movements for the British Isles. Correcting the updated revised local reference (RLR) trends from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) with these vertical land movement data sets, regional and averaged changes in sea levels around the British Isles have been investigated. Special focus is thereby also given to the coastal areas that have recently been identified within the UK Climate Projections 2009.

  12. NASA Now: Climate Change: Sea Level Rise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Josh Willis discusses the connection between oceans and global climate change. Learn why NASA measures greenhouse gases and how we detect ocean levels from space. These are crucial vital signs ...

  13. Improving sea level record in arctic using ENVISAT altimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibaut, Pierre; Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Hoang, Duc; Quartly, Graham; Kurekin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is an important component of the climate system whose exact influence on ocean circulation is still poorly understood today. This region is also very sensitive to global warming and some direct consequences like melting ice are particularly visible. In this context, extending the knowledge of the sea level variability as far as possible in the Arctic Ocean is a valuable contribution to the understanding of rapid changes occurring in this region. Due to a particularly complex and unstable environment, ocean observation is challenging considering that sea level measurements can be widely corrupted by the presence of sea ice in the altimeter footprint. In the framework of the ESA Sea Level Climate Change Initiative project, new algorithms have been developed and implemented to process 10 years of ENVISAT altimeter data over the Arctic Ocean and to improve the sea level measurement in this region. The new processing chain contains three main steps. The first task consists in identifying altimetric returns for which a standard proven estimation processing may be used, and in flagging those requiring more sophisticated processing. This will include introducing a novel approach that uses the relationship with neighbouring waveforms to aid in the identification of key reflecting surfaces. The second task consists in applying estimators that performs better in situations where sea-ice covers partially or totally the observed surface. The last task consists in investigating the transition zones to make sure that no artificial discontinuities are introduced by the different processing and to reduce these discontinuities. We propose in this talk, to explain and illustrate the different steps of this study and to show important figures of improvement regarding the estimation of sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean.

  14. The sea-level fingerprint of a Snowball Earth deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creveling, Jessica R.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.

    2014-08-01

    Cap dolostones are thought to represent deposition from seas transgressing over formerly glaciated continental margins during Marinoan Snowball deglaciation. Nevertheless, facies associations within some cap dolostones indicate that an episode of regional regression punctuated these transgressive sequence tracts. To date, inferences of sea-level change during and after the Marinoan Snowball deglaciation have been interpreted using simple, qualitative arguments. In the present study, we explore the full spatio-temporal variability of sea-level change during Snowball deglaciation and its aftermath using a gravitationally self-consistent theory that accounts for the deformational, gravitational and rotational perturbations to sea level on a viscoelastic Earth model. The theory is applied to model Marinoan Snowball deglaciation on a generalized Ediacaran paleogeography with a synthetic continental ice-sheet distribution. We find that sea-level change following a synchronous, rapid (2 kyr) collapse of Snowball ice cover will exhibit significant geographic variability, including site-specific histories that are characterized by syn-deglacial sea-level fall or stillstand. Moreover, some sites that experience syn-deglacial transgression will continue to experience transgression in the post-deglacial phase. Taken together, these results suggest that sea-level change recorded by strata capping Snowball glaciogenic units may reflect a more complicated trajectory than previously thought, including deposition that was not limited to the deglaciation phase. These simulations, as well as others that explore the response to asynchronous melting and deglaciation phases of longer duration, demonstrate that an episode of regional regression interrupting a cap dolostone transgressive sequence tract may reflect one of several processes (or their combination): (1) near field adjustment associated with rapid local melting during an otherwise global hiatus in deglaciation; (2) post

  15. Holocene sea-level changes in the Falkland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Tom; Gehrels, Roland; Daley, Tim; Long, Antony; Bentley, Mike

    2014-05-01

    In many locations in the southern hemisphere, relative sea level (RSL) reached its maximum position during the middle Holocene. This highstand is used by models of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) to constrain the melt histories of the large ice sheets, particularly Antarctica. In this paper we present the first Holocene sea-level record from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), an archipelago located on the Patagonian continental shelf about 500 km east of mainland South America at a latitude of ca. 52 degrees. Unlike coastal locations in southernmost South America, Holocene sea-level data from the Falklands are not influenced by tectonics, local ice loading effects and large tidal ranges such that GIA and ice-ocean mass flux are the dominant drivers of RSL change. Our study site is a salt marsh located in Swan Inlet in East Falkland, around 50 km southwest of Stanley. This is the largest and best developed salt marsh in the Falkland Islands. Cores were collected in 2005 and 2013. Lithostratigraphic analyses were complemented by analyses of foraminifera, testate amoebae and diatoms to infer palaeoenvironments. The bedrock, a Permian black shale, is overlain by grey-brown organic salt-marsh clay, up to 90 cm thick, which, in a landward direction, is replaced by freshwater organic sediments. Overlying these units are medium-coarse sands with occasional pebbles, up to 115 cm thick, containing tidal flat foraminifera. The sandy unit is erosively overlain by a grey-brown organic salt-marsh peat which extends up to the present surface. Further away from the sea this unit is predominantly of freshwater origin. Based on 13 radiocarbon dates we infer that prior to ~9.5 ka sea level was several metres below present. Under rising sea levels a salt marsh developed which was suddenly drowned around 8.4 ka, synchronous with a sea-level jump known from northern hemisphere locations. Following the drowning, RSL rose to its maximum position around 7 ka, less than 0.5 m above

  16. Sea-Level Anomalies Facilitate Beach Erosion and Increase Barrier Island Vulnerability to Storms and Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R. A., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Sea-level anomalies are intra-seasonal (weeks to months) periods of high water level induced by oceanographic and meteorological processes, such as reduced Gulf Stream transport strength or persistent northeasterly winds. Although flooding associated with sea-level anomalies has been documented along continental coastlines (e.g. U.S. East Coast), these phenomena are not presently included in coastal models and management plans. We present the first measurements of beach erosion after a year with frequent sea-level anomalies. Erosion during this year, which was not impacted by large storms, was similar to a year with a hurricane, indicating that sea-level anomalies are important facilitators of coastal erosion. Beach erosion was measured at Onslow Beach, NC (OB) in a year with frequent sea-level anomalies (2009-2010) and compared to erosion during a year with no major events (2010-2011) and the year with Hurricane Irene (2011-2012). Sea-level anomalies were identified in water level data from a NOAA tide gauge in Wrightsville Beach, NC. From 2009-2010 anomalously high sea level occurred ~40% of the time, compared to ~8% from 2010-2011 and ~10% from 2011-2012. Significant wave heights, measured from an acoustic wave and current profiler and NOAA buoys offshore of OB, were not statistically different among these 3 years. The average backshore, high intertidal, and mid intertidal maximum depth of erosion for all sites along OB in the year with frequent sea-level anomalies were ~25, 50, and 55 cm, respectively. These values are greater than those measured after the year with no major events (~13, 29, and 32 cm) and similar to those measured after the year with Hurricane Irene (~27, 49, and 40 cm). OB has high along-strike variability in barrier island morphology, thus results apply to many beaches and barrier islands. Our results suggest that anomalies are important mechanisms of coastal change and likely amplify erosion in response to accelerated sea-level rise and

  17. Concerns--High Sea Levels and Temperatures Seen Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Paul R.

    1984-01-01

    A National Research Council committee recently concluded that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will "most likely" double by late in the next century, causing an increase in the earth's average temperature. Effects of the increase on sea levels, global climate, and other parameters are discussed. (JN)

  18. Sea Level Change, A Fundamental Process When Interpreting Coastal Geology and Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of sea level change and identifies the major factors responsible for this occurrence. Elaborates on the theory and processes involved in indirect measurement of changes in sea volume. Also explains how crustal movement affects sea level. (ML)

  19. Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Jedrzej; Pham, Dat; Meltzner, Aron; Switzer, Adam; Horton, Benjamin; Heng, Shu Yun; Warrick, David

    2015-04-01

    Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls Jędrzej M. Majewski 1, Dat T. Pham1, Aron J. Meltzner 1, Adam D. Switzer 1, Benjamin P. Horton2, Shu Yun Heng1, David Warrick3, 1 Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 2 Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA 3 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA Coral microatolls can be used to study relative sea-level change at multidecadal timescales associated with vertical land movements, climate induced sea-level rise and other oceanographic phenomena such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) with the assumption that the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls track sea level over the course of their lifetimes. In this study we compare microatoll records covering from as early as 1883 through 2013, from two sites in Indonesia, with long records (>20 years) from proximal tide gauges, satellite altimetry, and other sea-level reconstructions. We compared the HLS time series derived from open-ocean and moated (or ponded) microatolls on tectonically stable Belitung Island and a potentially tectonically active setting in Mapur Island, with sea-level reconstructions for 1950-2011. The sea-level reconstructions are based on ground and satellite measurements, combining a tide model with the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) model. Our results confirm that open-ocean microatolls do track low water levels at multi decadal time scales and can be used as a proxy for relative sea level (RSL) over time. However, microatolls that are even partially moated are unsuitable and do not track RSL; rather, their growth patterns likely reflect changes in the elevation of the sill of the local pond, as reported by earlier authors. Our ongoing efforts will include an attempt to recognize similarities in moated

  20. Adapting coastal structures to a moving relative sea level: Roman Time geoarchaeological evidence from Posillipo promontory (Naples, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucelli, Pietro; Cinque, Aldo; Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Pappone, Gerardo; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    precisely measuring the present submersion of all remains, two paleo-sea levels has been detected: one for the 1st century BC at -4 / -5 m and another for the 1st century AD at -3 + -0.50 m. In conclusion, by comparing the relative palaeo-sea level we have found with the eustatic curve (Lambeck et al 2011), it appears that Posillipo area suffered 2 +/- 0.3m of subsidence after the 1st century AD. Moreover, the new interpretations we present here, strongly suggest that Posillipo area was also affected by subsidence between the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD, when the landmass sank about 1.5/2.5 m. Eventhough these movements appear less strong than those recognized in the Campi Flegrei central caldera, our results prove that volcano-tectonic movements of at least metrical magnitude have occurred also outside the caldera. In terms of human adaptation to the subsidence-induced rise of sea level during Roman times, the archaeological remains of Marechiaro e Rosbery indicate that the villas were restructured closing the rooms submerged by the sea.

  1. Facilitating Progress on the Quaternary History of Sea Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. G.; Andersen, M. B.

    2010-04-01

    Understanding Future Sea Level Rise: The Challenges of Dating Past Interglacials; Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 20-25 September 2009; Substantial uncertainty exists in projections of future sea level rise, due primarily to a lack of understanding about ice sheet dynamics. Paleo Constraints on Sea Level Rise (PALSEA) is a working group of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) project and the International Marine Global Change Studies (IMAGES) program that aims to extract information about ice sheet response to temperature change by examining the history of sea level over the Quaternary (spanning the past ˜2.5 million years). In particular, PALSEA focuses on the past 800,000 years, particularly interglacial periods, with a range of temperatures bracketing the modern. PALSEA recently held a workshop at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). Funded by IMAGES, PAGES, and WHOI's Ocean and Climate Change Institute, the workshop focused on challenges in uranium-thorium (U-Th) coral dating. The meeting also included a public outreach event, “Where land and sea meet: Managing shoreline change over the next 100 years,” funded by WHOI's Morss Colloquium.

  2. Rising sea level may cause decline of fringing coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Michael E.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2011-08-01

    Coral reefs are major marine ecosystems and critical resources for marine diversity and fisheries. These ecosystems are widely recognized to be at risk from a number of stressors, and added to those in the past several decades is climate change due to anthropogenically driven increases in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Most threatening to most coral reefs are elevated sea surface temperatures and increased ocean acidity [e.g., Kleypas et al., 1999; Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007], but sea level rise, another consequence of climate change, is also likely to increase sedimentary processes that potentially interfere with photosynthesis, feeding, recruitment, and other key physiological processes (Figure 1). Anderson et al. [2010] argue compellingly that potential hazardous impacts to coastlines from 21st-century sea level rise are greatly underestimated, particularly because of the rapid rate of rise. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that sea level will rise in the coming century (1990-2090) by 2.2-4.4 millimeters per year, when projected with little contribution from melting ice [Meehl et al., 2007]. New studies indicate that rapid melting of land ice could substantially increase the rate of sea level rise [Grinsted et al., 2009; Milne et al., 2009].

  3. Rising sea level may cause decline of fringing coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Michael E.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are major marine ecosystems and critical resources for marine diversity and fisheries. These ecosystems are widely recognized to be at risk from a number of stressors, and added to those in the past several decades is climate change due to anthropogenically driven increases in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Most threatening to most coral reefs are elevated sea surface temperatures and increased ocean acidity [e.g., Kleypas et al., 1999; Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007], but sea level rise, another consequence of climate change, is also likely to increase sedimentary processes that potentially interfere with photosynthesis, feeding, recruitment, and other key physiological processes (Figure 1). Anderson et al. [2010] argue compellingly that potential hazardous impacts to coastlines from 21st-century sea level rise are greatly underestimated, particularly because of the rapid rate of rise. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that sea level will rise in the coming century (1990–2090) by 2.2–4.4 millimeters per year, when projected with little contribution from melting ice [Meehl et al., 2007]. New studies indicate that rapid melting of land ice could substantially increase the rate of sea level rise [Grinsted et al., 2009; Milne et al., 2009].

  4. Rising sea level may cause decline of fringing coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, M.E.; Ogston, A.S.; Storlazzi, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are major marine ecosystems and critical resources for marine diversity and fisheries. These ecosystems are widely recognized to be at risk from a number of stressors, and added to those in the past several decades is climate change due to anthropogenically driven increases in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Most threatening to most coral reefs are elevated sea surface temperatures and increased ocean acidity [e.g., Kleypas et al., 1999; Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007], but sea level rise, another consequence of climate change, is also likely to increase sedimentary processes that potentially interfere with photosynthesis, feeding, recruitment, and other key physiological processes (Figure 1). Anderson et al. [2010] argue compellingly that potential hazardous impacts to coastlines from 21st-century sea level rise are greatly underestimated, particularly because of the rapid rate of rise. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that sea level will rise in the coming century (1990-2090) by 2.2-4.4 millimeters per year, when projected with little contribution from melting ice [Meehl et al., 2007]. New studies indicate that rapid melting of land ice could substantially increase the rate of sea level rise [Grinsted et al., 2009; Milne et al., 2009].

  5. The Significance of Rising Sea Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Gregory J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students graph changes in tides and ocean levels over a period in order to obtain a visual representation of the changes taking place and their effects upon the Earth. Provides questions for students to answer after construction of the graphs. (RT)

  6. Geosat observations of sea level response to barometric pressure forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoar, Timothy J.; Wilson, Clark R.

    1994-01-01

    Altimeter and sea level pressure data from the Geosat mission are analyzed for evidence of inverted barometer responses of sea level to atmospheric pressure forcing. Estimates of the inverted barometer coefficient are given for a variety of geographic regions and time scales using various orbit error removal strategies. There is some sensitivity to the orbit error removal method, but the estimated coefficients show a clear latitudinal dependence and are generally between -0.5 cm/mbar and -0.9 cm/mbar. The southern oceans respond slightly more like an inverted barometer than the northern oceans for similar latitudes. The regression exhibits significant geographic variability, particularly near major circulation features and in the northern hemisphere. The results suggest that the inverted barometer approximation is resonable over much of the oceans, but that some sea level variability may be correlated with barometric pressure by means other than the inverted barometer effect.

  7. Coastal Impacts Due to Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Duncan M.; Fenster, Michael S.; Argow, Britt A.; Buynevich, Ilya V.

    2008-05-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) recently estimated that global sea level will rise from 0.18 to 0.59 m by the end of this century. Rising sea level not only inundates low-lying coastal regions but also contributes to the redistribution of sediment along sandy coasts. Over the long term, sea-level rise (SLR) causes barrier islands to migrate landward while conserving mass through offshore and onshore sediment transport. Under these conditions, coastal systems adjust to SLR dynamically while maintaining a characteristic geometry that is unique to a particular coast. Coastal marshes are susceptible to accelerated SLR because their vertical accretion rates are limited and they may drown. As marshes convert to open water, tidal exchange through inlets increases, which leads to sand sequestration in tidal deltas and erosion of adjacent barrier shorelines.

  8. A sea-level recorder for tectonic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilham, R.

    1977-01-01

    In the past tide gauges have provided valuable information concerning the vertical ground deformation associated with major earthquakes. Although tide-gauge data contains numerous sources of noise, a spacing of less than 40 km between gauges is indicated for a useful study of dilatant behavior, and a spacing of less than 80 km may be adequate for the study of crustal downwarping in island arcs. An inexpensive tide gauge which is designed to provide a continuous record of sea level with a measurement precision of 1 mm is described. Hydraulic filtering is incorporated into the instrument to attenuate daily tides relative to longer period variations of sea level. The instrument is designed to operate from flashlight batteries for a year unattended and to withstand temporary submersion as might be caused by tsunamis. Several of these sea-level recorders have been installed in seismic gaps in the Aleutians and in the Caribbean.

  9. A new perspective on global mean sea level (GMSL) acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Phil J.

    2016-06-01

    The vast body of contemporary climate change science is largely underpinned by the premise of a measured acceleration from anthropogenic forcings evident in key climate change proxies -- greenhouse gas emissions, temperature, and mean sea level. By virtue, over recent years, the issue of whether or not there is a measurable acceleration in global mean sea level has resulted in fierce, widespread professional, social, and political debate. Attempts to measure acceleration in global mean sea level (GMSL) have often used comparatively crude analysis techniques providing little temporal instruction on these key questions. This work proposes improved techniques to measure real-time velocity and acceleration based on five GMSL reconstructions spanning the time frame from 1807 to 2014 with substantially improved temporal resolution. While this analysis highlights key differences between the respective reconstructions, there is now more robust, convincing evidence of recent acceleration in the trend of GMSL.

  10. Estimations of a global sea level trend: limitations from the structure of the PSMSL global sea level data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, M.; Plag, H.-P.

    1993-08-01

    Among the possible impacts on environmental conditions of a global warming expected as a consequence of the increasing release of CO 2 and various other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, a predicted rise in global sea level is considered to be of high importance. Thus, quite a number of recent studies have focused on detecting the "global sea level rise" or even an acceleration of this trend. A brief review of these studies is presented, showing, however, that the results are not conclusive, though most of the studies have been based on a single global data set of coastal tide gauge data provided by the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). A detailed discussion of a thoroughly revised subset reveals that the PSMSL data set suffers from three severe limitations: (1) the geographical distribution of reliable tide gauge stations is rather uneven with pronounced concentrations in some areas of the northern hemisphere (Europe, North America, Japan), and much fewer stations on the southern hemisphere where particularly few stations are located in Africa and in Antarctica; (2) the number of stations recording simultaneously at any time is far less than the total number of stations with the maximum within the interval between 1958 and 1988; (3) the number of long records is extremely small and almost all of them originate from a few regions of the northern hemisphere. The sensitivity of the median of the local trends to these temporal and spatial limitations is discussed by restricting the data set in both the spatial and temporal distribution. It is shown that the data base is insufficient for determining an integral value of the global rise in relative sea level. The effect of polar motion on sea level is modelled and it turns out to be locally of the order of 0.5 mm/yr, affecting regional trends to an order of 0.1 mm/yr. Thus, this effect can be neglected on time scale of decades to a hundred years. Though the data set is insufficient for determining an

  11. Attribution of Annual Maximum Sea Levels to Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouakhi, A.; Villarini, G.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) can cause catastrophic storm surges with major social, economic, and ecological impacts in coastal areas. Understanding the contribution of TCs to extreme sea levels is therefore essential. In this work we examine the contribution of TCs to annual maximum sea levels at the global scale, including potential climate controls and temporal changes. Complete global coverage (1842-2014) of historical 6-hour best track TC records are obtained from the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) data set. Hourly tide gauge data are obtained from the Joint Archive for Sea Level Research Quality Data Set. There are 177 tide gauge stations with at least 25 complete years of data between 1970 and 2014 (a complete year is defined as having more than 90% of all the hourly measurements in a year). We associate an annual maximum sea level at a given station with a TC if the center of circulation of the storm passed within a certain distance from the station within a given time window. Spatial and temporal sensitivity analyses are performed with varying time windows (6h, 12h) and buffer zones (200km and 500km) around the tide gauge stations. Results highlight large regional differences, with some locations experiencing almost ¾ of their annual maxima during the passage of a TC. The attribution of annual maximum sea level to TCs is particularly high along the coastal areas of the eastern United States, the Gulf of Mexico, China, Japan, Taiwan and Western Australia. Further analyses will examine the role played by El Niño - Southern Oscillation and the potential temporal changes in TC contributions to annual maximum sea levels.

  12. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Florida's Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senarath, S. U.

    2005-12-01

    Global warming and the resulting melting of polar ice sheets could increase global sea levels significantly. Some studies have predicted mean sea level increases in the order of six inches to one foot in the next 25 to 50 years. This could have severe irreversible impacts on low-lying areas of Florida's Everglades. The key objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of a one foot sea level rise on Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (CSSS) nesting areas within the Everglades National Park (ENP). A regional-scale hydrologic model is used to assess the sensitivities of this sea-level rise scenario. Florida's Everglades supports a unique ecosystem. At present, about 50 percent of this unique ecosystem has been lost due to urbanization and farming. Today, the water flow in the remnant Everglades is also regulated to meet a variety of competing environmental, water-supply and flood-control needs. A 30-year, eight billion dollar (1999 estimate) project has been initiated to improve Everglades' water flows. The expected benefits of this restoration project will be short-lived if the predicted sea level rise causes severe impacts on the environmentally sensitive areas of the Everglades. Florida's Everglades is home to many threatened and endangered species of wildlife. The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow population in the ENP is one such species that is currently listed as endangered. Since these birds build their nests close to the ground surface (the base of the nest is approximately six inches from the ground surface), they are directly affected by any sea level induced ponding depth, frequency or duration change. Therefore, the CSSS population serves as a good indicator species for evaluating the negative impacts of sea level rise on the Everglades' ecosystem. The impact of sea level rise on the CSSS habitat is evaluated using the Regional Simulation Model (RSM) developed by the South Florida Water Management District. The RSM is an implicit, finite-volume, continuous

  13. Uncertainties in sea level projections on twenty-year timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Davis, James; Landerer, Felix; Little, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Regional decadal changes in sea level are governed by various processes, including ocean dynamics, gravitational and solid earth responses, mass loss of continental ice, and other local coastal processes. In order to improve predictions and physical attribution in decadal sea level trends, the uncertainties of each processes must be reflected in the sea level calculations. Here we explore uncertainties in predictions of the decadal and bi-decadal changes in regional sea level induced by the changes in ocean dynamics and associated redistribution of heat and freshwater (often referred to as dynamic sea level). Such predictions are typically based on the solutions from coupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models, including a suite of climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercompasion Project (CMIP5). Designed to simulate long-term ocean variability in response to warming climate due to increasing green-house gas concentration ("forced" response), CMIP5 are deficient in simulating variability at shorter time scales. In contrast, global observations of sea level are available during a relatively short time span (e.g., twenty-year altimetry records), and are dominated by an "unforced" variability that occurs freely (internally) within the climate system. This makes it challenging to examine how well observations compare with model simulations. Therefore, here we focus on patterns and spatial characteristics of projected twenty-year trends in dynamic sea level. Based on the ensemble of CMIP5 models, each comprising a 240-year run, we compute an envelope of twenty-year rates, and analyze the spread and spatial relationship among predicted rates. An ensemble root-mean-square average exhibits large-scale spatial patterns, with the largest uncertainties found over mid and high latitudes that could be attributed to the changes in wind patterns and buoyancy forcing. To understand and parameterize spatial characteristics of the

  14. Coastal flooding by tropical cyclones and sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Jonathan D; Irish, Jennifer L; Camargo, Suzana J

    2013-12-01

    The future impacts of climate change on landfalling tropical cyclones are unclear. Regardless of this uncertainty, flooding by tropical cyclones will increase as a result of accelerated sea-level rise. Under similar rates of rapid sea-level rise during the early Holocene epoch most low-lying sedimentary coastlines were generally much less resilient to storm impacts. Society must learn to live with a rapidly evolving shoreline that is increasingly prone to flooding from tropical cyclones. These impacts can be mitigated partly with adaptive strategies, which include careful stewardship of sediments and reductions in human-induced land subsidence.

  15. Comparison of TOPEX sea surface heights and tide gauge sea levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchum, Gary T.

    1994-01-01

    TOPEX sea surface height data from the first 300 days of the mission are compared to sea level data from 71 tide gauges. The initial comparison uses sea surface height data processed according to standard procedures as defined in the users handbook. It is found that the median correlations for island and for coastal tide gauges are 0.53 and 0.42, respectively. The analogous root mean square (RMS) differences between the two data sets are 7.9 and 10.4 cm. The comparisons improve significantly when a 60-day harmonic is fit to the differences and removed. This period captures aliased M(sub 2) and S(sub 2) tidal energy that is not removed by the tide model. Making this correction and smoothing the sea surface height data over 25-km along-track segments results in median correlations of 0.58 and 0.46 for the islands and coastal stations, and median RMS differences of 5.8 and 7.7 cm, respectively. Removing once per revolution signals from the sea surface heights results in degraded comparisons with the sea levels. It is also found that a number of stations have poor comparisons due to propagating signals that introduce temporal lags between the altimeter and tide gauge time series. A final comparison is made by eliminating stations where this propagation effect is large, discarding two stations that are suspected to have problems with the sea level data, smoothing over 10-day intervals, and restricting attention to islands gauges. This results in a set of 552 data pairs that have a correlation of 0.66 and a RMS difference of 4.3 cm. The conclusion is that on timescales longer than about 10 days the RMS sea surface height errors are less than or of the order of several centimeters.

  16. Mean and extreme sea level changes in the southwestern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jessica; Patzke, Justus; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen; Fröhle, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution an overview over the BMBF project AMSeL_Ostsee (2015-2018) for the assessment of mean and extreme sea level changes over the past 150 years in the southwestern Baltic Sea is presented. We compile several high resolution tide gauge records provided by the Water and Shipping Administration (WSV) along the German Baltic Sea coastline and merge them in internationally available data bases (UHSLC, PSMSL, and data officially available at national authorities). In addition, we make efforts in digitizing historical records to expand the number of available data sets in this complex and vulnerable coastal region. To separate absolute from relative long-term changes in sea level the vertical land motion (VLM) at specific sites is assessed. Possible sources of VLM are independently assessed by using different state-of-the-art approaches, that is: Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelled by viscoelastic Earth models, GPS derived VLM, and the difference between tide gauge and nearby satellite altimetry. The VLM corrected tide gauge records are further assessed for linear and non-linear trends as well as possible acceleration/deceleration patterns by applying advanced time series models such as Singular System Analysis (SSA) combined with a Monte-Carlo-Autoregressive-Padding approach (Wahl et al., 2010). These trend assessments are applied to mean and extreme sea levels independently to prove whether observed changes in extremes are either due to an underlying trend on mean sea levels or changes in storminess. References: Wahl, T., Jensen, J., Frank, T. (2011): On analysing sea level rise in the German Bight since 1844, NHESS, 10, 171-179.

  17. Sea-level rise: towards understanding local vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Projections of global sea-level rise into the future have become more pessimistic over the past five years or so. A global rise by more than one metre by the year 2100 is now widely accepted as a serious possibility if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated. That is witnessed by the scientific assessments that were made since the last IPCC report was published in 2007. The Delta Commission of the Dutch government projected up to 1.10 m as a 'high-end' scenario (Vellinga et al 2009). The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) projected up to 1.40 m (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research 2009), and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) gives a range of 0.90-1.60 m in its 2011 report (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 2011). And recently the US Army Corps of Engineers recommends using a 'low', an 'intermediate' and a 'high' scenario for global sea-level rise when planning civil works programmes, with the high one corresponding to a 1.50 m rise by 2100 (US Army Corps of Engineers 2011). This more pessimistic view is based on a number of observations, most importantly perhaps the fact that sea level has been rising at least 50% faster in the past decades than projected by the IPCC (Rahmstorf et al 2007, IPCC 2007). Also, the rate of rise (averaged over two decades) has accelerated threefold, from around 1 mm yr-1 at the start of the 20th century to around 3 mm yr-1 over the past 20 years (Church and White 2006), and this rate increase closely correlates with global warming (Rahmstorf et al 2011). The IPCC projections, which assume almost no further acceleration in the 20th century, thus look less plausible. And finally the observed net mass loss of the two big continental ice sheets (Van den Broeke et al 2011) calls into question the assumption that ice accumulation in Antarctica would largely balance ice loss from Greenland in the course of further global warming (IPCC 2007). With such a serious sea-level rise on the horizon

  18. Steric sea level change in the Bay of Bengal: investigating the most variable component of sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uebbing, Bernd; Kusche, Jürgen; Rietbroek, Roelof; Shum, Ck

    2015-04-01

    Regional sea level change is influenced by contributions from mass sources, like melting of glaciers and the ice-sheets in Greenland and Antarctica, as well as steric contributions from changes in temperature and salinity of the oceans. Radar altimetry indicates a sea level trend in the Bay of Bengal of about 6 mm- yr over the time period of 2002-2014, which is significantly larger than the global mean trend. Here, we explain 80% of this rise by steric contributions and 20% by mass-related contributions. The increased rise of sea level in the Bay of Bengal threatens the coastal vulnerability of the surrounding countries like Bangladesh, where this effect is exacerbated in combination with land subsidence of the very low lying coastal areas. The BanD-AID (Bangladesh Delta: Assessment of the Causes of Sea-level Rise Hazards and Integrated Development of Predictive Modeling Towards Mitigation and Adaptation) project tries to assess the current and future sea level rise and its impacts on the people living in the threatened coastal areas. As a part of this, it is necessary to analyze the different mass and steric contributors to the total sea level rise to aid in the prediction of future risks. We use data from radar altimetry and the GRACE mission to separate the total sea level rise into contributions from mass sources and steric changes. In our approach, temporal GRACE gravity data and Jason-1 and -2 along track altimetry data are fitted to time invariant spatial patterns (fingerprints) to avoid problems with GRACE resolution, filtering, geocenter and related issues. Our results show that in the Bay of Bengal the steric component is influenced by annual and interannual phenomena and, at the same time, it is significantly larger compared to the individual mass contributions, which show a linear and relatively stable behavior over time. We validate the steric component of our inversion by comparing it to independent steric estimates from 4-D gridded temperature and

  19. The Offlap Break Position Vs Sea Level: A Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropeano, M.; Pieri, P.; Pomar, L.; Sabato, L.

    Sedimentary lithosomes with subhorizontal topsets, basinward prograding foresets and subhorizontal bottomsets are common in the geologic record, and most of them display similar bedding architectures and/or seismic reflection patterns (i.e. Gylbert- type deltas and shelf wedges). Nevertheless, in shallow marine settings these bodies may form in distinct sedimentary environments and they result from different sed- imentary processes. The offlap break (topset edge) occurs in relation to the posi- tion of baselevel and two main groups of lithosomes can be differentiated with re- spect to the position of the offlap break within the shelf profile. The baselevel of the first group is the sea level (or lake level); the topsets are mainly composed by continental- or very-shallow-water sedimentary facies and the offlap break practi- cally corresponds to the shoreline. Exemples of these lithosomes are high-constructive deltas (river-dominated deltas) and prograding beaches. For the second group, base- level corresponds to the base of wave/tide traction, and their topsets are mostly composed by shoreface/nearshore deposits. Examples of these lithosomes are high- destructive deltas (wave/tide-dominated deltas) and infralittoral prograding wedges (i.e Hernandez-Molina et al., 2000). The offlap break corresponds to the shelf edge (shoreface edge), which is located at the transition between nearshore and offshore set- tings, where a terrace prodelta- or transition-slope may develop (Pomar &Tropeano, 2001). Two main problems derive from these alternative interpretations of shallow- marine seaward prograding lithosomes: 1) both in ancient sedimentary shallow-marine successios (showing seaward prograding foresets) and in high resolution seismic pro- files (showing shelf wedges), the offlap break is commonly considered to correspond to the sea-level (shoreline) and used to inferr paleo sea-level positions and to construct sea-level curves. Without a good facies control, this use of

  20. Monitoring Sea Level At L'Estartit, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Talaya, J.; Rodriguez Velasco, G.; Perez, B.

    2007-12-01

    Sea level is an environmental variable which is widely recognised as being important in many scientific disciplines as a control parameter for coastal dynamical processes or climate processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean systems, as well as engineering applications. A major source of sea-level data are the national networks of coastal tide gauges, in Spain belonging to different institutions as the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), Puertos del Estado (PE), Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina (IHM), Ports de la Generalitat, etc. Three Begur Cape experiences on radar altimeter calibration and marine geoid mapping made on 1999, 2000 and 2002 are overviewed. The marine geoid has been used to relate the coastal tide gauge data from l'Estartit harbour to off-shore altimetric data. The necessity to validate and calibrate the satellite's altimeter due to increasing needs in accuracy and long term integrity implies establishing calibration sites with enhanced ground based methods for sea level monitoring. A technical Spanish contribution to the calibration experience has been the design of GPS buoys and GPS catamaran taking in account the University of Colorado at Boulder and Senetosa/Capraia designs. Altimeter calibration is essential to obtain an absolute measure of sea level, as are knowing the instrument's drifts and bias. Specially designed tidegauges are necessary to improve the quality of altimetric data, preferably near the satellite track. Further, due to systematic differences a month instruments onboard different satellites, several in-situ calibrations are essentials to tie their systematic differences. L'Estartit tide gauge is a classical floating tide gauge set up in l'Estartit harbour (NE Spain) in 1990. It provides good quality information about the changes in the sea heights at centimetre level, that is the magnitude of the common tides in theMediterranean. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, ref:ESP2001- 4534-PE, the instrumentation of sea

  1. Increased sea level promotes coral cover on shallow reef flats in the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. E.; Dunne, R. P.; Phongsuwan, N.; Somerfield, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Sea level in the Indian Ocean is subject to considerable temporal and spatial variabilities. During the period 1960-2009 at Phuket, Thailand, in the NE Indian Ocean, mean sea level increased by 2.7 mm y-1. Regular monitoring of coral cover on fringing reef flats at Phuket since 1979 revealed a sensitive response of this habitat to both transient sea-level depressions and sea-level elevation. Since 1987 when more frequent sampling began, coral cover was positively correlated with the mean sea level experienced over the preceding months. Changing mean sea level explained a high proportion of the observed variation in cover, with overall increasing sea levels and a lack of negative sea-level anomalies promoting cover on the outer reef flats. Concomitantly, there have been no changes in reef community structure or any apparent shifts in zonation patterns across the reef. While future benefits of continued increases in mean sea level on reef flats in the region will be constrained by the frequency and intensity of sea-level depressions associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole, and bleaching events, the overall picture for these shallow reefs is a positive one as they respond to increasing sea level and show rapid recovery from environmental disturbances.

  2. Sea Level Station Metadata for Tsunami Detection, Warning and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroker, K. J.; Marra, J.; Kari, U. S.; Weinstein, S. A.; Kong, L.

    2007-12-01

    The devastating earthquake and tsunami of December 26, 2004 has greatly increased recognition of the need for water level data both from the coasts and the deep-ocean. In 2006, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) completed a Tsunami Data Management Report describing the management of data required to minimize the impact of tsunamis in the United States. One of the major gaps defined in this report is the access to global coastal water level data. NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) are working cooperatively to bridge this gap. NOAA relies on a network of global data, acquired and processed in real-time to support tsunami detection and warning, as well as high-quality global databases of archived data to support research and advanced scientific modeling. In 2005, parties interested in enhancing the access and use of sea level station data united under the NOAA NCDC's Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center's Pacific Region Integrated Data Enterprise (PRIDE) program to develop a distributed metadata system describing sea level stations (Kari et. al., 2006; Marra et.al., in press). This effort started with pilot activities in a regional framework and is targeted at tsunami detection and warning systems being developed by various agencies. It includes development of the components of a prototype sea level station metadata web service and accompanying Google Earth-based client application, which use an XML-based schema to expose, at a minimum, information in the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) station database needed to use the PTWC's Tide Tool application. As identified in the Tsunami Data Management Report, the need also exists for long-term retention of the sea level station data. NOAA envisions that the retrospective water level data and metadata will also be available through web services, using an XML-based schema. Five high

  3. Anomalous secular sea-level acceleration in the Baltic Sea caused by glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, Giorgio; Galassi, Gaia; Olivieri, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Observations from the global array of tide gauges show that global sea-level has been rising at an average rate of 1.5-2 mm/yr during the last ˜ 150 years (Spada & Galassi, 2012). Although a global sea-level acceleration was initially ruled out, subsequent studies have coherently proposed values of ˜1 mm/year/century (Olivieri & Spada, 2012). More complex non-linear trends and abrupt sea-level variations have now also been recognized. Globally, they could manifest a regime shift between the late Holocene and the current rhythms of sea-level rise, while locally they result from ocean circulation anomalies, steric effects and wind stress (Bromirski et al. 2011). Although isostatic readjustment affects the local rates of secular sea-level change, a possible impact on regional acceleration have been so far discounted (Woodworth et al., 2009) since the process evolves on a millennium scale. Here we report a previously unnoticed anomaly in the long-term sea-level acceleration of the Baltic Sea tide gauge records, and we explain it by the classical post-glacial rebound theory and numerical modeling of glacial isostasy. Contrary to previous assumptions, our findings demonstrate that isostatic compensation plays a role in the regional secular sea-level acceleration. In response to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), tide gauge records located along the coasts of the Baltic Sea exhibit a small - but significant - long-term sea-level acceleration in excess to those in the far field of previously glaciated regions. The sign and the amplitude of the anomaly is consistent with the post-glacial rebound theory and with realistic numerical predictions of GIA models routinely employed to decontaminate the tide gauges observations from the GIA effects (Peltier, 2004). Model computations predict the existence of anomalies of similar amplitude in other regions of the globe where GIA is still particularly vigorous at present, but no long-term instrumental observations are available to

  4. Fluctuating Mesozoic and Cenozoic sea levels and implications for stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U. )

    1988-12-01

    Sequence stratigraphy encompasses depositional models of genetically related packages of sediments deposited during various phases of cycle of sea level change, i.e., from a lowstand to highstand to the subsequent lowstand. The application of these models to marine outcrops around the world and to subsurface data led to the construction of Mesozoic-Cenozoic sea level curves with greater event resolution than the earlier curves based on seismic data alone. Construction of these better resolution curves begins with an outline of the principles of sequence-stratigraphic analysis and the reconstruction of the history of sea level change from outcrop and subsurface data for the past 250 Ma. Examples of marine sections from North America, Europe, and Asia can be used to illustrate sequence analysis of outcrop data and the integration of chronostratigraphy with sea level history. Also important are the implications of sequence-stratigraphic methodology and the new cycle charts to various disciplines of stratigraphy, environmental reconstruction, and basin analysis. The relationship of unconformities along the continental margins to hiatuses and dissolution surfaces in the deep basins must also be explored, as well as the relevance of sequence-stratigraphic methodology to biofacies and source rock prediction.

  5. Measuring progress of the global sea level observing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, Philip L.; Aarup, Thorkild; Merrifield, Mark; Mitchum, Gary T.; Le Provost, Christian

    Sea level is such a fundamental parameter in the sciences of oceanography geophysics, and climate change, that in the mid-1980s, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). GLOSS was to improve the quantity and quality of data provided to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), and thereby, data for input to studies of long-term sea level change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It would also provide the key data needed for international programs, such as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and later, the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR).GLOSS is now one of the main observation components of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of IOC and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Progress and deficiencies in GLOSS were presented in July to the 22nd IOC Assembly at UNESCO in Paris and are contained in the GLOSS Assessment Report (GAR) [IOC, 2003a].

  6. Occurence of Extreme Sea Level Events In The Coastal Waters of West Estonia, The Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suursaar, Ü.; Kullas, T.; Otsmann, M.; Kõuts, T.

    Extreme low and high sea level events are analysed on the basis of available historical data and mechanisms of surges studied appplying the 1 km grid step 2D hydrodynamic model in the two nearly tideless semienclosed sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga and the Väinameri. Based on the input and verification data from 1999, the water level is modelled with realistic and idealistic forcing schemes. The low level events are associated with the local wind pattern of easterly winds, determined by the corresponding regional air pressure fields above the Central Baltic. The high levels (up to 253 cm above the long-term average as measured in Pärnu) are associated with SW and W storms. They first appear due to the water volume change in the Baltic Sea, then due to an additional volume increase in the Gulf of Riga, and finally due to the local level slope in the narrow and shallow bays. An amplification due to resonance with seiche or Helmholtz oscillation periods is also possible. Simulations showed that the extreme high and low sea levels in some small bays of West Estonia without tide- gauges could exceed the corresponding values in the Pärnu Bay.

  7. Revisiting sea level changes in the North Sea during the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jürgen; Dangendorf, Sönke; Wahl, Thomas; Niehüser, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the best instrumented ocean basins in the world. Here we revisit sea level changes in the North Sea region from tide gauges, satellite altimetry, hydrographic profiles and ocean reanalysis data from the beginning of the 19th century to present. This includes an overview of the sea level chapter of the North Sea Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA) complemented by results from more recent investigations. The estimates of long-term changes from tide gauge records are significantly affected by vertical land motion (VLM), which is related to both the large-scale viscoelastic response of the solid earth to ice melting since the last deglaciation and local effects. Removing VLM (estimated from various data sources such as GPS, tide gauge minus altimetry and GIA) significantly reduces the spatial variability of long-term trends in the basin. VLM corrected tide gauge records suggest a transition from relatively moderate changes in the 19th century towards modern trends of roughly 1.5 mm/yr during the 20th century. Superimposed on the long-term changes there is a considerable inter-annual to multi-decadal variability. On inter-annual timescales this variability mainly reflects the barotropic response of the ocean to atmospheric forcing with the inverted barometer effect dominating along the UK and Norwegian coastlines and wind forcing controlling the southeastern part of the basin. The decadal variability is mostly remotely forced and dynamically linked to the North Atlantic via boundary waves in response to long-shore winds along the continental slope. These findings give valuable information about the required horizontal resolution of ocean models and the necessary boundary conditions and are therefore important for the dynamical downscaling of sea level projections for the North Sea coastlines.

  8. The Influence of Wind and Basin Eddies in Controlling Sea Level Variations in the Coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Churchill, James H.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. Roughly half of the coastal sea level variance in central Red Sea is due to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods between 2 days and 1 month. We examined the sea level signal in this band using the data from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters between 20.1 and 23.5 oN. We find that the intermediate-band sea level variations are strongly correlated with the local wind stress measured at a meteorological buoy. The maximum pressure-wind correlation occurs at wind direction closely aligned with the alongshore orientation and at a lag (wind leading) of 45 hr, which is consistent with the expected response of the coastal sea level to local wind forcing. However, less than half of the sea level variance in the intermediate band is related, through linear correlation, with local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the residual coastal sea level signal, not associated with wind forcing, is largely driven remotely by the passage of mesoscale eddies, revealed by satellite altimeter-derived sea level anomaly fields of the central Red Sea. These eddy-driven coastal sea level changes occur on time scales of 10-30 days. They span a range of 0.5 m, and thus constitute an import component of the sea level signal in the coastal Red Sea.

  9. Uncertainty estimates of altimetric Global Mean Sea Level timeseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharffenberg, Martin; Hemming, Michael; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    An attempt is being presented concerned with providing uncertainty measures for global mean sea level time series. For this purpose sea surface height (SSH) fields, simulated by the high resolution STORM/NCEP model for the period 1993 - 2010, were subsampled along altimeter tracks and processed similar to techniques used by five working groups to estimate GMSL. Results suggest that the spatial and temporal resolution have a substantial impact on GMSL estimates. Major impacts can especially result from the interpolation technique or the treatment of SSH outliers and easily lead to artificial temporal variability in the resulting time series.

  10. Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rohling, E J; Rodríguez-Sanz, L; Grant, K M; Heslop, D; Roberts, A P; Stanford, J D; Yu, J

    2015-06-11

    Our current understanding of ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere interactions at ice-age terminations relies largely on assessments of the most recent (last) glacial-interglacial transition, Termination I (T-I). But the extent to which T-I is representative of previous terminations remains unclear. Testing the consistency of termination processes requires comparison of time series of critical climate parameters with detailed absolute and relative age control. However, such age control has been lacking for even the penultimate glacial termination (T-II), which culminated in a sea-level highstand during the last interglacial period that was several metres above present. Here we show that Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent North Atlantic cold episode, occurred between 135 ± 1 and 130 ± 2 thousand years ago and was linked with rapid sea-level rise during T-II. Our conclusions are based on new and existing data for T-II and the last interglacial that we collate onto a single, radiometrically constrained chronology. The HS11 cold episode punctuated T-II and coincided directly with a major deglacial meltwater pulse, which predominantly entered the North Atlantic Ocean and accounted for about 70 per cent of the glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. We conclude that, possibly in response to stronger insolation and CO2 forcing earlier in T-II, the relationship between climate and ice-volume changes differed fundamentally from that of T-I. In T-I, the major sea-level rise clearly post-dates Heinrich Stadial 1. We also find that HS11 coincided with sustained Antarctic warming, probably through a bipolar seesaw temperature response, and propose that this heat gain at high southern latitudes promoted Antarctic ice-sheet melting that fuelled the last interglacial sea-level peak.

  11. Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rohling, E J; Rodríguez-Sanz, L; Grant, K M; Heslop, D; Roberts, A P; Stanford, J D; Yu, J

    2015-06-11

    Our current understanding of ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere interactions at ice-age terminations relies largely on assessments of the most recent (last) glacial-interglacial transition, Termination I (T-I). But the extent to which T-I is representative of previous terminations remains unclear. Testing the consistency of termination processes requires comparison of time series of critical climate parameters with detailed absolute and relative age control. However, such age control has been lacking for even the penultimate glacial termination (T-II), which culminated in a sea-level highstand during the last interglacial period that was several metres above present. Here we show that Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent North Atlantic cold episode, occurred between 135 ± 1 and 130 ± 2 thousand years ago and was linked with rapid sea-level rise during T-II. Our conclusions are based on new and existing data for T-II and the last interglacial that we collate onto a single, radiometrically constrained chronology. The HS11 cold episode punctuated T-II and coincided directly with a major deglacial meltwater pulse, which predominantly entered the North Atlantic Ocean and accounted for about 70 per cent of the glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. We conclude that, possibly in response to stronger insolation and CO2 forcing earlier in T-II, the relationship between climate and ice-volume changes differed fundamentally from that of T-I. In T-I, the major sea-level rise clearly post-dates Heinrich Stadial 1. We also find that HS11 coincided with sustained Antarctic warming, probably through a bipolar seesaw temperature response, and propose that this heat gain at high southern latitudes promoted Antarctic ice-sheet melting that fuelled the last interglacial sea-level peak. PMID:26062511

  12. Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2015-01-22

    Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records--employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change--have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 ± 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 ± 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records.The increase in rate relative to the 1901-90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise.

  13. Sea level during the Phanerozoic - what causes the fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, C.G.A.

    1985-01-01

    All possible causes of sea level change have been analyzed in order to explain the fall of sea level since the Cretaceous. The most important effect is the decrease in volume of the ridge crests due to an overall decrease in the rate of spreading since the Cretaceous. Other factors in order of decreasing importance are the reduction of the thermal bulge which accompanied the episode of Pacific volcanism between 110 and 70 my bp, the production of continental ice, the effect of the collision of India with Asia, and cooling of the ocean water. Sedimentation variation in the deep ocean has the effect of raising sea level a modest amount. The net variation in sea level during the past 80 million years has been a reduction by about 280 m after having allowed for isostatic adjustment of the ocean floor. This is considerably larger, than sea level calculated from the amount of continental flooding, and it is proposed that the discrepancy is due to a change in the continental hypsographic curve following the breakup of Pangea. This hypothesis is born out by studies of flooding during the Phanerozoic which reveal that flooding was very low at the beginning of the Mesozoic during a time of continental agglomeration, and high during much of the Paleozoic, which was a time of continental separation. In the Cambrian there is evidence for an increase in flooding with time, and at the beginning of the Cambrian flooding was not much greater than at the beginning of the Mesozoic, suggesting that it marked a time just subsequent to the break up of a super continent.

  14. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between $42 and $57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay. PMID:26319030

  15. Cenozoic prograding sequences of the Antarctic continental margin: a record of glacio-eustatic and tectonic events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, A. K.; Barrett, P.J.; Hinz, K.; Traube, V.; Letichenkov, G.; Stagg, H.M.J.

    1991-01-01

    times, like today, by little or no clastic sedimentation on the continental shelf other than beneath retreated ice shelves lying far from the continental sheld edge. Ice streams carve broad depressions across the shelf and carry abundant basal sediments directly to the continental shelf edge, thereby creating troughmouth fans and sheet-like prograding sequences (i.e. type IA sequences). Numerous acoustic unconformities and multiple overcompacted layers within the prograding sequences suggest major fluctuations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The available drilling and seismic interpretations provide the following history: (1) Cenozoic ice sheets have existed in places near the continental shelf since middle to late Eocene time. (2) A grounded Antarctic ice sheet first expanded to the continental shelf edge, with probable overdeepening of the outer shelf, in late Eucene to early Oligocene time in Prydz Bay, possibly in early Miocene time in the Ross Sea, and at least by middle Miocene time in the Weddell Sea. (3) The relative amounts of shelf prograding and inferred ice-volume variations (and related sea-level changes) have increased since middle to late Miocene time in the eastern Ross Sea, Prydz Bay, and possibly Weddell Sea. Our analysis is preliminary. Further acoustic surveys and scientific drilling are needed to resolve the proximal Antarctic record of glacio-eustatic, climatic, and tectonic events recorded by the prograding sequences. ?? 1991.

  16. Coastal sea level measurements using a single geodetic GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Löfgren, Johan S.; Haas, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a method to derive local sea level variations using data from a single geodetic-quality Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver using GPS (Global Positioning System) signals. This method is based on multipath theory for specular reflections and the use of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data. The technique could be valuable for altimeter calibration and validation. Data from two test sites, a dedicated GPS tide gauge at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) in Sweden and the Friday Harbor GPS site of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) in USA, are analyzed. The sea level results are compared to independently observed sea level data from nearby and in situ tide gauges. For OSO, the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) agreement is better than 5 cm, while it is in the order of 10 cm for Friday Harbor. The correlation coefficients are better than 0.97 for both sites. For OSO, the SNR-based results are also compared with results from a geodetic analysis of GPS data of a two receivers/antennae tide gauge installation. The SNR-based analysis results in a slightly worse RMS agreement with respect to the independent tide gauge data than the geodetic analysis (4.8 cm and 4.0 cm, respectively). However, it provides results even for rough sea surface conditions when the two receivers/antennae installation no longer records the necessary data for a geodetic analysis.

  17. Impact of accelerated future global mean sea level rise on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Höglund, A.; Eilola, K.; Almroth-Rosell, E.

    2016-08-01

    Expanding hypoxia is today a major threat for many coastal seas around the world and disentangling its drivers is a large challenge for interdisciplinary research. Using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model we estimate the impact of past and accelerated future global mean sea level rise (GSLR) upon water exchange and oxygen conditions in a semi-enclosed, shallow sea. As a study site, the Baltic Sea was chosen that suffers today from eutrophication and from dead bottom zones due to (1) excessive nutrient loads from land, (2) limited water exchange with the world ocean and (3) perhaps other drivers like global warming. We show from model simulations for the period 1850-2008 that the impacts of past GSLR on the marine ecosystem were relatively small. If we assume for the end of the twenty-first century a GSLR of +0.5 m relative to today's mean sea level, the impact on the marine ecosystem may still be small. Such a GSLR corresponds approximately to the projected ensemble-mean value reported by the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. However, we conclude that GSLR should be considered in future high-end projections (>+1 m) for the Baltic Sea and other coastal seas with similar hydrographical conditions as in the Baltic because GSLR may lead to reinforced saltwater inflows causing higher salinity and increased vertical stratification compared to present-day conditions. Contrary to intuition, reinforced ventilation of the deep water does not lead to overall improved oxygen conditions but causes instead expanded dead bottom areas accompanied with increased internal phosphorus loads from the sediments and increased risk for cyanobacteria blooms.

  18. Investigating the influence of sea level oscillations in the Danish Straits on the Baltic Sea dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonova, Natalia; Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zakharchuk, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    related to the distance between the measurement point and open boundary. For example, in the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, the 36hr harmonic has an amplitude substantially higher than in the open sea, and in the Stockholm area, this harmonic is at the noise level. The 40dy and 121dy harmonics have slightly lower amplitudes than the original prescribed signal, but they are almost unchanged while propagating further into the sea, and in all the investigated locations have almost identical peaks of spectral density. The 3dy and 6dy harmonics significantly lost their amplitude in all parts of the sea, and spectral density peaks are at the noise level. The simulation results showed us that the Danish straits do not filter 121dy and 40dy oscillations, and their amplitude does not decrease much. The 13dy, 6dy and 3dy oscillations significantly lose in amplitude and have no significant peaks of the spectral density. The 1.5dy harmonic propagates to the Gulfs of Finland and Riga, and increases in amplitude due to resonance at the natural frequency of the basin. It is suggested that, while Danish straits do not filter or transform frequency characteristics of oscillations propagated from the North Sea, but the Baltic Sea configuration may affect the magnitude and propagation extent of these oscillations. Thus, the fluctuations in the North Sea and the Danish Straits can significantly contribute to the Baltic Sea dynamics in the low-frequency range of the spectrum, and the periods of natural oscillations of the basin. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 16-05-00534) and Saint-Petersburg State University (grant №18.37.140.2014)

  19. Searching for Eustasy in Pliocene Sea-Level Records (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymo, M. E.; Hearty, P. J.; O'Leary, M.; Mitrovica, J.; Deconto, R.; Inglis, J. D.; Robinson, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    It is widely accepted that greenhouse gas-induced warming over the next few decades to centuries could lead to a rise in sea level due to melting ice caps. Yet despite the enormous social and economic consequences for society, our ability to predict the likelihood and location of future melting is hampered by an insufficient theoretical and historical understanding of ice sheet behavior in the past. Various lines of evidence suggest that CO2 levels in the mid-Pliocene were between 350-450 ppm, similar to today, and it is important that significant effort be made to confirm these estimates, especially in light of policy discussions that seek to determine a “safe” level of atmospheric CO2. Likewise, accurate estimates of mid-Pliocene sea levels are necessary if we are to better constrain Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet stability in a slightly warmer world. Current published estimates of mid-Pliocene sea level (during times of maximum insolation forcing) range from +5m to >+40m (relative to present) reflecting a huge range of uncertainty in the sensitivity of polar ice sheets, including the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, to a modest global warming. Accurate determination of the maximum mid-Pliocene sea level rise is needed if climate and ice sheet modelers are to better assess the robustness of models used to predict the effects of anthropogenic global warming. Pliocene ice volume/highstand estimates fall into two classes, those derived from geologic evidence of past high stands and those derived from geochemical proxies of ice-sensitive changes in ocean chemistry. Both methods have significant errors and uncertainties associated with them. Recent multidisciplinary work along the intra-plate continental margin of Roe Plain (~250 x 30 km) on the southern coastline of Western Australia provides additional constraints on sea level during the mid-Pliocene. Outcroppings of shore-proximal marine deposits are observed at two distinct elevations across the plain, +28 ± 2 m

  20. Sea-level and deep-sea-temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years.

    PubMed

    Rohling, E J; Foster, G L; Grant, K M; Marino, G; Roberts, A P; Tamisiea, M E; Williams, F

    2014-04-24

    Ice volume (and hence sea level) and deep-sea temperature are key measures of global climate change. Sea level has been documented using several independent methods over the past 0.5 million years (Myr). Older periods, however, lack such independent validation; all existing records are related to deep-sea oxygen isotope (δ(18)O) data that are influenced by processes unrelated to sea level. For deep-sea temperature, only one continuous high-resolution (Mg/Ca-based) record exists, with related sea-level estimates, spanning the past 1.5 Myr. Here we present a novel sea-level reconstruction, with associated estimates of deep-sea temperature, which independently validates the previous 0-1.5 Myr reconstruction and extends it back to 5.3 Myr ago. We find that deep-sea temperature and sea level generally decreased through time, but distinctly out of synchrony, which is remarkable given the importance of ice-albedo feedbacks on the radiative forcing of climate. In particular, we observe a large temporal offset during the onset of Plio-Pleistocene ice ages, between a marked cooling step at 2.73 Myr ago and the first major glaciation at 2.15 Myr ago. Last, we tentatively infer that ice sheets may have grown largest during glacials with more modest reductions in deep-sea temperature.

  1. Responses of stable bay-margin and barrier-island systems to Holocene sea-level highstands, western Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Blum, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    The microtidal, wave-dominated coast of the western Gulf of Mexico displays a variety of Holocene geomorphic features indicating higher-than-present water levels that were previously attributed to storm processes while geoidal sea level was at its present position. Field and aerial-photograph examinations of bay margins, barrier islands, and beach-ridge plains following major hurricanes show that the elevated features are inundated periodically by high storm surge. Despite their inundation, these highstand features are not modified by modern storm processes. Instead, storm-related erosion and deposition are always seaward of and lower than the highstand features and are always limited to the extant shorezone, where elevations typically are less than 1.5 m above present sea level. Bay-margin and lagoonal highstand indicators include raised marshes and subtidal flats, wave-cut benches, abandoned wave-cut scarps with fringing marshes and/or beach ridges, and accretionary islands and recurved spits. Other emergent marine features include abandoned compound flood-tidal delta and washover fan complexes attached to barrier islands and anomalously high beach ridges within both the barrier-island complexes and beach-ridge plains. The highest beach ridges, raised marshes and flats, and erosional scarps and benches are manifestations of one or more rising phases and highstands in sea level, whereas the lower marshes and accretionary topography are mainly products of the falling phases and shoreface adjustment to present sea level. Different elevations of beach-ridge sets, discordant truncation of beach ridges, and elevated marine- and brackish-water faunal assemblages preserved in beach ridges, raised marshes and flats, and natural levees are compelling evidence of sea-level fluctuations of ±1 to 1.5 m from about 5500 to 1200 cal yr BP. Independent evidence from studies of geodynamic, climatic, and glacio-eustatic processes can explain the mid-Holocene highstands and late

  2. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  3. Links Between Eustatic History, Sequence Architecture, and Lithofacies Associations Put to the Test: IODP Exp313 Drilling on the NJ Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, G. S.; Proust, J.; McInroy, D.; Scienceparty, E.

    2009-12-01

    The New Jersey continental margin is a natural laboratory for tracking the history of global sea level during the post-Eocene ice-house world. In May-July 2009, IODP Expedition 313 used a "mission-specific" jack-up platform in 35 m of water, 45-65 km off the coast of New Jersey to core and log Paleogene-Neogene sequences. The goal was to: (1) compare ages of the unconformities bracketing these sequences with the ages of sea-level lowerings predicted by the δ18O glacio-eustatic proxy; (2) estimate the corresponding amplitudes, rates and mechanisms of sea-level change; and (3) evaluate sequence stratigraphic lithofacies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. Despite the difficulties of coring the sandy shallow NJ shelf, we collected 612 cores with 80% recovery totaling 1311 m in length. The deepest hole was 757 mbsf; the oldest sediment was late Eocene. Slim-line logs at each site gathered spectral gamma ray, resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, sonic and acoustic televiewer measurements. A vertical seismic profile was run at each location. There was no facility to split and examine the cores offshore. Instead, we did basic sedimentological analyses of core catcher samples and through-liner descriptions were conducted. These observations, together with log and multi-sensor track measurements of unsplit core sections, revealed patterns of fluvial, coastal plain, shoreface and open marine lithofacies that appear to closely track sequences in seismic profiles through each drill site. We cored regressive sediment bodies that were not present in onshore boreholes, and we expect final analysis will reveal the record of roughly ten complete cycles of relative sea-level fall and rise that we will compare to the global record. Pore water extracted from unsplit cores revealed chlorinity values significantly above and below that of seawater, distributed in spatial patterns that are clearly

  4. Salt marsh stability modelled in relation to sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Bartholdy, Anders T.; Kroon, Aart

    2010-05-01

    Accretion on a natural backbarrier salt marsh was modeled as a function of high tide level, initial salt marsh level and distance to the source. Calibration of the model was based on up to ca 80 year old marker horizons, supplemented by 210Pb/137Cs datings and subsequent measurements of clay thickness. Autocompaction was incorporated in the model, and shown to play a major role for the translation of accretion rates measured as length per unit time to accumulation rates measured as mass per area per unit time. This is important, even for shallow salt marsh deposits for which it is demonstrated that mass depth down core can be directly related to the bulk dry density of the surface layer by means of a logarithmic function. The results allow for an evaluation of the use of marker horizons in the topmost layers and show that it is important to know the level of the marker in relation to the salt marsh base. In general, deeper located markers will indicate successively smaller accretion rates with the same sediment input. Thus, stability analysis made on the basis of newly established marker horizons will be biased and indicate salt marsh stabilities far above the correct level. Running the model with a constant sea level revealed that balance between the inner and the outer salt marsh deposition can not be achieved within a reasonable time scale. Likewise it is shown that only one specific sea level rise provides equilibrium for a given location on the salt marsh. With a higher sea level rise, the marsh at the specific location will eventually drown, whereas - with a sea level rise below this level - it will grow towards the top of the rising tidal frame. The short term variation of salt marsh accretion was found to correlate well with variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation - the NAO winter index. Comparisons between the geomorphological development of wind tide affected salt marshes, like those present on the Danish North Sea coasts, and primary astronomically

  5. Implications of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeber, V.; Li, N.; Cheung, K.; Lane, P.; Evans, R. L.; Donnelly, J. P.; Ashton, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent global and local projections suggest the sea level will be on the order of 1 m or higher than the current level by the end of the century. Coastal communities and ecosystems in low-lying areas are vulnerable to impacts resulting from hurricane or large swell events in combination with sea-level rise. This study presents the implementation and results of an integrated numerical modeling package to delineate coastal inundation due to storm landfalls at future sea levels. The modeling package utilizes a suite of numerical models to capture both large-scale phenomena in the open ocean and small-scale processes in coastal areas. It contains four components to simulate (1) meteorological conditions, (2) astronomical tides and surge, (3) wave generation, propagation, and nearshore transformation, and (4) surf-zone processes and inundation onto dry land associated with a storm event. Important aspects of this package are the two-way coupling of a spectral wave model and a storm surge model as well as a detailed representation of surf and swash zone dynamics by a higher-order Boussinesq-type wave model. The package was validated with field data from Hurricane Ivan of 2005 on the US Gulf coast and applied to tropical and extratropical storm scenarios respectively at Eglin, Florida and Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The results show a nonlinear increase of storm surge level and nearshore wave energy with a rising sea level. The exacerbated flood hazard can have major consequences for coastal communities with respect to erosion and damage to infrastructure.

  6. Seasonal variability in global sea level observed with Geosat altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zlotnicki, V.; Fu, L.-L.; Patzert, W.

    1989-01-01

    Time changes in global mesoscale sea level variances were observed with satellite altimetry between November 1986 and March 1988, showing significant, geographically coherent seasonal patterns. The NE Pacific and NE Atlantic variances show the most reliable patterns, higher than their yearly averages in both the fall and winter. The response to wind forcing appears as the major contributor to the NE Pacific and Atlantic signals; errors in the estimated inverse barometer response due to errors in atmospheric pressure, residual orbit errors, and errors in sea state bias are evaluated and found to be negligible contributors to this particular signal. The equatorial regions also show significant seasonal patterns, but the uncertainties in the wet tropospheric correction prevent definitive conclusions. The western boundary current changes are very large but not statistically significant. Estimates of the regression coefficient between sea level and significant wave height, an estimate of the sea state bias correction, range between 2.3 and 2.9 percent and vary with the type of orbit correction applied.

  7. Estimating geocenter motion and barystatic sea-level variability from GRACE observations with explicit consideration of self-attraction and loading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Dobslaw, Henryk

    2016-04-01

    Estimating global barystatic sea-level variations from monthly mean gravity fields delivered by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission requires additional information about geocenter motion. These variations are not available directly due to the mission implementation in the CM-frame and are represented by the degree-1 terms of the spherical harmonics expansion. Global degree-1 estimates can be determined with the method of Swenson et al. (2008) from ocean mass variability, the geometry of the global land-sea distribution, and GRACE data of higher degrees and orders. Consequently, a recursive relation between the derivation of ocean mass variations from GRACE data and the introduction of geocenter motion into GRACE data exists. In this contribution, we will present a recent improvement to the processing strategy described in Bergmann-Wolf et al. (2014) by introducing a non-homogeneous distribution of global ocean mass variations in the geocenter motion determination strategy, which is due to the effects of loading and self-attraction induced by mass redistributions at the surface. A comparison of different GRACE-based oceanographic products (barystatic signal for both the global oceans and individual basins; barotropic transport variations of major ocean currents) with degree-1 terms estimated with a homogeneous and non-homogeneous ocean mass representation will be discussed, and differences in noise levels in most recent GRACE solutions from GFZ (RL05a), CSR, and JPL (both RL05) and their consequences for the application of this method will be discussed. Swenson, S., D. Chambers and J. Wahr (2008), Estimating geocenter variations from a combination of GRACE and ocean model output, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B08410 Bergmann-Wolf, I., L. Zhang and H. Dobslaw (2014), Global Eustatic Sea-Level Variations for the Approximation of Geocenter Motion from GRACE, J. Geod. Sci., 4, 37-48

  8. Relative and absolute sea level rise in western Canada and northwestern United States from a combined tide gauge-GPS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, Stephane; Jones, Casey; Thomson, Richard E.

    2008-11-01

    Empirical studies and climate models suggest large variations of absolute sea level (ASL) changes between oceanic basins. Such potential variations raise concern on the applicability of global mean ASL predictions to specific regions and on estimates of relative sea level (RSL) hazards. We address this issue for the western Canada and northwestern United States coastline by estimating the 20th century ASL rate using a combination of 34 colocated tide gauge and Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. The tide gauge data are quality controll